National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for nuclear chain reaction

  1. Polyneutron Chain Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John C. Fisher

    2000-11-12

    Although helium atoms do not form molecules, a sufficiently large number will bind into a stable liquid droplet. A comparable situation is expected for neutrons, with a sufficiently large number binding into a stable droplet of neutron matter. Such polyneutron droplets can be viewed as isotopes of an element with nuclear charge Z=0, tentatively denoted neutrium, symbol Nt. Because of the relatively weak binding of neutrons compared with that of a mix of neutrons and protons, the minimum number of neutrons required for stability of a droplet is fairly large. Early estimates of {approx}60 may be reduced to a dozen or so by the BCS pairing interaction. The Nt entries with N{>=}12 are new to the table of isotopes. Because all of them are beta-unstable, none is expected to persist as a free particle. Yet, some may occasionally be produced by means to be described below, and it is of interest to examine their decay chains and their interactions with charged nuclei to ascertain how their presence might be revealed. Although these reactions are interesting, they cannot be taken seriously without identifying a source for the initial Nt isotope that begins the chain. Here, we consider possible interactions between {sup 16}O and {sup A}Nt. Although there is no strong interaction between them, we can expect a very weak residual attraction that can form a loosely bound {sup 16}O {sup A}Nt nuclear molecule. This is not a compound nucleus in the usual sense because, considered as fluids, the {sup 16}O and {sup A}Nt droplets are immiscible. For a droplet with fewer than about 60 neutrons, beta decay of {sup A}Nt is prevented by the buildup of Coulomb energy associated with transforming {sup A}Nt into {sup A}H in close proximity to {sup 16}O. Thus, it is possible that {sup 16}O {sup A}Nt molecules can persist indefinitely and that a few of them may be present in ordinary water as supermassive oxygen nuclei. Because the binding of these molecules is weak, the {sup A}Nt component can tunnel to an adjacent nucleus, and if the adjacent nucleus is {sup 18}O, a chain reaction can begin. The circumstances under which it can develop to produce macroscopic consequences depend on the mix of reactants and upon the appropriate removal of poisons and addition of fresh reactants to the reaction volume. With the proper conditions, there can be generation of sensible excess energy, helium, and other reaction products associated with the various cold fusion reactions.

  2. Nuclear Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. A. Bertulani

    2010-07-14

    Nuclear reactions generate energy in nuclear reactors, in stars, and are responsible for the existence of all elements heavier than hydrogen in the universe. Nuclear reactions denote reactions between nuclei, and between nuclei and other fundamental particles, such as electrons and photons. A short description of the conservation laws and the definition of basic physical quantities is presented, followed by a more detailed account of specific cases: (a) formation and decay of compound nuclei; (b)direct reactions; (c) photon and electron scattering; (d) heavy ion collisions; (e) formation of a quark-gluon plasma; (f) thermonuclear reactions; (g) and reactions with radioactive beams. Whenever necessary, basic equations are introduced to help understand general properties of these reactions. Published in Wiley Encyclopedia of Physics, ISBN-13: 978-3-527-40691-3 - Wiley-VCH, Berlin, 2009.

  3. Nukes (notes on PFFP) Chain reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Browder, Tom

    weapons and nuclear power reactors. #12;Chain reactions in nuclear fission bomb Note the number = 8, 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 =16.....210=1024, ......264~1019 Will discuss and compare some aspects of nuclear that can be created in nuclear reactors. Z=94, A =239 There are 94 protons and 145 neutrons in Pu-239

  4. Nuclear Reactions Some Basics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilfoyle, Jerry

    Nuclear Reactions Some Basics I. Reaction Cross Sections #12;Common Units in Nuclear Physics sphere: = (4r2)/r2 = 4 (sr)steradians r A 2 = (r)radians r s = r A O s r O #12;Types of Nuclear Reactions · When a particle strikes a nucleus, the resulting interaction is referred to as a "nuclear

  5. Neutrino nuclear response and photo nuclear reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Ejiri; A. I. Titov; M. Boswell; A. Young

    2013-11-10

    Photo nuclear reactions are shown to be used for studying neutrino/weak nuclear responses involved in astro-neutrino nuclear interactions and double beta decays. Charged current weak responses for ground and excited states are studied by using photo nuclear reactions through isobaric analog states of those states, while neutral current weak responses for excited states are studied by using photo nuclear reactions through the excited states. The weak interaction strengths are studied by measuring the cross sections of the photo nuclear reactions, and the spin and parity of the state are studied by measuring angular correlations of particles emitted from the photo nuclear reactions. Medium-energy polarized photons obtained from laser photons scattered off GeV electrons are very useful. Nuclear responses studied by photo nuclear reactions are used to evaluate neutrino/weak nuclear responses, i.e. nuclear beta and double beta matrix elements and neutrino nuclear interactions, and to verify theoretical calculations for them.

  6. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Lecture 11-VI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Nathanael J.

    NUCLEAR REACTIONS Lecture 11-VI #12;General setup 2 Radioactive decay ­ a nucleus spontaneously decays. The only particle present before the decay is the parent nucleus. Nuclear reaction ­ an incident shorthand for nuclear reactions Examples Write the following reactions using the shorthand notation. (Note

  7. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CERN. Geneva; Faccini, R.

    2014-01-01

    After an introduction to the controversial problem of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) catalyzed by neutrons on metallic hydride surfaces we present the results of an experiment, made in collaboration with ENEA Labs in Frascati, to search neutrons from plasma discharges in electrolytic cells. The negative outcome of our experiment goes in the direction of ruling out those theoretical models expecting LENR to occur in condensed matter systems under specific conditions. Our criticism on the theoretical foundations of such models will also be presented.

  8. Nuclear reactions and nuclear ssion March 19, 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landstreet, John D.

    Nuclear reactions and nuclear ¯ssion March 19, 2002 1 Cross sections and reaction rates ² Consider

  9. Nuclear Reactions & Scaling Arguments 11 October 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Militzer, Burkhard

    Nuclear Reactions & Scaling Arguments 11 October 2011 Goals · Review nuclear reaction rates · Practice using scaling arguments Nuclear Reactions 1. Consider the simple reaction A k1 ---- B k2 ---- C = 3. #12;nuclear reactions & scaling arguments 2 3. Frequently, we approximate nuclear reaction rates

  10. Dual phase multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pemov, Alexander (Charlottesville, VA); Bavykin, Sergei (Darien, IL)

    2008-10-07

    Highly specific and sensitive methods were developed for multiplex amplification of nucleic acids on supports such as microarrays. Based on a specific primer design, methods include five types of amplification that proceed in a reaction chamber simultaneously. These relate to four types of multiplex amplification of a target DNA on a solid support, directed by forward and reverse complex primers immobilized to the support and a fifth type--pseudo-monoplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of multiple targets in solution, directed by a single pair of unbound universal primers. The addition of the universal primers in the reaction mixture increases the yield over the traditional "bridge" amplification on a solid support by approximately ten times. Methods that provide multitarget amplification and detection of as little as 0.45-4.5.times.10.sup.-12 g (equivalent to 10.sup.2-10.sup.3 genomes) of a bacterial genomic DNA are disclosed.

  11. Integrated polymerase chain reaction/electrophoresis instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andresen, Brian D. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A new approach and instrument for field identification of micro-organisms and DNA fragments using a small and disposable device containing integrated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) enzymatic reaction wells, attached capillary electrophoresis (CE) channels, detectors, and read-out all on/in a small hand-held package. The analysis instrument may be made inexpensively, for example, of plastic, and thus is disposable, which minimizes cross contamination and the potential for false positive identification between samples. In addition, it is designed for multiple users with individual applications. The integrated PCR/CE is manufactured by the PCR well and CE channels are "stamped" into plastic depressions where conductive coatings are made in the wells and ends of the CE microchannels to carry voltage and current to heat the PCR reaction mixtures and simultaneously draw DNA bands up the CE channels. Light is transmitted through the instrument at appropriate points and detects PCR bands and identifies DNA fragments by size (retention time) and quantifies each by the amount of light generated as each phototransistor positioned below each CE channel detects a passing band. The instrument is so compact that at least 100 PCR/CE reactions/analyses can be performed easily on one detection device.

  12. Nuclear Reactions & Scaling Arguments 11 October 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Militzer, Burkhard

    Nuclear Reactions & Scaling Arguments 11 October 2011 Goals · Review nuclear reaction rates · Practice using scaling arguments Nuclear Reactions 1. Consider the simple reaction A k1 ---- B k2 ---- C rate for something like p + p D scales like n2 p. Think in microscopic terms. #12;nuclear reactions

  13. Lesson 5 - Fission and Chain Reactions | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Specific topics covered in this lesson include: Fission Chain reaction Uranium fuel Mining Milling Enrichment Fuel fabrication Lesson 5 - Fission.pptx More Documents &...

  14. Continuous time Markov chain models for chemical reaction networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurtz, Tom

    Continuous time Markov chain models for chemical reaction networks David F. Anderson Departments Abstract A reaction network is a chemical system involving multiple reactions and chemical species exploit the representation of the stochastic equation for chemical reaction networks and, under what

  15. Nuclear Reactions at Intermediate Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyam, Radhey

    2015-01-01

    In the domain of Nuclear reactions at intermediate energies, the QCD coupling constant $\\alpha_s$ is large enough ($\\sim$ 0.3 - 0.5) to render the perturbative calculational techniques inapplicable. In this regime the quarks are confined into colorless hadrons and it is expected that effective field theories of hadron interactions via exchange of hadrons, provide useful tools to describe such reactions. In this contribution we discuss applications of one such theory, the effective Lagrangian model, in describing the hadronic reactions at intermediate energies whose measurements are the focus of a vast international experimental program.

  16. Nuclear Reactions from Lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raúl A. Briceño; Zohreh Davoudi; Thomas C. Luu

    2014-11-25

    One of the overarching goals of nuclear physics is to rigorously compute properties of hadronic systems directly from the fundamental theory of strong interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In particular, the hope is to perform reliable calculations of nuclear reactions which will impact our understanding of environments that occur during big bang nucleosynthesis, the evolution of stars and supernovae, and within nuclear reactors and high energy/density facilities. Such calculations, being truly ab initio, would include all two-nucleon and three- nucleon (and higher) interactions in a consistent manner. Currently, lattice QCD provides the only reliable option for performing calculations of some of the low- energy hadronic observables. With the aim of bridging the gap between lattice QCD and nuclear many-body physics, the Institute for Nuclear Theory held a workshop on Nuclear Reactions from Lattice QCD on March 2013. In this review article, we report on the topics discussed in this workshop and the path planned to move forward in the upcoming years.

  17. Nuclear reactions from lattice QCD

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Briceño, Raúl A.; Davoudi, Zohreh; Luu, Thomas C.

    2015-01-13

    In this study, one of the overarching goals of nuclear physics is to rigorously compute properties of hadronic systems directly from the fundamental theory of strong interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In particular, the hope is to perform reliable calculations of nuclear reactions which will impact our understanding of environments that occur during big bang nucleosynthesis, the evolution of stars and supernovae, and within nuclear reactors and high energy/density facilities. Such calculations, being truly ab initio, would include all two-nucleon and three- nucleon (and higher) interactions in a consistent manner. Currently, lattice QCD provides the only reliable option for performing calculationsmore »of some of the low-energy hadronic observables. With the aim of bridging the gap between lattice QCD and nuclear many-body physics, the Institute for Nuclear Theory held a workshop on Nuclear Reactions from Lattice QCD on March 2013. In this review article, we report on the topics discussed in this workshop and the path planned to move forward in the upcoming years.« less

  18. Nuclear reactions from lattice QCD

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Briceno, Raul A. [JLAB; Davoudi, Zohreh; Luu, Thomas C.

    2015-02-01

    One of the overarching goals of nuclear physics is to rigorously compute properties of hadronic systems directly from the fundamental theory of strong interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In particular, the hope is to perform reliable calculations of nuclear reactions which will impact our understanding of environments that occur during big bang nucleosynthesis, the evolution of stars and supernovae, and within nuclear reactors and high energy/density facilities. Such calculations, being truly ab initio, would include all two-nucleon and three- nucleon (and higher) interactions in a consistent manner. Currently, lattice QCD provides the only reliable option for performing calculations of some of the low- energy hadronic observables. With the aim of bridging the gap between lattice QCD and nuclear many-body physics, the Institute for Nuclear Theory held a workshop on Nuclear Reactions from Lattice QCD on March 2013. In this review article, we report on the topics discussed in this workshop and the path planned to move forward in the upcoming years.

  19. Direct mechanism in solar nuclear reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Oberhummer; G. Staudt

    1994-04-22

    A short overview of the direct reaction mechanism and the models used for the analysis of such processes is given. Nuclear reactions proceeding through the direct mechanism and involved in solar hydrogen burning are discussed. The significance of these nuclear reactions with respect to the solar neutrino problem is investigated.

  20. Elie: an event generator for nuclear reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominique Durand

    2008-03-14

    An event generator for the description of nuclear reactions in the Fermi energy range is briefly introduced and first comparisons with experimental data are shown.

  1. Mo Supply Chain for Nuclear Medicine Ladimer S. Nagurney

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    of considering waste management. Ladimer S. Nagurney The 99 Mo Supply Chain #12;Nuclear Medicine To createThe 99 Mo Supply Chain for Nuclear Medicine Ladimer S. Nagurney Department of Electrical November 13, 2012 #12;Nuclear Medicine: Meeting Patient Needs with 99 Mo Ladimer S. Nagurney The 99 Mo

  2. Securing the Sustainability of Global Medical Nuclear Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Medical Nuclear Supply Chains Through Economic Cost Recovery, Risk Management, and Optimization, to appear with associated increased volumes of waste. Indeed, according to Kramer (2011), the South African Nuclear EnergySecuring the Sustainability of Global Medical Nuclear Supply Chains Through Economic Cost Recovery

  3. The Polymerase Chain Reaction and Branching Processes Fengzhu Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Fengzhu - Sun, Fengzhu

    The Polymerase Chain Reaction and Branching Processes Fengzhu Sun Department of Mathematics, DRB is studied. We also study the distribution of the Hamming distance between two randomly chosen sequences long. The double-stranded DNA molecules are heated to near boiling temperature so that the double

  4. Polymerase chain reaction system using magnetic beads for analyzing a sample that includes nucleic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nasarabadi, Shanavaz (Livermore, CA)

    2011-01-11

    A polymerase chain reaction system for analyzing a sample containing nucleic acid includes providing magnetic beads; providing a flow channel having a polymerase chain reaction chamber, a pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber, and a post pre polymerase magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber. The nucleic acid is bound to the magnetic beads. The magnetic beads with the nucleic acid flow to the pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position in the flow channel. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are washed with ethanol. The nucleic acid in the polymerase chain reaction chamber is amplified. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are separated into a waste stream containing the magnetic beads and a post polymerase chain reaction mix containing the nucleic acid. The reaction mix containing the nucleic acid flows to an analysis unit in the channel for analysis.

  5. Nuclear Structure and Nuclear Reactions | Argonne Leadership...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    x2 - triaxiality, and x3 - pairing correlations. Calculations were carried out using nuclear density functional theory. The collective action was minimized using the dynamical...

  6. Calculation of nuclear reaction cross sections on excited nuclei...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Calculation of nuclear reaction cross sections on excited nuclei with the coupled-channels method Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Calculation of nuclear reaction cross...

  7. Nuclear waste vitrification efficiency: Cold cap reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cap reactions P. Hrma a, b, , A.A. Kruger c , R. Pokorny d a Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Republic of Korea b...

  8. Experimental nuclear reaction data collection EXFOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semkova, V.; Otuka, N.; Simakov, S. P.; Zerkin, V.

    2011-07-01

    The International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres (NRDC) constitutes a worldwide cooperation of 14 nuclear data centres. The main activity of the NRDC Network is collection and compilation of experimental nuclear reaction cross section data and the related bibliographic information in the EXFOR and CINDA databases as well as dissemination of nuclear reaction data and associated documentation to users. The database contains information and numerical data from more than about 19000 experiments consisting of more than 140000 datasets. EXFOR is kept up to date by constantly adding newly published experimental information. Tools developed for data dissemination utilise modern database technologies with fast online capabilities over the Internet. Users are provided with sophisticated search options, a user-friendly retrieval interface for downloading data in different formats, and additional output options such as improved data plotting capabilities. The present status of the EXFOR database will be presented together with the latest development for data access and retrieval. (authors)

  9. Transport-theoretical Description of Nuclear Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Buss; T. Gaitanos; K. Gallmeister; H. van Hees; M. Kaskulov; O. Lalakulich; A. B. Larionov; T. Leitner; J. Weil; U. Mosel

    2012-02-02

    In this review we first outline the basics of transport theory and its recent generalization to off-shell transport. We then present in some detail the main ingredients of any transport method using in particular the Giessen Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (GiBUU) implementation of this theory as an example. We discuss the potentials used, the ground state initialization and the collision term, including the in-medium modifications of the latter. The central part of this review covers applications of GiBUU to a wide class of reactions, starting from pion-induced reactions over proton and antiproton reactions on nuclei to heavy-ion collisions (up to about 30 AGeV). A major part concerns also the description of photon-, electron- and neutrino-induced reactions (in the energy range from a few 100 MeV to a few 100 GeV). For this wide class of reactions GiBUU gives an excellent description with the same physics input and the same code being used. We argue that GiBUU is an indispensable tool for any investigation of nuclear reactions in which final-state interactions play a role. Studies of pion-nucleus interactions, nuclear fragmentation, heavy ion reactions, hyper nucleus formation, hadronization, color transparency, electron-nucleus collisions and neutrino-nucleus interactions are all possible applications of GiBUU and are discussed in this article.

  10. Nuclear Reactions For Nucleosynthesis Beyond Fe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rauscher, T

    2015-01-01

    Many more nuclear transitions have to be known in the determination of stellar reactivities for trans-iron nucleosynthesis than for reactions of light nuclei. This requires different theoretical and experimental approaches. Some of the issues specific for trans-iron nucleosynthesis are discussed.

  11. Nuclear Reactions For Nucleosynthesis Beyond Fe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Rauscher

    2015-08-26

    Many more nuclear transitions have to be known in the determination of stellar reactivities for trans-iron nucleosynthesis than for reactions of light nuclei. This requires different theoretical and experimental approaches. Some of the issues specific for trans-iron nucleosynthesis are discussed.

  12. Nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction cancer detection method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belinsky, Steven A. (Albuquerque, NM); Palmisano, William A. (Edgewood, NM)

    2007-05-08

    A molecular marker-based method for monitoring and detecting cancer in humans. Aberrant methylation of gene promoters is a marker for cancer risk in humans. A two-stage, or "nested" polymerase chain reaction method is disclosed for detecting methylated DNA sequences at sufficiently high levels of sensitivity to permit cancer screening in biological fluid samples, such as sputum, obtained non-invasively. The method is for detecting the aberrant methylation of the p16 gene, O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene, Death-associated protein kinase gene, RAS-associated family 1 gene, or other gene promoters. The method offers a potentially powerful approach to population-based screening for the detection of lung and other cancers.

  13. Forging the Link between Nuclear Reactions and Nuclear Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickhoff, W H

    2015-01-01

    A review of the recent applications of the dispersive optical model (DOM) is presented. Emphasis is on the nonlocal implementation of the DOM that is capable of describing ground-state properties accurately when data like the nuclear charge density are available. The DOM, conceived by Claude Mahaux, provides a unified description of both elastic nucleon scattering and structure information related to single-particle properties below the Fermi energy. We have recently introduced a nonlocal dispersive optical potential for both the real and imaginary part. Nonlocal absorptive potentials yield equivalent elastic differential cross sections for ${}^{40}$Ca as compared to local ones but change the $\\ell$-dependent absorption profile suggesting important consequences for the analysis of nuclear reactions. Below the Fermi energy, nonlocality is essential for an accurate representation of particle number and the nuclear charge density. Spectral properties implied by $(e,e'p)$ and $(p,2p)$ reactions are correctly desc...

  14. Enhancement Mechanisms of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gareev, F A

    2005-01-01

    The review of possible stimulation mechanisms of LENR (low energy nuclear reaction) is represented. We have concluded that transmutation of nuclei at low energies and excess heat are possible in the framework of the modern physical theory - the universal resonance synchronization principle [1] and based on its different enhancement mechanisms of reaction rates are responsible for these processes [2]. The excitation and ionization of atoms may play role as a trigger for LENR. Superlow energy of external fields may stimulate LENR [3]. Investigation of this phenomenon requires knowledge of different branches of science: nuclear and atomic physics, chemistry and electrochemistry, condensed matter and solid state physics,... The results of this research field can provide a new source of energy, substances and technologies. The puzzle of poor reproducibility of experimental data is due to the fact that LENR occurs in open systems and it is extremely sensitive to parameters of external fields and systems. Classical ...

  15. maritime supply chain | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (DOENNSA) and the U.K. Department of Energy and Climate Change concluded a workshop at Wilton Park, About This Site Budget IG Web Policy...

  16. Nuclear reactions in hot stellar matter and nuclear surface deformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Yu. Denisov

    2006-11-13

    Cross-sections for capture reactions of charged particles in hot stellar matter turn out be increased by the quadrupole surface oscillations, if the corresponding phonon energies are of the order of the star temperature. The increase is studied in a model that combines barrier distribution induced by surface oscillations and tunneling. The capture of charged particles by nuclei with well-deformed ground-state is enhanced in stellar matter. It is found that the influence of quadrupole surface deformation on the nuclear reactions in stars grows, when mass and proton numbers in colliding nuclei increase.

  17. Investigations of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions induced by complex projectiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarantites, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in the following areas: nuclear structure; fusion reactions near and below the barrier; incomplete fusion and fragmentation reactions; and instrumentation and analysis. (LSP).

  18. Enhancement Mechanisms of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. A. Gareev; I. E. Zhidkova

    2005-05-08

    The review of possible stimulation mechanisms of LENR (low energy nuclear reaction) is represented. We have concluded that transmutation of nuclei at low energies and excess heat are possible in the framework of the modern physical theory - the universal resonance synchronization principle [1] and based on its different enhancement mechanisms of reaction rates are responsible for these processes [2]. The excitation and ionization of atoms may play role as a trigger for LENR. Superlow energy of external fields may stimulate LENR [3]. Investigation of this phenomenon requires knowledge of different branches of science: nuclear and atomic physics, chemistry and electrochemistry, condensed matter and solid state physics,... The results of this research field can provide a new source of energy, substances and technologies. The puzzle of poor reproducibility of experimental data is due to the fact that LENR occurs in open systems and it is extremely sensitive to parameters of external fields and systems. Classical reproducibility principle should be reconsidered for LENR experiments. Poor reproducibility and unexplained results do not means that the experiment is wrong. Our main conclusions:

  19. Forging the Link between Nuclear Reactions and Nuclear Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. H. Dickhoff

    2015-12-21

    A review of the recent applications of the dispersive optical model (DOM) is presented. Emphasis is on the nonlocal implementation of the DOM that is capable of describing ground-state properties accurately when data like the nuclear charge density are available. The DOM, conceived by Claude Mahaux, provides a unified description of both elastic nucleon scattering and structure information related to single-particle properties below the Fermi energy. We have recently introduced a nonlocal dispersive optical potential for both the real and imaginary part. Nonlocal absorptive potentials yield equivalent elastic differential cross sections for ${}^{40}$Ca as compared to local ones but change the $\\ell$-dependent absorption profile suggesting important consequences for the analysis of nuclear reactions. Below the Fermi energy, nonlocality is essential for an accurate representation of particle number and the nuclear charge density. Spectral properties implied by $(e,e'p)$ and $(p,2p)$ reactions are correctly described, including the energy distribution of about 10\\% high-momentum protons obtained at Jefferson Lab. The nonlocal DOM allows a complete description of experimental data both above (up to 200 MeV) and below the Fermi energy in $^{40}$Ca. It is further demonstrated that elastic nucleon-nucleus scattering data constrain the spectral strength in the continuum of orbits that are nominally bound in the independent-particle model. Extension of this analysis to $^{48}$Ca allows a prediction of the neutron skin of this nucleus that is larger than most predictions made so far.

  20. Numerical simulations for low energy nuclear reactions including...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Numerical simulations for low energy nuclear reactions including direct channels to validate statistical models Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Numerical simulations for...

  1. Model microfluidic platform prototyping : design and fabrication of a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) chip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Sumeet, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a molecular biology method for the in vitro amplification of nucleic acid molecules, which has wide applications in the areas of genetics, medicine and biochemistry. MEMS technology offers ...

  2. DSS-mediated Inhibition of Quantitative Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaur, Jaspreet

    2011-08-04

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including ulcerative colitis (UC), is on the rise. UC is modeled in rodents by the consumption of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a...

  3. Detection of Rhodococcus equi by polymerase chain reaction using species-specific, non-proprietary primers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arriaga, Jose Miguel

    2002-01-01

    Species-specific primers for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of Rhodococcus equi were developed. These primers were based on unique DNA fragments produced from R. equi reference strains and field isolates. Following random...

  4. Theoretical Study of Chain Transfer to Solvent Reactions of Alkyl Nazanin Moghadam,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rappe, Andrew M.

    to the oxygen atom in n-butanol, from the methylene group in MEK, and from a methyl group in p-xylene by a live(d,p), 6-311G(d), and 6-311G(d,p)) is investigated. Among n-butanol, sec-butanol, and tert- butanol, tert of chain transfer to n-butanol reactions compared to those of chain transfer to MEK and p-xylene reactions

  5. NUCLEAR WASTE VITRIFICATION EFFICIENCY COLD CAP REACTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR; POKORNY R

    2011-07-29

    The cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization are greatly affected by the rate of glass production. Various factors influence the performance of a waste-glass melter. One of the most significant, and also one of the least understood, is the process of batch melting. Studies are being conducted to gain fundamental understanding of the batch reactions, particularly those that influence the rate of melting, and models are being developed to link batch makeup and melter operation to the melting rate. Batch melting takes place within the cold cap, i.e., a batch layer floating on the surface of molten glass. The conversion of batch to glass consists of various chemical reactions, phase transitions, and diffusion-controlled processes. These include water evaporation (slurry feed contains as high as 60% water), gas evolution, the melting of salts, the formation of borate melt, reactions of borate melt with molten salts and with amorphous oxides (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), the formation of intermediate crystalline phases, the formation of a continuous glass-forming melt, the growth and collapse of primary foam, and the dissolution of residual solids. To this list we also need to add the formation of secondary foam that originates from molten glass but accumulates on the bottom of the cold cap. This study presents relevant data obtained for a high-level-waste melter feed and introduces a one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model of the cold cap as a step toward an advanced three-dimensional (3D) version for a complete model of the waste glass melter. The 1D model describes the batch-to-glass conversion within the cold cap as it progresses in a vertical direction. With constitutive equations and key parameters based on measured data, and simplified boundary conditions on the cold-cap interfaces with the glass melt and the plenum space of the melter, the model provides sensitivity analysis of the response of the cold cap to the batch makeup and melter conditions. The model demonstrates that batch foaming has a decisive influence on the rate of melting. Understanding the dynamics of the foam layer at the bottom of the cold cap and the heat transfer through it appears crucial for a reliable prediction of the rate of melting as a function of the melter-feed makeup and melter operation parameters. Although the study is focused on a batch for waste vitrification, the authors expect that the outcome will also be relevant for commercial glass melting.

  6. Nuclear waste vitrification efficiency: cold cap reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Kruger, Albert A.; Pokorny, Richard

    2012-12-15

    The cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization are greatly affected by the rate of glass production. Various factors influence the performance of a waste-glass melter. One of the most significant, and also one of the least understood, is the process of batch melting. Studies are being conducted to gain fundamental understanding of the batch reactions, particularly those that influence the rate of melting, and models are being developed to link batch makeup and melter operation to the melting rate. Batch melting takes place within the cold cap, i.e., a batch layer floating on the surface of molten glass. The conversion of batch to glass consists of various chemical reactions, phase transitions, and diffusion-controlled processes. These include water evaporation (slurry feed contains as high as 60% water), gas evolution, the melting of salts, the formation of borate melt, reactions of borate melt with molten salts and with amorphous oxides (Fe2O3 and Al2O3), the formation of intermediate crystalline phases, the formation of a continuous glass-forming melt, the growth and collapse of primary foam, and the dissolution of residual solids. To this list we also need to add the formation of secondary foam that originates from molten glass but accumulates on the bottom of the cold cap. This study presents relevant data obtained for a high-level-waste melter feed and introduces a one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model of the cold cap as a step toward an advanced three-dimensional (3D) version for a complete model of the waste glass melter. The 1D model describes the batch-to-glass conversion within the cold cap as it progresses in a vertical direction. With constitutive equations and key parameters based on measured data, and simplified boundary conditions on the cold-cap interfaces with the glass melt and the plenum space of the melter, the model provides sensitivity analysis of the response of the cold cap to the batch makeup and melter conditions. The model demonstrates that batch foaming has a decisive influence on the rate of melting. Understanding the dynamics of the foam layer at the bottom of the cold cap and the heat transfer through it appears crucial for a reliable prediction of the rate of melting as a function of the melter-feed makeup and melter operation parameters. Although the study is focused on a batch for waste vitrification, the authors expect that the outcome will also be relevant for commercial glass melting.

  7. PHYSICS OF NUCLEAR REACTORS Nuclear reactions and cross sections 1-10

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    PHYSICS OF NUCLEAR REACTORS Nuclear reactions and cross sections 1-10 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 neutron wavelength, D is given by: cE mM Mm 2 + = h D , (1.22) 1 Bell and Glasstone, Nuclear Reactor Theory, p. 392, 1970. #12;PHYSICS OF NUCLEAR REACTORS Nuclear reactions and cross sections 1-11 Where m

  8. On "Sub-Threshold" Reactions Involving Nuclear Fission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Goldhaber; R. Shrock

    2000-11-29

    We analyze reactions of several types that are naively below threshold but can proceed because of the release of binding energy from nuclear fission and occasionally the formation of Coulombic bound states. These reactions include (i) photofission with pion production and (ii) charged current neutrino-nucleus reactions that lead to fission and/or formation of a Coulomb bound state of a $\\mu^-$ with the nucleus of a fission fragment. We comment on the possible experimental observation of these reactions.

  9. VII. Nuclear Chemistry (Chapter 17) A. Modes of radioactive decay, nuclear reactions, fission, fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    40 VII. Nuclear Chemistry (Chapter 17) A. Modes of radioactive decay, nuclear reactions, fission #12;41 These masses are not exactly integer multiples due to nuclear interactions between the protons differences via the famous formula E = mc2 . Nuclear Fusion! For example, if you combine 2 protons and two

  10. Charged-Particle Thermonuclear Reaction Rates: III. Nuclear Physics Input

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Iliadis; Richard Longland; Art Champagne; Alain Coc

    2010-04-23

    The nuclear physics input used to compute the Monte Carlo reaction rates and probability density functions that are tabulated in the second paper of this series (Paper II) is presented. Specifically, we publish the input files to the Monte Carlo reaction rate code RatesMC, which is based on the formalism presented in the first paper of this series (Paper I). This data base contains overwhelmingly experimental nuclear physics information. The survey of literature for this review was concluded in November 2009.

  11. Three-body direct nuclear reactions: Nonlocal optical potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Deltuva

    2009-02-05

    The calculations of three-body direct nuclear reactions with nonlocal optical potentials are performed for the first time using the framework of Faddeev-type scattering equations. Important nonlocality effect is found for transfer reactions like d+16O -> p + 17O often improving the description of the experimental data.

  12. Nuclear Many-Body Physics Where Structure And Reactions Meet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naureen Ahsan; Alexander Volya

    2009-06-24

    The path from understanding a simple reaction problem of scattering or tunneling to contemplating the quantum nuclear many-body system, where structure and continuum of reaction-states meet, overlap and coexist, is a complex and nontrivial one. In this presentation we discuss some of the intriguing aspects of this route.

  13. Method of carbon chain extension using novel aldol reaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silks, Louis A; Gordon, John C; Wu, Ruilan; Hanson, Susan Kloek

    2013-07-30

    Method of producing C.sub.8-C.sub.15 hydrocarbons. comprising providing a ketone starting material; providing an aldol starting material comprising chloromethylfurfural; mixing the ketone starting material and the aldol starting material in a reaction in the presence of a proline-containing catalyst selected from the group consisting of Zn(Pro).sub.2, Yb(Pro).sub.3, and combinations thereof, or a catalyst having one of the structures (I), (II) or (III), and in the presence of a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises water and is substantially free of organic solvents, where (I), (II) and (III) respectively are: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1 is a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl moiety, X=(OH) and n=2. ##STR00002## In (III), X may be CH.sub.2, sulfur or selenium, M may be Zn, Mg, or a lanthanide, and R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently may be a methyl, ethyl, phenyl moiety.

  14. Method of carbon chain extension using novel aldol reaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silks, Louis A; Gordon, John C; Wu, Ruilan; Hangson, Susan Kloek

    2013-08-13

    Method of producing C.sub.8-C.sub.15 hydrocarbons comprising providing a ketone starting material; providing an aldol starting material comprising hydroxymethylfurfural; mixing the ketone starting material and the aldol starting material in a reaction in the presence of a proline-containing catalyst selected from the group consisting of Zn(Pro).sub.2, Yb(Pro).sub.2, and combinations thereof, or a catalyst having one of the structures (I), (II) or (III), and in the presence of a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises water and is substantially free of organic solvents, where (I), (II) and (III) respectively are: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1 is a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl moiety, X=(OH) and n=2. ##STR00002## In (III), X may be CH.sub.2, sulfur or selenium, M may be Zn, Mg, or a lanthanide, and R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently may be a methyl, ethyl, phenyl moiety.

  15. Molecular Beacons: A Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Detecting Salmonella

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wilfred

    Molecular Beacons: A Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Detecting Salmonella Wilfred, enabling fast and direct detection of Salmonella in a semiautomated format. © 2000 Academic Press Salmonella is an important food- and water-borne pathogen associated with acute gastrointestinal ill- nesses

  16. Use of pooled samples for the detection of Salmonella in feces by polymerase chain reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Randall

    Use of pooled samples for the detection of Salmonella in feces by polymerase chain reaction Randall epidemiological studies of Salmonella rely on conventional bacteriological culture methods to detect Salmonella with a low prevalence of Salmonella. The objective of this study was to optimize a protocol that uses pooled

  17. Reduction of DNA contamination in RNA samples for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using selective precipitation by compaction agents.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, George

    Reduction of DNA contamination in RNA samples for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is DNA contamination, which can produce artifactually increased mRNA concentration. Current methods to eliminate contaminating DNA can compromise

  18. Direct reactions for nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Katherine Louise

    2014-12-18

    Direct reactions are powerful probes for studying the atomic nucleus. Modern direct reaction studies are illuminating both the fundamental nature of the nucleus and its role in nucleosynthetic processes occurring in the cosmos. This report covers experiments using knockout reactions on neutron-deficient fragmentation beams, transfer reactions on fission fragment beams, and theoretical sensitivity studies relating to the astrophysical r-process. Results from experiments on 108,106Sn at the NSCL, and on 131Sn at HRIBF are presented as well as the results from the nucleosynthesis study.

  19. Theoretical studies in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Research in the Maryland Nuclear Theory Group focusses on problems in four basic areas of current relevance. Hadrons in nuclear matter; the structure of hadrons; relativistic nuclear physics and heavy ion dynamics and related processes. The section on hadrons in nuclear matter groups together research items which are aimed at exploring ways in which the properties of nucleons and the mesons which play a role in the nuclear force are modified in the nuclear medium. A very interesting result has been the finding that QCD sum rules supply a new insight into the decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium. The quark condensate, which characterizes spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of the late QCD vacuum, decreases in nuclear matter and this is responsible for the decrease of the nucleon`s mass. The section on the structure of hadrons contains progress reports on our research aimed at understanding the structure of the nucleon. Widely different approaches are being studied, e.g., lattice gauge calculations, QCD sum rules, quark-meson models with confinement and other hedgehog models. A major goal of this type of research is to develop appropriate links between nuclear physics and QCD. The section on relativistic nuclear physics represents our continuing interest in developing an appropriate relativistic framework for nuclear dynamics. A Lorentz-invariant description of the nuclear force suggests a similar decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium as has been found from QCD sum rules. Work in progress extends previous successes in elastic scattering to inelastic scattering of protons by nuclei. The section on heavy ion dynamics and related processes reports on research into the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} problem and heavy ion dynamics.

  20. Theoretical studies in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Research in the Maryland Nuclear Theory Group focusses on problems in four basic areas of current relevance. Hadrons in nuclear matter; the structure of hadrons; relativistic nuclear physics and heavy ion dynamics and related processes. The section on hadrons in nuclear matter groups together research items which are aimed at exploring ways in which the properties of nucleons and the mesons which play a role in the nuclear force are modified in the nuclear medium. A very interesting result has been the finding that QCD sum rules supply a new insight into the decrease of the nucleon's mass in the nuclear medium. The quark condensate, which characterizes spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of the late QCD vacuum, decreases in nuclear matter and this is responsible for the decrease of the nucleon's mass. The section on the structure of hadrons contains progress reports on our research aimed at understanding the structure of the nucleon. Widely different approaches are being studied, e.g., lattice gauge calculations, QCD sum rules, quark-meson models with confinement and other hedgehog models. A major goal of this type of research is to develop appropriate links between nuclear physics and QCD. The section on relativistic nuclear physics represents our continuing interest in developing an appropriate relativistic framework for nuclear dynamics. A Lorentz-invariant description of the nuclear force suggests a similar decrease of the nucleon's mass in the nuclear medium as has been found from QCD sum rules. Work in progress extends previous successes in elastic scattering to inelastic scattering of protons by nuclei. The section on heavy ion dynamics and related processes reports on research into the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} problem and heavy ion dynamics.

