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1

Coal and nuclear power: Illinois' energy future  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This conference was sponsored by the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago; the US Department of Energy; the Illinois Energy Resources Commission; and the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources. The theme for the conference, Coal and Nuclear Power: Illinois' Energy Future, was based on two major observations: (1) Illinois has the largest reserves of bituminous coal of any state and is surpassed in total reserves only by North Dakota, and Montana; and (2) Illinois has made a heavy commitment to the use of nuclear power as a source of electrical power generation. Currently, nuclear power represents 30% of the electrical energy produced in the State. The primary objective of the 1982 conference was to review these two energy sources in view of the current energy policy of the Reagan Administration, and to examine the impact these policies have on the Midwest energy scene. The conference dealt with issues unique to Illinois as well as those facing the entire nation. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 30 individual presentations.

Not Available

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Oklo natural nuclear reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Although the possibility of natural was considered in the 1950s, this prediction was not confirmed until 1972, when a routine analysis of a uranium ore standard at the nuclear-fuel processing plant in Pierre...

Mark J. Rigali; Bartholomew Nagy

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Natural radioactivity of Zambian coal and coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

226Ra and232Th specific activities in coal from Maamba Collieries in Zambia have been...?1..., respectively. These values are nearly two and a half times larger than the world average for coal an...

P. Hayumbu; M. B. Zaman; S. S. Munsanje

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Electricity production levelized costs for nuclear, gas and coal  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Levelized costs for nuclear, gas and coal for Electricity, under the Mexican scenario. Javier C. Palacios, Gustavo Alonso, Ramn Ramrez, Armando Gmez, Javier Ortiz, Luis C....

5

Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana) Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana) Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Developer Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Utility Program Info State Louisiana Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Louisiana Department of Natural Resources In order to prevent waste and to avoid the drilling of unnecessary wells and to encourage the development of coal seam natural gas producing areas in Louisiana, the commissioner of conservation is authorized, as provided in this law, to establish a single unit to be served by one or more wells for a coal seam natural gas producing area. Without in any way modifying the authority granted to the commissioner to establish a drilling unit or

6

Testing for market integration crude oil, coal, and natural gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prompted by the contemporaneous spike in coal, oil, and natural gas prices, this paper evaluates the degree of market integration both within and between crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets. Our approach yields parameters that can be readily tested against a priori conjectures. Using daily price data for five very different crude oils, we conclude that the world oil market is a single, highly integrated economic market. On the other hand, coal prices at five trading locations across the United States are cointegrated, but the degree of market integration is much weaker, particularly between Western and Eastern coals. Finally, we show that crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets are only very weakly integrated. Our results indicate that there is not a primary energy market. Despite current price peaks, it is not useful to think of a primary energy market, except in a very long run context.

Bachmeier, L.J.; Griffin, J.M. [Texas A& amp; M Univ, College Station, TX (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

SUBSTITUTION OF NATURAL GAS FOR COAL: CLIMATIC EFFECTS OF UTILITY SECTOR EMISSIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SUBSTITUTION OF NATURAL GAS FOR COAL: CLIMATIC EFFECTS OF UTILITY SECTOR EMISSIONS KATHARINE HAYHOE. Substitution of natural gas for coal is one means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However, natural of coal by natural gas are evaluated, and their modeled net effect on global mean-annual temperature

Jain, Atul K.

8

SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF NUCLEAR-ASSISTED SYNGAS PRODUCTION FROM COAL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A system analysis has been performed to assess the efficiency and carbon utilization of a nuclear-assisted coal gasification process. The nuclear reactor is a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor that is used primarily to provide power for hydrogen production via high-temperature electrolysis. The supplemental hydrogen is mixed with the outlet stream from an oxygen-blown coal gasifier to produce a hydrogen-rich gas mixture, allowing most of the carbon dioxide to be converted into carbon monoxide, with enough excess hydrogen to produce a syngas product stream with a hydrogen/carbon monoxide molar ratio of about 2:1. Oxygen for the gasifier is also provided by the high-temperature electrolysis process. Results of the analysis predict 90.5% carbon utilization with a syngas production efficiency (defined as the ratio of the heating value of the produced syngas to the sum of the heating value of the coal plus the high-temperature reactor heat input) of 66.1% at a gasifier temperature of 1866 K for the high-moisture-content lignite coal considered. Usage of lower moisture coals such as bituminous can yield carbon utilization approaching 100% and 70% syngas production efficiency.

E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

System Analysis of Nuclear-Assisted Syngas Production from Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A system analysis has been performed to assess the efficiency and carbon utilization of a nuclear-assisted coal gasification process. The nuclear reactor is a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor that is used primarily to provide power for hydrogen production via hightemperature electrolysis. The supplemental hydrogen is mixed with the outlet stream from an oxygen-blown coal gasifier to produce a hydrogen-rich gas mixture, allowing most of the carbon dioxide to be converted into carbon monoxide, with enough excess hydrogen to produce a syngas product stream with a hydrogen/carbon monoxide molar ratio of about 2:1. Oxygen for the gasifier is also provided by the high-temperature electrolysis process. Results of the analysis predict 90.5% carbon utilization with a syngas production efficiency (defined as the ratio of the heating value of the produced syngas to the sum of the heating value of the coal plus the high-temperature reactor heat input) of 64.4% at a gasifier temperature of 1866 K for the high-moisture-content lignite coal considered. Usage of lower moisture coals such as bituminous can yield carbon utilization approaching 100% and 70% syngas production efficiency.

E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

. Home | Petroleum | Gasoline | Diesel | Propane | Natural Gas | Electricity | Coal | Nuclear Renewables | Alternative Fuels | Prices | States | International | Country Analysis...

11

The state and prospects of coal and nuclear power generation in Russia (review)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Data on the modern state and development trends for coal and nuclear power engineering in Russia up to 2030 are generalized. It is emphasized that from the viewpoint of strategy, coal and uranium fuel will be ...

V. V. Salomatov

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Environmental impact of natural radionuclides from a coal-fired power plant in Spain  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......natural radionuclides from a coal-fired power plant in Spain...natural radionuclides of the coal. The three most important nuclides...20). Owing to considerable economic and environment importance and...from different processes of the coal industrial cycle. A radiological......

Elena Charro; Víctor Peña

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Viability of an expanded United States nuclear power program and its effects on energy markets .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The four biggest energy sources in the United States are coal, crude oil, natural gas, and nuclear power. While coal and nuclear power are produced… (more)

Khan, Tanzeer S

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Modeling of a coal-fired natural circulation boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modeling of a natural circulation boiler for a coal-fired thermal power station is presented here. The boiler system is divided into seven subcomponents, and for each section, models based on conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are formulated. The pressure drop at various sections and the heat transfer coefficients are computed using empirical correlations. Solutions are obtained by using SIMULINK. The model is validated by comparing its steady state and dynamic responses with the actual plant data. Open loop responses of the model to the step changes in the operating parameters, such as pressure, temperature, steam flow, feed water flow, are also analyzed. The present model can be used for the development and design of effective boiler control systems.

Bhambare, K.S.; Mitra, S.K.; Gaitonde, U.N. [Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

15

Fact #844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown – Dataset  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Excel file with dataset for Fact #844: Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown

16

Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas/Electricity Via Catalytic Coal Gasification  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

9 9 Co-ProduCtion of SubStitute natural GaS / eleCtriCity via CatalytiC Coal GaSifiCation Description The United States has vast reserves of low-cost coal, estimated to be sufficient for the next 250 years. Gasification-based technology, such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), is the only environmentally friendly technology that provides the flexibility to co-produce hydrogen, substitute natural gas (SNG), premium hydrocarbon liquids including transportation fuels, and electric power in desired combinations from coal and other carbonaceous feedstocks. Rising costs and limited domestic supply of crude oil and natural gas provide a strong incentive for the development of coal gasification-based co-production processes. This project addresses the co-production of SNG and electricity from coal via gasification

17

The spatial scales, distribution, and intensity of natural marine hydrocarbon seeps near Coal Oil Point, California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

area) are not well established, either globally or within strong source areas such as near Coal OilThe spatial scales, distribution, and intensity of natural marine hydrocarbon seeps near Coal Oil hydrocarbon seepage from marine environments is an important source of methane and other gases

Washburn, Libe

18

Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

geology and gas-phase (methane) seepage for the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field, one of the worldORIGINAL Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field constructed from 3D seismic and well data allowed investigation of the relationship between the subsurface

Luyendyk, Bruce

19

Natural analogues of nuclear waste glass corrosion.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report reviews and summarizes studies performed to characterize the products and processes involved in the corrosion of natural glasses. Studies are also reviewed and evaluated on how well the corrosion of natural glasses in natural environments serves as an analogue for the corrosion of high-level radioactive waste glasses in an engineered geologic disposal system. A wide range of natural and experimental corrosion studies has been performed on three major groups of natural glasses: tektite, obsidian, and basalt. Studies of the corrosion of natural glass attempt to characterize both the nature of alteration products and the reaction kinetics. Information available on natural glass was then compared to corresponding information on the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses, specifically to resolve two key questions: (1) whether one or more natural glasses behave similarly to nuclear waste glasses in laboratory tests, and (2) how these similarities can be used to support projections of the long-term corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The corrosion behavior of basaltic glasses was most similar to that of nuclear waste glasses, but the corrosion of tektite and obsidian glasses involves certain processes that also occur during the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The reactions and processes that control basalt glass dissolution are similar to those that are important in nuclear waste glass dissolution. The key reaction of the overall corrosion mechanism is network hydrolysis, which eventually breaks down the glass network structure that remains after the initial ion-exchange and diffusion processes. This review also highlights some unresolved issues related to the application of an analogue approach to predicting long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass corrosion, such as discrepancies between experimental and field-based estimates of kinetic parameters for basaltic glasses.

Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Ebert, W.L.; Luo, J.S.

1999-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

20

Two-Dimensional EPR Spectroscopic Studies on the Radicals in Argonne Premium Coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two-Dimensional EPR Spectroscopic Studies on the Radicals in Argonne Premium Coals ... Both coals showed nuclear modulation effects due to1H and naturally abundant 13C nuclear spins. ...

Tadaaki Ikoma; Osamu Ito; Shozo Tero-Kubota; Kimio Akiyama

1998-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nuclear coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Fact #844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

From 2002 to 2012, most states have reduced their reliance on coal for electricity generation. The figure below shows the percent change in electricity generated by coal and natural gas for each...

22

Variability of Natural Dust Erosion from a Coal Pile  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A study of fugitive dust emissions from a pile of crushed coal revealed that, in addition to emitting dust to the atmosphere during periods of pile management (human) activity, dust is also emitted during periods without human activity. This “...

Stephen F. Mueller; Jonathan W. Mallard; Qi Mao; Stephanie L. Shaw

23

Environmental trends in Asia are accelerating the introduction of clean coal technologies and natural gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines the changing energy mix for Asia to 2020, and impacts of increased coal consumption on Asia`s share of world SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} emissions. Stricter SO{sub 2} emissions laws are summarized for eight Asian economies along with implications for fuel and technology choices. The paper compares the economics of different technologies for coal and natural gas in 1997 and in 2007. Trends toward introducing clean coal technologies and the use of natural gas will accelerate in response to tighter environmental standards by 2000. The most important coal conversion technology for Asia, particularly China, in the long term is likely to be integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC), but only under the assumption of multiple products.

Johnson, C.J.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Viability of an expanded United States nuclear power program and its effects on energy markets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The four biggest energy sources in the United States are coal, crude oil, natural gas, and nuclear power. While coal and nuclear power are produced domestically, more than 70% of crude oil and 20% of natural gas is imported. ...

Khan, Tanzeer S

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Combustion of Illinois coals and chars with natural gas. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combined combustion of coal and natural gas offers advantages compared to burning coal or natural gas alone. For example, low volatile coals (or chars) derived from treatment or gasification processes can be of limited use due to their poor flammability characteristics. However, the use of natural gas in conjunction with the solid fuel can provide the necessary ``volatiles`` to enhance the combustion. Also, natural gas provides a clean cofiring fuel source which can enhance the usefulness of coals with high sulfur content. Addition of natural gas may reduce SO{sub x} emissions through increased sulfur retention in the ash and reduce NO{sub x} emissions by varying local stoichiometry and temperature levels. This research program addresses the contributions and the mechanisms of cofiring natural gas with Illinois coal through studies of particle ignition, burning rates and ash characterization.

Buckius, R.O.; Peters, J.E.; Krier, H. [Illinois Univ., Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

26

Detection of natural oxidation of coking coal by TG-FTIR—mechanistic implications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The natural oxidation/weathering of coal continues to be a subject of interest both scientifically and industrially, in part due to the complexity of the molecular processes at hand as well as to the commercial implications involved. It is widely recognized that coking can be adversely affected by weathering whereas, combustion processes appear to be enhanced as result of oxidation. Combustion techniques are commonly used in the analysis of coal, and organic compounds in general, for the determination of elemental hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen. For oxygen, the method in common practice involves the determination by difference from directly determined values for moisture, ash, sulphur, hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen. This has led us to consider the use of thermogravimetry coupled to gas analysis by infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR) to measure organic oxygen in coal directly. Although this technique, developed by Solomon and coworkers, has been extensively used by our group and others, it appears not to have been considered for this particular purpose. Recently, we have shown that TG-FTIR is capable of measuring all the organic oxygen in both fresh and oxidized coal by simultaneous measurement of the three main oxygen-containing gases H2O, CO and CO2 evolved during rapid pyrolysis. This gives us a way of measuring quantitatively the oxygen introduced into the coal matrix during oxidation and at least a partial capability of establishing oxygen speciation. We have found, using TG-FTIR, that the early stages of coal oxidation results in the appearance of O-containing functional groups not present in the original coal. The nature of these functional groups is directly related to the oxidation reaction mechanism. These results will be presented and discussed in detail.

J.A. MacPhee; L. Giroux; J.-P. Charland; J.F. Gransden; J.T. Price

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

"1. Chalk Point LLC","Coal","Mirant Chalk Point LLC",2347 "2. Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant","Nuclear","Calvert Cliffs Nuclear PP Inc",1705  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Maryland" Maryland" "1. Chalk Point LLC","Coal","Mirant Chalk Point LLC",2347 "2. Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant","Nuclear","Calvert Cliffs Nuclear PP Inc",1705 "3. Morgantown Generating Plant","Coal","Mirant Mid-Atlantic LLC",1477 "4. Brandon Shores","Coal","Constellation Power Source Gen",1273 "5. Herbert A Wagner","Coal","Constellation Power Source Gen",976 "6. Dickerson","Coal","Mirant Mid-Atlantic LLC",844 "7. NAEA Rock Springs LLC","Gas","NAEA Rock Springs LLC",652 "8. Conowingo","Hydroelectric","Exelon Power",572

28

System analysis of nuclear-assisted syngas production from coal - article no. 042901  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A system analysis has been performed to assess the efficiency and carbon utilization of a nuclear-assisted coal gasification process. The nuclear reactor is a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor that is used primarily to provide power for hydrogen production via high-temperature electrolysis. The supplemental hydrogen is mixed with the outlet stream from an oxygen-blown coal gasifier to produce a hydrogen-rich gas mixture, allowing most of the carbon dioxide to be converted into carbon monoxide, with enough excess hydrogen to produce a syngas product stream with a hydrogen/carbon monoxide molar ratio of about 2:1. Oxygen for the gasifier is also provided by the high-temperature electrolysis process. The results of the analysis predict 90.5% carbon utilization with a syngas production efficiency (defined as the ratio of the heating value of the produced syngas to the sum of the heating value of the coal plus the high-temperature reactor heat input) of 64.4% at a gasifier temperature of 1866 K for the high-moisture-content lignite coal considered. Usage of lower moisture coals such as bituminous can yield carbon utilization approaching 100% and 70% syngas production efficiency.

Harvego, E.A.; McKellar, M.G.; O'Brien, J.E. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

29

Nuclear Eclectic Power  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...much higher future costs for oil and natural gas. However, the...ELECTRICITY GENERATION FROM COAL, OIL, AND NUCLEAR FUEL, NUCLEAR...electricity generation from coal, oil, and nuclear fuel, cite about...possibility that stimu-lated a marathon debate between the Union of...

David J. Rose

1974-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

30

System and method for producing substitute natural gas from coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a system and method for producing substitute natural gas and electricity, while mitigating production of any greenhouse gasses. The system includes a hydrogasification reactor, to form a gas stream including natural gas and a char stream, and an oxygen burner to combust the char material to form carbon oxides. The system also includes an algae farm to convert the carbon oxides to hydrocarbon material and oxygen.

Hobbs, Raymond (Avondale, AZ)

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

31

An evaluation of Substitute natural gas production from different coal gasification processes based on modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal and lignite will play a significant role in the future energy production. However, the technical options for the reduction of CO2 emissions will define the extent of their share in the future energy mix. The production of synthetic or substitute natural gas (SNG) from solid fossil fuels seems to be a very attractive process: coal and lignite can be upgraded into a methane rich gas which can be transported and further used in high efficient power systems coupled with CO2 sequestration technologies. The aim of this paper is to present a modeling analysis comparison between substitute natural gas production from coal by means of allothermal steam gasification and autothermal oxygen gasification. In order to produce SNG from syngas several unit operations are required such as syngas cooling, cleaning, potential compression and, of course, methanation reactors. Finally the gas which is produced has to be conditioned i.e. removal of unwanted species, such as CO2 etc. The heat recovered from the overall process is utilized by a steam cycle, producing power. These processes were modeled with the computer software IPSEpro™. An energetic and exergetic analysis of the coal to SNG processes have been realized and compared.

S. Karellas; K.D. Panopoulos; G. Panousis; A. Rigas; J. Karl; E. Kakaras

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Electricity production levelized costs for nuclear, gas and coal  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

was no competitive in Mexico, at present this situation is changing, due to different factors. One of them is the high price of fossile fuel in Mexico mainly natural gas. Other...

33

Investigation on Life-cycle Cost of Coal-based Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Coal-based synthetic natural gas (SNG) is considered to be a promising alternative of clean energy, especially for urban uses, to response to the insufficient supply of natural gas in China, In this paper, life cycle costing is conducted for SNG in three main urban applications: heating boiler use, residential use, and transit bus use, respectively. The results show that the SNG is competitive for residential use, while it is not as cost- effective as expected when used for heating boiler use or transit bus use. Major shortcoming of SNG is from the large environmental emissions in the production stage.

Jun Zhang; Hengchong Li; Siyu Yang; Xiuxi Li; Yu Qian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Nature of Transactions (TI) Code | National Nuclear Security Administration  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Nature of Transactions (TI) Code | National Nuclear Security Administration Nature of Transactions (TI) Code | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Nature of Transactions (TI) Code Home > About Us > Our Programs > Nuclear Security > Nuclear Materials Management & Safeguards System > NMMSS Information, Reports & Forms > Code Tables > Nature of Transactions (TI) Code

35

Petrochemicals from oil, natural gas, coal and biomass: Production costs in 2030–2050  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Methane, coal and biomass are being considered as alternatives to crude oil for the production of basic petrochemicals, such as light olefins. This paper is a study on the production costs of 24 process routes utilizing these primary energy sources. A wide range of projected energy prices in 2030–2050 found in the open literature is used. The basis for comparison is the production cost per t of high value chemicals (HVCs or light olefin-value equivalent). A Monte Carlo method was used to estimate the ranking of production costs of all 24 routes with 10,000 trials of varying energy prices and CO2 emissions costs (assumed to be within $0–100/t CO2; the total CO2 emissions, or cradle-to-grave CO2 emissions, were considered). High energy prices in the first three quarter of 2008 were tested separately. The main findings are:• Production costs: while the production costs of crude oil- and natural gas-based routes are within $500–900/t HVCs, those of coal- and biomass-based routes are mostly within $400–800/t HVCs. Production costs of coal- and biomass-based routes are in general quite similar while in some cases the difference is significant. Among the top seven most expensive routes, six are oil- and gas-based routes. Among the top seven least expensive routes, six are coal and biomass routes. • CO2 emissions costs: the effect of CO2 emissions costs was found to be strong on the coal-based routes and also quite significant on the biomass-based routes. However, the effect on oil- and gas-based routes is found to be small or relatively moderate. • Energy prices in 2008: most of the coal-based routes and biomass-based routes (particularly sugar cane) still have much lower production costs than the oil- and gas-based routes (even if international freight costs are included). To ensure the reduction of CO2 emissions in the long-term, we suggest that policies for the petrochemicals industry focus on stimulating the use of biomass as well as carbon capture and storage features for coal-based routes.

Tao Ren; Bert Daniëls; Martin K. Patel; Kornelis Blok

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mar Lett (2010) 30:331–338 Fig. 3 Coal Oil Point seep field,hydrocarbon seeps near Coal Oil Point, California. Marhydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field,

Leifer, Ira; Kamerling, Marc J.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.; Wilson, Douglas S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in FeAl and CoAl  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have investigated the Al27 nuclear magnetic resonance in Ni3Al, NiAl, FeAl, and both the Al27 and Co59 resonances in CoAl. The cobalt resonance in CoAl exhibits a weakly temperature-dependent, positive shift. This shift (?1.5%) is too large to be accounted for solely by the hyperfine field from conduction electrons polarized by the external magnetic field, and orbital paramagnetic effects appear to be the dominant factor, core polarization playing a relatively minor role. The aluminum Knight shift in CoAl is small (0.014%) and temperature-independent. This is to be contrasted with aluminum in FeAl which exhibits a large, negative, temperature-dependent shift (-0.38% at 293°K). It is shown that both the large aluminum Knight shift in FeAl and the small aluminum Knight shift in CoAl are consistent with the predictions of the Ruderman-Kittel-Yosida (RKY) theory. However, it is now believed that the small shift observed in CoAl results from a lack of s character in the conduction-electron wave functions rather than from a node anticipated in the conduction-electron polarization. The temperature dependence of the resonance in FeAl can also be accounted for by the RKY mechanism if it is assumed that the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility is associated with disorder in the material. This assumption is necessary because the Knight shift is not linearly related to the bulk susceptibility of the sample. The aluminum linewidth in FeAl increases as the temperature is lowered. At room temperature the linewidth is independent of magnetic field but greater than the calculated dipolar linewidth. At 77 and 4.2°K the linewidth increases with increasing magnetic field. This effect is attributed mainly to inhomogeneous Knight-shift broadening, although inhomogeneous magnetization broadening also contributes. A similar situation is observed in CoAl. At room temperature the cobalt and aluminum resonances have essentially the same width. The linewidths are independent of magnetic field but greater than the dipolar values. As the temperature is lowered the linewidths increase and become magnetic-field-dependent. The cobalt resonance broadens more severely than the aluminum resonance. It is believed that inhomogeneous Knight-shift broadening and inhomogeneous magnetization broadening determine the cobalt linewidth at low temperatures. The aluminum nuclei in CoAl do not exhibit appreciable hyperfine coupling with the conduction electrons, so that only inhomogeneous magnetization broadening contributes to the linewidth.

J. A. Seitchik and R. H. Walmsley

1965-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

38

"1. W A Parish","Coal","NRG Texas Power LLC",3664 "2. South Texas Project","Nuclear","STP Nuclear Operating Co",2560  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Texas" Texas" "1. W A Parish","Coal","NRG Texas Power LLC",3664 "2. South Texas Project","Nuclear","STP Nuclear Operating Co",2560 "3. Martin Lake","Coal","TXU Generation Co LP",2425 "4. Comanche Peak","Nuclear","TXU Generation Co LP",2406 "5. Monticello","Coal","TXU Generation Co LP",1890 "6. Sabine","Gas","Entergy Texas Inc.",1814 "7. Limestone","Coal","NRG Texas Power LLC",1689 "8. Fayette Power Project","Coal","Lower Colorado River Authority",1641 "9. Forney Energy Center","Gas","FPLE Forney LP",1640

39

Optimizing heat integration in a flexible coal–natural gas power station with CO2 capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Computational optimization is used to simultaneously determine the design and planned operating profile of a flexible coal–natural gas power station with CO2 capture, under a CO2 emission performance standard. The facility consists of a coal-fired power station undergoing retrofit with CO2 capture. The CO2 capture energy demand is provided by a specially designed combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT). The heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) component of the CCGT is modeled and optimized in detail, with explicit treatment of the discrete aspects of the HRSG configuration, including the number and sequential arrangement of HRSG internal components. Variable facility operations are represented by discrete operating modes selected based on the electricity price–duration curve. Two objectives, the minimization of capital requirement and the maximization of net present value, are considered in a bi-objective mixed-integer nonlinear programming formulation. Pareto frontiers, which define the optimal tradeoffs between these two objectives, are generated for six scenarios constructed from recent historical data from West Texas, the United Kingdom, and India. For a 440 MW coal plant in a scenario based on 2011 West Texas data, the minimum effective net present cost required for the retrofit (which meets the CO2 emission performance standard) varies from $278 to 383 million, and the minimum total capital investment requirement ranges from $346 to 517 million. The variations in these optimized values correspond to the range of the Pareto frontier within the bounds of the problem. The net present cost of the retrofit is less than the present value of the existing coal plant, $476 million, indicating that a retrofit is preferred over decommissioning. In the case of very low energy prices, however, decommissioning is shown to be the preferred option. The UK and India scenarios demonstrate that optimal designs can vary greatly depending upon location-specific economic conditions.

Charles A. Kang; Adam R. Brandt; Louis J. Durlofsky

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Chemical Looping Combustion of Biomass/Coal with Natural Iron Ore as Oxygen Carrier in a Continuous Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical Looping Combustion of Biomass/Coal with Natural Iron Ore as Oxygen Carrier in a Continuous Reactor ... Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a new innovative technology with inherent separation of CO2 without energy penalty. ... Experiments on chemical looping combustion of biomass/coal were conducted in a 1 kWth continuous reactor, and an Australia iron ore was selected as oxygen carrier. ...

Haiming Gu; Laihong Shen; Jun Xiao; Siwen Zhang; Tao Song

2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nuclear coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

42

Cornell's conversion of a coal fired heating plant to natural Gas -BACKGROUND: In December 2009, the Combined Heat and Power Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- BACKGROUND: In December 2009, the Combined Heat and Power Plant at Cornell Cornell's conversion of a coal fired heating plant to natural Gas the power plant #12;

Keinan, Alon

43

Scalar Nature of the Nuclear Density Functional  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Because of the rotational invariance of the nuclear Hamiltonian, there exists a density functional for nuclei that depends only on two scalar densities. Practical calculations boil down to radial, one-dimensional ones.

B. G. Giraud

2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

44

Update report on the performance of 400 megawatt and larger nuclear and coal-fired generating units. Performance through 1977  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Forty-seven nuclear generating units and 125 coal-fired generating plants that have had at least one full year of commercial operation are covered in this report. Their performances are evaluated using the capacity factor, availability factor, equivalent availability, and forced outage rate. The data are arranged by state and utility. (DLC)

None

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Economical production of transportation fuels from coal, natural gas, and other carbonaceous feedstocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Nation`s economy and security will continue to be vitally linked to an efficient transportation system of air, rail, and highway vehicles that depend on a continuous supply of liquid fuels at a reasonable price and with characteristics that can help the vehicle manufacturers meet increasingly strict environmental regulations. However, an analysis of US oil production and demand shows that, between now and 2015, a significant increase in imported oil will be needed to meet transportation fuel requirements. One element of an overall Department of Energy`s (DOE) strategy to address this energy security issue while helping meet emissions requirements is to produce premium transportation fuels from non-petroleum feedstocks, such as coal, natural gas, and biomass, via Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) and other synthesis gas conversion technologies.

Srivastava, R.D.; McIlvried, H.G. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Winslow, J.C.; Venkataraman, V.K.; Driscoll, D.J. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Federal Energy Technology Center

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

46

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Electricity from coal and utilization of coal combustion by-products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most electricity in the world is conventionally generated using coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, or hydropower. Due to environmental concerns, there is a growing interest in alternative energy sources for heat and electricity production. The major by-products obtained from coal combustion are fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials. The solid wastes produced in coal-fired power plants create problems for both power-generating industries and environmentalists. The coal fly ash and bottom ash samples may be used as cementitious materials.

Demirbas, A. [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Natural circulating passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Wade, Gentry E. (Saratoga, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Where Appalachia Went Right: White Masculinities, Nature, and Pro-Coal Politics in an Era of Climate Change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Impacts of the Appalachian Coal Industry and Its Future inCommunity Economic Identity: The Coal Industry and IdeologyPress, 1882. “Citizens for Coal. ” Facebook. Accessed March

Schwartzman, Gabe

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Where Appalachia Went Right: White Masculinities, Nature, and Pro-Coal Politics in an Era of Climate Change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

York. “Community Economic Identity: The Coal Industry andCurrent Economic Impacts of the Appalachian Coal Industrypolitical economic system of Appalachian coal mining since

Schwartzman, Gabe

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Losses and Costs Associated with Coal vs. Natural Gas Firing at Hanes Dye and Finishing.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Due to decreasing production and rising coal prices, the engineering and management staff at Hanes Dye and Finishing in Winston Salem, NC have been investigating… (more)

Gibides, Justin Tyler

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Exergetic analysis and evaluation of coal-fired supercritical thermal power plant and natural gas-fired combined cycle power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present work has been undertaken for energetic and exergetic analysis of coal-fired supercritical thermal power plant and natural gas-fired combined cycle power plant. Comparative analysis has been conducted ...

V. Siva Reddy; S. C. Kaushik; S. K. Tyagi

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of natural gas, along with the coal reserve base of 326s Fossil Fuel Reserve Base, 2007 Oil Natural Gas Coal 233ensured reserves”) of coal, oil and natural gas published in

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

In situ gasification chemical looping combustion of a coal using the binary oxygen carrier natural anhydrite ore and natural iron ore  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract CaSO4 is an attractive oxygen carrier for Chemical–looping combustion (CLC), because of its high oxygen capacity and low price. But the utilization of CaSO4 oxygen carrier suffers the problems of low reactivity, deactivation caused by sulfur loss and the incomplete fuel conversion due to the thermodynamic limitations. To improve the stability and reactivity of CaSO4 oxygen carrier, a small amount of natural iron ore were added in. The kinetic behavior and thermodynamics of the reduction of the binary oxygen carrier by coal under steam atmosphere were investigated. The results show that Fe2O3 improves the performance of coal gasification and the subsequent conversion of coal syngas to CO2 and H2O. Besides, the addition of Fe2O3 reduces the chance of CaSO4 reduction to CaO by coal syngas, and the oxygen transfer capacity of CaSO4 is maintained. The optimal reaction conditions in fuel reactor are shifted from 950 °C without Fe2O3 to 900 °C with 7% Fe2O3. And the decreases in CO, SO2 and H2S environmental factors can be well up to 81.48%, 76.35% and 100%, respectively. Meanwhile, the CO2 concentration in the dry gas products increases from 81.63% up to 95.35%.

Min Zheng; Laihong Shen; Xiaoqiong Feng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Preliminary research of health and environmental impacts and greenhouse gas emission from coal-fired power and nuclear power chains in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present paper treats health, environmental impacts and greenhouse gas emission resulting from both the coal-fired power chain and nuclear power chain in China. The nuclear power chain resulted in adverse health impacts 3-4 orders of magnitude lower than those from the coal-fired power chain, also radiological emissions were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower. Estimated greenhouse gas emission factors amount to 40 fold. The coal-fired power chain is considered to be one of the major sources of environmental pollution in China and rapid expansion of nuclear power in the country promises to be one of the primary ways of mitigating environmental pollution and reducing greenhouse gas emission. At the same time, of course, it is also necessary to increase the energy conversion efficiency of coal as a fuel and to minimise pollutant discharge.