  1. Enrico Fermi Achieves First Self Sustain Nuclear Chain Reaction | National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunities EnergyU.S.Engineering Metal(2) Cu (3) OEnolEnol

  2. On the nuclear interaction. Potential, binding energy and fusion reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Casinos

    2008-05-22

    The nuclear interaction is responsible for keeping neutrons and protons joined in an atomic nucleus. Phenomenological nuclear potentials, fitted to experimental data, allow one to know about the nuclear behaviour with more or less success where quantum mechanics is hard to be used. A nuclear potential is suggested and an expression for the potential energy of two nuclear entities, either nuclei or nucleons, is developed. In order to estimate parameters in this expression, some nucleon additions to nuclei are considered and a model is suggested as a guide of the addition process. Coulomb barrier and energy for the addition of a proton to each one of several nuclei are estimated by taking into account both the nuclear and electrostatic components of energy. Studies on the binding energies of several nuclei and on the fusion reaction of two nuclei are carried out.

  3. Pairing Effects in Nuclear Fusion Reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuichiro Ebata; Takashi Nakatsukasa

    2013-09-29

    We simulate a heavy-ion collision using the canonical-basis time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory (Cb-TDHFB) treating pairing correlation in the three-dimensional coordinate space. We apply the Cb-TDHFB to 22O+22O collision with a contact-type pairing energy functional, and compare results of Cb-TDHFB and TDHF to investigate the effects of pairing correlations in nuclear fusion. Our results seem to indicate that pairing effects do not increase the fusion cross section in this system.

  4. Spin observables in three-body direct nuclear reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Deltuva

    2009-03-22

    Direct nuclear reactions $\\vec{d}+A$ and $\\vec{p}+(An)$ are described in the framework of three-body Faddeev-type equations. Differential cross section and analyzing powers are calculated using several optical potential models and compared with the experimental data. Quite satisfactory agreement is found except for few systematic discrepancies.

  5. Do nuclear reactions take place under chemical stimulation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bockris, J.O.; Lin, G.H.; Bush, R.T.

    1996-09-01

    Several examples of nuclear reactions occurring under the stimulation of chemical type energies are given. The production of tritium from deuterium in Pd has more than 100 published confirmations. Three models suggest circumstances such that barriers between nucleii may become transparent. 24 refs.

  6. Nuclear fusion in dense matter: Reaction rate and carbon burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. R. Gasques; A. V. Afanasjev; E. F. Aguilera; M. Beard; L. C. Chamon; P. Ring; M. Wiescher; D. G. Yakovlev

    2005-06-16

    In this paper we analyze the nuclear fusion rate between equal nuclei for all five different nuclear burning regimes in dense matter (two thermonuclear regimes, two pycnonuclear ones, and the intermediate regime). The rate is determined by Coulomb barrier penetration in dense environments and by the astrophysical S-factor at low energies. We evaluate previous studies of the Coulomb barrier problem and propose a simple phenomenological formula for the reaction rate which covers all cases. The parameters of this formula can be varied, taking into account current theoretical uncertainties in the reaction rate. The results are illustrated for the example of the ^{12}C+^{12}C fusion reaction. This reaction is very important for the understanding of nuclear burning in evolved stars, in exploding white dwarfs producing type Ia supernovae, and in accreting neutron stars. The S-factor at stellar energies depends on a reliable fit and extrapolation of the experimental data. We calculate the energy dependence of the S-factor using a recently developed parameter-free model for the nuclear interaction, taking into account the effects of the Pauli nonlocality. For illustration, we analyze the efficiency of carbon burning in a wide range of densities and temperatures of stellar matter with the emphasis on carbon ignition at densities rho > 10^9 g/cc.

  7. Sigma: Web Retrieval Interface for Nuclear Reaction Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pritychenko,B.; Sonzogni, A.A.

    2008-06-24

    The authors present Sigma, a Web-rich application which provides user-friendly access in processing and plotting of the evaluated and experimental nuclear reaction data stored in the ENDF-6 and EXFOR formats. The main interface includes browsing using a periodic table and a directory tree, basic and advanced search capabilities, interactive plots of cross sections, angular distributions and spectra, comparisons between evaluated and experimental data, computations between different cross section sets. Interactive energy-angle, neutron cross section uncertainties plots and visualization of covariance matrices are under development. Sigma is publicly available at the National Nuclear Data Center website at www.nndc.bnl.gov/sigma.

  8. Medical Nuclear Supply Chain Design: A Tractable Network Model and Computational

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    importance of considering waste management. Anna Nagurney and Ladimer S. Nagurney Medical Nuclear SupplyMedical Nuclear Supply Chain Design: A Tractable Network Model and Computational Approach Anna Nagurney1 and Ladimer S. Nagurney2 1John F. Smith Memorial Professor - Isenberg School of Management

  9. Medical Nuclear Supply Chain Design: A Tractable Network Model and Computational Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    operational cost minimization, and the minimization of cost associated with nuclear waste discarding, coupled, the underlying physics of radioactive decay, and the inclusion of waste management. We focus on Molybdenum-99 dueMedical Nuclear Supply Chain Design: A Tractable Network Model and Computational Approach Anna

  10. Medical Nuclear Supply Chain Design: A Tractable Network Model and Computational

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    . Technetium, 99mTc, which is a decay product of Molybdenum, 99Mo, is the most commonly used medical the conduits for products used in nuclear medical imaging, which is routinely utilized by physicians of transportation can be used at this stage. Anna Nagurney and Ladimer S. Nagurney Medical Nuclear Supply Chain

  11. Monitoring Acidophilic Microbes with Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Assays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank F. Roberto

    2008-08-01

    Many techniques that are used to characterize and monitor microbial populations associated with sulfide mineral bioleaching require the cultivation of the organisms on solid or liquid media. Chemolithotrophic species, such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, or thermophilic chemolithotrophs, such as Acidianus brierleyi and Sulfolobus solfataricus can grow quite slowly, requiring weeks to complete efforts to identify and quantify these microbes associated with bioleach samples. Real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assays in which DNA targets are amplified in the presence of fluorescent oligonucleotide primers, allowing the monitoring and quantification of the amplification reactions as they progress, provide a means of rapidly detecting the presence of microbial species of interest, and their relative abundance in a sample. This presentation will describe the design and use of such assays to monitor acidophilic microbes in the environment and in bioleaching operations. These assays provide results within 2-3 hours, and can detect less than 100 individual microbial cells.

  12. A Rapid Micro Polymerase Chain Reaction System (GenSpector Micro PCR) for Hepatitis B Virus DNA Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oh, Kwang W.

    A Rapid Micro Polymerase Chain Reaction System (GenSpector® Micro PCR) for Hepatitis B Virus DNA reaction) system (GenSpector® Micro PCR) for the application of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA detection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA detection [1]. Silicon micromachining technology has been utilized

  13. Development of a polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of antibiotic resistance genes in community DNA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Randall

    Development of a polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of antibiotic resistance genes in community DNA Sheila K. Patterson, Randall S. Singer Abstract. Many methods are used to detect antibiotic reaction (PCR) analysis of community DNA with fecal culturing for detecting antibiotic resistance genes

  14. Thermal distributions in stellar plasmas, nuclear reactions and solar neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Coraddu; G. Kaniadakis; A. Lavagno; M. Lissia; G. Mezzorani; P. Quarati

    1998-11-24

    The physics of nuclear reactions in stellar plasma is reviewed with special emphasis on the importance of the velocity distribution of ions. Then the properties (density and temperature) of the weak-coupled solar plasma are analysed, showing that the ion velocities should deviate from the Maxwellian distribution and could be better described by a weakly-nonexstensive (|q-1|solar neutrino fluxes, and on the pp neutrino energy spectrum, and analyse the consequences for the solar neutrino problem.

  15. Complex signal amplitude analysis for complete fusion nuclear reaction products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. S. Tsyganov

    2015-06-07

    A complex analysis has been performed on the energy amplitude signals corresponding to events of Z=117 element measured in the 249Bk+48Ca complete fusion nuclear reaction. These signals were detected with PIPS position sensitive detector. The significant values of pulse height defect both for recoils (ER) and fission fragments (FF) were measured. Comparison with the computer simulations and empirical formulae has been performed both for ER and FF signals.

  16. Complex signal amplitude analysis for complete fusion nuclear reaction products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsyganov, Yu S

    2015-01-01

    A complex analysis has been performed on the energy amplitude signals corresponding to events of Z=117 element measured in the 249Bk+48Ca complete fusion nuclear reaction. These signals were detected with PIPS position sensitive detector. The significant values of pulse height defect both for recoils (ER) and fission fragments (FF) were measured. Comparison with the computer simulations and empirical formulae has been performed both for ER and FF signals.

  17. Experimental Observation of Nuclear Reactions in Palladium and Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Dufour; D. Murat; X. Dufour; J. Foos

    2001-11-12

    By submitting various metals (Pd, U) containing hydrogen (from 2000 to 700 000 atoms of hydrogen for 1 000 000 atoms of the host metal) to the combined action of electrical currents and magnetic fields, we have observed a sizeable exothermal effect (from 0.1 to 8 W for 500 mg of metal used). This effect is beyond experimental errors, the energy output being typically 130 to 250{percent} of the energy input and not of chemical origin (exothermal effect in the range of 7000 MJ/mol of metal in the case of palladium and of 60 MJ/mol in the case of uranium). New chemical species also appear in the processes metals. It has been shown by a QED calculation that resonances of long lifetime (s), nuclear dimensions (fm), and low energy of formation (eV) could exist. This concept seems to look like the 'shrunken hydrogen atoms' proposed by various authors. It is indeed very different in two ways (a) being a metastable state, it needs energy to be formed (a few eV) and reverts to normal hydrogen after a few seconds, liberating back its energy of formation (it is thus not the source of the energy observed); (b) its formation can be described as the electron spin/proton nuclear spin interaction becoming first order in the lattice environment (whereas it is third order in a normal hydrogen atom). Moreover, we consider that the hydrex cannot yield a neutron because this reaction is strongly endothermic. To explain our results, we put forward the following working hypothesis: In a metal lattice and under proper conditions, the formation of such resonances (metastable state) could be favored. We propose to call them HYDREX, and we assume that they are actually formed in cold fusion (CF) and low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) experiments. Once formed, a number of HYDREX could gather around a nucleus of the lattice to form a cluster of nuclear size and of very long life time compared to nuclear time (10{sup -22} s). In this cluster, nuclear rearrangements could take place, yielding mainly {sup 4}He, nuclei of atomic masses smaller than that of the host metal and small amounts of {sup 3}He and tritium. Because this nuclear rearrangement is a many-body reaction, the products formed should be stable products in their ground states, most of the reaction energy being carried away as kinetic energy by the alpha particles formed. The HYDREX hypothesis describes CF and LENR as fundamentally the same phenomenon, which we propose to call NUCLEAR CATALYSIS. Depending on the conditions of a CF or LENR experiment, the products formed may look very different, but the initial step is always the synthesis of HYDREX. When this synthesis is mastered, CF and LENR experiments should become fully reproducible.

  18. 5. Energy Production and Transport 5.1 Energy Release from Nuclear Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peletier, Reynier

    5. Energy Production and Transport 5.1 Energy Release from Nuclear Reactions As mentioned when we looked at energy generation, it is now known that most of the energy radiated by stars must be released by nuclear reactions. In this section we will consider why it is that energy can be released by nuclear

  19. Probing anharmonic properties of nuclear surface vibration by heavy-ion fusion reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Takigawa; K. Hagino; S. Kuyucak

    1997-06-28

    Describing fusion reactions between ^{16}O and ^{154}Dy and, between ^{16}O and ^{144}Sm by the $sd-$ and $sdf-$ interacting boson model, we show that heavy-ion fusion reactions are strongly affected by anharmonic properties of nuclear surface vibrations and nuclear shape, and thus provide a powerful method to study details of nuclear structure and dynamics.

  20. PHYSICAL REVIEW C 80, 014611 (2009) Nuclear fusion reaction rates for strongly coupled ionic mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW C 80, 014611 (2009) Nuclear fusion reaction rates for strongly coupled ionic.014611 PACS number(s): 26.30.-k I. INTRODUCTION Nuclear fusion in dense stellar matter is most important the nuclear interaction. We will mostly focus on the Coulomb barrier penetration problem. Fusion reactions

  1. Ab Initio Nuclear Structure and Reaction Calculations for Rare Isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Draayer, Jerry P.

    2014-09-28

    We have developed a novel ab initio symmetry-adapted no-core shell model (SA-NCSM), which has opened the intermediate-mass region for ab initio investigations, thereby providing an opportunity for first-principle symmetry-guided applications to nuclear structure and reactions for nuclear isotopes from the lightest p-shell systems to intermediate-mass nuclei. This includes short-lived proton-rich nuclei on the path of X-ray burst nucleosynthesis and rare neutron-rich isotopes to be produced by the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). We have provided ab initio descriptions of high accuracy for low-lying (including collectivity-driven) states of isotopes of Li, He, Be, C, O, Ne, Mg, Al, and Si, and studied related strong- and weak-interaction driven reactions that are important, in astrophysics, for further understanding stellar evolution, X-ray bursts and triggering of s, p, and rp processes, and in applied physics, for electron and neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments as well as for fusion ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  2. Nuclear Reactions Important in Alpha-Rich Freezeouts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. C. Jordan IV; S. S. Gupta; B. S. Meyer; L. -S. The

    2002-11-08

    The alpha-rich freezeout from equilibrium occurs during the core-collapse explosion of a massive star when the supernova shock wave passes through the Si-rich shell of the star. The nuclei are heated to high temperature and broken down into nucleons and alpha particles. These subsequently reassemble as the material expands and cools, thereby producing new heavy nuclei, including a number of important supernova observables. In this paper we introduce two web-based applications. The first displays the results of a reaction-rate sensitivity study of alpha-rich freezeout yields. The second allows the interested reader to run paramaterized explosive silicon burning calculations in which the user inputs his own parameters. These tools are intended to aid in the identification of nuclear reaction rates important for experimental study. We then analyze several iron-group isotopes (59Ni, 57Co, 56Co, and 55Fe) in terms of their roles as observables and examine the reaction rates that are important in their production.

  3. Cytokine detection in eiav-infected equine monocyte-derived macrophages using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Charlotte Annette

    2009-05-15

    . In the current studies a set of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) assays for the equine cytokines IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-? were validated using QPCR primers and probes which were generated for the aforementioned equine genes....

  4. Global nuclear power supply chains and the rise of China's nuclear industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metzler, Florian

    2012-01-01

    China has embarked on a massive expansion of nuclear power that may fundamentally change the global nuclear industry, for better or for worse. Some industry observers argue that the incumbent nuclear power companies are ...

  5. I. Nuclear Production Reaction and Chemical Isolation Procedure for 240Am II. New Superheavy Element Isotopes: 242Pu(48Ca,5n)285-114

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellison, Paul Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Production Reaction and Chemical Isolation ProcedureNuclear Production Reaction and Chemical Isolation Procedurenuclear production reaction and chemical isolation procedure

  6. Solving The Long-Standing Problem Of Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Nuclear Reactions At The Highest Microscopic Level:Annual Continuation And Progress Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solving The Long-Standing Problem Of...

  7. Nuclear transparency in 90c.m. quasielastic A,,p,2p... reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christensen, Nelson

    Nuclear transparency in 90c.m. ° quasielastic A,,p,2p... reactions J. Aclander,7 J. Alster,7 G Synchrotron of BNL to measure the nuclear transparency of nuclei measured in the A p,2p quasielastic of the energy dependence of the nuclear transparency. In E850 the angular dependence of the nuclear transparency

  8. Nuclear Fission: Reaction to the Discovery in 1939

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hodes, Elizabeth; Tiddens, Adolph; Badash, Lawrence

    1985-01-01

    and A. v. Grosse, "Nuclear fission of separated uraniumThe mechanism of nuclear fission," Physical Review, 56 (1the discovery of nuclear fission and the early exploration

  9. A comparative analysis of accident risks in fossil, hydro, and nuclear energy chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgherr, P.; Hirschberg, S.

    2008-07-01

    This study presents a comparative assessment of severe accident risks in the energy sector, based on the historical experience of fossil (coal, oil, natural gas, and LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas)) and hydro chains contained in the comprehensive Energy-related Severe Accident Database (ENSAD), as well as Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for the nuclear chain. Full energy chains were considered because accidents can take place at every stage of the chain. Comparative analyses for the years 1969-2000 included a total of 1870 severe ({>=} 5 fatalities) accidents, amounting to 81,258 fatalities. Although 79.1% of all accidents and 88.9% of associated fatalities occurred in less developed, non-OECD countries, industrialized OECD countries dominated insured losses (78.0%), reflecting their substantially higher insurance density and stricter safety regulations. Aggregated indicators and frequency-consequence (F-N) curves showed that energy-related accident risks in non-OECD countries are distinctly higher than in OECD countries. Hydropower in non-OECD countries and upstream stages within fossil energy chains are most accident-prone. Expected fatality rates are lowest for Western hydropower and nuclear power plants; however, the maximum credible consequences can be very large. Total economic damages due to severe accidents are substantial, but small when compared with natural disasters. Similarly, external costs associated with severe accidents are generally much smaller than monetized damages caused by air pollution.

  10. Non-linear screening corrections of stellar nuclear reaction rates and their effects on solar neutrino fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theodore E. Liolios

    2000-02-14

    Non-linear electron screening corrections of stellar nuclear fusion rates are calculated analytically in the framework of the Debye-Huckel model and compared with the respective ones of Salpeter's weak screening approximation. In typical solar conditions, the deviation from Salpeter's screening factor is less than one percent, while for hotter stars such corrections turn out to be of the order of one percent only over the limits of the Debye-Huckel model. Moreover, an investigation of the impact of the derived non-linear screening effects on the solar neutrino fluxes yields insignificant corrections for both the pp and CNO chain reactions.

  11. The role of nuclear reactions and -particle transport in the dynamics of inertial confinement fusion capsules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garnier, Josselin

    The role of nuclear reactions and -particle transport in the dynamics of inertial confinement fusion capsules Josselin Garnier1,a and Catherine Cherfils-Clérouin2 1 Laboratoire de Probabilités et the energy released by nuclear reactions, a nonlocal model for the -particle energy deposition process

  12. Modeled Neutron Induced Nuclear Reaction Cross Sections for Radiochemistry in the region of Iriduim and Gold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, R D; Dietrich, F S; Kelley, K; Escher, J; Bauer, R; Mustafa, M

    2008-02-26

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron induced nuclear reaction cross sections for targets ranging from osmium (Z = 76) to gold (Z = 79). Of particular interest are the cross sections on Ir and Au including reactions on isomeric targets.

  13. Nuclear Parton Distributions and the Drell-Yan Reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. A. Kulagin; R. Petti

    2015-12-10

    We discuss the nuclear parton distribution functions on the basis of our recently developed semi-microscopic model, which takes into account a number of nuclear effects including Fermi motion and nuclear binding, nuclear meson-exchange currents and off-shell corrections to bound nucleon distributions as well as nuclear shadowing effect. We also discuss application to the nuclear Drell-Yan process and compare our predictions with data from the E772 and E866 experiments.

  14. Nuclear Parton Distributions and the Drell-Yan Reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kulagin, S A

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the nuclear parton distribution functions on the basis of our recently developed semi-microscopic model, which takes into account a number of nuclear effects including Fermi motion and nuclear binding, nuclear meson-exchange currents and off-shell corrections to bound nucleon distributions as well as nuclear shadowing effect. We also discuss application to the nuclear Drell-Yan process and compare our predictions with data from the E772 and E866 experiments.

  15. Nuclear spin selection rules in chemical reactions by angular momentum algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oka, Takeshi

    Nuclear spin selection rules in chemical reactions by angular momentum algebra Takeshi Oka of the representations of the permutation­inversion group for both nuclear spin and rovibronic coordinate wavefunctions, those of the rotation group for nuclear spin wavefunction only are used. The method allows more

  16. PHYSICAL REVIEW C 72, 025806 (2005) Nuclear fusion in dense matter: Reaction rate and carbon burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW C 72, 025806 (2005) Nuclear fusion in dense matter: Reaction rate and carbon August 2005) In this paper we analyze the nuclear fusion rates among equal nuclei for all five different.025806 PACS number(s): 26.50.+x, 25.60.Pj, 97.10.Cv I. INTRODUCTION We study nuclear fusion rates of identical

  17. Stimulated Emission of Radiation in a Nuclear Fusion Reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Duren

    1999-04-06

    This letter claims that process of stimulated emission of radiation can be used to induce a fusion reaction in a HD molecule to produce Helium-3. An experimental set-up for this reaction is presented. It is proposed to study the technical potential of this reaction as an energy amplifier.

  18. The nuclear fusion reaction rate based on relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jian-Miin Liu

    2002-10-20

    The Coulomb barrier is in general much higher than thermal energy. Nuclear fusion reactions occur only among few protons and nuclei with higher relative energies than Coulomb barrier. It is the equilibrium velocity distribution of these high-energy protons and nuclei that participates in determining the rate of nuclear fusion reactions. In the circumstance it is inappropriate to use the Maxwellian velocity distribution for calculating the nuclear fusion reaction rate. We use the relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution for this purpose. The rate based on the relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution has a reduction factor with respect to that based on the Maxwellian distribution, which factor depends on the temperature, reduced mass and atomic numbers of the studied nuclear fusion reactions. This signifies much to the solar neutrino problem.

  19. Summary Report of the Workshop on The Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semkova, V.; Pritychenko, B.

    2014-10-10

    The Workshop on the Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data Database (EXFOR) was held at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 6 to 10 October 2014. The workshop was organized to discuss various aspects of the EXFOR compilation process including compilation rules, different techniques for nuclear reaction data measurements, software developments, etc. A summary of the presentations and discussions that took place during the workshop is reported here.

  20. Compilation and R-matrix analysis of Big Bang nuclear reaction rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre Descouvemont; Abderrahim Adahchour; Carmen Angulo; Alain Coc; Elisabeth Vangioni-Flam

    2004-07-06

    We use the R-matrix theory to fit low-energy data on nuclear reactions involved in Big Bang nucleosynthesis. A special attention is paid to the rate uncertainties which are evaluated on statistical grounds. We provide S factors and reaction rates in tabular and graphical formats.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF LASSA: A LARGE AREA SILICON STRIP ARRAY FOR NUCLEAR REACTION STUDIES AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Souza, Romualdo T.

    AND INVESTIGATION OF MID-VELOCITY FRAGMENT EMISSION IN 114 Cd + 92;98 Mo REACTIONS AT E/A = 50 MEV Brian P. Davin WU. In addition, the operations group deserves my deepest gratitude for supplying the multiple beams ARRAY FOR NUCLEAR REACTION STUDIES AND INVESTIGATION OF MID-VELOCITY FRAGMENT EMISSION IN 114 Cd + 92

  2. Screened Coulomb potentials for astrophysical nuclear fusion reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theodore E. Liolios

    2000-09-04

    The electron-screening acceleration of laboratory fusion reactions at astrophysical energies is an unsolved problem of great importance to astrophysics. That effect is modeled here by considering the fusion of hydrogen-like atoms whose electron probability density is used in Poisson's equation in order to derive the corresponding screened Coulomb potential energy. That way atomic excitations and deformations of the fusing atoms can be taken into account. Those potentials are then treated semiclassically in order to obtain the screening (accelerating) factor of the reaction. By means of the proposed model the effect of a superstrong magnetic field on laboratory Hydrogen fusion reactions is investigated here for the first time showing that, despite the considerable increase in the cross section of the $% dd$ reaction, the $pp$ reaction is still too slow to justify experimentation. The proposed model is finally applied on the $H^{2}(d,p) H^{3}$ fusion reaction describing satisfactorily the experimental data although some ambiguity remains regarding the molecular nature of the deuteron target. Notably, the present method gives a sufficiently high screening energy for Hydrogen fusion reactions so that the take-away energy of the spectator nucleus can also be taken into account.

  3. Measurement of Screening Enhancement to Nuclear Reaction Rates using a Strongly Magnetized and Strongly Correlated Non-neutral Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    Measurement of Screening Enhancement to Nuclear Reaction Rates using a Strongly Magnetized) An analogy is uncovered between the nuclear reaction rate in a dense neutral plasma and the energy, like nuclear energy, is released only through rare close collisions between charges. The probability

  4. Absorption-Fluctuation Theorem for Nuclear Reactions: Brink-Axel, Incomplete Fusion and All That

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. S. Hussein

    2008-01-13

    We discuss the connection between absorption, averages and fluctuations in nuclear reactions. The fluctuations in the entrance channel result in the compound nucleus, Hauser-Feshbach, cross section, the fluctuations in the intermediate channels, result in modifications of multistep reaction cross sections, while the fluctuations in the final channel result in hybrid cross sections that can be used to describe incomplete fusion reactions. We discuss the latter in details and comment on the validity of the assumptions used in the develpoment of the Surrogate method. We also discuss the theory of multistep reactions with regards to intermediate state fluctuations and the energy dependence and non-locality of the intermediate channels optical potentials.

  5. Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions of Protons in Host Metals at Picometre Distance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinrich Hora; George H. Miley; Jak C. Kelly

    2000-11-12

    A review is given for the explanation of the measurements of Miley et al. of a fully reproducible generation of nuclei of the whole periodic table by protons in host metals during a several-weeks reaction. Similar low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) were observed by other groups. The fact that the heavy nuclides are not due to pollution can be seen from the fact that such very rare elements as thulium and terbium were detected by unique K-shell X-ray spectra. The nuclear reaction energy goes into the heavy nuclei as measured from much bigger traces in CR39 than from alphas. The fact that any reaction of the protons results in stable daughter nuclei is confirmed by the fact that the highest energy gain is resulting with stable reaction products. This has been explained in Ref. 2, and the energy gain for the heavy element generation by a compound reaction was discussed. The explanation is based on the model of the authors from 1989 to assume free motion of the protons contrary to localized crystalline states. A relation of the reaction time U on distance d of the reacting nuclei by a power law with an exponent 34.8 was derived. Based on few reproducible D-D reactions, a reaction time near the range of megaseconds and a reaction distance of nanometers was concluded. A splendid confirmation of the picometre-megasecond reactions was achieved by Li et al. from his direct quantum mechanical calculations of the hot fusion D-T reactions based on a one-step selective resonance tunneling model. Li et al. were able for the first time to derive the cross sections of the hot fusion. Li's application to picometre distance showed megasecond reaction times with no neutron or gamma emission. Because of the imaginary part in the Schroedinger potential, the problem of the level width is reduced by damping.

  6. EXTENSION OF THE NUCLEAR REACTION MODEL CODE EMPIRE TO ACTINIDES NUCLEAR DATA EVALUATION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CAPOTE,R.; SIN, M.; TRKOV, A.; HERMAN, M.; CARLSON, B.V.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2007-04-22

    Recent extensions and improvements of the EMPIRE code system are outlined. They add new capabilities to the code, such as prompt fission neutron spectra calculations using Hauser-Feshbach plus pre-equilibrium pre-fission spectra, cross section covariance matrix calculations by Monte Carlo method, fitting of optical model parameters, extended set of optical model potentials including new dispersive coupled channel potentials, parity-dependent level densities and transmission through numerically defined fission barriers. These features, along with improved and validated ENDF formatting, exclusive/inclusive spectra, and recoils make the current EMPIRE release a complete and well validated tool for evaluation of nuclear data at incident energies above the resonance region. The current EMPIRE release has been used in evaluations of neutron induced reaction files for {sup 232}Th and {sup 231,233}Pa nuclei in the fast neutron region at IAEA. Triple-humped fission barriers and exclusive pre-fission neutron spectra were considered for the fission data evaluation. Total, fission, capture and neutron emission cross section, average resonance parameters and angular distributions of neutron scattering are in excellent agreement with the available experimental data.

  7. I. Nuclear Production Reaction and Chemical Isolation Procedure for 240Am II. New Superheavy Element Isotopes: 242Pu(48Ca,5n)285-114

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellison, Paul Andrew

    2011-01-01

    48 Ca, 5n) 285 114 nuclear reaction cross section. . . . .240 Am(n, f ) cross section 1.4 Nuclear properties of 2401.5 Nuclear reactions for the production of 240 Am . 2

  8. Quasi-fission reactions as a probe of nuclear viscosity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Velkovska; C. R. Morton; R. L. McGrath; P. Chung; I. Dioszegi

    1998-10-24

    Fission fragment mass and angular distributions were measured from the ^{64}Ni+^{197}Au reaction at 418 MeV and 383 MeV incident energy. A detailed data analysis was performed, using the one-body dissipation theory implemented in the code HICOL. The effect of the window and the wall friction on the experimental observables was investigated. Friction stronger than one-body was also considered. The mass and angular distributions were consistent with one-body dissipation. An evaporation code DIFHEAT coupled to HICOL was developed in order to predict reaction time scales required to describe available data on pre-scission neutron multiplicities. The multiplicity data were again consistent with one-body dissipation. The cross-sections for touch, capture and quasi-fission were also obtained.

  9. Activation cross sections of $?$-particle induced nuclear reactions on hafnium and deuteron induced nuclear reaction on tantalum: production of $^{178}$W/$^{178m}$Ta generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Tárk'anyi; S. Tak'acs; F. Ditrói; A. Hermanne; A. V. Ignatyuk; M. S. Uddin

    2014-12-01

    In the frame of a systematic study of charged particle production routes of medically relevant radionuclei, the excitation function for indirect production of $^{178m}$Ta through $^{nat}$Hf($\\alpha$,xn)$^{178}$W-$^{178m}$Ta nuclear reaction was measured for the first time up to 40 MeV. In parallel, the side reactions $^{nat}$Hf($\\alpha$,x)$^{179,177,176,175}$W, $^{183,182,178g,177,176,175}$Ta, $^{179m,177m,175}$Hf were also assessed. Stacked foil irradiation technique and $\\gamma$-ray spectrometry were used. New experimental cross section data for the $^{nat}$Ta(d,xn)$^{178}$W reaction are also reported up to 40 MeV. The measured excitation functions are compared with the results of the ALICE-IPPE, and EMPIRE nuclear reaction model codes and with the TALYS 1.4 based data in the TENDL-2013 library. The thick target yields were deduced and compared with yields of other charged particle ((p,4n), (d,5n) and ($^3$He,x)) production routes for $^{178}$W.

  10. Tracking of Ions Produced at Near Barrier Energies in Nuclear Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapira, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Examples of detectors, presently in use, for tracking products from nuclear reactions induced by radioactive ion beams are described. A new tracking detector is being designed to study the binary products from reactions induced by heavy neutron-rich radioactive ion beams on heavy neutron-rich target nuclei. The motivation for such studies and the features designed to accomplish this goal will be presented.

  11. Determining the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy using heavy-ion reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lie-Wen Chen; Che Ming Ko; Bao-An Li; Gao-Chan Yong

    2007-11-12

    We review recent progress in the determination of the subsaturation density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy from heavy-ion collisions as well as the theoretical progress in probing the high density behavior of the symmetry energy in heavy-ion reactions induced by high energy radioactive beams. We further discuss the implications of these results for the nuclear effective interactions and the neutron skin thickness of heavy nuclei.

  12. Fusion reactions in nuclear astrophysics: The MUSIC approach

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFESOpportunities Nuclear Physics (NP) NP HomeSciences

  13. Refined scenario of standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis allowing for nonthermal nuclear reactions in the primordial plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voronchev, Victor T.; Nakao, Yasuyuki; Nakamura, Makoto; Tsukida, Kazuki [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Division of Advanced Plasma Research, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Oaza-Obuchi-Aza-Omotedate, Rokkasho, Kamikita, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2012-11-12

    The standard scenario of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is generalized to take into account nonthermal nuclear reactions in the primordial plasma. These reactions are naturally triggered in the BBN epoch by fast particles generated in various exoergic processes. It is found that, although such particles can appreciably enhance the rates of some individual reactions, their influence on the whole process of element production is not significant. The nonthermal corrections to element abundances are obtained to be 0.1% ({sup 3}H), -0.03% ({sup 7}Li), and 0.34 %-0.63% (CNO group).

  14. Nuclear Matter Incompressibility Effect on the Cross Section of Fusion Reactions with a weakly bound projectile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seyyedi, S A

    2015-01-01

    Fusion reactions with a weakly bound projectile are studied using the double-folding model along with a repulsive interaction modifying term. Using this modified potential, including nuclear matter incompressibility effects, the fusion reaction cross sections and suppression parameters are calculated for 9Be +209Bi,208Pb,29Si and 27Al reactions. The results show that applying these effects at energies near the Coulomb barrier improves the agreement between the calculated and experimental cross sections, and modifies the mean values of the suppression parameter.

  15. Nuclear Matter Incompressibility Effect on the Cross Section of Fusion Reactions with a weakly bound projectile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. A. Seyyedi; H. Golnarkar

    2015-01-19

    Fusion reactions with a weakly bound projectile are studied using the double-folding model along with a repulsive interaction modifying term. Using this modified potential, including nuclear matter incompressibility effects, the fusion reaction cross sections and suppression parameters are calculated for 9Be +209Bi,208Pb,29Si and 27Al reactions. The results show that applying these effects at energies near the Coulomb barrier improves the agreement between the calculated and experimental cross sections, and modifies the mean values of the suppression parameter.

  16. Reconversion of nuclear weapons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear predicament or nuclear option. Synopsis of three lectures : 1- The physical basis of nuclear technology. Physics of fission. Chain reaction in reactors and weapons. Fission fragments. Separration of isotopes. Radiochemistry.2- Nuclear reactors with slow and fast neutrons. Power, size, fuel and waste. Plutonium production. Dose rate, shielding and health hazard. The lessons of Chernobyl3- Nuclear weapons. Types, energy, blast and fallout. Fusion and hydrogen bombs. What to do with nuclear weapons when you cannot use them? Testing. Nonmilittary use. Can we get rid of the nuclear weapon? Nuclear proliferation. Is there a nuclear future?

  17. Low Energy Nuclear Reaction Research at the Naval Research Laboratory D.A. Kidwell1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, James S.

    have explored the field of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) for about eight years focusing experiments and therefore harder to characterize as unconventional chemistry. In both approaches to LENR only, but that acceptance can change on a moments notice when new data arises. Although simple in concept, LENR experiments

  18. On the nuclear $(n;t)-$reaction in the three-electron ${}^{6}$Li atom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexei M. Frolov; David M. Wardlaw

    2013-01-04

    The nuclear $(n;t)-$reaction of the three-electron ${}^{6}$Li atom with thermal/slow neutrons is considered. An effective method has been developed for determining the probabilities of formation of various atoms and ions in different bound states. We discuss a number of fundamental questions directly related to numerical computations of the final state atomic probabilities. A few appropriate variational expansions for atomic wave functions of the incident lithium atom and final helium atom and/or tritium negatively charged ion are discussed. It appears that the final ${}^4$He atom arising during the nuclear $(n,{}^{6}$Li; ${}^4$He$,t)$-reaction in the three-electron Li atom can also be created in its triplet states. The formation of the quasi-stable three-electron $e^{-}_3$ during the nuclear $(n; t)-$reaction at the Li atom is briefly discussed. Bremsstrahlung emitted by atomic electrons accelerated by the rapidly moving nuclear fragments from this reaction is analyzed. The frequency spectrum of the emitted radiation is investigated.

  19. Faddeev-type calculations of few-body nuclear reactions including Coulomb interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Deltuva

    2008-10-24

    The method of screening and renormalization is used to include the Coulomb interaction between the charged particles in the description of few-body nuclear reactions. Calculations are done in the framework of Faddeev-type equations in momentum-space. The reliability of the method is demonstrated. The Coulomb effect on observables is discussed.

  20. Relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution, nuclear fusion reaction rate and the solar neutrino problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jian-Miin Liu

    2003-07-07

    In solar interior, it is the equilibrium velocity distribution of few high-energy protons and nuclei that participates in determining nuclear fusion reaction rates. So, it is inappropriate to use the Maxwellian velocity distribution to calculate the rates of solar nuclear fusion reactions. We have to use the relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution for the purpose. The nuclear fusion reaction rate based on the relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution has a reduction factor with respect to that based on the Maxwellian distribution. The reduction factor depends on the temperature, reduced mass and atomic numbers of the studied nuclear fusion reactions, in other words, it varies with the sort of neutrinos. Substituting the relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution for the Maxwellian distribution is not important for the calculation of solar sound speeds. The relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution, if adopted in standard solar models, will lower solar neutrino fluxes and change solar neutrino energy spectra but maintain solar sound speeds. This velocity distribution is possibly a solution to the solar neutrino problem.

  1. A Primer for Electro-Weak Induced Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. N. Srivastava; A. Widom; L. Larsen

    2008-10-01

    In a series of papers, cited in the main body of the paper below, detailed calculations have been presented which show that electromagnetic and weak interactions can induce low energy nuclear reactions to occur with observable rates for a variety of processes. A common element in all these applications is that the electromagnetic energy stored in many relatively slow moving electrons can -under appropriate circumstances- be collectively transferred into fewer, much faster electrons with energies sufficient for the latter to combine with protons (or deuterons, if present) to produce neutrons via weak interactions. The produced neutrons can then initiate low energy nuclear reactions through further nuclear transmutations. The aim of this paper is to extend and enlarge upon various examples analyzed previously, present simplified order of magnitude estimates for each and to illuminate a common unifying theme amongst all of them.

  2. Positron and gamma-photon production and nuclear reactions in cascade processes initiated by a sub-terawatt femtosecond laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaplan, Alexander

    Positron and gamma-photon production and nuclear reactions in cascade processes initiated by a sub, through specially arranged cascade processes in optimal targets, substantial amounts of nuclear radiation-6951 97 02350-4 Numerous proposals to induce nuclear transformations by intense lasers see, e.g., Ref. 1

  3. Faddeev-type calculation of (d,n) transfer reactions in three-body nuclear systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Deltuva

    2015-12-09

    Exact Faddeev-type three-body equations are applied to the study of the proton transfer reactions $(d,n)$ in the system consisting of a nuclear core and two nucleons. The integral equations for the three-body transition operators are solved in the momentum-space framework including the Coulomb interaction via the screening and renormalization method. For a weakly bound final nucleus the calculation of the $(d,n)$ reaction is more demanding in terms of the screening radius as compared to the $(d,p)$ reaction. Well converged differential cross section results are obtained for $^{7}{Be}(d,n)^{8}{B}$, $^{12}{C}(d,n)^{13}{N}$, and $^{16}{O}(d,n)^{17}{F}$ reactions. A comparison with the corresponding $(d,p)$ reactions is made. The calculations fail to reproduce the shape of the angular distribution for reactions on $^{12}{C}$ but provide quite successful description for reactions on $^{16}{O}$, especially for the transfer to the $^{17}{F}$ excited state $1/2^+$ when using a nonlocal optical potential.