Pan Ziqiang; Chen Zhuzhou; Zhu Zhiming; Xiu Binglin; Ma Zhonghai; Hao Jianzhong; He Huimin

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Sizing particles of natural uranium and nuclear fuels using poly-allyl-diglycol carbonate autoradiography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......particles of natural uranium and nuclear fuels...low enriched, depleted and natural uranium and also aged...committed doses and cancer risks(4...Bristol, UK, sized uranium fragments found...nuclear fuels of depleted uranium (depUO2......

G. Hegyi; R. B. Richardson

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Performance of Liquid Metals in Natural Circulation Cooled Nuclear Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The inherent safety capability of natural circulation makes reactor design more reliable. Additionally, the construction and operation of a nuclear power plant with natural circulation in the primary cooling circuit is an interesting alternative for nuclear plant designers, due to their lower operational and investment costs obtained by simplifying systems and controls. This paper deals with the feasibility of application of natural circulation in the primary cooling circuit of a liquid metal fast reactor. The methodology employed is a non-dimensional analysis, which describes the relationship between the physical properties and system variables. The performance criterion is bounded by a safety argument, referring to the maximum cladding temperature allowed during operation. The study considers several coolants, which can play a part in reactor cooling systems, such as lead, lead-bismuth and sodium. Bismuth and gallium are included in this analysis, in order to extend the range of properties for reference purposes. The results present a characterization of natural circulation flow in a reactor and compare the cooling capabilities from different liquid metals coolants. (authors)

Ceballos, Carlos; Lathouwers, Danny; Verkooijen, Adrian [Interfacultair Reactor Instituut, Technische Universiteit Delft, Mekelweg 15, Delft (Netherlands)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

U.S. Coal Supply and Demand  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

U.S. Coal Supply and Demand > U.S. Coal Supply and Demand U.S. Coal Supply and Demand > U.S. Coal Supply and Demand U.S. Coal Supply and Demand 2010 Review (entire report also available in printer-friendly format ) Previous Editions 2009 Review 2008 Review 2007 Review 2006 Review 2005 Review 2004 Review 2003 Review 2002 Review 2001 Review 2000 Review 1999 Review Data for: 2010 Released: May 2011 Next Release Date: April 2012 Table 3. Electric Power Sector Net Generation, 2009-2010 (Million Kilowatthours) New England Coal 14,378 14,244 -0.9 Hydroelectric 7,759 6,861 -11.6 Natural Gas 48,007 54,680 13.9 Nuclear 36,231 38,361 5.9 Other (1) 9,186 9,063 -1.3 Total 115,559 123,210 6.6 Middle Atlantic Coal 121,873 129,935 6.6 Hydroelectric 28,793 26,463 -8.1 Natural Gas 89,808 104,341 16.2 Nuclear 155,140 152,469 -1.7

59

Two-billion-year-old nuclear reactors: Nature goes fission  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Once it was thought that the isotopic composition of natural uranium was invariant. It was thus surprising in 1972 when French scientists observed small but significant deficiencies of the minor isotope {sup 235}U in uranium ore. Subsequent investigations traced the isotopically anomalous material to the Oklo mine in the African Republic of Gabon. In the mine, cubic-dekametre-sized pods of rock were found to contain extraordinary concentrations of uranium, as much as 65%, with as little as half the normal isotopic abundance of {sup 235}U. In these rocks, neodymium was found to be deficient in the premordial isotope {sup 142}Nd and enriched in the fission-produced isotopes {sup 143-150}Nd. The presence of fission products was unambiguous evidence that the {sup 235}U deficiencies were the result of sustained nuclear fission. Within the heart of the natural reactors, the fission densities were on the order of 10{sup 20} fissions/cm{sup 3}, producing hundreds of megajoules of energy and tens of microwatts of power per gram of rock. Nature had forestalled man`s great discovery of energy production by nuclear fission.

Curtis, D.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

60

Chemicals from coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nuclear coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Sizing particles of natural uranium and nuclear fuels using poly-allyl-diglycol carbonate autoradiography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......University Health Center, Montreal...Biology and Health Physics Branch...enriched, depleted and natural uranium and also aged...fiberglass filter. Health Phys (2000...of natural uranium and nuclear...enriched, depleted and natural......

G. Hegyi; R. B. Richardson

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

"1. Monroe","Coal","Detroit Edison Co",2944 "2. Donald C Cook","Nuclear","Indiana Michigan Power Co",2069  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Michigan" Michigan" "1. Monroe","Coal","Detroit Edison Co",2944 "2. Donald C Cook","Nuclear","Indiana Michigan Power Co",2069 "3. Ludington","Pumped Storage","Consumers Energy Co",1872 "4. Midland Cogeneration Venture","Gas","Midland Cogeneration Venture",1849 "5. Dan E Karn","Coal","Consumers Energy Co",1791 "6. Belle River","Coal","Detroit Edison Co",1518 "7. J H Campbell","Coal","Consumers Energy Co",1451 "8. St Clair","Coal","Detroit Edison Co",1397 "9. Fermi","Nuclear","Detroit Edison Co",1133

63

,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.2;" 2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.2;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components" " "," ",,,,,,,,,,,,,"Total",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Wood Residues",,,," " " "," "," ",,,,,"Bituminous",,,,,,"Electricity","Diesel Fuel",,,,,,"Motor",,,,,,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam",,,," ",,,"and","Wood-Related","All"

64

,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.1;" Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.1;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components" " "," ",,,,,,,,,,,,,"Total",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Wood Residues",,,," " " "," "," ",,,,,"Bituminous",,,,,,"Electricity","Diesel Fuel",,,,,,"Motor",,,,,,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam",,,," ",,,"and","Wood-Related","All"

65

Comparative analysis of the production costs and life-cycle GHG emissions of FT liquid fuels from coal and natural gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid transportation fuels derived from coal and natural gas could help the United States reduce its dependence on petroleum. The fuels could be produced domestically or imported from fossil fuel-rich countries. The goal of this paper is to determine the life-cycle GHG emissions of coal- and natural gas-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, as well as to compare production costs. The results show that the use of coal- or natural gas-based FT liquids will likely lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum-based fuels. In a best-case scenario, coal- or natural gas-based FT-liquids have emissions only comparable to petroleum-based fuels. In addition, the economic advantages of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels are not obvious: there is a narrow range of petroleum and natural gas prices at which GTL fuels would be competitive with petroleum-based fuels. CTL fuels are generally cheaper than petroleum-based fuels. However, recent reports suggest there is uncertainty about the availability of economically viable coal resources in the United States. If the U.S. has a goal of increasing its energy security, and at the same time significantly reducing its GHG emissions, neither CTL nor GTL consumption seem a reasonable path to follow. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

66

American Coal Council 2004 Spring Coal Forum  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

American Coal Council American Coal Council 2004 Spring Coal Forum Dallas, Texas May 17-19, 2004 Thomas J. Feeley, III Technology Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Presentation Outline * Background * Power plant-water issues * DOE/NETL R&D program * Conclusion/future plans ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Global Water Availability Ocean 97% Fresh Water 2.5% 0 20 40 60 80 100 Ice Groundwater Lakes and Rivers ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Three Things Power Plants Require 1) Access to transmission lines 2) Available fuel, e.g., coal or natural gas 3) Water ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Freshwater Withdrawals and Consumption Mgal / Day Irrigation 81,300 Irrigation 81,300 Thermoelectric 3,310 Consumption Sources: "Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1995," USGS Circular 1200, 1998

67

Influence by small dispersive coal dust particles of different fractional consistence on characteristics of iodine air filter at nuclear power plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The main purpose of research is to determine the influence by the small dispersive coal dust particles of the different fractional consistence on the technical characteristics of the vertical iodine air filter at nuclear power plant. The research on the transport properties of the small dispersive coal dust particles in the granular filtering medium of absorber in the vertical iodine air filter is completed in the case, when the modeled aerodynamic conditions are similar to the real aerodynamic conditions. It is shown that the appearance of the different fractional consistence of small dispersive coal dust particles with the decreasing dimensions down to the micro and nano sizes at the action of the air dust aerosol stream normally results in a significant change of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles masses in the granular filtering medium of an absorber in the vertical iodine air filter, changing the vertical iodine air filter aerodynamic characteristics. The precise characterization of...

Neklyudov, I M; Fedorova, L I; Poltinin, P Ya

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Toward Novel Hybrid Biomass, Coal, and Natural Gas Processes for Satisfying Current Transportation Fuel Demands, 1: Process Alternatives, Gasification Modeling, Process Simulation, and Economic Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Toward Novel Hybrid Biomass, Coal, and Natural Gas Processes for Satisfying Current Transportation Fuel Demands, 1: Process Alternatives, Gasification Modeling, Process Simulation, and Economic Analysis ... This paper, which is the first part of a series of papers, introduces a hybrid coal, biomass, and natural gas to liquids (CBGTL) process that can produce transportation fuels in ratios consistent with current U.S. transportation fuel demands. ... Steady-state process simulation results based on Aspen Plus are presented for the seven process alternatives with a detailed economic analysis performed using the Aspen Process Economic Analyzer and unit cost functions obtained from literature. ...

Richard C. Baliban; Josephine A. Elia; Christodoulos A. Floudas

2010-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

69

International Energy Outlook - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal International Energy Outlook 2004 Coal Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, only a slight drop in its share of total energy consumption is projected by 2025. Coal continues to dominate fuel markets in developing Asia. Figure 52. World Coal Consumption, 1970-2025. Need help, call the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 53. Coal Share of World Energy Consumption by Sector, 2001 and 2025. Need help, call the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 54. Coal Share of Regional Energy Consumption, 1970-2025. Need help, call the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data World coal consumption has been in a period of generally slow growth since

70

Northern Cheyenne Reservation Coal Bed Natural Resource Assessment and Analysis of Produced Water Disposal Options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coalbed methane (CBM) development in the Powder River Basin (PRB) is currently one of the most active gas plays in the United States. Monthly production in 2002 reached about 26 BCF in the Wyoming portion of the basin. Coalbed methane reserves for the Wyoming portion of the basin are approximately 25 trillion cubic feet (TCF). Although coal beds in the Powder River Basin extend well into Montana, including the area of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, the only CBM development in Montana is the CX Field, operated by the Fidelity Exploration, near the Wyoming border. The Northern Cheyenne Reservation is located on the northwest flank of the PRB in Montana with a total land of 445,000 acres. The Reservation consists of five districts, Lame Deer, Busby, Ashland, Birney, and Muddy Cluster and has a population of 4,470 according to the 2000 Census. The CBM resource represents a significant potential asset to the Northern Cheyenne Indian Tribe. Methane gas in coal beds is trapped by hydrodynamic pressure. Because the production of CBM involves the dewatering of coalbed to allow the release of methane gas from the coal matrix, the relatively large volume of the co-produced water and its potential environmental impacts are the primary concerns for the Tribe. Presented in this report is a study conducted by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology (MBMG) in partnership with the Northern Cheyenne Tribe to assess the Tribe’s CBM resources and evaluate applicable water handling options. The project was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Native American Initiative of the National Petroleum Technology Office, under contract DEAC07- 99ID13727. Matching funds were granted by the MBMG in supporting the work of geologic study and mapping conducted at MBMG.

Shaochang Wo; David A. Lopez; Jason Whiteman Sr.; Bruce A. Reynolds

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Physical features of small disperse coal dust fraction transportation and structurization processes in iodine air filters of absorption type in ventilation systems at nuclear power plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The research on the physical features of transportation and structurization processes by the air-dust aerosol in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal adsorbent granules in an air filter of the adsorption type in the heating ventilation and cooling (HVAC) system at the nuclear power plant is completed. The physical origins of the coal dust masses distribution along the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules during the air-dust aerosol intake process in the near the surface layer of absorber are researched. The quantitative technical characteristics of air filtering elements, which have to be considered during the optimization of air filters designs for the application in the ventilation systems at the nuclear power plants, are obtained.

Ledenyov, Oleg P; Poltinin, P Ya; Fedorova, L I

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Economic comparison between coal-fired and liquefied natural gas combined cycle power plants considering carbon tax: Korean case  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Economic growth is main cause of environmental pollution and has been identified as a big threat to sustainable development. Considering the enormous role of electricity in the national economy, it is essential to study the effect of environmental regulations on the electricity sector. This paper aims at making an economic analysis of Korea's power plant utilities by comparing electricity generation costs from coal-fired power plants and liquefied natural gas (LNG) combined cycle power plants with environmental consideration. In this study, the levelized generation cost method (LGCM) is used for comparing economic analysis of power plant utilities. Among the many pollutants discharged during electricity generation, this study principally deals with control costs related only to CO2 and NO2, since the control costs of SO2 and total suspended particulates (TSP) are already included in the construction cost of utilities. The cost of generating electricity in a coal-fired power plant is compared with such cost in a LNG combined cycle power plant. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis with computer simulation is performed according to fuel price, interest rates and carbon tax. In each case, these results can help in deciding which utility is economically justified in the circumstances of environmental regulations.

Suk-Jae Jeong; Kyung-Sup Kim; Jin-Won Park; Dong-soon Lim; Seung-moon Lee

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Coal market momentum converts skeptics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tight supplies, soaring natural gas prices and an improving economy bode well for coal. Coal Age presents it 'Forecast 2006' a survey of 200 US coal industry executives. Questions asked included predicted production levels, attitudes, expenditure on coal mining, and rating of factors of importance. 7 figs.

Fiscor, S.

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

Influence of coal nature and structure on ash size formation characteristic and related pollutant emissions during CFB combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The size distribution of coal particles in a Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler plays a crucial role in the ... the variation of coal ash distributions and other CFB performance data due to the cyclone and...

Min Qian; Arnaud Boelle; Philippe Jaud; Yongjie Na…

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Where Appalachia Went Right: White Masculinities, Nature, and Pro-Coal Politics in an Era of Climate Change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to Surface Coal Mining in Appalachia. The University ofcoal mining town somewhere around 1905, part of the process that transformed Central Appalachiamining of more coal than anyone else in the history of central Appalachia,

Schwartzman, Gabe

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power From Western Coals  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Daniel C. Cicero Daniel C. Cicero Hydrogen & Syngas Technology Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 3610 Collins Ferry Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507 304-285-4826 daniel.cicero@netl.doe.gov Gary J. stiegel Gasification Technology Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236 412-386-4499 gary.stiegel@netl.doe.gov Elaine Everitt Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 3610 Collins Ferry Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507 304-285-4491 elaine.everitt@netl.doe.gov 4/2009 Hydrogen & Syngas Technologies Gasification Technologies Development of a HyDrogasification process for co-proDuction of substitute natural gas (sng) anD electric power from western coals Description In the next two decades, electric utilities serving the Western United States must install

77

Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Volume 2: Coal to Synthetic Natural Gas and Ammonia  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cost and Performance Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Volume 2: Coal to Synthetic Natural Gas and Ammonia July 5, 2011 DOE/NETL- 2010/1402 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or

78

The natural radioactivity contents in feed coals from the lignite-fired power plants in Western Anatolia, Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......mineral matter contents than other Tertiary coals. Therefore, they have been consumed...total capacity of 1680 MW. The Soma coal basin is one of the largest economic lignite basins of western Turkey. Coal mining has been practised in this region......

N. Füsun Çam; Günseli Yaprak; Elif Eren

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Naturally Occurring Radionuclides of Ash Produced by Coal Combustion. The Case of the Kardia Mine in Northern Greece  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

West Macedonia Lignite Center (WMLC), located in Northwest Greece, releases into the atmosphere about 21,400 tons/year of fly ash through the stacks of four coal fired plants. The lignite ash contains naturally occurring radionuclides, which are deposited on the WMLC basin. This work investigates the natural radioactivity of twenty six ash samples, laboratory produced from combustion of lignite, which was sampled perpendicularly to the benches of the Kardia mine. The concentrations of radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 232}Th, were measured spectroscopically and found round one order of magnitude as high as those of lignite. Subsequently the Radionuclide Partitioning Coefficients of radionuclides were calculated and it was found that they are higher for {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K, because the latter have closer affinity with the inorganic matrix of lignite. During combustion up to one third of the naturally occurring radioisotopes escape from the solid phase into the flue gases. With comparison to relative global data, the investigated ash has been found to have relatively high radioactivity, but the emissions of the WMLC radionuclides contribute only 0.03% to the mean annual absorbed dose.

Fotakis, M.; Tsikritzis, L.; Tzimkas, N.; Kolovos, N.; Tsikritzi, R. [Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of West Macedonia, Department of Pollution Control Technologies, Koila, Kozani, 50100 (Greece)

2008-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

80

The First Coal Plants  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Coal Plants Coal Plants Nature Bulletin No. 329-A January 25, 1969 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation THE FIRST COAL PLANTS Coal has been called "the mainspring" of our civilization. You are probably familiar, in a general way, with the story of how it originated ages ago from beds of peat which were very slowly changed to coal; and how it became lignite or brown coal, sub-bituminous, bituminous, or anthracite coal, depending on bacterial and chemical changes in the peat, how much it was compressed under terrific pressure, and the amount of heat involved in the process. You also know that peat is formed by decaying vegetation in shallow clear fresh-water swamps or bogs, but it is difficult to find a simple description of the kinds of plants that, living and dying during different periods of the earth's history, created beds of peat which eventually became coal.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nuclear coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

The Asia-Pacific coal technology conference  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Asia-Pacific coal technology conference was held in Honolulu, Hawaii, November 14--16, 1989. Topics discussed included the following: Expanded Horizons for US Coal Technology and Coal Trade; Future Coal-Fired Generation and Capacity Requirements of the Philippines; Taiwan Presentation; Korean Presentation; Hong Kong Future Coal Requirements; Indonesian Presentation; Electric Power System in Thailand; Coal in Malaysia -- A Position Paper; The US and Asia: Pacific Partners in Coal and Coal Technology; US Coal Production and Export; US Clean Coal Technologies; Developments in Coal Transport and Utilization; Alternative/Innovative Transport; Electricity Generation in Asia and the Pacific: Power Sector Demand for Coal, Oil and Natural Gas; Role of Clean Coal Technology in the Energy Future of the World; Global Climate Change: A Fossil Energy Perspective; Speaker: The Role of Coal in Meeting Hawaii's Power Needs; and Workshops on Critical Issues Associated with Coal Usage. Individual topics are processed separately for the data bases.

Not Available

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

STEO November 2012 - coal supplies  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Despite drop in domestic coal production, U.S. coal exports to reach Despite drop in domestic coal production, U.S. coal exports to reach record high in 2012. While U.S. coal production is down 7 percent this year due in part to utilities switching to low-priced natural gas to generate electricity, American coal is still finding plenty of buyers in overseas markets. U.S. coal exports are expected to hit a record 125 million tons in 2012, the U.S. Energy Information Administration says in its new monthly short-term energy outlook. Coal exports are expected to decline in 2013, primarily because of continuing economic weakness in Europe, lower international coal prices, and higher coal production in Asia. However, U.S. coal exports next year are still expected to top 100 million tons for the third year in a row

83

Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of the research and development conducted on an Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP) conceived and developed by Arizona Public Service Company (APS) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract: DE-FC26-06NT42759 for Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) production from western coal. A double-wall (i.e., a hydrogasification contained within a pressure shell) down-flow hydrogasification reactor was designed, engineered, constructed, commissioned and operated by APS, Phoenix, AZ. The reactor is ASME-certified under Section VIII with a rating of 1150 pounds per square inch gage (psig) maximum allowable working pressure at 1950 degrees Fahrenheit ({degrees}F). The reaction zone had a 1.75 inch inner diameter and 13 feet length. The initial testing of a sub-bituminous coal demonstrated ~ 50% carbon conversion and ~10% methane yield in the product gas under 1625{degrees}F, 1000 psig pressure, with a 11 seconds (s) residence time, and 0.4 hydrogen-to-coal mass ratio. Liquid by-products mainly contained Benzene, Toluene, Xylene (BTX) and tar. Char collected from the bottom of the reactor had 9000-British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) heating value. A three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic model simulation of the hydrodynamics around the reactor head was utilized to design the nozzles for injecting the hydrogen into the gasifier to optimize gas-solid mixing to achieve improved carbon conversion. The report also presents the evaluation of using algae for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) management and biofuel production. Nannochloropsis, Selenastrum and Scenedesmus were determined to be the best algae strains for the project purpose and were studied in an outdoor system which included a 6-meter (6M) radius cultivator with a total surface area of 113 square meters (m{sup 2}) and a total culture volume between 10,000 to 15,000 liters (L); a CO{sub 2} on-demand feeding system; an on-line data collection system for temperature, pH, Photosynthetically Activate Radiation (PAR) and dissolved oxygen (DO); and a ~2 gallons per minute (gpm) algae culture dewatering system. Among the three algae strains, Scenedesmus showed the most tolerance to temperature and irradiance conditions in Phoenix and the best self-settling characteristics. Experimental findings and operational strategies determined through these tests guided the operation of the algae cultivation system for the scale-up study. Effect of power plant flue gas, especially heavy metals, on algae growth and biomass adsorption were evaluated as well.

Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy

2011-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

84

Physical features of accumulation and distribution processes of small disperse coal dust precipitations and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The physical features of absorption process of radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filters of the type of AU-1500 at the nuclear power plants are researched. It is shown that the non-homogenous spatial distribution of absorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filter, probed by the gamma-activation analysis method, is well correlated with the spatial distribution of small disperse coal dust precipitations in the iodine air filter. This circumstance points out to an important role by the small disperse coal dust fractions of absorber in the absorption process of radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filter. The physical origins of characteristic interaction between the radioactive chemical elements and the accumulated small disperse coal dust precipitations in an iodine air filter are considered. The analysis of influence by the researched physical processes on the technical characteristics and functionality of iodine ...

Ledenyov, Oleg P; Poltinin, P Ya; Fedorova, L I

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Samson Sherman President Obama's Energy Plan & Natural Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Samson Sherman President Obama's Energy Plan & Natural Gas The Plan On March 30, President Obama" but includes wind, solar, nuclear, natural gas, and coal plants that can capture and store CO2 emissions period. Natural Gas Natural gas is considered the cleanest of all fossil fuels. Mostly comprised

Toohey, Darin W.

86

Nature of Transactions (TI) Code | National Nuclear Security...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Video Gallery Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home About Us Our Programs Defense Nuclear Security ...

87

Coal Gasification  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE's Office of Fossil Energy supports activities to advance coal-to-hydrogen technologies, specifically via the process of coal gasification with sequestration. DOE anticipates that coal...

88

Organic substances in produced and formation water from unconventional natural gas extraction in coal and shale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Organic substances in produced and formation water from coalbed methane (CBM) and gas shale plays from across the USA were examined in this study. Disposal of produced waters from gas extraction in coal and shale is an important environmental issue because of the large volumes of water involved and the variable quality of this water. Organic substances in produced water may be environmentally relevant as pollutants, but have been little studied. Results from five CBM plays and two gas shale plays (including the Marcellus Shale) show a myriad of organic chemicals present in the produced and formation water. Organic compound classes present in produced and formation water in CBM plays include: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic compounds, alkyl phenols, aromatic amines, alkyl aromatics (alkyl benzenes, alkyl biphenyls), long-chain fatty acids, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Concentrations of individual compounds range from CBM samples) range from 50 to 100 ?g/L. Total dissolved organic carbon (TOC) in CBM produced water is generally in the 1–4 mg/L range. Excursions from this general pattern in produced waters from individual wells arise from contaminants introduced by production activities (oils, grease, adhesives, etc.). Organic substances in produced and formation water from gas shale unimpacted by production chemicals have a similar range of compound classes as CBM produced water, and TOC levels of about 8 mg/L. However, produced water from the Marcellus Shale using hydraulic fracturing has TOC levels as high as 5500 mg/L and a range of added organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at levels of 1000 s of ?g/L for individual compounds. Levels of these hydraulic fracturing chemicals and TOC decrease rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery and some level of residual organic contaminants remain up to 250 days after hydraulic fracturing. Although the environmental impacts of the organics in produced water are not well defined, results suggest that care should be exercised in the disposal and release of produced waters containing these organic substances into the environment because of the potential toxicity of many of these substances.

William Orem; Calin Tatu; Matthew Varonka; Harry Lerch; Anne Bates; Mark Engle; Lynn Crosby; Jennifer McIntosh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Investigations into coal coprocessing and coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conversion of coal to liquid suitable as feedstock to a petroleum refinery is dependent upon several process variables. These variables include temperature, pressure, coal rank, catalyst type, nature of the feed to the reactor, type of process, etc. Western Research Institute (WRI) has initiated a research program in the area of coal liquefaction to address the impact of some of these variables upon the yield and quality of the coal-derived liquid. The principal goal of this research is to improve the efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. Two different approaches are currently being investigated. These include the coprocessing of a heavy liquid, such as crude oil, and coal using a dispersed catalyst and the direct liquefaction of coal using a supported catalyst. Another important consideration in coal liquefaction is the utilization of hydrogen, including both externally- and internally-supplied hydrogen. Because the incorporation of externally-supplied hydrogen during conversion of this very aromatic fossil fuel to, for example, transportation fuels is very expensive, improved utilization of internally-supplied hydrogen can lead to reducing processing costs. The objectives of this investigation, which is Task 3.3.4, Coal Coprocessing, of the 1991--1992 Annual Research Plan, are: (1) to evaluate coal/oil pretreatment conditions that are expected to improve the liquid yield through more efficient dispersion of an oil-soluble, iron-based catalyst, (2) to characterize the coke deposits on novel, supported catalysts after coal liquefaction experiments and to correlate the carbon skeletal structure parameters of the coke deposit with catalyst performance as measured by coal liquefaction product yield, and (3) to determine the modes of hydrogen utilization during coal liquefaction and coprocessing. Experimental results are discussed in this report.

Guffey, F.D.; Netzel, D.A.; Miknis, F.P.; Thomas, K.P. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States); Zhang, Tiejun; Haynes, H.W. Jr. [Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Coal: the new black  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Long eclipsed by oil and natural gas as a raw material for high-volume chemicals, coal is making a comeback, with oil priced at more than $100 per barrel. It is relatively cheap feedstock for chemicals such as methanol and China is building plants to convert coal to polyolefins on a large scale and interest is spreading worldwide. Over the years several companies in the US and China have made fertilizers via the gasification of coal. Eastman in Tennessee gasifies coal to make methanol which is then converted to acetic acid, acetic anhydride and acetate fiber. The future vision is to convert methanol to olefins. UOP and Lurgi are the major vendors of this technology. These companies are the respective chemical engineering arms of Honeywell and Air Liquide. The article reports developments in China, USA and India on coal-to-chemicals via coal gasification or coal liquefaction. 2 figs., 2 photo.

Tullo, A.H.; Tremblay, J.-F.

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

91

coking coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

coking coal [A caking coal suitable for the production of coke for metallurgical use] ? Kokskohle f, verkokbare Kohle

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

The relationship among oil, natural gas and coal consumption and economic growth in BRICTS (Brazil, Russian, India, China, Turkey and South Africa) countries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The causality relationship between economic growth and coal, natural gas and oil consumption was investigated using the ARDL (autoregressive distributed lag bounds) testing approach for the 1980–2011 period in Brazil, Russian, India, China, Turkey and South Africa. According to long-run and strong causality results, there is bi-directional causality between oil energy consumption and Y for all countries. The long-run causality and strong causality results between coal consumption and economic growth indicated that there is bi-directional causality for China and India. According to long-run causality results and a strong causality result, there are bi-directional causality relationships between NGC (natural gas energy consumption) and Y for Brazil, Russia and Turkey.

Melike E. Bildirici; Tahsin Bakirtas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

"1. Oconee","Nuclear","Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC",2538 "2. Cross","Coal","South Carolina Pub Serv Auth",2350  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Carolina" Carolina" "1. Oconee","Nuclear","Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC",2538 "2. Cross","Coal","South Carolina Pub Serv Auth",2350 "3. Catawba","Nuclear","Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC",2258 "4. Bad Creek","Pumped Storage","Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC",1360 "5. Winyah","Coal","South Carolina Pub Serv Auth",1130 "6. John S Rainey","Gas","South Carolina Pub Serv Auth",977 "7. V C Summer","Nuclear","South Carolina Electric&Gas Co",966 "8. H B Robinson","Nuclear","Progress Energy Carolinas Inc",912 "9. Jasper","Gas","South Carolina Electric&Gas Co",852

94

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2Q) 2Q) Distribution Category UC-950 Quarterly Coal Report April-June 1999 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts This publication was prepared by Paulette Young under the direction of B.D. Hong, Leader, Coal Infor- mation Team, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels. Questions addressing the Appendix A, U.S. Coal Imports section should be directed to Paulette Young at (202) 426-1150, email

95

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1Q) 1Q) Distribution Category UC-950 Quarterly Coal Report January-March 1999 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts This publication was prepared by Paulette Young under the direction of B.D. Hong, Leader, Coal Infor- mation Team, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels. Questions addressing the Appendix A, U.S. Coal Imports section should be directed

96

Is natural background or radiation from nuclear power plants leukemogenic  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective in this review is to provide some facts about normal hemopoietic cell proliferation relevant to leukemogenesis, physical, chemical, and biological facts about radiation effects with the hope that each person will be able to decide for themselves whether background radiation or emissions from nuclear power plants and facilities significantly add to the spontaneous leukemia incidence. 23 refs., 1 tab.

Cronkite, E.P.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

System Study of Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL) Catalytic Combustion for Natural Gas and Coal-Derived Syngas Combustion Turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL{reg_sign}) technology has been successfully developed to provide improvement in Dry Low Emission gas turbine technology for coal derived syngas and natural gas delivering near zero NOx emissions, improved efficiency, extending component lifetime and the ability to have fuel flexibility. The present report shows substantial net cost saving using RCL{reg_sign} technology as compared to other technologies both for new and retrofit applications, thus eliminating the need for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) in combined or simple cycle for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and natural gas fired combustion turbines.

Shahrokh Etemad; Lance Smith; Kevin Burns

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Influence by small dispersive coal dust particles of different fractional consistence on characteristics of iodine air filter at nuclear power plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The main purpose of research is to determine the influence by the small dispersive coal dust particles of the different fractional consistence on the technical characteristics of the vertical iodine air filter at nuclear power plant. The research on the transport properties of the small dispersive coal dust particles in the granular filtering medium of absorber in the vertical iodine air filter is completed in the case, when the modeled aerodynamic conditions are similar to the real aerodynamic conditions. It is shown that the appearance of the different fractional consistence of small dispersive coal dust particles with the decreasing dimensions down to the micro and nano sizes at the action of the air dust aerosol stream normally results in a significant change of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles masses in the granular filtering medium of an absorber in the vertical iodine air filter, changing the vertical iodine air filter aerodynamic characteristics. The precise characterization of the aerodynamic resistance of a model of the vertical iodine air filter is completed. The comparative analysis of the technical characteristics of the vertical and horizontal iodine air filters is also made.