  4. Faddeev-type calculation of (d,n) transfer reactions in three-body nuclear systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deltuva, A

    2015-01-01

    Exact Faddeev-type three-body equations are applied to the study of the proton transfer reactions $(d,n)$ in the system consisting of a nuclear core and two nucleons. The integral equations for the three-body transition operators are solved in the momentum-space framework including the Coulomb interaction via the screening and renormalization method. For a weakly bound final nucleus the calculation of the $(d,n)$ reaction is more demanding in terms of the screening radius as compared to the $(d,p)$ reaction. Well converged differential cross section results are obtained for $^{7}{Be}(d,n)^{8}{B}$, $^{12}{C}(d,n)^{13}{N}$, and $^{16}{O}(d,n)^{17}{F}$ reactions. A comparison with the corresponding $(d,p)$ reactions is made. The calculations fail to reproduce the shape of the angular distribution for reactions on $^{12}{C}$ but provide quite successful description for reactions on $^{16}{O}$, especially for the transfer to the $^{17}{F}$ excited state $1/2^+$ when using a nonlocal optical potential.

  5. Experimental Observation of Nuclear Reactions in Palladium and Uranium - Possible Explanation by Hydrex Mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dufour, J.; Murat, D.; Dufour, X.; Foos, J

    2001-07-15

    Experiments with uranium are presented that show a highly exothermal reaction, which can only be of nuclear origin. One striking point of these results is that they clearly show that what is being observed is not some kind of fusion reaction of the deuterium present (only exceedingly small amounts of it are present). This is a strong indication that hydrogen can trigger nuclear reactions that seem to involve the nuclei of the lattice (which would yield a fission-like pattern of products). Confronted with a situation where some experiments in the field yield a fusion-like pattern of products (CF experiments) and others a fissionlike one (LENR experiments), one can reasonably wonder whether one is not observing two aspects of the same phenomenon. Thus, it is proposed to describe CF and LENR reactions as essentially the same phenomenon based on the possible existence of a still hypothetical proton/electron resonance, which would catalyze fissionlike reactions with a neutron sink. Finally, a series of experiments is proposed to assess this hypothesis.

  6. A study of stopping power in nuclear reactions at intermediate energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehaut, G; Lopez, O

    2010-01-01

    We show a systematic experimental study based on INDRA data of the stopping power in central symmetric nuclear reactions. Total mass of the systems goes from 80 to 400 nucleons while the incident energy range is from 12 AMeV to 100 AMeV. The role of isospin diffusion at 32 and 45 MeV/nucleon with 124,136Xe projectiles on 112,124Sn targets performed at GANIL is also discussed. Results suggest a strong memory of the entrance channel above 20 AMeV/A (nuclear transparency) and, as such, constitute valuable tests of the microscopic transport models.

  7. A study of stopping power in nuclear reactions at intermediate energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Lehaut; D. Durand; O. Lopez

    2010-01-25

    We show a systematic experimental study based on INDRA data of the stopping power in central symmetric nuclear reactions. Total mass of the systems goes from 80 to 400 nucleons while the incident energy range is from 12 AMeV to 100 AMeV. The role of isospin diffusion at 32 and 45 MeV/nucleon with 124,136Xe projectiles on 112,124Sn targets performed at GANIL is also discussed. Results suggest a strong memory of the entrance channel above 20 AMeV/A (nuclear transparency) and, as such, constitute valuable tests of the microscopic transport models.

  8. Effect of nuclear spin symmetry in cold and ultracold reactions: D + para/ortho-H$_2$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Simbotin; R. Côté

    2015-05-12

    We report results for reaction and vibrational quenching of the collision D with para-H$_2$($v,j=0$) and ortho-H$_2$($v,j=1$) at cold and ultracold temperatures. We investigate the effect of nuclear spin symmetry for barrier dominated processes ($0\\le v\\le 4$) and for one barrierless case ($v=5$). We find resonant structures for energies in the range corresponding to 0.01--10 K, which depend on the nuclear spin of H$_2$, arising from contributions of specific partial waves. We discuss the implications on the results in this benchmark system for ultracold chemistry.

  9. Nuclear attenuation of three-hadron systems in neutrino-induced reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. M. Agababyan; L. Grigorian; N. Grigoryan; H. Gulkanyan; A. A. Ivanilov; Zh. Karamyan; V. A. Korotkov

    2011-08-08

    For the first time, the nuclear attenuation of three hadron systems is studied in neutrino-induced reactions using the data obtained with SKAT bubble chamber. The strongest attenuation (R_3 ~ 0.6) is observed for a system carrying an overwhelming fraction of the current quark energy, as well as for a system with the smallest effective mass. An indication is obtained that the correlation effects in the nuclear attenuation play only a minor role. The experimental data are compared with predictions of the quark string fragmentation model.

  10. Mass Chain Evaluation for A=95

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, S.K.; Sonzogni, A.; Basu, Swapan Kr.; Mukherjee, Gopal; Sonzogni, A. A.

    2011-08-01

    A full evaluation of the mass chain A = 95 has been done in the ENSDF format taking into account all the available data until June 2009. Excited states populated by in-beam nuclear reactions and by radioactive decay have been considered. The 'evp' editor, developed at the NNDC, has been used for the evaluation. This mass chain was last evaluated in 1993. Many new and improved data were reported since then. A total of 13 nuclei have been evaluated.

  11. Enrico Fermi and the First Self-Sustaining Nuclear Chain Reaction

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal01TechnicalScientific andScientificDOE Data IDandand

  12. Experimental and phenomenological comparison between Piezonuclear reactions and Condensed Matter Nuclear Science phenomenology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardone, F; Petrucci, A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to place side by side the experimental results of Piezonu- clear reactions, which have been recently unveiled, and those collected during the last twenty years of experiments on low energy nuclear reactions (LENR). We will briefy re- port the results of our campaign of piezonuclear reactions experiments where ultrasounds and cavitation were applied to solutions of stable elements. These outcomes will be shown to be compatible with the results and evidences obtained from low energy nuclear reac- tion experiments. Some theoretical concepts and ideas, on which our experiments are grounded, will be sketched and it will be shown that, in order to trigger our measured effects, it exists an energy threshold, that has to be overcome, and a maximum inter- val of time for this energy to be released to the nuclear system. Eventually, a research hypothesis will be put forward about the chance to raise the level of analogy from the mere comparison of results up to the phenomenological level. H...

  13. Experimental and phenomenological comparison between Piezonuclear reactions and Condensed Matter Nuclear Science phenomenology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Cardone; R. Mignani; A. Petrucci

    2011-03-06

    The purpose of this paper is to place side by side the experimental results of Piezonu- clear reactions, which have been recently unveiled, and those collected during the last twenty years of experiments on low energy nuclear reactions (LENR). We will briefy re- port the results of our campaign of piezonuclear reactions experiments where ultrasounds and cavitation were applied to solutions of stable elements. These outcomes will be shown to be compatible with the results and evidences obtained from low energy nuclear reac- tion experiments. Some theoretical concepts and ideas, on which our experiments are grounded, will be sketched and it will be shown that, in order to trigger our measured effects, it exists an energy threshold, that has to be overcome, and a maximum inter- val of time for this energy to be released to the nuclear system. Eventually, a research hypothesis will be put forward about the chance to raise the level of analogy from the mere comparison of results up to the phenomenological level. Here, among the various evidences collected in LENR experiments, we will search for hints about the overcome of the energy threshold and about the mechanism that releases the loaded energy in a suitable interval of time.

  14. The Impact of Nuclear Reaction Rate Uncertainties on Evolutionary Studies of the Nova Outburst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Raphael Hix; Michael S. Smith; Anthony Mezzacappa; Sumner Starrfield; Donald L. Smith

    2000-01-27

    The observable consequences of a nova outburst depend sensitively on the details of the thermonuclear runaway which initiates the outburst. One of the more important sources of uncertainty is the nuclear reaction data used as input for the evolutionary calculations. A recent paper by Starrfield, Truran, Wiescher, & Sparks (1998) has demonstrated that changes in the reaction rate library used within a nova simulation have significant effects, not just on the production of individual isotopes (which can change by an order of magnitude), but on global observables such as the peak luminosity and the amount of mass ejected. We present preliminary results of systematic analyses of the impact of reaction rate uncertainties on nova nucleosynthesis.

  15. Nuclear Reaction Rate Uncertainties and Astrophysical Modeling. II. Carbon Yields from Low-mass Giants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Herwig; Sam M. Austin; John C. Lattanzio

    2005-11-14

    Calculations that demonstrate the influence of three key nuclear reaction rates on the evolution of Asymptotic Giant Branch stars have been carried out. We study the case of a star with an initial mass of 2Msun and a metallicity of Z=0.01, somewhat less than the solar metallicity. The dredge-up of nuclear processed material from the interior of the star, and the yield predictions for carbon, are sensitive to the rate of the N14(p,gamma)O15 and triple-alpha reactions. These reactions dominate the H- and He-burning shells of stars in this late evolutionary phase. Published uncertainty estimates for each of these two rates propagated through stellar evolution calculations cause uncertainties in carbon enrichment and yield predictions of about a factor of two. The other important He-burning reaction C12(alpha,gamma)O16, although associated with the largest uncertainty in our study, does not have a significant influence on the abundance evolution compared to other modelling uncertainties. This finding remains valid when the entire evolution from the main-sequence to the tip of the AGB is considered. We discuss the experimental sources of the rate uncertainties addressed here, and give some outlook for future work.

  16. Lost alpha-particle diagnostics from a D-T plasma by using nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasao, Mamiko [Organization for Research Initiative and Development, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Wada, Motoi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Isobe, Mitsutaka [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2014-08-21

    Among various methods proposed for alpha-particles loss measurement, we studied on those by measuring gamma rays of three cases, from (1) nuclear reactions induced by alpha particles, (2) those from short-life-time activities and (3) those from long-life-time activities induced by alpha particles. The time evolution of local alpha flux may possibly be measured by using the {sup 9}Be (a, n) {sup 12}C reaction (1). Using the same system, but with a target set up close to the first wall, activation measurement on site right after turning-off the discharge is possible (2). Nuclear reaction, {sup 25}Mg (a, p) {sup 28}Al, that produce radioisotopes of short lifetime of 2.2 minutes in one of the best candidates. As to the activation to a long lifetime (3), it is predicted that the gamma ray yield from {sup 19}F (a, n) {sup 22}Na reaction is enough for the measurement at the reactor site.

  17. Heavy-ion double charge exchange reactions: a tool towards 0v\\b{eta}\\b{eta} nuclear matrix elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappuzzello, F; Agodi, C; Bond`?, M; Carbone, D; Cunsolo, A; Foti, A

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of the nuclear matrix elements for the neutrinoless double beta decay is fundamental for neutrino physics. In this paper, an innovative technique to extract information on the nuclear matrix elements by measuring the cross section of a double charge exchange nuclear reaction is proposed. The basic point is that the initial and final state wave functions in the two processes are the same and the transition operators are similar. The double charge exchange cross sections can be factorized in a nuclear structure term containing the matrix elements and a nuclear reaction factor. First pioneering experimental results for the 40Ca(18O,18Ne)40Ar reaction at 270 MeV incident energy show that such cross section factorization reasonably holds for the crucial 0+ --> 0+ transition to 40Args, at least at very forward angles.

  18. Heavy-ion double charge exchange reactions: a tool towards 0v\\b{eta}\\b{eta} nuclear matrix elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Cappuzzello; M. Cavallaro; C. Agodi; M. Bond`?; D. Carbone; A. Cunsolo; A. Foti

    2015-11-12

    The knowledge of the nuclear matrix elements for the neutrinoless double beta decay is fundamental for neutrino physics. In this paper, an innovative technique to extract information on the nuclear matrix elements by measuring the cross section of a double charge exchange nuclear reaction is proposed. The basic point is that the initial and final state wave functions in the two processes are the same and the transition operators are similar. The double charge exchange cross sections can be factorized in a nuclear structure term containing the matrix elements and a nuclear reaction factor. First pioneering experimental results for the 40Ca(18O,18Ne)40Ar reaction at 270 MeV incident energy show that such cross section factorization reasonably holds for the crucial 0+ --> 0+ transition to 40Args, at least at very forward angles.

  19. Low-energy RI beam technology and nuclear clusters in the explosive pp-chain breakout process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubono, S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 73000 (China); RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0 (Japan); Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D. M.; Ohshiro, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Yamazaki, N. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Teranishi, T. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-858 (Japan); Yanagisawa, Y.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Kase, M. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hayakawa, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Kwon, Y. K. [Institute for Basic Science, 70, Yuseong-daero 1689-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-81 (Korea, Republic of); Hashimoto, T.; Fukuda, Y. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); He, J. J. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 73000 (China); Goto, A. [Faculty of Medcine, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-2331 (Japan); Muto, H. [Center of General Education, Tokyo University of Science at Suwa, Chino, Nagano 391-0292 (Japan)

    2014-05-09

    The lecture includes two parts: One is a discussion on the technology for developing RIB beam facility based on the in-flight method and relevant experimental technology. The second part is a discussion on experimental efforts for studying the breakout process from the pp-chain region based on recent works with low energy RI beams. The discussion of the second part specifically covers the problem of the vp-process in type II supernovae in terms of alpha cluster nature for the reactions.

  20. Microscopic calculations of the characteristics of radiative nuclear reactions for double-magic nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg Achakovskiy; Sergei Kamerdzhiev; Victor Tselyaev; Mikhail Shitov

    2015-11-03

    The neutron capture cross sections and average radiative widths of neutron resonances for two double-magic nuclei 132Sn and 208Pb have been calculated using the microscopic photon strength functions, which were obtained within the microscopic self-consistent version of the extended theory of finite Fermi systems in the time blocking approximation. For the first time, the microscopic PSFs have been obtained within the fully self-consistent approach with exact accounting for the single particle continuum (for 208Pb). The approach includes phonon coupling effects in addition to the standard RPA approach. The known Skyrme force has been used. The calculations of nuclear reaction characteristics have been performed with the EMPIRE 3.1 nuclear reaction code. Here, three nuclear level density (NLD) models have been used: the so-called phenomenological GSM, the EMPIRE specific (or Enhanced GSM) and the microscopical combinatorial HFB NLD models. For both considered characteristics we found a significant disagreement between the results obtained with the GSM and HFB NLD models. For 208Pb, a reasonable agreement has been found with systematics for the average radiative widths values with HFB NLD and with the experimental data for the HFB NLD average resonance spacing D0, while for these two quantities the differences between the values obtained with GSM and HFB NLD are of several orders of magnitude. The discrepancies between the results with the phenomenological EGLO PSF and microscopic RPA or TBA are much less for the same NLD model.

  1. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results on resonance reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Romano, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania, Italy and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Gulino, M.; Tumino, A. [Kore University, Enna, Italy and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2014-05-09

    Nuclear astrophysics aims to measure nuclear-reaction cross sections of astrophysical interest to be included into models to study stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. Low energies, < 1 MeV or even < 10 keV, are requested for this is the window where these processes are more effective. Two effects have prevented to achieve a satisfactory knowledge of the relevant nuclear processes, namely, the Coulomb barrier exponentially suppressing the cross section and the presence of atomic electrons. These difficulties have triggered theoretical and experimental investigations to extend our knowledge down to astrophysical energies. For instance, indirect techniques such as the Trojan Horse Method have been devised yielding new cutting-edge results. In particular, I will focus on the application of this indirect method to resonance reactions. Resonances might dramatically enhance the astrophysical S(E)-factor so, when they occur right at astrophysical energies, their measurement is crucial to pin down the astrophysical scenario. Unknown or unpredicted resonances might introduce large systematic errors in nucleosynthesis models. These considerations apply to low-energy resonances and to sub-threshold resonances as well, as they may produce sizable modifications of the S-factor due to, for instance, destructive interference with another resonance.

  2. Unified description of structure and reactions: implementing the Nuclear Field Theory program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricardo A. Broglia; Pier Francesco Bortignon; Francisco Barranco; Enrico Vigezzi; Andrea Idini; Gregory Potel

    2015-11-12

    The modern theory of the atomic nucleus results from the merging of the liquid drop (Niels Bohr and Fritz Kalckar) and of the shell model (Marie Goeppert Meyer and Axel Jensen), which contributed the concepts of collective excitations and of independent-particle motion respectively. The unification of these apparently contradictory views in terms of the particle-vibration (rotation) coupling (Aage Bohr and Ben Mottelson) has allowed for an ever increasingly complete, accurate and detailed description of the nuclear structure, Nuclear Field Theory (NFT, developed by the Copenhagen-Buenos Aires collaboration) providing a powerful quantal embodiment. In keeping with the fact that reactions are not only at the basis of quantum mechanics (statistical interpretation, Max Born) , but also the specific tools to probe the atomic nucleus, NFT is being extended to deal with processes which involve the continuum in an intrinsic fashion, so as to be able to treat them on an equal footing with those associated with discrete states (nuclear structure). As a result, spectroscopic studies of transfer to continuum states could eventually use at profit the NFT rules, extended to take care of recoil effects. In the present contribution we review the implementation of the NFT program of structure and reactions, setting special emphasis on open problems and outstanding predictions.

  3. Initiation of nuclear reactions under laser irradiation of Au nanoparticles in the presence of Thorium aqua-ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Simakin; G. A. Shafeev

    2009-06-23

    Initiation of nuclear reactions in Thorium nuclei is experimentally studied under laser exposure of Au nanoparticles suspended in the aqueous solution of Th(NO3)4 (232Th). It is found that the reaction pathway depends in which water, either H2O or D2O, the laser exposure is carried out. Saturation of the liquids (H2O or D2O) with gaseous H2 or D2, respectively, enhances the nuclear reactions under laser exposure allowing their excitation at peak intensity as low as 1010 W/cm2. Enhanced gamma-activity of the probe is observed after the end of laser exposure for several hours.

  4. Unified description of structure and reactions: implementing the Nuclear Field Theory program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broglia, Ricardo A; Barranco, Francisco; Vigezzi, Enrico; Idini, Andrea; Potel, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The modern theory of the atomic nucleus results from the merging of the liquid drop (Niels Bohr and Fritz Kalckar) and of the shell model (Marie Goeppert Meyer and Axel Jensen), which contributed the concepts of collective excitations and of independent-particle motion respectively. The unification of these apparently contradictory views in terms of the particle-vibration (rotation) coupling (Aage Bohr and Ben Mottelson) has allowed for an ever increasingly complete, accurate and detailed description of the nuclear structure, Nuclear Field Theory (NFT, developed by the Copenhagen-Buenos Aires collaboration) providing a powerful quantal embodiment. In keeping with the fact that reactions are not only at the basis of quantum mechanics (statistical interpretation, Max Born) , but also the specific tools to probe the atomic nucleus, NFT is being extended to deal with processes which involve the continuum in an intrinsic fashion, so as to be able to treat them on an equal footing with those associated with discret...

  5. COMMENTS ON "A NEW LOOK AT LOW-ENERGY NUCLEAR REACTION RESEARCH"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanahan, K.

    2009-12-30

    Cold fusion researchers have accumulated a large body of anomalous results over the last 20 years that they claim proves a new, mysterious nuclear reaction is active in systems they study. Krivit and Marwan give a brief and wholly positive view of this body of research. Unfortunately, cold fusion researchers routinely ignore conventional explanations of their observations, and claim much greater than real accuracy and precision for their techniques. This paper attempts to equally briefly address those aspects of the field with the intent of providing a balanced view of the field, and to establish some criteria for subsequent publications in this arena.

  6. Probing Nuclear Reactions in Stars | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLosThe 26thI D-Nicholas Turro,Science (SC)Probing Nuclear Reactions

  7. Activation cross-sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on neodymium up to 50 MeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Tárkányi; S. Takács; F. Ditrói; A. Hermanne; H. Yamazaki; M. Baba; A. Mohammadi; A. V. Ignatyuk

    2014-11-11

    In the frame of a systematic study of activation cross sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on rare earths, the reactions on neodymium for production of therapeutic radionuclides were measured for the first time. The excitation functions of the natNd(d,x) 151,150,149,148m,148g,146,144,143Pm, 149,147,139mNd, 142Pr and 139gCe nuclear reactions were assessed by using the stacked foil activation technique and high resolution $\\gamma@-spectrometry. The experimental excitation functions were compared to the theoretical predictions calculated with the modified model codes ALICE-IPPE-D and EMPIRE-II-D and with the data in the TENDL-2012 library based on latest version of the TALYS code. The application of the data in the field of medical isotope production and nuclear reaction theory is discussed.

  8. A Network Model and Computational Approach Mo Supply Chain for Nuclear Medicine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    in the world. From: The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes: An Economic Study of the Molybdenum-99 Supply Chain to create an image of that site or organ. Technetium, 99mTc, a decay product of Molybdenum, 99Mo, is the most commonly used medical radioisotope, accounting for over 80% of the radioisotope injections

  9. New Nuclear Reaction Flow during r-Process Nucleosynthesis in Supernovae: Critical Role of Light Neutron-Rich Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Terasawa; K. Sumiyoshi; T. Kajino; G. J. Mathews; I. Tanihata

    2001-07-19

    We study the role of light neutron-rich nuclei during r-process nucleosynthesis in supernovae. Most previous studies of the r-process have concentrated on the reaction flow of heavy unstable nuclei. Although the nuclear reaction network includes a few thousand heavy nuclei, only limited reaction flow through light-mass nuclei near the stability line has been used in those studies. However, in a viable scenario of the r-process in neutrino-driven winds, the initial condition is a high-entropy hot plasma consisting of neutrons, protons, and electron-positron pairs experiencing an intense flux of neutrinos. In such environments light-mass nuclei as well as heavy nuclei are expected to play important roles in the production of seed nuclei and r-process elements. Thus, we have extended our fully implicit nuclear reaction network so that it includes all nuclei up to the neutron drip line for Z $ \\leq 10$, in addition to a larger network for Z $ \\geq 10$. In the present nucleosynthesis study, we utilize a wind model of massive SNeII explosions to study the effects of this extended network. We find that a new nuclear-reaction flow path opens in the very light neutron-rich region. This new nuclear reaction flow can change the final heavy-element abundances by as much as an order of magnitude.

  10. STARLIB: A NEXT-GENERATION REACTION-RATE LIBRARY FOR NUCLEAR ASTROPHYSICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sallaska, A. L.; Iliadis, C.; Champange, A. E.; Goriely, S.; Starrfield, S.; Timmes, F. X.

    2013-07-15

    STARLIB is a next-generation, all-purpose nuclear reaction-rate library. For the first time, this library provides the rate probability density at all temperature grid points for convenient implementation in models of stellar phenomena. The recommended rate and its associated uncertainties are also included. Currently, uncertainties are absent from all other rate libraries, and, although estimates have been attempted in previous evaluations and compilations, these are generally not based on rigorous statistical definitions. A common standard for deriving uncertainties is clearly warranted. STARLIB represents a first step in addressing this deficiency by providing a tabular, up-to-date database that supplies not only the rate and its uncertainty but also its distribution. Because a majority of rates are lognormally distributed, this allows the construction of rate probability densities from the columns of STARLIB. This structure is based on a recently suggested Monte Carlo method to calculate reaction rates, where uncertainties are rigorously defined. In STARLIB, experimental rates are supplemented with: (1) theoretical TALYS rates for reactions for which no experimental input is available, and (2) laboratory and theoretical weak rates. STARLIB includes all types of reactions of astrophysical interest to Z = 83, such as (p, {gamma}), (p, {alpha}), ({alpha}, n), and corresponding reverse rates. Strong rates account for thermal target excitations. Here, we summarize our Monte Carlo formalism, introduce the library, compare methods of correcting rates for stellar environments, and discuss how to implement our library in Monte Carlo nucleosynthesis studies. We also present a method for accessing STARLIB on the Internet and outline updated Monte Carlo-based rates.

  11. The Dependence of the Proton-Triton Nuclear Reaction Rate on the Temperature and Energy Content of the High-Energy Proton Distribution Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Dependence of the Proton-Triton Nuclear Reaction Rate on the Temperature and Energy Content of the High-Energy Proton Distribution Function

  12. On the usage of electron beam as a tool to produce radioactive isotopes in photo-nuclear reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. G. Bunatian; V. G. Nikolenko; A. B. Popov

    2010-12-22

    We treat the bremsstrahlung induced by initial electron beam in converter, and the production of a desirable radio-isotope due to the photo-nuclear reaction caused by this bremsstrahlung. By way of illustration, the yield of a number of some, the most in practice applicable, radio-isotopes is evaluated. The acquired findings persuade us that usage of modern electron accelerators offers a practicable way to produce the radio-isotopes needful nowadays for various valuable applications in the nuclear medicine.

  13. Nuclear reactions with 11C and 14O radioactive ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Fanqing

    2004-12-09

    Radioactive ion beams (RIBs) have been shown to be a useful tool for studying proton-rich nuclides near and beyond the proton dripline and for evaluating nuclear models. To take full advantage of RIBs, Elastic Resonance Scattering in Inverse Kinematics with Thick Targets (ERSIKTT), has proven to be a reliable experimental tool for investigations of proton unbound nuclei. Following several years of effort, Berkeley Experiments with Accelerated Radioactive Species (BEARS), a RIBs capability, has been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-Inch Cyclotron. The current BEARS provides two RIBs: a 11C beam of up to 2x108 pps intensity on target and an 14O beam of up to 3x104 pps intensity. While the development of the 11C beam has been relatively easy, a number of challenges had to be overcome to obtain the 14O beam. The excellent 11C beam has been used to investigate several reactions. The first was the 197Au(11C,xn)208-xnAt reaction, which was used to measure excitation functions for the 4n to 8n exit channels. The measured cross sections were generally predicted quite well using the fusion-evaporation code HIVAP. Possible errors in the branching ratios of ?? decays from At isotopes as well as the presence of incomplete fusion reactions probably contribute to specific overpredictions. 15F has been investigated by the p(14O,p)14O reaction with the ERSIKTT technology. Several 14O+p runs have been performed. Excellent energy calibration was obtained using resonances from the p(14N,p)14N reaction in inverse kinematics, and comparing the results to those obtained earlier with normal kinematics. The differences between 14N+p and 14O+p in the stopping power function have been evaluated for better energy calibration. After careful calibration, the energy levels of 15F were fitted with an R-matrix calculation. Spins and parities were assigned to the two observed resonances. This new measurement of the 15F ground state supports the disappearance of the Z = 8 proton magic number for odd Z, Tz=-3/2 nuclei. It is expected that future work on proton-rich nuclides will rely heavily on RIBs and/or mass separators. Currently, radioactive ion beam intensities are sufficient for the study of a reasonable number of very proton-rich nuclides.

  14. Supporting Technology for Chain of Custody of Nuclear Weapons and Materials throughout the Dismantlement and Disposition Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunch, Kyle J. [United States Department of State, Bureau of Arms Control, Verification and Compliance, Office of Verification and Transparency Technologies, Washington, DC (United States); Jones, Anthony M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Benz, Jacob M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Denlinger, Laura Schmidt [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-05-04

    The ratification and ongoing implementation of the New START Treaty have been widely regarded as noteworthy global security achievements for both the Obama Administration and the Putin (formerly Medvedev) regime. But deeper cuts that move beyond the United States and Russia to engage the P-5 and other nuclear weapons possessor states are envisioned under future arms control regimes, and are indeed required for the P-5 in accordance with their Article VI disarmament obligations in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Future verification needs will include monitoring the cessation of production of new fissile material for weapons, monitoring storage of warhead components and fissile materials and verifying dismantlement of warheads, pits, secondary stages, and other materials. A fundamental challenge to implementing a nuclear disarmament regime is the ability to thwart unauthorized material diversion throughout the dismantlement and disposition process through strong chain of custody implementation. Verifying the declared presence, or absence, of nuclear materials and weapons components throughout the dismantlement and disposition lifecycle is a critical aspect of the disarmament process. From both the diplomatic and technical perspectives, verification under these future arms control regimes will require new solutions. Since any acceptable verification technology must protect sensitive design information and attributes to prevent the release of classified or other proliferation-sensitive information, non-nuclear non-sensitive modalities may provide significant new verification tools which do not require the use of additional information barriers. Alternative verification technologies based upon electromagnetic and acoustics could potentially play an important role in fulfilling the challenging requirements of future verification regimes. For example, researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have demonstrated that low frequency electromagnetic signatures of sealed metallic containers can be used to rapidly confirm the presence of specific components on a yes/no basis without revealing classified information. PNNL researchers have also used ultrasonic measurements to obtain images of material microstructures which may be used as templates or unique identifiers of treaty-limited items. Such alternative technologies are suitable for application in various stages of weapons dismantlement and often include the advantage of an inherent information barrier due to the inability to extract classified weapon design information from the collected data. As a result, these types of technologies complement radiation-based verification methods for arms control. This article presents an overview of several alternative verification technologies that are suitable for supporting a future, broader and more intrusive arms control regime that spans the nuclear weapons disarmament lifecycle. The general capabilities and limitations of each verification modality are discussed and example technologies are presented. Potential applications are defined in the context of the nuclear material and weapons lifecycle. Example applications range from authentication (e.g., tracking and signatures within the chain of custody from downloading through weapons storage, unclassified templates and unique identification) to verification of absence and final material disposition.

  15. Databases and tools for nuclear astrophysics applications BRUSsels Nuclear LIBrary (BRUSLIB), Nuclear Astrophysics Compilation of REactions II (NACRE II) and Nuclear NETwork GENerator (NETGEN)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi Xu; Stephane Goriely; Alain Jorissen; Guangling Chen; Marcel Arnould

    2012-12-04

    An update of a previous description of the BRUSLIB+NACRE package of nuclear data for astrophysics and of the web-based nuclear network generator NETGEN is presented. The new version of BRUSLIB contains the latest predictions of a wide variety of nuclear data based on the most recent version of the Brussels-Montreal Skyrme-HFB model. The nuclear masses, radii, spin/parities, deformations, single-particle schemes, matter densities, nuclear level densities, E1 strength functions, fission properties, and partition functions are provided for all nuclei lying between the proton and neutron drip lines over the 8web-based tool NETGEN is presented. It contains in a fully documented form the new BRUSLIB and NACRE II data, as well as new experiment-based radiative neutron capture cross sections. The full new versions of BRUSLIB, NACRE II, and NETGEN are available electronically at http://www.astro.ulb.ac.be/NuclearData. The nuclear material is presented in an extended tabular form complemented with a variety of graphical interfaces.

  16. Experimental effects on dynamics and thermodynamics in nuclear reactions on the symmetry energy as seen by the CHIMERA 4$?$ detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. De Filippo; A. Pagano

    2013-10-22

    Heavy ion collisions have been widely used in the last decade to constraint the parameterizations of the symmetry energy term of nuclear equation of state (EOS) for asymmetric nuclear matter as a function of baryonic density. In the Fermi energy domain one is faced with variations of the density within a narrow range of values around the saturation density $\\rho_0$=0.16 fm$^{-3}$ down towards sub-saturation densities. The experimental observables which are sensitive to the symmetry energy are constructed starting from the detected light particles, clusters and heavy fragments that, in heavy ion collisions, are generally produced by different emission mechanisms at different stages and time scales of the reaction. In this review the effects of dynamics and thermodynamics on the symmetry energy in nuclear reactions are discussed and characterized using an overview of the data taken so far with the CHIMERA multi-detector array.

  17. Nuclear Physics and National Security in an Age of Terrorism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilfoyle, Jerry

    235 neutrons A Chain Reaction #12;Nuclear Weapons 101 · A uranium, gun-type nuclear weapon - High (Tumbler Snapper). The fireball is about 20 m across. #12;HEU Gun-Type Design The figure to the right shows, University of Richmond, Virginia Outline: 1. How do we assess the threat? 1. Nuclear Weapons 101 2. Catching

  18. Proton-induced cross-sections of nuclear reactions on lead up to 37 MeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Ditrói; F. Tárkányi; S. Takács; A. Hermanne

    2014-11-07

    Excitation function of proton induced nuclear reactions on lead for production of $^{206,205,204,203,202,201g}$Bi, $^{203cum,202m,201cum}$Pb and $^{202cum,201cum,200cum,199cum}$Tl radionuclides were measured up to 36 MeV by using activation method, stacked foil irradiation technique and $\\gamma$-ray spectrometry. The new experimental data were compared with the few earlier experimental results and with the predictions of the EMPIRE3.1, ALICE-IPPE (MENDL2p) and TALYS (TENDL-2012) theoretical reaction codes.

  19. The effect of nuclear reaction rates and convective mixing on the evolution of a 6M{sub ?} star

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halabi, Ghina M.

    2014-05-09

    We present the evolution of a 6M{sub ?} star, of solar-like initial metallicity, and investigate the effects of key nuclear reaction rates, as well as the treatment of the convective mixing on its evolution along the Cepheid instability strip. In particular, we study the effect of recent estimates of the {sup 14}N(p,?){sup 15}O reaction on the formation and extension of the blue loop during core helium burning. We also investigate the effects induced on this blue loop by the adoption of non-standard convective mixing prescriptions, as well as the implications of modifying the Mixing Length Theory.

  20. Computer experiments concerning palladium-deuterium and titanium-deuterium lattices - implications to phenomenon of low-energy nuclear reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, K.R.; Chaplot, S.L.

    1996-12-01

    Short-lived large energy fluctuations (SLEFs) in solids, proposed by Khait, are known to be responsible for several anomalous properties in a variety of materials. The study of SLEFs in palladium-deuterium and titanium-deuterium lattices via computer experiments is reported. The relevance of these large energy fluctuations in penetrating coulombic barriers in these systems is discussed. Such dynamical effects arising from the phonon bath in solids may enhance nuclear reaction probabilities leading to cold fusion. Expected cold fusion reaction rates are reported taking into account the effective charges of the deuterium atoms in the solid and SLEF frequencies. 25 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. The role of electron-screening deformations in solar nuclear fusion reactions and the solar neutrino puzzle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theodore E. Liolios

    2000-08-13

    Thermonuclear fusion reaction rates in the solar plasma are enhanced by the presence of the electron cloud that screens fusing nuclei. The present work studies the influence of electron screening deformations on solar reaction rates in the framework of the Debye-Huckel model. These electron-ion cloud deformations, assumed here to be static and axially symmetric, are shown to be able to considerably influence the solar neutrino fluxes of the pp and the CNO chains, with reasonable changes in the macroscopic parameters of the standard solar model (SSM) . Various known deformation sources are discussed but none of them is found strong enough to have a significant impact on the SSM neutrino fluxes.

  2. Migration process of very low-frequency events based on a chain-reaction model1 and its application to the detection of preseismic slip for megathrust earthquakes2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ampuero, Jean Paul

    1 Migration process of very low-frequency events based on a chain-reaction model1 and its such as very low16 frequency events (VLFs) migrating along the trench direction as swarms, we apply a17 3-D asperity, the9 swarms of VLFs have higher migration speeds and higher moment release rate as well10

  3. Fission-Fusion: A new reaction mechanism for nuclear astrophysics based on laser-ion acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thirolf, P. G.; Gross, M.; Allinger, K.; Bin, J.; Henig, A.; Kiefer, D.; Habs, D.; Ma, W.; Schreiber, J.

    2011-10-28

    We propose to produce neutron-rich nuclei in the range of the astrophysical r-process around the waiting point N = 126 by fissioning a dense laser-accelerated thorium ion bunch in a thorium target (covered by a CH{sub 2} layer), where the light fission fragments of the beam fuse with the light fission fragments of the target. Via the 'hole-boring' mode of laser Radiation Pressure Acceleration using a high-intensity, short pulse laser, very efficiently bunches of {sup 232}Th with solid-state density can be generated from a Th target and a deuterated CD{sub 2} foil, both forming the production target assembly. Laser-accelerated Th ions with about 7 MeV/u will pass through a thin CH{sub 2} layer placed in front of a thicker second Th foil (both forming the reaction target) closely behind the production target and disintegrate into light and heavy fission fragments. In addition, light ions (d,C) from the CD{sub 2} layer of the production target will be accelerated as well, inducing the fission process of {sup 232}Th also in the second Th layer. The laser-accelerated ion bunches with solid-state density, which are about 10{sup 14} times more dense than classically accelerated ion bunches, allow for a high probability that generated fission products can fuse again. The high ion beam density may lead to a strong collective modification of the stopping power, leading to significant range and thus yield enhancement. Using a high-intensity laser as envisaged for the ELI-Nuclear Physics project in Bucharest (ELI-NP), order-of-magnitude estimates promise a fusion yield of about 10{sup 3} ions per laser pulse in the mass range of A = 180-190, thus enabling to approach the r-process waiting point at N = 126.

  4. Nuclear parton distribution functions and energy loss effect in the Drell-Yan reaction off nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ChunGui Duan; LiHua Song; ShuoHe Wang; GuangLie Li

    2006-01-23

    The energy loss effect in nuclear matter is another nuclear effect apart from the nuclear effects on the parton distribution as in deep inelastic scattering process. The quark energy loss can be measured best by the nuclear dependence of the high energy nuclear Drell-Yan process. By means of two typical kinds of quark energy loss parametrization and the different sets of nuclear parton distribution functions, we present a analysis of the E866 experiments on the nuclear dependence of Drell-Yan lepton pair production resulting from the bombardment of Be, Fe and W targets by 800GeV protons at Fermilab. It is found that the quark energy loss in cold nuclei is strongly dependent on the used nuclear parton distribution functions. The further prospects of using relatively low energy proton incident on nuclear targets are presented by combining the quark energy loss rate determined from a fit to the E866 nuclear-dependent ratios versus $x_1$, with the nuclear parton distribution functions given from lA deep inelastic scattering (DIS) data. The experimental study of the relatively low energy nuclear Drell-Yan process can give valuable insight in the enengy loss of fast quark propagating a cold nuclei and help to pin down nuclear parton distributions functions.

  5. Application of Dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization to the Characterization of Reactions Involving Large Molecules 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Youngbok

    2013-03-13

    by hyperpolarization of the nuclear spins. NMR signals of hyperpolarized samples are enhanced by several orders of magnitude. Dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (D-DNP) is a versatile technique capable of polarizing many different nuclei in the solid state...

  6. ECOS-LINCE: A HIGH INTENSITY MULTI-ION SUPERCONDUCTING LINAC FOR NUCLEAR STRUCTURE AND REACTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    - Nuclear astrophysics - Ion-ion collisions in plasma Applied research should be also foreseen in the fields

  7. Study of Nuclear Reactions with 11C and 15O Radioactive Ion Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dongwon

    2008-01-01

    generating 98.5% of the Sun’s energy release. The p-p chainBe38] that the energy source of the sun and similar stars isof energy production in many stars, including our Sun.

  8. Nuclear aspects of the solar neutrino problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Oberhummer; A. N. Ivanov; N. I. Troitskaya; M. Faber

    1997-05-26

    The present status of the nuclear reaction rates determining the solar neutrino flux is discussed. This includes the reaction rates for the two branching ratios of the three pp-chains involving the reactions 3He(3He,2p)4He and 3He(4He,gamma)7Be for the first branching, and 7Be(e-,nu_e)7Li and 7Be(p,gamma)7B for the second branching. Mainly we will concentrate on the basic nuclear reaction p + p -> D + e+ + nu_e of the pp-chains. We use a relativistic field theory model of the deuteron to calculate the low-energy cross section for this reaction. The theoretical prediction of the cross section obtained is about 2.9 times largerthan given in the conventional potential approach. The consequences of this new reaction rate for the solar neutrino problem will be presented and discussed.

  9. Nuclear Reaction Cross Sections Database at BNL | U.S. DOE Office...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    superior performance of ENDFB-VII.0. The new library will play an important role in nuclear technology applications, including transport simulations supporting national...

  10. Initiation of nuclear reactions under laser irradiation of Au nanoparticles in the aqueous solution of Uranium salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Simakin; G. A. Shafeev

    2009-11-29

    Laser exposure of suspension of either gold or palladium nanoparticles in aqueous solutions of UO2Cl2 of natural isotope abundance was experimentally studied. Picosecond Nd:YAG lasers at peak power from 1011 to 1013 W/cm2 at the wavelength of 1064 and 355 nm were used as well as a visible-range Cu vapor laser at peak power of 1010 W/cm2. The composition of colloidal solutions before and after laser exposure was analyzed using atomic absorption and gamma spectroscopy between 0.06 and 1 MeV range of photon energy. A real-time gamma-spectroscopy was used to characterize the kinetics of nuclear reactions during laser exposure. It was found that laser exposure initiated nuclear reactions involving both 238U and 235U nuclei via different channels in H2O and D2O. The influence of saturation of both the liquid and nanoparticles by gaseous H2 and D2 on the kinetics of nuclear transformations was found. Possible mechanisms of observed processes are discussed.

  11. GPU ACCELERATION OF THE ISO–7 NUCLEAR REACTION NETWORK USING OPENCL 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holladay, Daniel 1989-

    2012-05-01

    supernova dynamics, a spatial discretization of the volume of the star necessary, and in many cases is combined with the computational technique of oper- ator splitting. Every spatial cell would have its own reaction network independent of the others, which...

  12. Probing nuclear compressibility via fragmentation in Au+Au reactions at 35 AMeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yogesh K. Vermani; Rajiv Chugh; Aman D. Sood

    2010-09-23

    The molecular dynamics study of fragmentation in peripheral $^{197}$Au +$^{197}$Au collisions at 35 MeV/nucleon is presented to probe the nuclear matter compressibility in low density regime. The yields of different fragment species, rapidity spectra, and multiplicities of charged particles with charge $3\\leq Z \\leq 80$ are analyzed at different peripheral geometries employing a soft and a hard equations of state. Fragment productions is found to be quite insensitive towards the choice of nucleon-nucleon cross sections allowing us to constrain nuclear matter compressibility. Comparison of calculated charged particle multiplicities with the experimental data indicates preference for the \\emph{soft} nature of nuclear matter.

  13. Flow cytometric detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proviral DNA by the polymerase chain reaction incorporating digoxigenin- or fluorescein-labeled dUTP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Gang; Olson, J.C.; Pu, R.; Vyas, G.N.

    1995-10-01

    Serological assays are routinely used in the laboratory diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HrV-1) infection, but the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is ultimately the most sensitive and direct method for establishing definitive diagnosis. As an alternative to the conventional radioactive PCR procedure we have developed and evaluated a pair of rapid nonradioisotopic flow cytometric detection methods. Using heminested PCR we directly incorporated fluorescein-12-dUTP (fluo-dUTP) or digoxigenin-11-dUTP (dig-dUTP) into the PCR-amplicons. The labeled amplicons were hybridized with biotinylated antisense and sense probes, followed by capture of the hybrid DNA using streptavidin-coated beads which were finally analyzed in a flow cytometer by (1) direct detection of the fluorescence intensity of the amplicons incorporating fluo-dUTP and (2) immunodetection of the amplicons incorporating dig-dUTP by anti-digoxigenin IgG labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). Although both assays were functionally comparable with radiolabeled probe in reliably detecting as low as five copies of HIV-1 proviral DNA sequences, the immunodetection of dig-dUTP consistently yielded higher mean channel fluorescence and gave a stable signal over an extended period of 12-14 weeks. In testing a panel of 20 pedigreed PBMC specimens from blood donors with or without HIV-1 infection, the results of both flow cytometric assays were identical with those of the conventional radioactive procedure. Therefore, we conclude that the dig-dUTP incorporation in amplicons, hybridization with a pair of sense-antisense biotinylated probes and immunodetection of hybrids by flow cytometric analyses is the nonisotopic method of choice for PCR-diagnosis of HIV-1 infection. 21 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Measurement of nuclear transparency from A(e,e'[pi]?) reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clasie, Benjamin Michael Patrick

    2006-01-01

    The color transparency phenomenon refers to the suppression of final-state interactions of a hadron propagating through the nuclear medium at large momentum transfer when the hadron is produced with small transverse size. ...

  15. The behavior of the fission products, as they are released from fission events during nuclear reaction, plays an important role in nuclear fuel performance. Fission product release can occur through grain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The behavior of the fission products, as they are released from fission events during nuclear reaction, plays an important role in nuclear fuel performance. Fission product release can occur through concentration distribution and decreased the overall mass flux. Finally, radial temperature and fission gas

  16. Experimental study to explore the $\\rm ^8Be$ induced nuclear reaction via the Trojan Horse Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen Qun-Gang; Li Cheng-Bo; Zhou Shu-Hua; Bakhadir Irgaziev; Fu Yuan-Yong; Claudio Spitaleri; Marco La Cognata; Zhou Jing; Meng Qiu-Ying; Livio Lamia; Marcello Lattuada

    2014-12-30

    To explore a possible indirect method for $\\rm ^8Be$ induced astrophysical reactions, the $\\rm ^9Be=({}^8Be+\\it n)$ cluster structure was studied via the Trojan Horse Method. It is the first time to study a super short life nucleus $\\rm ^8Be$ via the Trojan Horse Method, and it is the first time to make a valid test for $l=1$ Trojan-horse nucleus. The $\\rm ^9Be$ nucleus is assumed to have a ($\\rm {}^8Be+\\it n$) cluster structure and used as the Trojan-horse nucleus. The $\\rm ^8Be$ nucleus acts as a participant, while the neutron is a spectator to the virtual $\\rm ^8Be +{\\it d}\\rightarrow \\alpha + {}^6Li$ reaction via a suitable 3-body reaction $\\rm ^9Be +{\\it d}\\rightarrow \\alpha + {}^6Li +\\it n$. The experimental neutron momentum distribution inside $\\rm ^9Be$ was reconstructed. The agreement between experimental and theoretical momentum distribution indicates that there should be a ($\\rm {}^8Be+\\it n$) cluster structure inside $\\rm ^9Be$. Therefor the experimental study of $\\rm ^8Be$ induced reactions, for example the experimental measurement of the $\\rm ^8Be +\\alpha \\rightarrow {}^{12}C$ reaction proceeding through the Hoyle state, is possible.

  17. Nuclear Clusters as a Probe for Expansion Flow in Heavy Ion Reactions at 10-15AGeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Mattiello; H. Sorge; H. Stöcker; W. Greiner

    1996-07-02

    A phase space coalescence description based on the Wigner-function method for cluster formation in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented. The momentum distributions of nuclear clusters d,t and He are predicted for central Au(11.6AGeV)Au and Si(14.6AGeV)Si reactions in the framework of the RQMD transport approach. Transverse expansion leads to a strong shoulder-arm shape and different inverse slope parameters in the transverse spectra of nuclear clusters deviating markedly from thermal distributions. A clear ``bounce-off'' event shape is seen: the averaged transverse flow velocities in the reaction plane are for clusters larger than for protons. The cluster yields --particularly at low $p_t$ at midrapidities-- and the in-plane (anti)flow of clusters and pions change if suitably strong baryon potential interactions are included. This allows to study the transient pressure at high density via the event shape analysis of nucleons, nucleon clusters and other hadrons.

  18. Excitation of nuclear anharmonic vibrations in heavy-ion fusion reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Hagino; S. Kuyucak; N. Takigawa

    1997-11-05

    We discuss the effects of multi-phonon excitations on heavy-ion fusion reactions at energies near and below the Coulomb barrier, focusing especially on the role of anharmonicities. We carry out a systematic study of those effects on the excitation function of the fusion cross section and on the fusion barrier distribution, by using the vibrational limit of the interacting boson model. We also analyze the recently measured high-precision data of the $^{16}$O + $^{148}$Sm fusion reaction with this model and discuss the anharmonic properties of the quadrupole as well as the octupole vibrations in $^{148}$Sm. Negative and positive static quadrupole moments are deduced for the first 2$^+$ and 3$^-$ states in $^{148}$Sm, respectively. It is shown that the fusion barrier distribution strongly depends on the sign of the quadrupole moments, suggesting that subbarrier fusion reactions offer an alternative method to extract the static quadrupole moments of phonon states in spherical nuclei.

  19. Record of Cycling Operation of the Natural Nuclear Reactor in the Oklo/Okelobondo Area in Gabon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Record of Cycling Operation of the Natural Nuclear Reactor in the Oklo/Okelobondo Area in Gabon A billion yr old Oklo natural nuclear reactor. In addition to elevated abundances of fission-produced Zr, Ce nuclear chain reaction was predicted by Kuroda [1] 20 years before the remnants of the natural reactor

  20. On Thermonuclear Reaction Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. J. Haubold; A. M. Mathai

    1996-12-02

    Nuclear reactions govern major aspects of the chemical evolution od galaxies and stars. Analytic study of the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals is attempted here. Exact expressions for the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals for nuclear reactions in the case of nonresonant, modified nonresonant, screened nonresonant and resonant cases are given. These are expressed in terms of H-functions, G-functions and in computable series forms. Computational aspects are also discussed.

  1. Sensitivity of the blue loops of intermediate-mass stars to nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halabi, Ghina M.; El Eid, Mounib

    2012-11-20

    We investigate the effects of a modification of the {sup 14}N(p,{gamma}){sup 15}O reaction rate, as suggested by recent evaluations, on the formation and extension of the blue loops encountered during the evolution of the stars in the mass range 5M{sub Circled-Dot-Operator} to 12M{sub Circled-Dot-Operator }. We show that the blue loops of stars in the mass range 5M{sub Circled-Dot-Operator} to 8M{sub Circled-Dot-Operator }, that is the range of super ABG stars, are severely affected by a modification of the important {sup 14}N(p,{gamma}){sup 15}O reaction rate. We also show that the blue loops can be restored if envelope overshooting is included, which is necessary to explain the observations of the Cepheid stars.

  2. Nuclear reaction rates and energy in stellar plasmas : The effect of highly damped modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merav Opher; Luis O. Silva; Dean E. Dauger; Viktor K. Decyk; John M. Dawson

    2001-05-09

    The effects of the highly damped modes in the energy and reaction rates in a plasma are discussed. These modes, with wavenumbers $k \\gg k_{D}$, even being only weakly excited, with less than $k_{B}T$ per mode, make a significant contribution to the energy and screening in a plasma. When the de Broglie wavelength is much less than the distance of closest approach of thermal electrons, a classical analysis of the plasma can

  3. The Dynamical Dipole Mode in Fusion Reactions with Exotic Nuclear Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Baran; C. Rizzo; M. Colonna; M. Di Toro; D. Pierroutsakou

    2009-02-09

    We report the properties of the prompt dipole radiation, produced via a collective bremsstrahlung mechanism, in fusion reactions with exotic beams. We show that the gamma yield is sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy below/around saturation. Moreover we find that the angular distribution of the emitted photons from such fast collective mode can represent a sensitive probe of its excitation mechanism and of fusion dynamics in the entrance channel.

  4. Measurements of neutron-induced reactions in inverse kinematics and applications to nuclear astrophysics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    René Reifarth; Yuri A. Litvinov; Anne Endres; Kathrin Göbel; Tanja Heftrich; Jan Glorius; Alexander Koloczek; Kerstin Sonnabend; Claudia Travaglio; Mario Weigand

    2015-07-12

    Neutron capture cross sections of unstable isotopes are important for neutron-induced nucleosynthesis as well as for technological applications. A combination of a radioactive beam facility, an ion storage ring and a high flux reactor would allow a direct measurement of neutron induced reactions over a wide energy range on isotopes with half lives down to minutes. The idea is to measure neutron-induced reactions on radioactive ions in inverse kinematics. This means, the radioactive ions will pass through a neutron target. In order to efficiently use the rare nuclides as well as to enhance the luminosity, the exotic nuclides can be stored in an ion storage ring. The neutron target can be the core of a research reactor, where one of the central fuel elements is replaced by the evacuated beam pipe of the storage ring. Using particle detectors and Schottky spectroscopy, most of the important neutron-induced reactions, such as (n,$\\gamma$), (n,p), (n,$\\alpha$), (n,2n), or (n,f), could be investigated.

  5. Measurements of neutron-induced reactions in inverse kinematics and applications to nuclear astrophysics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reifarth, René; Endres, Anne; Göbel, Kathrin; Heftrich, Tanja; Glorius, Jan; Koloczek, Alexander; Sonnabend, Kerstin; Travaglio, Claudia; Weigand, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Neutron capture cross sections of unstable isotopes are important for neutron-induced nucleosynthesis as well as for technological applications. A combination of a radioactive beam facility, an ion storage ring and a high flux reactor would allow a direct measurement of neutron induced reactions over a wide energy range on isotopes with half lives down to minutes. The idea is to measure neutron-induced reactions on radioactive ions in inverse kinematics. This means, the radioactive ions will pass through a neutron target. In order to efficiently use the rare nuclides as well as to enhance the luminosity, the exotic nuclides can be stored in an ion storage ring. The neutron target can be the core of a research reactor, where one of the central fuel elements is replaced by the evacuated beam pipe of the storage ring. Using particle detectors and Schottky spectroscopy, most of the important neutron-induced reactions, such as (n,$\\gamma$), (n,p), (n,$\\alpha$), (n,2n), or (n,f), could be investigated.

  6. Complex Particle and Light Fragment Emission in the Cascade-Exciton Model of Nuclear Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stepan G. Mashnik; Arnold J. Sierk; Konstantin K. Gudima

    2002-08-23

    A brief description of our improvements and refinements that led from the CEM95 version of the Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM) code to CEM97 and to CEM2k is given. The increased accuracy and predictive power of the code CEM2k are shown by several examples. To describe fission and light-fragment (heavier than 4He) production, the CEM2k code has been merged with the GEM2 code of Furihata. We present some results on proton-induced fragmentation and fission reactions predicted by this extended version of CEM2k. We show that merging CEM2k with GEM2 allows us to describe many fission and fragmentation reactions in addition to the spallation reactions which are already relatively well described. We have initiated another approach to describe fission, complex particles and fragment emission by developing further our CEM2k code addressing specifically these problems. In this effort, we have developed our own universal approximation for inverse cross sections, new routines to calculate Coulomb barriers and widths of emitted particles and to simulate their kinetic energy using arbitrary approximations for the inverse cross sections. To describe fission-fragment production, we have incorporated into CEM2k a thermodynamical model of fission by Stepanov. This extended version of CEM2k allows us to describe much better complex particle emission and many fission fragments, but it is still incomplete and needs further work.

  7. Nucleosynthesis in novae: experimental progress in the determination of nuclear reaction rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alain Coc

    2008-01-18

    The sources of nuclear uncertainties in nova nucleosynthesis have been identified using hydrodynamical nova models. Experimental efforts have followed and significantly reduced those uncertainties. This is important for the evaluation of nova contribution to galactic chemical evolution, gamma--ray astronomy and possibly presolar grain studies. In particular, estimations of expected gamma-ray fluxes are essential for the planning of observations with existing or future satellites.

  8. Argonne nuclear pioneers: Chicago Pile 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agnew, Harold; Nyer, Warren

    2012-01-01

    On December 2, 1942, 49 scientists, led by Enrico Fermi, made history when Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) went critical and produced the world's first self-sustaining, controlled nuclear chain reaction. Seventy years later, two of the last surviving CP-1 pioneers, Harold Agnew and Warren Nyer, recall that historic day.

  9. Argonne nuclear pioneers: Chicago Pile 1

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Agnew, Harold; Nyer, Warren

    2013-04-19

    On December 2, 1942, 49 scientists, led by Enrico Fermi, made history when Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) went critical and produced the world's first self-sustaining, controlled nuclear chain reaction. Seventy years later, two of the last surviving CP-1 pioneers, Harold Agnew and Warren Nyer, recall that historic day.

  10. Nuclear Fusion via Triple Collisions in Solar Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. B. Belyaev; D. E. Monakhov; N. Shevchenko; S. A. Sofianos; S. A. Rakityansky; M. Braun; L. L. Howell; W. Sandhas

    1997-09-09

    We consider several nuclear fusion reactions that take place at the center of the sun, which are omitted in the standard pp-chain model. More specifically the reaction rates of the nonradiative production of ^3He, ^7Be, and ^8B nuclei in triple collisions involving electrons are estimated within the framework of the adiabatic approximation. These rates are compared with those of the corresponding binary fusion reactions.

  11. Simulation of static and random errors on Grover's search algorithm implemented in a Ising nuclear spin chain quantum computer with few qubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Gorin; L. Lara; G. V. Lopez

    2009-11-27

    We consider Grover's search algorithm on a model quantum computer implemented on a chain of four or five nuclear spins with first and second neighbour Ising interactions. Noise is introduced into the system in terms of random fluctuations of the external fields. By averaging over many repetitions of the algorithm, the output state becomes effectively a mixed state. We study its overlap with the nominal output state of the algorithm, which is called fidelity. We find either an exponential or a Gaussian decay for the fidelity as a function of the strength of the noise, depending on the type of noise (static or random) and whether error supression is applied (the 2pi k-method) or not.

  12. Localization of human elav-like neuronal protein 1 (Hel-N1) on chromosome 9p21 by chromosome microdissection polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Jian; Knops, J.F.; Longshore, J.W.; King, P.H.

    1996-08-15

    Hel-N1 is a member of the highly conserved elav family of neuronal genes. It shares considerable sequence homology with HuD, another human member, and both genes are expressed in brain. HuD was recently mapped to chromosome 1p34. Here, we have utilized chromosome microdissection polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in situ hybridization to map Hel-N1 to chromosome 9p21. The different chromosomal locations of these homologous genes underscore their distinct identities. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  13. The series of carbon-chain complexes {Ru(dppe)Cp*}?{?-(C?C)x} (x = 4–8, 11): Synthesis, structures, properties and some reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce, Michael I.; Cole, Marcus L.; Ellis, Benjamin G.; Gaudio, Maryka; Nicholson, Brian K.; Parker, Christian R.; Skelton, Brian W.; White, Allan H.

    2015-01-28

    The construction of a series of compounds {Ru(dppe)Cp*}2(?-C2x) (Ru*-C2x-Ru*, x = 4–8, 11)) is described. A direct reaction between RuCl(dppe)Cp* and Me3Si(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC)4SiMe3 afforded Ru*-C8-Ru* in 89% yield. The Pd(0)/Cu(I)-catalysed coupling of Ru{Ctriple bond; length of mdashCCtriple bond; length of mdashCAu(PPh3)}(dppe)Cp*Ru*-C4-Au (2 equiv.) with diiodoethyne gave Ru*-C10-Ru* (64%), or of 1 equiv. with I(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC)3I gave Ru*-C14-Ru* (36%); similarly, Ru{(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC)4Au(PPh3)}(dppe)Cp*Ru*-C8-Au and I(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC)3I gave Ru*-C22-Ru* (12%). Desilylation (TBAF) of Ru{(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC)xSiMe3}(dppe)Cp*Ru*-C2x-Si (x = 3, 4) followed by oxidative coupling [Cu(OAc)2/py] gave Ru*-C12-Ru* (82%) and Ru*-C16-Ru* (58%), respectively. Similar oxidative coupling of Ru(Ctriple bond; length of mdashCCtriple bond; length of mdashCH)(dppe)Cp* was a second route to Ru*-C8-Ru* (82%). Appropriate precursors are already known, or obtained by coupling of Ru*-C2x-Si (x = 2, 4) with AuCl(PPh3)/NaOMe [Ru*-C4-Au, 95%; Ru*-C8-Au, 74%] or from Pd(0)/Cu(I) catalysed coupling of Ru*-C2x-Au (x = 2, 3) with I(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC)2SiMe3 (Ru*-C8-Si, 64%; Ru*-C10-Si, 2%). Reactions between Ru*-C2x-Ru* (x = 3, 4) and Fe2(CO)9 gave {Fe3(CO)9}{?3-CCtriple bond; length of mdashC[Ru(dppe)Cp*]}2Fe(C3-Ru*)2 and {Fe3(CO)9}{?3-CCtriple bond; length of mdashC[Ru(dppe)Cp*]}{?3-C(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC)2[Ru(dppe)Cp*]} Fe(C3-Ru*)(C5-Ru*), respectively. The redox properties of the series of complexes with 2x = 2–16 were measured and showed a diminution of the separation of the first two oxidation potentials, ?E = E2 - E1, with increasing carbon chain length. The X-ray-determined molecular structures of Ru*-C8-Si, Ru*-C8-Ru*, Ru*-C14-Ru* (two C6H6 solvates), {Ru(PPh3)2Cp}2{?-(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC)4}·4CHCl3Ru-C8-Ru·4CHCl3 and of Fe(C3-Ru*)2 and Fe(C3-Ru*)(C5-Ru*) are reported.

  14. The ({sup 18}O, {sup 16}O) reaction as a probe for nuclear spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cappuzzello, F.; Bondì, M.; Nicolosi, D.; Tropea, S.; Agodi, A.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Cunsolo, A.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Rodrigues, M. R. D.; De Napoli, M.; Linares, R.

    2014-11-11

    The response of nuclei to the ({sup 18}O, {sup 16}O) two-neutron transfer reaction at 84 MeV incident energy has been systematically studied at the Catania INFN-LNS laboratory. The experiments were performed using several solid targets from light ({sup 9}Be, {sup 11}B, {sup 12,13}C, {sup 16}O, {sup 28}Si) to heavy ones ({sup 58,64}Ni, {sup 120}Sn, {sup 208}Pb). The {sup 16}O ejectiles were detected at forward angles by the MAGNEX magnetic spectrometer. Exploiting the large momentum acceptance (?10%, +14%) and solid angle (50 msr) of the spectrometer, energy spectra were obtained with a relevant yield up to about 20 MeV excitation energy. The application of the powerful trajectory reconstruction technique did allow to get energy spectra with energy resolution of about 150 keV and angular distributions with angular resolution better than 0.3°. A common feature observed with light nuclei is the appearance of unknown resonant structures at high excitation energy. The strong population of these latter together with the measured width can reveal the excitation of a collective mode connected with the transfer of a pair.

  15. Dynamics of low-energy nuclear forces for electromagnetic and weak reactions with the deuteron in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model of light nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. N. Ivanov; H. Oberhummer; N. I. Troitskaya; M. Faber

    2000-06-22

    A dynamics of low-energy nuclear forces is investigated for low-energy electromagnetic and weak nuclear reactions with the deuteron in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model of light nuclei by example of the neutron-proton radiative capture (M1-capture) n + p -> D + photon, the photomagnetic disintegration of the deuteron photon + D -> n + p and weak reactions of astrophysical interest. These are the solar proton burning p + p -> D + positron + nu_e, the pep-process p + electron + p -> D + nu_e and the neutrino and anti-neutrino disintegration of the deuteron caused by charged nu_e + D -> electron + p + p, anti-nu_e + D -> positron + n + n and neutral nu_e(anti-nu_e) + D -> nu_e(ant-nu_e) + n + p weak currents.

  16. Determination of the cross sections of (n,2n), (n,gamma) nuclear reactions on germanium isotopes at the energy of neutrons 13.96 MeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. V. Begun; O. G. Druzheruchenko; O. O. Pupirina; V. K. Tarakanov

    2007-01-23

    The cross sections of 70Ge(n,2n)69Ge, 72Ge(n,2n)71Ge, 76Ge(n,gamma)77(g+0.21m)Ge, 76Ge(n,2n)75Ge nuclear reactions were measured at the energy of neutrons 13.96(6) MeV by activation method with gamma-ray and X-ray spectra studies.

  17. Development of a high-density gas-jet target for nuclear astrophysics and reaction studies with rare isotope beams. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uwe, Greife

    2014-08-12

    The purpose of this project was to develop a high-density gas jet target that will enable a new program of transfer reaction studies with rare isotope beams and targets of hydrogen and helium that is not currently possible and will have an important impact on our understanding of stellar explosions and of the evolution of nuclear shell structure away from stability. This is the final closeout report for the project.

  18. Kinetics of Cold-Cap Reactions for Vitrification of Nuclear Waste Glass Based on Simultaneous Differential Scanning Calorimetry - Thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Pierce, David A.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kruger, Albert A.; Chun, Jaehun; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-12-03

    For vitrifying nuclear waste glass, the feed, a mixture of waste with glass-forming and modifying additives, is charged onto the cold cap that covers 90-100% of the melt surface. The cold cap consists of a layer of reacting molten glass floating on the surface of the melt in an all-electric, continuous glass melter. As the feed moves through the cold cap, it undergoes chemical reactions and phase transitions through which it is converted to molten glass that moves from the cold cap into the melt pool. The process involves a series of reactions that generate multiple gases and subsequent mass loss and foaming significantly influence the mass and heat transfers. The rate of glass melting, which is greatly influenced by mass and heat transfers, affects the vitrification process and the efficiency of the immobilization of nuclear waste. We studied the cold-cap reactions of a representative waste glass feed using both the simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and the thermogravimetry coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (TGA-GC-MS) as complementary tools to perform evolved gas analysis (EGA). Analyses from DSC-TGA and EGA on the cold-cap reactions provide a key element for the development of an advanced cold-cap model. It also helps to formulate melter feeds for higher production rate.

  19. Resonant thermonuclear reaction rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haubold, H.J.; Mathai, A.M.

    1986-08-01

    Basic physical principles for the resonant and nonresonant thermonuclear reaction rates are applied to find their standard representations for nuclear astrophysics. Closed-form representations for the resonant reaction rate are derived in terms of Meijer's G-italic-function. Analytic representations of the resonant and nonresonant nuclear reaction rates are compared and the appearance of Meijer's G-italic-function is discussed in physical terms.

  20. THE ROLE OF DEEP INELASTIC PROCESSES IN NUCLEAR PHYSICS: EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF DEEP INELASTIC REACTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moretto, L.G.

    2010-01-01

    618MeV 0 =4O° ro I in "IT N Deep inelastic component -•s 50nwnetl npin* llE THE ROLE OF DEEP INELASTIC PROCESSES INAND THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF DEEP INELASTIC REACTIONS L. G. M

  1. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 88

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCutchan, E.A.; Sonzogni, A.A.

    2014-01-15

    The experimental results from the various reaction and radioactive decay studies leading to nuclides in the A=88 mass chain have been reviewed. Nuclides ranging from Ge (Z=32) to Ru (Z=44) are included. For these nuclei, level and decay schemes, as well as tables of nuclear properties, are given. This work supersedes the previous evaluation of the data on these nuclides (G. Mukherjee, A.A. Sonzogni – Nucl.Data Sheets 105, 419 (2005))

  2. Nuclear Data Sheets for A=150

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, S.K.; Sonzogni, A.A.

    2013-04-15

    The experimental results from the various reaction and decay studies leading to nuclides in the A=150 mass chain have been reviewed. These data are summarized and presented, together with the adopted level schemes and properties, for the nuclides from Cs(Z=55) through Lu(Z=71). This evaluation replaces the previous evaluation by E. der Mateosian and J. K. Tuli (1995De28), which appeared in Nuclear Data Sheets 75, 827 (1995)

  3. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 68

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCutchan, E. A.

    2012-07-01

    The experimental results from the various reaction and radioactive decay studies leading to nuclides in the A = 68 mass chain have been reviewed. Nuclides ranging from Cr (Z = 24) to Br (Z = 35) are included. For these nuclei, level and decay schemes, as well as tables of nuclear properties, are given. This work supersedes the previous evaluation of the data on these nuclides (2002Bu29).

  4. Nuclear transparency and effective kaon-nucleon cross section from the A(e,e?K+) reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clasie, Benjamin Michael Patrick

    We have determined the transparency of the nuclear medium to kaons from A(e,e[superscript ?]K+) measurements on [superscript 12]C, [superscript 63]Cu, and [superscript 197]Au targets. The measurements were performed at the ...

  5. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulsrud, R.M.; Furth, H.P.; Valeo, E.J.; Goldhaber, M.

    1983-05-09

    This invention relates to a method of controlling the reaction rates in a nuclear fusion reactor; and more particularly, to the use of polarized nuclear fuel.

  6. Spallation process with simultaneous multi-particle emission in nuclear evaporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santos, B. M.

    2013-05-06

    High energy probes have been used currently to explore nuclear reaction mechanism and nuclear structure. The spallation process governs the reaction process around 1 GeV energy regime. A new aspect introduced here to describe the nuclear reaction is the in-medium nucleonnucleon collision framework. The nucleon-nucleon scattering is kinematically treated by using an effective mass to represent the nuclear binding. In respect to the evaporation phase of the reaction, we introduce the simultaneous particles emission decay. This process becomes important due to the rise of new channels at high excitation energy regime of the compound nucleus. As results, the particles yields in the rapid and evaporation phases are obtained and compared to experimental data. The effect and relevance of these simultaneous emission processes in the evaporation chain is also discussed.

  7. High energy halogen atom reactions activated by nuclear transformations. Progress report, February 15, 1980-February 14, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The stereochemistry of high energy /sup 18/F, /sup 34m/Cl, and /sup 76/Br substitution reactions involving enantiomeric molecules in the gas and condensed phase is studied. The gas to condensed state transition in halogen high energy chemistry, involving chlorine, bromine, and iodine activated by the (n,..gamma..) and (I.T.) processes in halomethanes, saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons is being investigated in more detail. Special attention is given to defining the nature of the enhancement yields in the condensed phase. High energy halogen reactions in liquid and frozen aqueous solutions of organic and biomolecular solutes are studied in an attempt to learn more about these reactions. The applications of high energy chemistry techniques and theory to neutron activation analysis of biological systems are being continued. Special attention is given to developing procedures for trace molecular determinations in biological systems. The applications of hot halogen atoms as indicators of solute-solute interactions in liquid and frozen aqueous solutions of halogenated bases and nucleosides are being developed. Experiments are designed to explain the mechanisms of the radioprotection offered biomolecular solutes trapped within the frozen ice lattice. Reactions of bromine and iodine activated by isomeric transition with halogenated biomolecular solutes in liquid and frozen aqueous solutions are studied. The high energy reactions of iodine with the isomers of pentene have been studied in low pressure gaseous systems employing additives and rare gas moderators and liquid systems. Reactivity of excited complex formation and structural effects of electrophilic iodine attack on the pi-bond systems are studied.

  8. Random-matrix approach to the statistical compound nuclear reaction at low energies using the Monte-Carlo technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kawano, T; Weidenmüller, H A

    2015-01-01

    Using a random-matrix approach and Monte-Carlo simulations, we generate scattering matrices and cross sections for compound-nucleus reactions. In the absence of direct reactions we compare the average cross sections with the analytic solution given by the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble (GOE) triple integral, and with predictions of statistical approaches such as the ones due to Moldauer, to Hofmann, Richert, Tepel, and Weidenm\\"{u}ller, and to Kawai, Kerman, and McVoy. We find perfect agreement with the GOE triple integral and display the limits of validity of the latter approaches. We establish a criterion for the width of the energy-averaging interval such that the relative difference between the ensemble-averaged and the energy-averaged scattering matrices lies below a given bound. Direct reactions are simulated in terms of an energy-independent background matrix. In that case, cross sections averaged over the ensemble of Monte-Carlo simulations fully agree with results from the Engelbrecht-Weidenm\\"{u}ller ...

  9. Nuclear pygmy modes and the dynamics of the nuclear skin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nadia Tsoneva; Horst Lenske

    2012-11-05

    The information on pygmy resonances reveals new aspects on the isospin dynamics of the nucleus with important astrophysical consequences. In this connection, the precise knowledge of nuclear response functions plays a key role in the determination of photonuclear reactions cross sections which are of importance for the synthesis of heavy neutron-rich elements. For that purpose, a theoretical method based on density functional theory and multi-phonon approach is applied for investigations of nuclear excitations with different multipolarities and energies in stable and exotic nuclei. The possible relation of low-energy modes to the properties of neutron or proton skins is systematically investigated for isotonic and isotopic chains. Our studies of dipole and quadrupole response functions and the corresponding transition densities indicate new pygmy dipole and pygmy quadrupole resonances, describing oscillations of the nuclear skin. Also, the presence of skins is found to affect the magnetic response of nuclei.

  10. Sleeve reaction chamber system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Beeman, Barton V. (San Mateo, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Hadley, Dean R. (Manteca, CA); Landre, Phoebe (Livermore, CA); Lehew, Stacy L. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2009-08-25

    A chemical reaction chamber system that combines devices such as doped polysilicon for heating, bulk silicon for convective cooling, and thermoelectric (TE) coolers to augment the heating and cooling rates of the reaction chamber or chambers. In addition the system includes non-silicon-based reaction chambers such as any high thermal conductivity material used in combination with a thermoelectric cooling mechanism (i.e., Peltier device). The heat contained in the thermally conductive part of the system can be used/reused to heat the device, thereby conserving energy and expediting the heating/cooling rates. The system combines a micromachined silicon reaction chamber, for example, with an additional module/device for augmented heating/cooling using the Peltier effect. This additional module is particularly useful in extreme environments (very hot or extremely cold) where augmented heating/cooling would be useful to speed up the thermal cycling rates. The chemical reaction chamber system has various applications for synthesis or processing of organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, including the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction.

  11. NNSA TRITIUM SUPPLY CHAIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyrick, Steven; Cordaro, Joseph; Founds, Nanette; Chambellan, Curtis

    2013-08-21

    Savannah River Site plays a critical role in the Tritium Production Supply Chain for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The entire process includes: • Production of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods (TPBARs) at the Westinghouse WesDyne Nuclear Fuels Plant in Columbia, South Carolina • Production of unobligated Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) at the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) in Portsmouth, Ohio • Irradiation of TPBARs with the LEU at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Watts Bar Reactor • Extraction of tritium from the irradiated TPBARs at the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) at Savannah River Site • Processing the tritium at the Savannah River Site, which includes removal of nonhydrogen species and separation of the hydrogen isotopes of protium, deuterium and tritium.

  12. I. Nuclear Production Reaction and Chemical Isolation Procedure for 240Am II. New Superheavy Element Isotopes: 242Pu(48Ca,5n)285-114

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellison, Paul Andrew

    2011-01-01

    library for nuclear science and technology. Nuclear DataJournal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 7(10):487–499,Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, G.T. Seaborg,

  13. Why Supply Chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Datta, Shoumen

    2000-01-01

    Why supply chain explains the importance of supply chains. It includes an introduction to ERP as designed by SAP.

  14. Nuclear transparency and effective kaon-nucleon cross section from the A(e, e'K+) reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nuruzzaman; D. Dutta; J. Arrington; R. Asaturyan; F. Benmokhtar; W. Boeglin; P. Bosted; A. Bruell; B. Clasie; M. E. Christy; E. Chudakov; M. M. Dalton; A. Daniel; D. Day; L. El Fassi; R. Ent; H. C. Fenker; J. Ferrer; N. Fomin; H. Gao; K. Garrow; D. Gaskel; C. Gray; T. Horn; G. M. Huber; M. K. Jones; N. Kalantarians; C. E. Keppel; K. Kramer; Y. Li; Y. Liang; A. F. Lung; S. Malace; P. Markowitz; A. Matsumura; D. G. Meekins; T. Mertens; T. Miyoshi; H. Mkrtchyan; R. Monson; T. Navasardyan; G. Niculescu; I. Niculescu; Y. Okayasu; A. K. Opper; C. Perdrisat; V. Punjabi; X. Qian; A. W. Rauf; V. M. Rodriquez; D. Rohe; J. Seely; E. Segbefia; G. R. Smith; M. Sumihama; V. Tadevosyan; L. Tang; V. Tvaskis; W. F. Vulcan; F. R. Wesselmann; S. A. Wood; L. Yuan; X. C. Zheng

    2011-08-02

    We have determined the transparency of the nuclear medium to kaons from $A(e,e^{'} K^{+})$ measurements on $^{12}$C, $^{63}$Cu, and $^{197}$Au targets. The measurements were performed at the Jefferson Laboratory and span a range in four-momentum-transfer squared Q$^2$=1.1 -- 3.0 GeV$^2$. The nuclear transparency was defined as the ratio of measured kaon electroproduction cross sections with respect to deuterium, ($\\sigma^{A}/\\sigma^{D}$). We further extracted the atomic number ($A$) dependence of the transparency as parametrized by $T= (A/2)^{\\alpha-1}$ and, within a simple model assumption, the in-medium effective kaon-nucleon cross sections. The effective cross sections extracted from the electroproduction data are found to be smaller than the free cross sections determined from kaon-nucleon scattering experiments, and the parameter $\\alpha$ was found to be significantly larger than those obtained from kaon-nucleus scattering. We have included similar comparisons between pion- and proton-nucleon effective cross sections as determined from electron scattering experiments, and pion-nucleus and proton-nucleus scattering data.