I. M. Neklyudov; O. P. Ledenyov; L. I. Fedorova; P. Ya. Poltinin

2013-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

99

Nuclear PowerNuclear PowerNuclear PowerNuclear PowerNuclear PowerNuclear PowerNuclear PowerNuclear Power''''''''s Dirty Littles Dirty Littles Dirty Littles Dirty Littles Dirty Littles Dirty Littles Dirty Littles Dirty Little Secret: Uranium MiningSecret:  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,000,000 2,500,000 3,000,000 3,500,000 4,000,000 4,500,000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Coal[1] Petroleum Liquids[2] Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gases[3] Nuclear Hydroelectric Conventional Other Renewables[4 Consumption Petroleum Coal Natural Gas Non-biogenic MSW and Geothermal Energy Subtotal http

Sheridan, Jennifer

100

Leaching of boron from coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Leaching of boron from coal ash ... First High-Resolution 11B Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectra of Coal Fly Ash by Satellite-Transition Magic Angle Spinning (STMAS) NMR ... First High-Resolution 11B Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectra of Coal Fly Ash by Satellite-Transition Magic Angle Spinning (STMAS) NMR ...

James A. Cox; Gary L. Lundquist; Andrzej Przyjazny; C. David Schmulbach

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nuclear coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Minimum carbon tax level needed to prompt a widespread shift to nuclear power  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon dioxide is suspected to be a major contributor to global warming. In the United States, nearly 70% of electricity is produced using coal or natural gas, both of which emit carbon dioxide into the environment. Nuclear ...

Thornton, Katherine C. (Katherine Claire)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Understanding the nature of nuclear power plant risk  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the evolution of understanding of severe accident consequences from the non-mechanistic assumptions of WASH-740 to WASH-1400, NUREG-1150, SOARCA and today in the interpretation of the consequences of the accident at Fukushima. As opposed to the general perception, the radiological human health consequences to members of the Japanese public from the Fukushima accident will be small despite meltdowns at three reactors and loss of containment integrity. In contrast, the radiation-related societal impacts present a substantial additional economic burden on top of the monumental task of economic recovery from the nonnuclear aspects of the earthquake and tsunami damage. The Fukushima accident provides additional evidence that we have mis-characterized the risk of nuclear power plant accidents to ourselves and to the public. The human health risks are extremely small even to people living next door to a nuclear power plant. The principal risk associated with a nuclear power plant accident involves societal impacts: relocation of people, loss of land use, loss of contaminated products, decontamination costs and the need for replacement power. Although two of the three probabilistic safety goals of the NRC address societal risk, the associated quantitative health objectives in reality only address individual human health risk. This paper describes the types of analysis that would address compliance with the societal goals. (authors)

Denning, R. S. [Ohio State Univ., 201 West 19th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210-1142 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters Rob Goldston MIT IAP biomass wind hydro coal CCS coal nat gas CCS nat gas nuclear Gen IV nuclear Gen III nuclear Gen II 5-1 Electricity Generation: CCS and Nuclear Power Technology Options Available Global Electricity Generation WRE

104

Coal to Liquids Technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By the mid-1940s, natural gas and oil production had become more developed and cost-competitive with coal, and technology for production of synthetic transportation fuels was not considered economic after the Sec...

Marianna Asaro; Ronald M. Smith

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Coal to Liquids Technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By the mid-1940s, natural gas and oil production had become more developed and cost-competitive with coal, and technology for production of synthetic transportation fuels was not considered economic after the Sec...

Marianna Asaro; Ronald M. Smith

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Fact #844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

4: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown Fact 844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has...

107

Solvent extraction of South African coal using a low volatile, coal-derived solvent / Eulouka Janse van Rensburg.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Coal is an important fuel for countries with large coal reserves such as South Africa since it is expected that oil and natural gas prices… (more)

Van Rensburg, Eulouka Janse

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

NETL: Coal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

use of our domestic energy resources and infrastructure. Gasification Systems | Advanced Combustion | Coal & Coal-Biomass to Liquids | Solid Oxide Fuel Cells | Turbines CO2...

109

The potential utilization of nuclear hydrogen for synthetic fuels production at a coal–to–liquid facility / Steven Chiuta.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The production of synthetic fuels (synfuels) in coal–to–liquids (CTL) facilities has contributed to global warming due to the huge CO2 emissions of the process. This… (more)

Chiuta, Steven

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1Q) 1Q) Quarterly Coal Report January - March 2008 July 2008 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

111

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2Q) 2Q) Quarterly Coal Report April - June 2009 September 2009 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

112

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7/01Q) 7/01Q) Quarterly Coal Report January - March 2007 June 2007 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

113

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3Q) 3Q) Quarterly Coal Report July - September 2008 December 2008 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

114

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2Q) 2Q) Quarterly Coal Report April - June 2008 September 2008 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

115

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8/04Q) 8/04Q) Quarterly Coal Report October - December 2008 March 2009 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

116

International Energy Outlook 1999 - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

coal.jpg (1776 bytes) coal.jpg (1776 bytes) CoalÂ’s share of world energy consumption falls slightly in the IEO99 forecast. Coal continues to dominate many national fuel markets in developing Asia, but it is projected to lose market share to natural gas in some other areas of the world. Historically, trends in coal consumption have varied considerably by region. Despite declines in some regions, world coal consumption has increased from 84 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in 1985 to 93 quadrillion Btu in 1996. Regions that have seen increases in coal consumption include the United States, Japan, and developing Asia. Declines have occurred in Western Europe, Eastern Europe, and the countries of the former Soviet Union. In Western Europe, coal consumption declined by 30

117

International Energy Outlook 2000 - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, only a slight drop in its share of total energy consumption is projected by 2020. Coal continues to dominate many national fuel markets in developing Asia. Historically, trends in coal consumption have varied considerably by region. Despite declines in some regions, world coal consumption has increased from 84 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in 1985 to 93 quadrillion Btu in 1997. Regions that have seen increases in coal consumption include the United States, Japan, and developing Asia. Declines have occurred in Western Europe, Eastern Europe, and the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU). In Western Europe, coal consumption declined by 33 percent between 1985 and 1997, displaced in considerable measure by

118

Distribution of small dispersive coal dust particles and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in conditions of forced acoustic resonance in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The physical features of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles and the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules were researched in the case of the intensive air dust aerosol stream flow through the iodine air filter (IAF). It was shown that, at the certain aerodynamic conditions in the IAF, the generation of the acoustic oscillations is possible. It was found that the acoustic oscillations generation results in an appearance of the standing acoustic waves of the air pressure (density) in the IAF. In the case of the intensive blow of the air dust aerosol, it was demonstrated that the standing acoustic waves have some strong influences on both: 1) the dynamics of small dispersive coal dust particles movement and their accumulation in the IAF; 2) the oversaturation of the cylindrical coal granules by the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the regions, where the antinodes of the acoustic waves are positioned. Finally, we completed the comparative analysis of the theoretical calculations with the experimental results, obtained for the cases of: 1) the experimental aerodynamic modeling of physical processes of the absorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in the IAF; and 2) the gamma-activation spectroscopy analysis of the absorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in the IAF. We made the innovative propositions on the necessary technical modifications with the purpose to improve the IAF technical characteristics and increase its operational time at the nuclear power plant (NPP), going from the completed precise characterization of the IAF parameters at the long term operation.

Oleg P. Ledenyov; Ivan M. Neklyudov

2013-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

119

Natural Circulation in Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants Phenomena, models, and methodology for system reliability assessments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In recent years it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e., those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially to improved economics of new nuclear power plant designs. In 1991 the IAEA Conference on ''The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future'' noted that for new plants the use of passive safety features is a desirable method of achieving simplification and increasing the reliability of the performance of essential safety functions, and should be used wherever appropriate''.

Jose Reyes

2005-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

120

Tritium Transport at the Rulison Site, a Nuclear-stimulated Low-permeability Natural Gas Reservoir  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies conducted a program in the 1960s and 1970s that evaluated technology for the nuclear stimulation of low-permeability natural gas reservoirs. The second project in the program, Project Rulison, was located in west-central Colorado. A 40-kiltoton nuclear device was detonated 2,568 m below the land surface in the Williams Fork Formation on September 10, 1969. The natural gas reservoirs in the Williams Fork Formation occur in low permeability, fractured sandstone lenses interbedded with shale. Radionuclides derived from residual fuel products, nuclear reactions, and activation products were generated as a result of the detonation. Most of the radionuclides are contained in a cooled, solidified melt glass phase created from vaporized and melted rock that re-condensed after the test. Of the mobile gas-phase radionuclides released, tritium ({sup 3}H or T) migration is of most concern. The other gas-phase radionuclides ({sup 85}Kr, {sup 14}C) were largely removed during production testing in 1969 and 1970 and are no longer present in appreciable amounts. Substantial tritium remained because it is part of the water molecule, which is present in both the gas and liquid (aqueous) phases. The objectives of this work are to calculate the nature and extent of tritium contamination in the subsurface from the Rulison test from the time of the test to present day (2007), and to evaluate tritium migration under natural-gas production conditions to a hypothetical gas production well in the most vulnerable location outside the DOE drilling restriction. The natural-gas production scenario involves a hypothetical production well located 258 m horizontally away from the detonation point, outside the edge of the current drilling exclusion area. The production interval in the hypothetical well is at the same elevation as the nuclear chimney created by the detonation, in order to evaluate the location most vulnerable to tritium migration.

C. Cooper; M. Ye; J. Chapman

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nuclear coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

International Energy Outlook 2001 - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal picture of a printer Printer Friendly Version (PDF) Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, only a slight drop in its share of total energy consumption is projected by 2020. Coal continues to dominate many national fuel markets in developing Asia. World coal consumption has been in a period of generally slow growth since the late 1980s, a trend that is expected to continue. Although 1999 world consumption, at 4.7 billion short tons,9 was 15 percent higher than coal use in 1980, it was lower than in any year since 1984 (Figure 51). The International Energy Outlook 2001 (IEO2001) reference case projects some growth in coal use between 1999 and 2020, at an average annual rate of 1.5 percent, but with considerable variation among regions.

122

Coal: the cornerstone of America's energy future  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In April 2005, US Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman asked the National Coal Council to develop a 'report identifying the challenges and opportunities of more fully exploring our domestic coal resources to meet the nation's future energy needs'. The Council has responded with eight specific recommendations for developing and implementing advanced coal processing and combustion technologies to satisfy our unquenchable thirst for energy. These are: Use coal-to-liquids technologies to produce 2.6 million barrels/day; Use coal-to-natural gas technologies to produce 4 trillion ft{sup 3}/yr; Build 100 GW of clean coal plants by 2025; Produce ethanol from coal; Develop coal-to-hydrogen technologies; Use CO{sub 2} to enhance recovery of oil and coal-bed methane; Increase the capacity of US coal mines and railroads; and Invest in technology development and implementation. 1 ref.; 4 figs.; 1 tab.

Beck, R.A. [National Coal Council (United Kingdom)

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

123

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Ruthenium Ion Catalyzed Oxidation Reaction Analysis for Further Development of Aromatic Ring Size through the Heat Treatment of Coking Coals at >500 °C  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The strategy for coal blending is based on many empirical viewpoints, while scientific findings are believed to develop new criteria for obtaining high-quality coke from not only coking coals but also coking coals coupled with noncoking coals. ... by TEM and by comparing the microtextures of their cokes. ...

Koh Kidena; Koji Matsumoto; Satoru Murata; Masakatsu Nomura

2004-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

124

Coal pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Alameda County, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Cost and Performance Comparison Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants, Volume 3 Executive Summary: Low Rank Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Baseline Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Volume 3 Executive Summary: Low Rank Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity September 2011 DOE/NETL-2010/1399 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring

126

On the structurization of coal dust precipitations and their influence on aerodynamic resistance by granulated mediums in air filters at nuclear power plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The processes of structurization of dust precipitations in granulated filtering mediums, formed by the monolithic glass spherical granules with the diameters of 2mm and 3mm, are re-searched. The distinctions between the distributions of filtered coal dust masses in the air filters with cylindrical granules and the air filters with spherical granules, are found. The influences by the filtered dust masses on the air resistance of both the air filters with the cylindrical granules and the air filters with the spherical granules are described. The conclusions on a possibility of the use of various chemical adsorbents with different geometric forms and volumetric dimensions to improve the filtering properties of granulated filtering mediums in air filters at nuclear power plants are formulated.

Neklyudov, I M; Fedorova, L I; Poltinin, P Ya

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

On the structurization of coal dust precipitations and their influence on aerodynamic resistance by granulated mediums in air filters at nuclear power plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The processes of structurization of dust precipitations in granulated filtering mediums, formed by the monolithic glass spherical granules with the diameters of 2mm and 3mm, are re-searched. The distinctions between the distributions of filtered coal dust masses in the air filters with cylindrical granules and the air filters with spherical granules, are found. The influences by the filtered dust masses on the air resistance of both the air filters with the cylindrical granules and the air filters with the spherical granules are described. The conclusions on a possibility of the use of various chemical adsorbents with different geometric forms and volumetric dimensions to improve the filtering properties of granulated filtering mediums in air filters at nuclear power plants are formulated.

I. M. Neklyudov; O. P. Ledenyov; L. I. Fedorova; P. Ya. Poltinin

2012-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

128

"1. Palo Verde","Nuclear","Arizona Public Service Co",3937 "2. Navajo","Coal","Salt River Project",2250  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Arizona" Arizona" "1. Palo Verde","Nuclear","Arizona Public Service Co",3937 "2. Navajo","Coal","Salt River Project",2250 "3. Gila River Power Station","Gas","Gila River Power Station LP",2060 "4. Springerville","Coal","Tucson Electric Power Co",1618 "5. Glen Canyon Dam","Hydroelectric","U S Bureau of Reclamation",1312 "6. Santan","Gas","Salt River Project",1227 "7. Mesquite Generating Station","Gas","Mesquite Power LLC",1073 "8. Harquahala Generating Project","Gas","New Harquahala Generating Co, LLC",1054 "9. Hoover Dam","Hydroelectric","U S Bureau of Reclamation",1040

129

The Political Economy of Clean Coal .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This dissertation investigates the nature of the political economy of Clean Coal. It begins by reviewing the literature of global warming and the current usage… (more)

Wu, Hao Howard

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Direct Test of the Time-Independence of Fundamental Nuclear Constants Using the Oklo Natural Reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

[NOTE: This 1983 preprint is being uploaded to arXiv.org after the death of its author, who supported online distribution of his work. Contact info of the submitter is at http://ilya.cc .] The positions of neutron resonances have been shown to be highly sensitive to the variation of fundamental nuclear constants. The analysis of the measured isotopic shifts in the natural fossil reactor at Oklo gives the following restrictions on the possible rates of the interaction constants variation: strong ~2x10^-19 yr^-1, electromagnetic ~5x10^-18 yr^-1, weak ~10^-12 yr^-1. These limits permit to exclude all the versions of nuclear constants contemporary variation discussed in the literature. URL: http://alexonline.info >. For more recent analyses see hep-ph/9606486, hep-ph/0205206 and astro-ph/0204069 .

Alexander I. Shlyakhter

2003-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

131

Adsorption and Strain: The CO2-Induced Swelling of Coal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.07.014 #12;Abstract Enhanced coal bed methane recovery (ECBM) consists in injecting carbon dioxide in coal behavior (B), adsorp- tion, molecular simulations Methane production from unminable coal seams -denoted as Coal Bed Methane (CBM)- has amounted in 2008 to about 10% of the total natural gas production

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

132

CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS MADE WITH COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ash and bottom ash are produced as by-products of coal-fired electricity generation. In many countries coal ashes are by-products of the coal combustion, their properties are influenced by the nature of understanding behavior of masonry products made from coal ashes. The objective of this research program

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

133

Coal conversion experimental methods for validation of pressurized entrained-flow gasifier simulation.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Gasification of coal provides society with electricity, commodity chemicals, substitute natural gas, and consumer products. With the continued use of coal in the United States… (more)

Wagner, David Ray

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Coal - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S. Energy  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3. Electric Power Sector Net Generation, 2009-2010 3. Electric Power Sector Net Generation, 2009-2010 (Million Kilowatthours) Census Division and Fuel 2009 2010 Percent Change 2009 - 2010 New England Coal 14,378 14,244 -0.9 Hydroelectric 7,759 6,861 -11.6 Natural Gas 48,007 54,680 13.9 Nuclear 36,231 38,361 5.9 Other (1) 9,186 9,063 -1.3 Total 115,559 123,210 6.6 Middle Atlantic Coal 121,873 129,935 6.6 Hydroelectric 28,793 26,463 -8.1 Natural Gas 89,808 104,341 16.2 Nuclear 155,140 152,469 -1.7 Other (1) 13,011 13,600 4.5 Total 408,625 426,808 4.4 East North Central Coal 412,245 426,390 3.4 Hydroelectric 2,939 2,480 -15.6 Natural Gas 25,139 35,733 42.1 Nuclear 145,214 154,900 6.7 Other (1) 11,684 15,628 33.8 Total 597,221 635,130 6.3 West North Central Coal 224,237 229,301 2.3

135

Coal extraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal is extracted using a mixed solvent which includes a substantially aromatic component and a substantially naphthenic component, at a temperature of 400/sup 0/ to 500/sup 0/C. Although neither component is an especially good solvent for coal by itself, the use of mixed solvent gives greater flexibility to the process and offers efficiency gains.

Clarke, J.W.; Kimber, G.M.; Rantell, T.D.; Snape, C.E.

1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

136

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

reports reports Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector With Data through 2010 | Release Date: November 16, 2012 | Next Release Date: December 2013 | Correction Previous editions Year: 2011 2004 Go Figure 1. Deliveries from major coal basins to electric power plants by rail, 2010 Background In this latest release of Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector, the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) significantly expands upon prior versions of this report with the incorporation of new EIA survey data. Figure 1. Percent of total U.S. rail shipments represented in data figure data Previously, EIA relied solely on data from the U.S. Surface Transportation Board (STB), specifically their confidential Carload Waybill Sample. While valuable, due to the statistical nature of the Waybill data,

137

COAL & POWER SYSTEMS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

COAL & POWER SYSTEMS COAL & POWER SYSTEMS STRATEGIC & MULTI-YEAR PROGRAM PLANS U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY * OFFICE OF FOSSIL ENERGY GREENER, SOONER... THROUGH TECHNOLOGY INTRODUCTION .......... i-1 STRATEGIC PLAN ........ 1-1 PROGRAM PLANS Vision 21 .......................... 2-1 Central Power Systems ...... 3-1 Distributed Generation ..... 4-1 Fuels ................................ 5-1 Carbon Sequestration ....... 6-1 Advanced Research ........... 7-1 TABLE OF CONTENTS STRATEGIC & MULTI-YEAR PROGRAM PLANS STRENGTH THROUGH SCIENCE... A "GREENER, SOONER" PHILOSOPHY Coal, natural gas, and oil fuel about 70 percent of the electricity generated in the United States. As promising as renewable and other alternative fuels are, it will be several decades before they can make significant energy contributions to the Nation's

138

Section 5 - Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal has the longest history of use among the fossil fuels, with use as a fuel dating to 3000 BC in China and Wales. Marco Polo’s “Description of the World” (1298) comments on many novel customs and practices of China, including the use of “stones that burn like logs” (coal). By the thirteenth century the mining of coal was widespread in England in regions such as Durham, Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, Staffordshire, and North and South Wales. By the early seventeenth century nearly half of England’s maritime trade consisted of coal exports. Coal was the fuel that launched the Industrial Revolution in Europe and then the United States. By the late 1890s, the U.S. assumed the lead in world coal production. Britain now ranked second, after having been the world leader since the beginnings of the formal industry in the 1500s. Germany was third, an indication of its growing industrial power relative to continental rival France. Coal’s leading role in energy use peaked in the early twentieth century, after which it was supplanted by oil and natural gas. By the late twentieth century China’s rapid economic expansion, surging demand for electricity, and prodigious coal resources combined to propel it to become the world leader in production. Continuous improvements in coal mining technology have produced lower costs, improved safety, and greater labor productivity. John Buddle introduced the first air pump to ventilate coal mines (1803), followed shortly by the miner’s safety lamps that were developed independently by Sir Humphry Davy, William Clanny, and George Stephenson (1813-1816). Coal mining underwent a rapid transition in the 1880s to mechanical coal cutting in mines in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Russia. The St. Joseph Lead Company of Missouri (1900) invented the first underground mine roof bolts that became a key safety feature in underground coal mines. The first commercially successful bucket wheel excavator was used at the Luise Mine in Braunkohlemwerke, Germany (1925), followed by the first successful continuous miners in U.S. underground coal mining (1948). The first mechanized U.S. longwall mining system appeared in 1951, and was followed by the self-advancing hydraulic longwall support system that provided greater support for the roof of the mine. LeTourneau Technologies, Inc. of Texas manufactured the largest rubber tired front-end wheel loader in the world, the L-2350, which would play an important role in loading coal in Wyoming’s large surface mines (2005). Coal mining has always been a very hazardous occupation, and has produced some of history’s worst industrial disasters. The Courrières mine disaster, Europe's worst mining accident, caused the death of 1,099 miners in Northern France (1906). An explosion in a coal mine in Liaoning province in northeastern China killed more than 1,500 Chinese miners (1942), as did other major accidents in Ky?sh?, Japan (1914), Wankie, Rhodesia (1972), Wales (1913), Bihar, India (1965), and West Virginia, U.S. (1907), to name just a few. Legislation such as the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act in the U.S. (1969) improved working conditions in many nations. The Great Smog of London (1952) occurred after an exceptionally cold winter forced homes and factories to burn large quantities of coal. A temperature inversion formed, trapping pollutants above the ground. More than 4,000 people died from respiratory ailments within the following week. The use of coal has been impacted by legislation to control the environmental impacts associated with its mining and combustion. The first known environmental regulation of coal dates to 1306 when King Edward II of England prohibited burning sea coal while Parliament was in session because of its offensive smoke. Sulfur dioxide from coal combustion was tied to acid rain in the 1960s, and carbon dioxide emissions became a concern beginning in the 1980s when climate change emerged as a critical environmental issue.

Cutler J. Cleveland; Christopher Morris

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Exergy analysis and the energy saving mechanism for coal to synthetic/substitute natural gas and power cogeneration system without and with CO2 capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The energy saving mechanism and the potential of efficiency improvement for coal to synthetic/substitute natural gas and power plant with different schemes and CO2 capture is disclosed through exergy analysis, and the effects of key parameters on exergy losses and system performance are investigated. Scheme A represents the system without CO2 capture but with a full syngas component adjustment and partial recycle of the chemical unconverted gas, Scheme B represents the system without CO2 capture and syngas component adjustment but with partial recycle of the chemical unconverted gas, and Scheme C represents the SNG and power cogeneration with CO2 capture and partial recycle of the chemical unconverted gas but without syngas component adjustment. Results show that the exergy efficiencies of Scheme A, B and C range from 56% to 62%, 57% to 67%, 52% to 62%, respectively. Coal gasification, water–gas-shift process, SNG methanation, and fuel combustion in combined cycle are identified as the main sources of exergy losses. Compared with Scheme A, the exergy efficiency of Scheme B is higher due to the avoidance of exergy losses from syngas adjustment. Scheme C is less energy efficient than Scheme B because of the CO2 capture. Compared with single product systems, the total exergy input of Scheme A, B and C can be reduced by 7.0–11.0%, 14.0–19.0%, 15.0–21.0%, respectively assuming the same product output. The chemical to power output ratio (CPOR) will impact the exergy losses of the whole plant greatly. For all schemes, with the increasing CPOR, the exergy losses for chemical synthesis island will increase whereas the exergy losses for power island will decrease. Especially high CPOR will cause sharp exergy losses of chemical synthesis island. The coupling between exergy losses for chemical synthesis and power islands leads to an optimal CPOR making the total exergy losses of the plant minimal and the system efficiency maximized. The results presented in this paper can help to confirm the potential of system integration and can be a guide for system integration.

Sheng Li; Hongguang Jin; Lin Gao; Xiaosong Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Record of Cycling Operation of the Natural Nuclear Reactor in the Oklo/Okelobondo Area in Gabon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using selective laser extraction technique combined with sensitive ion-counting mass spectrometry, we have analyzed the isotopic structure of fission noble gases in U-free La-Ce-Sr-Ca aluminous hydroxy phosphate associated with the 2 billion yr old Oklo natural nuclear reactor. In addition to elevated abundances of fission-produced Zr, Ce, and Sr, we discovered high (up to 0.03??cm3???STP/g) concentrations of fission Xe and Kr, the largest ever observed in any natural material. The specific isotopic structure of xenon in this mineral defines a cycling operation for the reactor with 30-min active pulses separated by 2.5 h dormant periods. Thus, nature not only created conditions for self-sustained nuclear chain reactions, but also provided clues on how to retain nuclear wastes, including fission Xe and Kr, and prevent uncontrolled runaway chain reaction.

A. P. Meshik; C. M. Hohenberg; O. V. Pravdivtseva

2004-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nuclear coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Mobility of uranium, thorium and lanthanides around the Bangombe natural nuclear reactor (Gabon)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New mineralogical and isotopic studies were carried out on samples form the Bangombe natural nuclear reactor. This reactor is located at shallow depth in the weathering profile and has been subjected to severe supergene alteration. Textural evidence indicates partial dissolution of uraninite in the Bangombe ore related to precipitation of Fe-Ti oxyhydroxides and clay minerals (kaolinite and metahalloysite). As a consequence of the alteration of the uraninite, uranium and fissiogenic rare earth elements were released in the clayey border of the reactor, whereas radiogenic {sup 232}Th remained confined in the close vicinity of the core. A retention effect is also evidenced, under reducing conditions, in the black shales located above the reactor.

Bros, R. [CEA CEN Cadarache, Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Gauthier-Lafaye, F.; Larque, P.; Samual, J.; Stille, P. [CNRS, Strasbourg (France)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

142

Quarterly Coal Report: July-September 2001  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3Q) 3Q) Distribution Category UC-950 Quarterly Coal Report July - September 2001 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization. Energy Information Administration/Quarterly Coal Report July - September 2001 ii Contacts This publication was prepared by Paulette Young under the direction of Betsy O'Brien, Director, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Fuels Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels within the Energy Information Administration, U.S.

143

Bulk analysis of a simulated environmental sample in natural abundance performed in KAERI for nuclear safeguards  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A highly accurate and precise analysis of ultra-trace amounts of nuclear materials contained in environmental samples plays an essential role in monitoring undeclared nuclear activities for nuclear safeguards pur...

Jong-Ho Park; Sunyoung Lee; Young-Geun Ha…

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Cogeneration of substitute natural gas and power from coal by moderate recycle of the chemical unconverted gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The thermodynamic analysis and the coupling and optimization between chemical synthesis and power generation in a polygeneration system are presented. Unlike full conversion of syngas into chemicals in the traditional SNG (synthetic natural gas) production system, by moderate conversion the sharp increase in energy consumption for SNG synthesis can be avoided in the new system. Also, by recovering the chemical unconverted gas for combined cycle, electricity is cogenerated efficiently. Results show that the overall efficiency of the novel system can be as high as 59%–65%. And compared to single production systems, the (energy saving ratio) ESR of the new system is over 11.0% and the energy consumption for SNG production can be decreased by around 12%. Sensitivity analysis shows that an optimized conversion ratio of SNG, (chemicals to power output ratio) CPOR, recycle ratio of the unconverted gas Ru, and pressure ratio of gas turbine can lead to the maximum of ESR. Abolishing the syngas composition adjustment and improving the inlet temperature of gas turbine both can help to enhance the system efficiency. Under low Ru, improving the H2/CO mole ratio in the syngas helps to improve system efficiency, while under high Ru, an optimized H2/CO can lead to the maximum of ESR.

Sheng Li; Hongguang Jin; Lin Gao

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Steam Plant Replaces Outdated Coal-Fired System | Department...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Steam Plant Replaces Outdated Coal-Fired System September 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis A new natural gas-fired steam plant will replace an older coal-fired steam plant shown here. The...

146

Ultimate bearing capacity of footings on coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal ash is recognized as an alternative fill material to the conventional natural soils near a coal fired thermal power station where its large ... This paper presents experimental investigations on footings on

Ashutosh Trivedi; Vijay Kumar Sud

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Conventional coal preparation in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Processing of bituminous and anthracite coal is widely practiced in the United States and, as mentioned earlier, about 80 percent of the production of these coals is processed as clean coal in preparation plants. Subbituminous coal is not widely processed, primarily because these low rank raw coals are low in sulfur (0.5 to 1.0 percent) and relatively low in ash (8 to 15 percent). They are also relatively low in heat content due to their high inherent moisture. Lignite coals, to the best of the authors{close_quote} knowledge, are not presently being processed in Conventional Coal Preparation plants. This is due to their unstable nature and putting them in water in a coal preparation plant is likely to cause severe degradation in particle size and add to their already high inherent moisture content. The following are the benefits of clean coal processing: produces a uniform product which can be utilized more efficiently; produces a higher quality product which results in higher efficiency at the power station or the steel mill; reduces sulfur dioxide and other adverse stack emissions during coal firing which is a very important environmental consideration; reduces ash or slag handling costs by the user; reduces shipping costs; and reduces handling and storage costs. Processing any stable raw coal in a coal preparation plant will always produce a higher grade product which is a more efficient and a more environmentally acceptable fuel for use at power stations, steel mills, home heating or industrial boilers.

Beck, M.K.; Taylor, B.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

148

Natural glass analogues to alteration of nuclear waste glass: A review and recommendations for further study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to review previous work on the weathering of natural glasses; and to make recommendations for further work with respect to studying the alteration of natural glasses as it relates quantifying rates of dissolution. the first task was greatly simplified by the published papers of Jercinovic and Ewing (1987) and Byers, Jercinovic, and Ewing (1987). The second task is obviously the more difficult of the two and the author makes no claim of completeness in this regard. Glasses weather in the natural environment by reacting with aqueous solutions producing a rind of secondary solid phases. It had been proposed by some workers that the thickness of this rind is a function of the age of the glass and thus could be used to estimate glass dissolution rates. However, Jercinovic and Ewing (1987) point out that in general the rind thickness does not correlate with the age of the glass owing to the differences in time of contact with the solution compared to the actual age of the sample. It should be noted that the rate of glass dissolution is also a function of the composition of both the glass and the solution, and the temperature. Quantification of the effects of these parameters (as well as time of contact with the aqueous phase and flow rates) would thus permit a prediction of the consequences of glass-fluid interactions under varying environmental conditions. Defense high- level nuclear waste (DHLW), consisting primarily of liquid and sludge, will be encapsulated by and dispersed in a borosilicate glass before permanent storage in a HLW repository. This glass containing the DHLW serves to dilute the radionuclides and to retard their dispersion into the environment. 318 refs.

McKenzie, W.F.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Natural gas back in favour with US power companies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Electric utilities in the United States are quietly shifting their sights from coal to natural ...naturalgas ...

Jeff Tollefson

2008-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

150

Materials science aspects of coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Natural organic materials are arrangements of linear aliphatic units and ring-like aromatic units arranged in a polymeric pattern. We show that fossilized organic materials such as coals and oil shale retain this polymeric character. We also show the polymeric nature of jet and amber fossilized organic matter used for centuries for ornamentation.

Charles Wert; Manfred Weller

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Coal-Biomass to Liquids News Gasifipedia Coal-Biomass Feed Advanced Fuels Synthesis Systems Analyses International Activity Project Information Project Portfolio Publications...

152

NETL: Natural Gas Resources  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources Significant volumes of natural gas can also be produced from tight (low permeability) sandstone reservoirs and coal seams, both unconventional reservoir rocks. NETL...