  15. Nuclear fission and nuclear safeguards: Common technologies and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keepin, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear fission and nuclear safeguards have much in common, including the basic physical phenomena and technologies involved as well as the commitments and challenges posed by expanding nuclear programs in many countries around the world. The unique characteristics of the fission process -- such as prompt and delayed neutron and gamma ray emission -- not only provide the means of sustaining and controlling the fission chain reaction, but also provide unique ''signatures'' that are essential to quantitative measurement and effective safeguarding of key nuclear materials (notably /sup 239/Pu and /sup 235/U) against theft, loss, or diversion. In this paper, we trace briefly the historical emergence of safeguards as an essential component of the expansion of the nuclear enterprise worldwide. We then survey the major categories of passive and active nondestructive assay techniques that are currently in use or under development for rapid, accurate measurement and verification of safe-guarded nuclear materials in the many forms in which they occur throughout the nuclear fuel cycle. 23 refs., 14 figs.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF INDIVIDUAL CHEMICAL REACTIONS CONSUMING ACID DURING NUCLEAR WASTE PROCESSING AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - 136B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Lambert, D.; Newell, J.; Stone, M.

    2009-09-02

    Conversion of legacy radioactive high-level waste at the Savannah River Site into a stable glass waste form involves a chemical pretreatment process to prepare the waste for vitrification. Waste slurry is treated with nitric and formic acids to achieve certain goals. The total quantity of acid added to a batch of waste slurry is constrained by the catalytic activity of trace noble metal fission products in the waste that can convert formic acid into hydrogen gas at many hundreds of times the radiolytic hydrogen generation rate. A large block of experimental process simulations were performed to characterize the chemical reactions that consume acid prior to hydrogen generation. The analysis led to a new equation for predicting the quantity of acid required to process a given volume of waste slurry.

  17. Migration of nuclear shell gaps studied in the d(24Ne,p gamma)25Ne reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. N. Catford; C. N. Timis; R. C. Lemmon; M. Labiche; N. A. Orr; B. Fernandez-Dominguez; R. Chapman; M. Freer; M. Chartier; H. Savajols; M. Rejmund; N. L. Achouri; N. Amzal; N. I. Ashwood; T. D. Baldwin; M. Burns; L. Caballero; J. M. Casadjian; N. Curtis; G. de France; W. Gelletly; X. Liang; S. D. Pain; V. P. E. Pucknell; B. Rubio; O. Sorlin; K. Spohr; Ch. Theisen; D. D. Warner

    2010-04-09

    The transfer of neutrons onto 24Ne has been measured using a reaccelerated radioactive beam of 24Ne to study the (d,p) reaction in inverse kinematics. The unusual raising of the first 3/2+ level in 25Ne and its significance in terms of the migration of the neutron magic number from N=20 to N=16 is put on a firm footing by confirmation of this state's identity. The raised 3/2+ level is observed simultaneously with the intruder negative parity 7/2- and 3/2- levels, providing evidence for the reduction in the N=20 gap. The coincident gamma-ray decays allowed the assignment of spins as well as the transferred orbital angular momentum. The excitation energy of the 3/2+ state shows that the established USD shell model breaks down well within the sd model space and requires a revised treatment of the proton-neutron monopole interaction.

  18. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 222

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, S.; Tuli, J.; Jain,A.K.; Tuli,J.K.

    2011-11-01

    The ENSDF evaluation for A=222 mass chain (1996El01) has been updated on the basis of the experimental results, since September 1995 (literature cutoff date in 1996El01), from various reaction and decay studies for all nuclides in A=222 mass chain (Z=84 to 92). A new nuclide ({sup 222}Po) has since been observed. In addition, new measurements have been reported in Rn, Th and Ra nuclides. The results obtained from various theoretical studies are given as comments. The updated level and decay schemes, and experimental decay and reaction data on which they are based, are summarized and presented for all the nuclides with mass number A=222. The adopted values of level energies, level spins and parities are given, and {gamma}-ray energies, intensities, as well as other nuclear properties are presented.

  19. I. Nuclear Production Reaction and Chemical Isolation Procedure for 240Am II. New Superheavy Element Isotopes: 242Pu(48Ca,5n)285-114

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellison, Paul Andrew

    2011-01-01

    of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions. Phys. Rev. C,transfermium elements in cold fusion reactions. Phys. Rev.have been deemed “cold fusion” reactions because of the low

  20. Migration of Nuclear Shell Gaps Studied in the d({sup 24}Ne,p{gamma}){sup 25}Ne Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Catford, W. N.; Timis, C. N.; Baldwin, T. D.; Gelletly, W.; Pain, S. D.; Lemmon, R. C.; Pucknell, V. P. E.; Warner, D. D.; Labiche, M.; Orr, N. A.; Achouri, N. L.; Chapman, R.; Amzal, N.; Burns, M.; Liang, X.; Spohr, K.; Freer, M.; Ashwood, N. I.

    2010-05-14

    The transfer of neutrons onto {sup 24}Ne has been measured using a reaccelerated radioactive beam of {sup 24}Ne to study the (d,p) reaction in inverse kinematics. The unusual raising of the first 3/2{sup +} level in {sup 25}Ne and its significance in terms of the migration of the neutron magic number from N=20 to N=16 is put on a firm footing by confirmation of this state's identity. The raised 3/2{sup +} level is observed simultaneously with the intruder negative parity 7/2{sup -} and 3/2{sup -} levels, providing evidence for the reduction in the N=20 gap. The coincident gamma-ray decays allowed the assignment of spins as well as the transferred orbital angular momentum. The excitation energy of the 3/2{sup +} state shows that the established USD shell model breaks down well within the sd model space and requires a revised treatment of the proton-neutron monopole interaction.

  1. Charge separation in photoredox reactions. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevan, L.

    1993-07-15

    The structural aspects controlling charge separation in molecular photoionization reactions in organized molecular assemblies involving micelles, reverse micelles and vesicles are being studied by optical and electron magnetic resonance techniques including the time domain technique of deuterium electron spin echo modulation (ESEM) and matrix proton electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) to measure weak electron-nuclear dipolar interactions. ESEM and matrix ENDOR are particularly well adapted to the study of disordered systems as exemplified by micelles and vesicles. The photoionization yields of alkylphenothiazines in micelles and vesicles have been shown to depend on the alkyl chain length and to correlate with relative distances from the surfactant assembly interface measured by deuterium ESEM and matrix proton ENDOR. The photoionization of alkylmethylviologens versus alkyl chain length has also been studied in vesicles, micelles and reverse micelles. Nitroxide spin probes have been used to study the degree of water penetration into mixed ionic/nonionic poly(ethylene oxide) and cationic/anionic micelles by using ESEM methods and selectively deuterated surfactants. The effect of urea interaction at micellar interfaces on the interface hydration has also been evaluated by studying nitroxide probes with ESEM.

  2. Nuclear Processes at Solar Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlo Broggini

    2003-08-29

    LUNA, Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics at Gran Sasso, is measuring fusion cross sections down to the energy of the nucleosynthesis inside stars. Outstanding results obtained up to now are the cross-section measurements within the Gamow peak of the Sun of $^{3}He(^{3}He,2p)^{4}He$ and the $D(p,\\gamma)^{3}He$. The former plays a big role in the proton-proton chain, largely affecting the calculated solar neutrino luminosity, whereas the latter is the reaction that rules the proto-star life during the pre-main sequence phase. The implications of such measurements will be discussed. Preliminary results obtained last year on the study of $^{14}N(p,\\gamma)^{15}O$, the slowest reaction of the CNO cycle, will also be shown.

  3. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  4. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  5. Theoretical Studies on the CH3CO + Cl Reaction: Hydrogen Abstraction versus CO Displacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Minh Tho

    in the presence of a hydrocarbon readily leads to the formation of the chain- propagating organic hydrocarbon on the kinetics of the reactions of chlorine atoms with hydrocarbon molecules and other propagating reactions in a radical chain mechanism.1,2 Equally important are the chain-terminating reactions below, which measure

  6. Microfabricated electrochemiluminescence cell for chemical reaction detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Hsueh, Yun-Tai (Davis, CA); Smith, Rosemary L. (Davis, CA)

    2003-01-01

    A detector cell for a silicon-based or non-silicon-based sleeve type chemical reaction chamber that combines heaters, such as doped polysilicon for heating, and bulk silicon for convection cooling. The detector cell is an electrochemiluminescence cell constructed of layers of silicon with a cover layer of glass, with spaced electrodes located intermediate various layers forming the cell. The cell includes a cavity formed therein and fluid inlets for directing reaction fluid therein. The reaction chamber and detector cell may be utilized in any chemical reaction system for synthesis or processing of organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction, which are examples of a synthetic, thermal-cycling-based reaction. The ECL cell may also be used in synthesis instruments, particularly those for DNA amplification and synthesis.

  7. Stellar reaction rate for (22)Mg + p -> (23)Al from the asymptotic normalization coefficient in the mirror nuclear system (22)Ne + n -> (23)Ne 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Abdullah, T.; Carstoiu, F.; Chen, X.; Clark, H. L.; Fu, C.; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Lui, Y. -W; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Tabacaru, G.; Tokimoto, Y.; Trache, L.; Tribble, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    The production of (22)Na in ONe novae can be influenced by the (22)Mg(p,gamma)(23)Al reaction. To investigate this reaction rate at stellar energies, we have determined the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) for ...

  8. Nuclear Science--A Guide to the Nuclear Science Wall Chart 2003 Contemporary Physics Education Project (CPEP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nuclear Science--A Guide to the Nuclear Science Wall Chart ©2003 Contemporary Physics Education Project (CPEP) 7-1 Chapter 7 Nuclear Reactions Nuclear reactions and nuclear scattering are used, protons, alphas, or "heavy ions"), creates these reactions when they strike a target nucleus. Nuclear

  9. Silicon-based sleeve devices for chemical reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Northrup, M.A.; Mariella, R.P. Jr.; Carrano, A.V.; Balch, J.W.

    1996-12-31

    A silicon-based sleeve type chemical reaction chamber is described that combines heaters, such as doped polysilicon for heating, and bulk silicon for convection cooling. The reaction chamber combines a critical ratio of silicon and silicon nitride to the volume of material to be heated (e.g., a liquid) in order to provide uniform heating, yet low power requirements. The reaction chamber will also allow the introduction of a secondary tube (e.g., plastic) into the reaction sleeve that contains the reaction mixture thereby alleviating any potential materials incompatibility issues. The reaction chamber may be utilized in any chemical reaction system for synthesis or processing of organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction, which are examples of a synthetic, thermal-cycling-based reaction. The reaction chamber may also be used in synthesis instruments, particularly those for DNA amplification and synthesis. 32 figs.

  10. Silicon-based sleeve devices for chemical reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Mariella, Jr., Raymond P. (Danville, CA); Carrano, Anthony V. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A silicon-based sleeve type chemical reaction chamber that combines heaters, such as doped polysilicon for heating, and bulk silicon for convection cooling. The reaction chamber combines a critical ratio of silicon and silicon nitride to the volume of material to be heated (e.g., a liquid) in order to provide uniform heating, yet low power requirements. The reaction chamber will also allow the introduction of a secondary tube (e.g., plastic) into the reaction sleeve that contains the reaction mixture thereby alleviating any potential materials incompatibility issues. The reaction chamber may be utilized in any chemical reaction system for synthesis or processing of organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction, which are examples of a synthetic, thermal-cycling-based reaction. The reaction chamber may also be used in synthesis instruments, particularly those for DNA amplification and synthesis.

  11. Laser amplifier chain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, R.P.

    1992-10-20

    A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping energy is received by the chain. 6 figs.

  12. Laser amplifier chain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Richard P. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping energy is received by the chain.

  13. The Social and Ethical Aspects of Nuclear Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, Alan

    2005-01-01

    siting a high-level nuclear waste repository at Hanford,Eds. ), Public reactions to nuclear waste. Durham, NC: Dukefairness in toxic and nuclear waste siting. Cambridge, MA:

  14. A Classical Approach in Simple Nuclear Fusion Reaction 1H2 + 1H3 using Two-Dimension Granular Molecular Dynamics Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparisoma Viridi; Rizal Kurniadi; Abdul Waris; Yudha Satya Perkasa

    2011-09-30

    Molecular dynamics in 2-D accompanied by granular model provides an opportunity to investigate binding between nuclei particles and its properties that arises during collision in a fusion reaction. A fully classical approach is used to observe the influence of initial angle of nucleus orientation to the product yielded by the reaction. As an example, a simplest fusion reaction between 1H2 and 1H3 is observed. Several products of the fusion reaction have been obtained, even the unreported ones, including temporary 2He4 nucleus.

  15. Nuclear evaporation process with simultaneous multiparticle emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonardo P. G. De Assis; Sergio B. Duarte; Bianca M. Santos

    2012-08-07

    The nuclear evaporation process is reformulated by taking into account simultaneous multiparticle emission from a hot compound nucleus appearing as an intermediate state in many nuclear reaction mechanisms. The simultaneous emission of many particles is particularly relevant for high excitation energy of the compound nucleus.These channels are effectively open in competition with the single particle emissions and fission in this energy regime. Indeed, the inclusion of these channels along the decay evaporating chain shows that the yield of charged particles and occurrence of fission are affected by these multiparticle emission processes of the compounded nucleus, when compared to the single sequential emission results. The effect also shows a qualitative change in the neutron multiplicity of different heavy compound nucleus considered. This should be an important aspect for the study of spallation reaction in Acceleration Driven System (ADS) reactors. The majority of neutrons generated in these reactions come from the evaporation stage of the reaction, the source of neutron for the system. A Monte Carlo simulation is employed to determine the effect of these channels on the particle yield and fission process. The relevance of the simultaneous particle emission with the increasing of excitation energy of the compound nucleus is explicitly shown.

  16. Sandia Energy - Manufacturing Supply Chain

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manufacturing Supply Chain Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Wind Energy Materials, Reliability, & Standards Manufacturing Supply Chain Manufacturing Supply...

  17. Microfabricated sleeve devices for chemical reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA)

    2003-01-01

    A silicon-based sleeve type chemical reaction chamber that combines heaters, such as doped polysilicon for heating, and bulk silicon for convection cooling. The reaction chamber combines a critical ratio of silicon and non-silicon based materials to provide the thermal properties desired. For example, the chamber may combine a critical ratio of silicon and silicon nitride to the volume of material to be heated (e.g., a liquid) in order to provide uniform heating, yet low power requirements. The reaction chamber will also allow the introduction of a secondary tube (e.g., plastic) into the reaction sleeve that contains the reaction mixture thereby alleviating any potential materials incompatibility issues. The reaction chamber may be utilized in any chemical reaction system for synthesis or processing of organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction, which are examples of a synthetic, thermal-cycling-based reaction. The reaction chamber may also be used in synthesis instruments, particularly those for DNA amplification and synthesis.

  18. Polypeptide chain collapse and protein folding Jayant B. Udgaonkar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Review Polypeptide chain collapse and protein folding Jayant B. Udgaonkar National Centre is an integral component of a protein folding reaction. In this review, exper- imental characterization solvent [2]. A distinctive physical feature of any protein folding reaction is the greater than 3-fold

  19. maritime supply chain | National Nuclear Security Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLosThe 26th AnnualHistoryM aterialsmFUSE: Functionmanaging the`

  20. Influence of vertex coulomb effects on peripheral partial amplitudes for the consecutive transfer of two protons in A(X,Y)B peripheral nuclear reactions induced by light loosely bound (exotic) nuclei at low energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blokhintsev, L. D. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Mukhamedzhanov, A. M. [Texas A and M University, MS 3366, Cyclotron Institute (United States); Tadzhibaeva, D. Kh.; Yarmukhamedov, R., E-mail: rakhim@inp.u [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Uzbekistan)

    2010-07-15

    The amplitude for the consecutive transfer of two protons in A(X, Y)B peripheral nuclear reactions induced by loosely bound light (exotic) nuclei and described by a nonrelativistic square Feynman diagram in which the first transferred proton is loosely bound while the second one in tightly bound is considered. It is shown that the inclusion of three-ray Coulomb vertex effects in the square diagram leads to the appearance of an additional 'Coulomb' singularity in the variable cos {theta} (here, {theta} is the c.m. scattering angle), this singularity being closer to the physical domain, -1 {<=} cos {theta} {<=} 1, than the well-known 'triangle' singularities corresponding to the amplitude of the square diagram in which the internal line is contracted. The asymptotic behavior of the partial-wave amplitudes for l >> 1 that are generated by the aforementioned singularities is found explicitly. A comparative analysis of the resulting partial-wave amplitudes for l >> 1 is performed for specific peripheral nuclear reactions induced by {sup 8}B and {sup 12}N ions at various energies.

  1. NUCLEAR STRUCTURE AND HEAVY-ION FUSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stokstad, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    mechanisms leading to fusion, nuclear structure is affectingknoi,. A [he "nuclear structure" in fusion will consist ofCI i CO I0 + Be fusion I0 ' -cm Nuclear reaction S-factors

  2. Risk Management in Biopharmaceutical Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Yao

    2011-01-01

    Supply Chain Risk Managementof Recent Work on Supply Chain Risk Management . . . . .M. , Supply chain risk management: Outlining an agenda for

  3. Nuclear Science References Coding Manual D.F. Winchell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    Nuclear Science References Coding Manual D.F. Winchell National Nuclear Data Center Brookhaven and coding procedures for specific topics . . 18 3.2.1 NUCLEAR REACTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3.2.2 RADIOACTIVITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3.2.3 NUCLEAR STRUCTURE

  4. European supply chain study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puri, Mohitkumar

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Supply chain management has been defined as, "..a set of approaches utilized to efficiently integrate suppliers, manufacturers, warehouses and stores, so that merchandise is produced and distributed at the ...

  5. Supply chain dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbosa, Ricardo Wagner Lopes, 1976-

    2003-01-01

    The strong bargaining power of major retailers and the higher requirements for speed, service excellence and customization have significantly contributed to transform the Supply Chain Management. These increasing challenges ...

  6. Pharmaceutical Supply Chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Pharmaceutical Supply Chain Networks with Outsourcing Nagurney, Li, and Nagurney Pharmaceutical) Li1, Ladimer S. Nagurney2 1 - Department of Operations and Information Management Isenberg School of Management University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 2 - Department of Electrical and Computer

  7. Density Functional Study of Reactions of Phenoxides with Polycarbonate P. Ballone and R. O. Jones*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    used to study the reactions of chains of bisphenol A polycarbonate (BPA-PC) with sodium phenoxide (Na of the reactions of phenol, LiOPh, and NaOPh with the cyclic tetramer of bisphenol A polycarbonate (BPA

  8. Error Rate Comparison during Polymerase Chain Reaction by DNA Polymerase

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McInerney, Peter; Adams, Paul; Hadi, Masood Z.

    2014-01-01

    As larger-scale cloning projects become more prevalent, there is an increasing need for comparisons among high fidelity DNA polymerases used for PCR amplification. All polymerases marketed for PCR applications are tested for fidelity properties (i.e., error rate determination) by vendors, and numerous literature reports have addressed PCR enzyme fidelity. Nonetheless, it is often difficult to make direct comparisons among different enzymes due to numerous methodological and analytical differences from study to study. We have measured the error rates for 6 DNA polymerases commonly used in PCR applications, including 3 polymerases typically used for cloning applications requiring high fidelity. Errormore »rate measurement values reported here were obtained by direct sequencing of cloned PCR products. The strategy employed here allows interrogation of error rate across a very large DNA sequence space, since 94 unique DNA targets were used as templates for PCR cloning. The six enzymes included in the study, Taq polymerase, AccuPrime-Taq High Fidelity, KOD Hot Start, cloned Pfu polymerase, Phusion Hot Start, and Pwo polymerase, we find the lowest error rates with Pfu , Phusion, and Pwo polymerases. Error rates are comparable for these 3 enzymes and are >10x lower than the error rate observed with Taq polymerase. Mutation spectra are reported, with the 3 high fidelity enzymes displaying broadly similar types of mutations. For these enzymes, transition mutations predominate, with little bias observed for type of transition. « less

  9. CONTINUOUS TIME MARKOV CHAIN MODELS FOR CHEMICAL REACTION NETWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F.

    classifications. 65L05, 65L06, 65L80, 90C30, 80A30 1. Introduction. The microscopic modeling of the dynamics

  10. Lesson 5 - Fission and Chain Reactions | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRDEnergyTurbine bladesJune 22, 2015BoydLearncoversshowed how

  11. Buoyancy-Driven Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Devices (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing Bacteria (TechnicalTransmission, Distribution and-- Energy, science,--libraries.SciTech

  12. Buoyancy-Driven Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Devices (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing Bacteria (TechnicalTransmission, Distribution and-- Energy,

  13. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 239

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Browne, E.; Tuli, J. K.

    2014-11-18

    Spectroscopic data and level schemes from radioactive decay and nuclear reaction studies are presented here for all nuclei with mass number A=239. In general, a relatively small amount of new data on this mass chain has been reported since the previous evaluation in 2003. However, special evaluations, such as ''Database of prompt gamma rays from slow neutron–capture from elemental analysis'' (2007ChZX), have provided additional precise data for levels in 29U. Also, new Coulomb excitation measurements in 239Pu have extended the knowledge of the 1/2[631] rotational band up to J?=(55/2+)J?=(55/2+), and that of the octupole vibrational band up to J?=(53/2-)J?=(53/2-). Formore »historical knowledge it is worth mentioning the report on the “Discovery of isotopes of the transuranium elements with 93 0) interpolated from those for even–even adjacent nuclei given by 1998Ak04.« less

  14. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 239

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Browne, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States), National Nuclear Data Center; Tuli, J. K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States), National Nuclear Data Center

    2014-11-01

    Spectroscopic data and level schemes from radioactive decay and nuclear reaction studies are presented here for all nuclei with mass number A=239. In general, a relatively small amount of new data on this mass chain has been reported since the previous evaluation in 2003. However, special evaluations, such as ''Database of prompt gamma rays from slow neutron–capture from elemental analysis'' (2007ChZX), have provided additional precise data for levels in 29U. Also, new Coulomb excitation measurements in 239Pu have extended the knowledge of the 1/2[631] rotational band up to J?=(55/2+)J?=(55/2+), and that of the octupole vibrational band up to J?=(53/2-)J?=(53/2-). For historical knowledge it is worth mentioning the report on the “Discovery of isotopes of the transuranium elements with 93 0) interpolated from those for even–even adjacent nuclei given by 1998Ak04.

  15. Theories of Low Energy Nuclear Transmutations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. N. Srivastava; A. Widom; J. Swain

    2012-10-27

    Employing concrete examples from nuclear physics it is shown that low energy nuclear reactions can and have been induced by all of the four fundamental interactions (i) (stellar) gravitational, (ii) strong, (iii) electromagnetic and (iv) weak. Differences are highlighted through the great diversity in the rates and similarity through the nature of the nuclear reactions initiated by each.

  16. Physics of Nuclear Antishadowing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivan Schmidt

    2005-11-14

    Shadowing and antishadowing of the electromagnetic nuclear structure functions are produced by the coherence of multiscattering quark nuclear processes. This picture leads to substantially different antishadowing for charged and neutral current processes, particularly in anti-neutrino reactions, thus affecting the extraction of the weak-mixing angle $\\sin^2\\theta_W$.

  17. Research in theoretical nuclear and neutrino physics. Final report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ANNIHILATION; FLAVOR MODEL; SUPERNOVAE; QUANTUM CHROMODYNAMICS; HEAVY ION REACTIONS; SUN; NUCLEAR THEORY; CONVERSION; CHARM PARTICLES; PROGRESS REPORT; NONLUMINOUS MATTER; STAR...

  18. Photoneutron reactions in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varlamov, V. V., E-mail: Varlamov@depni.sinp.msu.ru; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Orlin, V. N.; Peskov, N. N.; Stopani, K. A. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    Among key problems in nuclear astrophysics, that of obtaining deeper insight into the mechanism of synthesis of chemical elements is of paramount importance. The majority of heavy elements existing in nature are produced in stars via radiative neutron capture in so-called s- and r processes, which are, respectively, slow and fast, in relation to competing ?{sup ?}-decay processes. At the same time, we know 35 neutron-deficient so-called bypassed p-nuclei that lie between {sup 74}Se and {sup 196}Hg and which cannot originate from the aforementioned s- and r-processes. Their production is possible in (?, n), (?, p), or (?, ?) photonuclear reactions. In view of this, data on photoneutron reactions play an important role in predicting and describing processes leading to the production of p-nuclei. Interest in determining cross sections for photoneutron reactions in the threshold energy region, which is of particular importance for astrophysics, has grown substantially in recent years. The use of modern sources of quasimonoenergetic photons obtained in processes of inverse Compton laser-radiation scattering on relativistic electronsmakes it possible to reveal rather interesting special features of respective cross sections, manifestations of pygmy E1 and M1 resonances, or the production of nuclei in isomeric states, on one hand, and to revisit the problem of systematic discrepancies between data on reaction cross sections from experiments of different types, on the other hand. Data obtained on the basis of our new experimental-theoretical approach to evaluating cross sections for partial photoneutron reactions are invoked in considering these problems.

  19. Testing nuclear forces by polarization transfer coefficients in d(\\vec p, \\vec p)d and d(\\vec p,\\vec d)p reactions at E^{lab}_p = 22.7 MeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Witala; J. Golak; R. Skibinski; W. Glockle; A. Nogga; E. Epelbaum; H. Kamada; A. Kievsky; M. Viviani

    2006-01-24

    The proton to proton polarization transfer coefficients K_x^{x'}, K_y^{y'}, K_z^{x'} and the proton to deuteron polarization transfer coefficients K_x^{x'}, K_y^{y'}, K_z^{x'}, K_x^{y'z'}, K_y^{z'z'}, K_z^{y'z'}, K_y^{x'z'} and K_y^{x'x'-y'y'} have been measured in d(\\vec p, \\vec p)d and d(\\vec p, \\vec d)p reactions at E^{lab}_p = 22.7 MeV, respectively. The data have been compared to predictions of modern nuclear forces obtained by solving the three-nucleon Faddeev equations in momentum space. Realistic (semi) phenomenological nucleon-nucleon potentials combined with model three-nucleon forces and modern chiral nuclear forces have been used. The AV18, CD Bonn, Nijm I and II nucleon-nucleon interactions have been applied alone or combined with the Tucson-Melbourne 99 three-nucleon force, adjusted separately for each potential to reproduce the triton binding energy. For the AV18 potential also the Urbana IX three-nucleon force have been used. In addition chiral NN potentials in the next-to-leading-order and chiral two- and three-nucleon forces in the next-to-next-to-leading-order have been applied. Only when three-nucleon forces are included a satisfactory description of all data results. For the chiral approach the restriction to the forces in the next-to-leading order is insufficient. Only when going over to the next-to-next-to-leading order one gets a satisfactory description of the data, similar to the one obtained with the (semi) phenomenological forces.

  20. Correlating Radioactive Material to Sea Surface Temperature off the Coast of Japan: The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    nuclear reactions to constantly boil water; the resulting steam is used to drive turbines and generate

  1. Environmental decision making: supply-chain considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne; Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    manufacturing environmental impact and enable the reductionthe supply chain (3) environmental impact and cost must bethe supply chain’s environmental impact and flexibility (

  2. InterplanetarySupply Chain Management &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    InterplanetarySupply Chain Management & LogisticsArchitectures 2005-2007 MIT JPL USA PSI InterplanetarySupply Chain Management & LogisticsArchitectures 2005-2007 MIT JPL USA PSI Logistics Lessons Learned in NASA Space Flight Interplanetary Supply Chain Management & Logistics Architectures William A

  3. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levesque, Stephen

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) � Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : � Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. � Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. � Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. � Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. � Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. � Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. � Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. � Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium projects. Full technical reports for each of the projects have been submitted as well.

  4. Implementation of State Transfer Hamiltonians in Spin Chains with Magnetic Resonance Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappellaro, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear spin systems and magnetic resonance techniques have provided a fertile platform for experimental investigation of quantum state transfer in spin chains. From the first observation of polarization transfer, predating ...

  5. The Role of the Sellafield Ltd Centres of Expertise in Engaging with the Science, Environment and Technology Supply Chain and University Sector to Support Site Operations and Decommissioning in the UK Nuclear Industry - 13018

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, Ed; Connor, Donna; Keighley, Debbie

    2013-07-01

    The development and maintenance of the broad range of the highly technical skills required for safe and successful management of nuclear sites is of vital importance during routine operations, decommissioning and waste treatment activities.. In order to maintain a core team of technical experts, across all of the disciplines required for these tasks, the approach which has been taken by the Sellafield Ltd has been the formation of twenty five Centres of Expertise (CoE), each covering key aspects of the technical skills required for nuclear site operations. Links with the Specialist University Departments: The CoE leads are also responsible for establishing formal links with university departments with specialist skills and facilities relevant to their CoE areas. The objective of these links is to allow these very specialist capabilities within the university sector to be more effectively utilized by the nuclear industry, which benefits both sectors. In addition to the utilization of specialist skills, the university links are providing an important introduction to the nuclear industry for students and researchers. This is designed to develop the pipeline of potential staff, who will be required in the future by both the academic and industrial sectors. (authors)

  6. Nuclear Science Division Annual Report 1984-85

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahoney Editor, Jeannette

    2010-01-01

    M. Xcssi. and W. Wolf. Nuclear-Reaction-Time Studies of U +K° Produced in Relativistic Nuclear Collisions Phys. Lett.Momentum Distributions of Nuclear Fragments in im Collisions

  7. Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertulani, Carlos A.

    2014-09-10

    This grant had two components: Density functional theory and pairing and Nuclear reactions. This final report summarizes the activities for this SciDAC-2 project.

  8. Transport of Triplet Excitons along Continuous 100 nm Polyfluorene Chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xi, L.; Bird, M.; Mauro, G.; Asaoka, S.; Cook, A. R.; Chen, H. -C.; Miller, J. R

    2014-10-03

    Triplet excitons created in poly-2,7-(9,9-dihexyl)fluorene (pF) chains with end trap groups in solution are efficiently transported to and captured by the end groups. The triplets explore the entire lengths of the chains, even for ~100 nm long chains enabling determination of the completeness of end capping. The results show that the chains continuous: they may contain transient barriers or traps, such as those from fluctuations of dihedral angles, but are free of major defects that stop motion of the triplets. Quantitative determinations are aided by the addition of a strong electron donor, TMPD, which removes absorption bands of the end-trapped triplets. For chains having at least one end trap, triplet capture is quantitative on the 1 µs timescale imposed by the use of the donor. Fractions of chains having no end traps were 0.15 for pF samples with anthraquinone (AQ) end traps and 0.063 with naphthylimide (NI) end traps. These determinations agreed with measurements by NMR for short (<40 polymer repeat units (PRU)) chains, where NMR determinations are accurate. The results find no evidence for traps or barriers to transport of triplets, and places limits on the possible presence of defects as impenetrable barriers to less than one per 300 PRU. The present results present a paradigm different from the current consensus, derived from observations of singlet excitons, that conjugated chains are divided into “segments,” perhaps by some kind of defects. For the present pF chains, the segmentation either does not apply to triplet excitons or is transient so that the defects are healed or surmounted in times much shorter than 1 µs. Triplets on chains without end trap groups transfer to chains with end traps on a slower time scale. Rate constants for these bimolecular triplet transfer reactions were found to increase with the length of the accepting chain, as did rate constants for triplet transfer to the chains from small molecules like biphenyl. A second set of polyfluorenes with 2-butyloctyl side chains was found to have a much lower completeness of end capping

  9. Nuclear effects in Neutrino Nuclear Cross-sections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. K. Singh; M. Sajjad Athar

    2007-10-24

    Nuclear effects in the quasielastic and inelastic scattering of neutrinos(antineutrinos) from nuclear targets have been studied. The calculations are done in the local density approximation which take into account the effect of nucleon motion as well as renormalisation of weak transition strengths in the nuclear medium. The inelastic reaction leading to production of pions is calculated in a $\\Delta$ dominance model taking into account the renormalization of $\\Delta$ properties in the nuclear medium.

  10. Nuclear Science Division: 1993 Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, W.D. [ed.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes the activities of the Nuclear Science Division for the 1993 calendar year. This was another significant year in the history of the Division with many interesting and important accomplishments. Activities for the following programs are covered here: (1) nuclear structure and reactions program; (2) the Institute for Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics; (3) relativistic nuclear collisions program; (4) nuclear theory program; (5) nuclear data evaluation program, isotope project; and (6) 88-inch cyclotron operations.

  11. Electroweak reactions with light nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sonia Bacca

    2010-06-01

    The investigation of light nuclei with ab-initio methods provides an optimal setting to probe our knowledge on nuclear forces, because the few-nucleon problem can be solved accurately. Nucleons interact not only in pairs but also via many-body forces. Theoretical efforts need to be taken towards the identification of nuclear observables sensitive to the less known many-nucleon forces. Electromagnetic reactions can potentially provide useful information on this. We present results on photo-absorption and electron scattering off light nuclei, emphasizing the role of three-body forces and the comparison with experimental data. On the other hand, reactions induced by weak probes, like neutrino interactions with nucleonic matter, are relevant to astrophysics and can be calculated with few-body techniques. In this case, since often no experiment is possible, ab-initio predictions provide valuable input for astrophysical simulations.

  12. Supply Chain Networks: Challenges and Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Supply Chains Anna Nagurney Supply Chain Networks #12;Energy Supply Chains Anna Nagurney Supply ChainSupply Chain Networks: Challenges and Opportunities from Analysis to Design Anna Nagurney Isenberg on Computational Management Science Vienna, Austria July 28-30, 2010 Anna Nagurney Supply Chain Networks #12

  13. Supply Chain Networks: Challenges and Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Supply Chains Anna Nagurney Supply Chain Networks #12;Energy Supply Chains Anna Nagurney Supply ChainSupply Chain Networks: Challenges and Opportunities from Analysis to Design Anna Nagurney Isenberg November 23, 2010 Anna Nagurney Supply Chain Networks #12;Acknowledgments I would like to thank Dr. Les

  14. Review of Nuclear Reactions at the AGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. A. Ogilvie

    2001-04-10

    Results from p+A and A+A collisions from the beam energies 2-18 AGeV/c are reviewed with emphasis on the properties of dense hadronic matter, and its implications for claims that a new state of matter has been formed at the SPS.

  15. Analysis of Nuclear Reconstitution, Nuclear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forbes, Douglass

    CHAPTER Analysis of Nuclear Reconstitution, Nuclear Envelope Assembly, and Nuclear Pore Assembly ....................................................................... 180 8.5 Assaying Assembly and Integrity of the Nuclear Envelope................................... 182 8.6 A Nuclear Pore Complex Assembly Assay Using pore-free Nuclear Intermediates

  16. Thermal properties of light nuclei from 12 fusion-evaporation reactions2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    this theory the detailed output of a generic nuclear reaction is41 uniquely predicted under the knowledge applications of nuclear44 physics, from nucleosynthesis calculations to reactor science. Its direct measurement in the second paper of the series.33 PACS numbers: 25.70.z, 24.60.Dr, 27.30.+t, 24.10.Pa34 NUCLEAR REACTIONS 12C

  17. Nuclear Theory and Applications progress report, January 1, 1989-- April 1, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strottman, D.D.; Mutschlecner, A.D. (comps.)

    1990-12-01

    This report contains brief papers on the following topics: data evaluation and libraries; data processing; nuclear applications; reactions; fission; and nuclear structure.

  18. Nuclear Science References Database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Pritychenko; E. B?ták; B. Singh; J. Totans

    2014-07-08

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr and the International Atomic Energy Agency http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr.

  19. Statistical Methods for Thermonuclear Reaction Rates and Nucleosynthesis Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iliadis, Christian; Coc, Alain; Timmes, F X; Champagne, Art E

    2014-01-01

    Rigorous statistical methods for estimating thermonuclear reaction rates and nucleosynthesis are becoming increasingly established in nuclear astrophysics. The main challenge being faced is that experimental reaction rates are highly complex quantities derived from a multitude of different measured nuclear parameters (e.g., astrophysical S-factors, resonance energies and strengths, particle and gamma-ray partial widths). We discuss the application of the Monte Carlo method to two distinct, but related, questions. First, given a set of measured nuclear parameters, how can one best estimate the resulting thermonuclear reaction rates and associated uncertainties? Second, given a set of appropriate reaction rates, how can one best estimate the abundances from nucleosynthesis (i.e., reaction network) calculations? The techniques described here provide probability density functions that can be used to derive statistically meaningful reaction rates and final abundances for any desired coverage probability. Examples ...

  20. Coherent photonuclear reactions for isotope transmutation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Ejiri; S. Date

    2011-02-22

    Coherent photonuclear isotope transmutation (CPIT) produces exclusively radioactive isotopes (RIs) by coherent photonuclear reactions via E1 giant resonances. Photons to be used are medium energy photons produced by laser photons backscattered off GeV electrons. The cross sections are as large as 0.2 - 0.6 b, being independent of individual nuclides. A large fraction of photons is effectively used for the photonuclear reactions, while the scattered GeV electrons remain in the storage ring to be re-used. CPIT with medium energy photons provides specific/desired RIs with the high rate and the high density for nuclear science, molecular biology and for nuclear medicines.

  1. CCPPolicyBriefing Chain Store

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    CCPPolicyBriefing May 2006 Chain Store Pricing and the Structure of Retail Markets W: www.ccp.uea.ac.uk T: 01603 593 715 A: UEA, Norwich, NR4 7TJ Chain Store Pricing and the Structure of Retail Markets in markets in the opticians industry and the implications for consumer choice and the local economy. · Retail

  2. Nuclear Structure and Nuclear Reactions | Argonne Leadership Computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEY UNIVERSE The 2014 survey includesScienceFacility Projections

  3. Laser induced chemical reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orel, Ann E.

    2010-01-01

    the simplest prototype chemical reaction, and since it is soLASER ENHANCEMENT OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS A. B. C. D. E.Laser Inhibition of Chemical Reaction Effect of Isotopic

  4. New Nuclear Physics for Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard N. Boyd; Carl R. Brune; George M. Fuller; Christel J. Smith

    2010-08-04

    We discuss nuclear reactions which could play a role in Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN). Most of these reactions involve lithium and beryllium isotopes and the rates for some of these have not previously been included in BBN calculations. Few of these reactions are well studied in the laboratory. We also discuss novel effects in these reactions, including thermal population of nuclear target states, resonant enhancement, and non-thermal neutron reaction products. We perform sensitivity studies which show that even given considerable nuclear physics uncertainties, most of these nuclear reactions have minimal leverage on the standard BBN abundance yields of 6Li and 7Li. Although a few have the potential to alter the yields significantly, we argue that this is unlikely.

  5. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  6. Selected topics in nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez-Pinedo, Gabriel [Institut fuer Kernphysik (Theoriezentrum), Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 2, 64289 Darmstadt, Germany and GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerioneneforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-06-10

    In this lectures after a brief introduction to stellar reaction rates and its implementation in nuclear networks, I discuss the nuclear physics aspects of core collapse supernova and explosive nucleosynthesis and their significance for the production of heavy elements by the rapid neutron capture process and potentially also by the recently discovered {nu}p process.

  7. Improve supply chain resilience by multi-stage supply chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jie, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    Due to the global expansion of Company A's supply chain network, it is becoming more vulnerable to many disruptions. These disruptions often incur additional costs; and require time to respond to and recover from these ...

  8. Neutron multiplicity distributions for 30 MeVu sup 14 N reactions with the indicated targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    This report contains short papers on the following topics: Heavy ion reactions; nuclear structure and fundamental interactions; nuclear theory; atomic molecular and materials science; and superconducting cyclotron and instrumentation. (LSP)

  9. [Experimental nuclear physics]. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1991-04-01

    This is the final report of the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington on work supported in part by US Department of Energy contract DE-AC06-81ER40048. It contains chapters on giant dipole resonances in excited nuclei, nucleus-nucleus reactions, astrophysics, polarization in nuclear reactions, fundamental symmetries and interactions, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), ultra-relativistic heavy ions, medium energy reactions, work by external users, instrumentation, accelerators and ion sources, and computer systems. An appendix lists Laboratory personnel, a Ph. D. degree granted in the 1990-1991 academic year, and publications. Refs., 41 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Folding mechanism of a polymer chain with short-range attractions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leitold, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the crystallization of a single, flexible homopolymer chain using transition path sampling (TPS). The chain consists of N identical spherical monomers evolved according to Langevin dynamics. While neighboring monomers are coupled via harmonic springs, the non-neighboring monomers interact via a hard core and a short-ranged attractive potential. For a sufficiently small interaction range {\\lambda}, the system undergoes a first-order freezing transition from an expanded, disordered phase to a compact crystalline state. Using a new shooting move tailored to polymers combined with a committor analysis, we study the transition state ensemble of an N=128 chain and search for possible reaction coordinates based on likelihood maximization. We find that typical transition states consist of a crystalline nucleus with one or more chain fragments attached to it. Furthermore, we show that the number of particles in the crystalline core is not well suited as a reaction coordinate. We then present an improved...

  11. Theoretical nuclear physics: Final report for period February 1, 1984 to January 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rost, E.; Kunz, P.D.

    1987-01-23

    Nuclear theory at the University of Colorado emphasizes the study of nuclear structure through the use of nuclear reactions. Recent efforts have been focussed on the role of relativistic models in nucleon-nucleus scattering and reactions. Further work delves into the underlying bases of the reaction theory itself.

  12. SUPPLY CHAIN OPTIMIZATION JOSEPH GEUNES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaminsky, Philip M.

    Boston/Dordrecht/London #12;Contents 1 Information Centric Optimization in Capacitated Supply Chains 1 to their customers (whom we call "end-customers"). The goal is to minimize the total cost of transportation

  13. Coulomb Effects in Few-Body Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Deltuva

    2010-02-18

    The method of screening and renormalization is used to include the Coulomb interaction between the charged particles in the momentum-space description of three- and four-body nuclear reactions. The necessity for the renormalization of the scattering amplitudes and the reliability of the method is demonstrated. The Coulomb effect on observables is discussed.

  14. Chemical Functionalization of Nanostructured Materials Using Supercritical Reaction Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zemanian, Thomas S.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Liu, Jun; Mattigod, Shas V.; Shin, Yongsoon; Franz, James A.; Ustyugov, Oleksiy A.; Nie, Zimin

    2001-12-15

    There exists a need for durable and thin functional coatings to utilize the afforded surface area of highly porous ceramic materials. Deposition of silane-based Self Assembled Monolayers (SAMs) has thus far been limited to maximum coverages of 4-5 molecules/nm2 and long processing times (up to 2 weeks), due to the restricted internal geometry of the substrates. Results are presented for SAMs deposited on high surface area silica from supercritical fluids (SCFs). The SAMs so produced display unprecedented coverages, high monolayer integrity, and extremely low surface defect density. Moreover, the depositions and subsequent removal of reaction byproducts are complete in a matter of minutes rather than days. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra of the surface modified silica are presented, demonstrating the SAM integrity and evolution over time. Sorption of aqueous metal ions is demonstrated, and results are given demonstrating the broad pH stability of the deposited SAMs. A chemical explanation for the enhanced deposition is posited, and the kinetics of mass transport into and out of the nanostructured spaces are discussed.Related experiments using zeolite substrates show deposition of thiol-terminated silanes to internal surfaces of 6? microporous material. After oxidation of the thiol functional group size selective chemistry was demonstrated using the produced catalyst, proving the efficacy of the supercritical reaction medium for installing functional coatings inside pores of similar diameters to the chain length of the deposited molecule[]. Comparisons are made between the response of the different substrates to the supercritical fluid-based processing, and remarks on the utility of SCF based processing of nanostructured materials are presented.

  15. Symmetry and Supersymmetry in Nuclear Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. B. Balantekin

    2007-11-05

    A survey of algebraic approaches to various problems in nuclear physics is given. Examples are chosen from pairing of many-nucleon systems, nuclear structure, fusion reactions below the Coulomb barrier, and supernova neutrino physics to illustrate the utility of group-theoretical and related algebraic methods in nuclear physics.

  16. Classes of Chemical Reactions Reactions in aqueous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zakarian, Armen

    Classes of Chemical Reactions Reactions in aqueous media · Precipitation reactions · Acid-Base reactions · Oxidation-Reduction reactions · Reversible reactions Classes of Chemical Reactions Water (H2O;Classes of Chemical Reactions The solubility of ionic compounds: dissociation O H H + NaCl Cl- Cl- Cl- Na

  17. Nuclear fuel element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Armijo, Joseph S. (Saratoga, CA); Coffin, Jr., Louis F. (Schenectady, NY)

    1980-04-29

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has an improved composite cladding comprised of a moderate purity metal barrier of zirconium metallurgically bonded on the inside surface of a zirconium alloy tube. The metal barrier forms a shield between the alloy tube and a core of nuclear fuel material enclosed in the composite cladding. There is a gap between the cladding and the core. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 30 percent of the thickness of the composite cladding and has low neutron absorption characteristics. The metal barrier serves as a preferential reaction site for gaseous impurities and fission products and protects the alloy tube from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. Methods of manufacturing the composite cladding are also disclosed.

  18. Nuclear fuel element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Armijo, Joseph S. (Saratoga, CA); Coffin, Jr., Louis F. (Schenectady, NY)

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has a composite cladding having a substrate and a metal barrier metallurgically bonded on the inside surface of the substrate so that the metal barrier forms a shield between the substrate and the nuclear fuel material held within the cladding. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 30 percent of the thickness of the cladding and is comprised of a low neutron absorption metal of substantially pure zirconium. The metal barrier serves as a preferential reaction site for gaseous impurities and fission products and protects the substrate from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. The substrate of the composite cladding is selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably is a zirconium alloy. Methods of manufacturing the composite cladding are also disclosed.

  19. Replenishment prioritization of highly perishable goods : a case study on nuclear medicine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yea, Young-bai Michael

    2007-01-01

    Serving customers in a nuclear medicine supply chain requires frequent and responsive replenishments. Nuclear medicine is a special category of perishable goods that is subject to rapid, but predictable radioactive decay. ...

  20. Static and Dynamic Chain Structures in the Mean-Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Ichikawa; N. Itagaki; N. Loebl; J. A. Maruhn; V. E. Oberacker; S. Ohkubo; B. Schuetrumpf; A. S. Umar

    2011-06-16

    We give a brief overview of recent work examining the presence of $\\alpha$-clusters in light nuclei within the Skyrme-force Hartree-Fock model. Of special significance are investigations into $\\alpha$-chain structures in carbon isotopes and $^{16}$O. Their stability and possible role in fusion reactions are examined in static and time-dependent Hartree-Fock calculations. We find a new type of shape transition in collisions and a centrifugal stabilization of the $4\\alpha$ chain state in a limited range of angular momenta. No stabilization is found for the $3\\alpha$ chain.

  1. CALCULATING THE CARBON FOOTPRINT SUPPLY CHAIN FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Xiao

    CALCULATING THE CARBON FOOTPRINT SUPPLY CHAIN FOR THE SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRY By: Yasser Dessouky #12;Carbon Footprint Supply Chain Carbon Trust defines carbon footprint of a supply chain as follows: "The carbon footprint of a product is the carbon dioxide emitted across the supply chain for a single

  2. A,B,C`s of nuclear science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noto, V.A. [Mandeville High School, LA (United States); Norman, E.B.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Dairiki, J.; Matis, H.S.; McMahan, M.A.; Otto, R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-08-07

    This introductory level presentation contains information on nuclear structure, radioactivity, alpha decay, beta decay, gamma decay, half-life, nuclear reactions, fusion, fission, cosmic rays, and radiation protection. Nine experiments with procedures and test questions are included.

  3. Containment building : architecture between the city and advanced nuclear reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pauli, Lisa M

    2011-01-01

    Since the inception of nuclear energy research, the element thorium (Th) has been considered the superior fuel for nuclear reactions because of its potency, safety, abundance and reduced waste. Cold War agendas broke from ...

  4. Semiflexible Chains in Confined Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greg Morrison; D. Thirumalai

    2008-08-12

    We develop an analytical method for studying the properties of a non-interacting Wormlike Chain (WLC) in confined geometries. The mean field-like theory replaces the rigid constraints of confinement with average constraints, thus allowing us to develop a tractable method for treating a WLC wrapped on the surface of a sphere, and fully encapsulated within it. The efficacy of the theory is established by reproducing the exact correlation functions for a WLC confined to the surface of a sphere. In addition, the coefficients in the free energy are exactly calculated. We also describe the behavior of a surface-confined chain under external tension that is relevant for single molecule experiments on histone-DNA complexes. The force-extension curves display spatial oscillations, and the extension of the chain, whose maximum value is bounded by the sphere diameter, scales as $f^{-1}$ at large forces, in contrast to the unconfined chain that approaches the contour length as $f^{-1/2}$. A WLC encapsulated in a sphere, that is relevant for the study of the viral encapsulation of DNA, can also be treated using the MF approach. The predictions of the theory for various correlation functions are in excellent agreement with Langevin simulations. We find that strongly confined chains are highly structured by examining the correlations using a local winding axis. The predicted pressure of the system is in excellent agreement with simulations but, as is known, is significantly lower than the pressures seen for DNA packaged in viral capsids.

  5. Microscopic Theory of Fission Younes, W; Gogny, D 73 NUCLEAR...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference Conference: Presented at: Compound Nuclear Reactions and Related Topics, Fish Camp, CA, United States, Oct 22 - Oct 26, 2007 Medium: ED; Size: PDF-file: 6 pages;...

  6. Interplay between compound and fragments aspects of nuclear fission...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Interplay between compound and fragments aspects of nuclear fission and heavy-ion reaction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Interplay between compound and fragments...

  7. Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Chung-cheng (Irvine, CA); Sui, Guodong (Los Angeles, CA); Elizarov, Arkadij (Valley Village, CA); Kolb, Hartmuth C. (Playa del Rey, CA); Huang, Jiang (San Jose, CA); Heath, James R. (South Pasadena, CA); Phelps, Michael E. (Los Angeles, CA); Quake, Stephen R. (Stanford, CA); Tseng, Hsian-rong (Los Angeles, CA); Wyatt, Paul (Tipperary, IE); Daridon, Antoine (Mont-Sur-Rolle, CH)

    2012-06-26

    New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

  8. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Nuclear Materials Assay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quiter, Brian Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Potential of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence . . . . . . . .2.9.1 Nuclear ThomsonSections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nuclear Resonance

  9. Reaction coordinates for electron transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasaiah, Jayendran C.; Zhu Jianjun

    2008-12-07

    The polarization fluctuation and energy gap formulations of the reaction coordinate for outer sphere electron transfer are linearly related to the constant energy constraint Lagrangian multiplier m in Marcus' theory of electron transfer. The quadratic dependence of the free energies of the reactant and product intermediates on m and m+1, respectively, leads to similar dependence of the free energies on the reaction coordinates and to the same dependence of the activation energy on the reorganization energy and the standard reaction free energy. Within the approximations of a continuum model of the solvent and linear response of the longitudinal polarization to the electric field in Marcus' theory, both formulations of the reaction coordinate are expected to lead to the same results.

  10. Supply Chain OptimizersSupply Chain Optimizers Packaging OptimizationPackaging Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Supply Chain Delivers Amazing SavingsDelivers Amazing Savings #12;What Do We Do?What Do We Do? ·· Utilize efficientis to make our clients more efficient #12;Supply Chain PremiseSupply Chain Premise Efficiency

  11. Supply Chain Supernetworks Random Demands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Supply Chain Supernetworks with Random Demands June Dong and Ding Zhang Department of Marketing of three tiers of decision-makers: the manufacturers, the distributors, and the retailers, with the demands equilibrium model with electronic commerce and with random demands for which modeling, qualitative analysis

  12. Novette chain design and performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, J.T.; Speck, D.R.

    1980-12-11

    The design and performance of the Novette laser system, which is a two-beam, two-wavelength (1.05 ..mu.. and 0.53 ..mu..) target irradiation facility using phosphate glass laser chains, are discussed with information on the glass properties, controlling factors in the design selection, and projected performance with varying operating conditions. (LCL)

  13. Mechanisms in knockout reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Bazin; R. J. Charity; R. T. de Souza; M. A. Famiano; A. Gade; V. Henzl; D. Henzlova; S. Hudan; J. Lee; S. Lukyanov; W. G. Lynch; S. McDaniel; M. Mocko; A. Obertelli; A. M. Rogers; L. G. Sobotka; J. R. Terry; J. A. Tostevin; M. B. Tsang; M. S. Wallace

    2009-02-16

    We report on the first detailed study of the mechanisms involved in knockout reactions, via a coincidence measurement of the residue and fast proton in one-proton knockout reactions, using the S800 spectrograph in combination with the HiRA detector array at the NSCL. Results on the reactions $^9$Be($^9$C,$^8$B+X)Y and $^9$Be($^8$B,$^7$Be+X)Y are presented. They are compared with theoretical predictions for both the diffraction and stripping reaction mechanisms, as calculated in the eikonal model. The data shows a clear distinction between the two reaction mechanisms, and the observed respective proportions are very well reproduced by the reaction theory. This agreement supports the results of knockout reaction analyses and their applications to the spectroscopy of rare isotopes.

  14. Siphons in Chemical Reaction Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shiu, Anne; Sturmfels, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    strongly-connected chemical reaction, and the compu- tationcredited. Siphons in Chemical Reaction Networks Referencesto persistence analysis in chemical reaction networks. In:

  15. Securing the Sustainability of Global Medical Nuclear Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    of Molybdenum-99, 99Mo, is the most commonly used medical radioisotope, used in more than 80 for medical diagnostic purposes. By using medical radioisotope techniques, health professionals can enable medical procedures are performed in the United States using Technetium-99m. Over 100,000 hospitals

  16. Alpha resonant scattering for astrophysical reaction studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Nakao, T. [Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), University of Tokyo, RIKEN campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Y.; Kubano, S. [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hashimoto, T. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Hayakawa, S. [Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN-LNS), Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Kawabata, T. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kita-Shirakawa, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Iwasa, N. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Teranishi, T. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Kwon, Y. K. [Institute for Basic Science, 70, Yuseong-daero 1689-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Binh, D. N. [30 MeV Cyclotron Center, Tran Hung Dao Hospital, Hoan Kiem District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Khiem, L. H.; Duy, N. G. [Institute of Physics, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hong Quoc Viet, Nghia do, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2014-05-02

    Several alpha-induced astrophysical reactions have been studied at CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator), which is a low-energy RI beam separator at Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo. One of the methods to study them is the ? resonant scattering using the thick-target method in inverse kinematics. Among the recent studies at CRIB, the measurement of {sup 7}Be+? resonant scattering is discussed. Based on the result of the experiment, we evaluated the contributions of high-lying resonances for the {sup 7}Be(?,?) reaction, and proposed a new cluster band in {sup 11}C.

  17. Nuclear Masses in Astrophysics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christine Weber; Klaus Blaum; Hendrik Schatz

    2008-12-09

    Among all nuclear ground-state properties, atomic masses are highly specific for each particular combination of N and Z and the data obtained apply to a variety of physics topics. One of the most crucial questions to be addressed in mass spectrometry of unstable radionuclides is the one of understanding the processes of element formation in the Universe. To this end, accurate atomic mass values of a large number of exotic nuclei participating in nucleosynthesis are among the key input data in large-scale reaction network calculations. In this paper, a review on the latest achievements in mass spectrometry for nuclear astrophysics is given.

  18. Perspectives of Nuclear Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amand Faessler

    2002-12-06

    The organizers of this meeting have asked me to present perspectives of nuclear physics. This means to identify the areas where nuclear physics will be expanding in the next future. In six chapters a short overview of these areas will be given, where I expect that nuclear physics willdevelop quite fast: A. Quantum Chromodynamics and effective field theories in the confinement region; B. Nuclear structure at the limits; C. High energy heavy ion collisions; D. Nuclear astrophysics; E. Neutrino physics; F. Test of physics beyond the standard model by rare processes. After a survey over these six points I will pick out a few topics where I will go more in details. There is no time to give for all six points detailed examples. I shall discuss the following examples of the six topics mentionned above: 1. The perturbative chiral quark model and the nucleon $\\Sigma$-term, 2. VAMPIR (Variation After Mean field Projection In Realistic model spaces and with realistic forces) as an example of the nuclear structure renaissance, 3. Measurement of important astrophysical nuclear reactions in the Gamow peak, 4. The solar neutrino problem. As examples for testing new physics beyond the standard model by rare processes I had prepared to speak about the measurement of the electric neutron dipole moment and of the neutrinoless double beta decay. But the time is limited and so I have to skip these points, although they are extremely interesting.

  19. Evaluated Nuclear Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblozinsky, P.; Oblozinsky,P.; Herman,M.; Mughabghab,S.F.

    2010-10-01

    This chapter describes the current status of evaluated nuclear data for nuclear technology applications. We start with evaluation procedures for neutron-induced reactions focusing on incident energies from the thermal energy up to 20 MeV, though higher energies are also mentioned. This is followed by examining the status of evaluated neutron data for actinides that play dominant role in most of the applications, followed by coolants/moderators, structural materials and fission products. We then discuss neutron covariance data that characterize uncertainties and correlations. We explain how modern nuclear evaluated data libraries are validated against an extensive set of integral benchmark experiments. Afterwards, we briefly examine other data of importance for nuclear technology, including fission yields, thermal neutron scattering and decay data. A description of three major evaluated nuclear data libraries is provided, including the latest version of the US library ENDF/B-VII.0, European JEFF-3.1 and Japanese JENDL-3.3. A brief introduction is made to current web retrieval systems that allow easy access to a vast amount of up-to-date evaluated nuclear data for nuclear technology applications.

  20. Separable Potentials for (d,p) Reaction Calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elster, Ch; Eremenko, V; Nunes, F M; Thompson, I J; Arbanas, G; Escher, J E

    2015-01-01

    An important ingredient for applications of nuclear physics to e.g. astrophysics or nuclear energy are the cross sections for reactions of neutrons with rare isotopes. Since direct measurements are often not possible, indirect methods like $(d,p)$ reactions must be used instead. Those $(d,p)$ reactions may be viewed as effective three-body reactions and described with Faddeev techniques. An additional challenge posed by $(d,p)$ reactions involving heavier nuclei is the treatment of the Coulomb force. To avoid numerical complications in dealing with the screening of the Coulomb force, recently a new approach using the Coulomb distorted basis in momentum space was suggested. In order to implement this suggestion, one needs to derive a separable representation of neutron- and proton-nucleus optical potentials and compute their matrix elements in this basis.

  1. TRIMOLECULAR REACTIONS OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE WITH WATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, M.; Becnel, J.; Garrison, S.

    2010-02-25

    The hydrolysis reaction of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) is a key step in the synthesis of uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) powder for nuclear fuels. Mechanisms for the hydrolysis reactions are studied here with density functional theory and the Stuttgart small-core scalar relativistic pseudopotential and associated basis set for uranium. The reaction of a single UF{sub 6} molecule with a water molecule in the gas phase has been previously predicted to proceed over a relatively sizeable barrier of 78.2 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, indicating this reaction is only feasible at elevated temperatures. Given the observed formation of a second morphology for the UO{sub 2} product coupled with the observations of rapid, spontaneous hydrolysis at ambient conditions, an alternate reaction pathway must exist. In the present work, two trimolecular hydrolysis mechanisms are studied with density functional theory: (1) the reaction between two UF{sub 6} molecules and one water molecule, and (2) the reaction of two water molecules with a single UF{sub 6} molecule. The predicted reaction of two UF{sub 6} molecules with one water molecule displays an interesting 'fluorine-shuttle' mechanism, a significant energy barrier of 69.0 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} to the formation of UF{sub 5}OH, and an enthalpy of reaction ({Delta}H{sub 298}) of +17.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}. The reaction of a single UF{sub 6} molecule with two water molecules displays a 'proton-shuttle' mechanism, and is more favorable, having a slightly lower computed energy barrier of 58.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} and an exothermic enthalpy of reaction ({Delta}H{sub 298}) of -13.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}. The exothermic nature of the overall UF{sub 6} + 2 {center_dot} H{sub 2}O trimolecular reaction and the lowering of the barrier height with respect to the bimolecular reaction are encouraging; however, the sizable energy barrier indicates further study of the UF{sub 6} hydrolysis reaction mechanism is warranted to resolve the remaining discrepancies between the predicted mechanisms and experimental observations.

  2. Charged-Particle Thermonuclear Reaction Rates: IV. Comparison to Previous Work

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Iliadis; Richard Longland; Art Champagne; Alain Coc

    2010-04-23

    We compare our Monte Carlo reaction rates (see Paper II of this series) to previous results that were obtained by using the classical method of computing thermonuclear reaction rates. For each reaction, the comparison is presented using two types of graphs: the first shows the change in reaction rate uncertainties, while the second displays our new results normalized to the previously recommended reaction rate. We find that the rates have changed significantly for almost all reactions considered here. The changes are caused by (i) our new Monte Carlo method of computing reaction rates (see Paper I of this series), and (ii) newly available nuclear physics information (see Paper III of this series).

  3. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 239

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Browne, E.; Tuli, J. K.

    2014-11-18

    Spectroscopic data and level schemes from radioactive decay and nuclear reaction studies are presented here for all nuclei with mass number A=239. In general, a relatively small amount of new data on this mass chain has been reported since the previous evaluation in 2003. However, special evaluations, such as ''Database of prompt gamma rays from slow neutron–capture from elemental analysis'' (2007ChZX), have provided additional precise data for levels in 29U. Also, new Coulomb excitation measurements in 239Pu have extended the knowledge of the 1/2[631] rotational band up to J?=(55/2+)J?=(55/2+), and that of the octupole vibrational band up to J?=(53/2-)J?=(53/2-). For historical knowledge it is worth mentioning the report on the “Discovery of isotopes of the transuranium elements with 93 <= Z <= 98'' (2013Fr02), where the information for elements Np, Pu, Am, and Cf with mass number A=239 is presented. The alpha hindrance factors (HF) presented in this evaluation were calculated using values of the radius parameter (r0) interpolated from those for even–even adjacent nuclei given by 1998Ak04.

  4. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 239

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Browne, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States), National Nuclear Data Center; Tuli, J. K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States), National Nuclear Data Center

    2014-11-01

    Spectroscopic data and level schemes from radioactive decay and nuclear reaction studies are presented here for all nuclei with mass number A=239. In general, a relatively small amount of new data on this mass chain has been reported since the previous evaluation in 2003. However, special evaluations, such as ''Database of prompt gamma rays from slow neutron–capture from elemental analysis'' (2007ChZX), have provided additional precise data for levels in 29U. Also, new Coulomb excitation measurements in 239Pu have extended the knowledge of the 1/2[631] rotational band up to J?=(55/2+)J?=(55/2+), and that of the octupole vibrational band up to J?=(53/2-)J?=(53/2-). For historical knowledge it is worth mentioning the report on the “Discovery of isotopes of the transuranium elements with 93 <= Z <= 98'' (2013Fr02), where the information for elements Np, Pu, Am, and Cf with mass number A=239 is presented. The alpha hindrance factors (HF) presented in this evaluation were calculated using values of the radius parameter (r0) interpolated from those for even–even adjacent nuclei given by 1998Ak04.

  5. Nuclear astrophysics in the laboratory and in the universe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Champagne, A. E., E-mail: artc@physics.unc.edu; Iliadis, C.; Longland, R. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255, USA and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708-0308 (United States)] [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255, USA and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708-0308 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Nuclear processes drive stellar evolution and so nuclear physics, stellar models and observations together allow us to describe the inner workings of stars and their life stories. This Information on nuclear reaction rates and nuclear properties are critical ingredients in addressing most questions in astrophysics and often the nuclear database is incomplete or lacking the needed precision. Direct measurements of astrophysically-interesting reactions are necessary and the experimental focus is on improving both sensitivity and precision. In the following, we review recent results and approaches taken at the Laboratory for Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics (LENA, http://research.physics.unc.edu/project/nuclearastro/Welcome.html )

  6. Theoretical nuclear physics at Yale University

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Brief summaries of past and planned activities in the following areas are given: models of nuclear structure; models of hadronic structure; hot nuclei; chaos in nuclei; reactions and structure; dissipation, diffusion, and collective motion; and modeling equilibrium and nonequilibrium systems.

  7. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 148

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nica, N.

    2014-04-02

    The experimental nuclear structure data available through October 2013 have been reviewed. A summary of information obtained in various reaction and decay experiments is presented, together with adopted level schemes.

  8. The science of sustainable supply chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Napp, Nils

    and technology of global supply chain management offer near­real-time demand-response systems for decision chain traceability and trans- parency, data collection, impact assessment, and aggregation of data

  9. Supply chain for mobile network operator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Kenneth Lap Chi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand and get insights on the characteristics of mobile device supply chain management for mobile networks operators. The relationship between corporate strategy and supply chain strategy ...

  10. Supply chain management in the cement industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agudelo, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally supply chain management has played an operational role within cement and mineral extraction commodity companies. Recently, cost reduction projects have brought supply chain management into the limelight. In ...

  11. An integrative framework for architecting supply chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cela Díaz, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores the limitations of classic models of supply chain management, and proposes a new view based on the concept of value-driven supply chains, and a method of analysis and design based on the concepts of ...

  12. Shutdown system for a nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groh, E.F.; Olson, A.P.; Wade, D.C.; Robinson, B.W.

    1984-06-05

    An ultimate shutdown system is provided for termination of neutronic activity in a nuclear reactor. The shutdown system includes bead chains comprising spherical containers suspended on a flexible cable. The containers are comprised of mating hemispherical shells which provide a ruggedized enclosure for reactor poison material. The bead chains, normally suspended above the reactor core on storage spools, are released for downward travel upon command from an external reactor monitor. The chains are capable of horizontal movement, so as to flow around obstructions in the reactor during their downward motion. 8 figs.

  13. Shutdown system for a nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groh, Edward F. (Naperville, IL); Olson, Arne P. (Western Springs, IL); Wade, David C. (Naperville, IL); Robinson, Bryan W. (Oak Lawn, IL)

    1984-01-01

    An ultimate shutdown system is provided for termination of neutronic activity in a nuclear reactor. The shutdown system includes bead chains comprising spherical containers suspended on a flexible cable. The containers are comprised of mating hemispherical shells which provide a ruggedized enclosure for reactor poison material. The bead chains, normally suspended above the reactor core on storage spools, are released for downward travel upon command from an external reactor monitor. The chains are capable of horizontal movement, so as to flow around obstructions in the reactor during their downward motion.

  14. Cold nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsyganov, E. N.

    2012-02-15

    Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

  15. The Offshore Services Global Value Chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, David

    ..................................................................................................................................... 33 D. Low-Income Nations entering the Value Chain: Spanish-Speaking Central American and Caribbean

  16. Method for polymer synthesis in a reaction well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brennan, Thomas M. (San Francisco, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A method of synthesis for building a polymer chain, oligonucleotides in particular, by sequentially adding monomer units to at least one solid support for growing and immobilizing a polymer chain thereon in a liquid reagent solution. The method includes the step of: A) depositing a liquid reagent in a reaction well (26) in contact with at least one solid support and at least one monomer unit of the polymer chain affixed to the solid support. The well (26) includes at least one orifice (74) extending into the well (26), and is of a size and dimension to form a capillary liquid seal to retain the reagent solution in the well (26) to enable polymer chain growth on the solid support. The method further includes the step of B) expelling the reagent solution from the well (26), while retaining the polymer chain therein. This is accomplished by applying a first gas pressure to the reaction well such that a pressure differential between the first gas pressure and a second gas pressure exerted on an exit (80) of the orifice (74) exceeds a predetermined amount sufficient to overcome the capillary liquid seal and expel the reagent solution from the well (26) through the orifice exit (80).

  17. Method for polymer synthesis in a reaction well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brennan, T.M.

    1998-09-29

    A method of synthesis is described for building a polymer chain, oligonucleotides in particular, by sequentially adding monomer units to at least one solid support for growing and immobilizing a polymer chain thereon in a liquid reagent solution. The method includes the step of: (A) depositing a liquid reagent in a reaction well in contact with at least one solid support and at least one monomer unit of the polymer chain affixed to the solid support. The well includes at least one orifice extending into the well, and is of a size and dimension to form a capillary liquid seal to retain the reagent solution in the well to enable polymer chain growth on the solid support. The method further includes the step of (B) expelling the reagent solution from the well, while retaining the polymer chain therein. This is accomplished by applying a first gas pressure to the reaction well such that a pressure differential between the first gas pressure and a second gas pressure exerted on an exit of the orifice exceeds a predetermined amount sufficient to overcome the capillary liquid seal and expel the reagent solution from the well through the orifice exit. 9 figs.

  18. Formation of helical ion chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramil Nigmatullin; Adolfo del Campo; Gabriele De Chiara; Giovanna Morigi; Martin B. Plenio; Alex Retzker

    2015-08-25

    We study the nonequilibrium dynamics of the linear to zigzag structural phase transition exhibited by an ion chain confined in a trap with periodic boundary conditions. The transition is driven by reducing the transverse confinement at a finite quench rate, which can be accurately controlled. This results in the formation of zigzag domains oriented along different transverse planes. The twists between different domains can be stabilized by the topology of the trap and under laser cooling the system has a chance to relax to a helical chain with nonzero winding number. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to obtain a large sample of possible trajectories for different quench rates. The scaling of the average winding number with different quench rates is compared to the prediction of the Kibble-Zurek theory, and a good quantitative agreement is found.

  19. INFORMS `03, Atlanta GA, October 19-21 A Supply Chain Network EconomyA Supply Chain Network Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    INFORMS `03, Atlanta GA, October 19-21 A Supply Chain Network EconomyA Supply Chain Network Economy, GA, October 19-22, 2003 Supply Chain EconomySupply Chain Economy Supply Chain Economy (SCE a supply chain economy ­ Comprising heterogeneous supply chains ­ Involving in production, distribution

  20. The NACRE Thermonuclear Reaction Compilation and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard H. Cyburt; Brian D. Fields; Keith A. Olive

    2001-05-17

    The theoretical predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) are dominated by uncertainties in the input nuclear reaction cross sections. In this paper, we examine the impact on BBN of the recent compilation of nuclear data and thermonuclear reactions rates by the NACRE collaboration. We confirm that the adopted rates do not make large overall changes in central values of predictions, but do affect the magnitude of the uncertainties in these predictions. Therefore, we then examine in detail the uncertainties in the individual reaction rates considered by NACRE. When the error estimates by NACRE are treated as 1\\sigma limits, the resulting BBN error budget is similar to those of previous tabulations. We propose two new procedures for deriving reaction rate uncertainties from the nuclear data: one which sets lower limits to the error, and one which we believe is a reasonable description of the present error budget. We propagate these uncertainty estimates through the BBN code, and find that when the nuclear data errors are described most accurately, the resulting light element uncertainties are notably smaller than in some previous tabulations, but larger than others. Using these results, we derive limits on the cosmic baryon-to-photon ratio $\\eta$, and compare this to independent limits on $\\eta$ from recent balloon-borne measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB). We discuss means to improve the BBN results via key nuclear reaction measurements and light element observations.

  1. Harmonic Chain with Weak Dissipation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Lykov; V. A. Malyshev

    2013-02-20

    We consider finite harmonic chain (consisting of N classical particles) plus dissipative force acting on one particle (called dissipating particle) only. We want to prove that "in the generic case" the energy (per particle) for the whole system tends to zero in the large time limit and then in the large N limit. "In the generic case" means: for almost all initial conditions and for almost any choice of the dissipating particle, in the thermodynamic limit.

  2. Tunnel current across linear homocatenated germanium chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuura, Yukihito, E-mail: matsuura@chem.nara-k.ac.jp [Department of Chemical Engineering, Nara National College of Technology Yatacho 22, Yamato-koriyama, Nara 539-1080 (Japan)

    2014-01-28

    The electronic transport properties of germanium oligomers catenating into linear chains (linear Ge chains) have been theoretically studied using first principle methods. The conduction mechanism of a Ge chain sandwiched between gold electrodes was analyzed based on the density of states and the eigenstates of the molecule in a two-probe environment. Like that of silicon chains (Si chains), the highest occupied molecular orbital of Ge chains contains the extended ?-conjugation of Ge 4p orbitals at energy levels close to the Fermi level; this is in contrast to the electronic properties of linear carbon chains. Furthermore, the conductance of a Ge chain is expected to decrease exponentially with molecular length L. The decay constant ?, which is defined as e{sup ??L}, of a Ge chain is similar to that of a Si chain, whereas the conductance of the Ge chains is higher than that of Si chains even though the Ge–Ge bond length is longer than the Si–Si bond length.

  3. Sustainable Supply Chain Networks Sustainable Cities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Chain Networks for Sustainable Cities #12;Pollution and Environmental Impacts In the US aloneSustainable Supply Chain Networks for Sustainable Cities Anna Nagurney John F. Smith Memorial Nagurney Sustainable Supply Chain Networks for Sustainable Cities #12;Acknowledgments I would like to thank

  4. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 215

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Balraj; Mukherjee, Gopal; Abriola, Daniel; Basu, Swapan Kumar; Demetriou, Paraskevi; Jain, Ashok; Kumar, Suresh; Singh, Sukhjeet; Tuli, Jagdish

    2013-12-15

    The evaluated spectroscopic data are presented for 12 known nuclides of mass 215 (Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po, At, Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, Th, Pa). For {sup 215}Hg, {sup 215}Tl, {sup 215}Pb, and {sup 215}Pa nuclei, no excited states are known. The decay characteristics of {sup 215}Hg and {sup 215}Tl are unknown. The decay scheme of {sup 215}Pb is considered as incomplete. Ordering of ? cascades in the decay of 36.9–s isomer of {sup 215}Bi and for high–spin states above 2251 keV in {sup 215}Fr are not established. High–spin excitations, including several isomeric states, are well known in {sup 215}Bi, {sup 215}Po, {sup 215}Rn, {sup 215}Fr, {sup 215}Ra, and {sup 215}Ac. No particle–transfer reaction data are available for any of the A=215 nuclei. The rms charge radii for {sup 215}Pb, {sup 215}Bi, {sup 215}Po, {sup 215}Rn, {sup 215}Fr and {sup 215}Ra have been evaluated by Daniel Abriola, from extrapolation or interpolation of available evaluated data in 2013An02 for radii of respective Z chains using formula 9 in 2004An14. This evaluation was carried out as part of ENSDD–workshop at VECC, Kolkata for Nuclear Structure and Decay Data, organized and hosted by VECC and Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS) in Kolkata, India, November 26–29, 2012. This work supersedes the previous A = 215 evaluation (2001Br31) published by E. Browne which covered literature prior to May 2001.