153

"1. Braidwood Generation Station","Nuclear","Exelon Nuclear",2330  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Illinois" Illinois" "1. Braidwood Generation Station","Nuclear","Exelon Nuclear",2330 "2. Byron Generating Station","Nuclear","Exelon Nuclear",2300 "3. LaSalle Generating Station","Nuclear","Exelon Nuclear",2238 "4. Baldwin Energy Complex","Coal","Dynegy Midwest Generation Inc",1785 "5. Quad Cities Generating Station","Nuclear","Exelon Nuclear",1774 "6. Dresden Generating Station","Nuclear","Exelon Nuclear",1734 "7. Powerton","Coal","Midwest Generations EME LLC",1538 "8. Elwood Energy LLC","Gas","Dominion Elwood Services Co",1350

154

Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 1997  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4Q) 4Q) Distribution Category UC-950 Quarterly Coal Report October-December 1997 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts This publication was prepared by Paulette Young under the direction of Mary K. Paull, Project Leader, Coal Data Branch, Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Elec- tric and Alternate Fuels. Questions addressing the

155

Quarterly Coal Report October-December 2000  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4Q) 4Q) Distribution Category UC-950 Quarterly Coal Report October-December 2000 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts This publication was prepared by Paulette Young under the direction of Betsy O'Brien, Director, Coal, Electric and Renewables Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels. Questions addressing the Appendix A, U.S. Coal Imports section

156

Quarterly Coal Report October-December 1996  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4Q) 4Q) Distribution Category UC-950 Quarterly Coal Report October-December 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts This publication was prepared by Paulette Young under the direction of Mary K. Paull, Acting Chief, Coal Data Branch, Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Elec- tric and Alternate Fuels. Specific information about

157

Quarterly Coal Report, January-March 1998  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1Q) 1Q) Distribution Category UC-950 Quarterly Coal Report January-March 1998 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts This publication was prepared by Paulette Young under the direction of Mary K. Paull, Project Leader, Coal Data Branch, Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Elec- tric and Alternate Fuels. Questions addressing the

158

Quarterly Coal Report, January-March 1997  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1Q) 1Q) Distribution Category UC-950 Quarterly Coal Report January-March 1997 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts This publication was prepared by Paulette Young under the direction of Mary K. Paull, Acting Chief, Coal Data Branch, Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Elec- tric and Alternate Fuels. Questions addressing the

159

Quarterly Coal Report January-March 1996  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1Q) 1Q) Distribution Category UC-950 Quarterly Coal Report January-March 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts This publication was prepared by Paulette Young under the direction of Noel C. Balthasar, Chief, Coal Data Branch, Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alter- nate Fuels. Specific information about

160

Quarterly Coal Report, July-September 1997  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3Q) 3Q) Distribution Category UC-950 Quarterly Coal Report July-September 1997 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts This publication was prepared by Paulette Young under the direction of Mary K. Paull, Project Leader, Coal Data Branch, Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Elec- tric and Alternate Fuels. Questions addressing the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nuclear coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Chemical structure of coal tar during devolatilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Enormous progress has been made in coal pyrolysis research during the last two decades. Models of coal devolatilization have progressed from simple rate expressions based on total mass release to empirical relationships based on the elemental composition of the parent coal to models that attempt to describe the macromolecular network of the coal. In the last several years, advancements in chemical analysis techniques have allowed quantitative investigations of the chemical structure of both coal and its pyrolysis products, including the nature of the resulting char. A prominent research goal is to accurately predict the rates, yields, and products of devolatilization from measurements of the parent coal structure. The prediction of nitrogen species evolved during devolatilization is of current interest. These goals necessitate modeling the reaction processes on the molecular scale, with activation energies that relate to chemical bond breaking rather than to the mass of products released from the coal. Solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy has proven particularly useful in obtaining average values of chemical structure features of coal and char, while liquid phase {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy has been used to determine some of the chemical features of coal tar. Pyridine extract residues from coal and partially-pyrolyzed coal chars have also been analyzed by solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, and the extracts have been analyzed by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy.

Fletcher, T.H.; Watt, M. [Bringham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Bai, S.; Solum, M.S. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

162

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pollutants Associated With Coal Combustion. • E.P.A.Control Guidelines for Coal-Derived Pollutants .Forms of Sulfur in Coal • . . . . Coal Desulfurization

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Distribution of small dispersive coal dust particles and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in conditions of forced acoustic resonance in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The physical features of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles and the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules were researched in the case of the intensive air dust aerosol stream flow through the iodine air filter (IAF). It was shown that, at the certain aerodynamic conditions in the IAF, the generation of the acoustic oscillations is possible. It was found that the acoustic oscillations generation results in an appearance of the standing acoustic waves of the air pressure (density) in the IAF. In the case of the intensive blow of the air dust aerosol, it was demonstrated that the standing acoustic waves have some strong influences on both: 1) the dynamics of small dispersive coal dust particles movement and their accumulation in the IAF; 2) the oversaturation of the cylindrical coal granules by the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the regions, where the antin...

Ledenyov, Oleg P

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Guide for the Mitigation of Natural Phenomena Hazards for DOE Nuclear Facilities and NonNuclear Facilities  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This document provides guidance in implementing the Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) mitigation requirements of DOE O 420.1, Facility Safety, Section 4.4, "Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation." This Guide does not establish or invoke any new requirements. Any apparent conflicts arising from the NPH guidance would defer to the requirements in DOE O 420.1. No cancellation.

2000-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

165

Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

Robert Wilson

2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

166

User-Friendly Tool to Calculate Economic Impacts from Coal, Natural Gas, and Wind: The Expanded Jobs and Economic Development Impact Model (JEDI II); Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper we examine the impacts of building new coal, gas, or wind plants in three states: Colorado, Michigan, and Virginia. Our findings indicate that local/state economic impacts are directly related to the availability and utilization of local industries and services to build and operate the power plant. For gas and coal plants, the economic benefit depends significantly on whether the fuel is obtained from within the state, out of state, or some combination. We also find that the taxes generated by power plants can have a significant impact on local economies via increased expenditures on public goods.

Tegen, S.; Goldberg, M.; Milligan, M.

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Coal preparation: The essential clean coal technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter is a brief introduction to a broad topic which has many highly specialized areas. The aim is to summarize the essential elements of coal preparation and illustrate its important role in facilitating the clean use of coal. Conventional coal preparation is the essential first step in ensuring the economic and environmentally acceptable use of coal. The aim of coal preparation is to produce saleable products of consistent, specified quality which satisfy customer requirements while optimizing the utilization of the coal resource. Coal preparation covers all aspects of preparing coal for the market. It includes size reduction, blending and homogenization and, most importantly, the process of physical beneficiation or washing, which involves separation of undesirable mineral matter from the coal substance itself. Coal preparation can be performed at different levels of sophistication and cost. The degree of coal preparation required is decided by considering the quality of the raw coal, transport costs and, in particular, the coal quality specified by the consumer. However, the cost of coal beneficiation rises rapidly with the complexity of the process and some coal is lost with the waste matter because of process inefficiencies, therefore each situation requires individual study to determine the optimum coal preparation strategy. The necessary expertise is available within APEC countries such as Australia. Coals destined for iron making are almost always highly beneficiated. Physical beneficiation is mostly confined to the higher rank, hard coals, but all other aspects of coal preparation can be applied to subbituminous and lignitic coals to improve their utilization. Also, there are some interesting developments aimed specifically at reducing the water content of lower rank coals.

Cain, D.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

168

Coal Mining Regulations (Kentucky) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Coal Mining Regulations (Kentucky) Coal Mining Regulations (Kentucky) Coal Mining Regulations (Kentucky) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Developer Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Retail Supplier Program Info State Kentucky Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Kentucky Department for Energy Development and Independence Kentucky Administrative Regulation Title 405 chapters 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 12, 16, 18 and 20 establish the laws governing coal mining in the state. The Department of Natural Resources under the authority of the Energy and Environment Cabinet is responsible for enforcing these laws and assuring compliance with the 1977 Federal Surface Mining Control Act (SMCRA). The Division of Mine Reclamation and Enforcement is responsible for inspecting

169

Environmental consequences of postulated plutonium releases from Exxon Nuclear MOFP, Richland, Washington, as a result of severe natural phenomena  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Potential environmental consequences in terms of radiation dose to people are presented for postulated plutonium releases caused by severe natural phenomena at the Exxon Nuclear Company Mixed Oxide Fabrication Plant (MOFP), Richland, Washington. The severe natural phenomena considered are earthquakes, tornadoes, high straight-line winds, and floods. Maximum plutonium deposition values are given for significant locations around the site. All important potential exposure pathways are examined. The most likely 50-year committed dose equivalents are given for the maximum-exposed individual and the population within a 50-mile radius of the plant. The maximum plutonium deposition values most likely to occur offsite are also given.

Jamison, J.D.; Watson, E.C.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Coal Bed Methane Primer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

2005-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

171

Coal Ash and Clean Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... IT is the normal view that the incombustible part of coal is not only a useless but even objectionable diluent. At times in the past, ... , familiar with the theory of contact catalysis of gas reactions, have speculated that the ash constituents might well play an active role in the processes of carbonisation and combustion. ...

H. J. HODSMAN

1926-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

172

Coal Industry Annual 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Microbial solubilization of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

174

Underground Coal Thermal Treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coalâ??s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Efforts focused on: â?¢ Constructing a suite of three different coal pyrolysis reactors. These reactors offer the ability to gather heat transfer, mass transfer and kinetic data during coal pyrolysis under conditions that mimic in situ conditions (Subtask 6.1). â?¢ Studying the operational parameters for various underground thermal treatment processes for oil shale and coal and completing a design matrix analysis for the underground coal thermal treatment (UCTT). This analysis yielded recommendations for terms of targeted coal rank, well orientation, rubblization, presence of oxygen, temperature, pressure, and heating sources (Subtask 6.2). â?¢ Developing capabilities for simulating UCTT, including modifying the geometry as well as the solution algorithm to achieve long simulation times in a rubblized coal bed by resolving the convective channels occurring in the representative domain (Subtask 6.3). â?¢ Studying the reactive behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with limestone, sandstone, arkose (a more complex sandstone) and peridotite, including mineralogical changes and brine chemistry for the different initial rock compositions (Subtask 6.4). Arkose exhibited the highest tendency of participating in mineral reactions, which can be attributed to the geochemical complexity of its initial mineral assemblage. In experiments with limestone, continuous dissolution was observed with the release of CO{sub 2} gas, indicated by the increasing pressure in the reactor (formation of a gas chamber). This occurred due to the lack of any source of alkali to buffer the solution. Arkose has the geochemical complexity for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2} as carbonates and is also relatively abundant. The effect of including NH{sub 3} in the injected gas stream was also investigated in this study. Precipitation of calcite and trace amounts of ammonium zeolites was observed. A batch geochemical model was developed using Geochemists Workbench (GWB). Degassing effect in the experiments was corrected using the sliding fugacity model in GWB. Experimental and simulation results were compared and a reasonable agreement between the two was observed.

P. Smith; M. Deo; E. Eddings; A. Sarofim; K. Gueishen; M. Hradisky; K. Kelly; P. Mandalaparty; H. Zhang

2011-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

175

Single-pulse excitation carbon-13 NMR measurements on the Argonne premium coal samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Single-pulse excitation carbon-13 NMR measurements on the Argonne premium coal samples ... Interactions of Organic Liquids with Coals:? Analysis by Solid-State 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ...

J. A. Franz; R. Garcia; J. C. Linehan; G. D. Love; C. E. Snape

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Paradigm Shift: Burning Coal to Geothermal  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Paradigm Shift: Burning Coal Paradigm Shift: Burning Coal to Geothermal" November 20, 2012 jlowe@bsu.edu 765.285.2805 Ball State University Ball State University Administration Building 1899 Ball State 1920s Ball State University Ball State University (4) Coal Fired Boilers Installed 1941/1955 (3) Natural Gas Fired Boilers Installed in the 1970s Heat and Chilled Water Plant Operations Heat Plant: 4 Coal Fired Boilers 3 Natural Gas Fired Boilers 320,000 Lbs/Hr nameplate 240,000 Lbs/Hr current 700,000,000 Lbs/Year Chilled Water Plant: 5 Electrical Centrifugal Chillers 9,300 ton capacity 25,000,000 Ton Hours/Year Pollutants Produced from Burning 36,000 tons of Coal * Carbon Dioxide 85,000 tons (Global Warming)

177

Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Fact Sheet - Expand Domestic Use of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

You are here You are here Home » Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Fact Sheet - Expand Domestic Use of Nuclear Power Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Fact Sheet - Expand Domestic Use of Nuclear Power GNEP will build on the recent advances made by the President and Congress to stimulate new nuclear plant construction in the U.S. This will be accomplished by demonstrating the success of the streamlined regulations for siting, constructing and operating new nuclear plants through the Nuclear Power 2010 program, and by implementing incentives enacted through the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT 2005). At 20 percent of the total electricity supply in the nation, nuclear power is the second largest source of domestic electricity, while seventy percent comes from fossil burning fuels (coal, natural gas, and oil). Increasing the amount of

178

Clean coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li [Ohio State University, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

179

X-ray Computed Tomography of coal: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is a method of mapping with x-rays the internal structures of coal. The technique normally produces 2-D images of the internal structures of an object. These images can be recast to create pseudo 3-D representations. CT of coal has been explored for a variety of different applications to coal and coal processing technology. In a comparison of CT data with conventional coal analyses and petrography, CT was found to offer a good indication of the total ash content of the coal. The spatial distribution of the coal mineral matter as seen with CT has been suggested as an indicator of coal washability. Studies of gas flow through coal using xenon gas as a tracer have shown the extremely complicated nature of the modes of penetration of gas through coal, with significant differences in the rates at which the gas can pass along and across the bedding planes of coal. In a special furnace designed to allow CT images to be taken while the coal was being heated, the pyrolysis and gasification of coal have been studied. Gasification rates with steam and CO/sub 2/ for a range of coal ranks have been obtained, and the location of the gasification reactions within the piece of coal can be seen. Coal drying and the progress of the pyrolysis wave into coal have been examined when the coal was subjected to the kind of sudden temperature jump that it might experience in fixed bed gasifier applications. CT has also been used to examine stable flow structures within model fluidized beds and the accessibility of lump coal to microbial desulfurization. 53 refs., 242 figs., 26 tabs.

Maylotte, D.H.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.; Lamby, E.J.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ); Chen, James M. (Edison, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nuclear coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Coal industry annual 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

Not Available

1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

182

Clean Fuels from Coal Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...A. G. Horsler, Gas Counc. (Gt. Brit...England, 1962; Gas J. 312, 19 (1962...be-come overdependent on natural gas and oil to supply...gasifier at elevated pressure with a downward flow...operability on coals of high ash-fusion temperature...

Arthur M. Squires

1974-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

183

Coal conversion. 1979 technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Individual reports are made on research programs which are being conducted by various organizations and institutions for the commercial development of processes for converting coal into products that substitute for these derived from oil and natural gas. Gasification, liquefaction, and demonstration processes and plants are covered. (DLC)

None

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Appalachian coal awareness conference: promoting Eastern coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Promoting the development and use of coal, especially coal from the Appalachian region, was the focus of introductory and keynote speeches and a discussion by representatives of the Virginia Coal Council, mining engineers, industry, and the Edison Electric Institute. Governor Dalton's keynote address noted that both producers and consumers attending the conference should work together to promote coal as a solution to the US energy future, and reported the impact that a commitment to coal has had on Virginia's economic growth. Participants in the coal consumers panel discussion raised various economic and regulatory issues.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Zero emission coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables Introduction The Coal Distribution Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing State. This Final 2009 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the data contained in the four Quarterly Coal Distribution Reports previously issued for 2009. This report relies on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. In addition, the report

187

Clean Coal Power Initiative  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

"Clean coal technology" describes a new generation of energy processes that sharply reduce air emissions and other pollutants from coal-burning power plants.

188

Coal Mining (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These sections describe procedures for coal exploration and extraction, as well as permitting requirements relating to surface and underground coal mining. These sections also address land...

189

"1. Bruce Mansfield","Coal","FirstEnergy Generation Corp",2510  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Pennsylvania" Pennsylvania" "1. Bruce Mansfield","Coal","FirstEnergy Generation Corp",2510 "2. PPL Susquehanna","Nuclear","PPL Susquehanna LLC",2450 "3. Limerick","Nuclear","Exelon Nuclear",2264 "4. Peach Bottom","Nuclear","Exelon Nuclear",2244 "5. Homer City Station","Coal","Midwest Generations EME LLC",1884 "6. Beaver Valley","Nuclear","FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company",1777 "7. Conemaugh","Coal","RRI Energy NE Management Co",1712 "8. Keystone","Coal","RRI Energy NE Management Co",1711 "9. PPL Martins Creek","Gas","PPL Martins Creek LLC",1702

190

Radionuclides in the Natural–Anthropogenic System Comprising a Nuclear Power Plant and a Cooling Reservoir  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The sources of technological radionuclides coming into the ecosystem of a nuclear power plant (NPP) cooling reservoir are considered and estimated. The information ... The activity reserve in the ecosystems of th...

Yu. A. Egorov

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Coal Characterization in Relation to Coal Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most coals are used worldwide for combustion today. Generally all kinds of coals are applicable for combustion. The major methods of burning are fixed bed firing, fluidized bed firing and suspension firing. Th...

Harald Jüntgen

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Clean Coal Technology Program Clean Coal Technology Program Clean Coal 101 Lesson 2: The Clean Coal Technology Program The Clean Coal Technology Program began in 1985 when the United States and Canada decided that something had to be done about the "acid rain" that was believed to be damaging rivers, lakes, forests, and buildings in both countries. Since many of the pollutants that formed "acid rain" were coming from big coal-burning power plants in the United States, the U.S. Government took the lead in finding a solution. One of the steps taken by the U.S. Department of Energy was to create a partnership program between the Government, several States, and private companies to test new methods developed by scientists to make coal burning much cleaner. This became the "Clean Coal Technology Program."

193

Chapter 10 - Coal and Coalbed Gas: Outlook  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The future of coal and coalbed gas future is intertwined as source and reservoir rocks. Coal generates coalbed gas during coalification (e.g. thermogenic gas) and methanogenesis (biogenic gas). These gas types occur as singular and mixed accumulations. Accumulation of biogenic coalbed gas has received worldwide research and development interests on sustaining production. The new coal-to-biogenic coalbed gas technology centers on stimulating indigenous microbes in coal and associated groundwater with bioengineered nutrients and amendments to “farm” gas from abandoned wells and non-gas-producing coals. Coal mainly as a basic fuel for electric power generation since the Industrial Revolution continues to be utilized despite environmental concerns. The outlook of coal is dimmed in the United States where natural gas has replaced power generation. However, in Asia and Europe continued economic growth is going to be fueled by coal and coalbed gas as liquefied natural gas will rely on combustion from more efficient, high-temperature power plants in the future.

Romeo M. Flores

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

TVA chooses nuclear power  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

TVA chooses nuclear power ... In giving the nod to a nuclear (over a coal) power generating station 10 days ago, TVA probably gave nuclear power its biggest boost to date. ... The $247 million nuclear power plant—a dual boiling-water reactor unit with a total capacity of 2.2 million kw(e).—will ...

1966-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

195

"1. Labadie","Coal","Union Electric Co",2407 "2. Iatan","Coal","Kansas City Power & Light Co",1555  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Missouri" Missouri" "1. Labadie","Coal","Union Electric Co",2407 "2. Iatan","Coal","Kansas City Power & Light Co",1555 "3. Rush Island","Coal","Union Electric Co",1204 "4. Callaway","Nuclear","Union Electric Co",1190 "5. New Madrid","Coal","Associated Electric Coop, Inc",1160 "6. Thomas Hill","Coal","Associated Electric Coop, Inc",1125 "7. Sioux","Coal","Union Electric Co",986 "8. Hawthorn","Coal","Kansas City Power & Light Co",979 "9. Meramec","Coal","Union Electric Co",951 "10. Aries Power Project","Gas","Dogwood Energy LLC",614

196

Coal liquefaction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fairlawn, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Quarterly Coal Report October - December 2003  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4Q) 4Q) Quarterly Coal Report October - December 2003 March 2004 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

198

Quarterly Coal Report - July - September 2004  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3Q) 3Q) Quarterly Coal Report July - September 2004 December 2004 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

199

Quarterly Coal Report April - June 2003  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3/02Q) 3/02Q) Quarterly Coal Report April - June 2003 October 2003 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

200

Quarterly Coal Report April - September 2003  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3Q) 3Q) Quarterly Coal Report July - September 2003 December 2003 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nuclear coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Quarterly Coal Report January - March 2004  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2Q) 2Q) Quarterly Coal Report April - June 2004 September 2004 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

202

Quarterly Coal Report Julyl-September 2002  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2/03Q) 2/03Q) Quarterly Coal Report July - September 2002 September 2002 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr_sum.html _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

203

Coal - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Coal Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Summary Prices Reserves Consumption Production Stocks Imports, Exports & Distribution Coal Transportation Rates International All Coal Data Reports Analysis & Projections Most Requested Consumption Environment Imports & Exports Industry Characteristics Prices Production Projections Reserves Stocks All Reports EIA's latest Short-Term Energy Outlook for coal › image chart of U.S. Natural Gas Production and Imports projections as described in linked Short-Term Energy Outlook Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Short-Term Energy Outlook, released monthly. U.S. coal production by quarter › Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Quarterly Coal Report. Quarterly data for coal shipments between states ›

204

Structural characteristics and gasification reactivity of chars prepared from K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixed HyperCoals and coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HyperCoal is a clean coal with mineral matter content <0.05 wt %. Oaky Creek (C = 82%), and Pasir (C = 68%) coals were subjected to solvent extraction method to prepare Oaky Creek HyperCoal, and Pasir HyperCoal. Experiments were carried out to compare the gasification reactivity of HyperCoals and parent raw coals with 20, 40, 50 and 60% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as a catalyst at 600, 650, 700, and 775{sup o}C with steam. Gasification rates of coals and HyperCoals were strongly influenced by the temperature and catalyst loading. Catalytic steam gasification of HyperCoal chars was found to be chemical reaction controlled in the 600-700{sup o}C temperature range for all catalyst loadings. Gasification rates of HyperCoal chars were found to be always higher than parent coals at any given temperature for all catalyst loadings. However, X-ray diffraction results showed that the microstructures of chars prepared from coals and HyperCoals were similar. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy show no significant difference between the chemical compositions of the chars. Significant differences were observed from scanning electron microscopy images, which showed that the chars from HyperCoals had coral-reef like structures whereas dense chars were observed for coals. 26 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Atul Sharma; Hiroyuki Kawashima; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Fuel Group

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

Nuclear power economics and prospects in the USA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper addresses three questions concerning the economics of and prospects for nuclear power in the USA: (1) What is the long-term economic future of nuclear energy? (2) Is the inability to resolve the nuclear waste issue a factor that will limit new nuclear plant development? (3) Are the new designs for nuclear plants an advance over current designs? With respect to the first question, we find that the long-term economic future of nuclear energy is uncertain, at best. Despite recent interest in a 'nuclear renaissance', objective, rigorous studies have concluded that at present, new nuclear power plants are not economically competitive with coal or natural gas for electricity generation and will not be for the foreseeable future. With respect to the second question, we find that the inability to resolve the nuclear waste issue will likely limit new nuclear plant development. Nuclear waste disposal poses a serious, seemingly intractable problem for the future of nuclear power and the waste issue could be a showstopper for new nuclear plants. With respect to the third question, the new designs for nuclear plants are an advance over current designs, but only marginally. Thus, while some new nuclear power plants will likely be built in the USA over the next two decades, a major 'nuclear renaissance' is unlikely.

Roger H. Bezdek

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Measurement of natural radioactivity and assessment of associated radiation hazards in soil around Baoji second coal-fired thermal power plant, China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......10001 g) were sealed in gas-tight, radon-impermeable...concentrations of the natural radionuclides 226Ra...Comparative study of natural radioactivity levels...radioactive samples from Cyprus characteristic geological...Mechanisms of enrichment of natural radioactivity along the......

Xinwei Lu; Xiaoxue Li; Pujun Yun; Dacheng Luo; Lijun Wang; Chunhui Ren; Cancan Chen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Abstract-Coal and hydro will be the main sources of electric energy in Chile for the near future, given that natural gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, given that natural gas from neighbouring Argentina is not longer available and LNG price projections, the most economic technologies define the system's development. Availability of natural gas from Argentina on import of natural gas from Argentina since 2004 created an unbalance in the Chilean electric market

Dixon, Juan

208

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transportation component of coal price should also increase;investment. Coal costs and prices are functions of a numberto forecast coal demand, supply, and prices from now to

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

University Coal Research Program 2013 Selections | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

University Coal Research Program 2013 Selections University Coal Research Program 2013 Selections University Coal Research Program 2013 Selections Since the University Coal Research Program's inception in 1979, more than 728 research projects have been funded. With a combined value in excess of $132 million, these projects have provided new insights into coal's future use, and have given more than 1,800 students invaluable experience in understanding the science and technology of coal. Attached is the list of 2013 project selections under this program. UCR_Project_Selections_2013.pdf More Documents & Publications FACT SHEET: Clean Coal University Research Awards and Project Descriptions International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative: 2008 Annual Report 2013 Annual DOE-NE Materials Research Coordination Meeting

210

Coal Market Module This  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

51 51 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2012 Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides projections of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, imports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2012, DOE/EIA-M060(2012) (Washington, DC, 2012). Key assumptions Coal production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the projection. Forty-one separate supply curves are developed for each of 14 supply regions, nine coal types (unique combinations

211

Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

page intentionally left blank page intentionally left blank 153 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides projections of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, imports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2011, DOE/EIA-M060(2011) (Washington, DC, 2011). Key assumptions Coal production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the projection. Forty-one separate supply curves are developed for each of 14 supply regions, nine coal types (unique combinations

212

EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Distribution Coal Distribution Home > Coal> Quarterly Coal Distribution Back Issues Quarterly Coal Distribution Archives Release Date: June 27, 2013 Next Release Date: September 2013 The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed quarterly data on U.S. domestic coal distribution by coal origin, coal destination, mode of transportation and consuming sector. All data are preliminary and superseded by the final Coal Distribution - Annual Report. Year/Quarters By origin State By destination State Report Data File Report Data File 2009 January-March pdf xls pdf xls April-June pdf xls pdf xls July-September pdf xls pdf October-December pdf xls pdf 2010 January-March pdf xls pdf xls April-June pdf xls pdf xls July-September pdf xls pdf xls

213

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A "Bed" for Burning Coal A "Bed" for Burning Coal Clean Coal 101 Lesson 4: A "Bed" for Burning Coal? It was a wet, chilly day in Washington DC in 1979 when a few scientists and engineers joined with government and college officials on the campus of Georgetown University to celebrate the completion of one of the world's most advanced coal combustors. It was a small coal burner by today's standards, but large enough to provide heat and steam for much of the university campus. But the new boiler built beside the campus tennis courts was unlike most other boilers in the world. A Fluidized Bed Boiler A Fluidized Bed Boiler In a fluidized bed boiler, upward blowing jets of air suspend burning coal, allowing it to mix with limestone that absorbs sulfur pollutants.

214

Nuclear Power: The Last Best Option  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nuclear Power: The Last Best Option ... I never thought I’d favor nuclear power. ... Nuclear power must occupy a larger share of our energy mix and replace coal-fired power plants. ...

Jerald L. Schnoor

2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

215

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced coal-fired systems Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Program Collection: Fossil Fuels 13 Nuclear Engineering Graduate Program Summary: pollutants, a coal-fired power plant, in contrast, annually releases 10 billion kg of carbon...

216

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced coal-fired low-emission Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Plasma Physics and Fusion 27 Nuclear Engineering Graduate Program Summary: pollutants, a coal-fired power plant, in contrast, annually releases 10 billion kg of carbon...

217

Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

Wenglarz, R.A.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

ORIGINAL PAPER Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-fuel Combustion of Coal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORIGINAL PAPER Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-fuel Combustion of Coal Gordon R. Holcomb · Joseph Tylczak the nature of coal ash deposits. Wigley and Goh [1] reported that particles in oxy-fired deposits, compared

Laughlin, David E.

219

Constitution of Illinois No. 6 Argonne Premium Coal: A Review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Constitution of Illinois No. 6 Argonne Premium Coal: A Review ... The aromatic moieties present in coal structures have been characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR),(9-13) X-ray diffraction (XRD),(14) high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM),(15-18) and ruthenium ion catalyzed oxidation (RICO). ...

Fidel Castro-Marcano; Jonathan P. Mathews

2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

220

Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation (Indiana) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation (Indiana) Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation (Indiana) Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation (Indiana) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Rural Electric Cooperative State/Provincial Govt Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Indiana Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Natural Resources The Indiana Department of Natural Resources implements and enforces the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, as well as a statewide program to protect society and the environment from the adverse effects of mining operations, and regulates coal mining operations to

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nuclear coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Lead contents of coal, coal ash and fly ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flameless atomic absorption spectrometry is applied for the determination of Pb in coal, coal ash and fly ash. Lead concentrations in coal and coal ash ranging from respectively 7 to 110 µg...?1 and 120 to 450 µg...

C. Block; R. Dams

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal Cleaning Costs Process Clean Coal Produced, * T/D (DryMM$ Net Operating Cost, $/T (Clean Coal Basis) Net OperatingCost, $/T (Clean Coal Bases) Case NA Hazen KVB Battelle

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables Introduction The Coal Distribution Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing State. This Final 2009 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the data contained in the four Quarterly Coal Distribution Reports previously issued for 2009. This report relies on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys

224

Hydrogen from Coal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Coal Coal Edward Schmetz Office of Sequestration, Hydrogen and Clean Coal Fuels U.S. Department of Energy DOE Workshop on Hydrogen Separations and Purification Technologies September 8, 2004 Presentation Outline ƒ Hydrogen Initiatives ƒ Hydrogen from Coal Central Production Goal ƒ Why Coal ƒ Why Hydrogen Separation Membranes ƒ Coal-based Synthesis Gas Characteristics ƒ Technical Barriers ƒ Targets ƒ Future Plans 2 3 Hydrogen from Coal Program Hydrogen from Coal Program FutureGen FutureGen Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Gasification Fuel Cells Turbines Gasification Fuel Cells Turbines Carbon Capture & Sequestration Carbon Capture & Sequestration The Hydrogen from Coal Program Supports the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative and FutureGen * The Hydrogen Fuel Initiative is a $1.2 billion RD&D program to develop hydrogen

225

Natural  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Summary of U.S. Natural Gas Imports and Exports, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Imports Volume (million cubic feet) Pipeline Canada............................. 2,094,387 2,266,751 2,566,049 2,816,408 2,883,277 Mexico .............................. 0 1,678 7,013 6,722 13,862 Total Pipeline Imports....... 2,094,387 2,268,429 2,573,061 2,823,130 2,897,138 LNG Algeria .............................. 43,116 81,685 50,778 17,918 35,325 United Arab Emirates ....... 0 0 0 0 4,949 Total LNG Imports............. 43,116 81,685 50,778 17,918 40,274 Total Imports......................... 2,137,504 2,350,115 2,623,839 2,841,048 2,937,413 Average Price (dollars per thousand cubic feet) Pipeline Canada............................. 1.84 2.02 1.86 1.48 1.96 Mexico .............................. - 1.94 1.99 1.53 2.25 Total Pipeline Imports.......

226

Nuclear electricity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... p.344-6) and referred to in my letter of 23 October. The retail price index (RPI) has been used to correct for inflation and a uniform interest rate ... as given by historic costs, and if a previously unconsidered effect of inflation on nuclear fuel costs is included, the margin becomes 34 per cent above that for coal.

J.W. JEFFERY

1981-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

227

Coal Severance Tax (North Dakota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Coal Severance Tax is imposed on all coal severed for sale or industrial purposes, except coal used for heating buildings in the state, coal used by the state or any political subdivision of...

228

High-Sulfur Coal for Generating Electricity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-Sulfur...FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTORS, COMBUSTION...MAY FLUE GAS DES S E...1971 ). High-sulfur...was brief. Natural gas became...overdependent on natural gas and oil to...elevated pressure with a downward...coals of high ash-fusion...

James T. Dunham; Carl Rampacek; T. A. Henrie

1974-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

229

Quarterly Coal Report: January-March 2002  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1Q) 1Q) Distribution Category UC-950 Quarterly Coal Report January - March 2002 August 2002 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr_sum.html _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization. Energy Information Administration/Quarterly Coal Report January - March 2002 ii Contacts

230

Quarterly Coal Report: October-December 2001  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4Q) 4Q) Distribution Category UC-950 Quarterly Coal Report October - December 2001 May 2002 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Energy Information Administration/Quarterly Coal Report October - December 2001 iii Contacts

231

Quarterly Coal Report April-June 2002  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2Q) 2Q) Quarterly Coal Report April - June 2002 September 2002 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization. Energy Information Administration/Quarterly Coal Report April - June 2002 ii Contacts This publication was prepared by

232

Upgraded Coal Interest Group  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

Evan Hughes

2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

233

Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana) Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana) Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Institutional Fuel Distributor Program Info State Montana Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation The Coal Bed Methane Protection Act establishes a long-term coal bed methane protection account and a coal bed methane protection program for the purpose of compensating private landowners and water right holders for damage to land and to water quality and availability that is attributable to the development of coal bed methane wells. The Act aims to provide for

234

Surface Coal Mining Regulations (Mississippi) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Surface Coal Mining Regulations (Mississippi) Surface Coal Mining Regulations (Mississippi) Surface Coal Mining Regulations (Mississippi) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Developer Industrial Utility Program Info State Mississippi Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality The Surface Coal Mining Regulations are a combination of permitting requirements and environmental regulations that limit how, where and when coal can be mined. It protects lands that are under special regulation due to their nature, and applies only to state lands. When applied to Coal with Carbon Capture and Storage projects the rules that would apply to a normal coal-mining project still apply. In addition to these measures, a CCS plant would need to adhere to all waste disposal requirements, water usage

235

Natural convection phenomena in a nuclear power plant during a postulated TMLB' accident  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After the TMI (Three Mile Island) accident, there has been significant interest in analyzing and understanding the phenomena that may occur in a PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) accident which may lead to partial or total core meltdown and degradation. Natural convection is one of the important phenomena. In the present paper the results of two numerical simulations of (1) four-loop PWR and (2) three-loop PWR are presented. The simulations were performed with the COMMIX(2) computer code. Our analysis shows that in severe accident scenarios, natural convection phenomena does occur and that it helps to delay core degradation by transferring decay heat from the reactor core to other internal structures of the reactor system. The amount of heat transfer and delay in core degradation depends on the geometry and internal structures of the system and on the events of an accident.

Domanus, H.M.; Schmitt, R.C.; Sha, W.T.; Shah, V.L.; Han, J.T.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Coal Combustion Science  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

"1. Cumberland","Coal","Tennessee Valley Authority",2470 "2. Johnsonville","Coal","Tennessee Valley Authority",2341  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Tennessee" Tennessee" "1. Cumberland","Coal","Tennessee Valley Authority",2470 "2. Johnsonville","Coal","Tennessee Valley Authority",2341 "3. Sequoyah","Nuclear","Tennessee Valley Authority",2278 "4. Raccoon Mountain","Pumped Storage","Tennessee Valley Authority",1653 "5. Gallatin","Coal","Tennessee Valley Authority",1575 "6. Lagoon Creek","Gas","Tennessee Valley Authority",1481 "7. Kingston","Coal","Tennessee Valley Authority",1398 "8. Allen Steam Plant","Coal","Tennessee Valley Authority",1203 "9. Watts Bar Nuclear Plant","Nuclear","Tennessee Valley Authority",1123

238

Coal gasification: Belgian first  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... hope for Europe's coal production came with the announcement this month that the first gasification of coal at depths of nearly 1,000 metres would take place this May in ... of energy.

Jasper Becker

1982-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

239

Microbial solubilization of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

Strandberg, Gerald W. (Farragut, TN); Lewis, Susan N. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

“From Coal to Coke”  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... IN the Sixth Coal Science Lecture, organized by the British ... Science Lecture, organized by the British Coal Utilization Research Association, and given at the Institution of Civil Engineers on October 16, ...

1957-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nuclear coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Coal Production 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

Not Available

1993-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

242

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

4Q 2009 April 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 4Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal...

243

Indonesian coal mining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

244

Effect of petroleum coke addition on coal gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main fuel for power generation is combustion of coal and/or natural gas. Natural gas is expensive but clean and less problematic whereas coal is the reverse of natural gas. Natural gas resources are expected to last until 2020 where else coal has another 200 years expectancy. To replace the natural gas synthetic gas (syngas) can be used as a substitute fuel. Syngas can be produced using coal as fuel. In this study we blend petcoke a cheap solid carboneous fuel as an alternative to coal for the production of syngas using a 30 Kwattheat bubbling fluidized bed gasifier. The equivalent ratio (ER) was set at 2.8 and a gasification temperature was maintained between 680 to 710°C by manipulating between the feed flow rates and fluidizing medium. This condition was chosen as it proved to be the optimum based on the work by the same group. Various blend of coal:petcoke between 0 to 100% was analyzed. It was found that a 20:80 petcoke to coal gives a good correlation with 100% coal gasification.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Coal gasification apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coal hydrogenation vessel has hydrogen heating passages extending vertically through its wall and opening into its interior.

Nagy, Charles K. (Monaca, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

NETL: Coal Gasification Systems  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Coal Gasification Systems News Gasifipedia Gasifier Optimization Feed Systems Syngas Processing Systems Analyses Gasification Plant Databases International Activity Program Plan...

247

Coal gasification development intensifies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal gasification development intensifies ... Three almost simultaneous developments in coal gasification, although widely divergent in purpose and geography, rapidly are accelerating the technology's movement into an era of commercial exploitation. ... A plant to be built in the California desert will be the first commercialsize coal gasification power plant in the U.S. In West Germany, synthesis gas from a coal gasification demonstration plant is now being used as a chemical feedstock, preliminary to scaleup of the process to commercial size. ...

1980-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

248

Ore components in coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dependence of the mineral content in coal and concentrates on the degree of metamorphism is analyzed.

Kh.A. Ishhakov [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation). Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry, Siberian Branch

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

249

The use of NMR techniques for the analysis of water in coal and the effect of different coal drying techniques on the structure and reactivity of coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Western Research Institute has conducted a study of different methods of coal drying as pretreatment steps before liquefaction. The objectives of this study were to develop a combined chemical dehydration/nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for measuring the moisture content of coal, to measure the changes in coal structure that occur during drying, and to determine the effects of different drying methods on liquefaction reactivity of coals. Different methods of drying were investigated to determine whether coal drying can be accomplished without reducing the reactivity of coals toward liquefaction. Drying methods included thermal, microwave, and chemical dehydration. Coals of rank lignite to high volatile bituminous were studied. Coals that were dried or partially dried thermally and with microwaves had lower liquefaction conversions than coals containing equilibrium moisture contents. However, chemically dried coals had conversions equal to or greater than the premoisturized coals. The conversion behavior is consistent with changes in the physical structure and cross linking reactions because of drying. Thermal and microwave drying appear to cause a collapse in the pore structure, thus preventing donor solvents such as tetralin from contacting reactive sites inside the coals. Chemical dehydration does not appear to collapse the pore structure. These results are supported by the solvent swelling measurements in which the swelling ratios of thermally dried and microwave-dried coals were lower than those of premoisturized coals, indicating a greater degree of cross linking in the dried coals. The swelling ratios of the chemically dried coals were greater than those of the premoisturized coals because the pore structure remaining unchanged or increased when water was removed. These results are consistent with the NMR results, which did not show significant changes in coal chemical structure.

Netzel, D.A.; Miknis, F.P.; Wallace, J.C. Jr.; Butcher, C.H.; Mitzel, J.M.; Turner, T.F.; Hurtubise, R.J.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

High-Sulfur Coal for Generating Electricity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...made historically by heating bitumi-nous coal in...heart of the anthracite district only about 5 years ago...energy, wind, and geothermal steam and brines, will...15.7 Nuclear 3.1 Geothermal Negligible 1973, use...home and commercial heating, transporta-tion...

James T. Dunham; Carl Rampacek; T. A. Henrie

1974-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

251

Natural Gas for Britain  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... AT a time when the Government is exhorting the gas and other major industries concerned with ... and other major industries concerned with natural fuel resources to give a forward boost to coal mining by contracting an annual intake ...

1965-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

252

U.S. Coal Reserves  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Data - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Data - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis Sources & Uses Petroleum & Other Liquids Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, production, prices, sales. Electricity Sales, revenue and prices, power plants, fuel use, stocks, generation, trade, demand & emissions. Consumption & Efficiency Energy use in homes, commercial buildings, manufacturing, and transportation. Coal Reserves, production, prices, employ- ment and productivity, distribution, stocks, imports and exports. Renewable & Alternative Fuels Includes hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ethanol.

253

Coal Study Guide for Elementary School  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Focuses on the basics of coal, history of coal use, conversion of coal into electricity, and climate change concerns.

254

Coal recovery process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the beneficiation of coal by selective agglomeration and the beneficiated coal product thereof is disclosed wherein coal, comprising impurities, is comminuted to a particle size sufficient to allow impurities contained therein to disperse in water, an aqueous slurry is formed with the comminuted coal particles, treated with a compound, such as a polysaccharide and/or disaccharide, to increase the relative hydrophilicity of hydrophilic components, and thereafter the slurry is treated with sufficient liquid agglomerant to form a coagulum comprising reduced impurity coal.

Good, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY); Badgujar, Mohan (Williamsville, NY)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal Prices..AEO 2007 forecast for coal prices for PRB coal. Transmissionregimes. Sensitivity to Coal Prices Figure 9 is similar to

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Bio-coal briquette  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Some of the developing nations aim to earn foreign currency by exporting oil and/or gas and to increase the domestic consumption of coal to ensure a secure energy supply. Therefore, it is very important to promote effective coal utilization in these nations. Currently, these countries experience problems associated with coal use for household cooking and household industries. For household cooking, coal creates too much smoke and smells unpleasant. In addition, illegally obtained firewood is almost free in local agricultural regions. Coal is also used in household industries; however, simple stoker boilers are inefficient, since unburned coal particles tend to drop through screens during the combustion process. The bio-coal briquette, on the other hand, is an effective and efficient fuel, since it utilizes coal, which is to be used extensively in households and in small and medium-scale industry sectors in some coal-producing countries, as a primary fuel and bamboos (agricultural waste) as a secondary fuel. In addition, the use of bio-coal briquettes will greatly help reduce unburned coal content.

Honda, Hiroshi

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

257

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Trends, 2001 - 2010 Trends, 2001 - 2010 Transportation infrastructure overview In 2010, railroads transported over 70 percent of coal delivered to electric power plants which are generally concentrated east of the Mississippi River and in Texas. The U.S. railroad market is dominated by four major rail companies that account for 99 percent of U.S. coal rail shipments by volume. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by mode Rail Barge Truck Figure 2. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by rail, 2010 figure data Figure 3. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by barge, 2010 figure data Figure 4. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by truck, 2010 figure data The Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana, where coal is extracted in

258

Coal | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal is the largest domestically produced source of energy in America and is used to generate a significant chunk of our nation's electricity. The Energy Department is working to develop technologies that make coal cleaner, so we can ensure it plays a part in our clean energy future. The Department is also investing in development of carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technologies, also referred to as carbon capture, utilization and sequestration. Featured Energy Secretary Moniz Visits Clean Coal Facility in Mississippi On Friday, Nov. 8, 2013, Secretary Moniz and international energy officials toured Kemper, the nation's largest carbon capture and storage facility, in Liberty, Mississippi. A small Mississippi town is making history with the largest carbon capture

259

Chemical comminution of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the present research is to study the chemical reactivity of a mixture of methyl alcohol and aqueous sodium hydroxide solution in the temperature range 298 to 363 K, and a caustic concentration of 0 to 10 wt. %, on an Iowa bituminous coal. The sample studied was collected from coal zone 4, equivalent to most historical references to Laddsdale coal. The coals in this zone are typical high-sulfur, high-ash middle Pennsylvania Cherokee group coals. The apparent rank is high-volatile C bituminous coal. The relatively high content of sulfur and 23 other elements in these coals is related to near neutral (6-8) pH conditions in the depositional and early diagenetic environments, and to postdepositional sphalerite/calcite/pyrite/kaolinite/barite mineralization.

Mamaghani, A.H.; Beddow, J.K.; Vetter, A.F.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Coal dust explosibility  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reports US Bureau of Mines (USBM) research on the explosibility of coal dusts. The purpose of this work is to improve safety in mining and other industries that process or use coal. Most of the tests were conducted in the USBM 20 litre laboratory explosibility chamber. The laboratory data show relatively good agreement with those from full-scale experimental mine tests. The parameters measured included minimum explosible concentrations, maximum explosion pressures, maximum rates of pressure rise, minimum oxygen concentrations, and amounts of limestone rock dust required to inert the coals. The effects of coal volatility and particle size were evaluated, and particle size was determined to be at least as important as volatility in determining the explosion hazard. For all coals tested, the finest sizes were the most hazardous. The coal dust explosibility data are compared to those of other hydrocarbons, such as polyethylene dust and methane gas, in an attempt to understand better the basics of coal combustion.

Kenneth L. Cashdollar

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nuclear coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Estimating Externalities of Coal Fuel Cycles, Report 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The agreement between the US DOE and the EC established the specific objectives of the study: (a) to develop a methodological framework that uses existing data and models to quantify the external costs and benefits of energy; (b) to demonstrate the application of the framework to estimate the externalities of the coal, biomass, oil, natural gas, hydro, nuclear, photovoltaic, and wind fuel cycles (by agreement with the EC, the US addressed the first six of these); and (c) to identify major gaps in the availability of information to quantify impacts, damages, benefits, and externalities of fuel cycles; and to suggest priorities for future research. The main consideration in defining these objectives was a desire to have more information about externalities, and a better method for estimating them.

Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Comparative Analysis of the Production Costs and Life-Cycle GHG Emissions of FT-Liquid Fuels from Coal and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal and Natural Gas Figure S1 shows a graphical description of the life cycle of coal-to-liquids (CTL) and gas-to-liquids (GTL). Figure S1: Life Cycle of Coal-Based and Natural Gas-Based Fischer-Tropsch LiquidComparative Analysis of the Production Costs and Life- Cycle GHG Emissions of FT-Liquid Fuels from

Jaramillo, Paulina

263

Coal as Raw Material for Carbon Production: Some New Aspects [and Discussion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

20 March 1981 research-article Coal as Raw Material for Carbon Production...Characteristic changes in the constitution of hard coals (such as the nature and abundance of functional...bearing on the rational utilization of coal in the coke and carbon industries. For...

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Nuclear Fuel Cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since greenhouse gases are a global concern, rather than a local concern as are some kinds of effluents, one must compare the entire lifecycle of nuclear power to alternative technologies for generating electricity. A recent critical analysis by Sovacool (2008) gives a clearer picture. "It should be noted that nuclear power is not directly emitting greenhouse gas emissions, but rather that lifecycle emissions occur through plant construction, operation, uranium mining and milling, and plant decommissioning." "[N]uclear energy is in no way 'carbon free' or 'emissions free,' even though it is much better (from purely a carbon-equivalent emissions standpoint) than coal, oil, and natural gas electricity generators, but worse than renewable and small scale distributed generators" (Sovacool 2008). According to Sovacool, at an estimated 66 g CO2 equivalent per kilowatt-hour (gCO2e/kWh), nuclear power emits 15 times less CO2 per unit electricity generated than unscrubbed coal generation (at 1050 gCO2e/kWh), but 7 times more than the best renewable, wind (at 9 gCO2e/kWh). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (2009) has long recognized CO2 emissions in its regulations concerning the environmental impact of the nuclear fuel cycle. In Table S-3 of 10 CFR 51.51(b), NRC lists a 1000-MW(electric) nuclear plant as releasing as much CO2 as a 45-MW(e) coal plant. A large share of the carbon emissions from the nuclear fuel cycle is due to the energy consumption to enrich uranium by the gaseous diffusion process. A switch to either gas centrifugation or laser isotope separation would dramatically reduce the carbon emissions from the nuclear fuel cycle.

Strom, Daniel J.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Extraction, separation, and analysis of high sulfur coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work described in this report studies the removal of sulfur by oxidative interaction of various cupric salts with coal and also considers the possibility of removing organic sulfur by the selective interaction of supercritical ethanol with the organic coal matrix. Either one of these methods could potentially be used to pretreat coals before burning. The primary purpose of these studies is to ascertain the nature of the chemical reactions occurring, the chemical composition of the resultant products, and information on possible reaction mechanisms. This information should allow prediction of reasonable reaction conditions for the removal of organosulfur compound from coal.

Olesik, S.V.; Pekay, L.A.; Larkins, W. Jr. [comps.

1992-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

266

Extraction, separation, and analysis of high sulfur coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work described in this report studies the removal of sulfur by oxidative interaction of various cupric salts with coal and also considers the possibility of removing organic sulfur by the selective interaction of supercritical ethanol with the organic coal matrix. Either one of these methods could potentially be used to pretreat coals before burning. The primary purpose of these studies is to ascertain the nature of the chemical reactions occurring, the chemical composition of the resultant products, and information on possible reaction mechanisms. This information should allow prediction of reasonable reaction conditions for the removal of organosulfur compound from coal.

Olesik, S.V.; Pekay, L.A.; Larkins, W. Jr. (comps.)

1992-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

267

Natural Gas as a Boiler Fuel of Choice in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cubic feet (Tcf) of natural gas to price. FIGURE 1 1990 Texas Fuel Mix [From PUCT Fuel Efficiency Report) Coal 24,3'1> Nalural Gas 38,7'1> , Nalural Gas 63,1'1> H yd ro 0.1 'I> Cogenerallon 8.6'1> L1gnlle 12,7'1> Nuclear 8,6'1> Lignite 19... 100 ti mes more polluting than gas. WHERE IS THE GAS? Most people who are even remotely involved with gas production or consumption know that Texas has considerable gas reserves. Figure 2 indicates U.S. natural gas reserve distribution. Since...

Kmetz, W. J.

268

Effects of Surface Chemistry on the Porous Structure of Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report, 129 Xe nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of xenon gas adsorbed in coal is used to describe some poorly understood features of coal microporous structure, particularly in establishing that a connected network exists, the type of connectivity, and its changes with the rank of coal. Micropore size scale and distribution are also considered. Two methods are developed which are new and versatile tools for the investigation of porous structure. Both utilize xenon gas that is in motion, while undergoing diffusion or exchange in coal, to describe the connectivity of the micropore structure of coal. Time tracking of the adsorption process by NMR, selective saturation, and saturation transfer techniques were used to obtain new information on the coal rank dependence of porous structure. In addition, an existing 129 Xe chemical shift-pore diameter model was used to calculate micropore diameters for coals, as well as for a microporous carbon, before and after pore-size alteration. In the initial study performed, straightforward 129 Xe NMR spectra at equilibrium xenon adsorption at a series of pressures were acquired for a rank-varied set of six coals. Acquisition of the NMR signal as an echo was tested and found to improve spectral quality. The spectra were used to calculate micropore diameters for the six coals. These range from 5.6 to 7.5 ? and exhibit a minimum value for the intermediate coal rank. The smallest pores occur in coals of about 82-85% carbon; at both lower and higher coal ranks, the average micropore size tends to be larger. The changes in the spectra with coal rank and surface area were explored. Signal linewidths were found to decrease with increasing coal rank and were interpreted in terms of increasing chemical or physical homogeneity of the coal as rank increases. The packing density of powdered coal was found to alter the spectral appearance in a high volatile bituminous coal, which is preliminary evidence that exchange affects the chemical shift of xenon in this coal.

Ljubisa R. Radovic; Patrick G. Hatcher

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Surface Coal Mining Law (Missouri) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Surface Coal Mining Law (Missouri) Surface Coal Mining Law (Missouri) Surface Coal Mining Law (Missouri) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Missouri Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Missouri Department of Natural Resources This law aims to provide for the regulation of coal mining in order to minimize or prevent its adverse effects, protect the environment to the extent possible, protect landowner rights, and prohibit coal mining in locations where reclamation is not feasible. The law aims to strike a balance between protection of the environment and agricultural productivity and the need for coal as an energy source. This law addresses the powers of

270

Determination of Coal Permeability Using Pressure Transient Methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coalbed methane is a significant natural resource in the Appalachian region. It is believed that coalbed methane production can be enhanced by injection of carbon dioxide into coalbeds. However, the influence of carbon dioxide injection on coal permeability is not yet well understood. Competitive sorption of carbon dioxide and methane gases onto coal is a known process. Laboratory experiments and limited field experience indicate that coal will swell during sorption of a gas and shrink during desorption of a gas. The swelling and shrinkage may change the permeability of the coal. In this study, the permeability of coal was determined by using carbon dioxide as the flowing fluid. Coal samples with different dimensions were prepared for laboratory permeability tests. Carbon dioxide was injected into the coal and the permeability was determined by using pressure transient methods. The confining pressure was variedto cover a wide range of depths. The permeability was also determined as a function of exposure time of carbon dioxide while the confining stress was kept constant. CT scans were taken before and after the introduction of carbon dioxide. Results show that the porosity and permeability of the coal matrix was very low. The paper presents experimental data and theoretical aspects of the flow of carbon dioxide through a coal sample during pressure transient tests. The suitability of the pressure transient methods for determining permeability of coal during carbon dioxide injection is discussed in the paper.

McLendon, T.R.; Siriwardane, H. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV); Haljasmaa, I.V.; Bromhal, G.S.; Soong, Y.; Irdi, G.A.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Novel injector techniques for coal-fueled diesel engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report, entitled Novel Injector Techniques for Coal-Fueled Diesel Engines,'' describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at development of a dry coal powder fuel injector in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of dry powdered coal in a single-cylinder high speed diesel engine. The basic program consisted of concept selection, analysis and design, bench testing and single cylinder engine testing. The coal injector concept which was selected was a one moving part dry-coal-powder injector utilizing air blast injection. Adiabatics has had previous experience running high speed diesel engines on both direct injected directed coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel and also with dry coal powder aspirated into the intake air. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System successfully ignited these fuels at all speeds and loads without requiring auxiliary ignition energy such as pilot diesel fuel, heated intake air or glow or spark plugs. Based upon this prior experience, it was shown that the highest efficiency and fastest combustion was with the dry coal, but that the use of aspiration of coal resulted in excessive coal migration into the engine lubrication system. Based upon a desire of DOE to utilize a more modern test engine, the previous naturally-aspirated Caterpillar model 1Y73 single cylinder engine was replaced with a turbocharged (by use of shop air compressor and back pressure control valve) single cylinder version of the Cummins model 855 engine.

Badgley, P.R.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Influence of coal quality factors on seam permeability associated with coalbed methane production.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Cleats are natural fractures in coal that serve as permeability avenues for darcy flow of gas and water to the well bore during production. Theoretically,… (more)

Wang, Xingjin

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Trends in U.S. Recoverable Coal Supply Estimates and Future Production Outlooks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

are naturally occurring concentrations or deposits of coal in the Earth’s crust, in such forms and amounts that economic extraction is currently or potentially feasible.

Mikael Höök; Kjell Aleklett

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Coal Storage and Transportation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Coal preparation, storage, and transportation are essential to coal use. Preparation plants, located near to the mine, remove some inorganic minerals associated with raw coal. Coal is transported from the mines to the point of consumption, often an electric generating plant, by rail, barge and trucks. Railroads are the predominant form of coal transportation within a country. Global coal trade, movement by large ocean-going vessels, continues to increase. At the end use site, the coal is crushed, ground, and the moisture content reduced to the proper specifications for end use. Coal is stored at various points in the supply chain. Processed coal will weather and oxidize, changing its properties; it can self-ignite, unless precautions are taken. Technology in use today is similar to that used in previous decades. Performance improvements have come from improved software and instruments that deliver real-time data. These improve management of sub-processes in the coal supply chain and reduce costs along the supply chain.

J.M. Ekmann; P.H. Le

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

The Nuclear Revolution, Relative Gains, and International Nuclear Assistance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nature of the nuclear recipient’s security environment. ThisKeywords: Nuclear weapons proliferation; security; securitynature of the nuclear recipient’s security environment. This

Kroenig, Matthew

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

"Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Source(b)","Electricity(c)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(d)","Natural Gas(e)","NGL(f)","Coal","and Breeze","Other(g)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3.4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.4;" 3.4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.4;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ","Any" "NAICS"," ","Energy","Net","Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke"," " "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Source(b)","Electricity(c)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(d)","Natural Gas(e)","NGL(f)","Coal","and Breeze","Other(g)" ,,"Total United States"

277

"Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Source(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Natural Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coal","and Breeze","Other(f)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2.4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 2.4;" 2.4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 2.4;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ","Any Combustible" "NAICS"," ","Energy","Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke"," " "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Source(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Natural Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coal","and Breeze","Other(f)" ,,"Total United States" 311,"Food",27.5,"X",42,39.5,62,"X",0,9.8

278

"Characteristic(a)","Total(b)","Electricity(c)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(d)","Natural Gas(e)","NGL(f)","Coal","Breeze","Other(g)","Produced Onsite(h)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1.3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.3;" 1.3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.3;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," ",," "," ",," "," ",," ","Shipments" "Economic",,"Net","Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke and"," ","of Energy Sources" "Characteristic(a)","Total(b)","Electricity(c)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(d)","Natural Gas(e)","NGL(f)","Coal","Breeze","Other(g)","Produced Onsite(h)"

279

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fixation in slag or bottom ash, coal gasification, or coallimestone and coal that form little fly ash and trap sulfurSulfate Organic Ash (%) "Organic Sulfur", in Wheelock, Coal

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Industrial coking of coal batch without bituminous coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For many years, Kuznetsk-coal batch has always included bituminous coal. Depending on the content of such coal, the batch may be characterized as lean ... classification was adopted by specialists of the Eastern

P. V. Shtark; Yu. V. Stepanov; N. K. Popova; D. A. Koshkarov…

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nuclear coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a particular type of coal, each of which is inherentlyThere are four classes of coal: bituminous, sub-bituminous,minerals Metallic ores Coal Crude petroleum Gasoline Fuel

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Geochemistry of organic-rich black shales overlying the natural nuclear fission reactors of Oklo, Republic of Gabon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The organic-rich black shales of the Franceville Series` FB Formation overlying the uranium ores, and natural nuclear fission reactors of Oklo, Gabon, are not notably metalliferous. Chromium, gold, silver, and barium are slightly enriched in average Oklo black shale (AOK) relative to black shale standard SDO-1. Geochemical variations among the black shale samples of the sedimentary sequence include enrichment in potassium, barium, chromium, and silver in the four lowermost samples, the presence of a bleached zone depleted in organic carbon lowermost in the sequence, and elevated rare earth element (REE) content in samples closest to the Oklo reactor zones. Hydrothermal activity has influenced the geochemistry of the black shale but is evidently not linked to reactor-driven processes. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of Oklo black shale samples show slight enrichment in light REE and slight depletion in heavy REE, especially in the sample closest to the reactor zone. However, comparison of REE content with various petrographic facies in and near the Oklo reactors shows no apparent enrichment in fission product (intermediate) REE. With few exceptions, reactor facies all contain more REE than AOK. The chondrite-normalized REE pattern of AOK resembles that of greywacke-shale turbidites of Archean greenstone belts. The paucity of uranium and manganese in AOK is a curious anomaly in an area of world class uranium and manganese deposits.

Mossman, D.J. [Mount Allison Univ., Sackville, New Brunswick (Canada). Dept. of Physics, Engineering and Geoscience; Gauthier-Lafaye, F. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Strasbourg (France). Centre de Geochimie de la Surface; Nagy, B.; Rigali, M.J. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers and Pollution Control  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fossil fuels, such as coal, natural gas, and fuel oil, are used to generate electric power for industrial, commercial, and residential use. ... production and approximately 41% of the world power generation was s...

David K. Moyeda

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Record of Cycling Operation of the Natural Nuclear Reactor in the Oklo/Okelobondo Area in Gabon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of variability of the long-term fundamental physical constants [5,6] to storage of nuclear wastes in geological on how to retain nuclear wastes, including fission Xe and Kr, and prevent uncontrolled runaway chain

285

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4Q 2009 4Q 2009 April 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 4Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal Distribution Report is a preliminary report, based on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. The final report will rely on the receipt of annual data to replace the imputed monthly data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the monthly filing requirement, and final data for all other respondents. The Coal Distribution Report traces coal from the origin State to the destination State by transportation mode. The data sources beginning with the 2008 Coal Distribution Report

286

WCI Case for Coal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Coal Coal The role of as an energy source The role of coal as an energy source Key Messages * Energy demand has grown strongly and will continue to increase, particularly in developing countries where energy is needed for economic growth and poverty alleviation. * All energy sources will be needed to satisfy that demand by providing a diverse and balanced supply mix. * Coal is vital for global energy security. It is abundantly available, affordable, reliable and easy and safe to transport. * In an energy hungry world the challenge for coal, as for other fossil fuels, is to further substantially reduce its greenhouse gas and other emissions, while continuing to make a major contribution to economic and social development and energy security. * Coal is part way down a technology pathway that has already delivered major

287

"1. Scherer","Coal","Georgia Power Co",3400 "2. Bowen","Coal","Georgia Power Co",3234  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Georgia" Georgia" "1. Scherer","Coal","Georgia Power Co",3400 "2. Bowen","Coal","Georgia Power Co",3234 "3. Vogtle","Nuclear","Georgia Power Co",2302 "4. Wansley","Coal","Georgia Power Co",1793 "5. Edwin I Hatch","Nuclear","Georgia Power Co",1759 "6. Harllee Branch","Coal","Georgia Power Co",1607 "7. Yates","Coal","Georgia Power Co",1286 "8. McIntosh Combined Cycle Facility","Gas","Georgia Power Co",1257 "9. Murray Energy Facility","Gas","Duke Energy Generation Services",1250 "10. Wansley Combined Cycle","Gas","Southern Power Co",1143

288

Pulverized coal fuel injector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

Rini, Michael J. (Hebron, CT); Towle, David P. (Windsor, CT)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

International Energy Outlook 1999 - Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

natgas.jpg (4355 bytes) natgas.jpg (4355 bytes) Natural gas is the fastest growing primary energy source in the IEO99 forecast. Because it is a cleaner fuel than oil or coal and not as controversial as nuclear power, gas is expected to be the fuel of choice for many countries in the future. Prospects for natural gas demand worldwide remain bright, despite the impact of the Asian economic recession on near-term development. Natural gas consumption in the International Energy Outlook 1999 (IEO99) is somewhat increased from last yearÂ’s outlook, and the fuel remains the fastest growing primary energy source in the forecast period. Worldwide gas use more than doubles in the reference case projection, reaching 174 trillion cubic feet in 2020 from 82 trillion cubic feet in 1996 (Figure

290

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle ( IGCC)coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)will be integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) (Same

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Clinkering properties of rammed coking coal and coal batches  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The clinkering properties of rammed coking coal and coal batches are investigated. There is a close relation between the clinkering properties and coke quality.

V. M. Shmal’ko; M. A. Solov’ev

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Credit Extra Fuel Oil Coal to gasifier Na cost· Na processoiL Replace res. with coal as gasifier feed. 543 ton/day @$

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Catalytic steam gasification of coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Catalytic steam gasification of coals ... Steam–Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture ... Steam–Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture ...

P. Pereira; G. A. Somorjai; H. Heinemann

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Coal Mining Tax Credit (Arkansas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Coal Mining Tax Credit provides an income or insurance premium tax credit of $2.00 per ton of coal mined, produced or extracted on each ton of coal mined in Arkansas in a tax year. An...

295

Illinois Coal Revival Program (Illinois)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Illinois Coal Revival Program is a grants program providing partial funding to assist with the development of new, coal-fueled electric generation capacity and coal gasification or IGCC units...

296

Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology Step 1 (Estimate total amount of weekly U.S. coal production) U.S. coal production for the current week is estimated using a ratio...

297

Sandia National Laboratories: Clean Coal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ManagementClean Coal Clean Coal The term clean coal refers to a number of initiatives that seek to reduce or eliminate the hazardous emission or byproducts that result from using...

298

COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Corporation, 5-25~79. on Coal Liquefaction at ChevronHamersma, et a L, "Meyers Process for Coal Desulfurization,"in Wheelock, Coal Desulfurization, ACS Symp. Ser 64 (1977(.

Wrathall, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Coal extraction process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sub-divided coal is extracted under non-thermally destructive conditions with a solvent liquid containing a compound having the general formula:

Hammack, R. W.; Sears, J. T.; Stiller, A. H.

1981-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

300

Clean Coal Projects (Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This legislation directs the Virginia Air Pollution Control Board to facilitate the construction and implementation of clean coal projects by expediting the permitting process for such projects.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nuclear coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Coal Development (Nebraska)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This section provides for the development of newly-discovered coal veins in the state, and county aid for such development.

302

Clean coal technology applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

{open_quotes}Coal is a stratified rock formed of the more or less altered remains of plants (together with associated mineral matter) which flourished in past ages{hor_ellipsis} The problem of the origin and maturing of coal is complicated by the fact that every coal contains, in addition to carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, variable proportions of nitrogen and sulfur which are combined in unknown ways in the organic molecules...{close_quotes}. The challenge with coal has always been the management of its mineral matter, sulfur and nitrogen contents during use. The carbon content of fuels, including coal, is a more recent concern. With clean coal technologies, there are opportunities for ensuring the sustained use of coal for a very long time. The clean coal technologies of today are already capable of reducing, if not eliminating, harmful emissions. The technologies of the future will allow coal to be burned with greatly reduced emissions, thus eliminating the necessity to treat them after they occur.

Bharucha, N.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

303

Spitsbergen Tertiary Coal Fossils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... grains and spores to be observed in coal deposits of Tertiary age in west Spitsbergen (Norsk Polarinstitutt, Med. 79, pp. 1-9; 1954; English summary).

1955-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

304

Coal Gasification Systems Solicitations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Low Cost Coal Conversion to High Hydrogen Syngas; FE0023577 Alstom's Limestone Chemical Looping Gasification Process for High Hydrogen Syngas Generation; FE0023497 OTM-Enhanced...

305

Coal liquefaction quenching process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA); Yeh, Chung-Liang (Bethlehem, PA); Donath, Ernest E. (St. Croix, VI)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Handbook of coal analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Handbook deals with the various aspects of coal analysis and provides a detailed explanation of the necessary standard tests and procedures that are applicable to coal in order to help define usage and behavior relative to environmental issues. It provides details of the meaning of various test results and how they might be applied to predict coal behavior during use. Emphasis is on ASTM standards and test methods but ISO and BSI standards methods are included. Chapter headings are: Coal analysis; Sampling and sample preparation; Proximate analysis; Ultimate analysis; Mineral matter; Physical and electrical properties; Thermal properties; Mechanical properties; Spectroscopic properties; Solvent properties; and Glossary.

James G. Speight

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

US coal market softens  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The operators table some near term expansion plans, meanwhile long-term fundamentals look strong. This is one of the findings of the Coal Age Forecast 2007 survey of readers predictions on production and consumption of coal and attitudes in the coal industry. 50% of respondents expected product levels in 2007 to be higher than in 2006 and 50% described the attitude in the coal industry to be more optimistic in 2007 than in 2006. Most expenditure is anticipated on going on new equipment but levels of expenditure will be less than in 2006. 7 figs.

Fiscor, S.

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

308

Annual Coal Distribution Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Distribution Report Release Date: December 19, 2013 | Next Release Date: December 12, 2014 | full report | RevisionCorrection Revision to the Annual Coal Distribution Report...

309

Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research continues on coal liquefaction in the following areas: (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Natural Gas: More Gasbuggies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... first US experiment in the use of underground nuclear explosions to increase the recovery of natural ...naturalgas ...

1969-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

312

Illinois Coal Development Program (Illinois)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Illinois Coal Development Program seeks to advance promising clean coal technologies beyond research and towards commercialization. The program provides a 50/50 match with private industry...

313

Clean coal technologies market potential  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

Drazga, B. (ed.)

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

314

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Clean Coal Today Newsletter  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Clean Coal Today Newsletter Clean Coal Today Newsletter Clean Coal Demonstrations Clean Coal Today Newsletter Clean Coal Today is a quarterly newsletter of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy (FE), Office of Clean Coal. Among other things, Clean Coal Today highlights progress under the Clean Coal Power Initiative, the Power Plant Improvement Initiative, and the few remaining projects of the original Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Reporting on coal R&D performed at government laboratories, as well as in conjunction with stakeholders, it provides key information on FE's coal-related activities, most of which are directed toward near-zero emissions, ultra-efficient technologies of the future. Subscriptions are free – to have your name placed on the mailing list, contact the Editor at Phoebe.Hamill@hq.doe.gov.

315

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Florida Nuclear Profile 2010 Florida profile Florida Nuclear Profile 2010 Florida profile Florida total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary Energy Source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 3,924 6.6 23,936 10.4 Coal 9,975 16.9 59,897 26.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 55 0.1 177 0.1 Natural Gas 31,563 53.4 128,634 56.1 Other1 544 0.9 2,842 1.2 Other Renewable1 1,053 1.8 4,487 2.0 Petroleum 12,033 20.3 9,122 4.0 Total 59,147 100.0 229,096 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable.

316

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

North Carolina Nuclear Profile 2010 North Carolina profile North Carolina Nuclear Profile 2010 North Carolina profile North Carolina total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 4,958 17.9 40,740 31.7 Coal 12,766 46.1 71,951 55.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,042 7.4 4,757 3.7 Natural Gas 6,742 24.4 8,447 6.6 Other 1 50 0.2 407 0.3 Other Renewable1 543 2.0 2,083 1.6 Petroleum 573 2.1 293 0.2 Total 27,674 100.0 128,678 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable.

317

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

California Nuclear Profile 2010 California profile California Nuclear Profile 2010 California profile California total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 4,390 6.5 32,201 15.8 Coal 374 0.6 2,100 1.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 13,954 20.7 33,260 16.3 Natural Gas 41,370 61.4 107,522 52.7 Other 1 220 0.3 2,534 1.2 Other Renewable1 6,319 9.4 25,450 12.5 Petroleum 701 1.0 1,059 0.5 Total 63,328 100.0 204,126 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable.

318

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Georgia Nuclear Profile 2010 Georgia profile Georgia Nuclear Profile 2010 Georgia profile Georgia total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 4,061 11.1 33,512 24.6 Coal 13,230 36.1 73,298 54.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 3,851 10.5 3,044 2.7 Natural Gas 12,668 34.6 23,884 15.9 Other 1 - - 18 * Other Renewable1 637 1.7 3,181 2.2 Petroleum 2,189 6.0 641 0.5 Total 36,636 100.0 128,698 100 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable. * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05.

319

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Mississippi Nuclear Profile 2010 Mississippi profile Mississippi Nuclear Profile 2010 Mississippi profile Mississippi total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,251 8.0 9,643 17.7 Coal 2,526 16.1 13,629 25.0 Natural Gas 11,640 74.2 29,619 54.4 Other 1 4 * 10 * Other Renewable1 235 1.5 1,504 2.8 Petroleum 35 0.2 18 0.1 Total 15,691 100.0 54,487 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable. * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.

320

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Connecticut Nuclear Profile 2010 Connecticut profile Connecticut Nuclear Profile 2010 Connecticut profile Connecticut total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 2,103 25.4 16,750 50.2 Coal 564 6.8 2,604 7.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 151 1.8 400 1.2 Natural Gas 2,292 27.7 11,716 35.1 Other 1 27 0.3 730 2.2 Other Renewable1 159 1.9 740 2.2 Petroleum 2,989 36.1 409 1.2 Total 8,284 100.0 33,350 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nuclear coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Massachusetts Nuclear Profile 2010 Massachusetts profile Massachusetts Nuclear Profile 2010 Massachusetts profile Massachusetts total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 685 5.0 5,918 13.8 Coal 1,669 12.2 8,306 19.4 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,942 14.2 659 1.5 Natural Gas 6,063 44.3 25,582 59.8 Other 1 3 * 771 1.8 Other Renewable1 304 2.2 1,274 3.0 Petroleum 3,031 22.1 296 0.7 Total 13,697 100.0 42,805 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable.

322

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Michigan Nuclear Profile 2010 Michigan profile Michigan Nuclear Profile 2010 Michigan profile Michigan total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 3,947 13.2 29,625 26.6 Coal 11,531 38.7 65,604 58.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,109 7.1 228 0.2 Natural Gas 11,033 37.0 12,249 11.0 Other 1 - - 631 0.6 Other Renewable1 571 1.9 2,832 2.5 Petroleum 640 2.1 382 0.3 Total 29,831 100.0 111,551 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable.

323

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Florida Nuclear Profile 2010 Florida profile Florida Nuclear Profile 2010 Florida profile Florida total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary Energy Source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 3,924 6.6 23,936 10.4 Coal 9,975 16.9 59,897 26.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 55 0.1 177 0.1 Natural Gas 31,563 53.4 128,634 56.1 Other1 544 0.9 2,842 1.2 Other Renewable1 1,053 1.8 4,487 2.0 Petroleum 12,033 20.3 9,122 4.0 Total 59,147 100.0 229,096 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable.

324

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Missouri Nuclear Profile 2010 Missouri profile Missouri Nuclear Profile 2010 Missouri profile Missouri total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,190 5.5 8,996 9.7 Coal 12,070 55.5 75,047 81.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,221 5.6 2,427 2.6 Natural Gas 5,579 25.7 4,690 5.1 Other 1 - - 39 * Other Renewable1 466 2.1 988 1.1 Petroleum 1,212 5.6 126 0.1 Total 21,739 100.0 92,313 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable. * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05.

325

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Alabama Nuclear Profile 2010 Alabama profile Alabama Nuclear Profile 2010 Alabama profile Alabama total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 5,043 15.6 37,941 24.9 Coal 11,441 35.3 63,050 41.4 Hydro and Pumped Storage 3,272 10.1 8,704 5.7 Natural Gas 11,936 36.8 39,235 25.8 Other1 100 0.3 643 0.4 Other Renewable1 583 1.8 2,377 1.6 Petroleum 43 0.1 200 0.1 Total 32,417 100.0 152,151 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable.

326

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Arizona Nuclear Profile 2010 Arizona profile Arizona Nuclear Profile 2010 Arizona profile Arizona total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,937 14.9 31,200 27.9 Coal 6,233 23.6 43,644 39.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,937 11.1 6,831 6.1 Natural Gas 13,012 49.3 29,676 26.6 Other 1 - - 15 * Other Renewable1 181 0.7 319 0.3 Petroleum 93 0.4 66 0.1 Total 26,392 100.0 111,751 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable. * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05.

327

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Minnesota Nuclear Profile 2010 Minnesota profile Minnesota Nuclear Profile 2010 Minnesota profile Minnesota total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,549 10.8 13,478 25.1 Coal 4,789 32.5 28,083 52.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 193 1.3 840 1.6 Natural Gas 4,936 33.5 4,341 8.1 Other 1 13 0.1 258 0.5 Other Renewable1 2,395 16.3 6,640 12.4 Petroleum 795 5.4 31 0.1 Total 14,715 100.0 53,670 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable.

328

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Pennsylvania Nuclear Profile 2010 Pennsylvania profile Pennsylvania Nuclear Profile 2010 Pennsylvania profile Pennsylvania total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 9,540 20.9 77,828 33.9 Coal 18,481 40.6 110,369 48.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,268 5.0 1,624 0.7 Natural Gas 9,415 20.7 33,718 14.7 Other 1 100 0.2 1,396 0.6 Other Renewable1 1,237 2.7 4,245 1.8 Petroleum 4,534 9.9 571 0.2 Total 45,575 100.0 229,752 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable.

329

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Hampshire Nuclear Profile 2010 New Hampshire profile Hampshire Nuclear Profile 2010 New Hampshire profile New Hampshire total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,247 29.8 10,910 49.2 Coal 546 13.1 3,083 13.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 489 11.7 1,478 6.7 Natural Gas 1,215 29.1 5,365 24.2 Other 1 - - 57 0.3 Other Renewable1 182 4.4 1,232 5.6 Petroleum 501 12.0 72 0.3 Total 4,180 100.0 22,196 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable.

330

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

North Carolina Nuclear Profile 2010 North Carolina profile North Carolina Nuclear Profile 2010 North Carolina profile North Carolina total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 4,958 17.9 40,740 31.7 Coal 12,766 46.1 71,951 55.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,042 7.4 4,757 3.7 Natural Gas 6,742 24.4 8,447 6.6 Other 1 50 0.2 407 0.3 Other Renewable1 543 2.0 2,083 1.6 Petroleum 573 2.1 293 0.2 Total 27,674 100.0 128,678 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable.

331

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Hampshire Nuclear Profile 2010 New Hampshire profile Hampshire Nuclear Profile 2010 New Hampshire profile New Hampshire total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,247 29.8 10,910 49.2 Coal 546 13.1 3,083 13.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 489 11.7 1,478 6.7 Natural Gas 1,215 29.1 5,365 24.2 Other 1 - - 57 0.3 Other Renewable1 182 4.4 1,232 5.6 Petroleum 501 12.0 72 0.3 Total 4,180 100.0 22,196 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable.

332

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Georgia Nuclear Profile 2010 Georgia profile Georgia Nuclear Profile 2010 Georgia profile Georgia total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 4,061 11.1 33,512 24.6 Coal 13,230 36.1 73,298 54.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 3,851 10.5 3,044 2.7 Natural Gas 12,668 34.6 23,884 15.9 Other 1 - - 18 * Other Renewable1 637 1.7 3,181 2.2 Petroleum 2,189 6.0 641 0.5 Total 36,636 100.0 128,698 100 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable. * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05.

333

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Michigan Nuclear Profile 2010 Michigan profile Michigan Nuclear Profile 2010 Michigan profile Michigan total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 3,947 13.2 29,625 26.6 Coal 11,531 38.7 65,604 58.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,109 7.1 228 0.2 Natural Gas 11,033 37.0 12,249 11.0 Other 1 - - 631 0.6 Other Renewable1 571 1.9 2,832 2.5 Petroleum 640 2.1 382 0.3 Total 29,831 100.0 111,551 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable.

334

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Louisiana Nuclear Profile 2010 Louisiana profile Louisiana Nuclear Profile 2010 Louisiana profile Louisiana total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (nw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand nwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 2,142 8.0 18,639 18.1 Coal 3,417 12.8 23,924 23.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 192 0.7 1,109 1.1 Natural Gas 19,574 73.2 51,344 49.9 Other 1 213 0.8 2,120 2.1 Other Renewable1 325 1.2 2,468 2.4 Petroleum 881 3.3 3,281 3.2 Total 26,744 100.0 102,885 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable.

335

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Illinois Nuclear Profile 2010 Illinois profile Illinois Nuclear Profile 2010 Illinois profile Illinois total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 11,441 25.9 96,190 47.8 Coal 15,551 35.2 93,611 46.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 34 0.1 119 0.1 Natural Gas 13,771 31.2 5,724 2.8 Other 1 145 0.3 461 0.2 Other Renewable1 2,078 4.7 5,138 2.6 Petroleum 1,106 2.5 110 0.1 Total 44,127 100.0 201,352 100 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable.

336

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Jersey Nuclear Profile 2010 New Jersey profile Jersey Nuclear Profile 2010 New Jersey profile New Jersey total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 4,108 22.3 32,771 49.9 Coal 2,036 11.1 6,418 9.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 404 2.2 -176 -0.3 Natural Gas 10,244 55.6 24,902 37.9 Other 1 56 0.3 682 1.0 Other Renewable1 226 1.2 850 1.3 Petroleum 1,351 7.3 235 0.4 Total 18,424 100.0 65,682 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable.

337

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Iowa Nuclear Profile 2010 Iowa profile Iowa Nuclear Profile 2010 Iowa profile Iowa total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 601 4.1 4,451 7.7 Coal 6,956 47.7 41,283 71.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 144 1.0 948 1.6 Natural Gas 2,299 15.8 1,312 2.3 Other Renewable1 3,584 24.6 9,360 16.3 Petroleum 1,007 6.9 154 .0.3 Total 14,592 100.0 57,509 100 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable. Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.

338

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Minnesota Nuclear Profile 2010 Minnesota profile Minnesota Nuclear Profile 2010 Minnesota profile Minnesota total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,549 10.8 13,478 25.1 Coal 4,789 32.5 28,083 52.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 193 1.3 840 1.6 Natural Gas 4,936 33.5 4,341 8.1 Other 1 13 0.1 258 0.5 Other Renewable1 2,395 16.3 6,640 12.4 Petroleum 795 5.4 31 0.1 Total 14,715 100.0 53,670 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable.

339

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Arkansas Nuclear Profile 2010 Arkansas profile Arkansas Nuclear Profile 2010 Arkansas profile Arkansas total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State ttal (percent) Nuclear 1,835 11.5 15,023 24.6 Coal 4,535 28.4 28,152 46.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,369 8.6 3,658 6.0 Natural Gas 7,894 49.4 12,469 20.4 Other 1 - - 28 * Other Renewable1 326 2.0 1,624 2.7 Petroleum 22 0.1 45 0.1 Total 15,981 100.0 61,000 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05.

340

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nebraska Nuclear Profile 2010 Nebraska profile Nebraska Nuclear Profile 2010 Nebraska profile Nebraska total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,245 15.8 11,054 30.2 Coal 3,932 50.0 23,368 63.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 278 3.5 1,314 3.6 Natural Gas 1,864 23.5 375 1.0 Other Renewable1 165 2.1 493 1.3 Petroleum 387 4.9 31 0.1 Total 7,857 100.0 36,630 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable. Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nuclear coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Mississippi Nuclear Profile 2010 Mississippi profile Mississippi Nuclear Profile 2010 Mississippi profile Mississippi total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,251 8.0 9,643 17.7 Coal 2,526 16.1 13,629 25.0 Natural Gas 11,640 74.2 29,619 54.4 Other 1 4 * 10 * Other Renewable1 235 1.5 1,504 2.8 Petroleum 35 0.2 18 0.1 Total 15,691 100.0 54,487 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable. * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.

342

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Arkansas Nuclear Profile 2010 Arkansas profile Arkansas Nuclear Profile 2010 Arkansas profile Arkansas total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State ttal (percent) Nuclear 1,835 11.5 15,023 24.6 Coal 4,535 28.4 28,152 46.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,369 8.6 3,658 6.0 Natural Gas 7,894 49.4 12,469 20.4 Other 1 - - 28 * Other Renewable1 326 2.0 1,624 2.7 Petroleum 22 0.1 45 0.1 Total 15,981 100.0 61,000 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05.

343

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Kansas Nuclear Profile 2010 Kansas profile Kansas Nuclear Profile 2010 Kansas profile Kansas total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,160 9.2 9,556 19.9 Coal 5,179 41.3 32,505 67.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 3 * 13 * Natural Gas 4,573 36.5 2,287 4.8 Other Renewable1 1,079 8.6 3,459 7.2 Petroleum 550 4.4 103 0.2 Total 12,543 100.0 47,924 100 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable. * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.

344

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Pennsylvania Nuclear Profile 2010 Pennsylvania profile Pennsylvania Nuclear Profile 2010 Pennsylvania profile Pennsylvania total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 9,540 20.9 77,828 33.9 Coal 18,481 40.6 110,369 48.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,268 5.0 1,624 0.7 Natural Gas 9,415 20.7 33,718 14.7 Other 1 100 0.2 1,396 0.6 Other Renewable1 1,237 2.7 4,245 1.8 Petroleum 4,534 9.9 571 0.2 Total 45,575 100.0 229,752 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable.

345

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Ohio Nuclear Profile 2010 Ohio profile Ohio Nuclear Profile 2010 Ohio profile Ohio total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 2,134 6.5 15,805 11.0 Coal 21,360 64.6 117,828 82.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 101 0.3 429 0.3 Natural Gas 8,203 24.8 7,128 5.0 Other 1 123 0.4 266 0.2 Other Renewable1 130 0.4 700 0.5 Petroleum 1,019 3.1 1,442 1.0 Total 33,071 100.0 143,598 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable. Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.

346

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Arizona Nuclear Profile 2010 Arizona profile Arizona Nuclear Profile 2010 Arizona profile Arizona total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,937 14.9 31,200 27.9 Coal 6,233 23.6 43,644 39.1 Hydro and Pumped Storage 2,937 11.1 6,831 6.1 Natural Gas 13,012 49.3 29,676 26.6 Other 1 - - 15 * Other Renewable1 181 0.7 319 0.3 Petroleum 93 0.4 66 0.1 Total 26,392 100.0 111,751 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable. * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05.

347

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Kansas Nuclear Profile 2010 Kansas profile Kansas Nuclear Profile 2010 Kansas profile Kansas total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,160 9.2 9,556 19.9 Coal 5,179 41.3 32,505 67.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 3 * 13 * Natural Gas 4,573 36.5 2,287 4.8 Other Renewable1 1,079 8.6 3,459 7.2 Petroleum 550 4.4 103 0.2 Total 12,543 100.0 47,924 100 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable. * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05. Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.

348

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Jersey Nuclear Profile 2010 New Jersey profile Jersey Nuclear Profile 2010 New Jersey profile New Jersey total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 4,108 22.3 32,771 49.9 Coal 2,036 11.1 6,418 9.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 404 2.2 -176 -0.3 Natural Gas 10,244 55.6 24,902 37.9 Other 1 56 0.3 682 1.0 Other Renewable1 226 1.2 850 1.3 Petroleum 1,351 7.3 235 0.4 Total 18,424 100.0 65,682 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable.

349

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Maryland Nuclear Profile 2010 Maryland profile Maryland Nuclear Profile 2010 Maryland profile Maryland total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (Percent) Nuclear 1,705 13.6 13,994 32.1 Coal 4,886 39.0 23,668 54.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 590 4.7 1,667 3.8 Natural Gas 2,041 16.3 2,897 6.6 Other 1 152 1.2 485 1.1 Other Renewable1 209 1.7 574 1.3 Petroleum 2,933 23.4 322 0.7 Total 12,516 100.0 43,607 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable.

350

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Alabama Nuclear Profile 2010 Alabama profile Alabama Nuclear Profile 2010 Alabama profile Alabama total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 5,043 15.6 37,941 24.9 Coal 11,441 35.3 63,050 41.4 Hydro and Pumped Storage 3,272 10.1 8,704 5.7 Natural Gas 11,936 36.8 39,235 25.8 Other1 100 0.3 643 0.4 Other Renewable1 583 1.8 2,377 1.6 Petroleum 43 0.1 200 0.1 Total 32,417 100.0 152,151 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable.

351

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Missouri Nuclear Profile 2010 Missouri profile Missouri Nuclear Profile 2010 Missouri profile Missouri total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,190 5.5 8,996 9.7 Coal 12,070 55.5 75,047 81.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 1,221 5.6 2,427 2.6 Natural Gas 5,579 25.7 4,690 5.1 Other 1 - - 39 * Other Renewable1 466 2.1 988 1.1 Petroleum 1,212 5.6 126 0.1 Total 21,739 100.0 92,313 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable. * = Absolute percentage less than 0.05.

352

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

California Nuclear Profile 2010 California profile California Nuclear Profile 2010 California profile California total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 4,390 6.5 32,201 15.8 Coal 374 0.6 2,100 1.0 Hydro and Pumped Storage 13,954 20.7 33,260 16.3 Natural Gas 41,370 61.4 107,522 52.7 Other 1 220 0.3 2,534 1.2 Other Renewable1 6,319 9.4 25,450 12.5 Petroleum 701 1.0 1,059 0.5 Total 63,328 100.0 204,126 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable.

353

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Maryland Nuclear Profile 2010 Maryland profile Maryland Nuclear Profile 2010 Maryland profile Maryland total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (Percent) Nuclear 1,705 13.6 13,994 32.1 Coal 4,886 39.0 23,668 54.3 Hydro and Pumped Storage 590 4.7 1,667 3.8 Natural Gas 2,041 16.3 2,897 6.6 Other 1 152 1.2 485 1.1 Other Renewable1 209 1.7 574 1.3 Petroleum 2,933 23.4 322 0.7 Total 12,516 100.0 43,607 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable.

354

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Connecticut Nuclear Profile 2010 Connecticut profile Connecticut Nuclear Profile 2010 Connecticut profile Connecticut total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 2,103 25.4 16,750 50.2 Coal 564 6.8 2,604 7.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 151 1.8 400 1.2 Natural Gas 2,292 27.7 11,716 35.1 Other 1 27 0.3 730 2.2 Other Renewable1 159 1.9 740 2.2 Petroleum 2,989 36.1 409 1.2 Total 8,284 100.0 33,350 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable.

355

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

York Nuclear Profile 2010 New York profile York Nuclear Profile 2010 New York profile New York total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 5,271 13.4 41,870 30.6 Coal 2,781 7.1 13,583 9.9 Hydro and Pumped Storage 5,714 14.5 24,942 18.2 Natural Gas 17,407 44.2 48,916 35.7 Other 1 45 0.1 832 0.6 Other Renewable1 1,719 4.4 4,815 3.5 Petroleum 6,421 16.3 2,005 1.5 Total 39,357 100.0 136,962 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable.

356

EIA - State Nuclear Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nebraska Nuclear Profile 2010 Nebraska profile Nebraska Nuclear Profile 2010 Nebraska profile Nebraska total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,245 15.8 11,054 30.2 Coal 3,932 50.0 23,368 63.8 Hydro and Pumped Storage 278 3.5 1,314 3.6 Natural Gas 1,864 23.5 375 1.0 Other Renewable1 165 2.1 493 1.3 Petroleum 387 4.9 31 0.1 Total 7,857 100.0 36,630 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable. Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.

357

Iron Minerals in Coal, Weathered Coal and Coal Ash – SEM and Mössbauer Results  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of the present investigation was to identify and quantify the iron mineral phases present in South African coal from various coal fields and in coal ash, after industrial and laboratory combustion process...

F. B. Waanders; E. Vinken; A. Mans; A. F. Mulaba-Bafubiandi

358

Nuclear Ukraine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... SIR - Your article (Nature 365, 599; 1993) on the US-Ukraine stalemate over nuclear weapons prompts the following remarks. The United States made a mistake ... nuclear weapons prompts the following remarks. The United States made a mistake in not recognizing Ukraine as a legitimate successor state to the Soviet nuclear arsenal and is still insisting that ...

Arno Arrak

1994-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

359

Coal home heating and environmental tobacco smoke in relation to lower respiratory illness in Czech children, from birth to 3 years of age  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

electricity, natural gas, or propane) were not associatedcoal, wood, natural gas, and propane for heating or cooking.fuel used for cooking Gas Propane Electricity Coal Wood

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Coal based fuels, fuel systems and alternative fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The introduction of coal based fuel systems such as coal/air and coal water mixtures was an attempt to minimize the use of heavy fuel oils in large scale power generation processes. This need was based on forecasts of fuel reserves and future pricing of fuel oils, therefore economic considerations predominated over environmental benefits, if any, which could result from widespread use of these fuels. Coal continued as the major fuel used in the power generation industry and combustion systems were developed to minimize gaseous emissions, such as NOx. Increasing availability of natural gas led to consideration of its use in combination with coal in fuel systems involving combined cycle or topping cycle operations. Dual fuel coal natural gas operations also offered the possibility of improved performance in comparison to 100% coal based fuel systems. Economic considerations have more recently looked at emulsification of heavy residual liquid fuels for consumption in power generation boiler and Orimulsion has emerged as a prime example of this alternative fuel technology. The paper will discuss some aspects of the burner technology related to the application of these various coal based fuels, fuel systems and alternative fuels in the power generation industry.

Allen, J.W.; Beal, P.R.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nuclear coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Coal based fuels, fuel systems and alternative fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The introduction of coal based fuel systems such as coal/air and coal water mixtures was an attempt to minimise the use of heavy fuel oils in large scale power generation processes. This need was based on forecasts of fuel reserves and future pricing of fuel oils, therefore economic considerations predominated over environmental benefits, if any, which could result from widespread use of these fuels. Coal continued as the major fuel used in the power generation industry and combustion systems were developed to minimise gaseous emissions, such as NO{sub x}. Increasing availability of natural gas led to consideration of its use in combination with coal in fuel systems involving combined cycle or topping cycle operations. Dual fuel coal natural gas operations also offered the possibility of improved performance in comparison to 100% coal based fuel systems. Economic considerations have more recently looked at emulsification of heavy residual liquid fuels for consumption in power generation boiler and Orimulsion has emerged as a prime example of this alternative fuel technology. The next sections of the paper will discuss some aspects of the burner technology related to the application of these various coal based fuels, fuel systems and alternative fuels in the power generation industry.

Allen, J.W.; Beal, P.R. [ABB Combustion Services Limited, Derby (United Kingdom)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Coal Gasification in Australia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... P. S. Andrews gave a full account of the Federal project for the pressure gasification of non-coking coals for the combined purpose of town's gas ' and the ... of town's gas ' and the production of synthetic liquid fuel. Work on the gasification of brown coal in. Victoria was commenced in 1931 by the technical staff of ...

1955-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

363

Chemicals from Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Mas-sachusetts Institute of Technology, 1974; J. B. Howard...Petras, in Coal Pro-cessing Technology (American Institute of Chem-ical...with the solidifcation of a fluid bituminous coal as it undergoes...Policy Analyst, Science and Technology Policy Office (Staff to the...

Arthur M. Squires

1976-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

364

Incentives boost coal gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Higher energy prices are making technologies to gasify the USA's vast coal reserves attractive again. The article traces the development of coal gasification technology in the USA. IGCC and industrial gasification projects are now both eligible for a 20% investment tax credit and federal loan guarantees can cover up to 80% of construction costs. 4 photos.

Hess, G.

2006-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

365

HS_Coal_Studyguide.indd  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Coal Coal Fossil Energy Study Guide: Coal Coal is the most plentiful fuel in the fossil family. The United States has more coal reserves than any other country in the world. In fact, one-fourth of all known coal in the world is in the United States, with large deposits located in 38 states. The United States has almost as much energ y in coal that can be mined as the rest of the world has in oil that can be pumped from the ground. TYPES OF COAL Coal is a black rock made up of large amounts of carbon. Like all fossil fuels, coal can be burned to release energy. Coal contains elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; has various amounts of minerals; and is itself considered to be a mineral of organic origin. Due to the variety of materials buried over time in the

366

CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objectives for this reporting period were to further characterize the three areas selected as potential test sites, to begin assessing regional attributes of natural coal fractures (cleats), which control coalbed permeability, and to interview laboratories for coal sample testing. An additional objective was to initiate discussions with an operating company that has interests in Texas coalbed gas production and CO{sub 2} sequestration potential, to determine their interest in participation and cost sharing in this project. Well-log data are critical for defining depth, thickness, number, and grouping of coal seams at the proposed sequestration sites. Therefore, we purchased 15 well logs from a commercial source to make coal-occurrence maps and cross sections. Log suites included gamma ray (GR), self potential (SP), resistivity, sonic, and density curves. Other properties of the coals in the selected areas were collected from published literature. To assess cleat properties and describe coal characteristics, we made field trips to a Jackson coal outcrop and visited Wilcox coal exposures at the Sandow surface mine. Coal samples at the Sandow mine were collected for CO{sub 2} and methane sorption analyses. We contacted several laboratories that specialize in analyzing coals and selected a laboratory, submitting the Sandow Wilcox coals for analysis. To address the issue of cost sharing, we had fruitful initial discussions with a petroleum corporation in Houston. We reviewed the objectives and status of this project, discussed data that they have already collected, and explored the potential for cooperative data acquisition and exchange in the future. We are pursuing a cooperative agreement with them.

Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Origin State, Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation 3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal Distribution Report is a preliminary report, based on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. The final report will rely on the receipt of annual data to replace the imputed monthly data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the monthly filing requirement, and final data for all other respondents. The Coal Distribution Report traces coal from the origin State to the destination State by

368

By Coal Destination State  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 7,906 821 1,242 - 9,969 Alabama Railroad 3,604 49 285 - 3,938 Alabama River 3,979 - - - 3,979 Alabama Truck 322 773 957 - 2,051 Colorado Total 2,113 - - - 2,113 Colorado Railroad 2,113 - - - 2,113 Illinois Total 336 - - - 336 Illinois River 336 - - - 336 Indiana Total 1,076

369

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Destination State, Destination State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation 3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal Distribution Report is a preliminary report, based on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. The final report will rely on the receipt of annual data to replace the imputed monthly data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the monthly filing requirement, and final data for all other respondents. The Coal Distribution Report traces coal from the origin State to the destination State by

370

Coal in China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The article gives an overview of the production and use of coal in China, for power generation and in other sectors. Coal use for power generation was 850 million tonnes in 2003 and 800 million tonnes in the non-power sector. The majority of power will continue to be produced from coal, with a trend towards new larger pulverised coal fired units and introduction of circulating fluidised bed combustors. Stricter regulations are forcing introduction of improved pollution control technologies. It seems likely that China will need international finance to supplement private and state investment to carry out a programme to develop and apply clean coal technologies. The author concludes that there is evidence of a market economy being established but there is a need to resolve inconsistencies with the planned aspects of the economy and that additional policies are needed in certain sectors to achieve sustainable development. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Minchener, A.J. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

By Coal Origin State  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 7,906 821 1,242 - 9,969 Alabama Railroad 3,604 49 285 - 3,938 Alabama River 3,979 - - - 3,979 Alabama Truck 322 773 957 - 2,051 Florida Total - - 15 - 15 Florida Railroad - - 11 - 11 Florida Truck - - 3 - 3 Georgia Total 196 - 15 - 211 Georgia Railroad 189 - 1 - 190 Georgia Truck

372

Ash Deposition Behavior of Upgraded Brown Coal and Bituminous Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ash Deposition Behavior of Upgraded Brown Coal and Bituminous Coal ... Ash with a low melting point causes slagging and fouling problems in pulverized coal combustion boilers. ... The ash composition in coal and operational conditions in boilers such as heat load greatly affect the ash deposition behavior. ...

Katsuya Akiyama; Haeyang Pak; Toshiya Tada; Yasuaki Ueki; Ryo Yoshiie; Ichiro Naruse

2010-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

373

Michigan Nuclear Profile - All Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

total (percent)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State total (percent)" "Nuclear","3,947",13.2,"29,625",26.6 "Coal","11,531",38.7,"65,604",58.8 "Hydro and Pumped...

374

Minnesota Nuclear Profile - All Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

total (percent)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State total (percent)" "Nuclear","1,594",10.8,"13,478",25.1 "Coal","4,789",32.5,"28,083",52.3 "Hydro and Pumped...

375

Wisconsin Nuclear Profile - All Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

total (percent)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State total (percent)" "Nuclear","1,584",8.9,"13,281",20.7 "Coal","8,063",45.2,"40,169",62.5 "Hydro and Pumped...

376

Washington Nuclear Profile - All Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

total (percent)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State total (percent)" "Nuclear","1,097",3.6,"9,241",8.9 "Coal","1,340",4.4,"8,527",8.2 "Hydro and Pumped...

377

Virginia Nuclear Profile - All Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

total (percent)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State total (percent)" "Nuclear","3,501",14.5,"26,572",36.4 "Coal","5,868",24.3,"25,459",34.9 "Hydro and Pumped...

378

Adsorption Behavior of CO2 in Coal and Coal Char  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coals of diverse characteristics have been chosen to provide a better understanding on the influence of various coal properties, such as maceral, volatile matter, and ash contents. ... In addition, char samples from two of these coals (a non-coking coal A and a coking coal B) were prepared by pyrolysis at 800 and 1000 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere and were tested for CO2 adsorption capacity. ... As stated earlier, virgin coal samples considered for the adsorption measurements include coals A, C, and D, which are of low-, high-, and medium-volatile sub-bituminous rank, respectively. ...

Shanmuganathan Ramasamy; Pavan Pramod Sripada; Md Moniruzzaman Khan; Su Tian; Japan Trivedi; Rajender Gupta

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program December 18, 2013 - 10:38am Addthis Uncovering Coal’s Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program The challenges confronting the environmentally sound use of our country's fossil energy resources are best addressed through collaborative research and development. That's why this approach, which stretches federal dollars, is at the heart of the Office of Fossil Energy's University Coal Research (UCR) Program. Managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the UCR program funds university research to improve understanding of the chemical and physical properties of coal, one of our nation's most abundant

380

"Modern" Coal Plants  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

"Modern" Coal Plants "Modern" Coal Plants Nature Bulletin No. 331-A February 7, 1969 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation "MODERN" COAL PLANTS The Age of Cycads, when those strange tree-like plants predominated, began during the Triassic Period of the earth's geological history, reached its peak during the 60 million years of the Jurassic Period which followed, and ended during the first part of the Cretaceous Period that began about 95 million years ago. During the Jurassic, in addition to Cycades, there were also many species of ginkgos, and conifers which were the ancestors of our modern sequoias and pines. The ginkgo or "Maidenhair Tree", which we have imported from China and Japan, is the only one remaining of that tribe -- "a living fossil".

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nuclear coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Direct use of methane in coal liquefaction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to a process for converting solid carbonaceous material, such as coal, to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons utilizing methane, generally at a residence time of about 20-120 minutes at a temperature of 250.degree.-750.degree. C., preferably 350.degree.-450.degree. C., pressurized up to 6000 psi, and preferably in the 1000-2500 psi range, preferably directly utilizing methane 50-100% by volume in a mix of methane and hydrogen. A hydrogen donor solvent or liquid vehicle such as tetralin, tetrahydroquinoline, piperidine, and pyrolidine may be used in a slurry mix where the solvent feed is 0-100% by weight of the coal or carbonaceous feed. Carbonaceous feed material can either be natural, such as coal, wood, oil shale, petroleum, tar sands, etc., or man-made residual oils, tars, and heavy hydrocarbon residues from other processing systems.

Sundaram, Muthu S. (Shoreham, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Direct use of methane in coal liquefaction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to a process for converting solid carbonaceous material, such as coal, to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons utilizing methane, generally at a residence time of about 20 to 120 minutes at a temperature of 250 to 750/sup 0/C, preferably 350 to 450/sup 0/C, pressurized up to 6000 psi, and preferably in the 1000 to 2500 psi range, preferably directly utilizing methane 50 to 100% by volume in a mix of methane and hydrogen. A hydrogen donor solvent or liquid vehicle such as tetralin, tetrahydroquinoline, piperidine, and pyrolidine may be used in a slurry mix where the solvent feed is 0 to 100% by weight of the coal or carbonaceous feed. Carbonaceous feed material can either be natural, such as coal, wood, oil shale, petroleum, tar sands, etc., or man-made residual oils, tars, and heavy hydrocarbon residues from other processing systems. 1 fig.

Sundaram, M.S.; Steinberg, M.

1985-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

383

Synergic and conflicting issues in planning underground use to produce energy in densely populated countries, as Italy: Geological storage of CO2, natural gas, geothermics and nuclear waste disposal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In densely populated countries there is a growing and compelling need to use underground for different and possibly coexisting technologies to produce “low carbon” energy. These technologies include (i) clean coal combustion merged with CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS); (ii) last-generation nuclear power or, in any case, safe nuclear wastes disposal, both “temporary” and “geological” somewhere in Europe (at least in one site): Nuclear wastes are not necessarily associated to nuclear power plants; (iii) safe natural gas (CH4) reserves to allow consumption also when the foreign pipelines are less available or not available for geopolitical reasons and (iv) “low-space-consuming” renewables in terms of Energy Density Potential in Land (EDPL measured in [GW h/ha/year]) as geothermics. When geothermics is exploited as low enthalpy technology, the heat/cool production could be associated, where possible, to increased measures of “building efficiency”, low seismic risks building reworking and low-enthalpy heat managing. This is undispensable to build up “smart cities”. In any case the underground geological knowledge is prerequisite. All these technologies have been already proposed and defined by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Road Map 2009 as priorities for worldwide security: all need to use underground in a rational and safe manner. The underground is not renewable in most of case histories [10,11]. IEA recently matched and compared different technologies in a unique “Clean Energy Economy” improved document (Paris, November 16–17, 2011), by the contribution of this vision too (see reference). In concert with “energy efficiency” improvement both for plants and buildings, in the frame of the “smart cities” scenarios, and the upstanding use of “energy savings”, the energetic planning on regional scale where these cities are located, are strategic for the year 2050: this planning is strongly depending by the underground availability and typology. Therefore, if both literature and European Policy are going fast to improve the concept of “smart cities” this paper stresses the concept of “smart regions”, more strategic than “smart cities”, passing throughout a discussion on the synergic and conflicting use of underground to produce energy for the “smart regions” as a whole. The paper highlights the research lines which are urgent to plan the soundest energy mix for each region by considering the underground performances case by case: a worldwide mapping, by GIS tools of this kind of information could be strategic for all the “world energy management” authorities, up to ONU, with its Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the G20, the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) and the European Platforms such as the “Zero Emissions Fossil Fuel Power Plants” (EU-ZEP Platform), the Steel Platform, the Biomass Platform too. All of these organizations agree on the need for synergistic and coexistent uses of underground for geological storage of CO2, CH4, nuclear waste and geothermic exploitation. The paper is therefore a discussion of the tools, methods and approaches to these underground affecting technologies, after a gross view of the different uses of underground to produce energy for each use, with their main critical issues (i.e. public acceptance in different cases). The paper gives some gross evaluation for the Lazio Region and some hints from the Campania Region, located in Central Italy. Energy Density Potential in Land (EDPL), is calculated for each renewable energy technology (solar, wind, geothermal) highlighting the potentiality of the last. Why the Italian case history among the densely populated countries? on the Italian territory is hard to find suitable areas (mostly if greenfields) to use the own underground, with respect to other European countries, due to the presence of seismotectonic activity and many faulted areas characterized by Diffuse Degassing Structures (DDSs, which are rich in CO2 and CH4). In this cases, public acceptan

Fedora Quattrocchi; Enzo Boschi; Angelo Spena; Mauro Buttinelli; Barbara Cantucci; Monia Procesi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Conditioner for flotation of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for recovering coal is described which comprises the steps of floating coal in an aqueous frothing medium containing an amount of a condensation product of an alkanolamine and naphthenic acid sufficient to increase the recovery of coal as compared to the recovery of coal in an identical process using none of the condensation product.

Nimerick, K.H.

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

385

Coal Science: Basic Research Opportunities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...carbon is arranged in coal becomes real. What...NMR experiments at high temperatures. This...of characterizing high-boiling coal "liquids" which...reactions. Coal mineral matter. Most U.S. coals...burned is called ash. Techniques are...

Martin L. Gorbaty; Franklin J. Wright; Richard K. Lyon; Robert B. Long; Richard H. Schlosberg; Zeinab Baset; Ronald Liotta; Bernard G. Silbernagel; Dan R. Neskora

1979-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

386

Most Viewed Documents for Fission and Nuclear Technologies: December...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Nicolas; Pruess, Karsten (2004) 21 Levelized Costs for Nuclear, Gas and Coal for Electricity, under the Mexican Scenario Palacios, J.C.; Alonso, G.; Ramirez, R.; Gomez, A.;...

387

Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal reports Coal reports Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector With Data through 2010 | Release Date: November 16, 2012 | Next Release Date: December 2013 | Correction Previous editions Year: 2011 2004 Go Figure 1. Deliveries from major coal basins to electric power plants by rail, 2010 Background In this latest release of Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector, the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) significantly expands upon prior versions of this report with the incorporation of new EIA survey data. Figure 1. Percent of total U.S. rail shipments represented in data figure data Previously, EIA relied solely on data from the U.S. Surface Transportation Board (STB), specifically their confidential Carload Waybill Sample. While valuable, due to the statistical nature of the Waybill data,

388

Structure and thermoplasticity of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chapters cover: molecular structure and thermoplastic properties of coal; {sup 1}H-nmr study of relaxation mechanisms of coal aggregate; structural changes of coal macromolecules during softening; quantitative estimation of metaplsat in heat-treated coal by solvent extraction; effects of surface oxidation on thermoplastic properties of coal; analysis of dilatation and contraction of coal during carbonization; formation mechanisms of coke texture during resolidification; modified CPD model for coal devolatilization; mathematical modelling of coke mechanical structure; and simulating particulate dynamics in the carbonization process based on discrete element treatment.

Komaki, I.; Itagaki, S.; Miura, T. (eds.)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

PressurePressure Indiana Coal Characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TimeTime PressurePressure · Indiana Coal Characteristics · Indiana Coals for Coke · Coal Indiana Total Consumption Electricity 59,664 Coke 4,716 Industrial 3,493 Major Coal- red power plantsTransportation in Indiana · Coal Slurry Ponds Evaluation · Site Selection for Coal Gasification · Coal-To-Liquids Study, CTL

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

390

MS_Coal_Studyguide.indd  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

COAL-OUR MOST ABUNDANT FUEL COAL-OUR MOST ABUNDANT FUEL America has more coal than any other fossil fuel resource. Th e United States also has more coal reserves than any other single country in the world. In fact, 1/4 of all the known coal in the world is in the United States. Th e United States has more energy in coal that can be mined than the rest of the world has in oil that can be pumped from the ground. Currently, coal is mined in 25 of the 50 states. Coal is used primarily in the United States to generate electricity. In fact, it is burned in power plants to produce nearly half of the electricity we use. A stove uses about half a ton of coal a year. A water heater uses about two tons of coal a year. And a refrigerator, that's another half-ton a year. Even though you

391

Environmental Implications of United States Coal Exports: A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Future Power System Scenarios  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Stricter emissions requirements on coal-fired power plants together with low natural gas prices have contributed to a recent decline in the use of coal for electricity generation in the United States. Faced with a shrinking domestic market, many coal ...

Barrett Bohnengel; Dalia Patiño-Echeverri; Joule Bergerson

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

392

Microsoft Word - Nuclear_hybrid_systems_for_Wyoming_-__final...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of primary energy resources in the forms of coal, natural gas, wind, uranium, and oil shale. Most of Wyoming's coal and gas resources are exported from the state in unprocessed...

393

Forecast of Advanced Technology Adoption for Coal Fired Power Generation Towards the Year of 2050  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The considered systems of coal fired power generation are Supercritical Unit, Ultra Supercritical Unit, ... . In order to compare with the natural gas case, Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) is included. Evaluati...

Keiji Makino

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 914 12 66 - 992 Alabama River 949 - - - 949 Alabama Truck 78 189 237 - 504 Alabama Total 1,941 201 303 - 2,445 Colorado Railroad 575 - - - 575 Illinois River 99 - - - 99 Indiana River 241 - - - 241 Kentucky Railroad 827 - 12 - 839 Kentucky (East) Railroad 76 - - - 76 Kentucky (West) Railroad

395

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 3rd Quarter 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 839 11 83 - 933 Alabama River 1,347 - - - 1,347 Alabama Truck 118 216 236 - 571 Alabama Total 2,304 227 320 - 2,850 Colorado Railroad 514 - - - 514 Illinois River 99 - - - 99 Indiana River 172 - - - 172 Kentucky Railroad 635 - 11 - 647 Kentucky (East) Railroad 45 - - - 45 Kentucky (West)

396

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 4th Quarter 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 944 16 77 - 1,037 Alabama River 781 - - - 781 Alabama Truck 77 224 220 - 521 Alabama Total 1,802 240 298 - 2,340 Colorado Railroad 385 - - - 385 Illinois River 15 - - - 15 Indiana Railroad 1 - - - 1 Indiana River 350 - - - 350 Indiana Total 351 - - - 351 Kentucky Railroad 682 - 2 - 685 Kentucky (East)

397

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

June 2010 DOE/EIA-0121 (2010/01Q) June 2010 DOE/EIA-0121 (2010/01Q) Revised: July 2012 Quarterly Coal Report January - March 2010 June 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply Statistics U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.gov/coal/production/quarterly/ _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of

398

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 907 10 59 - 975 Alabama River 903 - - - 903 Alabama Truck 150 144 253 - 546 Alabama Total 1,960 153 311 - 2,424 Colorado Railroad 640 - - - 640 Illinois River 123 - - - 123 Indiana River 312 - - - 312 Kentucky Railroad 622 - 36 - 658 Kentucky (East) Railroad 96 - 36 - 132 Kentucky (West)

399

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2011 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,896 182 327 - 2,405 Alabama Railroad 1,192 2 74 - 1,268 Alabama River 655 - - - 655 Alabama Truck 50 180 253 - 482 Colorado Total 468 - - - 468 Colorado Railroad 468 - - - 468 Illinois Total 90 - 26 - 116 Illinois River 90 - 26 - 116 Indiana Total 181 - - - 181 Indiana River 181 -

400

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2012 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,407 184 231 - 1,822 Alabama Railroad 801 9 49 - 859 Alabama River 519 - - - 519 Alabama Truck 87 175 182 - 444 Colorado Total 82 - - - 82 Colorado Railroad 82 - - - 82 Illinois Total 149 - 14 - 163 Illinois Railroad 44 - - - 44 Illinois River 105 - 14 - 119 Indiana Total 99 - - - 99

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nuclear coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2010 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 914 12 66 - 992 Alabama River 949 - - - 949 Alabama Truck 78 189 237 - 504 Alabama Total 1,941 201 303 - 2,445 Georgia Railroad 23 - - - 23 Georgia Truck s - - - s Georgia Total 23 - - - 23 Indiana Railroad - 115 - - 115 Indiana Truck - 71 - - 71 Indiana Total - 186 - - 186 Tennessee Railroad - - 1 - 1 Tennessee Truck

402

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2011 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 1,040 18 80 - 1,138 Alabama River 668 - - - 668 Alabama Truck 52 164 223 - 438 Alabama Total 1,760 181 303 - 2,244 Colorado Railroad 600 - - - 600 Illinois River 203 - 13 - 217 Indiana River 180 - - - 180 Kentucky Railroad 465 - 10 - 475 Kentucky (West) Railroad 465 - 10 - 475 Utah Railroad 18 - - -

403

Coal combustion products (CCPs  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

combustion products (CCPs) combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge. When properly managed, CCPs offer society environmental and economic benefits without harm to public health and safety. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) has made an important contribution in this regard. Fossil Energy Research Benefits Coal Combustion Products Fossil Energy Research Benefits

404

Modelling coal gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal gasification processes in a slurry-feed-type entrained-flow gasifier are studied. Novel simulation methods as well as numerical results are presented. We use the vorticity-stream function method to study the characteristics of gas flow and a scalar potential function is introduced to model the mass source terms. The random trajectory model is employed to describe the behaviour of slurry-coal droplets. Very detailed results regarding the impact of the O2/coal ratio on the distribution of velocity, temperature and concentration are obtained. Simulation results show that the methods are feasible and can be used to study a two-phase reacting flow efficiently.

Xiang Jun Liu; Wu Rong Zhang; Tae Jun Park

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

Wright, C.H.

1986-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

406

Coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 4th Quarter 2011 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,486 155 328 - 1,970 Alabama Railroad 1,020 - 75 - 1,095 Alabama River 417 - - - 417 Alabama Truck 49 155 253 - 458 Colorado Total 195 - - - 195 Colorado Railroad 195 - - - 195 Illinois Total 127 - 18 - 145 Illinois Railroad 20 - - - 20 Illinois River 107 - 18 - 125 Indiana Total

408

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2012 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,407 184 231 - 1,822 Alabama Railroad 801 9 49 - 859 Alabama River 519 - - - 519 Alabama Truck 87 175 182 - 444 Georgia Total s - s - s Georgia Truck s - s - s Indiana Total - 98 - - 98 Indiana Railroad - 98 - - 98 Kentucky Total - - 12 - 12 Kentucky Truck - - 12 - 12 Ohio Total - 30 - - 30 Ohio

409

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 3rd Quarter 2011 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,942 160 335 - 2,437 Alabama Railroad 1,149 - 57 - 1,206 Alabama River 741 - - - 741 Alabama Truck 52 160 278 - 490 Colorado Total 621 2 - - 623 Colorado Railroad 621 2 - - 623 Illinois Total 113 - 11 - 123 Illinois River 113 - 11 - 123 Indiana Total 265 - - - 265 Indiana Railroad

410

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2011 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,896 182 327 - 2,405 Alabama Railroad 1,192 2 74 - 1,268 Alabama River 655 - - - 655 Alabama Truck 50 180 253 - 482 Georgia Total s - - - s Georgia Truck s - - - s Indiana Total - 72 - - 72 Indiana Railroad - 72 - - 72 Tennessee Total - - 7 - 7 Tennessee Truck - - 7 - 7 Origin State Total 1,896

411

Prospects for and problems of using light-water supercritical-pressure coolant in nuclear reactors in order to increase the efficiency of the nuclear fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Trends in the development of the power sector of the Russian and world power industries both at present time and in the near future are analyzed. Trends in the rise of prices for reserves of fossil and nuclear fuels used for electricity production are compared. An analysis of the competitiveness of electricity production at nuclear power plants as compared to the competitiveness of electricity produced at coal-fired and natural-gas-fired thermal power plants is performed. The efficiency of the open nuclear fuel cycle and various versions of the closed nuclear fuel cycle is discussed. The requirements on light-water reactors under the scenario of dynamic development of the nuclear power industry in Russia are determined. Results of analyzing the efficiency of fuel utilization for various versions of vessel-type light-water reactors with supercritical coolant are given. Advantages and problems of reactors with supercritical-pressure water are listed.

Alekseev, P. N.; Semchenkov, Yu. M.; Sedov, A. A., E-mail: sedov@dhtp.kial.ru; Subbotin, S. A.; Chibinyaev, A. V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

412

Discharge produces hydrocarbons from coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Discharge produces hydrocarbons from coal ... Studies of the reactions of coal in electric discharges by two chemists at the U.S. Bureau of Mines' Pittsburgh Coal Research Center may lead to improved ways of producing acetylene and other useful chemicals from coal. ... Other workers have produced high yields of acetylene from coal by extremely rapid pyrolysis using energy sources such as plasma jets, laser beams, arc-image reactors, and flash heaters. ...

1968-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

413

Year Average Transportation Cost of Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

delivered costs of coal, by year and primary transport mode Year Average Transportation Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton) Average Delivered Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton)...

414

A Stoichiometric Analysis of Coal Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Stoichiometric Analysis of Coal Gasification ... Gasification of New Zealand Coals: A Comparative Simulation Study ... Gasification of New Zealand Coals: A Comparative Simulation Study ...

James Wei

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Pore Structure of the Argonne Premium Coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pore Structure of the Argonne Premium Coals ... Constitution of Illinois No. 6 Argonne Premium Coal: A Review ... Constitution of Illinois No. 6 Argonne Premium Coal: A Review ...

John W. Larsen; Peter Hall; Patrick C. Wernett

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Density Measurements of Argonne Premium Coal Samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Density Measurements of Argonne Premium Coal Samples ... Constitution of Illinois No. 6 Argonne Premium Coal: A Review ... Constitution of Illinois No. 6 Argonne Premium Coal: A Review ...

He Huang; Keyu Wang; David M. Bodily; V. J. Hucka

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Clean Coal Power Initiative | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Clean Coal Power Initiative Clean Coal Power Initiative "Clean coal technology" describes a new generation of energy processes that sharply reduce air emissions and other...

418

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

12 2.6. International coal prices and18 International coal prices and trade In parallel with the2001, domestic Chinese coal prices moved from stable levels

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

19 3.4. Coking coal for iron & steels FOB export value for coking coal was relatively stables FOB export value for coking coal significantly increased

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of deploying advanced coal power in the Chinese context,”12 2.6. International coal prices and12 III. Chinese Coal

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nuclear coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

WEAR RESISTANT ALLOYS FOR COAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proceedings of the Conference on Coal Feeding Systems, HeldWear Resistant Alloys for Coal Handling Equipment", proposalWear Resistant Alloys for Coal Handling Equi pment". The

Bhat, M.S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Figures Figure ES-1. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Basicviii Figure 1. Advanced-Coal Wind Hybrid: Basic29 Figure 9. Sensitivity to Coal

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to have indicated economic coal reserves of at least 15tonnes of indicated economic coal reserves. Map 1: Chinaand economic assessment of deploying advanced coal power in

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

A real options approach to investing in the first nuclear power plant under cost uncertainty: comparison with natural gas power plant for the Tunisian case  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper uses a real options approach to present a method for evaluating the first Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) investment in Tunisia in 2020. The evaluating model integrates the value of real options: option to wait in the standard discount cash flow analysis. According to the IAEA (2007), starting the first stage of a nuclear power programme makes it possible to construct the first NPP in second time. This study considers that the economic worth of the NPP investment depends on the production cost of the natural gas power plant. This study assumes that the profit realised by the NPP project, defined as the difference between natural gas and nuclear production costs, represented the cash flow of the NPP investment. However, the value of this cash flow is uncertain. This is an investment choice problem under uncertainty. The analysis proposes the optimal investment strategy in NPP project for the Tunisian government. Furthermore, the threshold value of investment cash flow defining the timing of starting NPP construction is calculated. [Received: July 10, 2008; Accepted: November 23, 2008

Mohamed Ben Abdelhamid; Chaker Aloui; Corinne Chaton

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 7 December 2008 2007 Changes in Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources The changes in the coal distribution data sources made in 2006 are carried over to the 2007 tables. As in 2006, EIA used data from the EIA-3 survey to distribute synfuel to the electric generation sector on a state level, aggregated with all of the other coal (such as bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coal) sent to electric generating plants. EIA supplemented the EIA-3 data with previously collected information to determine the mode of transportation from the synfuel plant to the electric generating consumer, which was not reported on the EIA-3A survey form. Although not contained in the EIA-6A master file, this information has been documented in an ancillary spreadsheet in the EIA

426

Coal Utilization Science Program  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Coal Utilization SCienCe Program Coal Utilization SCienCe Program Description The Coal Utilization Science (CUS) Program sponsors research and development (R&D) in fundamental science and technology areas that have the potential to result in major improvements in the efficiency, reliability, and environmental performance of advanced power generation systems using coal, the Nation's most abundant fossil fuel resource. The challenge for these systems is to produce power in an efficient and environmentally benign manner while remaining cost effective for power providers as well as consumers. The CUS Program is carried out by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The program supports DOE's Strategic Plan to:

427

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Methodology Methodology EIA uses the confidential version of the STB Waybill data, which includes actual revenue for shipments that originate and terminate at specific locations. The STB Waybill data are a sample of all rail shipments. EIA's 2011 report describes the sampling procedure. EIA aggregates the confidential STB data to three different levels: national, coal-producing basin to state, and state to state. EIA applies STB withholding rules to the aggregated data to identify records that must be suppressed to protect business-sensitive data. Also, EIA adds additional location fields to the STB data, identifying the mine from which the coal originates, the power plant that receives the coal, and, in some cases, an intermediate delivery location where coal is terminated by the initial carrier but then

428

Entrainment Coal Gasification Modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Entrainment Coal Gasification Modeling ... Equivalent Reactor Network Model for Simulating the Air Gasification of Polyethylene in a Conical Spouted Bed Gasifier ... Equivalent Reactor Network Model for Simulating the Air Gasification of Polyethylene in a Conical Spouted Bed Gasifier ...

C. Y. Wen; T. Z. Chaung

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

On Coal-Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1860-1862 research-article On Coal-Gas W. R. Bowditch The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. www.jstor.org

1860-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Aqueous coal slurry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

Berggren, Mark H. (Golden, CO); Smit, Francis J. (Arvada, CO); Swanson, Wilbur W. (Golden, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Clean Coal Technology (Indiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A public utility may not use clean coal technology at a new or existing electric generating facility without first applying for and obtaining from the Utility Regulatory Commission a certificate...

432

Quarterly coal report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

Young, P.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Survey data. Each plant receiving CAPP or PRB coal in 2007 and 2010 were mapped and their data used to estimate costs for other cells by interpolating values based on inverse...

434

Clean Coal Research  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE's clean coal R&D is focused on developing and demonstrating advanced power generation and carbon capture, utilization and storage technologies for existing facilities and new fossil-fueled...

435

Proximate analysis of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash content are determined for each sample and comparisons are made. Proximate analysis is performed on a coal sample from a local electric utility. From the weight percent sulfur found in the coal (determined by a separate procedure the Eschka method) and the ash content, students calculate the quantity of sulfur dioxide emissions and ash produced annually by a large coal-fired electric power plant.

Donahue, C.J.; Rais, E.A. [University of Michigan, Dearborn, MI (USA)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

436

WCI Case for Coal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with the steam cycle of coal-fired power plants offers the potential to convert 40% of solar energy into electricity. This compares to 13% for large-scale photovoltaic systems,...

437

Coal Supply Region  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Implicit Price Deflators for Gross Domestic Product, as published by the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. For the composition of coal basins, refer to the definition of...

438

Coal-fueled diesels for modular power generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interest in coal-fueled heat engines revived after the sharp increase in the prices of natural gas and petroleum in the 1970`s. Based on the success of micronized coal water slurry combustion tests in an engine in the 1980`s, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy. initiated several programs for the development of advanced coal-fueled diesel and gas turbine engines for use in cogeneration, small utilities, industrial applications and transportation. Cooper-Bessemer and Arthur D. Little have been developing technology since 1985, under the sponsor of METC, to enable coal water slurry (CWS) to be utilized in large bore, medium-speed diesel engines. Modular power generation applications in the 10--100 MW size (each plant typically using from two to eight engines) are the target applications for the late 1990`s and beyond when, according to the US DOE and other projections, oil and natural gas prices are expected to escalate much more rapidly compared to the price of coal. As part of this program over 7.50 hours of prototype engine operation has been achieved on coal water slurry (CWS), including over 100 hours operation of a six-cylinder full scale engine with Integrated Emissions Control System in 1993. In this paper, the authors described the project cost of the CWS fuel used, the heat rate of the engine operating on CWS, the projected maintenance cost for various engine components, and the demonstrated low emissions characteristics of the coal diesel system.

Wilson, R.P. [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Rao, A.K. [Cooper-Bessemer Reciprocating, Grove City, PA (United States); Smith, W.C. [Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States). Morgantown Energy Technology Center

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

SNG Production from Coal: A Possible Solution to Energy Demand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In some areas of the world, natural gas demand cannot be fully satisfied either by domestic sources or foreign imports, while abundant coal resources are available. The conversion of coal to Substitute Natural Gas, SNG, by coal gasification and subsequent syngas methanation is one of the possible solutions to solve the problem. Foster Wheeler has developed a simple process for SNG production, named VESTA, utilizing catalysts from Clariant. The process concept has been proven by laboratory tests, and a demonstration unit will soon be completed. The VESTA process is very flexible and can handle syngas coming from several sources such as coal, biomass, petroleum coke and solid waste. In this paper our overview of the technology and its development status will be outlined.

Letizia Romano; Fabio Ruggeri; Robert Marx

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA); Znaimer, Samuel (Vancouver, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nuclear coal natural" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Development of Mesophase from a Low-Temperature Coal Tar Pitch  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this investigation, three distinctly different pitches (petroleum, low-temperature and high-temperature coal tar) have been used to study the influence of the nature and composition of the precursor pitch on the formation and development of mesophase. ... Special emphasis is placed on the low-temperature coal tar pitch in an attempt to study the influence of its unique chemical composition as compared to other conventional CM precursor pitches. ... Several carbonization conditions have been tested for the three pitches of different nature and origin:? CTP1 (low-temperature coal tar pitch), CTP2 (high-temperature coal tar pitch), and PP (petroleum pitch). ...

Roberto García; José L. Crespo; Shona C. Martin; Colin E. Snape; Sabino R. Moinelo

2003-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

442

Coal science for the clean use of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal will need to be retained as a major source of energy in the next century. It will need to be used more effectively and more cleanly. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to introduce new technology supported by a local community of science and technology. Only in this way can the full benefits of international advances in coal utilization be fully achieved. It is important that full advantage be taken of the advances that have been achieved in laboratory techniques and in the better understanding of fundamental coal science. This paper reviews available technologies in power generation, industrial process heat, coal combustion, coal gasification, and coal analytical procedures.

Harrison, J.S. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

443

Table 10. Major U.S. Coal Producers, 2012 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Major U.S. Coal Producers, 2012 Major U.S. Coal Producers, 2012 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Table 10. Major U.S. Coal Producers, 2012 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Rank Controlling Company Name Production (thousand short tons) Percent of Total Production 1 Peabody Energy Corp 192,563 18.9 2 Arch Coal Inc 136,992 13.5 3 Alpha Natural Resources LLC 104,306 10.3 4 Cloud Peak Energy 90,721 8.9 5 CONSOL Energy Inc 55,752 5.5 6 Alliance Resource Operating Partners LP 35,406 3.5 7 Energy Future Holdings Corp 31,032 3.1 8 Murray Energy Corp 29,216 2.9 9 NACCO Industries Inc 28,207 2.8 10 Patriot Coal Corp 23,946 2.4 11 Peter Kiewit Sons Inc 22,725 2.2 12 Westmoreland Coal Co 22,215 2.2 13 BHP Billiton Ltd 12,580 1.2 14 Walter Energy Inc 11,220 1.1 15 Cline Group (The) 9,230

444

Weekly Coal Production by State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Weekly Coal Production Weekly Coal Production Data for week ended: December 14, 2013 | Release date: December 19, 2013 | Next release date: December 30, 2013 For the week ended December 14, 2013: U.S. coal production totaled approximately 18.9 million short tons (mmst) This production estimate is 3.1% higher than last week's estimate and 2.9% lower than the production estimate in the comparable week in 2012 Coal production east of the Mississippi River totaled 8.2 mmst Coal production west of the Mississippi River totaled 10.8 mmst U.S. year-to-date coal production totaled 957.1 mmst, 1.9% lower than the comparable year-to-date coal production in 2012 EIA revises its weekly estimates of state-level coal production using Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) quarterly coal production data.

445

"Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Source(b)","Electricity(c)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(d)","Natural Gas(e)","NGL(f)","Coal","and Breeze","Other(g)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4.4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 4.4;" 4.4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 4.4;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ","Any" "NAICS"," ","Energy",,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke"," " "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Source(b)","Electricity(c)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(d)","Natural Gas(e)","NGL(f)","Coal","and Breeze","Other(g)" ,,"Total United States" , 311,"Food",0.4,0.4,19.4,9,2,6.9,5.4,0,10.3

446

Mississippi Nuclear Profile - All Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" "Primary energy source","Summer capacity (mw)","Share of State total (percent)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State total (percent)" "Nuclear","1,251",8.0,"9,643",17.7 "Coal","2,526",16.1,"13,629",25.0 "Natural Gas","11,640",74.2,"29,619",54.4 "Other1",4,"*",10,"*" "Other Renewable1",235,1.5,"1,504",2.8 "Petroleum",35,0.2,81,0.1 "Total","15,691",100.0,"54,487",100.0 "1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable."

447

Iowa Nuclear Profile - All Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" "Primary energy source","Summer capacity (mw)","Share of State total (percent)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State total (percent)" "Nuclear",601,4.1,"4,451",7.7 "Coal","6,956",47.7,"41,283",71.8 "Hydro and Pumped Storage",144,1.0,948,1.6 "Natural Gas","2,299",15.8,"1,312",2.3 "Other Renewable1","3,584",24.6,"9,360",16.3 "Petroleum","1,007",6.9,154,0.3 "Total","14,592",100.0,"57,509",100.0 "1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable."

448

Texas Nuclear Profile - All Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" "Primary energy source","Summer capacity (mw)","Share of State total (percent)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State total (percent)" "Nuclear","4,966",4.6,"41,335",10.0 "Coal","22,335",20.6,"150,173",36.5 "Hydro and Pumped Storage",689,0.6,"1,262",0.3 "Natural Gas","69,291",64.0,"186,882",45.4 "Other1",477,0.4,"3,630",0.9 "Other Renewable1","10,295",9.5,"27,705",6.7 "Petroleum",204,0.2,708,0.2 "Total","108,258",100.0,"411,695",100.0

449

Pennsylvania Nuclear Profile - All Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" "Primary energy source","Summer capacity (mw)","Share of State total (percent)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State total (percent)" "Nuclear","9,540",20.9,"77,828",33.9 "Coal","18,481",40.6,"110,369",48.0 "Hydro and Pumped Storage","2,268",5.0,"1,624",0.7 "Natural Gas","9,415",20.7,"33,718",14.7 "Other1",100,0.2,"1,396",0.6 "Other Renewable1","1,237",2.7,"4,245",1.8 "Petroleum","4,534",9.9,571,0.2 "Total","45,575",100.0,"229,752",100.0

450

California Nuclear Profile - All Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" "Primary energy source","Summer capacity (mw)","Share of State total (percent)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State total (percent)" "Nuclear","4,390",6.5,"32,201",15.8 "Coal",374,0.6,"2,100",1.0 "Hydro and Pumped Storage","13,954",20.7,"33,260",16.3 "Natural Gas","41,370",61.4,"107,522",52.7 "Other1",220,0.3,"2,534",1.2 "Other Renewable1","6,319",9.4,"25,450",12.5 "Petroleum",701,1.0,"1,059",0.5 "Total","67,328",100.0,"204,126",100.0

451

Arizona Nuclear Profile - All Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" "Primary energy source","Summer capacity (nw)","Share of State total (percent)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State total (percent)" "Nuclear",3937,14.9,"31,200",27.9 "Coal","6,233",23.6,"43,644",39.1 "Hydro and Pumped Storage","2,937",11.1,"6,831",6.1 "Natural Gas","13,012",49.3,"29,676",26.6 "Other1","-","-",15,"*" "Other Renewable1",181,0.7,319,0.3 "Petroleum",93,0.4,66,0.1 "Total","26,392",100.0,"111,751",100.0

452

Ohio Nuclear Profile - All Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" "Primary energy source","Summer capacity (mw)","Share of State total (percent)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State total (percent)" "Nuclear","2,134",6.5,"15,805",11.0 "Coal","21,360",64.6,"117,828",82.1 "Hydro and Pumped Storage",101,0.3,429,0.3 "Natural Gas","8,203",24.8,"7,128",5.0 "Other1",123,0.4,266,0.2 "Other Renewable1",130,0.4,700,0.5 "Petroleum","1,019",3.1,"1,442",1.0 "Total","33,071",100.0,"143,598",100.0 "1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable."

453

Maryland Nuclear Profile - All Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" "Primary energy source","Summer capacity (mw)","Share of State total (percent)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State total (percent)" "Nuclear","1,705",13.6,"13,994",32.1 "Coal","4,886",39.0,"23,668",54.3 "Hydro and Pumped Storage",590,4.7,"1,667",3.8 "Natural Gas","2,041",16.3,"2,897",6.6 "Other1",152,1.2,485,1.1 "Other Renewable1",209,1.7,574,1.3 "Petroleum","2,933",23.4,322,0.7 "Total","12,516",100.0,"43,607",100.0 "1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable."

454

Louisiana Nuclear Profile - All Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" "Primary energy source","Summer capacity (mw)","Share of State total (percent)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State total (percent)" "Nuclear","2,142",8.0,"18,639",18.1 "Coal","3,417",12.8,"23,924",23.3 "Hydro and Pumped Storage",192,0.7,"1,109",1.1 "Natural Gas","19,574",73.2,"51,344",49.9 "Other1",213,0.8,"2,120",2.1 "Other Renewable1",325,1.2,"2,468",2.4 "Petroleum",881,3.3,"3,281",3.2 "Total","26,744",100.0,"102,885",100.0

455

Illinois Nuclear Profile - All Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" "Primary energy source","Summer capacity (mw)","Share of State total (percent)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State total (percent)" "Nuclear","11,441",25.9,"96,190",47.8 "Coal","15,551",35.2,"93,611",46.5 "Hydro and Pumped Storage",34,0.1,119,0.1 "Natural Gas","13,771",31.2,"5,724",2.8 "Other1",145,0.3,461,0.2 "Other Renewable1","2,078",4.7,"5,138",2.6 "Petroleum","1,106",2.5,110,0.1 "Total","44,127",100.0,"201,352",100.0

456

Kansas Nuclear Profile - All Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" "Primary energy source","Summer capacity (mw)","Share of State total (percent)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State total (percent)" "Nuclear","1,160",9.2,"9,556",19.9 "Coal","5,179",41.3,"32,505",67.8 "Hydro and Pumped Storage",3,"*",13,"*" "Natural Gas","4,573",36.5,"2,287",4.8 "Other Renewable1","1,079",8.6,"3,459",7.2 "Petroleum",550,4.4,103,0.2 "Total","12,543",100.0,"47,924",100.0 "1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable."

457

Alabama Nuclear Profile - All Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" "Primary energy source","Summer capacity (mw)","Share of State total (percent)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State total (percent)" "Nuclear","5,043",15.6,"37,941",24.9 "Coal","11,441",35.3,"63,050",41.4 "Hydro and Pumped Storage","3,272",10.1,"8,704",5.7 "Natural Gas","11,936",36.8,"39,235",25.8 "Other1",100,0.3,643,0.4 "Other Renewable1",583,1.8,"2,377",1.6 "Petroleum",43,0.1,200,0.1 "Total","32,417",100.0,"152,151",100.0

458

Florida Nuclear Profile - All Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" "Primary energy source","Summer capacity (nw)","Share of State total (percent)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State total (percent)" "Nuclear","3,924",6.6,"23,936",10.4 "Coal","9,975",16.9,"59,897",26.1 "Hydro and Pumped Storage",55,0.1,177,0.1 "Natural Gas","31,563",53.4,"128,634",56.1 "Other1",544,0.9,"2,842",1.2 "Other Renewable1","1,053",1.8,"4,487",2.0 "Petroleum","12,033",20.3,"9,122",4.0 "Total","59,147",100.0,"229,096",100.0

459

Arkansas Nuclear Profile - All Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" "Primary energy source","Summer capacity (mw)","Share of State total (percent)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State total (percent)" "Nuclear","1,835",11.5,"15,023",24.6 "Coal","4,535",28.4,"28,152",46.2 "Hydro and Pumped Storage","1,369",8.6,"3,658",6.0 "Natural Gas","7,894",49.4,"12,469",20.4 "Other1","-","-",28,"*" "Other Renewable1",326,2.0,"1,624",2.7 "Petroleum",22,0.1,45,0.1 "Total","15,981",100.0,"61,000",100.0

460

Connecticut Nuclear Profile - All Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" "Primary energy source","Summer capacity (mw)","Share of State total (percent)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State total (percent)" "Nuclear","2,103",25.4,"16,750",50.2 "Coal",564,6.8,"2,604",7.8 "Hydro and Pumped Storage",151,1.8,400,1.2 "Natural Gas","2,292",27.7,"11,716",35.1 "Other1",27,0.3,730,2.2 "Other Renewable1",159,1.9,740,2.2 "Petroleum","2,989",36.1,409,1.2 "Total","8,284",100.0,"33,350",100.0 "1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable."

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461

Missouri Nuclear Profile - All Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" "Primary energy source","Summer capacity (mw)","Share of State total (percent)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State total (percent)" "Nuclear","1,190",5.5,"8,996",9.7 "Coal","12,070",55.5,"75,047",81.3 "Hydro and Pumped Storage","1,221",5.6,"2,427",2.6 "Natural Gas","5,579",25.7,"4,690",5.1 "Other1","-","-",39,"*" "Other Renewable1",466,2.1,988,1.1 "Petroleum","1,212",5.6,126,0.1 "Total","21,739",100.0,"92,313",100.0

462

Nebraska Nuclear Profile - All Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" "Primary energy source","Summer capacity (mw)","Share of State total (percent)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State total (percent)" "Nuclear","1,245",15.8,"11,054",30.2 "Coal","3,932",50.0,"23,363",63.8 "Hydro and Pumped Storage",278,3.5,"1,314",3.6 "Natural Gas","1,849",23.5,375,1.0 "Other Renewable1",165,2.1,493,1.3 "Petroleum",387,4.9,31,0.1 "Total","7,857",100.0,"36,630",100.0 "1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the biogenic and non-biogenic components of the fuel; however, all Municipal Solid Waste summer capacity is classified as Renewable."

463

Massachusetts Nuclear Profile - All Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

total electric power industry, smmer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" total electric power industry, smmer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" "Primary energy source","Summer capacity (mw)","Share of State total (percent)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State total (percent)" "Nuclear",685,5.0,"5,918",13.8 "Coal","1,669",12.2,"8,306",19.4 "Hydro and Pumped Storage","1,942",14.2,659,1.5 "Natural Gas","6,063",44.3,"25,582",59.8 "Other1",3,"*",771,1.8 "Other Renewable1",304,2.2,"1,274",3.0 "Petroleum","3,031",22.1,296,0.7 "Total","13,697",100.0,"42,805",100.0

464

Georgia Nuclear Profile - All Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" "Primary energy source","Summer capacity (mw)","Share of State total (percent)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State total (percent)" "Nuclear","4,061",11.1,"33,512",24.4 "Coal","13,230",36.1,"73,298",53.3 "Hydro and Pumped Storage","3,851",10.5,"3,044",2.2 "Natural Gas","12,668",34.6,"23,884",17.4 "Other1","-","-",18,"*" "Other Renewable1",637,1.7,"3,181",2.3 "Petroleum","2,189",6.0,641,0.5 "Total","36,636",100.0,"137,577",100.0

465

Tennessee Nuclear Profile - All Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" "Primary energy source","Summer capacity (mw)","Share of State total (percent)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State total (percent)" "Nuclear","3,401",15.9,"27,739",33.7 "Coal","8,805",41.1,"43,670",53.0 "Hydro and Pumped Storage","4,277",20.0,"7,416",9.0 "Natural Gas","4,655",21.7,"2,302",2.8 "Other1","-","-",16,"*" "Other Renewable1",222,1.0,988,1.2 "Petroleum",58,0.3,217,0.3 "Total","21,417",100.0,"82,349",100.0

466

COAL LOGISTICS. Tracking U.S. Coal Exports  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

COAL LOGISTICS has the capability to track coal from a U. S. mine or mining area to a foreign consumer`s receiving dock. The system contains substantial quantities of information about the types of coal available in different U. S. coalfields, present and potential inland transportation routes to tidewater piers, and shipping routes to and port capabilities in Italy, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. It is designed to facilitate comparisons of coal quality and price at several stages of the export process, including delivered prices at a wide range of destinations. COAL LOGISTICS can be used to examine coal quality within or between any of 18 U. S. coalfields, including three in Alaska, or to compare alternative routes and associated service prices between coal-producing regions and ports-of-exit. It may be used to explore the possibilities of different ship sizes, marine routes, and foreign receiving terminals for coal exports. The system contains three types of information: records of coal quality, domestic coal transportation options, and descriptions of marine shipment routes. COAL LOGISTICS contains over 3100 proximate analyses of U. S. steam coals, usually supplemented by data for ash softening temperature and Hardgrove grindability; over 1100 proximate analyses for coals with metallurgical potential, usually including free swelling index values; 87 domestic coal transportation options: rail, barge, truck, and multi-mode routes that connect 18 coal regions with 15 U. S. ports and two Canadian terminals; and data on 22 Italian receiving ports for thermal and metallurgical coal and 24 coal receiving ports along the Asian Pacific Rim. An auxiliary program, CLINDEX, is included which is used to index the database files.

Sall, G.W. [US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1988-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

467

E-Print Network 3.0 - accessing natural product Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

from Natural Gas Production and Use... that natural gas is significantly cleaner than coal in ... Source: Boyer, Elizabeth W. - School of Forest Resources, Pennsylvania State...

468

Coal-fueled diesel locomotive test  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The biggest challenges to the development of a commercially-acceptable coal-fueled diesel-electric locomotive are integrating all systems into a working unit that can be operated in railroad service. This involves mainly the following three systems: (1) the multi-cylinder coal-fueled diesel engine, (2) the locomotive and engine controls, and (3) the CWS fuel supply system. Consequently, a workable 12-cylinder coal-fueled diesel engine was considered necessary at this stage to evolve the required locomotive support systems, in addition to gaining valuable multi-cylinder engine operating experience. The CWS fuel used during this project was obtained from Otisca, Inc. (Syracuse, NY). It was prepared from micronized and deashed Kentucky Blue Gem coal to 49.0% coal loading by weight, with less than 1% ash and 5 micron mean diameter particle size. Its higher heating value was analyzed at approximately 34630 kJ/k. Anti-agglomerating additive Triton X-114 was added to the CWS at GE Transportation Systems at 2% of coal weight. The nature of the Otisca CWS fuel makes it inherently more difficult to store, pump, and inject than diesel fuel, since concepts which govern Newtonian or normally viscous liquids do not apply entirely to CWS. Otisca CWS tends to be unstable and to settle in tanks and lines after a period of time, making it necessary to provide a means of agitation during storage. To avoid long term settling problems and to minimize losses, piping velocities were designed to be in the 60-90 m/min range.

Hsu, B.D.; McDowell, R.E.; Confer, G.L.; Basic, S.L.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2 Syngas (H2 + CO + CO2) Coal Gasifier coal Fuel Production/2 Syngas (H2 + CO + CO2) Coal Gasifier coal Fuel Production/this operational mode, the gasifiers and other parts of the

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Definition: Anthracite coal | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

coal Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Anthracite coal A hard, brittle, and black lustrous coal, often referred to as hard coal; contains 86-97% carbon, and generally has...

471

"1. Walter Scott Energy Center","Coal","MidAmerican Energy Co",1660  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Iowa" Iowa" "1. Walter Scott Energy Center","Coal","MidAmerican Energy Co",1660 "2. George Neal North","Coal","MidAmerican Energy Co",957 "3. Louisa","Coal","MidAmerican Energy Co",746 "4. Ottumwa","Coal","Interstate Power and Light Co",696 "5. George Neal South","Coal","MidAmerican Energy Co",645 "6. Duane Arnold Energy Center","Nuclear","NextEra Energy Duane Arnold LLC",601 "7. Emery Station","Gas","Interstate Power and Light Co",518 "8. Greater Des Moines","Gas","MidAmerican Energy Co",496 "9. Pioneer Prairie Wind Farm","Other Renewables","Pioneer Prairie Wind Farm I, LLC",300

472

"1. Jeffrey Energy Center","Coal","Westar Energy Inc",2164 "2. La Cygne","Coal","Kansas City Power & Light Co",1418  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Kansas" Kansas" "1. Jeffrey Energy Center","Coal","Westar Energy Inc",2164 "2. La Cygne","Coal","Kansas City Power & Light Co",1418 "3. Wolf Creek Generating Station","Nuclear","Wolf Creek Nuclear Optg Corp",1160 "4. Gordon Evans Energy Center","Gas","Kansas Gas & Electric Co",835 "5. Emporia Energy Center","Gas","Westar Energy Inc",663 "6. Lawrence Energy Center","Coal","Westar Energy Inc",529 "7. Hutchinson Energy Center","Gas","Westar Energy Inc",395 "8. Holcomb","Coal","Sunflower Electric Power Corp",362 "9. West Gardner","Gas","Kansas City Power & Light Co",310

473

"1. Roxboro","Coal","Progress Energy Carolinas Inc",2417 "2. Belews Creek","Coal","Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC",2220  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Carolina" Carolina" "1. Roxboro","Coal","Progress Energy Carolinas Inc",2417 "2. Belews Creek","Coal","Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC",2220 "3. McGuire","Nuclear","Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC",2200 "4. Marshall","Coal","Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC",2078 "5. Brunswick","Nuclear","Progress Energy Carolinas Inc",1858 "6. Richmond","Gas","Progress Energy Carolinas Inc",1290 "7. Lincoln Combustion","Gas","Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC",1267 "8. G G Allen","Coal","Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC",1127 "9. Rowan","Gas","Southern Power Co",925

474

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of coal sulfur K-T gasification process SRC I process U. S.flow sheet of a K-T coal gasification complex for producingProduction via K-T Gasification" © CEP Aug. 78. Feed

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

Yavorsky, Paul M. (Monongahela, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Coking properties of coal pitch in coal batch  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The coking properties of coal pitch depend significantly on its fractional composition, ... : 2: 2. This is typical of coal pitch with a softening temperature of 75– ... Such pitch is the best clinkering additive...

S. G. Gagarin; Yu. I. Neshin

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

application of new clean coal technologies with near zeroapplication of new clean coal technologies with near zero

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Matrix endor studies of the carbonization of West Canadian coking coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cretaceous bituminous coals of known rank R?0 max vitrinite reflectance) have been examined by ESR (electron spin resonance) and ENDOR (electron nuclear double resonance) techniques. Both highly oxidised (outcrop) and unoxidised mine?run Balmer coal from the Crowsnest field have been subjected to heat treatment (200?900°C) and the matrix proton ENDOR signal studied as a function of applied microwave and rf power. Changes in ENDOR line shape and intensity are described with particular emphasis on the presoftening region of the unoxidised coal. A comparative study of the carbonization of hvb and 1vb coking coal from the Crowsnest is reported.

P. R. West; S. E. Cannon

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Coal within a revised energy perspective  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The author considers the use of coal within a revised energy perspective, focusing on the factors that will drive which fuels are used to generate electricity going forward. He looks at the world markets for fossil fuels and the difficulties of predicting oil and natural gas supply and prices, as demonstrated by the variability in projections from one year to another in the EIA's Annual Energy Outlook. 4 refs., 1 tab.

Darmstadter, J. [Resources for the Future (RFF), Washington, DC (United States)

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

480

"1. Sherburne County","Coal","Northern States Power Co - Minnesota",2275  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Minnesota" Minnesota" "1. Sherburne County","Coal","Northern States Power Co - Minnesota",2275 "2. Prairie Island","Nuclear","Northern States Power Co - Minnesota",1040 "3. Clay Boswell","Coal","Minnesota Power Inc",924 "4. Monticello","Nuclear","Northern States Power Co - Minnesota",554 "5. Lakefield Junction","Gas","Great River Energy",517 "6. Allen S King","Coal","Northern States Power Co - Minnesota",510 "7. High Bridge","Gas","Northern States Power Co - Minnesota",488 "8. Black Dog","Coal","Northern States Power Co - Minnesota",484

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481

Composition and properties of coals from the Yurty coal occurrence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coals from the Yurty coal occurrence were studied. It was found that the samples were brown non-coking coals with low sulfur contents (to 1%) and high yields of volatile substances. The high heat value of coals was 20.6-27.7 MJ/kg. The humic acid content varied from 5.45 to 77.62%. The mineral matter mainly consisted of kaolinite, a-quartz, and microcline. The concentration of toxic elements did not reach hazardous values.

N.G. Vyazova; L.N. Belonogova; V.P. Latyshev; E.A. Pisar'kova [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russia). Research Institute of Oil and Coal Chemistry and Synthesis

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

482

Annual Coal Distribution Tables  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by Major Coal-Exporting States and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by Major Coal-Exporting States and Destination, 2001 Coal-Exporting State and Destination Metallurgical Steam Total Alaska - 761 761 South Korea - 761 761 Alabama 4,667 167 4,834 Argentina 155 - 155 Belgium 989 - 989 Brazil 1,104 - 1,104 Bulgaria 82 - 82 Egypt 518 - 518 Italy 115 - 115 Netherlands 56 83 139 Spain 412 84 496 Turkey 581 - 581 United Kingdom 654 - 654 Kentucky 2,130 - 2,130 Canada 920 - 920 France 22 - 22 Iceland 9 - 9 Italy 430 - 430 Netherlands 417 - 417 Spain 9 - 9 United Kingdom 323 - 323 Pennsylvania 1,086 14,326 15,722 Belgium - 203 203 Brazil 372 - 373 Canada - 12,141 12,418 France - 84 84 Germany 495 165 661 Ireland - 136 136 Netherlands 219 879 1,097 Norway - - 7 Peru - - 21 Portugal - 634 634 United Kingdom - 85 85 Venezuela - - 3 Utah - 1,420 1,420 Japan - 1,334 1,334 Taiwan - 86 86 Virginia 4,531

483

Coal combustion system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN); Tramm, Peter C. (Indianapolis, IN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves 2009 November 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply...

485

Status of Coal Gasification: 1977  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-pressure technology is important to coal gasification for several reasons. When the end product ... of high pressures in all types of coal gasification reduces the pressure drop throughout the equipment,...

F. C. Schora; W. G. Bair

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Montana Coal Mining Code (Montana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Labor and Industry is authorized to adopt rules pertaining to safety standards for all coal mines in the state. The Code requires coal mine operators to make an accurate map or...

487

Low-rank coal research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

Not Available

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

2009 Coal Age Buyers Guide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

NONE

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

489

2008 Coal Age buyers guide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

NONE

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

490

Hydrogen from Coal Edward Schmetz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Turbines Carbon Capture & Sequestration Carbon Capture & Sequestration The Hydrogen from Coal Program Cells, Turbines, and Carbon Capture & Sequestration #12;Production Goal for Hydrogen from Coal Central Separation System PSA Membrane Membrane Carbon Sequestration Yes (87%) Yes (100%) Yes (100%) Hydrogen

491

Dry cleaning of Turkish coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study dealt with the upgrading of two different type of Turkish coal by a dry cleaning method using a modified air table. The industrial size air table used in this study is a device for removing stones from agricultural products. This study investigates the technical and economical feasibility of the dry cleaning method which has never been applied before on coals in Turkey. The application of a dry cleaning method on Turkish coals designated for power generation without generating environmental pollution and ensuring a stable coal quality are the main objectives of this study. The size fractions of 5-8, 3-5, and 1-3 mm of the investigated coals were used in the upgrading experiments. Satisfactory results were achieved with coal from the Soma region, whereas the upgrading results of Hsamlar coal were objectionable for the coarser size fractions. However, acceptable results were obtained for the size fraction 1-3 mm of Hsamlar coal.

Cicek, T. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Particulate control for low rank coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The power generating system in Victoria currently comprises a total capacity of 6650 MW. Eighty percent of this capacity consists of base load stations in the Latrobe Valley using brown coal. The Latrobe Valley brown coals have unique characteristics with high moisture content ranging from 58 percent to 70 percent and an ash content which is relatively low but very variable in nature. These and other factors associated with the coal have caused special problems in handling and combustion of the coal and the de-dusting of the boiler flue gases. In recent years, this has been the basis for the design parameters adopted for all the plants in the system. With respect to flue gas de-dusting, the SECV has carried out extensive laboratory studies to characterize the different ashes obtained from the Latrobe Valley brown coals, including precipitability and aerodynamic tests. It also carried out full-scale tests on operating plants and pilot tests have been conducted on inertial collectors, precipitators and bag filters. The Environmental Protection Authority of Victoria has established a particulate emission level of 0.150 grams/m{sup 3} n.t.p. dry for recent Latrobe Valley boilers. However, the mandated emission level takes into account wide variations in operating conditions, and the plants normally achieve much lower emission levels. The Latrobe Valley plants presently in operation include Yallourn W (2x350 MW + 2x375 MW), Morwell (170 MW total and briquette factory), Hazelwood (8x200 MW) and Loy Yang (4x500 MW). The Yalloum W boilers are supplied with coal from the Yalloum Open Cut, the Morwell and Hazelwood boilers from the Morwell Open Cut and Loy Yang boilers from the Loy Yang Open Cut. All boilers are pulverized coal fired (PCF) and incorporate special firing equipment to enable the as-mined wet coal to be fired directly into the furnaces. All boilers are fitted with electrostatic precipitators. The locations of the stations and open cuts are shown.

Touzel, R.McD.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

493

Table A57. Capability to Switch from Coal to Alternative Energy Sources by  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7. Capability to Switch from Coal to Alternative Energy Sources by" 7. Capability to Switch from Coal to Alternative Energy Sources by" " Industry Group, Selected Industries, and Selected Characteristics, 1991 " " (Estimates in Thousand Short Tons)" " "," "," ", " "," "," Coal",,," Alternative Types of Energy(b)" " "," ","-","-","-------------","-","-","-","-","-","-","RSE" ,,"Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Natural","Distillate","Residual",,,"Row" ,,"Consumed(c)","Switchable","Switchable","Receipts(d)","Gas","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil","LPG","Other","Factors"

494

Moon Dust and Coal Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... SIR,-The similarity of the description of moon dust particles and that of pulverized coal ...coalash ...

D. J. THORNE; J. D. WATT

1969-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

495

Injury experience in coal mining, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. Data used in compiling this report were reported by operators of coal mines and preparation plants on a mandatory basis as required under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, Public Law 91-173,as amended by Public Law 95-164. Since January 1, 1978, operators of mines or preparation plants or both which are subject to the Act have been required under 30 CFR, Part 50, to submit reports of injuries, occupational illnesses, and related data.

Not Available

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

496

Annual Coal Report 2012  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual Coal Report 2012 Annual Coal Report 2012 December 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the Department of Energy or other Federal agencies. iii U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Contacts This publication was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). General information about the data in this report can be obtained from:

497