  5. Studying Nuclear Astrophysics at NIF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, R; Bernstein, L; Brune, C

    2009-07-01

    The National Ignition Facility's primary goal is to generate fusion energy. But the starlike conditions that it creates will also enable NIF scientists to study astrophysically important nuclear reactions. When scientists at the stadium-sized National Ignition Facility attempt to initiate fusion next year, 192 powerful lasers will direct 1.2 MJ of light energy toward a two-mm-diameter pellet of deuterium ({sup 2}H, or D) and tritium ({sup 3}H, or T). Some of that material will be gaseous, but most will be in a frozen shell. The idea is to initiate 'inertial confinement fusion', in which the two hydrogen isotopes fuse to produce helium-4, a neutron, and 17.6 MeV of energy. The light energy will be delivered to the inside walls of a hohlraum, a heavy-metal, centimeter-sized cylinder that houses the pellet. The container's heated walls will produce x rays that impinge on the pellet and ablate its outer surface. The exiting particles push inward on the pellet and compresses the DT fuel. Ultimately a hot spot develops at the pellet's center, where fusion produces {sup 4}He nuclei that have sufficient energy to propagate outward, trigger successive reactions, and finally react the frozen shell. Ignition should last several tens of picoseconds and generate more than 10 MJ of energy and roughly 10{sup 19} neutrons. The temperature will exceed 10{sup 8} K and fuel will be compressed to a density of several hundred g/cm{sup 3}, both considerably greater than at the center of the Sun. The figure shows a cutaway view of NIF. The extreme conditions that will be produced there simulate those in nuclear weapons and inside stars. For that reason, the facility is an important part of the US stockpile stewardship program, designed to assess the nation's aging nuclear stockpile without doing nuclear tests. In this Quick Study we consider a third application of NIF - using the extraordinary conditions it will produce to perform experiments in basic science. We will focus on measurements of some of the nuclear reaction probabilities that are important to nuclear astrophysics, the field that relates energy production and nucleosynthesis from nuclear reactions in stars and in the Big Bang to the environments in which those nuclear reactions occur. NIF, unlike previous nuclear-physics facilities, will enable measurements of nuclear reactions at the temperatures, densities, and ionization states similar to those that occur in stars.

  6. Nuclear Matter and Nuclear Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M Colonna

    2009-02-26

    Highlights on the recent research activity, carried out by the Italian Community involved in the "Nuclear Matter and Nuclear Dynamics" field, will be presented.

  7. Fusion Nuclear Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fusion Nuclear Science Isotope Development and Production Nuclear Security Science & Technology Nuclear Systems Modeling, Simulation & Validation Nuclear Systems Technology...

  8. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for Biodiesel Components Methyl Stearate and Methyl Oleate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naik, C; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

    2010-01-22

    New chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms are developed for two of the five major components of biodiesel fuel, methyl stearate and methyl oleate. The mechanisms are produced using existing reaction classes and rules for reaction rates, with additional reaction classes to describe other reactions unique to methyl ester species. Mechanism capabilities were examined by computing fuel/air autoignition delay times and comparing the results with more conventional hydrocarbon fuels for which experimental results are available. Additional comparisons were carried out with measured results taken from jet-stirred reactor experiments for rapeseed methyl ester fuels. In both sets of computational tests, methyl oleate was found to be slightly less reactive than methyl stearate, and an explanation of this observation is made showing that the double bond in methyl oleate inhibits certain low temperature chain branching reaction pathways important in methyl stearate. The resulting detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism includes more approximately 3500 chemical species and more than 17,000 chemical reactions.

  9. Single chain elasticity and thermoelasticity of polyethylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John T. Titantah; Carlo Pierleoni; Jean-Paul Ryckaert

    2002-09-05

    Single-chain elasticity of polyethylene at $\\theta$ point up to 90% of stretching with respect to its contour length is computed by Monte-Carlo simulation of an atomistic model in continuous space. The elasticity law together with the free-energy and the internal energy variations with stretching are found to be very well represented by the wormlike chain model up to 65% of the chain elongation, provided the persistence length is treated as a temperature dependent parameter. Beyond this value of elongation simple ideal chain models are not able to describe the Monte Carlo data in a thermodynamic consistent way. This study reinforces the use of the wormlike chain model to interpret experimental data on the elasticity of synthetic polymers in the finite extensibility regime, provided the chain is not yet in its fully stretched regime. Specific solvent effects on the elasticity law and the partition between energetic and entropic contributions to single chain elasticity are investigated.

  10. New Modes of Nuclear Excitations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nadia Tsoneva; Horst Lenske

    2013-10-01

    We present a theoretical approach based on density functional theory supplemented by a microscopic multi-phonon model which is applied for investigations of pygmy resonances and other excitations of different multipolarities in stable and exotic nuclei. The possible relation of low-energy modes to the properties of neutron or proton skins is systematically studied in isotonic and isotopic chains. The fine structure of nuclear electric and magnetic response functions is analyzed and compared to experimental data. Their relevance to nuclear astrophysics is discussed.

  11. Stau-catalyzed Nuclear Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Hamaguchi; T. Hatsuda; T. T. Yanagida

    2006-10-06

    We point out that the stau may play a role of a catalyst for nuclear fusions if the stau is a long-lived particle as in the scenario of gravitino dark matter. In this letter, we consider d d fusion under the influence of stau where the fusion is enhanced because of a short distance between the two deuterons. We find that one chain of the d d fusion may release an energy of O(10) GeV per stau. We discuss problems of making the stau-catalyzed nuclear fusion of practical use with the present technology of producing stau.

  12. Nuclear structure studies with intermediate energy probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, T.S.H.

    1993-10-01

    Nuclear structure studies with pions are reviewed. Results from a recent study of 1 p-shell nuclei using (e,e{prime}), ({pi}, {pi}{prime}), and ({gamma},{pi}) reactions are reported. Future nuclear structure studies with GeV electrons at CEBAF are also briefly discussed.

  13. Nuclear Data Sheets for A=143

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Browne E.; Tuli J.; Browne,E.; Tuli.J.K.

    2012-03-01

    The evaluators present in this publication spectroscopic data and level schemes from radioactive decay and nuclear reaction studies for all nuclei with mass number A = 143. The evaluation, which includes all data received by May 2011, supersedes the 2001 evaluation by J.K. Tuli, published in Nuclear Data Sheets94, 605 (2001).

  14. Nuclear Data Sheets for A=247

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nesaraja, Caroline D

    2015-01-01

    Available information pertaining to the nuclear structure of all nuclei with mass number A=247 is presented. Various decay and reaction data are evaluated and compared. Adopted data, levels, spin, parity and configuration assignments are given. When there are insufficient data, expected values from systematics of nuclear properties or/and theoretical calculations are quoted. Unexpected or discrepant experimental resultsare also noted.

  15. Nuclear diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, T.J.

    1997-11-01

    This abstract contains viewgraphs on nuclear diagnostic techniques for inertial confinement fusion implosions. The viewgraphs contain information on: reactions of interest in ICF; advantages and disadvantages of these methods; the properties nuclear techniques can measure; and some specifics on the detectors used.

  16. Kaon production in heavy ion reactions at intermediate energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Fuchs

    2005-09-01

    The article reviews the physics related to kaon and antikaon production in heavy ion reactions at intermediate energies. Chiral dynamics predicts substantial modifications of the kaon properties in a dense nuclear environment. The status of the theoretical predictions as well as experimental evidences for medium effects such as repulsive/attractive mass shifts for $K^+/K^-$ are reviewed. In the vicinity of the thresholds, and even more pronounced below threshold, the production of strangeness is a highly collective process. Starting from elementary reaction channels the phenomenology of $K^+$ and $K^-$ production, i.e. freeze-out densities, time scales etc. as derived from experiment and theoretical transport calculations is presented. Below threshold kaon production shows a high sensitivity on the nuclear compression reached in heavy ion reactions. This allows to put constraints on the nuclear equation-of-state which are finally discussed.

  17. Nuclear astrophysics and electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwenk, A.

    2013-11-07

    Electron beams provide important probes and constraints for nuclear astrophysics. This is especially exciting at energies within the regime of chiral effective field theory (EFT), which provides a systematic expansion for nuclear forces and electroweak operators based on quantum chromodynamics. This talk discusses some recent highlights and future directions based on chiral EFT, including nuclear structure and reactions for astrophysics, the neutron skin and constraints for the properties of neutron-rich matter in neutron stars and core-collapse supernovae, and the dark matter response of nuclei.

  18. Nudat: Nuclear Structure and Decay Data from the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    NuDat allows users to search and plot nuclear structure and decay data interactively. NuDat was developed by the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC)but utilizes contributions from physicists around the world. It provides an interface between web users and several databases containing nuclear structure, nuclear decay and some neutron-induced nuclear reaction information. Users can search for nuclear level properties (energy, half-life, spinparity), gamma-ray information (energy, intensity, multipolarity, coincidences), radiation information following nuclear decay (energy, intensity, dose), and neutron-induced reaction data from the BNL-325 book (thermal cross section and resonance integral). The information provided by NuDat 2 can be viewed in tables, level schemes and an interactive chart of nuclides.

  19. Nuclear Data Sheets for A=159

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reich C. W.; Reich,C.W.

    2012-01-01

    The experimental results from the various reaction and radioactive decay studies leading to nuclides in the A = 159 mass chain have been reviewed. Nuclides ranging from Pm (Z = 61) through Os (Z = 74) are included. These data are summarized and presented, together with adopted level schemes and properties. This work supersedes the previous evaluation of the data on these nuclides (2003He11).

  20. Civilian nuclear power on the drawing board: the development of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westfall, C.

    2003-02-20

    On September 28, 2001 a symposium was held at Argonne National Laboratory as part of the festivities to mark the 100th birthday of Enrico Fermi. The symposium celebrated Fermi's ''contribution to the development of nuclear power'' and focused on one particular ''line of development'' resulting from Fermi's interest in power reactors: Argonne's fast reactor program. Symposium participants made many references to the ways in which the program was linked to Fermi, who led the team which created the world's first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. For example, one presentation featured an April, 1944 memo that described a meeting attended by Fermi and others. The memo came from the time when research on plutonium and the nuclear chain reaction at Chicago's WWII Metallurgical Laboratory was nearing its end. Even as other parts of the Manhattan Engineering Project were building on this effort to create the bombs that would end the war, Fermi and his colleagues were taking the first steps to plan the use of nuclear energy in the postwar era. After noting that Fermi ''viewed the use of [nuclear] power for the heating of cities with sympathy,'' the group outlined several power reactor designs. In the course of discussion, Fermi and his colleagues took the first steps in conjuring the vision that would later be brought to life with Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR-I) and Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), the celebrated achievements of the Argonne fast reactor program. Group members considered various schemes for a breeder reactor in which the relatively abundant U-238 would be placed near a core of fissionable material. The reactor would be a fast reactor; that is, neutrons would not be moderated, as were most wartime reactors. Thus, the large number of neutrons emitted in fast neutron fission would hit the U-238 and create ''extra'' fissionable material, that is, more than ''invested,'' and at the same time produce power. The group identified the problem of removing heat in such a reactor and presaged the eventual solution by suggesting the use of sodium coolant, which has minimal interaction with neutrons.

  1. Reaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Oxygen in the Presence ofSulfite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weres, Oleh; Tsao, Leon

    1983-01-01

    Commonly, abatement of hydrogen sulfide emissions from a geothermal powerplant requires that hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the cooling water be eliminated by chemical reaction. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen is the preferred reaction, but requires a suitable catalyst. Nickel is the most potent and thereby cheapest catalyst for this purpose. One Mg/L nickel in the cooling water would allow 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide to be attained. A major drawback of catalytic air oxidation is that colloidal sulfur is a major reaction product; this causes rapid sludge accumulation and deposition of sulfur scale. The authors studied the kinetics and product distribution of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen, catalyzed by nickel. Adding sodium sulfite to the solution completely suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. A rate expression for this reaction and a detailed reaction mechanism were developed. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfidoradical ions propagate the chains. Several complexes of iron and cobalt were also studied. Iron citrate and iron N-hydroxyEDT are the most effective iron based catalysts. Uncomplexed cobalt is as effective as nickel, but forms a precipitate of cobalt oxysulfide and is too expensive for practical use.

  2. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Nuclear Materials Assay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quiter, Brian Joseph

    2010-01-01

    to Journal of Nuclear Technology. [46] C.J. Hagmann and J.Library for Nuclear Science and Technology,” Nuclear Dataof Standards and Technology daughter nuclear data processing

  3. Indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertulani, C A; Mukhamedzhanov, A; Kadyrov, A S; Kruppa, A; Pang, D Y

    2015-01-01

    We discuss recent developments in indirect methods used in nuclear astrophysics to determine the capture cross sections and subsequent rates of various stellar burning processes, when it is difficult to perform the corresponding direct measurements. We discuss in brief, the basic concepts of Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients, the Trojan Horse Method, the Coulomb Dissociation Method, (d,p), and charge-exchange reactions.

  4. [Experimental nuclear physics]. Annual report 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1989-04-01

    This is the April 1989 annual report of the Nuclear Physics Labortaory of the University of Washington. It contains chapters on astrophysics, giant resonances, heavy ion induced reactions, fundamental symmetries, polarization in nuclear reactions, medium energy reactions, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), research by outside users, Van de Graaff and ion sources, computer systems, instrumentation, and the Laboratory`s booster linac work. An appendix lists Laboratory personnel, Ph.D. degrees granted in the 1988-1989 academic year, and publications. Refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. [Experimental nuclear physics]. Annual report 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1988-05-01

    This is the May 1988 annual report of the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington. It contains chapters on astrophysics, giant resonances, heavy ion induced reactions, fundamental symmetries, polarization in nuclear reactions, medium energy reactions, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), research by outside users, Van de Graaff and ion sources, the Laboratory`s booster linac project work, instrumentation, and computer systems. An appendix lists Laboratory personnel, Ph.D. degrees granted in the 1987-88 academic year, and publications. Refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Continuous chain bit with downhole cycling capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ritter, Don F. (Albuquerque, NM); St. Clair, Jack A. (Albuquerque, NM); Togami, Henry K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1983-01-01

    A continuous chain bit for hard rock drilling is capable of downhole cycling. A drill head assembly moves axially relative to a support body while the chain on the head assembly is held in position so that the bodily movement of the chain cycles the chain to present new composite links for drilling. A pair of spring fingers on opposite sides of the chain hold the chain against movement. The chain is held in tension by a spring-biased tensioning bar. A head at the working end of the chain supports the working links. The chain is centered by a reversing pawl and piston actuated by the pressure of the drilling mud. Detent pins lock the head assembly with respect to the support body and are also operated by the drilling mud pressure. A restricted nozzle with a divergent outlet sprays drilling mud into the cavity to remove debris. Indication of the centered position of the chain is provided by noting a low pressure reading indicating proper alignment of drilling mud slots on the links with the corresponding feed branches.

  7. Reaction Rate Sensitivity of the gamma-Process Path

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Rauscher

    2004-07-16

    The location of the (gamma,p)/(gamma,n) and (gamma,alpha)/(gamma,n) line at gamma-process temperatures is discussed, using recently published reaction rates based on global Hauser-Feshbach calculations. The results can directly be compared to previously published, classic gamma-process discussions. The nuclei exhibiting the largest sensitivity to uncertainties in nuclear structure and reaction parameters are specified.

  8. Pion Production in High-Energy Neutrino Reactions with Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulrich Mosel

    2015-06-11

    [Background] A quantitative understanding of neutrino interactions with nuclei is needed for precision era neutrino long baseline experiments (MINOS, NOvA, DUNE) which all use nuclear targets. Pion production is the dominant reaction channel at the energies of these experiments. [Purpose] Investigate the influence of nuclear effects on neutrino-induced pion production cross sections and compare predictions for pion-production with available data. [Method] The Giessen Boltzmann--Uehling--Uhlenbeck (GiBUU) model is used for the description of all incohrent channels in neutrino-nucleus reactions. [Results] Differential cross sections for charged and neutral pion production for the MINER$\

  9. NUCLEAR SCIENCE PUBLICATIONS OF ROBERT B. WEISENMILLER, PH.D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 NUCLEAR SCIENCE PUBLICATIONS OF ROBERT B. WEISENMILLER, PH.D. 1. Two-proton Pickup Studies, K. H. Wilcox, G. J. Wozniak, M. S. Zisman, and J. Cerny. Nuclear Physics A 280, 217. 1977. 3 Spectroscopic Measurement via Exotic Nuclear Rearrangement: The Reaction 26 Mg (7 Li, 8 B), 25 Ne. With K. H

  10. Reactor for exothermic reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1993-01-01

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120.degree. to 300.degree. F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  11. Reactor for exothermic reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1993-03-02

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  12. Statistical Methods for Thermonuclear Reaction Rates and Nucleosynthesis Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Iliadis; Richard Longland; Alain Coc; F. X. Timmes; Art E. Champagne

    2014-09-19

    Rigorous statistical methods for estimating thermonuclear reaction rates and nucleosynthesis are becoming increasingly established in nuclear astrophysics. The main challenge being faced is that experimental reaction rates are highly complex quantities derived from a multitude of different measured nuclear parameters (e.g., astrophysical S-factors, resonance energies and strengths, particle and gamma-ray partial widths). We discuss the application of the Monte Carlo method to two distinct, but related, questions. First, given a set of measured nuclear parameters, how can one best estimate the resulting thermonuclear reaction rates and associated uncertainties? Second, given a set of appropriate reaction rates, how can one best estimate the abundances from nucleosynthesis (i.e., reaction network) calculations? The techniques described here provide probability density functions that can be used to derive statistically meaningful reaction rates and final abundances for any desired coverage probability. Examples are given for applications to s-process neutron sources, core-collapse supernovae, classical novae, and big bang nucleosynthesis.

  13. Reactions of Methylene Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, E. L.

    1912-05-15

    for Digital Scholarship. http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu Submitted to the School of Engineering of the University of Kansas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science REACTIONS OP METEELEH1 HYDROGEN With. Special He...KU ScholarWorks | The University of Kansas Pre-1923 Dissertations and Theses Collection Reactions of Methylene Hydrogen 1912 by E. L. Griffin This work was digitized by the Scholarly Communications program staff in the KU Libraries’ Center...

  14. Underground nuclear astrophysics: why and how

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Best, A; Fülöp, Zs; Gyürky, Gy; Laubenstein, M; Napolitani, E; Rigato, V; Roca, V; Szücs, T

    2016-01-01

    The goal of nuclear astrophysics is to measure cross sections of nuclear physics reactions of interest in astrophysics. At stars temperatures, these cross sections are very low due to the suppression of the Coulomb barrier. Cosmic ray induced background can seriously limit the determination of reaction cross sections at energies relevant to astrophysical processes and experimental setups should be arranged in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Placing experiments in underground sites, however, reduces this background opening the way towards ultra low cross section determination. LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) was pioneer in this sense. Two accelerators were mounted at the INFN National Laboratories of Gran Sasso (LNGS) allowing to study nuclear reactions close to stellar energies. A summary of the relevant technology used, including accelerators, target production and characterisation, and background treatment is given.

  15. Nuclear Navy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This video tells the story of the Navy's development of nuclear power and its application in long-range submarines and the growing nuclear surface force. Narrated by Frank Blair.

  16. Nuclear Navy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This video tells the story of the Navy`s development of nuclear power and its application in long-range submarines and the growing nuclear surface force. Narrated by Frank Blair.

  17. Nuclear Power 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    be inherently safe and environmentally benign. These realities of today's world are among the reasons that lead to serious interest in deploying nuclear power as a sustainable energy source. Today's nuclear reactors are safe and highly efficient energy systems...

  18. Nuclear Engineer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located in the Nuclear Safety Division (NSD) which has specific responsibility for managing the development, analysis, review, and approval of non-reactor nuclear facility safety...

  19. Terracentric Nuclear Fission Reactor: Background, Basis, Feasibility, Structure, Evidence, and Geophysical Implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Marvin Herndon

    2013-12-31

    The background, basis, feasibility, structure, evidence, and geophysical implications of a naturally occurring Terracentric nuclear fission georeactor are reviewed. For a nuclear fission reactor to exist at the center of the Earth, all of the following conditions must be met: (1) There must originally have been a substantial quantity of uranium within Earth's core; (2) There must be a natural mechanism for concentrating the uranium; (3) The isotopic composition of the uranium at the onset of fission must be appropriate to sustain a nuclear fission chain reaction; (4) The reactor must be able to breed a sufficient quantity of fissile nuclides to permit operation over the lifetime of Earth to the present; (5) There must be a natural mechanism for the removal of fission products; (6) There must be a natural mechanism for removing heat from the reactor; (7) There must be a natural mechanism to regulate reactor power level, and; (8) The location of the reactor or must be such as to provide containment and prevent meltdown. Herndon's georeactor alone is shown to meet those conditions. Georeactor existence evidence based upon helium measurements and upon antineutrino measurements is described. Geophysical implications discussed include georeactor origin of the geomagnetic field, geomagnetic reversals from intense solar outbursts and severe Earth trauma, as well as georeactor heat contributions to global dynamics.

  20. Real-time operating mode with DSSSD detector to search for short correlation ER-alpha chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsyganov, Yury

    2015-01-01

    Real-time PC based algorithm is developed for DSSSD detector. Complete fusion nuclear reaction natYb+48Ca->217Th is used to test this algorithm at 48Ca beam. Example of successful application of a former algorithm for resistive strip PIPS detector in 249Bk+48Ca nuclear reaction is presented too. Case of alpha-alpha correlations is also under brief consideration.

  1. Pulse propagation in decorated random chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Upendra Harbola; Alexandre Rosas; Aldo H. Romero; Katja Lindenberg

    2010-05-05

    We study pulse propagation in one-dimensional chains of spherical granules decorated with small randomly-sized granules placed between bigger monodisperse ones. Such "designer chains" are of interest in efforts to control the behavior of the pulse so as to optimize its propagation or attenuation, depending on the desired application. We show that a recently proposed effective description of simple decorated chains can be extended to predict pulse properties in chains decorated with small granules of randomly chosen radii. Furthermore, we also show that the binary collision approximation can again be used to provide analytic results for this system.

  2. Bubble dynamics in double stranded DNA : A Rouse chain based approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajarshi Chakrabarti

    2010-10-26

    We propose a model for the fluctuation dynamics of the local denaturation zones (bubbles) in double-stranded DNA. In our formulation, the DNA strand is model as a one dimensional Rouse chain confined at both the ends. The bubble is formed when the transverse displacement of the chain attains a critical value. This simple model effectively reproduces the autocorrelation function for the tagged base pair in the DNA strand as measured in the seminal single molecule experiment by Altan-Bonnet et. al (Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 138101 (2003)). Although our model is mathematically similar to the one proposed by Chatterjee et al. (J. Chem. Phys. 127, 155104 (2007)) it goes beyond a single reaction coordinate description by incorporating the chain dynamics through a confined Rouse chain and thus considers the collective nature of the dynamics. Our model also shows that the autocorrelation function is very sensitive to the relaxation times of the normal modes of the chain, which is obvious since the fluctuation dynamics of the bubble has the contribution from the different normal modes of the chain.

  3. Siphons in Chemical Reaction Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shiu, Anne; Sturmfels, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    source are credited. Siphons in Chemical Reaction Networksalgorithms for minimal siphons in Petri nets based on placewe characterize the minimal siphons of a chemical reaction

  4. Metal-Ion-Mediated Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal-Ion-Mediated Reactions Metal-Ion-Mediated Reactions Print Monday, 19 December 2011 18:29 While mononuclear, polynuclear, and polymeric metal complexes are most often...

  5. Comparison of reactions for the production of 258,257Db: 208Pb(51V,xn) and 209Bi(50Ti,xn)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Jacklyn M.

    2008-01-01

    as 10 - 15 MeV, hence ‘cold’ fusion. These low excitationmodel for predicting cold fusion reaction cross sections [7,been produced in ‘cold’ nuclear fusion reactions with Pb and

  6. TORUS: Theory of Reactions for Unstable iSotopes - Year 1 Continuation and Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arbanas, G; Elster, C; Escher, J; Mukhamedzhanov, A; Nunes, F; Thompson, I J

    2011-02-24

    The TORUS collaboration derives its name from the research it focuses on, namely the Theory of Reactions for Unstable iSotopes. It is a Topical Collaboration in Nuclear Theory, and funded by the Nuclear Theory Division of the Office of Nuclear Physics in the Office of Science of the Department of Energy. The funding started on June 1, 2010, it will have been running for nine months by the date of submission of this Annual Continuation and Progress Report on March 1, 2011. The extent of funding was reduced from the original application, and now supports one postdoctoral researcher for the years 1 through 3. The collaboration brings together as Principal Investigators a large fraction of the nuclear reaction theorists currently active within the USA. The mission of the TORUS Topical Collaboration is to develop new methods that will advance nuclear reaction theory for unstable isotopes by using three-body techniques to improve direct-reaction calculations, and, by using a new partial-fusion theory, to integrate descriptions of direct and compound-nucleus reactions. This multi-institution collaborative effort is directly relevant to three areas of interest: the properties of nuclei far from stability; microscopic studies of nuclear input parameters for astrophysics, and microscopic nuclear reaction theory.

  7. PROBING DENSE NUCLEAR MATTER VIA NUCLEAR COLLISIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stocker, H.

    2012-01-01

    shocked nuclear matter during the compression and expansionand isentropic expansion were valid in nuclear collisions.

  8. Electro and gamma nuclear physics in Geant4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. P. Wellisch; M. Kossov; P. Degtyarenko

    2003-06-03

    Adequate description of electro and gamma nuclear physics is of utmost importance in studies of electron beam-dumps and intense electron beam accelerators. I also is mandatory to describe neutron backgrounds and activation in linear colliders. This physics was elaborated in Geant4 over the last year, and now entered into the stage of practical application. In the {\\sc Geant4} Photo-nuclear data base there are at present about 50 nuclei for which the Photo-nuclear absorption cross sections have been measured. Of these, data on 14 nuclei are used to parametrize the gamma nuclear reaction cross-section The resulting cross section is a complex, factorized function of $A$ and $e = log(E_\\gamma)$, where $E_\\gamma$ is the energy of the incident photon. Electro-nuclear reactions are so closely connected with Photo-nuclear reactions that sometimes they are often called ``Photo-nuclear''. The one-photon exchange mechanism dominates in Electro-nuclear reactions, and the electron can be substituted by a flux of photons. Folding this flux with the gamma-nuclear cross-section, we arrive at an acceptable description of the electro-nuclear physics. Final states in gamma and electro nuclear physics are described using chiral invariant phase-space decay at low gamma or equivalent photon energies, and quark gluon string model at high energies. We will present the modeling of this physics in {\\sc Geant4}, and show results from practical applications.

  9. Nuclear astrophysics studies with ultra-peripheral heavy-ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. A. Bertulani

    2009-12-17

    I describe in very simple terms the theoretical tools needed to investigate ultra-peripheral nuclear reactions for nuclear astrophysics purposes. For a more detailed account, see arXiv:0908.4307.

  10. Neutron multiplicity distributions for 30 MeVu {sup 14}N reactions with the indicated targets. Progress in research, April 1, 1991--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    This report contains short papers on the following topics: Heavy ion reactions; nuclear structure and fundamental interactions; nuclear theory; atomic molecular and materials science; and superconducting cyclotron and instrumentation. (LSP)

  11. ANALYSIS OF THE 6Li(n, t) 03B1 REACTION OVER THE ENERGY RANGE 14 TO 3 900 keV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of the S-matrix theory of nuclear reactions. A parametric expression is obtained. A 3/2- level is located-matrix theory [11

  12. Chart of Nuclides from the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Chart of Nuclides is a software product that allows users to search and plot nuclear structure and nuclear decay data interactively. The Chart of Nuclides was developed by the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC). It provides an interface between web users and several databases containing nuclear structure, nuclear decay and some neutron-induced nuclear reaction information. Using the Chart of Nuclides, it is possible to search for nuclear level properties (energy, half-life, spin-parity), gamma-ray information (energy, intensity, multipolarity, coincidences),radiation information following nuclear decay (energy, intensity, dose), and neutron-induced reaction data from the BNL-325 book (thermal cross section and resonance integral). The information provided by the Chart of Nuclides can be seen in tables, level schemes and an interactive chart of nuclides. (From the Chart of Nuclides Description at http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/chart/help/index.jsp?product=chart)

  13. Upply Chain Supernetworks with Random Demands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Upply Chain Supernetworks with Random Demands June Dong & Ding Zhang School of Business State Warehouses: stocking points Field Warehouses: stocking points Customers, demand centers sinks Production Commerce and Value Chain Management, 1998 Customer Demand Customer Demand Retailer OrdersRetailer Orders

  14. Energy Balanced Chain in Distributed Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howitt, Ivan

    Energy Balanced Chain in Distributed Sensor Networks Ivan Howitt Electrical & Computer Engineering because of their higher traffic. This paper suggests an energy balanced chain (EBC) which can efficiently the energy balance optimization problem in terms of the segmentation space. By adjusting the transmission

  15. Locked Thick Chains Erik D. Demaine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demaine, Erik

    chain? The smallest ratio known is the original five-bar chain which achieves a ratio of 3 + [2, 1, 5]), the typical mathematical model of a mechanical linkage is a collection of rigid line segments (bars realistic, in partic- ular when modeling physical objects such as mechanical linkages or protein backbones

  16. Pharmaceutical Supply Chain Networks with Outsourcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Pharmaceutical Supply Chain Networks with Outsourcing Under Price and Quality Competition Anna Nagurney1, Dong Li1, and Ladimer S. Nagurney2 1Isenberg School of Management University of Massachusetts Amherst Pharmaceutical Supply Chain Networks with Outsourcing #12;Acknowledgments This research

  17. Pharmaceutical Supply Chain Networks with Outsourcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Pharmaceutical Supply Chain Networks with Outsourcing Under Price and Quality Competition Anna Nagurney1 , Dong (Michelle) Li1 , and Ladimer S. Nagurney2 1Isenberg School of Management University of Massachusetts Amherst Pharmaceutical Supply Chain Networks with Outsourcing #12;Acknowledgments This research

  18. Supply Chain Supernetworks Suppliers Risk Diversification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Supply Chain Supernetworks with Suppliers Risk Diversification June Dong School of Business State #12;Reliable Supply Chain Starts from reliable suppliers Supplier selection multicriteria Benefits vs.Risks #12;Suppliers Selection Single source Improved bargaining power to reduce costs Decreased effort

  19. Reports to the DOE Nuclear Data Committee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    The report in this document were submitted to the Department of Energy, Nuclear Data Committee (DOE-NDC) in April 1988. The reporting laboratories are those with a substantial program for the measurement of neutron and nuclear cross sections of relevance to the US applied nuclear energy program. Appropriate subjects are microscopic neutron cross sections relevant to the nuclear energy program, including shielding. Inverse reactions where pertinent are included; charged-particle cross sections where relevant to developing and testing nuclear models; gamma ray production, radioactive decay, and theoretical developments in nuclear structure which are applicable to nuclear energy programs; and proton and alpha-particle cross sections, at energies of up to 1 GeV, which are of interest to the space program.

  20. Characterization of cement minerals, cements and their reaction products at the atomic and nano scale 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skibsted, Joergen; Hall, Christopher

    Recent advances and highlights in characterization methods are reviewed for cement minerals, cements and their reaction products. The emphasis is on X-ray and neutron diffraction, and on nuclear magnetic resonance methods, ...

  1. Generalized solution to multispecies transport equations coupled with a first-order reaction network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clement, Prabhakar

    nuclear waste sites contaminated with radioactive species and their daughter products and hazardous wasteGeneralized solution to multispecies transport equations coupled with a first-order reaction for deriving analytical solutions to multispecies transport equations coupled with multiparent, serial

  2. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    House, Palmer A. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1984-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  3. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    House, Palmer A. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1982-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  4. The Packing of Granular Polymer Chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, Ling-Nan; Cheng, Xiang; Rivers, Mark L.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.; Nagel, Sidney R.; UC

    2009-12-01

    Rigid particles pack into structures, such as sand dunes on the beach, whose overall stability is determined by the average number of contacts between particles. However, when packing spatially extended objects with flexible shapes, additional concepts must be invoked to understand the stability of the resulting structure. Here, we examine the disordered packing of chains constructed out of flexibly connected hard spheres. Using x-ray tomography, we find that long chains pack into a low-density structure whose mechanical rigidity is mainly provided by the backbone. On compaction, randomly oriented, semi-rigid loops form along the chain, and the packing of chains can be understood as the jamming of these elements. Finally, we uncover close similarities between the packing of chains and the glass transition in polymers.

  5. Chemical Supply Chain Analysis | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D BGene NetworkNuclear SecurityChattan ooga EagNISACChemical

  6. Nuclear Physics A533 (1991) 749-760 North-Holland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, Wolfgang

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear Physics A533 (1991) 749-760 North-Holland 0375-9474/91/$03.50 PION PRODUCTION nuclear physics reason for the production of radioactive beams and their use for nuclear reaction studies Publishers ON. All rights reserved NUCLEAR PHYSICS A #12;750 P.-A. Li et al. / Pion production 0.12 0.10 0

  7. In-medium effects for nuclear matter in the Fermi energy domain D. Durand,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    In-medium effects for nuclear matter in the Fermi energy domain O. Lopez,1 D. Durand,1 G. Lehaut,1 of nuclear reactions in the Fermi energy domain. I. INTRODUCTION Transport properties in nuclear matter energy domain, transport features should exhibit the in- terplay between mean-field (nuclear degrees

  8. Effect of a Generalized Particle Momentum Distribution on Plasma Nuclear Fusion Rates Yeong E. KIM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J.

    Effect of a Generalized Particle Momentum Distribution on Plasma Nuclear Fusion Rates Yeong E. KIM-analytical formula for nuclear fusion reaction rate between nuclei in a plasma (quantum plasma nuclear fusion] KEYWORDS: generalized particle momentum distribution, quantum plasma nuclear fusion As shown by Galitskii

  9. Dynamics of diffusion controlled chain closure: flexible chain in presence of hydrodynamic interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajarshi Chakrabarti

    2011-05-04

    Based on the Wilemski-Fixman approach (J. Chem. Phys. 60, 866 (1974)) we showed that for a flexible chain in theta solvent hydrodynamic interaction treated with an pre-averaging approximation makes ring closing faster if the chain is not very short. Only for a very short chain the ring closing is slower with hydrodynamic interaction on. We have also shown that the ring closing time for a chain with hydrodynamic interaction in theta solvent scales with the chain length (N) as N^(1.527), in good agreement with previous renormalization group calculation based prediction by Freidman et al. (Phys. Rev. A. 40, 5950 (1989)).

  10. Low energy ($p,?$) reactions in Ni and Cu nuclei using microscopic optical model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Gangopadhyay

    2010-08-05

    Radiative capture reactions for low energy protons have been theoretically studied for Ni and Cu isotopes using the microscopic optical model. The optical potential has been obtained in the folding model using different microscopic interactions with the nuclear densities from Relativistic Mean Field calculations. The calculated total cross sections as well as the cross sections for individually low lying levels have been compared with measurements involving stable nuclear targets. Rates for the rapid proton capture process have been evaluated for astrophysically important reactions.

  11. Single-Chain Antibody Library

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Baird, Cheryl

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have constructed a nonimmune library consisting of 109 human antibody scFv fragments, which have been cloned and expressed on the surface of yeast. Nanomolar-affinity scFvs are routinely obtained by magnetic bead screening and flow cytometric sorting. The yeast library can be amplified 1010 fold without measurable loss of clonal diversity. This allows for indefinite expansion of the library. All scFv clones can be assessed directly on the yeast cell surface by immunofluorescent labeling and flow cytometry, obviating separate subcloning, expression, and purification steps. The ability to use multiplex library screening demonstrates the utility of this approach for high-throughput antibody isolation for proteomic applications. The yeast library may be used for research projects or teaching performed for U.S. Government purposes only. If you would like to request an aliquot of the single-chain antibody library for your research, please print and fill out the Materials Transfer Agreement (MTA) [PDF, 20K]. The website provides the contact information for mailing the MTA. [copied from http://www.sysbio.org/dataresources/singlechain.stm

  12. Nuclear correlation and finite interaction-range effects in high-energy $(e,e'p)$ nuclear transparency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryoichi Seki; T. D. Shoppa; Akihisa Kohama; Koichi Yazaki

    1995-12-06

    Nuclear transparency is calculated for high-energy, semi-inclusive $(e,e'p)$ reactions, by accounting for all orders of Glauber multiple-scattering and by using realistic finite-range $p N$ interaction and (dynamically and statistically) correlated nuclear wave functions. The nuclear correlation effect is reduced due to the $p N$ finite-range effect. The net effect is small, and depends sensitively on details of the nuclear correlations in finite nuclei, which are poorly known at present.

  13. Reaction product imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, D.W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Over the past few years the author has investigated the photochemistry of small molecules using the photofragment imaging technique. Bond energies, spectroscopy of radicals, dissociation dynamics and branching ratios are examples of information obtained by this technique. Along with extending the technique to the study of bimolecular reactions, efforts to make the technique as quantitative as possible have been the focus of the research effort. To this end, the author has measured the bond energy of the C-H bond in acetylene, branching ratios in the dissociation of HI, the energetics of CH{sub 3}Br, CD{sub 3}Br, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Br and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OBr dissociation, and the alignment of the CD{sub 3} fragment from CD{sub 3}I photolysis. In an effort to extend the technique to bimolecular reactions the author has studied the reaction of H with HI and the isotopic exchange reaction between H and D{sub 2}.

  14. Chemical Reactions at Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Henderson and Nancy Ryan Gray

    2010-04-14

    Chemical reactions at surfaces underlie some of the most important processes of today, including catalysis, energy conversion, microelectronics, human health and the environment. Understanding surface chemical reactions at a fundamental level is at the core of the field of surface science. The Gordon Research Conference on Chemical Reactions at Surfaces is one of the premiere meetings in the field. The program this year will cover a broad range of topics, including heterogeneous catalysis and surface chemistry, surfaces in environmental chemistry and energy conversion, reactions at the liquid-solid and liquid-gas interface, electronic materials growth and surface modification, biological interfaces, and electrons and photons at surfaces. An exciting program is planned, with contributions from outstanding speakers and discussion leaders from the international scientific community. The conference provides a dynamic environment with ample time for discussion and interaction. Attendees are encouraged to present posters; the poster sessions are historically well attended and stimulate additional discussions. The conference provides an excellent opportunity for junior researchers (e.g. graduate students or postdocs) to present their work and interact with established leaders in the field.

  15. Polymer Reaction & Colloidal Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giger, Christine

    Polymer Reaction & Colloidal Engineering Research Profile The Morbidelli Group is carrying out research in numerous areas related to polymer and colloid science and enginee- ring. Our research activity combines a variety of experimen- tal techniques for polymers and particles characterization with advanced

  16. Strong plasma screening in thermonuclear reactions: Electron drop model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. A. Kravchuk; D. G. Yakovlev

    2014-01-11

    We analyze enhancement of thermonuclear fusion reactions due to strong plasma screening in dense matter using a simple electron drop model. The model assumes fusion in a potential that is screened by an effective electron cloud around colliding nuclei (extended Salpeter ion-sphere model). We calculate the mean field screened Coulomb potentials for atomic nuclei with equal and nonequal charges, appropriate astrophysical S factors, and enhancement factors of reaction rates. As a byproduct, we study analytic behavior of the screening potential at small separations between the reactants. In this model, astrophysical S factors depend not only on nuclear physics but on plasma screening as well. The enhancement factors are in good agreement with calculations by other methods. This allows us to formulate the combined, pure analytic model of strong plasma screening in thermonuclear reactions. The results can be useful for simulating nuclear burning in white dwarfs and neutron stars.

  17. 2013 Nuclear Workforce Development ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Workforce Development Day Tuesday, October 22, 2013 Nuclear Medicine Topics: Pathways of Practice in Nuclear Medicine Radiopharmacy Patient Care ...

  18. Nuclear Counterterrorism

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2013-08-26

    The Order defines requirements for the protection of sensitive improvised nuclear device information and provides a framework to support DOE activities related to nuclear counterterrorism. (A supplemental DOE Manual, Control of and Access to Improvised Nuclear Device Information, provides requirements and procedures for protecting Sigma 20 information.) Appendices A and B are Official Use Only. Point of contact is Adam Boyd (NA-82), 202-586-0010. Supersedes DOE O 457.1 and DOE M 457.1-1.

  19. Interlaboratory reaction rate program. 12th progress report, November 1976-October 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lippincott, E.P.; McElroy, W.N.; Preston, C.C.

    1980-09-01

    The Interlaboratory Reaction Rate UILRR) program is establishing the capability to accurately measure neutron-induced reactions and reaction rates for reactor fuels and materials development programs. The goal for the principal fission reactions, /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U and /sup 239/Pu, is an accuracy to within +- 5% at the 95% confidence level. Accurate measurement of other fission and nonfission reactions is also required, but to a lesser accuracy, between +- 5% and 10% at the 95% confidence level. A secondary program objective is improvement in knowledge of the nuclear parameters involved in the standarization of fuels and materials dosimetry measurements of neutron flux, spectra, fluence and burnup.

  20. Leading chiral three-nucleon forces along isotope chains in the calcium region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Somà; A. Cipollone; C. Barbieri; P. Navrátil; T. Duguet

    2013-12-07

    Three-nucleon forces (3NFs), and in particular terms of the Fujita-Miyazawa type, strongly influence the structure of neutron-rich exotic isotopes. Ab-initio calculations have shown that chiral two- and three-nucleon interactions correctly reproduce binding energy systematics and neutron driplines of oxygen and nearby isotopes. Exploiting the novel self-consistent Gorkov-Green's function approach, we present the first investigation of Ar, K, Ca, Sc and Ti isotopic chains. Leading chiral 3N interactions are mandatory to reproduce the trend of binding energies throughout these chains and to obtain a good description of two-neutron separation energies. At the same time, nuclei in this mass region are systematically overbound by about 40 MeV and the $N=20$ magic gap is significantly overestimated. We conclude that ab-initio many-body calculations of mid-mass isotopic chains challenge modern theories of elementary nuclear interactions.

  1. Nuclear shadowing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Armesto

    2006-07-05

    The phenomenon of shadowing of nuclear structure functions at small values of Bjorken-$x$ is analyzed. First, multiple scattering is discussed as the underlying physical mechanism. In this context three different but related approaches are presented: Glauber-like rescatterings, Gribov inelastic shadowing and ideas based on high-density Quantum Chromodynamics. Next, different parametrizations of nuclear partonic distributions based on fit analysis to existing data combined with Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution, are reviewed. Finally, a comparison of the different approaches is shown, and a few phenomenological consequences of nuclear shadowing in high-energy nuclear collisions are presented.

  2. Impact of demographics on supply chain risk management practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanyagui, Kenneth (Kenneth K.)

    2010-01-01

    Do demographic factors play a role in the choice of supply chain risk management practices by supply chain professionals? Are there stronger relationships between certain demographic factors and supply chain risk management ...

  3. An engineering approach to improving hospital supply chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Scott Hsiang-Jen

    2008-01-01

    This thesis explores supply chain management practices that have been implemented, and have improved supply chains in industries outside of healthcare. The presented supply chain practices have been selected because they ...

  4. Supply Chain Performance Assessment and Supplier and Component Importance Identification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Supply Chain Performance Assessment and Supplier and Component Importance Identification and Motivation The Multitiered Supply Chain Network Game Theory Model with Suppliers Supply Chain Network Performance Measures and Supplier and Component Importance Identification The Algorithm Numerical Examples

  5. PROBING DENSE NUCLEAR MATTER VIA NUCLEAR COLLISIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stocker, H.

    2012-01-01

    University of California. LBL-12095 Probing Dense NuclearMatter Nuclear Collisions* v~a H. Stocker, M.Gyulassy and J. Boguta Nuclear Science Division Lawrence

  6. Nuclear Systems Modeling, Simulation & Validation | Nuclear Science...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Areas Fuel Cycle Science & Technology Fusion Nuclear Science Isotope Development and Production Nuclear Security Science & Technology Nuclear Systems Modeling, Simulation...

  7. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Nuclear Materials Assay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quiter, Brian Joseph

    2010-01-01

    130] International Nuclear Safety Center, Available onlinefrom Inter- national Nuclear Safety Center (INSC) website(from International Nuclear Safety Center (INSC) website(

  8. Nuclear spectroscopic studies. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1994-02-18

    The Nuclear Physics group at UTK is involved in heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. During the last year experimental work has been in 3 broad areas: structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, structure of nuclei far from stability, and ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. Results in these areas are described in this document under: properties of high-spin states, study of low-energy levels of nuclei far from stability, and high-energy heavy-ion physics (PHENIX, etc.). Another important component of the work is theoretical interpretation of experimental results (Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research).

  9. Investigation of reports of fusion reactions occurring at the cathode in glow discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellison, C.H.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Recent reports of deuteron-deuteron (d-d) neutrons resulting from nuclear reactions in or at the palladium cathode of a deuterium glow discharge were investigated. The equipment, techniques, and experimental procedures are discussed in detail, as well as various possible mechanisms to produce such reactions. The results of this investigation do not confirm the presence of d-d reactions. 15 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Reaction chemistry of cerium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-01

    It is truly ironic that a synthetic organic chemist likely has far greater knowledge of the reaction chemistry of cerium(IV) than an inorganic colleague. Cerium(IV) reagents have long since been employed as oxidants in effecting a wide variety of organic transformations. Conversely, prior to the late 1980s, the number of well characterized cerium(IV) complexes did not extend past a handful of known species. Though in many other areas, interest in the molecular chemistry of the 4f-elements has undergone an explosive growth over the last twenty years, the chemistry of cerium(IV) has for the most part been overlooked. This report describes reactions of cerium complexes and structure.

  11. Addressing Biomass Supply Chain Challenges With AFEX(tm) Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addressing Biomass Supply Chain Challenges With AFEX(tm) Technology Addressing Biomass Supply Chain Challenges With AFEX(tm) Technology Plenary IV: Advances in Bioenergy...

  12. Better Plants Supply Chain Pilot - Overview | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    their supply chains. Around 40 to 60 percent of a manufacturing company's energy and carbon footprint can reside upstream in its supply chain-from raw materials, transport,...

  13. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreati...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil to Produce Hydrocarbon Fuels Title Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Fast Pyrolysis and...

  14. U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to identifying and bounding uncertainties around offshore wind manufacturing and supply chain capabilities; projecting potential component-level supply chain needs under...

  15. Myosin Light Chain Kinase Signaling in Endothelial Barrier Dysfunction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rigor, Robert R Ph.D.

    2012-01-01

    in response to phosphorylation of myosin light chainby myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). MLCK- dependent2013 Key words: myosin light chain kinase (MLCK); protein

  16. Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing and Supply Chain Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) works with wind technology suppliers to promote advanced manufacturing...

  17. Photochemical reaction dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, B.C. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the program is to develop a fundamental understanding of unimolecular and bimolecular reaction dynamics with application in combustion and energy systems. The energy dependence in ketene isomerization, ketene dissociation dynamics, and carbonyl substitution on organometallic rhodium complexes in liquid xenon have been studied. Future studies concerning unimolecular processes in ketene as well as energy transfer and kinetic studies of methylene radicals are discussed.

  18. Supply Chain Management Faculty Brian Fugate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Operations Management, International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, International conferences and has published in Journal of Operations Management, Journal of Business Logistics significant industry experience including positions in quality assurance and supply chain management. Dan

  19. Energy Transport in Trapped Ion Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Ramm; Thaned Pruttivarasin; Hartmut Häffner

    2013-12-20

    We experimentally study energy transport in chains of trapped ions. We use a pulsed excitation scheme to rapidly add energy to the local motional mode of one of the ions in the chain. Subsequent energy readout allows us to determine how the excitation has propagated throughout the chain. We observe energy revivals that persist for many cycles. We study the behavior with an increasing number of ions of up to 37 in the chain, including a zig-zag configuration. The experimental results agree well with the theory of normal mode evolution. The described system provides an experimental toolbox for the study of thermodynamics of closed systems and energy transport in both classical and quantum regimes.

  20. Segmentation strategies for managing retail supply chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Catherine G. (Catherine Gloria)

    2011-01-01

    High-technology manufacturing companies often face rapid price decline and capacity constraints. Especially in the retail side of the business where the supply chain is much longer and revenue is sometimes not recognized ...

  1. Supply Chain Supernetworks With Random Demands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Supply Chain Supernetworks With Random Demands June Dong Ding Zhang School of Business State Field Warehouses: stocking points Customers, demand centers sinks Production/ purchase costs Inventory Customer Demand Customer Demand Retailer OrdersRetailer Orders Distributor OrdersDistributor Orders

  2. Customer service driven supply chain segmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worawattananon, Prakit

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to develop a supply chain segmentation model for Company X, which is in the chemical and construction materials industry. The company sells products in an expanding Southeast Asia market. ...

  3. Supply chain and the executive agenda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peruvankal, James Paul

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, supply chain pundits and consultants emphasized the importance of strategies such as just-in-time, lean manufacturing, off- shoring or frequent deliveries to retail outlets. However, with significant ...

  4. Supply chain practices in the petroleum downstream

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos Manzano, Fidel

    2005-01-01

    This thesis studies current supply chain practices in the petroleum downstream industry, using ExxonMobil as a case study. Based on the analysis of the literature and the interaction with industry experts, this work describes ...

  5. Solar Supply Chain and Market Driver Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, Nicholas 1990-

    2012-05-09

    This study aims to explore the evolution of the photovoltaic supply chain in the United States and the drivers which foster growth of the solar market. The study will gather knowledge on the growth of the solar market and ...

  6. An Elementary Theory of Global Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Costinot, Arnaud

    This article develops an elementary theory of global supply chains. We consider a world economy with an arbitrary number of countries, one factor of production, a continuum of intermediate goods and one final good. Production ...

  7. Design of Sustainable Supply Chains Sustainable Cities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Design of Sustainable Supply Chains for Sustainable Cities Anna Nagurney Isenberg School of Management University of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 Complex-City Workshop Amsterdam.? Anna Nagurney Sustainability #12;Pollution and Environmental Impacts The release of CO2

  8. The supply chain response to environmental pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paquette, Julie Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Understanding and shaping the relationship between supply chain management and the natural environment is critical not only to human health and the environment, but to the future success of business. While the cumulative ...

  9. Supply Chain Logistics Post Recovery Landscape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    1 Supply Chain Logistics ­ Post Recovery Landscape Freight and Logistics Symposium Center.... · Logistics Perspective · Transportation · Trucking, Rail, Ocean, River, Fuel · Global Sourcing & U.S. Logistics · Land Bridges, Inland ports, Import Warehouses, Plant Locations · Domestic Logistics · Retail

  10. Risk in the Global Supply Chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Datta, Shoumen

    2006-01-01

    Carbon footprints are not on the priority list of risk analysts in operations management for at least half or more of global businesses. What are the other risks in the global supply chain?

  11. Global Supply Chains and Wage Inequality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Costinot, Arnaud

    A salient feature of globalization in recent decades is the emergence of "global supply chains" in which different countries specialize in different stages of a sequential production process. In Costinot, Vogel and Wang ...

  12. Capturing value in outsourced aerospace supply chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Chan Yuin

    2008-01-01

    The aerospace industry is increasingly outsourcing and offshoring their supply chains in order to maintain profitability in the face of increasing competition and globalization. This strategy for value creation inevitably ...

  13. Global supply chain design and optimization methodology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henkle, Aimee L. (Aimee Leigh), 1975-

    2004-01-01

    The work for this thesis was performed at Honeywell in the Automation and Control Solutions (ACS) division. The project focuses on ACS's manufacturing strategy regarding its global supply chain design, primarily discussing ...

  14. Distributed Markov Chains Ratul Saha1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Distributed Markov Chains Ratul Saha1 , Javier Esparza2 , Sumit Kumar Jha3 , Madhavan Mukund4. #12;2 R. Saha, J. Esparza, S. K. Jha, M. Mukund and P. S. Thiagarajan The synchronizations

  15. Supply chain responsiveness for a large retailer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anand, Sunil (Sunil Harbhushankumar)

    2011-01-01

    A large U.S. based retailer underwent a large, complex multi-year supply chain network transformation. This transformation resulted in significant savings in logistics costs. Additionally, the regional distribution center ...

  16. E-Commerce cold chain fulfillment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yakzan, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    A challenging part of E-Commerce for perishable consumer packaged goods (PCPG) is the fulfillment. Given the fragile nature of the items shipped, they require a low cost, effective cold chain fulfillment method so as to ...

  17. Nuclear Diagnostics of ICF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izumi, N; Ierche, R A; Moran, M J; Phillips, T W; Sangster, T C; Schmid, G J; Stoyer, M A; Disdier, L; Bourgade, J L; Rouyer, A; Fisher, R K; Gerggren, R R; Caldwen, S E; Faulkner, J R; Mack, J M; Oertel, J A; Young, C S; Glebov, V Y; Jaanimagi, P A; Meyerhofer, D D; Soures, J M; Stockel, C; Frenje, J A; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D

    2001-10-18

    In inertial confinement fusion (ICF), a high temperature and high density plasma is produced by the spherical implosion of a small capsule. A spherical target capsule is irradiated uniformly by a laser beam (direct irradiation) or x-rays from a high Z enclosure (hohlraum) that is irradiated by laser or ion beams (indirect irradiation). Then high-pressure ablation of the surface causes the fuel to be accelerated inward. Thermonuclear fusion reactions begin in the center region of the capsule as it is heated to sufficient temperature (10 keV) by the converging shocks (hot spot formation). During the stagnation of the imploded shell, the fuel in the shell region is compressed to high density ({approx} 10{sup 3} times solid density in fuel region). When these conditions are established, energy released by the initial nuclear reactions in center ''hot-spot'' region can heat up the cold ''fuel'' region and cause ignition. They are developing advanced nuclear diagnostics for imploding plasmas of the ignition campaign on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The NIF is a 1.8MJ, 192-beam glass laser system that is under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. One objective of the NIF is to demonstrate ignition and gain in an inertial confinement fusion plasma. Extreme physical conditions characterize the imploded plasmas on the NIF. First, the thickness of the plasma, expressed by areal density (plasma density times radius), is large, up to {approx} 1 g/cm{sup 2}. Highly penetrating probes such as energetic neutrons, hard x-rays, or {gamma} rays are required to see deep inside the plasma. Second, the implosion time is quite short. The implosion process takes {approx} 20 ns and the duration of the fusion reaction is on the order of 100 picoseconds. To observe the time history of the nuclear reactions, time resolution better than 10 ps is required. Third, the size of the imploded plasma is quite small ({approx} 100 {micro}m). To see the shape of burning region, a spatial resolution of {approx} 5 {micro}m is required for imaging systems. Fourth, the diagnostics operate in a harsh background. In implosion experiments, strong bursts of electromagnetic pulses, x-rays, neutrons, and neutron-induced radioactivity are produced. Therefore the diagnostics have to be designed to survive in these backgrounds. In addition, to prevent materials ablated from diagnostic components close to the target from being deposited on the laser optics, these components are excluded from a zone around the target with a radius in the range of 0.5 m to 5 m. This exclusion zone has a large impact on diagnostic design.

  18. Outstanding problems in nuclear astrophysics: recent progress at TRIUMF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davids, B., E-mail: davids@triumf.ca [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2014-04-15

    Recent experimental and theoretical efforts at TRIUMF on nuclear reactions relevant to big bang nucleosynthesis, quiescent stellar fusion, classical novae, and Type I X-ray bursts are described.

  19. Mass determination in sequential particle decay chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryan Webber

    2009-09-12

    A simple method is proposed for determining the masses of new particles in collider events containing a pair of decay chains (not necessarily identical) of the form Z -> Y+1, Y -> X+2, X -> N+3, where 1,2 and 3 are visible but N is not. Initial study of a possible supersymmetric case suggests that the method can determine the four unknown masses in effectively identical chains with good accuracy from samples of a few tens of events.

  20. RADIOCHEMISTRY, AND NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY; NUCLEAR MEDICINE; HISTORICAL

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The early days Richards, P. 38 RADIATION CHEMISTRY, RADIOCHEMISTRY, AND NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY; NUCLEAR MEDICINE; HISTORICAL ASPECTS; TECHNETIUM 99; COLLOIDS; MOLYBDENUM...

  1. National Nuclear Security Administration | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing...

  2. Solid state laser media driven by remote nuclear powered fluorescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prelas, Mark A. (Columbia, MO)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for driving a solid state laser by a nuclear powered fluorescence source which is located remote from the fluorescence source. A nuclear reaction produced in a reaction chamber generates fluorescence or photons. The photons are collected from the chamber into a waveguide, such as a fiber optic waveguide. The waveguide transports the photons to the remote laser for exciting the laser.

  3. EVALUATED NUCLEAR STRUCTURE DATA FILE AND RELATED PRODUCTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TULI,J.K.

    2004-09-26

    The Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) is a leading resource for the experimental nuclear data. It is maintained and distributed by the National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. The file is mainly contributed to by an international network of evaluators under the auspice of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The ENSDF is updated, generally by mass number, i.e., evaluating together all isobars for a given mass number. If, however, experimental activity in an isobaric chain is limited to a particular nuclide then only that nuclide is updated. The evaluations are published in the journal Nuclear Data Sheets, Academic Press, a division of Elsevier.

  4. Uncertainties in the nu p-process: supernova dynamics versus nuclear physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinya Wanajo; Hans-Thomas Janka; Shigeru Kubono

    2010-12-31

    We examine how the uncertainties involved in supernova dynamics as well as in nuclear data inputs affect the nup-process in the neutrino-driven winds. For the supernova dynamics, we find that the wind termination by the preceding dense ejecta shell, as well as the electron fraction (Y_{e, 3}; at 3 10^9 K) play a crucial role. A wind termination within the temperature range of (1.5-3) 10^9 K greatly enhances the efficiency of the nu p-process. This implies that the early wind phase, when the innermost layer of the preceding supernova ejecta is still 200-1000 km from the center, is most relevant to the nup-process. The outflows with Y_{e, 3} = 0.52-0.60 result in the production of the p-nuclei up to A=108 with interesting amounts. Furthermore, the p-nuclei up to A=152 can be produced if Y_{e, 3} = 0.65 is achieved. For the nuclear data inputs, we test the sensitivity to the rates relevant to the breakout from the pp-chain region (A < 12), to the (n, p) rates on heavy nuclei, and to the nuclear masses along the nup-process pathway. We find that a small variation of the rates of triple-alpha and of the (n, p) reaction on 56Ni leads to a substantial change in the p-nuclei production. We also find that 96Pd (N=50) on the nup-process path plays a role as a second seed nucleus for the production of heavier p-nuclei. The uncertainty in the nuclear mass of 82Zr can lead to a factor of two reduction in the abundance of the p-isotope 84Sr.

  5. Attempt to confirm superheavy element production in the {sup 48}Ca+{sup 238}U reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregorich, K.E.; Sudowe, R.; Loveland, W.; Sprunger, P.; Peterson, D.; Zielinski, P.M.; Nelson, S.L.; Duellmann, Ch.E.; Folden III, C.M.; Hoffman, D.C.; Wilson, R.E.; Nitsche, H.; Chung, Y.H.; Aleklett, K.; Eichler, R.; Soverna, S.; Omtvedt, J.P.; Pang, G.K.; Schwantes, J.M.

    2005-07-01

    An attempt to confirm production of superheavy elements in the reaction of {sup 48}Ca beams with actinide targets has been performed using the {sup 238}U({sup 48}Ca,3n){sup 283}112 reaction. Two {sup 48}Ca projectile energies were used that spanned the energy range where the largest cross sections have been reported for this reaction. No spontaneous fission events were observed. No {alpha} decay chains consistent with either reported or theoretically predicted element 112 decay properties were observed. The cross-section limits reached are significantly smaller than the recently reported cross sections.

  6. Programmability of Chemical Reaction Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winfree, Erik

    Programmability of Chemical Reaction Networks Matthew Cook1 , David Soloveichik2 , Erik Winfree2 Chemical Reaction Networks (SCRNs), a for- mal model that considers a set of chemical reactions acting Logic Circuits, Vector Addition Systems, Petri Nets, Gate Implementability, Primitive Recursive

  7. Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopyof Chemical Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zewail, Ahmed

    Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopyof Chemical Reactions - Joseph L. Kneeand AhmedH. Zewail California of chemical physics is to understand how chemi- cal reactions complete their journey from reactants to prod at the molecular level. The making of new bonds (and the breaking of old ones) in elementary chemical reactions

  8. Nuclear Data Sheets for A=69

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nesaraja, Caroline D [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Experimental data on ground- and excited-state properties for all known nuclei with mass number A=69 have been compiled and evaluated. States populated in radioactive decay, as well as in nuclear reactions, have been considered. For these nuclei, level and decay schemes, as well as tables of nuclear properties, are given in detail. This work supersedes the 2000 evaluation by M.R.Bhat and J.K.Tuli (2000Bh05).

  9. Nuclear Data Sheets for A=69

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nesaraja, C.D.

    2014-01-15

    Experimental data on ground– and excited–state properties for all known nuclei with mass number A=69 have been compiled and evaluated. States populated in radioactive decay, as well as in nuclear reactions, have been considered. For these nuclei, level and decay schemes, as well as tables of nuclear properties, are given in detail. This work supersedes the 2000 evaluation by M.R. Bhat and J.K. Tuli (2000Bh05)

  10. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters Rob Goldston MIT IAP biomass wind hydro coal CCS coal nat gas CCS nat gas nuclear Gen IV nuclear Gen III nuclear Gen II 5-1 Electricity Generation: CCS and Nuclear Power Technology Options Available Global Electricity Generation WRE

  11. Fusion reactions in multicomponent dense matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. G. Yakovlev; L. R. Gasques; M. Beard; M. Wiescher; A. V. Afanasjev

    2006-08-23

    We analyze thermonuclear and pycnonuclear fusion reactions in dense matter containing atomic nuclei of different types. We extend a phenomenological expression for the reaction rate, proposed recently by Gasques et al. (2005) for the one-component plasma of nuclei, to the multi-component plasma. The expression contains several fit parameters which we adjust to reproduce the best microscopic calculations available in the literature. Furthermore, we show that pycnonuclear burning is drastically affected by an (unknown) structure of the multi-component matter (a regular lattice, a uniform mix, etc.). We apply the results to study nuclear burning in a carbon_12-oxygen_16 mixture. In this context we present new calculations of the astrophysical S-factors for carbon-oxygen and oxygen-oxygen fusion reactions. We show that the presence of a CO lattice can strongly suppress carbon ignition in white dwarf cores and neutron star crusts at densities > 3e9 g cm^{-3} and temperatures T<1e8 K.

  12. Nuclear Counterterrorism

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2006-02-07

    The Order defines requirements for the protection of sensitive improvised nuclear device information and provides a framework to support DOE activities related to nuclear counterterrorism. (A supplemental DOE Manual, Control of and Access to Improvised Nuclear Device Information, provides requirements and procedures for protecting Sigma 20 information. The Manual is Official Use Only, and is not available on the Directives Portal. The point of contact for the Manual is Randall Weidman, NA-121.2, 202-586-4582.) Canceled by DOE O 457.1A

  13. Nuclear Science and Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahler, Dennis R.

    Nuclear Science and Engineering Education Sourcebook 2014 American Nuclear Society US Department of Energy #12;Nuclear Science & Engineering Education Sourcebook 2014 North American Edition American Nuclear Society Education, Training, and Workforce Division US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear

  14. Side-chain alkylation of toluene by methanol over a basic zeolite: A kinetic study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beltrame, P.; Fumagalli, P.; Zuretti, G. (Univ. di Milano (Italy))

    1993-01-01

    A few X zeolites, exchanged with K and/or Cs, were tested as catalysts for the reaction of toluene with excess methanol (mole ratio methanol/toluene from 5 to 19) in a fixed bed reactor. Very high selectivity for the side-chain alkylation to ethylbenzene and styrene was observed. A kinetic study of the reaction at 350 C over a CsNaX catalyst was performed: the reaction rate was found to be negatively affected by a high concentration of methanol and by the addition of small amounts of ethylbenzene or styrene to the feed. Some kinetic models, able to represent such inhibition phenomena, were compared on the basis of optimization procedures.

  15. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 161

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reich C. W.; Reich C.W.

    2011-10-01

    The experimental results from the various reaction and radioactive decay studies leading to nuclides in the A = 161 mass chain have been reviewed. Nuclides ranging from Sm (Z = 62) through Os (Z = 76) are included, with Os being a new entry based on a recently reported study. These data are summarized and presented, together with adopted level schemes and properties. This work supersedes the previous evaluation (2000Re14) of the data on these nuclides.

  16. Ion-induced nuclear radiotherapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horn, Kevin M. (Albuquerque, NM); Doyle, Barney L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Ion-induced Nuclear Radiotherapy (INRT) is a technique for conducting radiosurgery and radiotherapy with a very high degree of control over the spatial extent of the irradiated volume and the delivered dose. Based upon the concept that low energy, ion induced atomic and nuclear reactions can be used to produce highly energetic reaction products at the site of a tumor, the INRT technique is implemented through the use of a conduit-needle or tube which conducts a low energy ion beam to a position above or within the intended treatment area. At the end of the conduit-needle or tube is a specially fabricated target which, only when struck by the ion beam, acts as a source of energetic radiation products. The inherent limitations in the energy, and therefore range, of the resulting reaction products limits the spatial extent of irradiation to a pre-defined volume about the point of reaction. Furthermore, since no damage is done to tissue outside this irradiated volume, the delivered dose may be made arbitrarily large. INRT may be used both as a point-source of radiation at the site of a small tumor, or as a topical bath of radiation to broad areas of diseased tissue.

  17. Ion-induced nuclear radiotherapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horn, K.M.; Doyle, B.L.

    1996-08-20

    Ion-induced Nuclear Radiotherapy (INRT) is a technique for conducting radiosurgery and radiotherapy with a very high degree of control over the spatial extent of the irradiated volume and the delivered dose. Based upon the concept that low energy, ion induced atomic and nuclear reactions can be used to produce highly energetic reaction products at the site of a tumor, the INRT technique is implemented through the use of a conduit-needle or tube which conducts a low energy ion beam to a position above or within the intended treatment area. At the end of the conduit-needle or tube is a specially fabricated target which, only when struck by the ion beam, acts as a source of energetic radiation products. The inherent limitations in the energy, and therefore range, of the resulting reaction products limits the spatial extent of irradiation to a pre-defined volume about the point of reaction. Furthermore, since no damage is done to tissue outside this irradiated volume, the delivered dose may be made arbitrarily large. INRT may be used both as a point-source of radiation at the site of a small tumor, or as a topical bath of radiation to broad areas of diseased tissue. 25 figs.

  18. Near and sub-barrier fusion as a probe of nuclear structure Sub-barrier fusion is particularly sensitive to the tail of the nuclear matter distribution,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Souza, Romualdo T.

    Near and sub-barrier fusion as a probe of nuclear structure Sub-barrier fusion is particularly sensitive to the tail of the nuclear matter distribution, hence provides a good probe of the neutron and proton distributions. Measuring fusion for an isotopic chain of projectile nuclei one can sensitively

  19. Computational Study of Chain Transfer to Monomer Reactions in High-Temperature Polymerization of Alkyl Acrylates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rappe, Andrew M.

    paint and coatings, adhesives, and functional additives.1-5 The basic nature of acrylic resins limits on allowable volatile organic contents (VOCs) of resins.6-8 High temperature (>100 °C

  20. Theoretical Study of Intermolecular Chain Transfer to Polymer Reactions of Alkyl Acrylates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rappe, Andrew M.

    are used in paint and coating formula- tions.1 Environmental regulations, which require the volatile organic content of resins to be less than 300 ppm, have caused changes in the basic design of resins used

  1. Microscopic theory of protein folding rates. II. Local reaction coordinates and chain dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takada, Shoji

    J. Portmana) Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 Shoji Takada, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 Received 31 August 2000; accepted 30 October 2000 The motions detailed motions in individual contact formation. © 2001 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10

  2. Reduction of water evaporation in polymerase chain reaction microfluidic devices based on oscillating-flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    devices, realized by glass microchannels for avoiding water dif- fusion toward the elastomer used for chip-temperature microfluidic biochemical reactors. © 2010 American Insti- tute of Physics. doi:10.1063/1.3481776 I, compact alternative to conventional equipments and technologies, offering advantages in terms of reduced

  3. Theoretical and simulation tools for electron transfer and chain reactions in single walled carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Nitish

    2009-01-01

    Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) are cylindrical sheets of graphene whose electronic structures and diameters are determined by their chiralities. Current synthetic methods produce batches of nanotubes containing a ...

  4. On-chip real-time single-copy polymerase chain reaction in picoliter droplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beer, N R; Hindson, B; Wheeler, E; Hall, S B; Rose, K A; Kennedy, I; Colston, B

    2007-04-20

    The first lab-on-chip system for picoliter droplet generation and PCR amplification with real-time fluorescence detection has performed PCR in isolated droplets at volumes 10{sup 6} smaller than commercial real-time PCR systems. The system utilized a shearing T-junction in a silicon device to generate a stream of monodisperse picoliter droplets that were isolated from the microfluidic channel walls and each other by the oil phase carrier. An off-chip valving system stopped the droplets on-chip, allowing them to be thermal cycled through the PCR protocol without droplet motion. With this system a 10-pL droplet, encapsulating less than one copy of viral genomic DNA through Poisson statistics, showed real-time PCR amplification curves with a cycle threshold of {approx}18, twenty cycles earlier than commercial instruments. This combination of the established real-time PCR assay with digital microfluidics is ideal for isolating single-copy nucleic acids in a complex environment.

  5. Three Dimensional Simulation of Rayleigh-Bénard Convection for Rapid Microscale Polymerase Chain Reaction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muddu, Radha Malini Gowri

    2012-02-14

    ................................................................ 5 4 Commercial bench top PCR instrumentation ............................................. 6 5 Prototype of cavity-based convective PCR thermocycling device incorporating a Plexiglas PCR cartridge sandwiched between a top plate... connected to a circulating water bath and a bottom plate incorporating cartridge heaters ......................................................................................... 9 6 Schematic of the process of gel electrophoresis...

  6. Digital Polymerase Chain Reaction in an Array of Femtoliter Polydimethylsiloxane Microreactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yanyi

    ,26 absolute quantitative detection of rare mutations in can- cers,27-29 genetically modified food of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, United States *S Supporting

  7. First-Hand Recollections of the First Self-Sustaining Chain Reaction |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journal Article) |Final Reportthe GrowingDirectProofofFirst roundDepartment

  8. nuclear navy

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    7%2A en Powering the Nuclear Navy http:www.nnsa.energy.govourmissionpoweringnavy

    Page...

  9. Nuclear Celebrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

    2006-11-01

    Broadcast Transcript: The North Korean situation is frightening for many reasons but none, perhaps, more eerily disturbing than images of North Koreans celebrating in brightly colored costumes just days after the nation's underground nuclear test...

  10. Subbarrier fusion reactions and many-particle quantum tunneling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Hagino; N. Takigawa

    2012-10-17

    Low energy heavy-ion fusion reactions are governed by quantum tunneling through the Coulomb barrier formed by a strong cancellation of the repulsive Coulomb force with the attractive nuclear interaction between the colliding nuclei. Extensive experimental as well as theoretical studies have revealed that fusion reactions are strongly influenced by couplings of the relative motion of the colliding nuclei to several nuclear intrinsic motions. Heavy-ion subbarrier fusion reactions thus provide a good opportunity to address a general problem on quantum tunneling in the presence of couplings, which has been a popular subject in the past decades in many branches of physics and chemistry. Here we review theoretical aspects of heavy-ion subbarrier fusion reactions from the view point of quantum tunneling in systems with many degrees of freedom. Particular emphases are put on the coupled-channels approach to fusion reactions, and the barrier distribution representation for multi-channel penetrability. We also discuss an application of the barrier distribution method to elucidation of the mechanism of dissociative adsorption of H$_2$ melecules in surface science.

  11. Spectroscopy of the transition state: Elementary reactions of the hydroxyl radical studied by photoelectron spectroscopy of O (H2O) and H3O2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumark, Daniel M.

    Spectroscopy of the transition state: Elementary reactions of the hydroxyl radical studied to study the unstable neutral complexes involved in two fundamental re- actions of the hydroxyl radical OH H2OH2O OH, 1 OH OHO 3 P H2O. 2 The role of the hydroxyl radical as a propagator of chain reactions

  12. TRANSPORT OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM IN DAMPED NUCLEAR REACTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Randrup, Jorgen

    2012-01-01

    of different analytical extraction methods for nondetritalstrong metal extraction methods were studied individually.of the individual extraction method studies. INTRODUCTION

  13. Nuclear reaction and decay data evaluation capabilities at LANL

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech Connect Nanomechanical switchFlue Gas StreamsConnect JournalJournal

  14. Nuclear reaction and decay data evaluation capabilities at LANL

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech Connect Nanomechanical switchFlue Gas StreamsConnect JournalJournal(Conference) |

  15. Numerical simulations for low energy nuclear reactions including direct

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech Connect Nanomechanical switchFlue Gas StreamsConnectArticle)reversalradiation

  16. Numerical simulations for low energy nuclear reactions including direct

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech Connect Nanomechanical switchFlue Gas

  17. Toward A Fundamental Understanding Of Nuclear Reactions And Exotic Nuclei

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of rare Kaon and Pion decaysArticle)linePorphyrinic

  18. Toward A Fundamental Understanding Of Nuclear Reactions And Exotic Nuclei

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of rare Kaon and Pion decaysArticle)linePorphyrinic(Conference) | SciTech

  19. Statistical theory of light nucleus reaction and application to $^9$Be(p, xn) reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    A statistical theory of light nucleus reaction (STLN) is proposed to describe both neutron and light charged particle induced nuclear reactions with 1p-shell light nuclei involved. The dynamic of STLN is described by the unified Hauser-Feshbach and exciton model, of which the angular momentum and parity conservations are considered in equilibrium and pre-equilibrium processes. The Coulomb barriers of the incident and outgoing charged particles, which seriously influence the open reaction channels, could be reasonably considered in the incident channel and the different outgoing channels. In kinematics, the recoiling effects in various emission processes are taken strictly into account. Taking $^9$Be(p, xn) reaction as an example, we calculate the double-differential cross sections of outgoing neutrons and charged particles using PUNF code in the frame of STLN. The calculated results agree very well with the existing experimental neutron double-differential cross sections at $E_p=18$ MeV, and indicate that PUN...

  20. Nuclear Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkins-Duffin, C E

    2008-12-10

    With an explosion equivalent of about 20kT of TNT, the Trinity test was the first demonstration of a nuclear weapon. Conducted on July 16, 1945 in Alamogordo, NM this site is now a Registered National Historic Landmark. The concept and applicability of nuclear power was demonstrated on December 20, 1951 with the Experimental Breeder Reactor Number One (EBR-1) lit four light bulbs. This reactor is now a Registered National Historic Landmark, located near Arco, ID. From that moment forward it had been clearly demonstrated that nuclear energy has both peaceful and military applications and that the civilian and military fuel cycles can overlap. For the more than fifty years since the Atoms for Peace program, a key objective of nuclear policy has been to enable the wider peaceful use of nuclear energy while preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. Volumes have been written on the impact of these two actions on the world by advocates and critics; pundits and practioners; politicians and technologists. The nations of the world have woven together a delicate balance of treaties, agreements, frameworks and handshakes that are representative of the timeframe in which they were constructed and how they have evolved in time. Collectively these vehicles attempt to keep political will, nuclear materials and technology in check. This paper captures only the briefest abstract of the more significant aspects on the Nonproliferation Regime. Of particular relevance to this discussion is the special nonproliferation sensitivity associated with the uranium isotope separation and spent fuel reprocessing aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle.