National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for npcc serc spp

  1. Property:EIA/861/NercNpcc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Description: Nerc Npcc Entity conducts business operations within the NPCC region (Y or N) 1 References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2008 - F861 File...

  2. SERC Grants Interactive Map

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    View SERC Grants in a larger map. To report corrections, please email SustainableEnergyWAP@ee.doe.gov.

  3. Solar Energy Research Center (SERC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Research Center (SERC) Community Berkeley Global Campus Environmental Documents Tours Community Programs Friends of Berkeley Lab Navigate Section Community ...

  4. Recording of SERC Monitoring Technologies - Solar Photovoltaics |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Recording of SERC Monitoring Technologies - Solar Photovoltaics Recording of SERC Monitoring Technologies - Solar Photovoltaics This document provides a transcript of the of SERC Monitoring Technologies - Solar Photovoltaics webinar, presented on 10/20/2011 by Peter McNutt. PDF icon serc_webinar_20111020_solar_pv_transcipt.pdf More Documents & Publications Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Solar Hot Water SERC Photovoltaics for Residential Buildings

  5. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Solar Photovoltaic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - Solar Photovoltaics Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Solar Photovoltaics This presentation, aimed at Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) ...

  6. SERC Grant Webinar | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Grant Webinar SERC Grant Webinar Evaluation Overview PDF icon sercwebinarpresentationevaluationoverviewfinaljan18.pdf More Documents & Publications Sustainable Energy ...

  7. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) -Geothermal...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    More Documents & Publications DOE Webinar Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofits (Presentation) Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Solar Hot Water ...

  8. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) -Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transcript of a presentation, aimed at Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) grantees, provides information on Monitoring Checklists for the installation of Geothermal...

  9. Monitoring SERC Technologies - Solar Photovoltaics | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photovoltaics Monitoring SERC Technologies - Solar Photovoltaics On Oct. 20, 2011, Peter McNutt, an electrical engineer with the Market Transformation Center at NREL, presented a ...

  10. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) Success Story...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Maryland Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) Success Story: Maryland This document contains information on how the Maryland SERC program leverages diverse and bold ...

  11. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) Success Story: Montana

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document contains information on how Montana SERC Program Delivers Strong Changes through Targeted Low-Income Weatherization Efforts.

  12. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - On-Demand Tankless

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heaters | Department of Energy On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters This presentation, aimed at Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) grantees, provides information on Monitoring Checklists for the installation of On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters. PDF icon serc_webinar_presentation_20111004.pdf More Documents & Publications Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Solar Hot

  13. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Solar Hot Water |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy This presentation, aimed at Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) grantees, provides information on Monitoring Checklists for the installation of Solar Hot Water. PDF icon solar_thermal_presentation.pdf More Documents & Publications Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Solar Hot Water Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) Success Story: Montana Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Geothermal/Ground-Source Heat

  14. SERC Community-Based Social Marketing for Weatherization Programs...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Webinar on Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofit Transcript Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Geothermal...

  15. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) Success Story: Maryland

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document contains information on how the Maryland SERC program leverages diverse and bold energy upgrade measures to maximize savings.

  16. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Solar Hot Water |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy PDF icon solar_thermal_transcript.pdf More Documents & Publications Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Geothermal/Ground-Source Heat Pumps SERC Photovoltaics for Residential Buildings Webinar Transcript Recording of SERC Monitoring Technologies - Solar Photovoltaics

  17. JP Morgan | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NPCC Yes NERC RFC Yes NERC SERC Yes NERC SPP Yes NERC WECC Yes ISO CA Yes ISO Ercot Yes RTO PJM Yes ISO NY Yes RTO SPP Yes ISO MISO Yes ISO NE Yes ISO Other Yes Activity Retail...

  18. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) Vermont Highlight (Fact

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sheet), Weatherization And Intergovernmental Programs (WIP) | Department of Energy Vermont Highlight (Fact Sheet), Weatherization And Intergovernmental Programs (WIP) Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) Vermont Highlight (Fact Sheet), Weatherization And Intergovernmental Programs (WIP) Case study on Vermont's innovative strategy for helping low-income families save energy through its Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) program. PDF icon serc_vt_highlight.pdf More

  19. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) Idaho Highlight

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document provides an overview of the successes acheived by Idaho's Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) through Tankless Hot Water Systems, Solar Photovoltaics and Behavioral Changes.

  20. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) Success Story...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This document contains information on how Montana SERC Program Delivers Strong Changes through Targeted Low-Income Weatherization Efforts. PDF icon sercmthighlight.pdf More ...

  1. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) Vermont Highlight...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Case study on Vermont's innovative strategy for helping low-income families save energy through its Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) program. PDF icon ...

  2. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC)- Solar Photovoltaics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, aimed at Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) grantees, provides information on Monitoring Checklists for the installation of Solar Photovoltaics.

  3. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - On-Demand...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters This presentation, aimed at Sustainable Energy Resources for ...

  4. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    A. U.S. Transmission Circuit Outages by Type and NERC region, 2013 Outage Type FRCC MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. Circuit Outage Counts Automatic Outages...

  5. Monitoring SERC Technologies -Geothermal/Ground Source Heat Pumps |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Monitoring SERC Technologies -Geothermal/Ground Source Heat Pumps Monitoring SERC Technologies -Geothermal/Ground Source Heat Pumps On Nov. 3, 2011, Dave Peterson, a Project Leader at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, presented a Webinar about Geothermal/Ground Source Heat Pumps and how to properly monitor their installation. View the webinar presentation or read the transcript. More Information Some resources and tools mentioned in the presentation include: U.S.

  6. Monitoring SERC Technologies: On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Weatherization Assistance Program » Pilot Projects » Monitoring SERC Technologies: On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters Monitoring SERC Technologies: On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters On Oct. 4, 2011, Ethan MacCormick, VP for Services to Energy Businesses at Performance Systems Development, presented a Webinar about On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters and how to properly monitor their installation. View the webinar presentation. More Information Some resources and tools mentioned in the

  7. Monitoring SERC Technologies - Solar Hot Water | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hot Water Monitoring SERC Technologies - Solar Hot Water On October 27, 2011, Eliza Hotchkiss, an analyst at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, presented a Webinar about Solar Hot Water systems and how to properly monitor their installation. View the webinar presentation or read the transcript. More Information Some resources and tools mentioned in the presentation include: Database for State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency NREL Solar Technology Analysis Models and Tools SunShot

  8. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) Success Story: Maryland

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Maryland The Maryland SERC program leverages diverse and bold energy upgrade measures to maximize savings Maryland boosts energy savings for low-income residences with wind turbines; solar photovoltaics (PV); geothermal heat pumps; mini-split ductless heat pumps; hybrid heat pump water heaters; and high-efficiency heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. In 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) included a provision that in any year for which the U.S. Department

  9. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) Success Story: Montana

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Montana Montana Delivers Strong Changes through Targeted Low-Income Weatherization Efforts Montana has developed an innovative strategy for helping low-income families save energy through the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) program. The DOE Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) granted Montana $923,270 to install a variety of renewable and energy efficiency approaches across a thirteen-county territory. Low-income homeowners in this area

  10. SERC Community-Based Social Marketing for Weatherization Programs Webinar |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Community-Based Social Marketing for Weatherization Programs Webinar SERC Community-Based Social Marketing for Weatherization Programs Webinar A presentation sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy about fostering sustainable behaviors in a community for saving energy. PDF icon social_marketing_webinar_transcript.pdf More Documents & Publications Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Webinar on Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofit Transcript Sustainable

  11. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC)- Geothermal/Ground-Source Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Transcript of a presentation, aimed at Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) grantees, provides information on Monitoring Checklists for the installation of Geothermal/Ground-Source Heat Pumps.

  12. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC)- Geothermal/Ground-Source Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, aimed at Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) grantees, provides information on Monitoring Checklists for the installation of Geothermal/Ground-Source Heat Pumps.

  13. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0.A. Existing Transmission Capacity by High-Voltage Size, 2014 Voltage Circuit Miles Type Operating (kV) frcc mro npcc rfc serc spp tre wecc Contiguous U.S. -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Voltage Circuit Counts Type Operating (kV) frcc mro npcc rfc serc spp tre wecc Contiguous U.S. -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Notes: NERC region and reliability assessment area maps are provided on EIA's Electricity Reliability web page: http://www.eia.gov/cneaf/electricity/page/eia411/eia411.html Circuit miles do not

  14. summer_peak_2005.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a . Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 (Megawatts and 2005 Base Year) Summer Noncoincident Peak Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 2005 758,876 46,396 39,918 58,960 190,200 190,705 41,727 60,210 130,760 Projected Contiguous U.S. FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP

  15. summer_peak_2006.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a . Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 (Megawatts and 2006 Base Year) Summer Noncoincident Peak Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 2006 789,475 45,751 42,194 63,241 191,920 199,052 42,882 62,339 142,096 Projected Contiguous U.S. FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC

  16. Analysis of the Clean Energy Standard Act of 2012

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Appendix C: Map of NEMS Electricity Market Module Regions 1 Texas Regional Entity (ERCT) 12 SERC / Delta (SRDA) 2 Florida Reliability Coordinating Council (FRCC) 13 SERC / Gateway (SRGW) 3 Midwest Reliability Organization / East (MROE) 14 SERC / Southeastern (SRSE) 4 Midwest Reliability Organization / West (MROW) 15 SERC / Central (SRCE) 5 NPCC / Northeast (NEWE) 16 SERC / Virginia-Carolina (SRVC) 6 NPCC / NYC-Westchester (NYCW) 17 Southwest Power Pool / North (SPNO) 7 NPCC / Long Island

  17. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) Vermont Highlight (Fact Sheet), Weatherization And Intergovernmental Programs (WIP)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Efficiency Coaches Aim for Long-Lasting Changes Through Solar and Weatherization Vermont has developed an innovative strategy for helping low-income families save energy through the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) program. The DOE Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) granted Vermont to give its weatherization clients access to solar energy systems and one-on-one assistance from energy efficiency coaches to help clients achieve meaningful and

  18. net_energy_load_2006.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 (Thousands of Megawatthours and 2006 Base Year) Net Energy For Load (Annual) Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 2006 3,911,914 230,115 222,748 294,319 926,279 1,011,173 201,521 305,672 720,087 Projected Contiguous U.S. FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC

  19. winter_peak_2005.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2b . Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 (Megawatts and 2005 Base Year) Winter Noncoincident Peak Load Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 2005/2006 626,365 42,657 33,748 46,828 151,600 164,638 31,260 48,141 107,493 Contiguous U.S. Projected FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.)

  20. winter_peak_2006.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b . Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 (Megawatts and 2006 Base Year) Winter Noncoincident Peak Load Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 2006/2007 640,981 42,526 34,677 46,697 149,631 175,163 30,792 50,402 111,093 Contiguous U.S. Projected FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.)

  1. net_energy_load_2005.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 (Thousands of Megawatthours and 2005 Base Year) Net Energy For Load (Annual) Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 2005 3,900,461 226,544 216,633 303,607 1,005,226 962,054 201,548 299,225 685,624 Projected Contiguous U.S. FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) In 2005 for 2006 3,926,389 232,561 220,006 301,893 992,742

  2. ,"Projected Year Base","Year","Summer",,,"Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid",,,"Western Power Grid"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2005 and 2006 through 2010 " ,"(Megawatts and Percent)" ,"Projected Year Base","Year","Summer",,,"Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid",,,"Western Power Grid" ,,,"Contiguous U.S." ,,,,,,"FRCC",,,"MRO",,,"NPCC",,,"RFC",,,"SERC",,,"SPP",,,"ERCOT",,,"WECC" " ",,,"Net Internal Demand

  3. Analysis of Unit-Level Changes in Operations with Increased SPP Wind from EPRI/LCG Balancing Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, Stanton W

    2012-01-01

    Wind power development in the United States is outpacing previous estimates for many regions, particularly those with good wind resources. The pace of wind power deployment may soon outstrip regional capabilities to provide transmission and integration services to achieve the most economic power system operation. Conversely, regions such as the Southeastern United States do not have good wind resources and will have difficulty meeting proposed federal Renewable Portfolio Standards with local supply. There is a growing need to explore innovative solutions for collaborating between regions to achieve the least cost solution for meeting such a renewable energy mandate. The Department of Energy funded the project 'Integrating Midwest Wind Energy into Southeast Electricity Markets' to be led by EPRI in coordination with the main authorities for the regions: SPP, Entergy, TVA, Southern Company and OPC. EPRI utilized several subcontractors for the project including LCG, the developers of the model UPLAN. The study aims to evaluate the operating cost benefits of coordination of scheduling and balancing for Southwest Power Pool (SPP) wind transfers to Southeastern Electric Reliability Council (SERC) Balancing Authorities (BAs). The primary objective of this project is to analyze the benefits of regional cooperation for integrating mid-western wind energy into southeast electricity markets. Scenarios were defined, modeled and investigated to address production variability and uncertainty and the associated balancing of large quantities of wind power in SPP and delivery to energy markets in the southern regions of the SERC. DOE funded Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide additional support to the project, including a review of results and any side analysis that may provide additional insight. This report is a unit-by-unit analysis of changes in operations due to the different scenarios used in the overall study. It focuses on the change in capacity factors and the number of start-ups required for each unit since those criteria summarize key aspects of plant operations, how often are they called upon and how much do they operate. The primary analysis of the overall project is based on security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) and economic dispatch (SCED) simulations of the SPP-SERC regions as modeled for the year 2022. The SCUC/SCED models utilized for the project were developed through extensive consultation with the project utility partners, to ensure the various regions and operational practices are represented as best as possible in the model. SPP, Entergy, Oglethorpe Power Company (OPC), Southern Company, and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) actively participated in the project providing input data for the models and review of simulation results and conclusions. While other SERC utility systems are modeled, the listed SERC utilities were explicitly included as active participants in the project due to the size of their load and relative proximity to SPP for importing wind energy.

  4. Table 8.12a Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Summer Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Summer Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted) Year Noncoincident Peak Load 1 by North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) 2 Regional Assessment Area Capacity Margin 21 (percent) Eastern Interconnection ERCOT 4 Western Inter- connection All Inter- connections FRCC 5 NPCC 6 Balance of Eastern Region 3 ECAR 7,8 MAAC 8,9 MAIN 8,10 MAPP 11 MISO 12 MRO 13 PJM 14 RFC 8,15 SERC 16 SPP 17 Subtotal TRE 18 WECC 19 Total 20

  5. Table 8.12b Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Winter Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Winter Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted) Year Noncoincident Peak Load 1 by North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) 2 Regional Assessment Area Capacity Margin 21 (percent) Eastern Interconnection ERCOT 4 Western Inter- connection All Inter- connections FRCC 5 NPCC 6 Balance of Eastern Region 3 ECAR 7,8 MAAC 8,9 MAIN 8,10 MAPP 11 MISO 12 MRO 13 PJM 14 RFC 8,15 SERC 16 SPP 17 Subtotal TRE 18 WECC 19 Total 20

  6. Next Update: October 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Released: February 2009 Next Update: October 2009 Table 3a . January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region (Megawatts and 2007 Base Year) Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid FRCC MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP TRE (ERCOT) WECC Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) 2007 613,068

  7. Next Update: October 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    January 2010 Next Update: October 2010 Table 3a . January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, (Megawatts and 2008 Base Year) Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid FRCC MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP TRE WECC Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) 2008 635,911 41,705 34,462 46,803

  8. ,"Month","Year","Contiguous U.S.","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2005 through 2009 " ,"(Megawatts)",,," " " " ,"Month","Year","Contiguous U.S.","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,,,,"FRCC"," MRO (U.S.)","NPCC (U.S.)","RFC","SERC","SPP","TRE (ERCOT)","WECC

  9. ,"Net Energy For Load (Annual)",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Historical Net Energy For Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2005 through 2009. " ,"(Thousands of Megawatthours)" ,"Net Energy For Load (Annual)",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,,"Year",,"FRCC","MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.) ","RFC","SERC","SPP","TRE","WECC

  10. ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    e. Historical Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2005 through 2009 " ,"(Megawatts)" ,,,,," " ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,,"Year",,"FRCC"," MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.) ","RFC","SERC","SPP","TRE

  11. ,"Table 1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 " ,"(Thousands of Megawatthours and 2005 Base Year)" ,"Net Energy For Load (Annual)",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"FRCC","MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.) ","RFC","SERC","SPP","ERCOT","WECC (U.S.) "

  12. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 " ,"(Megawatts and 2005 Base Year)" ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"FRCC","MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.) ","RFC","SERC","SPP","ERCOT","WECC (U.S.) "

  13. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 and Projected 2004 through 2008 " ,"(Megawatts and 2003 Base Year)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"ECAR","FRCC","MAAC","MAIN","MAPP (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.) ","SERC","SPP","ERCOT","WECC (U.S.)

  14. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 and Projected 2005 through 2009 " ,"(Megawatts and 2004 Base Year)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"ECAR","FRCC","MAAC","MAIN","MAPP/MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.) ","SERC","SPP","ERCOT","WECC (U.S.)

  15. ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    f. Historical Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2005 through 2010 " ,"(Megawatts)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,,"Year",,"FRCC","MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.) ","RFC","SERC","SPP","TRE ","WECC

  16. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7.A. Net Energy for Load by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, 2004 - 2014, Actual Net Energy (Thousands of Megawatthours) Eastern Interconnection ERCOT Western Interconnection All Interconnections Period FRCC NPCC Balance of Eastern Region ECAR MAAC MAIN MAPP MISO MRO PJM RFC SERC SPP TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. 2004 220,335 292,725 2,313,180 553,236 283,646 274,760 -- -- 152,975 -- -- 856,734 191,829 289,146 682,053 3,797,439 2005 226,544 303,607 2,385,461 -- -- --

  17. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9.A. Winter Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Assessment Area, 2004 - 2014, Actual Net Internal Demand (Megawatts) -- Winter Eastern Interconnection ERCOT Western Interconnection All Interconnections Period FRCC NPCC Balance of Eastern Region ECAR MAAC MAIN MAPP MISO MRO PJM RFC SERC SPP TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. 2004 / 2005 41,449 47,859 371,011 91,800 45,565 40,618 -- -- 24,446 -- -- 139,486 29,096 44,010 101,002 605,331 2005 /

  18. monthly_peak_1996_2004.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Next Update: October 2007 Table 3a . January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1996 through 2004 (Megawatts) Month Year Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP/MRO NPCC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW)

  19. monthly_peak_2003.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    O Form EIA-411 for 2005 Released: February 7, 2008 Next Update: October 2007 Table 3a . January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1996 through 2003 and Projected 2004 through 2005 (Megawatts and 2003 Base Year) Projected Monthly Base Year Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP/MR NPCC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW)

  20. monthly_peak_2004.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 3a . January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1996 through 2004 and Projected 2005 through 2006 (Megawatts and 2004 Base Year) Projected Monthly Base Year Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP/MRO NPCC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour

  1. monthly_peak_2005.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3a . January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 (Megawatts and 2005 Base Year) Projected Monthly Base Year Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid FRCC MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak

  2. monthly_peak_2006.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Released: February 7, 2008 Next Update: October 2008 Table 3a . January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region 2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 (Megawatts and 2006 Base Year) Projected Monthly Base Year Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid FRCC MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak

  3. winter_peak_2003.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ) Form EIA-411 for 2005 Released: February 7, 2008 Next Update: October 2007 Table 2b . Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2003 and Projected 2004 through 2008 (Megawatts and 2003 Base Year) Winter Noncoincident Peak Load Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP (U.S. NPCC (U.S.) SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 1990/1991 484,231 67,097

  4. winter_peak_2004.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b . Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2004 and Projected 2005 through 2009 (Megawatts and 2004 Base Year) Winter Noncoincident Peak Load Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP/MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 1990/1991 484,231 67,097 30,800 36,551 32,461 21,113 40,545 86,648 38,949 35,815 94,252 1991/1992 485,761

  5. SERC Grant Webinar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... of occupant energy consumption behavior factor into home energy savings with ... able to allot the proposed number of innovative or renewable technology units to ...

  6. SERC Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Arkansas: The Central Arkansas Development Council, Inc. in Benton and Crawford-Sebastian Community Development Council, Inc., based in Fort Smith, have been selected to receive ...

  7. Public Serv Comm of Yazoo City | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Id 21095 Utility Location Yes Ownership P NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes...

  8. Buildings Energy Data Book: 6.2 Electricity Generation, Transmission, and Distribution

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    9 2009 Peak Load and Capacity Margin, Summer and Winter by NERC Region (MW) NERC Region Capacity Margin Capacity Margin TRE 16.7% 19.1% FRCC 6.0% 2.0% MRO (U.S.) 24.6% 26.8% NPCC (U.S.) 29.1% 43.2% RFC 25.2% 33.3% SERC 24.6% 26.2% SPP 16.4% 34.6% WECC 19.4% 29.6% U.S. TOTAL 22.2% 28.5% Note(s): Source(s): 128,245 109,565 725,958 668,818 1) Summer Demand includes the months of June, July, August, and September. 2) Winter Demand includes December of the previous year and January-March of the

  9. Next Update: December 2011 Table 1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2009 and Projected 2010 through 2014 2009 3,832,180 225,966 213,797 285,625 880,377 997,142 202,301 308,278 718,694 Contiguous U.S. FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP TRE WECC (U.S.) 3,969,750 223,174 225,167 291,540 961,436 1,027,470 211,438 310,444 719,081 4,084,175 225,498 229,258 292,816 1,024,183 1,051,645 215,333 316,194 729,248 4,203,875 229,393 240,817 295,623 1,081,320 1,072,124

  10. Next Update: December 2011 Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Released: December 2010 Next Update: December 2011 Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2009 and Projected 2010 through 2014 (Megawatts and 2009 Base Year) 2009 725,958 46,550 37,963 55,944 161,241 191,032 41,465 63,518 128,245 Contiguou s U.S. FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP TRE WECC (U.S.) 772,089 46,006 42,240 60,215 177,688 201,350 43,395 63,810 137,385 785,069 46,124 42,733 60,820 181,867 205,351

  11. Next Update: December 2011 Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2009 and Projected 2010 through 2014 (Megawatts and 2009 Base Year) 2009/2010 668,818 53,022 35,351 44,864 143,827 193,135 32,863 56,191 109,565 Contiguous U.S. FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP TRE WECC (U.S.) 639,073 46,235 35,722 46,374 143,040 183,614 31,415 43,823 108,850 646,845 46,821 36,816 46,529 146,591 186,364 33,047 43,823 106,854 657,839 47,558 37,359 46,753

  12. Next Update: October 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a . Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2007 and Projected 2008 through 2012 (Megawatts and 2007 Base Year) 2007 782,227 46,676 41,684 58,314 181,700 209,109 43,167 62,188 139,389 Contiguous U.S. FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP TRE (ERCOT) WECC (U.S.) 789,915 47,364 41,222 61,779 184,000 204,791 43,800 64,927 142,032 806,672 48,181 43,208 62,647 187,100 209,288 44,784 66,247 145,217 822,889 49,093 44,737 63,399

  13. Next Update: October 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b . Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2007 and Projected 2008 through 2012 (Megawatts and 2007 Base Year) 2007/2008 637,905 41,701 33,191 46,795 141,900 179,888 31,322 50,408 112,700 Contiguous U.S. FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP TRE (ERCOT) WECC (U.S.) 656,989 49,601 34,100 48,323 147,100 182,055 31,954 47,270 116,586 669,111 50,463 35,085 48,911 149,100 185,850 32,585 48,285 118,832 680,673 51,606 36,298

  14. Next Update: October 2009 Table 1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2006 and Projected 2008 through 2012 2007 4,012,728 232,405 217,602 301,766 954,700 1,049,298 210,875 307,064 739,018 Contiguous U.S. FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP TRE (ERCOT) WECC (U.S.) 4,085,683 242,923 225,058 301,767 973,800 1,073,081 208,532 313,946 746,575 4,149,201 248,996 230,745 305,223 984,000 1,086,304 212,884 319,355 761,694 4,226,516 255,216 239,483 308,534 999,200

  15. Next Update: October 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Released: February 2010 Next Update: October 2010 Table 2a . Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2008 and Projected 2009 through 2013 (Megawatts and 2008 Base Year) 2008 752,470 44,836 39,677 58,543 169,155 199,779 43,476 62,174 134,829 Contiguous U.S. FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP TRE WECC (U.S.) 779,716 45,734 43,172 61,327 178,100 202,738 44,462 63,491 140,692 790,116 45,794 44,184 61,601 180,400 206,218

  16. Next Update: October 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 2b . Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2008 and Projected 2009 through 2013 (Megawatts and 2008 Base Year) 2008/2009 643,557 45,275 36,029 46,043 142,395 179,596 32,809 47,806 113,605 Contiguous U.S. FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP TRE WECC (U.S.) 642,383 44,446 36,571 47,098 145,800 181,045 32,636 43,463 111,324 651,534 45,099 36,884 47,076 148,000 183,608 33,308 44,463 113,096 664,867 46,140 37,613

  17. Next Update: October 2010 Table 1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Jaunary 2010 Next Update: October 2010 Table 1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2008 and Projected 2009 through 2013 2008 3,989,058 226,874 227,536 297,362 936,201 1,035,390 207,603 312,401 745,691 Contiguous U.S. FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP TRE WECC (U.S.) 4,025,705 227,690 233,519 295,883 958,792 1,051,350 207,850 312,205 738,416 4,076,698 228,579 239,702 295,753 967,962 1,067,893 211,343 315,065 750,401

  18. net_energy_load_1990_2004.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Not applicable for this table format Table 1a . Historical Net Energy For Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2004. (Thousands of Megawatthours) Net Energy For Load (Annual) Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Year ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP/MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 1990 2,886,496 442,507 142,502 221,099 197,326 127,102 250,681 485,205 252,037 209,789 558,248 1991 2,941,669 450,586 146,903

  19. net_energy_load_2003.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 and Projected 2004 through 2008 (Thousands of Megawatthours and 2003 Base Year) Net Energy For Load (Annual) Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 1990 2,886,496 442,507 142,502 221,099 197,326 127,102 250,681 485,205 252,037 209,789 558,248 1991 2,941,669 450,586 146,903 228,588 205,880 129,826 253,701 501,794 257,434 211,568 555,389 1992 2,942,910 450,853 147,464

  20. net_energy_load_2004.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 and Projected 2005 through 2009 (Thousands of Megawatthours and 2004 Base Year) Net Energy For Load (Annual) Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP/MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 1990 2,886,496 442,507 142,502 221,099 197,326 127,102 250,681 485,205 252,037 209,789 558,248 1991 2,941,669 450,586 146,903 228,588 205,880 129,826 253,701 501,794 257,434 211,568 555,389 1992 2,942,910 450,853

  1. summer_peak_1990_2004.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    c . Historical Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2004 (Megawatts) Summer Noncoincident Peak Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Year ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP/MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 1990 546,331 79,258 27,266 42,613 40,740 24,994 44,116 94,677 52,541 42,737 97,389 1991 551,418 81,224 28,818 45,937 41,598 25,498 46,594 95,968 51,885 41,870 92,026 1992 548,707

  2. winter_peak_1990_2004.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    d . Historical Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2004 (Megawatts) Winter Noncoincident Peak Load Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Year ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP/MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 1990/1991 484,231 67,097 30,800 36,551 32,461 21,113 40,545 86,648 38,949 35,815 94,252 1991/1992 485,761 71,181 31,153 37,983 33,420 21,432 41,866 88,422 38,759 35,448 86,097

  3. City of Prescott, Arkansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 15337 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  4. City of New Madrid, Missouri (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 13470 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  5. Southwest Louisiana E M C | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 17684 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You...

  6. Crawford Electric Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 4524 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  7. Jefferson Davis Elec Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 9682 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  8. Property:EIA/861/RtoSpp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RtoSpp Jump to: navigation, search Property Name RTOSPP Property Type Boolean Description Indicates that the organization conducts operations in the SPP RTO. 1 References ...

  9. SERC Photovoltaics for Residential Buildings Webinar Transcript

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A presentation sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy about using solar photovoltaics (PV) systems to provide electricity for homes.

  10. Strategic Partnership Projects (SPP) | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contract Research Strategic Partnership Projects (SPP) The Laboratory can conduct work for industry, small businesses or other federal agencies. SPP project plans are usually specified by the external partner(s), and the execution of the work is performed by technically qualified Laboratory staff using Laboratory facilities. The work must not affect the Laboratory's achievement of its Department of Energy (DOE) program requirements, and must not directly compete with capabilities available in

  11. Kansas Gas & Electric Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SPP NERC ERCOT Yes NERC MRO Yes NERC RFC Yes NERC SERC Yes NERC SPP Yes ISO Ercot Yes RTO PJM Yes RTO SPP Yes ISO MISO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes...

  12. Property:EIA/861/NercSpp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    operations within the SPP region (Y or N) 1 References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2008 - F861 File Layout-2008.doc Pages using the property "EIA861NercSpp"...

  13. SPP Staff appreciates the opportunity to provide input regarding...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... from MISO, SPP, ERCOT and others dealing with the reliability and economic ... On page 107 of the pdf, change "Midwest" in the sentence starting with "Alabama Power..." ...

  14. Woodruff Electric Coop Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 20963 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SERC NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  15. Valley Electric Member Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 19688 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SERC NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  16. City of Waterville, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 20189 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SERC Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  17. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) Idaho Highlight

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... flters, overall furnace maintenance and the use of programmable thermostats. * A multimedia residential energy-effciency education CBSM pilot project was launched in the South ...

  18. Property:EIA/861/NercSerc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electric Coop + true + Beauregard Electric Coop, Inc + true + Benton County + true + Berkeley Electric Coop Inc + true + (previous 25) (next 25) Retrieved from "http:...

  19. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Solar Photovoltaic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Future www.oregon.govENERGYRENEWSolardocsSunChart.pdf Sun Chart Solar Access Shading analysis prior to installation (remember - small trees grow into tall trees) ...

  20. Microsoft PowerPoint - spp_presentation.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SPP Presentation 2 Southwestern Regional Hydropower Conference Kansas City, Missouri June 7-8, 2006 Ron Ciesiel Director of Compliance Southwest Power Pool 3 Organization Registration Generation Owners and Generation Operators 4 United States Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mexico Comision Reguladora de Energia Canada NEB, Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Quebec, and Saskatchewan Electric Reliability Organization Overview Electric Reliability

  1. Strategic Partnership Projects (SPP) | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Events Research Education Organization Business Operations Careers/ Human Resources Directory Environment, Safety & Health Furth Plasma Physics Library Lab Leadership Organization Chart Technology Transfer Current Projects Patents Disclosures Contact Information Forms Strategic Partnership Projects (SPP) Contact Us Business Operations Careers/ Human Resources Directory Environment, Safety & Health Furth Plasma Physics Library Lab Leadership Organization Chart Technology Transfer Current

  2. Word Pro - Untitled1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Data include the U.S. portion of NERC only. 3 Historically, the MRO, RFC, SERC, and SPP ...www.eia.govelectricity. Sources: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), ...

  3. DOE: Integrating Southwest Power Pool Wind Energy into Southeast Electricity Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Daniel, EPRI; Tuohy, Aidan, EPRI; Deb, Sidart, LCG Consulting; Jampani, Srinivas, LCG Consulting; Kirby, Brendan, Consultant; King, Jack, Consultant

    2011-11-29

    Wind power development in the United States is outpacing previous estimates for many regions, particularly those with good wind resources. The pace of wind power deployment may soon outstrip regional capabilities to provide transmission and integration services to achieve the most economic power system operation. Conversely, regions such as the Southeastern United States do not have good wind resources and will have difficulty meeting proposed federal Renewable Portfolio Standards with local supply. There is a growing need to explore innovative solutions for collaborating between regions to achieve the least cost solution for meeting such a renewable energy mandate. The DOE-funded project 'Integrating Southwest Power Pool Wind Energy into Southeast Electricity Markets' aims to evaluate the benefits of coordination of scheduling and balancing for Southwest Power Pool (SPP) wind transfers to Southeastern Electric Reliability Council (SERC) Balancing Authorities (BAs). The primary objective of this project is to analyze the benefits of different balancing approaches with increasing levels of inter-regional cooperation. Scenarios were defined, modeled and investigated to address production variability and uncertainty and the associated balancing of large quantities of wind power in SPP and delivery to energy markets in the southern regions of the SERC. The primary analysis of the project is based on unit commitment (UC) and economic dispatch (ED) simulations of the SPP-SERC regions as modeled for the year 2022. The UC/ED models utilized for the project were developed through extensive consultation with the project utility partners, to ensure the various regions and operational practices are represented as accurately as possible realizing that all such future scenario models are quite uncertain. SPP, Entergy, Oglethorpe Power Company (OPC), Southern Company, and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) actively participated in the project providing input data for the models and review of simulation results and conclusions. While other SERC utility systems are modeled, the listed SERC utilities were explicitly included as active participants in the project due to the size of their load and relative proximity to SPP for importing wind energy. The analysis aspects of the project comprised 4 primary tasks: (1) Development of SCUC/SCED model of the SPP-SERC footprint for the year 2022 with only 7 GW of installed wind capacity in SPP for internal SPP consumption with no intended wind exports to SERC. This model is referred to as the 'Non-RES' model as it does not reflect the need for the SPP or SERC BAs to meet a federal Renewable Energy Standard (RES). (2) Analysis of hourly-resolution simulation results of the Non-RES model for the year 2022 to provide project stakeholders with confidence in the model and analytical framework for a scenario that is similar to the existing system and more easily evaluated than the high-wind transfer scenarios that are analyzed subsequently. (3) Development of SCUC/SCED model of the SPP-SERC footprint for the year 2022 with sufficient installed wind capacity in SPP (approximately 48 GW) for both SPP and the participating SERC BAs to meet an RES of 20% energy. This model is referred to as the 'High-Wind Transfer' model with several different scenarios represented. The development of the High-Wind Transfer model not only included identification and allocation of SPP wind to individual SERC BAs, but also included the evaluation of various methods to allow the model to export the SPP wind to SERC without developing an actual transmission plan to support the transfers. (4) Analysis of hourly-resolution simulation results of several different High-Wind Transfer model scenarios for the year 2022 to determine balancing costs and potential benefits of collaboration among SPP and SERC BAs to provide the required balancing.

  4. Terpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris and Copaifera spp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skrukrud, C.L.

    1987-07-01

    Biosynthesis of triterpenoids by isolated latex of Euphorbia lathyris was investigated. The rate of in vitro incorporation of mevalonic acid into triterpenoids was thirty times greater than acetate incorporation indicating that the rate-limiting step in the pathway occurs prior to mevalonate. Both HMG-CoA reductase (EC 1.1.1.34) and HMG-CoA lyase (EC 4.1.3.4) activities were detected in isolated latex. HMG-CoA reductase was localized to a membrane-bound fraction of a 5000g pellet of latex. The rate of conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate by this enzyme is comparable to the overall rate of acetate incorporation into the triterpenoids suggesting that this enzyme is rate-determining in the biosynthesis of triterpenoids in E. lathyris latex. HMG-CoA reductase of E. lathyris vegetative tissue was localized to the membrane-bound portion of a particulate fraction (18,000g), and was solubilized by treatment with 2% polyoxyethylene ether W-1. Differences in the optimal pH for activity of HMG-CoA reductase from the latex and vegetative tissue suggest that isozymes of the enzyme may be present in the two tissue types. Studies of the incorporation of various precursors into leaf discs and cuttings taken from Copaifera spp. show differences in the rate of incorporation into Copaifera sesquiterpenes suggesting that the site of sesquiterpene biosynthesis may differ in its accessibility to the different substrates and/or reflecting the metabolic controls on carbon allocation to the terpenes. Mevalonate incorporation by Copaifera langsdorfii cuttings into sesquiterpenes was a hundred-fold greater than either acetate or glucose incorporation, however, its incorporation into squalene and triterpenoids was also a hundred-fold greater than the incorporation into sesquiterpenes. 119 refs., 58 figs., 16 tabs.

  5. Microbial Community Succession During Lactate Amendment of Chromium Contaminated Groundwater Reveals a Predominance of Pelosinus spp.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosher, Jennifer J; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Drake, Meghan M; Campbell, James H; Moberly, James G; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Podar, Mircea; Brown, Steven D; Hazen, Terry; Arkin, Adam; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Faybishenko, Boris A; Elias, Dwayne A

    2012-01-01

    Microbial community structure and metabolism in contaminated ecosystems are potentially controlled not only by the different populations within the community, but a myriad of dynamic physicochemical parameters as well. The goal of the current work was to determine the impact of organic acid enrichment, in this case lactate, on the succession of the native microbial community from a contaminated groundwater aquifer. Triplicate anaerobic, continuous-flow glass reactors were inoculated with Hanford 100-H groundwater and incubated for 95 days to obtain a stable, enriched community. The microbial community experienced a shift in the population dynamics over time to eventually form a community with far less diversity than the original. The final community was dominated by Pelosinus spp. and to a lesser degree, Acetobacterium spp. with small amounts of other bacteria and archaea including methanogens. The resultant diversity was far decreased from 63 genera within 12 phyla to 11 bacterial genera (from three phyla) and 2 archaeal genera (from one phylum). Isolation efforts were successful in attaining new species of Pelosinus and known members of Methanosarcina barkerii along with several sulfate- and Fe(III)- reducing consortia members. The continuous-flow reactors allowed for testing physiochemical factors with microbial community dynamics on a smaller, replicable, scale while also facilitating the isolation of several previously uncultured community members. These lab-scale simulations will presumably allow for a deeper understanding of the community metabolism with specific carbon amendments that can inform future in situ efforts.

  6. Determination of CT number and density profile of binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboards using computed tomography imaging and electron density phantom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Mohd Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul; Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz; Bauk, Sabar; Hashim, Rokiah

    2015-04-29

    Plug density phantoms were constructed in accordance to CT density phantom model 062M CIRS using binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. particleboards. The Rhizophora Spp. plug phantoms were scanned along with the CT density phantom using Siemens Somatom Definition AS CT scanner at three CT energies of 80, 120 and 140 kVp. 15 slices of images with 1.0 mm thickness each were taken from the central axis of CT density phantom for CT number and CT density profile analysis. The values were compared to water substitute plug phantom from the CT density phantom. The tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. gave the nearest value of CT number to water substitute at 80 and 120 kVp CT energies with χ{sup 2} value of 0.011 and 0.014 respectively while the binderless Rhizphora Spp. gave the nearest CT number to water substitute at 140 kVp CT energy with χ{sup 2} value of 0.023. The tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. gave the nearest CT density profile to water substitute at all CT energies. This study indicated the suitability of Rhizophora Spp. particleboard as phantom material for the use in CT imaging studies.

  7. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2014-09-03

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  8. A dynamic focusing x-ray monochromator for a wiggler beam line at the SRS of the SERC Daresbury Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Bruijn, D.; Van Zuylen, P. ); Kruizinga, G. , P.O. Box 93138, 2509 AC Den Haag State University of Utrecht, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3508 TB Utrecht )

    1992-01-01

    A Si(220) double-crystal monochromator for the energy range 10--30 keV is presented. It will be used for EXAFS as well as powder diffraction measurements. To determine the requirements for this monochromator we looked, apart from mean considerations, at the requirements dictated by EXAFS in transmission mode. For good data analyses the proper shape, amplitude, and location at the energy axis of each wiggle is required. Moreover it is essential to separate the wiggles from background and noise. For the latter a high flux through the sample is desirable, which can be achieved by horizontal focusing of the beam. For that we have chosen to bend the second crystal sagitally. The sagittal bending radius is adjustable between 50 and 0.8 m, because for different energies different sagittal radii are necessary to focus the beam on the sample. The mean meridional radius of the second crystal is fixed at 130 m, which is an optimization for 20 keV. The meridional radius of the first crystal can be tuned between 100 and 500 m. When this radius is set to 130 m the energy resolution is calculated to be 6, 3, and 35 eV for 10, 20, and 30 keV (for perfectly bent crystals). By changing the meridional radius of the first crystal, future users of this monochromator can make the trade off between resolution and intensity. Movement of the monochromator exit beam, during a scan, will occur due to the monochromator geometry, but is reduced as much as possible by using an asymmetrically cut second crystal, with an asymmetry angle of 2.5{degree}. The average exit beam movement of the monochromator for a 1-keV scan is 20 {mu}m. For 40% of the energy range (10--30 keV) the exit beam position remains within 10 {mu}m. For the second crystal no translation stage is used.

  9. AUTOMATED DEAD-END ULTRAFILTRATION FOR ENHANCED SURVEILLANCE OF LEGIONELLA 2 PNEUMOPHILA AND LEGIONELLA SPP. IN COOLING TOWER WATERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, R.; Leskinen, S.; Kearns, E.; Jones, W.; Miller, R.; Betivas, C.; Kingsley, M.; Lim, D.

    2011-10-10

    Detection of Legionella pneumophila in cooling towers and domestic hot water systems involves concentration by centrifugation or membrane filtration prior to inoculation onto growth media or analysis using techniques such as PCR or immunoassays. The Portable Multi-use Automated Concentration System (PMACS) was designed for concentrating microorganisms from large volumes of water in the field and was assessed for enhancing surveillance of L. pneumophila at the Savannah River Site, SC. PMACS samples (100 L; n = 28) were collected from six towers between August 2010 and April 2011 with grab samples (500 ml; n = 56) being collected before and after each PMACS sample. All samples were analyzed for the presence of L. pneumophila by direct fluorescence immunoassay (DFA) using FITC-labeled monoclonal antibodies targeting serogroups 1, 2, 4 and 6. QPCR was utilized for detection of Legionella spp. in the same samples. Counts of L. pneumophila from DFA and of Legionella spp. from qPCR were normalized to cells/L tower water. Concentrations were similar between grab and PMACS samples collected throughout the study by DFA analysis (P = 0.4461; repeated measures ANOVA). The same trend was observed with qPCR. However, PMACS concentration proved advantageous over membrane filtration by providing larger volume, more representative samples of the cooling tower environment, which led to reduced variability among sampling events and increasing the probability of detection of low level targets. These data highlight the utility of the PMACS for enhanced surveillance of L. pneumophila by providing improved sampling of the cooling tower environment.

  10. Nanolipoprotein Particles (NLPs) as Versatile Vaccine Platforms for Co-delivery of Multiple Adjuvants with Subunit Antigens from Burkholderia spp. and F. tularensis - Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, N. O.

    2015-01-06

    The goal of this proposal is to demonstrate that colocalization of protein subunit antigens and adjuvants on nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) can increase the protective efficacy of subunit antigens from Burkholderia spp. and Francisella tularensis against an aerosol challenge. In the second quarter of the third year, LLNL finalized all immunological assessments of NLP vaccine formulations in the F344 model. Battelle has immunized rats with three unique NLP formulations by either intramuscular or intranasal administration. All inoculations have been completed, and protective efficacy against an aerosolized challenge will begin at the end of October, 2014.

  11. Nanolipoprotein Particles (NLPs) as Versatile Vaccine Platforms for Co-delivery of Multiple Adjuvants with Subunit Antigens from Burkholderia spp. and F. tularensis - Annual Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, N. O.

    2015-04-16

    The goal of this proposal is to demonstrate that co-localization of protein subunit antigens and adjuvants on nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) can increase the protective efficacy of recombinant subunit antigens from Burkholderia spp. and Francisella tularensis against an aerosol challenge. NLPs are are biocompatible, high-density lipoprotein mimetics that are amenable to the incorporation of multiple, chemically-disparate adjuvant and antigen molecules. We hypothesize that the ability to co-localize optimized adjuvant formulations with subunit antigens within a single particle will enhance the stimulation and activation of key immune effector cells, increasing the protective efficacy of subunit antigen-based vaccines. While Burkholderia spp. and F. tularensis subunit antigens are the focus of this proposal, we anticipate that this approach is applicable to a wide range of DOD-relevant biothreat agents. The F344 rat aerosol challenge model for F. tularensis has been successfully established at Battelle under this contract, and Year 3 efficacy studies performed at Battelle demonstrated that an NLP vaccine formulation was able to enhance survival of female F344 rats relative to naïve animals. In addition, Year 3 focused on the incorporation of multiple Burkholderia antigens (both polysaccharides and proteins) onto adjuvanted NLPs, with immunological analysis poised to begin in the next quarter.

  12. HQ Energy Services (US), Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 21249 Utility Location Yes Ownership W NERC Location NPCC NERC NPCC Yes RTO PJM Yes ISO NY Yes ISO MISO Yes ISO NE Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying...

  13. Rockland Electric Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 16213 Utility Location Yes Ownership I NERC Location NPCC NERC NPCC Yes RTO PJM Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You...

  14. Energetix | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Utility Location Yes Ownership R NERC Location NPCC NERC NPCC Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  15. Village of Solvay, New York (Utility Company) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Id 17512 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location NPCC NERC NPCC Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility...

  16. New York Mun Power Agency | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Id 13539 Utility Location Yes Ownership A NERC Location NPCC NERC NPCC Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility...

  17. Vermont Yankee Nucl Pwr Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Utility Location Yes Ownership I NERC Location NPCC NERC NPCC Yes ISO NE Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility...

  18. Town of Boylston, Massachusetts (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2010 - File1a1 EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 2086 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location NPCC NERC NPCC Yes ISO NE Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity...

  19. Energy Coop of New York, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2010 - File1a1 EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 5880 Utility Location Yes Ownership R NERC Location NPCC NERC NPCC Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes This article is a stub. You can...

  20. Town of Wakefield, Massachusetts (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - File1a1 EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 19979 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location NPCC NERC NPCC Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes...

  1. Nanolipoprotein Particles (NLPs) as Versatile Vaccine Platforms for Co-delivery of Multiple Adjuvants with Subunit Antigens from Burkholderia spp. and F. tularensis - Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, N. O.

    2015-01-13

    The goal of this proposal is to demonstrate that colocalization of protein subunit antigens and adjuvants on nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) can increase the protective efficacy of subunit antigens from Burkholderia spp. and Francisella tularensis against an aerosol challenge. In the third quarter of the third year, F344 rats vaccinated with adjuvanted NLP formulations were challenged with F. tularensis SCHU S4 at Battelle. Preliminary data indicate that up to 65% of females vaccinated intranasally with an NLP-based formulation survived this challenge, compared to only 20% survival of naïve animals. In addition, NLPs were successfully formulated with Burkholderia protein antigens. IACUC approval for immunological assessments in BALB/c mice was received and we anticipate that these assessments will begin by March 2015, pending ACURO approval.

  2. City of Franklin, Virginia (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 6715 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes RTO PJM Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes...

  3. Town of Culpeper, Virginia (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 4619 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes RTO PJM Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes...

  4. North Carolina El Member Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 13683 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes RTO PJM Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying...

  5. City of College Park, Georgia (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    M NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle Yes...

  6. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Webinar on Residential...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Multifamily Housing through Partnerships overcomingpersistentbarriersenergyefficiencymultifamilyhousing.doc Recording of SERC Monitoring Technologies - Solar Photovoltaics

  7. Massachusetts Bay Trans Auth | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NPCC Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle2 Yes This...

  8. Sempra Energy Trading Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Location Yes Ownership R NERC Location NPCC Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes This article is a stub. You can help...

  9. Annual Energy Outlook 2015 - Appendix F

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Energy Outlook 2015 Regional maps Figure F2. Electricity market module regions Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Analysis. 1 2 3 4 5 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 6 7 1. ERCT TRE All 2. FRCC FRCC All 3. MROE MRO East 4. MROW MRO West 5. NEWE NPCC New England 6. NYCW NPCC NYC/Westchester 7. NYLI NPCC Long Island 8. NYUP NPCC Upstate NY 9. RFCE RFC East 10. RFCM RFC Michigan 11. RFCW RFC West 12. SRDA

  10. Northern Virginia Elec Coop | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 13640 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes RTO PJM Yes Activity Distribution Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle2 Yes This...

  11. Town of Windsor, North Carolina (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 20811 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes RTO PJM Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  12. Old Dominion Electric Coop | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Id 40229 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SERC NERC RFC Yes NERC SERC Yes RTO PJM Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  13. Northern Neck Elec Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 13762 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes RTO PJM Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  14. Community Electric Coop | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 4117 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes RTO PJM Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  15. Central Virginia Electric Coop | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 3291 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes RTO PJM Yes Activity Distribution Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle2 Yes This...

  16. Next Update: October 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...ISO US SERC - AC 200-299 230 100 6 2013 Hamilton Middleburg 17 UG - Und other undergroun ...ISO US SERC - AC 200-299 230 800 5 2010 Hamilton Pleasant View 12 OH - Ove steel single ...

  17. Fairfield Electric Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Id 5929 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate...

  18. Pontotoc Electric Power Assn | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Id 15211 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate...

  19. Southeastern Power Admin | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Location SERC NERC FRCC Yes NERC SERC Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility...

  20. Piedmont Municipal Power Agny | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    P NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes ISO Other Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility...

  1. Toledo Bend Project Joint Oper | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SERC NERC SERC Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility...

  2. Crisp County Power Comm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2010 - File1a1 EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 4538 Utility Location Yes Ownership P NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity...

  3. Grady Electric Membership Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2010 - File1a1 EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 7450 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes This article is a stub. You can...

  4. Questions Asked during the Financing Residential Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets Transcript Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets SERC Photovoltaics for Residential Buildings Webinar...

  5. Springfield Processing Plant (SPP) Facility Information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leach, Janice; Torres, Teresa M.

    2012-10-01

    The Springfield Processing Plant is a hypothetical facility. It has been constructed for use in training workshops. Information is provided about the facility and its surroundings, particularly security-related aspects such as target identification, threat data, entry control, and response force data.

  6. SITE SPECIFIC ADVISORY BOARD CHAIRS MEETING

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    SERC Projects SERC Projects Projects funded by Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Grants $90 million under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to support the use of a wide range of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies by 101 high-performing local weatherization providers across the country View SERC Grants in a larger map. To report corrections, please email SustainableEnergyWAP@ee.doe.gov. Alabama: Community Action Agency of Northwest Alabama in Florence has been

  7. NYSEG Solutions Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Utility Id 26650 Utility Location Yes Ownership R NERC NPCC Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  8. Application for Presidential Permit OE Docket No. PP-400 TDI-NE- New England Clean Power Link Project: Motion to Intervene of The Northeast Power Coordinating Council, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Northeast Power Coordinating Council, Inc. (NPCC) submits its Motion to Intervene the New England Clean Power Link Project pursuant to Rules 212 and 214 of the Rules of Practice and Procedures of...

  9. AES Eastern Energy LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NPCC Yes ISO NY Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility...

  10. Connecticut Municipal Electric Energy Cooperative | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NPCC Yes ISO NE Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it....

  11. Agway Energy Services, LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2010 - File1a1 EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 113 Utility Location Yes Ownership R NERC Location NPCC ISO NY Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes This article is a stub. You can...

  12. Major Energy Electric Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - File1a1 EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 56504 Utility Location Yes Ownership R NERC Location NPCC ISO NY Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes This article is a stub. You can...

  13. Glacial Energy Holdings | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1a1 EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 54871 Utility Location Yes Ownership R NERC ERCOT Yes NERC MRO Yes NERC NPCC Yes NERC RFC Yes Activity...

  14. Robison Energy, LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1a1 EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 16177 Utility Location Yes Ownership R NERC NPCC Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes This article is a...

  15. Kentucky Utilities Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 10171 Utility Location Yes Ownership I NERC SERC Yes RTO PJM Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  16. Working Copy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... disposition schedule RQ reportable quantity SA Scientific Advisor SERC State Emergency ... (MOC) and the Scientific Advisor (SA) organizations to the appropriate CBFO staff. ...

  17. Berkeley Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Berkeley Lab masthead U.S. Department of Energy logo Phone Book Jobs Search sun abstract Helios logo Overview Goals & Challenges Publications Research Highlights In the News SERC...

  18. Prospects for Higgs coupling measurements in SUSY with radiatively...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Prospects for Higgs coupling measurements in SUSY with radiatively-driven naturalness Authors: Bae, Kyu Jung ; Baer, Howard ; Nagata, Natsumi ; Serce, Hasan Publication ...

  19. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report covers the states that largely fall into the Southeastern Reliability Corporation (SERC) region: Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Kentucky, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee.

  20. schedule6_2001.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 43 OH T S 956 ACSRD 1 1 17543 S 100 U SERC VAC AC 230 230 0 Nov-06 Pleasant View Hamilton 5 OH 0 0 0 19876 I 100 U SERC VAC AC 230 230 0 Dec-06 Fredericksburg Possum Point ...

  1. schedule6_2004.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 43 OH P S 1272 ACSR 2 1 1 17543 S 0 U SERC VAC AC 230 230 800 4202007 Pleasant View Hamilton 12 OH P S 636 ACSR 2 1 1 19876 I 0 U SERC ENT AC 230 230 640 5202007 Panama Dutch ...

  2. schedule6_2003.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... TS 1 OH T S 1351 ACSR 1 1 1 195 I1 0 U SERC VAC AC 230 230 800 May-07 Pleasant View Hamilton 12 OH P S 636 ACSR 2 1 1 19876 I1 0 U SERC ENT AC 230 230 884 Jun-07 Cypress Jacinto ...

  3. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Fact Sheet July 2011

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    WEATHERIZATION AND INTERGOVERNMENTAL PROGRAM SERC Grants Expand Weatherization Technologies The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) launched Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) grants, which allow selected local weatherization agencies to install renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies over and above what they can install through the traditional Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). In 2007, the Energy Independence and

  4. Wabash Valley Power Assn, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Utility Id 40211 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location RFC,SERC NERC RFC Yes RTO PJM Yes ISO MISO Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Buying...

  5. Strategic Energy LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Yes NERC SERC Yes NERC WECC Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  6. Rappahannock Electric Coop | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SERC Activity Distribution Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle2 Yes This article is a stub. You can help...

  7. schedule6_2005.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Progress Energy Carolinas IOU 100 U SERC VAC AC 230 230 800 6302008 Pleasant View Hamilton 12 - Overh single pole steel 636 ACSR Double 1 1 19876 Dominion Virginia Power IOU ...

  8. ,"Table 6. Proposed High-voltage Transmission Line Additions...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...,100,"Planned","Reliability"," " ,"US","SERC","VACAR","AC","200-299",230,800,11,2010,"Hamilton","Pleasant View",12,"OH","single pole","steel",636,"ACSR","Double",1,1,"-","PJM ...

  9. Next Update: December 2011

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Double 2 2 - PJM Interconnection, LLC 100 US SERC VACAR AC 200-299 230 800 11 2010 Hamilton Pleasant View 12.0 OH single polesteel 636 ACSR Double 1 1 - PJM Interconnection, LLC ...

  10. schedule6_2006.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Valley Authority FederalState 100 U SERC VACAR AC 230 230 800 6-2008 Pleasant View Hamilton 12 - Overh single pole steel 636 ACSR Double 1 1 19876 Dominion Virginia Power IOU ...

  11. Next Update: October 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 1 1 South Carolina Electric & Gas IOU 100 US SERC VACAR AC 230 230 800 050110 Hamilton Pleasant View 12 OH single pole steel 636 ACSR Double 1 1 19876 Virginia Electric and ...

  12. CX-010381: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Solar Energy Research Center (SERC) Building CX(s) Applied: A7; B1.15; B3.6 Date: 01/18/2011 Location(s): California Offices(s): Berkeley Site Office

  13. Natural little hierarchy for SUSY from radiative breaking of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Natural little hierarchy for SUSY from radiative breaking of the Peccei-Quinn symmetry Authors: Bae, Kyu Jung ; Baer, Howard ; Serce, Hasan Publication Date: 2015-01-06 OSTI ...

  14. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Huang, Peisi (10) Bae, Kyu Jung (8) Mickelson, Dan (7) Balazs, Csaba (5) Serce, Hasan (5) Belyaev, Alexander (4) Lessa, Andre (4) Savoy, Michael (4) Kraml, Sabine Laboratoire de ...

  15. WEATHERIZATION PROGRAM NOTICE 09-1C

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    WEATHERIZATION PROGRAM NOTICE 10-19 EFFECTIVE DATE: September 22, 2010 SUBJECT: GUIDANCE FOR GRANT AMENDMENTS FOR THE SUSTAINABLE ENERGY RESOURCES FOR CONSUMERS FUNDING PURPOSE: To issue guidance for the Grantees who need to complete grant amendments based on the receipt of funding to undertake Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) projects. SCOPE: The provisions of this guidance apply to States or other entities named as recipients of SERC Grants funding within the Department of

  16. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Fact Sheet July 2011 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Fact Sheet July 2011 Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Fact Sheet July 2011 Provides an overview on the U.S. Department of Energys Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) grants, including information on the programs history, who is eligible, and how to participate. PDF icon serc_factsheet.pdf More Documents & Publications WPN 10-19: Guidance for Grant Amendments for the Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumer's Funding WEATHERIZATION PROGRAM

  17. expanding_chp_in_your_state.doc | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    expanding_chp_in_your_state.doc expanding_chp_in_your_state.doc expanding_chp_in_your_state.doc Microsoft Office document icon expanding_chp_in_your_state.doc More Documents & Publications Combined Heat and Power: Expanding CHP in Your State Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Solar Hot Water Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Geothermal/Ground-Source Heat Pumps

  18. Microsoft PowerPoint - MISO-SPP Market Impacts HydPwrConf 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Slide 7 Southwestern Power Administration early afternoon operating day prior. Customer Electrical Demand Loads Transmission System ConditionsOutages Electrical System Operations ...

  19. Pyrolytic oil of banana (Musa spp.) pseudo-stem via fast process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Taib, Rahmad Mohd; Miskam, Muhamad Azman

    2015-04-24

    This study was an attempt to produce bio-oil from banana pseudo-stem, a waste of banana cultivation, using fast pyrolysis technology. The compositions were determined and the thermal degradation behaviour of the raw material was analyzed using Perkin-Elmer Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer (STA) 6000. A 300 g/h fluidized bed bench scale fast pyrolysis unit, assembled with double screw feeders and cyclones, operating at atmospheric pressure, was used to obtain the pyrolysis liquid. The study involves the impact of the following key variables; the reactor temperature in the range of 450–650 °C, and the residence time in the range of 1.00–3.00 s. The particle size was set at 224-400 µm. The properties of the liquid product were analyzed for calorific heating value, pH value, conductivity, water and char content. The basic functional groups of the compositions were also determined using FTIR. The properties of the liquid product were compared with other wood derived bio-oil. The pyrolysis liquids derived from banana pseudo-stem were found to be in an aqueous phase.

  20. ,"Year",,"Summer",,,"Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid",,,"Western Power Grid"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4b. Summer Historic Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2005 through 2009 " ,"(Megawatts and Percent)" ,"Year",,"Summer",,,"Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid",,,"Western Power Grid" ,,,"Contiguous U.S." ,,,,,,"FRCC",,,"MRO (U.S.)",,,"NPCC

  1. summer_nid_cr_cm_2005.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    d Form EIA-411 for 2005 Released: February 7, 2008 Next Update: October 2007 Table 4. Summer Historic and Projected Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 2005 and 2006 through 2010 (Megawatts and Percent) Projected Year Base Year Summer Eastern Power Grid Contiguous U.S. FRCC MRO NPCC RFC Net Internal Demand (MW) Capacity Resources (MW) Capacity Margin (percent) Net Internal Demand (MW) Capacity Resources (MW)

  2. summer_nid_cr_cm_2006.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    h c Form EIA-411 for 2006 Released: February 7, 2008 Next Update: October 2008 Table 4. Summer Historic and Projected Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2006 and 2007 throug (Megawatts and Percent) Projected Year Base Year Summer Eastern Power Grid Contiguous U.S. FRCC MRO NPCC RFC Net Internal Demand (MW) Capacity Resources (MW) Capacity Margin (percent) Net Internal Demand (MW) Capacity Resources (MW)

  3. Wind Webinar Text Version | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Text Version Wind Webinar Text Version Download the text version of the audio from the DOE Office of Indian Energy webinar on wind renewable energy. PDF icon Text Version of the DOE Office of Indian Energy Foundational Course on Wind More Documents & Publications SERC Photovoltaics for Residential Buildings Webinar Transcript strategiesforsuccessfulenergymanagement.doc Biomass Webinar

  4. Solar Webinar Text Version | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Text Version Solar Webinar Text Version Download the text version of the audio from the DOE Office of Indian Energy webinar on solar renewable energy. PDF icon DOE Office of Indian Energy Foundational Course on Solar: Text Version More Documents & Publications SERC Photovoltaics for Residential Buildings Webinar Transcript text_alternative_stat_webinar_2012_8_15.doc Wind Webinar Text Version

  5. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Webinar on Residential Water

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heaters | Department of Energy Water Heaters Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Webinar on Residential Water Heaters PDF icon 20110222_webinar_transcript.pdf More Documents & Publications Overcoming Persistent Barriers to Energy Efficiency in Multifamily Housing through Partnerships overcoming_persistent_barriers_energy_efficiency_multifamily_housing.doc Recording of SERC Monitoring Technologies - Solar Photovoltaics

  6. City Utilities of Springfield | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 17833 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  7. City of Wahoo, Nebraska (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 19968 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes...

  8. Southwestern Electric Power Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 17698 Utility Location Yes Ownership I NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  9. Public Service Co of Oklahoma | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 15474 Utility Location Yes Ownership I NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  10. Town of Laverne, Oklahoma (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 10777 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Bundled...

  11. City of Malden, Missouri (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 11540 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying...

  12. Southwestern Power Admin | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 17716 Utility Location Yes Ownership F NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  13. City of Oxford, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 14276 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes...

  14. City of Higginsville, Missouri (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 8567 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying...

  15. City of St John, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 17879 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes...

  16. Northeast Texas Elec Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 13670 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying...

  17. Sunflower Electric Power Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 18315 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  18. City of Burlington, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 2551 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying...

  19. City of Wellington, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 20315 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying...

  20. City of Lubbock, Texas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 11292 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  1. Southern Public Power District | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 17642 Utility Location Yes Ownership P NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Buying...

  2. City of Monett, Missouri (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 12782 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes Activity Bundled...

  3. City of Savonburg, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 16876 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Retail...

  4. Western Farmers Elec Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 20447 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  5. City of Lincoln Center, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 11017 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying...

  6. Kansas Electric Power Coop Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 9961 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying...

  7. City of Burlingame, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 2547 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Bundled...

  8. City of Piggott, Arkansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 15043 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying...

  9. City of Altus, Oklahoma (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 416 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Retail Marketing...

  10. Kansas Municipal Energy Agency | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 10035 Utility Location Yes Ownership A NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes This article...

  11. City of Augusta, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 998 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying...

  12. City Water and Light Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 9879 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying...

  13. City of Sikeston, Missouri (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 17177 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  14. ,"Table 1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 " ,"(Thousands of Megawatthours and 2006 Base Year)" ,"Net Energy For Load (Annual)",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"FRCC","MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.)

  15. ,"Table 1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 and Projected 2004 through 2008 " ,"(Thousands of Megawatthours and 2003 Base Year)" ,"Net Energy For Load (Annual)",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"ECAR","FRCC","MAAC","MAIN","MAPP (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.)

  16. ,"Table 1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 and Projected 2005 through 2009 " ,"(Thousands of Megawatthours and 2004 Base Year)" ,"Net Energy For Load (Annual)",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"ECAR","FRCC","MAAC","MAIN","MAPP/MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.)

  17. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 " ,"(Megawatts and 2006 Base Year)" ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"FRCC","MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.)

  18. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 and Projected 2004 through 2008 " ,"(Megawatts and 2003 Base Year)",,,," " ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"ECAR","FRCC","MAAC","MAIN","MAPP (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.)

  19. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 and Projected 2005 through 2009 " ,"(Megawatts and 2004 Base Year)",,,," " ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"ECAR","FRCC","MAAC","MAIN","MAPP/MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.)

  20. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 " ,"(Megawatts and 2006 Base Year)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"FRCC"," MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.)

  1. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2007 and Projected 2008 through 2012 " ,"(Megawatts and 2007 Base Year)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"FRCC"," MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.)

  2. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2008 and Projected 2009 through 2013 " ,"(Megawatts and 2008 Base Year)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"FRCC"," MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.)

  3. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2009 and Projected 2010 through 2014 " ,"(Megawatts and 2009 Base Year)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"FRCC"," MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.)

  4. ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    d. Historical Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2004 " ,"(Megawatts)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,,"Year",,"ECAR","FRCC","MAAC","MAIN","MAPP/MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.)

  5. Clinch River Breeder Reactor: an assessment of need for power and regulatory issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamblin, D M; Tepel, R C; Bjornstad, D J; Hill, L J; Cantor, R A; Carroll, P J; Cohn, S M; Hadder, G R; Holcomb, B D; Johnson, K E

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a research effort designed to assist the US Department of Energy in: (1) reviewing the need for power from the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) in the Southeastern Electric Reliability Council (SERC) region, not including Florida, and (2) isolating specific regulatory and institutional issues and physical transmission capacities that may constrain the market for CRBR power. A review of existing electric power wheeling arrangements in the Southeast and specific federal and state regulatory obstacles that may affect power sales from the CRBR was undertaken. This review was a contributing factor to a decision to target the service territory to SERC-less Florida.

  6. UNC EFRC - Center for Solar Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF Catherine M. Heyer, PhD UNC EFRC Assistant Director Ralph House, PhD UNC SERC Translation and Outreach Manager RESEARCH STAFF M. Kyle Brennaman, PhD, UNC Senior Research Scientist & Laser Facility Director Seth L. Marquard, PhD, UNC Senior Research Scientist - Synthesis Postdoctoral Fellows & Research Scholars Leila Alibabaei, UNC Robert Dillon, UNC Michael Eberhart, UNC Gyu Leem, University of Florida Candy Mercado, University of Colorado-Boulder Animesh Nayak, UNC

  7. Combined Heat and Power: Expanding CHP in Your State | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat and Power: Expanding CHP in Your State Combined Heat and Power: Expanding CHP in Your State This presentation, given through the DOE's Technical Assitance Program (TAP), provides information on Combined Heat and Power: Expanding CHP in Your State PDF icon Presentation Microsoft Office document icon Transcript More Documents & Publications expanding_chp_in_your_state.doc Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Solar Hot Water Sustainable Energy Resources for

  8. Natural little hierarchy for SUSY from radiative breaking of the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Peccei-Quinn symmetry (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect little hierarchy for SUSY from radiative breaking of the Peccei-Quinn symmetry Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Natural little hierarchy for SUSY from radiative breaking of the Peccei-Quinn symmetry Authors: Bae, Kyu Jung ; Baer, Howard ; Serce, Hasan Publication Date: 2015-01-06 OSTI Identifier: 1180704 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review D Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 91;

  9. WPN 12-5: Updated Weatherization Assistance Program Monitoring Guidance |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy 2-5: Updated Weatherization Assistance Program Monitoring Guidance WPN 12-5: Updated Weatherization Assistance Program Monitoring Guidance Archived 12/18/15, Superseded by WPN 16-4 To issue the updated monitoring policy and procedures for the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) for both annual Appropriated awards and for the Recovery Act awards, which includes the Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) Awards. This updated Guidance excludes the

  10. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Webinar on Residential

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofit Transcript | Department of Energy Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofit Transcript Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Webinar on Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofit Transcript Transcript for a U.S. Department of Energy Webinar on Dec. 14, 2010, about residential geothermal heat pump retrofits PDF icon 20101214_geothermal_webinar_transcript.pdf More Documents & Publications Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Geothermal/Ground-Source

  11. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Webinar on Solar Water Heating

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Transcript | Department of Energy Solar Water Heating Transcript Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Webinar on Solar Water Heating Transcript Video recording transcript of a Webinar on Nov. 16, 2010 about residential solar water heating applications PDF icon solar_water_heating_webinar.pdf More Documents & Publications Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Solar Hot Water Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Webinar on Residential Water Heaters Sustainable

  12. Prospects for Higgs coupling measurements in SUSY with radiatively-driven

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    naturalness (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Prospects for Higgs coupling measurements in SUSY with radiatively-driven naturalness Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on August 13, 2016 Title: Prospects for Higgs coupling measurements in SUSY with radiatively-driven naturalness Authors: Bae, Kyu Jung ; Baer, Howard ; Nagata, Natsumi ; Serce, Hasan Publication Date: 2015-08-14 OSTI Identifier: 1210124 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal

  13. DOE Webinar: Translating Behavior Change Research Into Consumer Action |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Webinar: Translating Behavior Change Research Into Consumer Action DOE Webinar: Translating Behavior Change Research Into Consumer Action DOE Webinar: Translating Behavior Change Research Into Consumer Action, May 28, 2013. PDF icon Webinar slides More Documents & Publications Incorporating Behavior Change Efforts Into Energy Efficiency Programs Outreach to Faith--Based Organizations SERC Community-Based Social Marketing for Weatherization Programs Webinar

  14. The Higgs mass and natural supersymmetric spectrum from the landscape

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The Higgs mass and natural supersymmetric spectrum from the landscape Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Higgs mass and natural supersymmetric spectrum from the landscape Authors: Baer, Howard ; Barger, Vernon ; Savoy, Michael ; Serce, Hasan Publication Date: 2016-07-01 OSTI Identifier: 1251748 Type: Published Article Journal Name: Physics Letters. Section B Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 758; Journal Issue: C; Related

  15. Preparation and characterization of composites based on poly(lactic acid) and CaCO{sub 3} nanofiller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, Janaína Fernandes; Silva, Ana Lúcia N. da E-mail: ananazareth@ima.ufrj.br; Sousa, Ana Maria F. de

    2015-05-22

    In recent years, extensive studies have been conducted on the study of the poly(lactic acid) (PLA) properties, because of its being a typical biobased and biodegradable polymer, with good mechanical properties. However, its toughness and gas barrier properties are not satisfactory and can be improved by the addition of nanofillers, such as calcium carbonate (n-CaCO{sub 3}). The present work PLA composites with nano-sized precipitated calcium carbonate (n-NPCC) were prepared by melt extrusion. Thermal, mechanical and flow properties of the composites were evaluated by using a factorial design.The results showed that the addition of the nanofiller in the PLA matrix didn’t improve thethermal and mechanical properties of the matrix significantly. This behavior is probably due to the presence of the stearic acid that is coating on the n-NPCC particles, resulting in a weak polymer-particle interaction. Beyond this, it was also observed a decrease in MFI of the composites when nanofiller was added and at a higher screw speed.

  16. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, Final Report For the Performance Period May 1, 2008 through April 30, 2009.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sampson, Melvin R.

    2009-07-30

    The Yakima-Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) is a joint project of the Yakama Nation (lead entity) and the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) and is sponsored in large part by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) with oversight and guidance from the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC). It is among the largest and most complex fisheries management projects in the Columbia Basin in terms of data collection and management, physical facilities, habitat enhancement and management, and experimental design and research on fisheries resources. Using principles of adaptive management, the YKFP is attempting to evaluate all stocks historically present in the Yakima subbasin and apply a combination of habitat restoration and hatchery supplementation or reintroduction, to restore the Yakima Subbasin ecosystem with sustainable and harvestable populations of salmon, steelhead and other at-risk species. The original impetus for the YKFP resulted from the landmark fishing disputes of the 1970s, the ensuing legal decisions in United States versus Washington and United States versus Oregon, and the region's realization that lost natural production needed to be mitigated in upriver areas where these losses primarily occurred. The YKFP was first identified in the NPCC's 1982 Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP) and supported in the U.S. v Oregon 1988 Columbia River Fish Management Plan (CRFMP). A draft Master Plan was presented to the NPCC in 1987 and the Preliminary Design Report was presented in 1990. In both circumstances, the NPCC instructed the Yakama Nation, WDFW and BPA to carry out planning functions that addressed uncertainties in regard to the adequacy of hatchery supplementation for meeting production objectives and limiting adverse ecological and genetic impacts. At the same time, the NPCC underscored the importance of using adaptive management principles to manage the direction of the Project. The 1994 FWP reiterated the importance of proceeding with the YKFP because of the added production and learning potential the project would provide. The YKFP is unique in having been designed to rigorously test the efficacy of hatchery supplementation. Given the current dire situation of many salmon and steelhead stocks, and the heavy reliance on artificial propagation as a recovery tool, YKFP monitoring results will have great region-wide significance. Supplementation is envisioned as a means to enhance and sustain the abundance of wild and naturally-spawning populations at levels exceeding the cumulative mortality burden imposed on those populations by habitat degradation and by natural cycles in environmental conditions. A supplementation hatchery is properly operated as an adjunct to the natural production system in a watershed. By fully integrating the hatchery with a naturally-producing population, high survival rates for the component of the population in the hatchery can raise the average abundance of the total population (hatchery component + naturally-producing component) to a level that compensates for the high mortalities imposed by human development activities and fully seeds the natural environment. The objectives of the YKFP are to: use Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) and other modeling tools to facilitate planning for project activities, enhance existing stocks, re-introduce extirpated stocks, protect and restore habitat in the Yakima Subbasin, and operate using a scientifically rigorous process that will foster application of the knowledge gained about hatchery supplementation and habitat restoration throughout the Columbia River Basin. The YKFP is still in the early stages of evaluation, and as such the data and findings presented in this report should be considered preliminary until results are published in the peer-reviewed literature. The following is a brief summary of current YKFP activities by species.

  17. City of Lafayette, Louisiana (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 9096 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  18. Alfalfa Electric Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 296 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  19. City of Iola, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 9418 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes...

  20. Empire District Electric Co (Missouri) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 5860 Utility Location Yes Ownership I NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  1. Rusk County Electric Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 16461 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You...

  2. McCook Public Power District | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 10550 Utility Location Yes Ownership P NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You...

  3. City of Girard, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 7257 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes...

  4. City of Meade, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 12242 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes This article is a stub....

  5. Southeastern Electric Coop Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 17603 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  6. Town of Mannford, Oklahoma (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 11578 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  7. City of Blackwell, Oklahoma (Utility Company) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 1800 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You...

  8. Nemaha-Marshall E C A, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 13386 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  9. North Plains Electric Coop Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 13757 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You...

  10. Victory Electric Coop Assn Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 19820 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  11. Lafayette Public Power Auth | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 11235 Utility Location Yes Ownership P NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes This article is a...

  12. City of Brownfield, Texas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 2404 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a...

  13. City of Pratt, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 15321 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes This article is a stub....

  14. City of Olustee, Oklahoma (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 13966 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes This article is a stub....

  15. Seward County Rrl Pub Pwr Dist | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 16954 Utility Location Yes Ownership P NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  16. City of Cushing, Oklahoma (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 4667 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes...

  17. Cookson Hills Elec Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 4296 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  18. Ozarks Electric Coop Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 14289 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes This article is a stub....

  19. City of Scranton, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 16834 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  20. City of Frederick, Oklahoma (Utility Company) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 6750 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  1. City of Gardner, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 6949 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  2. City of Alexandria, Louisiana (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 298 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes...

  3. Western Coop Electric Assn Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 20476 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  4. Twin Valley Electric Coop Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 18962 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  5. City of Ellinwood, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 5802 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes This article is a stub....

  6. Upshur Rural Elec Coop Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 19579 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  7. City of Goodland, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 7374 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  8. Kay Electric Coop | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 10012 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  9. City of Haven, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 8279 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  10. City of Ponca City, Oklahoma (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 15202 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  11. City of Arma, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 832 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  12. Village of Spalding, Nebraska (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 17727 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes...

  13. City of Glasco, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 7269 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes Activity Bundled...

  14. Mid-Kansas Electric Company, LLC (MKEC) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 56324 Utility Location Yes Ownership W NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  15. City of Wisner, Nebraska (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 20880 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes...

  16. City of Franklin, Nebraska (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 6723 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Bundled...

  17. table01.chp:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2. Noncoincident Peak Load, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, 1990-2010 Actual, 2011-2015 Projected (Megawatts) Interconnection NERC Regional Assesment Area 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 FRCC 27,266 28,818 30,601 32,823 32,904 34,524 35,444 35,375 38,730 37,493 37,194 39,062 40,696 40,475 42,383 46,396 45,751 46,676 44,836 NPCC 44,116 46,594 43,658 46,706 47,581 47,705 45,094 49,269 49,566 52,855

  18. Next Update: November 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Next Update: November 2013 megawatts January NERC Regional Assesment Area 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 FRCC 39,860 37,127 27,122 38,581 37,521 40,258 39,675 45,033 35,545 41,247 34,464 38,352 41,705 44,945 53,093 46,086 NPCC 41,680 41,208 40,009 44,199 45,227 43,553 42,039 45,987 66,215 47,041 43,661 45,002 46,803 45,047 43,849 45,395 Balance of Eastern Region 322,095 335,954 307,784 343,981 347,724 349,937 340,525 377,419 371,550 381,698

  19. monthly_peak_bymonth_2010.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A.1. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assesment Area, 1996-2010 Actual, 2011-2012 Projected (Megawatts) January NERC Regional Assesment Area 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011E 2012E FRCC 39,860 37,127 27,122 38,581 37,521 40,258 39,675 45,033 35,545 41,247 34,464 38,352 41,705 44,945 53,093 46,839 47,613 NPCC 41,680 41,208 40,009 44,199 45,227 43,553 42,039 45,987 66,215 47,041 43,661 45,002 46,803

  20. net_energy_load_2010.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, 1990-2010 Actual, 2011-2015 Projected (Thousands of Megawatthours) Interconnection NERC Regional Assesment Area 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 FRCC 142,502 146,903 147,464 153,468 159,861 169,021 173,377 175,557 188,384 188,598 196,561 200,134 211,116 NPCC 250,681 253,701 252,256 257,447 259,947 261,235 263,125 264,464 268,309 277,902 281,518 282,670

  1. peak_load_2010.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Noncoincident Peak Load, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, 1990-2010 Actual, 2011-2015 Projected (Megawatts) Interconnection NERC Regional Assesment Area 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 FRCC 27,266 28,818 30,601 32,823 32,904 34,524 35,444 35,375 38,730 37,493 37,194 39,062 40,696 40,475 42,383 46,396 45,751 46,676 44,836 NPCC 44,116 46,594 43,658 46,706 47,581 47,705 45,094 49,269 49,566 52,855

  2. summer_capacity_2010.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Interconnection NERC Regional Assesment Area 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 FRCC 27,162 27,773 28,898 29,435 30,537 31,649 31,868 32,874 34,562 34,832 35,666 38,932 37,951 40,387 42,243 45,950 45,345 46,434 44,660 46,263 NPCC 46,016 45,952 46,007 46,380 47,465 48,290 48,950 50,240 51,760 53,450 54,270 55,888 55,164 53,936 51,580 57,402 60,879 58,221 59,896 55,730 Balance of Eastern Region 332,679 337,297 341,869 349,984

  3. UNC EFRC - Center for Solar Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contact Information AREA CONTACT PHONE Director Thomas Meyer, Prof. 919-843-8313 Co-Deputy Director John Papanikolas, Prof. 919-962-1619 Co-Deputy Director Gerald Meyer, Prof. 919-962-6320 Assistant Director Catherine Heyer, PhD 919-962-2304 SERC Translation and Outreach Manager Ralph House, PhD 919-962-5518 Downloadable Contact Sheet PDF Logo Center Mailing Address Energy Frontier Research Center Department of Chemistry Campus Box 3290 Caudill and Kenan Laboratories The University of North

  4. Sharyland Utilities LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Id 17008 Utility Location Yes Ownership I NERC ERCOT Yes NERC SPP Yes ISO Ercot Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You...

  5. Basin Electric Power Coop | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location WECC&MRO NERC MRO Yes NERC SPP Yes NERC WECC Yes RTO SPP Yes ISO MISO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity...

  6. City of Crete, Nebraska (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Id 4527 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes...

  7. Nick's Utility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ownership F NERC Location WECC, MAPP NERC MRO Yes NERC SPP Yes NERC WECC Yes ISO CA Yes RTO SPP Yes ISO MISO Yes ISO Other Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  8. City of Spencer, Nebraska (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 17787 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes This article is a stub....

  9. City of Lucas, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 11299 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP RTO SPP Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  10. Loup Valleys Rural P P D | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 11250 Utility Location Yes Ownership P NERC Location MRO NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  11. City of Udall, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 19344 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP RTO SPP Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  12. Northwestern Electric Coop Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Id 13807 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate...

  13. Resident Fish Stock above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams; 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connor, Jason M.; McLellan, Jason G.; Butler, Chris

    2003-09-01

    In 1980, the United States Congress enacted the Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act (PL 96-501, 1980), which established the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC), formerly the Northwest Power Planning Council. The NPCC was directed by Congress to develop a regional Power Plan and also the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP) to restore or replace losses of fish caused by construction and operation of hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin. In developing the FWP, Congress specifically directed NPCC to solicit recommendations for measures to be included in the Program from the region's fish and wildlife agencies and Indian tribes. All measures adopted by the Council were also required to be consistent with the management objectives of the agencies and tribes [Section 4.(h)(6)(A)], the legal rights of Indian tribes in the region [Section 4.(h)(6)(D)] and be based upon and supported by the best available scientific knowledge [Section 4.(h)(6)(B)]. The Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams Project, also known as the Joint Stock Assessment Project (JSAP) specifically addresses NPPC Council measure 10.8B.26 of the 1994 program. The Joint Stock Assessment Project is a management tool using ecosystem principles to manage artificial fish assemblages and native fish in altered environments existing in the Columbia River System above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams (Blocked Area). A three-phase approach of this project will enhance the fisheries resources of the Blocked Area by identifying data gaps, filling data gaps with research, and implementing management recommendations based on research results. The Blocked Area fisheries information is housed in a central location, allowing managers to view the entire system while making decisions, rather than basing management decisions on isolated portions of the system. The JSAP is designed and guided jointly by fisheries managers in the Blocked Area. The initial year of the project (1997) identified the need for a central data storage and analysis facility, coordination with the StreamNet project, compilation of Blocked Area fisheries information, and a report on the ecological condition of the Spokane River System. These needs were addressed in 1998 by acquiring a central location with a data storage and analysis system, coordinating a pilot project with StreamNet, compiling fisheries distribution data throughout the Blocked Area, identifying data gaps based on compiled information, and researching the ecological condition of the Spokane River. In order to ensure that any additional information collected throughout the life of this project will be easily stored and manipulated by the central storage facility, it was necessary to develop standardized methodologies between the JSAP fisheries managers. Common collection and analytical methodologies were developed in 1999. In 1999, 2000, and 2001 the project began addressing some of the identified data gaps throughout the Blocked Area. Data collection of established projects and a variety of newly developed sampling projects are ongoing. Projects developed and undertaken by JSAP fisheries managers include investigations of the Pend Orielle River and its tributaries, the Little Spokane River and its tributaries, and water bodies within and near the Spokane Indian Reservation. Migration patterns of adfluvial and reservoir fish in Box Canyon Reservoir and its tributaries, a baseline assessment of Boundary Reservoir and its tributaries, ecological assessment of mountain lakes in Pend Oreille County, and assessments of streams and lakes on the Spokane Indian Reservation were completed by 2001. Assessments of the Little Spokane River and its tributaries, tributaries to the Pend Oreille River, small lakes in Pend Oreille County, WA, and water bodies within and near the Spokane Indian Reservation were conducted in 2002. This work was done in accordance with the scope of work approved by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA).

  14. Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connor, Jason M.; McLellan, Jason G.; Butler, Chris

    2006-02-01

    In 1980, the United States Congress enacted the Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act (PL 96-501, 1980), which established the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC), formerly the Northwest Power Planning Council. The NPCC was directed by Congress to develop a regional Power Plan and also the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP) to restore or replace losses of fish caused by construction and operation of hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin. In developing the FWP, Congress specifically directed NPCC to solicit recommendations for measures to be included in the Program from the region's fish and wildlife agencies and Indian tribes. All measures adopted by the Council were also required to be consistent with the management objectives of the agencies and tribes [Section 4.(h)(6)(A)], the legal rights of Indian tribes in the region [Section 4.(h)(6)(D)] and be based upon and supported by the best available scientific knowledge [Section 4.(h)(6)(B)]. The Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams Project, also known as the Joint Stock Assessment Project (JSAP) specifically addresses NPPC Council measure 10.8B.26 of the 1994 program. The Joint Stock Assessment Project is a management tool using ecosystem principles to manage artificial and native fish assemblages in altered environments existing in the Columbia River System above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams (Blocked Area). A three-phase approach of this project will enhance the fisheries resources of the Blocked Area by identifying data gaps, filling data gaps with research, and implementing management recommendations based on research results. The Blocked Area fisheries information is housed in a central location, allowing managers to view the entire system while making decisions, rather than basing management decisions on isolated portions of the system. The JSAP is designed and guided jointly by fisheries managers in the Blocked Area. The initial year of the project (1997) identified the need for a central data storage and analysis facility, coordination with the StreamNet project, compilation of Blocked Area fisheries information, and a report on the ecological condition of the Spokane River System. These needs were addressed in 1998 by acquiring a central location with a data storage and analysis system, coordinating a pilot project with StreamNet, compiling fisheries distribution data throughout the Blocked Area, identifying data gaps based on compiled information, and researching the ecological condition of the Spokane River. In order to ensure that any additional information collected throughout the life of this project will be easily stored and manipulated by the central storage facility, it was necessary to develop standardized methodologies between the JSAP fisheries managers. Common collection and analytical methodologies were developed in 1999. The project began addressing identified data gaps throughout the Blocked Area in 1999. Data collection of established projects and a variety of newly developed sampling projects are ongoing. Projects developed and undertaken by JSAP fisheries managers include investigations of the Pend Orielle River and its tributaries, the Little Spokane River and its tributaries, and water bodies within and near the Spokane Indian Reservation. Migration patterns of adfluvial and reservoir fish in Box Canyon Reservoir and its tributaries, a baseline assessment of Boundary Reservoir and its tributaries, ecological assessment of mountain lakes in Pend Oreille County, and assessments of streams and lakes on the Spokane Indian Reservation were completed by 2001. Assessments of the Little Spokane River and its tributaries, Spokane River below Spokane Falls, tributaries to the Pend Oreille River, small lakes in Pend Oreille County, WA, and water bodies within and near the Spokane Indian Reservation were conducted in 2002 and 2003. This work was done in accordance with the scope of work approved by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA).

  15. Resident Fish Stock above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connor, Jason M.; McLellan, Jason G.; Butler, Chris

    2005-11-01

    In 1980, the United States Congress enacted the Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act (PL 96-501, 1980), which established the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC), formerly the Northwest Power Planning Council. The NPCC was directed by Congress to develop a regional Power Plan and also the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP) to restore or replace losses of fish caused by construction and operation of hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin. In developing the FWP, Congress specifically directed NPCC to solicit recommendations for measures to be included in the Program from the region's fish and wildlife agencies and Indian tribes. All measures adopted by the Council were also required to be consistent with the management objectives of the agencies and tribes [Section 4.(h)(6)(A)], the legal rights of Indian tribes in the region [Section 4.(h)(6)(D)] and be based upon and supported by the best available scientific knowledge [Section 4.(h)(6)(B)]. The Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams Project, also known as the Joint Stock Assessment Project (JSAP) specifically addresses NPPC Council measure 10.8B.26 of the 1994 program. The Joint Stock Assessment Project is a management tool using ecosystem principles to manage artificial and native fish assemblages in altered environments existing in the Columbia River System above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams (Blocked Area). A three-phase approach of this project will enhance the fisheries resources of the Blocked Area by identifying data gaps, filling data gaps with research, and implementing management recommendations based on research results. The Blocked Area fisheries information is housed in a central location, allowing managers to view the entire system while making decisions, rather than basing management decisions on isolated portions of the system. The JSAP is designed and guided jointly by fisheries managers in the Blocked Area. The initial year of the project (1997) identified the need for a central data storage and analysis facility, coordination with the StreamNet project, compilation of Blocked Area fisheries information, and a report on the ecological condition of the Spokane River System. These needs were addressed in 1998 by acquiring a central location with a data storage and analysis system, coordinating a pilot project with StreamNet, compiling fisheries distribution data throughout the Blocked Area, identifying data gaps based on compiled information, and researching the ecological condition of the Spokane River. In order to ensure that any additional information collected throughout the life of this project will be easily stored and manipulated by the central storage facility, it was necessary to develop standardized methodologies between the JSAP fisheries managers. Common collection and analytical methodologies were developed in 1999. The project began addressing identified data gaps throughout the Blocked Area in 1999. Data collection of established projects and a variety of newly developed sampling projects are ongoing. Projects developed and undertaken by JSAP fisheries managers include investigations of the Pend Orielle River and its tributaries, the Little Spokane River and its tributaries, and water bodies within and near the Spokane Indian Reservation. Migration patterns of adfluvial and reservoir fish in Box Canyon Reservoir and its tributaries, a baseline assessment of Boundary Reservoir and its tributaries, ecological assessment of mountain lakes in Pend Oreille County, and assessments of streams and lakes on the Spokane Indian Reservation were completed by 2001. Assessments of the Little Spokane River and its tributaries, Spokane River below Spokane Falls, tributaries to the Pend Oreille River, small lakes in Pend Oreille County, WA, and water bodies within and near the Spokane Indian Reservation were conducted in 2002 and 2003. This work was done in accordance with the scope of work approved by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA).

  16. Evaluation of the Biological Effects of the Northwest Power Conservation Council's Mainstem Amendment on the Fisheries Upstream and Downstream of Libby Dam, Montana, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sylvester, Ryan; Stephens, Brian; Tohtz, Joel

    2009-04-03

    A new project began in 2005 to monitor the biological and physical effects of improved operations of Hungry Horse and Libby Dams, Montana, called for by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC) Mainstem Amendment. This operating strategy was designed to benefit resident fish impacted by hydropower and flood control operations. Under the new operating guidelines, July through September reservoir drafts will be limited to 10 feet from full pool during the highest 80% of water supply years and 20 feet from full pool during the lowest 20% of water supply (drought) years. Limits were also established on how rapidly discharge from the dams can be increased or decreased depending on the season. The NPCC also directed the federal agencies that operate Libby and Hungry Horse Dams to implement a new flood control strategy (VARQ) and directed Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks to evaluate biological responses to this operating strategy. The Mainstem Amendment operating strategy has not been fully implemented at the Montana dams as of June 2008 but the strategy will be implemented in 2009. This report highlights the monitoring methods used to monitor the effects of the Mainstem Amendment operations on fishes, habitat, and aquatic invertebrates upstream and downstream of Libby Dam. We also present initial assessments of data and the effects of various operating strategies on physical and biological components of the systems upstream and downstream of Libby Dam. Annual electrofishing surveys in the Kootenai River and selected tributaries, along with gill net surveys in the reservoir, are being used to quantify the impacts of dam operations on fish populations upstream and downstream of Libby Dam. Scales and otoliths are being used to determine the age structure and growth of focal species. Annual population estimates and tagging experiments provide estimates of survival and growth in the mainstem Kootenai River and selected tributaries. Radio telemetry will be used to validate an existing Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) model developed for the Kootenai River and will also be used to assess the effect of changes in discharge on fish movements and habitat use downstream of Libby Dam. Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags will be injected into rainbow, bull, and cutthroat trout throughout the mainstem Kootenai River and selected tributaries to provide information on growth, survival, and migration patterns in relation to abiotic and biotic variables. Model simulations (RIVBIO) are used to calculate the effects of dam operations on the wetted perimeter and benthic biomass in the Kootenai River below Libby Dam. Additional models (IFIM) will also be used to evaluate the impacts of dam operations on the amount of available habitat for different life stages of rainbow and bull trout in the Kootenai River.

  17. Human Capacity Building in Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy System Maintenance for the Yurok Tribe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engel, R. A.' Zoellick, J J.

    2007-07-31

    From July 2005 to July 2007, the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in the implementation of a program designed to build the Tribe’s own capacity to improve energy efficiency and maintain and repair renewable energy systems in Tribal homes on the Yurok Reservation. Funding for this effort was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Tribal Program under First Steps grant award #DE-FG36-05GO15166. The program’s centerpiece was a house-by-house needs assessment, in which Tribal staff visited and conducted energy audits at over fifty homes. The visits included assessment of household energy efficiency and condition of existing renewable energy systems. Staff also provided energy education to residents, evaluated potential sites for new household renewable energy systems, and performed minor repairs as needed on renewable energy systems.

  18. Next Update: November 2016

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    megawatts January NERC Regional Assesment Area 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 FRCC 39,860 37,127 27,122 38,581 37,521 40,258 39,675 45,033 35,545 41,247 34,464 38,352 41,705 44,945 53,093 46,086 38,518 36,733 38,895 NPCC 41,680 41,208 40,009 44,199 45,227 43,553 42,039 45,987 66,215 47,041 43,661 45,002 46,803 45,047 43,849 45,395 43,827 45,545 47,072 Balance of Eastern Region 322,095 335,954 307,784 343,981 347,724 349,937 340,525

  19. Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunnigan, James; DeShazer, Jay; Garrow, Larry (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Libby, MT)

    2005-06-01

    ''Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam'' is part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. The objectives of Phase III of the project (1996 through present) are to implement habitat enhancement measures to mitigate for dam effects, to provide data for implementation of operational strategies that benefit resident fish, monitor reservoir and river conditions, and monitor mitigation projects for effectiveness. This project completes urgent and high priority mitigation actions as directed by the Kootenai Subbasin Plan. Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks (MFWP) uses a combination of techniques to collect physical and biological data within the Kootenai River Basin. These data serve several purposes including: the development and refinement of models used in management of water resources and operation of Libby Dam; investigations into the limiting factors of native fish populations, gathering basic life history information, tracking trends in endangered and threatened species, and the assessment of restoration or management activities designed to restore native fishes and their habitats.

  20. Southwestern Power Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Tariff Standards of Conduct Transmission Planning Open Access Tariff Pursuant to an agreement between Southwestern and Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP), which became effective April 1, 2005, SPP administers Southwestern's Tariff for all new transactions using Southwestern's transmission system. All new requests for transmission service using Southwestern's transmission facilities should be made through SPP. Background In Order No. 888, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC)

  1. City of Nebraska City, Nebraska (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 13334 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying...

  2. Nebraska Public Power District | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 13337 Utility Location Yes Ownership P NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  3. SREL Reprint #3105

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and microtopographic conditions, indicated that three taxa (Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Quercus spp., and Ulmus americana) had patterns consistent with a floodshade tolerance...

  4. untitled

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... in the SPP RTO under terms and conditions that could ... Enter Southwestern and its customers. Within ten minutes of ... within his division to search for the necessary equipment. ...

  5. The generation fleet in MISO is being affected by time, fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Seam - Joint and Common Market process is making progress on a number of issues - Interchange Optimization - Coordinated Transaction Scheduling - Cross Border Planning * SPP Seam ...

  6. Word Pro - Untitled1

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Noncoincident Peak Load 1 by North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) 2 ... and SPP regional boundaries were altered as utilities changed reliability organizations. ...

  7. Microsoft Word - Economic Dispatch final Nov 18.doc

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... SPP Southwest Power Pool TTC total ... scheduling requirements imposed by environmental laws, hydrological conditions, and fuel ... and falling in daily and weekly patterns. ...

  8. Microsoft PowerPoint - Hydro Conf 6-15.pptx [Read-Only]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Value of Flexibility in the Markets June 2015 1 2 Value of Flexibility in the Markets * Basic overview of the SPP and MISO markets * Potential benefit to some SPA customers of using markets to schedule energy * Increasing need for ancillary services, and the value of ancillary services in the markets 3 4 4 MISO/SPP 5 5 SPP Locational Marginal Prices SPA - SPP Prices June 1 - June 7, 2015 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 6/1/2015 6/2/2015 6/3/2015 6/4/2015 6/5/2015 6/6/2015 6/7/2015 $/MWh Day Ahead Real

  9. Suzlon Project VII | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Project VII Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Suzlon Developer Suzlon Energy Purchaser QF on SPP Location Dumas TX...

  10. EIS-0294: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (kV) transmission line, approximately 3.5 miles in length, known as the Sutter Power Plant (SPP). DOEEIS-0294, Department of Energy, Western Area Power Administration,...

  11. A Literature Review, Bibliographic Listing, and Organization of Selected References Relative to Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) and Abiotic and Biotic Attributes of the Columbia River Estuary and Adjacent Marine and Riverine Environs for Various Historical Periods : Measure 7.1A of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program : Report 4 of 4, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costello, Ronald J.

    1996-05-01

    This report contains the results of a literature review on the carrying capacity of Pacific salmon in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of the review was to find the information gaps relative to the determinants of salmon carrying capacity in the Columbia River Basin. The review was one activity designed to answer questions asked in Measure 7.1A of the Councils Fish and Wildlife Program. Based, in part, on the information learned during the literature review and the other work accomplished during this study the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) state concluded that the approach inherent in 7.1A will not increase understanding of ecology, carrying capacity, or limiting factors that influence salmon under current conditions. To increase understanding of ecology, carring capacity, and limiting factors, it is necessary to deal with the complexity of the sustained performance of salmon in the Columbia River Basin. The PNNL team suggests that the regions evaluated carrying capacity from more than one view point. The PNNL team recommends that the region use the contextualistic view for evaluating capacity.

  12. Technology Transfer | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Current Projects Patents Disclosures Contact Information Forms Strategic Partnership Projects (SPP) Contact Us Business Operations Careers/ Human Resources Directory Environment, Safety & Health Furth Plasma Physics Library Lab Leadership Organization Chart Technology Transfer Current Projects Patents Disclosures Contact Information Forms Strategic Partnership Projects (SPP) Technology Transfer Overview Substantial physics, engineering, and technological efforts have been required to build

  13. Tribal Utility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.

    2007-06-30

    The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be developed and sold to the wholesale electricity market. • Facility scale, net metered renewable energy systems – These are renewable energy systems that provide power to individual households or facilities that are connected to conventional electric utility grid.

  14. Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunnigan, James; DeShazer, Jay; Garrow, Larry

    2004-06-01

    ''Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam'' is part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating for damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. The objectives of Phase III of the project (1996 through present) are to implement habitat enhancement measures to mitigate for dam effects, to provide data for implementation of operational strategies that benefit resident fish, monitor reservoir and river conditions, and monitor mitigation projects for effectiveness. This project completes urgent and high priority mitigation actions as directed by the Kootenai Subbasin Plan. Montana FWP uses a combination of diverse techniques to collect a variety of physical and biological data within the Kootenai River Basin. These data serve several purposes including: the development and refinement of models used in management of water resources and operation of Libby Dam; investigations into the limiting factors of native fish populations, gathering basic life history information, tracking trends in endangered, threatened species, and the assessment of restoration or management activities intended to restore native fishes and their habitats.

  15. Contingency Analysis of Cascading Line Outage Events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas L Baldwin; Magdy S Tawfik; Miles McQueen

    2011-03-01

    As the US power systems continue to increase in size and complexity, including the growth of smart grids, larger blackouts due to cascading outages become more likely. Grid congestion is often associated with a cascading collapse leading to a major blackout. Such a collapse is characterized by a self-sustaining sequence of line outages followed by a topology breakup of the network. This paper addresses the implementation and testing of a process for N-k contingency analysis and sequential cascading outage simulation in order to identify potential cascading modes. A modeling approach described in this paper offers a unique capability to identify initiating events that may lead to cascading outages. It predicts the development of cascading events by identifying and visualizing potential cascading tiers. The proposed approach was implemented using a 328-bus simplified SERC power system network. The results of the study indicate that initiating events and possible cascading chains may be identified, ranked and visualized. This approach may be used to improve the reliability of a transmission grid and reduce its vulnerability to cascading outages.

  16. Hydrogen Technology and Energy Curriculum (HyTEC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagle, Barbara

    2013-02-28

    The Lawrence Hall of Science of the University of California, Berkeley has collaborated with scientists and engineers, a local transit agency, school districts, and a commercial curriculum publisher to develop, field-test nationally, and publish a two-week curriculum module on hydrogen and fuel cells for high school science. Key partners in this project are the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) of Humboldt State University, the Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit), FilmSight Productions, Lab-Aids, Inc., and 32 teachers and 2,370 students in field-test classrooms in California, Connecticut, Ohio, New York, South Carolina, and Washington. Field-test teachers received two to three days of professional development before teaching the curriculum and providing feedback used for revision of the curriculum. The curriculum, titled Investigating Alternative Energy: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells and published by Lab-Aids, Inc., includes a teachers guide (with lesson plans, resources, and student handout pages), two interactive computer animations, a video, a website, and a laboratory materials kit. The project has been disseminated to over 950 teachers through awareness workshops at state, regional, and national science teacher conferences.

  17. Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Thomas, J.; Papanikolas, John, P.

    2011-11-11

    SOLAR ENERGY RESEARCH CENTER INSTRUMENTATION FACILITY The mission of the Solar Energy Research Center (UNC SERC) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) is to establish a world leading effort in solar fuels research and to develop the materials and methods needed to fabricate the next generation of solar energy devices. We are addressing the fundamental issues that will drive new strategies for solar energy conversion and the engineering challenges that must be met in order to convert discoveries made in the laboratory into commercially available devices. The development of a photoelectrosynthesis cell (PEC) for solar fuels production faces daunting requirements: (1) Absorb a large fraction of sunlight; (2) Carry out artificial photosynthesis which involves multiple complex reaction steps; (3) Avoid competitive and deleterious side and reverse reactions; (4) Perform 13 million catalytic cycles per year with minimal degradation; (5) Use non-toxic materials; (6) Cost-effectiveness. PEC efficiency is directly determined by the kinetics of each reaction step. The UNC SERC is addressing this challenge by taking a broad interdisciplinary approach in a highly collaborative setting, drawing on expertise across a broad range of disciplines in chemistry, physics and materials science. By taking a systematic approach toward a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of each step, we will be able to gain unique insight and optimize PEC design. Access to cutting-edge spectroscopic tools is critical to this research effort. We have built professionally-staffed facilities equipped with the state-of the-art instrumentation funded by this award. The combination of staff, facilities, and instrumentation specifically tailored for solar fuels research establishes the UNC Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility as a unique, world-class capability. This congressionally directed project funded the development of two user facilities: TASK 1: SOLAR DEVICE FABRICATION LABORATORY DEVELOPMENT The space allocated for this laboratory was “shell space” that required an upfit in order to accommodate nano-fabrication equipment in a quasi-clean room environment. This construction project (cost $279,736) met the non-federal cost share requirement of $250,000 for this award. The central element of the fabrication laboratory is a new $400,000+ stand-alone system, funded by other sources, for fabricating and characterizing photovoltaic devices, in a state-of-the-art nanofabrication environment. This congressionally directed project also included the purchase of an energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) detector for a pre-existing transmission electron microscope (TEM). This detector allows elemental analysis and elemental mapping of materials used to fabricate solar energy devices which is a key priority for our research center. TASK 2: SOLAR ENERGY SPECTROSCOPY LABORATORY DEVELOPMENT (INSTRUMENTATION) This laboratory provides access to modern spectroscopy and photolysis instrumentation for characterizing devices, materials and components on time scales ranging from femtoseconds to seconds and for elucidating mechanisms. The goals of this congressionally directed project included the purchase and installation of spectroscopy and photolysis instrumentation that would substantially and meaningfully enhance the capabilities of this laboratory. Some changes were made to the list of equipment proposed in the original budget. These changes did not represent a change in scope, approach or aims of this project. All of the capabilities and experiments represented in the original budget were maintained. The outcome of this Congressionally Directed Project has been the development of world-class fabrication and spectroscopy user facilities for solar fuels research at UNC-CH. This award has provided a significant augmentation of our pre-existing instrumentation capabilities which were funded by earlier UNC SERC projects, including the Energy Frontier Research Center UNC EFRC, funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Equipment funded by this congressional award has provided important new capabilities for UNC SERC and has greatly facilitated collaborative research by many multi-institutional teams in the six partner institutions of the UNC EFRC, including Duke University, North Carolina Central University, and North Carolina State University. This state-of-the-art instrumentation has allowed us to design cutting-edge experiments that provide insight into the molecular structure and dynamics of materials and components for solar energy conversion under real working conditions. This research has resulted in ten publications already published or in preparation that acknowledge support from DOE EERE for this congressionally directed project.

  18. Evaluation of Two CEDA Weatherization Pilot Implementations of an Exterior Insulation and Over-Clad Retrofit Strategy for Residential Masonry Buildings in Chicago

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, Ken

    2013-08-01

    This project examines the implementation of an exterior insulation and over-clad strategy for brick masonry buildings in Chicagoa free-standing two story two-family dwelling and a larger free-standing multifamily building. The test homes selected for this research represent predominant housing types for the Chicago area, in which high heating energy use typical in these buildings threaten housing affordability, and uninsulated mass masonry wall assemblies are uncomfortable for residents. In this project, the Community and Economic Development Association of Cook County, Inc. (CEDA) has secured a Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) innovation grant sponsored by DOE to pursue a pilot implementation of innovative approaches to retrofit in masonry wall enclosures. The retrofit measures are evaluated in terms of feasibility, cost and performance. Through observations of the strategies implemented, the research described in this report identifies measures critical to performance as well as conditions for wider adoption. The research also identifies common factors that must be considered in determining whether the exterior insulation and over-clad strategy is appropriate for the building.

  19. Evaluation of Two CEDA Weatherization Pilot Implementations of an Exterior Insulation and Over-Clad Retrofit Strategy for Residential Masonry Buildings in Chicago

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, K.

    2013-08-01

    This project examines the implementation of an exterior insulation and over-clad strategy for brick masonry buildings in Chicago. The strategy was implemented at a free-standing two story two-family dwelling and a larger free-standing multifamily building. The test homes selected for this research represent predominant housing types for the Chicago area. High heating energy use typical in these buildings threaten housing affordability. Uninsulated mass masonry wall assemblies also have a strongly detrimental impact on comfort. Significant changes to the performance of masonry wall assemblies is generally beyond the reach of typical weatherization (Wx) program resources. The Community and Economic Development Association of Cook County, Inc. (CEDA) has secured a Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) innovation grant sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). This grant provides CEDA the opportunity to pursue a pilot implementation of innovative approaches to retrofit in masonry wall enclosures. The exterior insulation and over-clad strategy implemented through this project was designed to allow implementation by contractors active in CEDA weatherization programs and using materials and methods familiar to these contractors. The retrofit measures are evaluated in terms of feasibility, cost and performance. Through observations of the strategies implemented, the research described in this report identifies measures critical to performance as well as conditions for wider adoption. The research also identifies common factors that must be considered in determining whether the exterior insulation and over-clad strategy is appropriate for the building.

  20. City of Needles, California (Utility Company) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 13149 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location WECC NERC WECC Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  1. Northwest Rural Pub Pwr Dist | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 13805 Utility Location Yes Ownership P NERC Location WECC NERC MRO Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  2. South Central Public Pwr Dist | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 17548 Utility Location Yes Ownership P NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes This article is a stub....

  3. City of Hastings, Nebraska (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 8245 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  4. North Central Public Pwr Dist | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 13698 Utility Location Yes Ownership P NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  5. From: Jay Caspary To: Congestion Study Comments Cc: Meyer, David...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Jay Caspary To: Congestion Study Comments Cc: Meyer, David; Lanny Nickell Subject: SPP Staff Comments on DOE Congestion Study Date: Monday, October 20, 2014 4:32:04 PM Attachments: ...

  6. Agenda

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at NERSC e) SPP in production mode (Jim Craw) i) Does it Work? ii) Throughput of big jobs is still problematic. - why not more than one job? - what can be done about this? f)...

  7. People's Electric Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 14788 Utility Location Yes Ownership W NERC Location SPP Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility...

  8. Resonant scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by dressed quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Danhong; Cardimona, Dave; Easter, Michelle; Gumbs, Godfrey; Maradudin, A. A.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Zhang, Xiang

    2014-06-23

    The resonant scattering of surface plasmon-polariton waves (SPP) by embedded semiconductor quantum dots above the dielectric/metal interface is explored in the strong-coupling regime. In contrast to non-resonant scattering by a localized dielectric surface defect, a strong resonant peak in the spectrum of the scattered field is predicted that is accompanied by two side valleys. The peak height depends nonlinearly on the amplitude of SPP waves, reflecting the feedback dynamics from a photon-dressed electron-hole plasma inside the quantum dots. This unique behavior in the scattered field peak strength is correlated with the occurrence of a resonant dip in the absorption spectrum of SPP waves due to the interband photon-dressing effect. Our result on the scattering of SPP waves may be experimentally observable and applied to spatially selective illumination and imaging of individual molecules.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: Strategic Partnership Projects, Non-Federal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Entity (SPP/NFE) Agreements Strategic Partnership Projects, Non-Federal Entity (SPP/NFE) Agreements Alt text Potential Sponsors Funding Terms and Conditions Click here to learn more... Potential Partners Our Process Process Flow Click here to learn more... Facilities Explore Sandia Click here to explore Sandia. Projects To support its missions, many of the technologies, processes, and special technical expertise developed at Sandia have been applied to solving problems in the private sector

  10. Characterizing performances of solder paste printing process at flexible manufacturing lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siew, Jit Ping; Low, Heng Chin; Teoh, Ping Chow

    2015-02-03

    Solder paste printing (SPP) has been a challenge on printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing, evident by the proliferation of solder paste inspection equipment, or substituted by rigorous non-value added activity of manual inspections. The objective of this study is to characterize the SPP performance of various products manufactured in flexible production lines with different equipment configurations, and determine areas for process improvement. The study began by collecting information on SPP performance relative to component placement (CP) process, and to the proportion of mixed products. Using a clustering algorithm to group similar elements together, SPP performance across all product-production line pairs are statistically modeled to discover the trend and the influential factors. The main findings are: (a) Ratio of overall dpku for CP and SPP processes are 2:1; (b) logistic regression models of SPP performance indicated that only effects of product-production line and solder paste printer configuration are significant; (c) PCB circuitry design with BGA components and single solder paste printer line configurations generated the highest monthly defects, with the highest variation in the latter.

  11. Selected Area Fishery Evaluation Project Economic Analysis Study Final Report, Final Draft Revision 4: November 10, 2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonneville Power Administration; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this Study is to provide an economic review of current and proposed changes to the Select Area Fishery Evaluation Project (SAFE or Project). The Study results are the information requested in comments made on the Project by a joint review dated March 2005 by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC) Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP) and Independent Economic Analysis Board (IEAB). North et al. (2006) addressed technical questions about operations and plans, and this report contains the response information for comments concerning Project economics. This report can be considered an economic feasibility review meeting guidelines for cost-effective analysis developed by the IEAB (2003). It also contains other economic measurement descriptions to illustrate the economic effects of SAFE. The SAFE is an expansion of a hatchery project (locally called the Clatsop Economic Development Council Fisheries Project or CEDC) started in 1977 that released an early run coho (COH) stock into the Youngs River. The Youngs River entrance to the Columbia River at River Mile 12 is called Youngs Bay, which is located near Astoria, Oregon. The purpose of the hatchery project was to provide increased fishing opportunities for the in-river commercial fishing gillnet fleet. Instead of just releasing fish at the hatchery, a small scale net pen acclimation project in Youngs Bay was tried in 1987. Hirose et al. (1998) found that 1991-1992 COH broodstock over-wintered at the net pens had double the smolt-to-adult return rate (SAR) of traditional hatchery release, less than one percent stray rates, and 99 percent fishery harvests. It was surmised that smolts from other Columbia River hatcheries could be hauled to the net pens for acclimation and release to take advantage of the SAR's and fishing rates. Proposals were tendered to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and other agencies to fund the expansion for using other hatcheries smolts and other off-channel release sites. The BPA, who had been providing funds to the Project since 1982, greatly increased their financial participation for the experimental expansion of the net pen operations in 1993. Instead of just being a funding partner in CEDC operations, the BPA became a major financing source for other hatchery production operations. The BPA has viewed the 10 plus years of funding since then as an explorative project with two phases: a 'research' phase ending in 1993, and a 'development' phase ending in 2006. The next phase is referred to in proposals to BPA for continued funding as an 'establishment' phase to be started in 2007. There are three components of SAFE: (1) The CEDC owns and operates the net pens in the Columbia River estuary on the Oregon side. The CEDC also owns and operates a hatchery on the South Fork Klaskanine River. (2) There are many other hatcheries contributing smolts to the net pen operations. The present suite of hatcheries are operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). The WDFW owns and operates the net pens at Deep River on the Washington side of the Columbia River. (3) The monitoring and evaluation (M&E) responsibilities are performed by employees of WDFW and ODFW. BPA provides funding for all three components as part of NPCC Project No. 199306000. The CEDC and other contributing hatcheries have other sources of funds that also support the SAFE. BPA's minor share (less than 10 percent) of CEDC funding in 1982 grew to about 55 percent in 1993 with the beginning of the development phase of the Project. The balance of the CEDC budget over the years has been from other federal, state, and local government programs. It has also included a 10 percent fee assessment (five percent of ex-vessel value received by harvesters plus five percent of purchase value made by processors) on harvests that take place in off-channel locations near the release sites. The CEDC total annual budget in the last several years has been in the $600 to $700 thousand range. The Project over the years also has relied on heavy volunteer participation and other agency in-kind support. The CEDC budget is exclusive of WDFW and ODFW M&E costs, and all non-CEDC hatchery smolt production costs. The annual estimated operation and management costs for SAFE except for the value of volunteer time and donated materials is in the $2.4 million range. Of this amount, BPA annual funding has been in the $1.6 million or two thirds range in recent years. Depreciation on capital assets (or an equivalent amount for annual contributions to a capital improvement fund) would be in addition to these operation and management costs. North et al. (2006) documented results through the second of three phases and described potential capacities. Full capacity as defined in early planning for the project (TRG 1996) was not reached by the time the second phase ended.

  12. Electrically tunable graded index planar lens based on graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nasari, H. Abrishamian, M. S.

    2014-08-28

    The realization of electrically tunable beam focusing using a properly designed conductivity pattern along a strip on a background single graphene flake with operation in the terahertz regime is proposed and numerically investigated. The strip is illuminated with a guided surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) plane wave and the physical origin of the design procedure is evaluated from the phase of effective mode index of propagating SPP wave on graphene. Upon tuning a gate voltage between the graphene sheet and the substrate, the focus tuning is achieved. Finite- difference time-domain numerical technique is employed to explore the propagation characteristic of SPP wave and the performance parameters of the lens include the focal length, full-width half-maximum, and focusing efficiency. Such a one atom thick planar lens with the capability of electrical focus tuning besides the compatibility with current planar optoelectronic systems can find valuable potential applications in the field of transformational plasmon optics.

  13. Efficient out-coupling and beaming of Tamm optical states via surface plasmon polariton excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Garcia, M.; Ho, Y.-L. D.; Taverne, M. P. C.; Chen, L.-F.; Rarity, J. G.; Oulton, R.; Murshidy, M. M.; Edwards, A. P.; Adawi, A. M.; Serry, M. Y.

    2014-06-09

    We present evidence of optical Tamm states to surface plasmon polariton (SPP) coupling. We experimentally demonstrate that for a Bragg stack with a thin metal layer on the surface, hybrid Tamm-SPP modes may be excited when a grating on the air-metal interface is introduced. Out-coupling via the grating to free space propagation is shown to enhance the transmission as well as the directionality and polarization selection for the transmitted beam. We suggest that this system will be useful on those devices, where a metallic electrical contact as well as beaming and polarization control is needed.

  14. Collaborative Systemwide Monitoring and Evaluation Project (CSMEP) - Year 5 : Annual Report for FY 2008.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marmorek, David R.; Porter, Marc; Pickard, Darcy; Wieckowski, Katherine

    2008-11-19

    The Collaborative Systemwide Monitoring and Evaluation Project (CSMEP) is a coordinated effort to improve the quality, consistency, and focus of fish population and habitat data to answer key monitoring and evaluation questions relevant to major decisions in the Columbia River Basin. CSMEP was initiated by the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority (CBFWA) in October 2003. The project is funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) through the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's Fish and Wildlife Program (NPCC). CSMEP is a major effort of the federal state and Tribal fish and wildlife managers to develop regionally integrated monitoring and evaluation (M&E) across the Columbia River Basin. CSMEP has focused its work on five monitoring domains: status and trends monitoring of populations and action effectiveness monitoring of habitat, harvest, hatcheries, and the hydrosystem. CSMEP's specific goals are to: (1) interact with federal, state and tribal programmatic and technical entities responsible for M&E of fish and wildlife, to ensure that work plans developed and executed under this project are well integrated with ongoing work by these entities; (2) document, integrate, and make available existing monitoring data on listed salmon, steelhead, bull trout and other fish species of concern; (3) critically assess strengths and weaknesses of these data for answering key monitoring questions; and (4) collaboratively design, implement and evaluate improved M&E methods with other programmatic entities in the Pacific Northwest. During FY2008 CSMEP biologists continued their reviews of the strengths and weaknesses (S&W) of existing subbasin inventory data for addressing monitoring questions about population status and trends at different spatial and temporal scales. Work was focused on Lower Columbia Chinook and steelhead, Snake River fall Chinook, Upper Columbia Spring Chinook and steelhead, and Middle Columbia River Chinook and steelhead. These FY2008 data assessments and others assembled over the years of the CSMEP project can be accessed on the CBFWA public website. The CSMEP web database (http://csmep.streamnet.org/) houses metadata inventories from S&W assessments of Columbia River Basin watersheds that were completed prior to FY2008. These older S&W assessments are maintained by StreamNet, but budget cutbacks prevented us from adding the new FY2008 assessments into the database. Progress was made in FY2008 on CSMEP's goals of collaborative design of improved M&E methods. CSMEP convened two monitoring design workshops in Portland (December 5 and 6, 2007 and February 11 and 12, 2008) to continue exploration of how best to integrate the most robust features of existing M&E programs with new approaches. CSMEP continued to build on this information to develop improved designs and analytical tools for monitoring the status and trends of fish populations and the effectiveness of hatchery and hydrosystem recovery actions within the Columbia River Basin. CSMEP did not do any new work on habitat or harvest effectiveness monitoring designs in FY2008 due to budget cutbacks. CSMEP presented the results of the Snake Basin Pilot Study to the Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP) in Portland on December 7, 2008. This study is the finalization of CSMEP's pilot exercise of developing design alternatives across different M&E domains within the Snake River Basin spring/summer Chinook ESU. This work has been summarized in two linked reports (CSMEP 2007a and CSMEP 2007b). CSMEP participants presented many of the analyses developed for the Snake Basin Pilot work at the Western Division American Fisheries Society (AFS) conference in Portland on May 4 to 7, 2008. For the AFS conference CSMEP organized a symposium on regional monitoring and evaluation approaches. A presentation on CSMEP's Cost Integration Database Tool and Salmon Viability Monitoring Simulation Model developed for the Snake Basin Pilot Study was also given to the Pacific Northwest Aquatic monitoring Partnership (PNAMP) stee

  15. Libby Mitigation Program, 2007 Annual Progress Report: Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunnigan, James; DeShazer, J.; Garrow, L.

    2009-05-26

    Libby Reservoir was created under an International Columbia River Treaty between the United States and Canada for cooperative water development of the Columbia River Basin (Columbia River Treaty 1964). Libby Reservoir inundated 109 stream miles of the mainstem Kootenai River in the United States and Canada, and 40 miles of tributary streams in the U.S. that provided habitat for spawning, juvenile rearing, and migratory passage (Figure 1). The authorized purpose of the dam is to provide power (91.5%), flood control (8.3%), and navigation and other benefits (0.2%; Storm et al. 1982). The Pacific Northwest Power Act of 1980 recognized possible conflicts stemming from hydroelectric projects in the northwest and directed Bonneville Power Administration to 'protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife to the extent affected by the development and operation of any hydroelectric project of the Columbia River and its tributaries' (4(h)(10)(A)). Under the Act, the Northwest Power Planning Council was created and recommendations for a comprehensive fish and wildlife program were solicited from the region's federal, state, and tribal fish and wildlife agencies. Among Montana's recommendations was the proposal that research be initiated to quantify acceptable seasonal minimum pool elevations to maintain or enhance the existing fisheries (Graham et al. 1982). Research to determine how operations of Libby Dam affect the reservoir and river fishery and to suggest ways to lessen these effects began in May 1983. The framework for the Libby Reservoir Model (LRMOD) was completed in 1989. Development of Integrated Rule Curves (IRCs) for Libby Dam operation was completed in 1996 (Marotz et al. 1996). The Libby Reservoir Model and the IRCs continue to be refined (Marotz et al 1999). Initiation of mitigation projects such as lake rehabilitation and stream restoration began in 1996. The primary focus of the Libby Mitigation project now is to restore the fisheries and fish habitat in basin streams and lakes. 'Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam' is part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. The objectives of Phase III of the project (1996 through present) are to implement habitat enhancement measures to mitigate for dam effects, to provide data for implementation of operational strategies that benefit resident fish, monitor reservoir and river conditions, and monitor mitigation projects for effectiveness. This project completes urgent and high priority mitigation actions as directed by the Kootenai Subbasin Plan.

  16. The Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project, 2008 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contor, Craig R.; Harris, Robin; King, Marty

    2009-06-10

    The Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (UBNPMEP) is funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as directed by section 4(h) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P.L.96-501). This project is in accordance with and pursuant to measures 4.2A, 4.3C.1, 7.1A.2, 7.1C.3, 7.1C.4 and 7.1D.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Work was conducted by the Fisheries Program of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). The UBNPMEP is coordinated with two Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) research projects that also monitor and evaluate the success of the Umatilla Fisheries Restoration Plan. This project deals with the natural production component of the plan, and the ODFW projects evaluate hatchery operations (project No. 1990-005-00, Umatilla Hatchery M & E) and smolt outmigration (project No. 1989-024-01, Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River). Collectively these three projects monitor and evaluate natural and hatchery salmonid production in the Umatilla River Basin. The need for natural production monitoring has been identified in multiple planning documents including Wy-Kan-Ush-Mi Wa-Kish-Wit Volume I, 5b-13 (CRITFC 1996), the Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan (CTUIR & ODFW 1990), the Umatilla Basin Annual Operation Plan, the Umatilla Subbasin Summary (CTUIR & ODFW 2001), the Subbasin Plan (CTUIR & ODFW 2004), and the Comprehensive Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation Plan (CTUIR and ODFW 2006). Natural production monitoring and evaluation is also consistent with Section III, Basinwide Provisions, Strategy 9 of the 2000 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, NPCC 2004). The Umatilla Basin M&E plan developed along with efforts to restore natural populations of spring and fall Chinook salmon, (Oncorhynchus tshawytsha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), and enhance summer steelhead (O. mykiss). The need for restoration began with agricultural development in the early 1900's that extirpated salmon and reduced steelhead runs (Bureau of Reclamation, BOR 1988). The most notable development was the construction and operation of Three Mile Falls Dam (TMD) and other irrigation projects which dewatered the Umatilla River during salmon migrations. CTUIR and ODFW developed the Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan to restore fisheries to the basin. The plan was completed in 1990 and included the following objectives which were updated in 1999: (1) Establish hatchery and natural runs of Chinook and coho salmon. (2) Enhance existing summer steelhead populations through a hatchery program. (3) Provide sustainable tribal and non-tribal harvest of salmon and steelhead. (4) Maintain the genetic characteristics of salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin. (5) Increase annual returns to Three Mile Falls Dam to 31,500 adult salmon and steelhead. In the past the M&E project conducted long-term monitoring activities as well as two and three-year projects that address special needs for adaptive management. Examples of these projects include adult passage evaluations, habitat assessment surveys (Contor et al. 1995, Contor et al. 1996, Contor et al. 1997, Contor et al. 1998), and genetic monitoring (Currens & Schreck 1995, Narum et al. 2004). The project's goal is to provide quality information to managers and researchers working to restore anadromous salmonids to the Umatilla River Basin. The status of completion of each of BPA's standardized work element was reported in 'Pisces'(March 2008) and is summarized.

  17. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial reward for supplying spinning reserve than for supplying the other reserve services as a result of the higher spinning reserve prices. The LIPAedge program (LIPA's demand reduction program using Carrier ComfortChoice thermostats) provides an opportunity to test the use of responsive load for spinning reserve. With potentially 75 MW of spinning reserve capability already installed, this test program can also make an important contribution to the capacity needs of Long Island during the summer of 2003. Testing could also be done at ConEd ({approx}30 MW), SCE ({approx}15 MW), and/or SDG&E ({approx}15 MW). This paper is divided into six chapters. Chapter 2 discusses the contingency reserve ancillary services, their functions in supporting power system reliability, and their technical requirements. It also discusses the policy and tariff requirements and attempts to distinguish between ones that are genuinely necessary and ones that are artifacts of the technologies that were historically used to provide the services. Chapter 3 discusses how responsive load could provide contingency reserves (especially spinning reserve) for the power system. Chapter 4 specifically discusses the Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostat technology, the LIPAedge experience with that technology, and how the technology could be used to supply spinning reserve. Chapter 5 discusses a number of unresolved issues and suggests areas for further research. Chapter 6 offers conclusions and recommendations.

  18. Effect of the band structure of InGaN/GaN quantum well on the surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yi; Zhang, Rong E-mail: bliu@nju.edu.cn; Liu, Bin E-mail: bliu@nju.edu.cn; Xie, Zili; Zhang, Guogang; Tao, Tao; Zhuang, Zhe; Zhi, Ting; Zheng, Youdou

    2014-07-07

    The spontaneous emission (SE) of InGaN/GaN quantum well (QW) structure with silver(Ag) coated on the n-GaN layer has been investigated by using six-by-six K-P method taking into account the electron-hole band structures, the photon density of states of surface plasmon polariton (SPP), and the evanescent fields of SPP. The SE into SPP mode can be remarkably enhanced due to the increase of electron-hole pairs near the Ag by modulating the InGaN/GaN QW structure or increasing the carrier injection. However, the ratio between the total SE rates into SPP mode and free space will approach to saturation or slightly decrease for the optimized structures with various distances between Ag film and QW layer at a high injection carrier density. Furthermore, the Ga-face QW structure has a higher SE rate than the N-face QW structure due to the overlap region of electron-hole pairs nearer to the Ag film.

  19. EIS-0294: Sutter Power Project, Sutter County, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes Western Area Power Administration's (Western) decision to support Calpine Corporation (Calpine) to construct an electric generating facility and associated 230-kilovolt (kV) transmission line, approximately 3.5 miles in length, known as the Sutter Power Plant (SPP).

  20. Graphene-based terahertz tunable plasmonic directional coupler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Meng-Dong, E-mail: hemendong@sohu.com; Wang, Kai-Jun; Wang, Lei; Li, Jian-Bo [Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004 (China); Liu, Jian-Qiang [College of Science, Jiujiang University, Jiujiang 332005 (China); Huang, Zhen-Rong; Wang, Lingling [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Wang, Lin; Hu, Wei-Da; Chen, Xiaoshuang [National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 200083 (China)

    2014-08-25

    We propose and numerically analyze a terahertz tunable plasmonic directional coupler which is composed of a thin metal film with a nanoscale slit, dielectric grating, a graphene sheet, and a dielectric substrate. The slit is employed to generate surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), and the metal-dielectric grating-graphene-dielectric constructs a Bragg reflector, whose bandgap can be tuned over a wide frequency range by a small change in the Fermi energy level of graphene. As a graphene-based Bragg reflector is formed on one side of the slit, the structure enables SPP waves to be unidirectionally excited on the other side of the slit due to SPP interference, and the SPP waves in the Bragg reflector can be efficiently switched on and off by tuning the graphene's Fermi energy level. By introducing two optimized graphene-based Bragg reflectors into opposite sides of the slit, SPP waves can be guided to different Bragg reflectors at different Fermi energy levels, thus achieving a tunable bidirectional coupler.

  1. Molecular biological enhancement of coal desulfurization: Cloning and expression of the sulfoxide/sulfone/sulfonate/sulfate genes in Pseudomonads and Thiobacillae. [Rhodococcus erythropolis, Thiobacillus acidophilus, Thiobacillus novellus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krawiec, S.

    1992-01-01

    Research continues on desulfurization of coal using microorganisms. Topics reported on this quarter include: desulfurization with N1-36 (presumptively identified as Rhodochrous erythropolis), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of chromosomal DNA's of Thiobacillus spp., and fresh isolates with the presumptive capacity to desulfurize dibenzothiophenes.

  2. Molecular biological enhancement of coal desulfurization: Cloning and expression of the sulfoxide/sulfone/sulfonate/sulfate genes in Pseudomonads and Thiobacillae. Eleventh quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krawiec, S.

    1992-08-01

    Research continues on desulfurization of coal using microorganisms. Topics reported on this quarter include: desulfurization with N1-36 (presumptively identified as Rhodochrous erythropolis), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of chromosomal DNA`s of Thiobacillus spp., and fresh isolates with the presumptive capacity to desulfurize dibenzothiophenes.

  3. Engineering of thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans for production of D(-)-lactic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Qingzhao; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-12-02

    Genetically modified microorganisms having the ability to produce D(-)-lactic acid at temperatures between 30.degree. C. and 55.degree. C. are provided. In various embodiments, the microorganisms may have the chromosomal lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) gene and/or the chromosomal acetolactate synthase (alsS) gene inactivated. Exemplary microorganisms for use in the disclosed methods are Bacillus spp., such as Bacillus coagulans.

  4. VEHICLE ACCESS PORTALS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jemez Road (Map 2) VEHICLE ACCESS PORTALS Changes Effective January 11, 2010 Traffc Lane 1: No stop required. Drivers must slow down to 15 MPH while nearing and driving through the lane Traffc Lane 2: Closed except for random inspections. Note: All vehicles (commercial, private, government) are subject to random inspections while on Laboratory property. More Information: spp-questions@lanl.gov

  5. Special Population Planner for Emergency Management

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-04-17

    The SPP is a tool for use by emergency management agencies in creating plans for possible events requiring their attention. It incorporates extensive data including those on special needs populations so that this segment of the population will be considered in general plans.

  6. Fabrication of metal matrix composite by semi-solid powder processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yufeng

    2012-11-28

    Various metal matrix composites (MMCs) are widely used in the automotive, aerospace and electrical industries due to their capability and flexibility in improving the mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of a component. However, current manufacturing technologies may suffer from insufficient process stability and reliability and inadequate economic efficiency and may not be able to satisfy the increasing demands placed on MMCs. Semi-solid powder processing (SPP), a technology that combines traditional powder metallurgy and semi-solid forming methods, has potential to produce MMCs with low cost and high efficiency. In this work, the analytical study and experimental investigation of SPP on the fabrication of MMCs were explored. An analytical model was developed to understand the deformation mechanism of the powder compact in the semi-solid state. The densification behavior of the Al6061 and SiC powder mixtures was investigated with different liquid fractions and SiC volume fractions. The limits of SPP were analyzed in terms of reinforcement phase loading and its impact on the composite microstructure. To explore adoption of new materials, carbon nanotube (CNT) was investigated as a reinforcing material in aluminum matrix using SPP. The process was successfully modeled for the mono-phase powder (Al6061) compaction and the density and density distribution were predicted. The deformation mechanism at low and high liquid fractions was discussed. In addition, the compaction behavior of the ceramic-metal powder mixture was understood, and the SiC loading limit was identified by parametric study. For the fabrication of CNT reinforced Al6061 composite, the mechanical alloying of Al6061-CNT powders was first investigated. A mathematical model was developed to predict the CNT length change during the mechanical alloying process. The effects of mechanical alloying time and processing temperature during SPP were studied on the mechanical, microstructural and compositional properties of the Al6061-CNT composites. A shear lag model was applied to predict the mechanical property (hardness) of the composite. This work demonstrated the promising potential of SPP in the fabrication of particle/fiber (nanotube) reinforced MMCs.

  7. Seasonal food habits of the coyote in the South Carolina coastal plain.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrecengost, J. D.; Kilgo, J. C.; Mallard, D.; Ray, H. Scott; Miller, K. V.

    2008-07-01

    Abstract - Spatial and temporal plasticity in Canis latrans (coyote) diets require regional studies to understand the ecological role of this omnivorous canid. Because coyotes have recently become established in South Carolina, we investigated their food habits by collecting 415 coyote scats on the Savannah River Site in western South Carolina from May 2005-July 2006. Seasonally available soft mast was the most common food item in 12 of the 15 months we sampled. Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) was the most common food item during December (40%) and March (37%). During May-June, fruits of Prunus spp. and Rubus spp. were the most commonly occurring food items. Fawns were the most common mammalian food item during May and June of both years despite low deer density.

  8. Special population planner, version 4.0.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuiper, J.; Tanzman, E.; Metz, W.

    2007-03-26

    Emergencies happen every day. Many are caused by storms or auto accidents and can be planned for, if not predicted. Emergencies resulting from natural hazards often affect a large number of people, and planning for them can be difficult, since knowledge of the needs of the people involved is generally unavailable. Emergencies resulting from accidents at industrial and military facilities can also be large scale in nature if people must be evacuated or sheltered in place. Federal planning for large scale emergencies is the responsibility of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), which provides assistance to various emergency management agencies at the national, state and local level. More information about FEMA is available at http://www.fema.gov/. The purpose of the Special Population Planner (SPP) is to help emergency planners address the needs of persons with special needs. The exact definition of 'special population' is a policy decision. Policymakers have included a variety of groups in this term, such as persons with disabilities, those who do not have vehicles with which to evacuate, children who are unattended at times (latchkey children), and many others. The SPP was developed initially for the Alabama Emergency Management Agency as part of its Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), which aids emergency planning and preparedness in communities surrounding military installations across the United States where chemical weapons are stored pending their destruction under federal law. Like that specialized application, this open-source version contains a set of specialized Geographic Information System (GIS) tools to facilitate emergency planning on behalf of persons with special needs, regardless of how the term is defined. While the original SPP system was developed for emergency planning relating to chemical hazards, it can be applied to other threats as well. It is apparent from Hurricane Katrina and other natural and man-made disasters that many of the problems posed by emergency planning for a chemical weapons agent release are shared by other hazards as well. The notion that emergency planning shares common functions underlies the decision by FEMA to include the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) in its 'all-hazards' planning approach. The CSEPP's official planning guidance operationalizes this approach by suggesting that state and local CSEPP emergency plans 'should be appended to the existing all-hazards emergency plan.' The SPP is programmed as a set of tools within an ESRI ArcMap 9.1 project. ArcMap is a component of both ESRI ArcGIS 9.1 and ESRI ArcView 9.1, and it provides a rich GIS user interface for viewing spatial and tabular data, analyzing it, and producing output reports and maps. This GIS interface has been augmented with the SPP tools for a user interface that provides custom functionality for emergency planning. The system as released also includes some hypothetical example records for special needs populations, facilities, resources, control points and sirens sufficient for showing how the system would work with real information. A GIS database is included with some publicly available example layers. The SPP is designed to support emergency planners as they address emergency management issues, and includes capabilities that support the collection and importing of data, the review of data in a spatial context, and GIS tools for emergency planning. The SPP system allows for the identification and categorization of response zones to allow for multiple levels of preparedness. An Immediate Response Zone (IRZ) might be designated as the area 0 to 10 miles from a facility where the response would be the most urgent. SPP can support more than one set of planning zones to accommodate different types of emergencies or the different jurisdictions of emergency response organizations. These areas can be delineated by any number of criteria that make sense for the area. An area like New Orleans might designate response zones based on the depth above/below s

  9. Transformation of surface plasmon polaritons to radiation in graphene in terahertz regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Sen; Zhao, Tao; Hu, Min; Zhong, Renbin; Chen, Xiaoxing; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Shenggang; Sanderson, Matthew; Zhang, Chao

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate a concept that allows direct excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) by a moving electron bunch above a single layer graphene sheet deposited on a dielectric substrate without any additional coupling requirements. We show that if the two-dimensional current in the graphene is dominated by the third order nonlinear effect when the surface electric field exceeds a moderate strength of ∼5 kV/cm, the SPP mode can cross the light line although the group velocity remains much smaller than the speed of light. This effect gives rise to direct transformation of SPPs into radiation. The underlying mechanism of the crossing of the SPP dispersion into the light line is the energy shift of charged particles in the nonlinear regime and the finite transport scattering time in graphene. Both the energy and lifetime of the SPPs increase with the field intensity. The radiation intensity and frequency can be tuned with an AC bias.

  10. January 2008 RFP Fixed Price Unit Contingent Products Results of Evaluation LPSC Staff Update February 11, 2008

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Pre-Congestion Study Regional Workshop for the 2012 National Electric Congestion Study Entergy System December 8, 2011 2 DOE 2009 Congestion Study DOE Study notes that: - Several load pockets exist on the Entergy system-Acadiana, Amite South, WOTAB (West of the Atchafalaya Basin). - McAdams flowgate (the interface between Entergy and TVA) is congested. - There is limited transfer capability in the Ozarks between Entergy and SPP. - ICT is studying the need for upgrades. DOE

  11. Department of Energy Idaho - Strategic Partnership Projects (formerly WFO)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inside ID > Strategic Partnership Projects blank, used for page layout only Strategic Partnership Projects Formerly Work For Others (WFO) SPP Administrator Jose Elizondo (208) 526-0965 wfo@id.doe.gov Technology Partnerships Program Specialist Sara Twining (208) 526-5987 wfo@id.doe.gov Office of Chief Counsel Stewart Forbes (208) 526-3715 Budget Services Division Laurie Acosta Peterson (208) 526-0459 Contracting Officer Jeff Fogg (208) 526-4958 Classification Officer John Gilmore (208)

  12. Energy Materials Network Funding Opportunities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Funding Opportunities Energy Materials Network Funding Opportunities Stakeholders from industry, academia, and the national labs can partner with the Energy Material Network's (EMN) consortia through several mechanisms. These mechanisms are intended to be available via short-form agreements that can be executed in less than one month. First, stakeholders can engage in strategic partnership projects (SPPs). In an SPP, an EMN consortium will assist stakeholders in identifying the appropriate

  13. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool In 2007, the Southwest Power Pool (SPP) formed the Customer Response Task Force (CRTF) to identify barriers to deploying demand response (DR) resources in wholesale markets and develop policies to overcome these barriers. One of the initiatives of this Task Force was to develop more detailed information on existing retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs, program rules, and utility operating

  14. Working with CMI: Associates | Critical Materials Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Associates CMI Associates work with CMI researchers to define a scope of work, budget and timeline for the work. Once internally approved, the entity must execute either a CRADA or SPP with Ames or another Team national laboratory before work may begin. For more information, contact Stacy Joiner: joiner@ameslab.gov, 515-294-5932 CMIaffiliates@ameslab.gov CMI Membership Program, The Ames Laboratory, 311 TASF, Ames, IA, 50011-3020

  15. Microsoft PowerPoint - Cherri Schmidt Working with National Labs.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOE's National Laboratories Cherri J Schmidt Accelerator Stewardship Test Facility Pilot Program 28 April 2015 Overview * National Laboratories as Engines of Innovation * Several Partnership Mechanisms * A Few Rules of Engagement * Getting Started 4/30/2015 CSchmidt | Working with National Labs 2 National Laboratories as Engines of Innovation *Leveraging Unique Skills (SPP) *Partnering to Advance Technology (CRADA) *Driving New Jobs and New Industries (Procurement) *Leveraging Unique Facilities

  16. DOE's Policy Regarding Laboratories, Plants and Sites Engaging in Strategic Partnership Projects with Other Federal Agencies, Independent Organizations, and the Private Sector

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2014-12-17

    The purpose of this Policy is to set the context in which DOE and its laboratories, plants, and sites should pursue Strategic Partnership Projects (SPP) with other Federal government agencies, state and local institutions, universities, foreign entities and/or private companies. The Policy is applicable to the DOE laboratories, plants, and sites, and to the DOE programs that own them and facilitate their work. Does not cancel/supersede other directives.

  17. Click to add title

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Perspectives on Transmission Congestion Bob Bradish Managing Director, Transmission Planning & Business Development American Electric Power U.S. Department of Energy National Electric Transmission Congestion Study Workshop December 6, 2011 2 American Electric Power 5.2 million customers in 11 states ~18,000 employees Largest distributor of electricity in the U.S. - 215,800 miles Largest transmission owner - 39,000 miles 2 nd largest generator - 39,000 MW Operations in 3 RTOs - PJM, SPP,

  18. VEHICLE ACCESS PORTALS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jemez Road (Map 1) VEHICLE ACCESS PORTALS Traffc Lane 1: Closed except for emergencies and maintenance operations. Traffc Lanes 2-7: Drivers required to stop and present LANL badges or other form of valid identifcation to Protective Force offcers. Drivers may proceed upon direction of the offcers. Note: Commercial delivery vehicle drivers must also pres- ent their inspection passes from Post 10. More Information: spp-questions@lanl.gov Non-work Hours Vehicles entering LANL at the East Jemez VAPs

  19. Microsoft Word - S11432_2013Annual Rpt.docx

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    380 South Walnut Creek is interpreted to be insignificant. The uranium isotopic data summarized in Table 113 further support this interpretation. See Section 3.1.5 for additional discussion of groundwater quality in the SPP area. A third batch of samples was being identified for LBNL analysis as 2013 ended. Some will date to 2013, including just following the heavy precipitation of September. These samples will be selected and submitted to LBNL in 2014, and potentially additional batches will be

  20. The Exiguobacterium genus: biodiversity and biogeography (Journal Article)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect The Exiguobacterium genus: biodiversity and biogeography Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Exiguobacterium genus: biodiversity and biogeography Abstract. Bacteria of the genus Exiguobacterium are low G + C, Gram-positive facultative anaerobes that have been repeatedly isolated from ancient Siberian permafrost. In addition, Exiguobacterium spp. have been isolated from markedly diverse sources, including Greenland Glacial ice, hot springs at Yellowstone National

  1. Synthesis of mono-dispersed nanofluids using solution plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heo, Yong Kang; Bratescu, Maria Antoaneta; Ueno, Tomonaga; Saito, Nagahiro

    2014-07-14

    Small-sized and well-dispersed gold nanoparticles (NPs) for nanofluidics have been synthesized by electrical discharge in liquid environment using termed solution plasma processing (SPP). Electrons and the hydrogen radicals are reducing the gold ions to the neutral form in plasma gas phase and liquid phase, respectively. The gold NPs have the smallest diameter of 4.9?nm when the solution temperature was kept at 20?C. Nucleation and growth theory describe the evolution of the NP diameter right after the reduction reaction in function of the system temperature, NP surface energy, dispersion energy barrier, and nucleation rate. Negative charges on the NPs surface during and after SPP generate repulsive forces among the NPs avoiding their agglomeration in solution. Increasing the average energy in the SPP determines a decrease of the zeta potential and an increase of the NPs diameter. An important enhancement of the thermal conductivity of 9.4% was measured for the synthesized nanofluids containing NPs with the smallest size.

  2. Analysis of organic pollutant degradation in pulsed plasma by coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bratescu, Maria Antoneta; Hieda, Junko; Umemura, Tomonari; Saito, Nagahiro; Takai, Osamu

    2011-05-15

    The degradation of p-benzoquinone (p-BQ) in water was investigated by the coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) method, in which the change of the anti-Stokes signal intensity corresponding to the vibrational transitions of the molecule is monitored during and after solution plasma processing (SPP). In the beginning of SPP treatment, the CARS signal intensity of the ring vibrational molecular transitions at 1233 and 1660 cm{sup -1} increases under the influence of the electric field of the plasma, depending on the delay time between the plasma pulse and the laser firing pulse. At the same time, the plasma contributes to the degradation of p-BQ molecules by generating hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals, which decompose p-BQ into different carboxylic acids. After SPP, the CARS signal intensity of the vibrational bands of p-BQ ceased and the degradation of p-BQ was confirmed by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography analysis.

  3. Evaluation of remedial alternatives for the Solar Ponds Plume, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hranac, K.C.; Chromec, F.W.; Fiehweg, R.; Hopkins, J.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes the process used to select a remedial alternative for handling contaminated groundwater emanating from the Solar Evaporation Ponds (Solar Ponds) at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) and prevent it from reaching the nearest surface water body, North Walnut Creek. Preliminary results of field investigations conducted to provide additional information for the alternatives analysis are also presented. The contaminated groundwater is referred to as the Solar Ponds Plume (SPP). The primary contaminants in the SPP are nitrate and uranium; however, some metals exceed the site action levels at several locations and volatile organic compounds, originating from other sources, also have been detected. Currently the SPP, local surface water runoff, and infiltrated precipitation are collected by a trench system located downgradient of the Solar Ponds and pumped to three storage tanks. The water (two to three million gallons annually) is then pumped to an on-site treatment plant for evaporation at an approximate cost of $7.57 per liter.

  4. Mixing of Isotactic and Syndiotactic Polypropylenes in the Melt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CLANCY,THOMAS C.; PUTZ,MATHIAS; WEINHOLD,JEFFREY D.; CURRO,JOHN G.; MATTICE,WAYNE L.

    2000-07-14

    The miscibility of polypropylene (PP) melts in which the chains differ only in stereochemical composition has been investigated by two different procedures. One approach used detailed local information from a Monte Carlo simulation of a single chain, and the other approach takes this information from a rotational isomeric state model devised decades ago, for another purpose. The first approach uses PRISM theory to deduce the intermolecular packing in the polymer blend, while the second approach uses a Monte Carlo simulation of a coarse-grained representation of independent chains, expressed on a high-coordination lattice. Both approaches find a positive energy change upon mixing isotactic PP (iPP) and syndiotactic polypropylene (sPP) chains in the melt. This conclusion is qualitatively consistent with observations published recently by Muelhaupt and coworkers. The size of the energy chain on mixing is smaller in the MC/PRISM approach than in the RIS/MC simulation, with the smaller energy change being in better agreement with the experiment. The RIS/MC simulation finds no demixing for iPP and atactic polypropylene (aPP) in the melt, consistent with several experimental observations in the literature. The demixing of the iPP/sPP blend may arise from attractive interactions in the sPP melt that are disrupted when the sPP chains are diluted with aPP or iPP chains.

  5. Effect of graphene on photoluminescence properties of graphene/GeSi quantum dot hybrid structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y. L.; Ma, Y. J.; Wang, W. Q.; Ding, K.; Wu, Q.; Fan, Y. L.; Yang, X. J.; Zhong, Z. Y.; Jiang, Z. M., E-mail: zmjiang@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (Ministry of Education) and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Chen, D. D.; Xu, F. [SHU-SolarE R and D Lab, Department of Physics, College of Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2014-07-14

    Graphene has been discovered to have two effects on the photoluminescence (PL) properties of graphene/GeSi quantum dot (QD) hybrid structures, which were formed by covering monolayer graphene sheet on the multilayer ordered GeSi QDs sample surfaces. At the excitation of 488?nm laser line, the hybrid structure had a reduced PL intensity, while at the excitation of 325?nm, it had an enhanced PL intensity. The attenuation in PL intensity can be attributed to the transferring of electrons from the conducting band of GeSi QDs to the graphene sheet. The electron transfer mechanism was confirmed by the time resolved PL measurements. For the PL enhancement, a mechanism called surface-plasmon-polariton (SPP) enhanced absorption mechanism is proposed, in which the excitation of SPP in the graphene is suggested. Due to the resonant excitation of SPP by incident light, the absorption of incident light is much enhanced at the surface region, thus leading to more exciton generation and a PL enhancement in the region. The results may be helpful to provide us a way to improve optical properties of low dimensional surface structures.

  6. When are surface plasmon polaritons excited in the Kretschmann-Raether configuration?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Foley, IV, Jonathan J.; Harutyunyan, Hayk; Rosenmann, Daniel; Divan, Ralu; Wiederrecht, Gary P.; Gray, Stephen K.

    2015-04-23

    It is widely believed that the reflection minimum in a Kretschmann-Raether experiment results from direct coupling into surface plasmon polariton modes. Our experimental results provide a surprising discrepancy between the leakage radiation patterns of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) launched on a layered gold/germanium film compared to the K-R minimum, clearly challenging this belief. We provide definitive evidence that the reflectance dip in K-R experiments does not correlate with excitation of an SPP mode, but rather corresponds to a particular type of perfectly absorbing (PA) mode. Results from rigorous electrodynamics simulations show that the PA mode can only exist under externalmore » driving, whereas the SPP can exist in regions free from direct interaction with the driving field. These simulations show that it is possible to indirectly excite propagating SPPs guided by the reflectance minimum in a K-R experiment, but demonstrate the efficiency can be lower by more than a factor of 3. We find that optimal coupling into the SPP can be guided by the square magnitude of the Fresnel transmission amplitude.« less

  7. Autecology of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in tropical waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivera, S.; Lugo, T.; Hazen, T.C.

    1988-12-31

    Water and shellfish samples collected from estuaries, mangroves, and beaches along the coast of Puerto Rico were examined for Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. An array of water quality parameters were also measured simultaneous with bacteria sampling. Both species of vibrio were associated with estuary and mangrove locations, and neither was isolated from sandy beaches. Densities of V. vulnificus were negatively correlated with salinity, 10--15 ppt being optimal. V. parahaemolyticus was isolated from sites with salinities between 20 and 35 ppt, the highest densities occurring at 20 ppt. Densities of Vibrio spp. and V. parahaemolyticus for a tropical estuary surpassed those reported for temperate estuaries by several orders of magnitude. Both densities of total Vibrio spp. and V. parahaemolyticus in the water were directly related to densities of fecal coliforms, unlike V. vulnificus. The incidence of ONPG(+) strains among sucrose({minus}) Vibrio spp. served as an indicator of the frequency of V. vulnificus in this group. More than 63% of the V. vulnificus isolated were pathogenic. V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus occupy clearly separate niches within the tropical estuarine-marine ecosystem.

  8. Hematology, Parasitology, and Serology of Free-Ranging Coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Debra, Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Merrill, Anita; Kilgo, John; Ray, H., Scott; Karl V. Miller, Karl, V.; Baldwin, Charles, A.

    2009-07-01

    ABSTRACT: Blood and feces were collected from 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven juvenile (three males, one female, three not reported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) on the US Department of Energys Savannah River Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant (P,0.05) hematologic differences by sex were noted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex occurred only for albumen (P,0.05). Twentyone adults were antibody positive for at least one of four viruses: canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1; 68%), West Nile virus (WNV; 60%), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; 38%), and Canine distemper virus (CDV; 15%). Of the seven Leptospira serovars tested for, seven (25%) of 28 adults were positive for one or more of five serovars: Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, and Autumnalis. Three (43%) of seven juveniles had seropositivity for a virus, one each for CDV, CAV-1, and WNV. No juveniles were seropositive for EEEV or any of the seven Leptospira serovars. Blood smears of 12 adults were positive for Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria, but blood smears from all juveniles were negative. Parvovirus was identified by electron microscopy from the feces of one adult. Ancylostoma spp., Trichuris spp., and Isospora spp. were observed in fecal samples. These data may aid in understanding the role of coyotes in disease ecology.

  9. Improving Power Production in Acetate-Fed Microbial Fuel Cells via Enrichment of Exoelectrogenic Organisms in Flow-Through Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Leak, David; Andras, Calin

    2009-01-01

    An exoelectrogenic, biofilm-forming microbial consortium was enriched in an acetate-fed microbial fuel cell (MFC) using a flow-through anode coupled to an air-cathode. Multiple parameters known to improve MFC performance were integrated in one design including electrode spacing, specific electrode surface area, flow-through design, minimization of dead volume within anode chamber, and control of external resistance. In addition, continuous feeding of carbon source was employed and the MFC was operated at intermittent high flows to enable removal of non-biofilm forming organisms over a period of six months. The consortium enriched using the modified design and operating conditions resulted in a power density of 345 W m-3 of net anode volume (3650 mW m-2), when coupled to a ferricyanide cathode. The enriched consortium included -, -, -Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Members of the order Rhodocyclaceae and Burkholderiaceae (Azospira spp. (49%), Acidovorax spp. (11%) and Comamonas spp. (7%)), dominated the microbial consortium. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis based on primers selective for Archaea suggested a very low abundance of methanogens. Limiting the delivery of the carbon source via continuous feeding corresponding to the maximum cathodic oxidation rates permitted in the flow-through, air-cathode MFC resulted in coulombic efficiencies reaching 88 5.7%.

  10. Columbia River Hatchery Reform System-Wide Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Dan

    2009-04-16

    The US Congress funded the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project via annual appropriations to the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) beginning in fiscal year 2000. Congress established the project because it recognized that while hatcheries have a necessary role to play in meeting harvest and conservation goals for Pacific Northwest salmonids, the hatchery system was in need of comprehensive reform. Most hatcheries were producing fish for harvest primarily to mitigate for past habitat loss (rather than for conservation of at-risk populations) and were not taking into account the effects of their programs on naturally spawning populations. With numerous species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), conservation of salmon in the Puget Sound area was a high priority. Genetic resources in the region were at risk and many hatchery programs as currently operated were contributing to those risks. Central to the project was the creation of a nine-member independent scientific review panel called the Hatchery Scientific Review Group (HSRG). The HSRG was charged by Congress with reviewing all state, tribal and federal hatchery programs in Puget Sound and Coastal Washington as part of a comprehensive hatchery reform effort to: conserve indigenous salmonid genetic resources; assist with the recovery of naturally spawning salmonid populations; provide sustainable fisheries; and improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of hatchery programs. The HSRG worked closely with the state, tribal and federal managers of the hatchery system, with facilitation provided by the non-profit organization Long Live the Kings and the law firm Gordon, Thomas, Honeywell, to successfully complete reviews of over 200 hatchery programs at more than 100 hatcheries across western Washington. That phase of the project culminated in 2004 with the publication of reports containing the HSRG's principles for hatchery reform and recommendations for Puget Sound/Coastal Washington hatchery programs, followed by the development in 2005 of a suite of analytical tools to support application of the principles (all reports and tools are available at www.hatcheryreform.us). In 2005, Congress directed the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries) to replicate the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project in the Columbia River Basin. The HSRG was expanded to 14 members to include individuals with specific knowledge about the Columbia River salmon and steelhead populations. This second phase was initially envisioned as a one-year review, with emphasis on the Lower Columbia River hatchery programs. It became clear however, that the Columbia River Basin needed to be viewed as an inter-connected ecosystem in order for the review to be useful. The project scope was subsequently expanded to include the entire Basin, with funding for a second year provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) Fish and Wildlife Program. The objective of the HSRG's Columbia River Basin review was to change the focus of the Columbia River hatchery system. In the past, these hatchery programs have been aimed at supplying adequate numbers of fish for harvest as mitigation primarily for hydropower development in the Basin. A new, ecosystem-based approach is founded on the idea that harvest goals are sustainable only if they are compatible with conservation goals. The challenge before the HSRG was to determine whether or not conservation and harvest goals could be met by fishery managers and, if so, how. The HSRG determined that in order to address these twin goals, both hatchery and harvest reforms are necessary. The HSRG approach represents an important change of direction in managing hatcheries in the region. It provides a clear demonstration that current hatchery programs can indeed be redirected to better meet both conservation and harvest goals. For each Columbia River Basin Environmentally Significant Unit (ESU), Distinct Population Segment (MPG) or Major Population Group (MPG) reviewed, the HSRG presents its findings and recommendations in the form of an HSRG solution. This package of recommended changes to current hatchery and harvest program design and operation is intended to demonstrate how the programs could be managed to significantly increase the likelihood of meeting the managers goals for both harvest and conservation of the ESU/DPS/MPG. The 'HSRG solution' also highlights the biological principles that the HSRG believes must form the foundation for successful use of hatcheries and fisheries as management tools.

  11. Comparative Survival Study (CSS) of PIT-Tagged Spring/Summer Chinook and Summer Steelhead : 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comparative Survival Study Oversight Committee and Fish Passage Center

    2008-12-02

    The Comparative Survival Study (CSS; BPA Project 199602000) began in 1996 with the objective of establishing a long term dataset of the survival rate of annual generations of salmon from their outmigration as smolts to their return to freshwater as adults to spawn (smolt-to-adult return rate; SAR). The study was implemented with the express need to address the question whether collecting juvenile fish at dams and transporting them downstream in barges and trucks and releasing them downstream of Bonneville Dam was compensating for the effect of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) on survival of Snake Basin spring/summer Chinook salmon migrating through the hydrosystem. The Completion of this annual report for the CSS signifies the 12th outmigration year of hatchery spring/summer Chinook salmon marked with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags as part of the CSS and the 9th complete brood year return as adults of those PIT-tagged fish (report covers adult returns from 1997-2006 hatchery Chinook juvenile migrations). In addition, the CSS has provided PIT-tags to on-going tagging operations for wild Chinook since 2002 (report covers adult returns from 1994-2006 wild Chinook juvenile migrations). The CSS tags wild steelhead on the lower Clearwater River and utilized wild and hatchery steelhead from other tagging operations in evaluations of transportation (report covers adult returns from 1997-2005 wild and hatchery steelhead migrations). The primary purpose of this report is to update the time series of smolt-to-adult survival rate data and related parameters with additional years of data since the completion of the CSS 10-yr retrospective analysis report (Schaller et al 2007). The 10-yr report provided a synthesis of the results from this ongoing study, the analytical approaches employed, and the evolving improvements incorporated into the study as reported in CSS annual progress reports. This current report specifically addresses the constructive comments of the most recent regional technical review conducted by the Independent Scientific Advisory Board and Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISAB and ISRP 2007). This report completes the 3-salt returns from migration years 2004 for wild and hatchery Chinook and steelhead (all returns are to Lower Granite Dam). For wild and hatchery Chinook, this report also provides 3-salt returns from migration year 2005 and 2-salt returns from migration year 2006 through a cutoff date of August 13, 2008. For wild and hatchery steelhead, it provides completed 2-salt returns for wild and hatchery steelhead that outmigrated in 2005 (any 3-salt returns of PIT-tagged steelhead are few, but will occur after July 1, 2008). All of the Chinook salmon evaluated in the CSS study exhibit a stream-type life history. All study fish used in this report were uniquely identifiable based on a PIT-tag implanted in the body cavity during (or before) the smolt life stage and retained through their return as adults. These tagged fish can then be detected as juveniles and adults at several locations of the Snake and Columbia rivers. Reductions in the number of individuals detected as the tagged fish grow older provide estimates of survival. This allows comparisons of survival over different life stages between fish with different experiences in the hydrosystem (e.g. transportation vs. in-river migrants and migration through various numbers of dams) as illustrated in Figure 1.1. The CSS is a long term study within the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPCC FWP) and is funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Study design and analyses are conducted through a CSS Oversight Committee with representation from Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC), Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). The Fish Passage Center (FPC) coordinates the PIT-tagging efforts, data management and preparation

  12. Hexavalent Chromium Reduction under Fermentative Conditions with Lactate Stimulated Native Microbial Communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somenahally, Anil C; Mosher, Jennifer J; Yuan, Tong; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Brown, Steven D; Yang, Zamin Koo; Hazen, Terry C; Arkin, Adam; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Van Nostrand, Dr. Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Elias, Dwayne A

    2013-01-01

    Microbial reduction of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in-situ is a plausible bioremediation strategy in electron-acceptor limited environments. However, higher [Cr(VI)] may impose stress on syntrophic communities and impact community structure and function. The study objectives were to understand the impacts of Cr(VI) concentrations on community structure and on the Cr(VI)-reduction potential of groundwater communities at Hanford, WA. Steady state continuous flow bioreactors were used to grow native communities enriched with lactate (30 mM) and continuously amended with Cr(VI) at 0.0 (No-Cr), 0.1 (Low-Cr) and 3.0 (High-Cr) mg/L. Microbial growth, metabolites, Cr(VI), 16S rRNA gene sequences and GeoChip based functional gene composition were monitored for 15 weeks. Temporal trends and differences in growth, metabolite profiles, and community composition were observed, largely between Low-Cr and High-Cr bioreactors. In both High-Cr and Low-Cr bioreactors, Cr(VI) levels were below detection from week 1 until week 15. With lactate enrichment, native bacterial diversity substantially decreased as Pelosinus spp., and Sporotalea spp., became the dominant groups, but did not significantly differ between Cr concentrations. The Archaea diversity also substantially decreased after lactate enrichment from Methanosaeta (35%), Methanosarcina (17%) and others, to mostly Methanosarcina spp. (95%). Methane production was lower in High-Cr reactors suggesting some inhibition of methanogens. Several key functional genes were distinct in Low-Cr bioreactors compared to High-Cr. Among the Cr resistant microbes, Burkholderia vietnamiensis, Comamonas testosterone and Ralstonia pickettii proliferated in Cr amended bioreactors. In-situ fermentative conditions facilitated Cr(VI) reduction, and as a result 3.0 mg/L Cr(VI) did not impact the overall bacterial community structure.

  13. Influence of hexavalent chromium on lactate-enriched Hanford groundwater microbial communities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somenahally, Anil C; Mosher, Jennifer J; Yuan, Tong; Podar, Mircea; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Brown, Steven D; Yang, Zamin Koo; Hazen, Terry C; Arkin, Adam; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Zhou, Jizhong; Elias, Dwayne A

    2013-01-01

    Microbial reduction and immobilization of chromate (Cr(VI)) is a plausible bioremediation strategy. However, higher Cr(VI) concentrations may impose stress on native Cr-reducing communities. We sought to determine if Cr(VI) would influence the lactate enriched native microbial community structure and function in groundwater from the Cr contaminated site at Hanford, WA. Steady state continuous flow bioreactors were amended with lactate and Cr(VI) (0.0, 0.1 and 3.0 mg/L). Microbial growth, metabolites, Cr(VI) concentrations, 16S rRNA gene sequences and GeoChip based functional gene composition in bioreactors were monitored for 15 weeks. Temporal trends and some differences in growth, metabolite profiles, and community composition were observed, largely between Low-Cr and High-Cr bioreactors. In both High-Cr and Low-Cr bioreactors, Cr(VI) was reduced in the bioreactors. With lactate enrichment, the native communities did not significantly differ between Cr concentrations. Native bacterial communities were diverse, whereas after lactate enrichment, Pelosinus spp., and Sporotalea spp., were the most predominant groups in all bioreactors. Similarly, the Archaea diversity significantly decreased from Methanosaeta (35%), Methanosarcina (17%), Halobacteriales (12%), Methanoregula (8%) and others, to mostly Methanosarcina spp. (95%) after lactate enrichment. Composition of several key functional genes was distinct in Low-Cr bioreactors compared to High-Cr. Among the Cr resistant probes (chrA), Burkholderia vietnamiensis, Comamonas testosterone and Ralstonia pickettii proliferated in Cr amended bioreactors. In-situ fermentative conditions facilitated Cr(VI) reduction, and as a result the 3.0 mg/L Cr(VI) did not appear to give chromate reducing strains a competitive advantage for proliferation or for increasing Cr-reduction.

  14. Functional Role of Infective Viral Particles on Metal Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coates, John D.

    2014-04-01

    A proposed strategy for the remediation of uranium (U) contaminated sites was based on the immobilization of U by reducing the oxidized soluble U, U(VI), to form a reduced insoluble end product, U(IV). Previous studies identified Geobacter sp., including G. sulfurreducens and G. metallireducens, as predominant U(VI)-reducing bacteria under acetate-oxidizing and U(VI)-reducing conditions. Examination of the finished genome sequence annotation of the canonical metal reducing species Geobacter sulfurreducens strain PCA and G. metallireduceans strain GS-15 as well as the draft genome sequence of G. uraniumreducens strain Rf4 identified phage related proteins. In addition, the completed genome for Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans and the draft genome sequence of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans strain G20, two more model metal-reducing bacteria, also revealed phage related sequences. The presence of these gene sequences indicated that Geobacter spp., Anaeromyxobacter spp., and Desulfovibrio spp. are susceptible to viral infection. Furthermore, viral populations in soils and sedimentary environments in the order of 6.4×10{sup 6}–2.7×10{sup 10} VLP’s cm{sup -3} have been observed. In some cases, viral populations exceed bacterial populations in these environments suggesting that a relationship may exist between viruses and bacteria. Our preliminary screens of samples collected from the ESR FRC indicated that viral like particles were observed in significant numbers. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential functional role viruses play in metal reduction specifically Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, the environmental parameters affecting viral infection of metal reducing bacteria, and the subsequent effects on U transport.

  15. Revisiting N2 fixation in Guerrero Negro intertidal microbial mats with a functional single-cell approach

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Woebken, Dagmar; Burow, Luke C.; Behnam, Faris; Mayali, Xavier; Schintlmeister, Arno; Fleming, Erich D.; Prufert-Bebout, Leslie; Singer, Steven W.; Cortes, Alehandro Lopez; Hoehler, Tori M.; et al

    2014-10-10

    Photosynthetic microbial mats are complex, stratified ecosystems in which high rates of primary production create a demand for nitrogen, met partially by N2 fixation. Dinitrogenase reductase (nifH) genes and transcripts from Cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria (for example, Deltaproteobacteria) were detected in these mats, yet their contribution to N2 fixation is poorly understood. We used a combined approach of manipulation experiments with inhibitors, nifH sequencing and single-cell isotope analysis to investigate the active diazotrophic community in intertidal microbial mats at Laguna Ojo de Liebre near Guerrero Negro, Mexico. Acetylene reduction assays with specific metabolic inhibitors suggested that both sulfate reducers andmore » members of the Cyanobacteria contributed to N2 fixation, whereas 15N2 tracer experiments at the bulk level only supported a contribution of Cyanobacteria. Cyanobacterial and nifH Cluster III (including deltaproteobacterial sulfate reducers) sequences dominated the nifH gene pool, whereas the nifH transcript pool was dominated by sequences related to Lyngbya spp. Single-cell isotope analysis of 15N2-incubated mat samples via high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) revealed that Cyanobacteria were enriched in 15N, with the highest enrichment being detected in Lyngbya spp. filaments (on average 4.4 at% 15N), whereas the Deltaproteobacteria (identified by CARD-FISH) were not significantly enriched. We investigated the potential dilution effect from CARD-FISH on the isotopic composition and concluded that the dilution bias was not substantial enough to influence our conclusions. As a result, our combined data provide evidence that members of the Cyanobacteria, especially Lyngbya spp., actively contributed to N2 fixation in the intertidal mats, whereas support for significant N2 fixation activity of the targeted deltaproteobacterial sulfate reducers could not be found.« less

  16. Using corngrass1 to engineer poplar as a bioenergy crop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meilan, Richard; Rubinelli, Peter Marius; Chuck, George

    2016-05-10

    Embodiments of the present invention relate generally to new bioenergy crops and methods of creating new bioenergy crops. For example, genes encoding microRNAs (miRNAs) are used to create transgenic crops. In some embodiments, over-expression of miRNA is used to produce transgenic perennials, such as trees, with altered lignin content or composition. In some embodiments, the transgenic perennials are Populus spp. In some embodiments, the miRNA is a member of the miR156 family. In some embodiments, the gene is Zea mays Cg1.

  17. Life history and habitat associations of the broad wood cockroach, Parcoblatta lata (Blattaria: Blattellidae) and other native cockroaches in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.

    2002-06-18

    Wood cockroaches are an important prey of the red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis, an endangered species inhabiting pine forests in the southern United States. These woodpeckers forage on the boles of live pine trees, but their prey consists of a high proportion of wood cockroaches, Parcoblatta spp., that are more commonly associated with dead plant material. Cockroach population density samples were conducted on live pine trees, dead snags and coarse woody debris on the ground. The studies showed that snags and logs are also important habitats of wood cockroaches in pine forests.

  18. SREL Reprint #3113

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Investigation of Shell Disease in Map Turtles (Graptemys spp.) Stephen J. Hernandez-Divers1, Patrick Hensel1, Juliet Gladden1, Sonia M. Hernandez-Divers1, Kurt A. Buhlmann2, Chris Hagen2, Susan Sanchez3,4, Kenneth S. Latimer5, Mary Ard5, and Alvin C. Camus5 1Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602-7390, USA 2Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Aiken, South

  19. Trichoderma: the genomics of opportunistic success

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Druzhinina, Irina S.; Seiboth, Verena Seidl; Estrella, Alfredo Herrera; Horwitz, Benjamin A.; Kenerley, Charles M.; Monte, Enrique; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Zeilinger, Susanne; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Kubicek, Christian P.

    2011-01-01

    Trichoderma is a genus of common filamentous fungi that display a remarkable range of lifestyles and interactions with other fungi, animals and plants. Because of their ability to antagonize plant-pathogenic fungi and to stimulate plant growth and defence responses, some Trichoderma strains are used for biological control of plant diseases. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in molecular ecology and genomics which indicate that the interactions of Trichoderma spp. with animals and plants may have evolved as a result of saprotrophy on fungal biomass (mycotrophy) and various forms of parasitism on other fungi (mycoparasitism), combined with broad environmental opportunism.

  20. 2007 Publications | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Publications Journal Papers Y. Acremann, V. Chembrolu, J. P. Strachan, T. Tyliszczak and J. Stöhr, "Software Defined Photon Counting System for Time Resolved X-ray Experiments", Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 014702 (2007) M. V. Aldrich, J. R. Peralta-Videa, J. G. Parsons and J. L. Gardea-Torresdey, "Examination of Arsenic(III) and (V) Uptake by the Desert Plant Species Mesquite (Prosopis spp.) Using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy", Sci. Total Environ. 279, 249 (2007) O. S.

  1. Monitoring seasonal and annual wetland changes in a freshwater marsh with SPOT HRV data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1989-12-31

    Eleven dates of SPOT HRV data along with near-concurrent vertical aerial photographic and phenological data for 1987, 1988, and 1989 were evaluated to determine seasonal and annual changes in a 400-hectare, southeastern freshwater marsh. Early April through mid-May was the best time to discriminate among the cypress (Taxodium distichum)/water tupelo (Nyssa acquatica) swamp forest and the non-persistent (Ludwigia spp.) and persistent (Typha spp.) stands in this wetlands. Furthermore, a ten-fold decrease in flow rate from 11 cubic meters per sec (cms) in 1987 to one cms in 1988 was recorded in the marsh followed by a shift to drier wetland communities. The Savannah River Site (SRS), maintained by the US Department of Energy, is a 777 km{sup 2} area located in south central South Carolina. Five tributaries of the Savannah River run southwest through the SRS and into the floodplain swamp of the Savannah River. This paper describes the use of SPOT HRV data to monitor seasonal and annual trends in one of these swamp deltas, Pen Branch Delta, during a three-year period, 1987--1989.

  2. Monitoring seasonal and annual wetland changes in a freshwater marsh with SPOT HRV data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Eleven dates of SPOT HRV data along with near-concurrent vertical aerial photographic and phenological data for 1987, 1988, and 1989 were evaluated to determine seasonal and annual changes in a 400-hectare, southeastern freshwater marsh. Early April through mid-May was the best time to discriminate among the cypress (Taxodium distichum)/water tupelo (Nyssa acquatica) swamp forest and the non-persistent (Ludwigia spp.) and persistent (Typha spp.) stands in this wetlands. Furthermore, a ten-fold decrease in flow rate from 11 cubic meters per sec (cms) in 1987 to one cms in 1988 was recorded in the marsh followed by a shift to drier wetland communities. The Savannah River Site (SRS), maintained by the US Department of Energy, is a 777 km{sup 2} area located in south central South Carolina. Five tributaries of the Savannah River run southwest through the SRS and into the floodplain swamp of the Savannah River. This paper describes the use of SPOT HRV data to monitor seasonal and annual trends in one of these swamp deltas, Pen Branch Delta, during a three-year period, 1987--1989.

  3. Special population planner 4 : an open source release.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuiper, J.; Metz, W.; Tanzman, E.

    2008-01-01

    Emergencies like Hurricane Katrina and the recent California wildfires underscore the critical need to meet the complex challenge of planning for individuals with special needs and for institutionalized special populations. People with special needs and special populations often have difficulty responding to emergencies or taking protective actions, and emergency responders may be unaware of their existence and situations during a crisis. Special Population Planner (SPP) is an ArcGIS-based emergency planning system released as an open source product. SPP provides for easy production of maps, reports, and analyses to develop and revise emergency response plans. It includes tools to manage a voluntary registry of data for people with special needs, integrated links to plans and documents, tools for response planning and analysis, preformatted reports and maps, and data on locations of special populations, facility and resource characteristics, and contacts. The system can be readily adapted for new settings without programming and is broadly applicable. Full documentation and a demonstration database are included in the release.

  4. Phages of lactic acid bacteria: The role of genetics in understanding phage-host interactions and their co-evolutionary processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahony, Jennifer; Ainsworth, Stuart; Stockdale, Stephen; Sinderen, Douwe van

    2012-12-20

    Dairy fermentations are among the oldest food processing applications, aimed at preservation and shelf-life extension through the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter cultures, in particular strains of Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. Traditionally this was performed by continuous passaging of undefined cultures from a finished fermentation to initiate the next fermentation. More recently, consumer demands on consistent and desired flavours and textures of dairy products have led to a more defined approach to such processes. Dairy (starter) companies have responded to the need to define the nature and complexity of the starter culture mixes, and dairy fermentations are now frequently based on defined starter cultures of low complexity, where each starter component imparts specific technological properties that are desirable to the product. Both mixed and defined starter culture approaches create the perfect environment for the proliferation of (bacterio)phages capable of infecting these LAB. The repeated use of the same starter cultures in a single plant, coupled to the drive towards higher and consistent production levels, increases the risk and negative impact of phage infection. In this review we will discuss recent advances in tracking the adaptation of phages to the dairy industry, the advances in understanding LAB phage-host interactions, including evolutionary and genomic aspects.

  5. In Situ Bioreduction of Uranium (VI) to Submicromolar Levels and Reoxidation by Dissolved Oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Weimin; Carley, Jack M; Luo, Jian; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew A.; Cardenas, Erick; Leigh, Mary Beth; Hwang, Chaichi; Kelly, Shelly D; Ruan, Chuanmin; Wu, Liyou; Van Nostrand, Joy; Gentry, Terry J; Lowe, Kenneth Alan; Mehlhorn, Tonia L; Carroll, Sue L; Luo, Wensui; Fields, Matthew Wayne; Gu, Baohua; Watson, David B; Kemner, Kenneth M; Marsh, Terence; Tiedje, James; Zhou, Jizhong; Fendorf, Scott; Kitanidis, Peter K.; Jardine, Philip M; Criddle, Craig

    2007-01-01

    Groundwater within Area 3 of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) Field Research Center at Oak Ridge, TN (ORFRC) contains up to 135 {micro}M uranium as U(VI). Through a series of experiments at a pilot scale test facility, we explored the lower limits of groundwater U(VI) that can be achieved by in-situ biostimulation and the effects of dissolved oxygen on immobilized uranium. Weekly 2 day additions of ethanol over a 2-year period stimulated growth of denitrifying, Fe(III)-reducing, and sulfate-reducing bacteria, and immobilization of uranium as U(IV), with dissolved uranium concentrations decreasing to low levels. Following sulfite addition to remove dissolved oxygen, aqueous U(VI) concentrations fell below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant limit (MCL) for drinking water (<30 {micro}g L{sup -1} or 0.126 {micro}M). Under anaerobic conditions, these low concentrations were stable, even in the absence of added ethanol. However, when sulfite additions stopped, and dissolved oxygen (4.0-5.5 mg L{sup -1}) entered the injection well, spatially variable changes in aqueous U(VI) occurred over a 60 day period, with concentrations increasing rapidly from <0.13 to 2.0 {micro}M at a multilevel sampling (MLS) well located close to the injection well, but changing little at an MLS well located further away. Resumption of ethanol addition restored reduction of Fe(III), sulfate, and U(VI) within 36 h. After 2 years of ethanol addition, X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) analyses indicated that U(IV) comprised 60-80% of the total uranium in sediment samples. At the completion of the project (day 1260), U concentrations in MLS wells were less than 0.1 {micro}M. The microbial community at MLS wells with low U(VI) contained bacteria that are known to reduce uranium, including Desulfovibrio spp. and Geobacter spp., in both sediment and groundwater. The dominant Fe(III)-reducing species were Geothrix spp.

  6. Revisiting N2 fixation in Guerrero Negro intertidal microbial mats with a functional single-cell approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woebken, Dagmar; Burow, Luke C.; Behnam, Faris; Mayali, Xavier; Schintlmeister, Arno; Fleming, Erich D.; Prufert-Bebout, Leslie; Singer, Steven W.; Cortes, Alehandro Lopez; Hoehler, Tori M.; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Spormann, Alfed M.; Wagner, Michael; Weber, Peter K.; Bebout, Brad M.

    2014-10-10

    Photosynthetic microbial mats are complex, stratified ecosystems in which high rates of primary production create a demand for nitrogen, met partially by N2 fixation. Dinitrogenase reductase (nifH) genes and transcripts from Cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria (for example, Deltaproteobacteria) were detected in these mats, yet their contribution to N2 fixation is poorly understood. We used a combined approach of manipulation experiments with inhibitors, nifH sequencing and single-cell isotope analysis to investigate the active diazotrophic community in intertidal microbial mats at Laguna Ojo de Liebre near Guerrero Negro, Mexico. Acetylene reduction assays with specific metabolic inhibitors suggested that both sulfate reducers and members of the Cyanobacteria contributed to N2 fixation, whereas 15N2 tracer experiments at the bulk level only supported a contribution of Cyanobacteria. Cyanobacterial and nifH Cluster III (including deltaproteobacterial sulfate reducers) sequences dominated the nifH gene pool, whereas the nifH transcript pool was dominated by sequences related to Lyngbya spp. Single-cell isotope analysis of 15N2-incubated mat samples via high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) revealed that Cyanobacteria were enriched in 15N, with the highest enrichment being detected in Lyngbya spp. filaments (on average 4.4 at% 15N), whereas the Deltaproteobacteria (identified by CARD-FISH) were not significantly enriched. We investigated the potential dilution effect from CARD-FISH on the isotopic composition and concluded that the dilution bias was not substantial enough to influence our conclusions. As a result, our combined data provide evidence that members of the Cyanobacteria, especially Lyngbya spp., actively contributed to N2 fixation in the intertidal mats, whereas support for significant N2 fixation activity of the targeted deltaproteobacterial sulfate reducers could not be found.

  7. N-myristoyltransferase inhibitors as new leads to treat sleeping sickness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frearson, Julie A.; Brand, Stephen; McElroy, Stuart P.; Cleghorn, Laura A.T.; Smid, Ondrej; Stojanovski, Laste; Price, Helen P.; Guther, M. Lucia S.; Torrie, Leah S.; Robinson, David A.; Hallyburton, Irene; Mpamhanga, Chidochangu P.; Brannigan, James A.; Wilkinson, Anthony J.; Hodgkinson, Michael; Hui, Raymond; Qiu, Wei; Raimi, Olawale G.; van Aalten, Daan M.F.; Brenk, Ruth; Gilbert, Ian H.; Read, Kevin D.; Fairlamb, Alan H.; Ferguson, Michael A.J.; Smith, Deborah F.; Wyatt, Paul G.

    2010-11-05

    African sleeping sickness or human African trypanosomiasis, caused by Trypanosoma brucei spp., is responsible for {approx}30,000 deaths each year. Available treatments for this disease are poor, with unacceptable efficacy and safety profiles, particularly in the late stage of the disease when the parasite has infected the central nervous system. Here we report the validation of a molecular target and the discovery of associated lead compounds with the potential to address this lack of suitable treatments. Inhibition of this target - T. brucei N-myristoyltransferase - leads to rapid killing of trypanosomes both in vitro and in vivo and cures trypanosomiasis in mice. These high-affinity inhibitors bind into the peptide substrate pocket of the enzyme and inhibit protein N-myristoylation in trypanosomes. The compounds identified have promising pharmaceutical properties and represent an opportunity to develop oral drugs to treat this devastating disease. Our studies validate T. brucei N-myristoyltransferase as a promising therapeutic target for human African trypanosomiasis.

  8. How sulphate-reducing microorganisms cope with stress: Lessons from systems biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, J.; He, Q.; Hemme, C.L.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Hillesland, K.; Zhou, A.; He, Z.; Nostrand, J.D. Van; Hazen, T.C.; Stahl, D.A.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.

    2011-04-01

    Sulphate-reducing microorganisms (SRMs) are a phylogenetically diverse group of anaerobes encompassing distinct physiologies with a broad ecological distribution. As SRMs have important roles in the biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and various metals, an understanding of how these organisms respond to environmental stresses is of fundamental and practical importance. In this Review, we highlight recent applications of systems biology tools in studying the stress responses of SRMs, particularly Desulfovibrio spp., at the cell, population, community and ecosystem levels. The syntrophic lifestyle of SRMs is also discussed, with a focus on system-level analyses of adaptive mechanisms. Such information is important for understanding the microbiology of the global sulphur cycle and for developing biotechnological applications of SRMs for environmental remediation, energy production, biocorrosion control, wastewater treatment and mineral recovery.

  9. Total DOE/NNSA

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    8 Actuals 2009 Actuals 2010 Actuals 2011 Actuals 2012 Actuals 2013 Actuals 2014 Actuals 2015 Actuals Total DOE/NNSA 4,385 4,151 4,240 4,862 5,154 5,476 7,170 7,593 Total non-NNSA 3,925 4,017 4,005 3,821 3,875 3,974 3,826 3765 Total Facility 8,310 8,168 8,245 8,683 9,029 9,450 10,996 11,358 non-NNSA includes DOE offices and Strategic Parternship Projects (SPP) employees NNSA M&O Employee Reporting

  10. Quantification of Libby Reservoir Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chisholm, Ian

    1985-01-01

    The goal was to quantify seasonal water levels needed to maintain or enhance the reservoir fishery in Libby. This report summarizes data collected from July 1984 through July 1985, and, where appropriate, presents data collected since 1983. The Canada, Rexford, and Tenmile areas of the reservoir are differentially affected by drawdown. Relative changes in water volume and surface area are greatest in the Canada area and smallest in the Tenmile area. Reservoir morphology and hydraulics probably play a major role in fish distribution through their influence on water temperature. Greatest areas of habitat with optimum water temperature for Salmo spp. and kokanee occurred during the spring and fall months. Dissolved oxygen, pH and conductivity levels were not limiting during any sampling period. Habitat enhancement work was largely unsuccessful. Littoral zone vegetation plantings did not survive well, primarily the result of extreme water level fluctuations. Relative abundances of fish species varied seasonally within and between the three areas. Water temperature is thought to be the major influence in fish distribution patterns. Other factors, such as food availability and turbidity, may mitigate its influence. Sampling since 1975 illustrates a continued increase in kokanee numbers and a dramatic decline in redside shiners. Salmo spp., bull trout, and burbot abundances are relatively low while peamouth and coarsescale sucker numbers remain high. A thermal dynamics model and a trophic level components model will be used to quantify the impact of reservoir operation on the reservoir habitat, primary production, secondary production and fish populations. Particulate carbon will be used to track energy flow through trophic levels. A growth-driven population dynamics simulation model that will estimate the impacts of reservoir operation on fish population dynamics is also being considered.

  11. Leucaena and tall grasses as energy crops in humid lower south USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prine, G.M.; Woodard, K.R.; Cunilio, T.V.

    1994-12-31

    The tropical leguminous shrub/tree, leucaena (Leucaena spp. mainly leucocephala), and perennial tropical tall grasses such as elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum), sugarcane, and energycane (Saccharum spp.) are well adapted to the long growing seasons and high rainfall of the humid lower South. In much of the area the topgrowth is killed by frost during winter and plants regenerate from underground parts in spring. Selected accessions from a duplicated 373 accession leucaena nursery had an average annual woody stem dry matter production of 31.4 Mg ha{sup -1}. Average oven dry stem wood yields from selected accessions adjusted for environmental enrichment over the 4 growth seasons were 78.9 Mg ha{sup -1} total and average annual yield of 19.7 Mg ha{sup -1}. The tall perennial grasses have linear growth rates of 18 to 27 g m{sup 2}d{sup -1} for long periods (140 to 196 d and sometimes longer) each season. Oven dry biomass yields of tall grasses have varied from 20 to 45 Mg ha{sup -1} in mild temperature locations to over 60 Mg ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in warm subtropics of the lower Florida peninsula. Tall grasses and leucaena, once established, may persist for many seasons. A map showing the possible range of the crops in lower South is shown. Highest biomass yields of tall grasses have been produced when irrigated with sewage effluent or when grown on phosphatic clay and muck soils of south Florida. Several companies are considering using leucaena and/or tall grasses for bioenergy in the phosphatic mining area of Polk County, Florida.

  12. Diel metabolomics analysis of a hot spring chlorophototrophic microbial mat leads to new hypotheses of community member metabolisms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Young-Mo; Nowack, Shane; Olsen, Millie; Becraft, Eric; Wood, Jason M.; Thiel, Vera; Klapper, Isaac; Kuhl, Michael; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Bryant, Donald A.; et al

    2015-04-17

    Dynamic environmental factors such as light, nutrients, salt, and temperature continuously affect chlorophototrophic microbial mats, requiring adaptative and acclimative responses to stabilize composition and function. Quantitative metabolomics analysis can provide insights into metabolite dynamics for understanding community response to such changing environmental conditions. In this study, we quantified volatile organic acids, polar metabolites (amino acids, glycolytic and citric acid cycle intermediates, nucleobases, nucleosides, and sugars), wax esters, and polyhydroxyalkanoates, resulting in the identification of 104 metabolites and related molecules in thermal chlorophototrophic microbial mat cores collected over a diel cycle in Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park. A limited number ofmore » predominant taxa inhabiting this community and their functional potentials have been previously identified through metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses and in situ metabolisms and metabolic interactions among these taxa have been hypothesized. Our metabolomics results confirmed the diel cycling of photorespiration (e.g. glycolate) and fermentation (e.g. acetate, propionate, and lactate) products, the carbon storage polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates, and dissolved gases (e.g. H2 and CO2) in the waters overlying the mat, which were hypothesized to occur in major mat chlorophototrophic community members. In addition, we have formulated the following new hypotheses: 1) the morning hours are a time of biosynthesis of amino acids, DNA, and RNA; 2) Synechococcus spp. produce CH4 via metabolism of phosphonates, and photo-inhibited cells may also produce lactate via fermentation as an alternate metabolism; 3) glycolate and lactate are exchanged among Synechococcus and Roseiflexus spp.; and 4) fluctuations in many metabolite pools (e.g. wax esters) at different times of day result from species found at different depths within the mat responding to temporal differences in their niches.« less

  13. Diel metabolomics analysis of a hot spring chlorophototrophic microbial mat leads to new hypotheses of community member metabolisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Young-Mo; Nowack, Shane; Olsen, Millie; Becraft, Eric; Wood, Jason M.; Thiel, Vera; Klapper, Isaac; Kuhl, Michael; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Bryant, Donald A.; Ward, David M.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2015-04-17

    Dynamic environmental factors such as light, nutrients, salt, and temperature continuously affect chlorophototrophic microbial mats, requiring adaptative and acclimative responses to stabilize composition and function. Quantitative metabolomics analysis can provide insights into metabolite dynamics for understanding community response to such changing environmental conditions. In this study, we quantified volatile organic acids, polar metabolites (amino acids, glycolytic and citric acid cycle intermediates, nucleobases, nucleosides, and sugars), wax esters, and polyhydroxyalkanoates, resulting in the identification of 104 metabolites and related molecules in thermal chlorophototrophic microbial mat cores collected over a diel cycle in Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park. A limited number of predominant taxa inhabiting this community and their functional potentials have been previously identified through metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses and in situ metabolisms and metabolic interactions among these taxa have been hypothesized. Our metabolomics results confirmed the diel cycling of photorespiration (e.g. glycolate) and fermentation (e.g. acetate, propionate, and lactate) products, the carbon storage polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates, and dissolved gases (e.g. H2 and CO2) in the waters overlying the mat, which were hypothesized to occur in major mat chlorophototrophic community members. In addition, we have formulated the following new hypotheses: 1) the morning hours are a time of biosynthesis of amino acids, DNA, and RNA; 2) Synechococcus spp. produce CH4 via metabolism of phosphonates, and photo-inhibited cells may also produce lactate via fermentation as an alternate metabolism; 3) glycolate and lactate are exchanged among Synechococcus and Roseiflexus spp.; and 4) fluctuations in many metabolite pools (e.g. wax esters) at different times of day result from species found at different depths within the mat responding to temporal differences in their niches.

  14. Linking ceragenins to water-treatment membranes to minimize biofouling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Feng, Yanshu; Savage, Paul B.; Pollard, Jacob; Branda, Steven S.; Goeres, Darla; Buckingham-Meyer, Kelli; Stafslien, Shane; Marry, Christopher; Jones, Howland D. T.; Lichtenberger, Alyssa; Kirk, Matthew F.; McGrath, Lucas K.

    2012-01-01

    Ceragenins were used to create biofouling resistant water-treatment membranes. Ceragenins are synthetically produced antimicrobial peptide mimics that display broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. While ceragenins have been used on bio-medical devices, use of ceragenins on water-treatment membranes is novel. Biofouling impacts membrane separation processes for many industrial applications such as desalination, waste-water treatment, oil and gas extraction, and power generation. Biofouling results in a loss of permeate flux and increase in energy use. Creation of biofouling resistant membranes will assist in creation of clean water with lower energy usage and energy with lower water usage. Five methods of attaching three different ceragenin molecules were conducted and tested. Biofouling reduction was observed in the majority of the tests, indicating the ceragenins are a viable solution to biofouling on water treatment membranes. Silane direct attachment appears to be the most promising attachment method if a high concentration of CSA-121a is used. Additional refinement of the attachment methods are needed in order to achieve our goal of several log-reduction in biofilm cell density without impacting the membrane flux. Concurrently, biofilm forming bacteria were isolated from source waters relevant for water treatment: wastewater, agricultural drainage, river water, seawater, and brackish groundwater. These isolates can be used for future testing of methods to control biofouling. Once isolated, the ability of the isolates to grow biofilms was tested with high-throughput multiwell methods. Based on these tests, the following species were selected for further testing in tube reactors and CDC reactors: Pseudomonas ssp. (wastewater, agricultural drainage, and Colorado River water), Nocardia coeliaca or Rhodococcus spp. (wastewater), Pseudomonas fluorescens and Hydrogenophaga palleronii (agricultural drainage), Sulfitobacter donghicola, Rhodococcus fascians, Rhodobacter katedanii, and Paracoccus marcusii (seawater), and Sphingopyxis spp. (groundwater). The testing demonstrated the ability of these isolates to be used for biofouling control testing under laboratory conditions. Biofilm forming bacteria were obtained from all the source water samples.

  15. Genomic analyses of bacterial porin-cytochrome gene clusters

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, James K.; Zachara, John M.

    2014-11-26

    In this study, the porin-cytochrome (Pcc) protein complex is responsible for trans-outer membrane electron transfer during extracellular reduction of Fe(III) by the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA. The identified and characterized Pcc complex of G. sulfurreducens PCA consists of a porin-like outer-membrane protein, a periplasmic 8-heme c type cytochrome (c-Cyt) and an outer-membrane 12-heme c-Cyt, and the genes encoding the Pcc proteins are clustered in the same regions of genome (i.e., the pcc gene clusters) of G. sulfurreducens PCA. A survey of additionally microbial genomes has identified the pcc gene clusters in all sequenced Geobacter spp. and other bacteriamore » from six different phyla, including Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans 2CP-1, A. dehalogenans 2CP-C, Anaeromyxobacter sp. K, Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis, Denitrovibrio acetiphilus DSM 12809, Desulfurispirillum indicum S5, Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus AHT2, Desulfurobacterium thermolithotrophum DSM 11699, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans DSM 684, Ignavibacterium album JCM 16511, and Thermovibrio ammonificans HB-1. The numbers of genes in the pcc gene clusters vary, ranging from two to nine. Similar to the metal-reducing (Mtr) gene clusters of other Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, such as Shewanella spp., additional genes that encode putative c-Cyts with predicted cellular localizations at the cytoplasmic membrane, periplasm and outer membrane often associate with the pcc gene clusters. This suggests that the Pcc-associated c-Cyts may be part of the pathways for extracellular electron transfer reactions. The presence of pcc gene clusters in the microorganisms that do not reduce solid-phase Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides, such as D. alkaliphilus AHT2 and I. album JCM 16511, also suggests that some of the pcc gene clusters may be involved in extracellular electron transfer reactions with the substrates other than Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides.« less

  16. Bacterial diversity analysis of Huanglongbing pathogen-infected citrus, using PhyloChip and 16S rRNA gene clone library sequencing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shankar Sagaram, U.; DeAngelis, K.M.; Trivedi, P.; Andersen, G.L.; Lu, S.-E.; Wang, N.

    2009-03-01

    The bacterial diversity associated with citrus leaf midribs was characterized 1 from citrus groves that contained the Huanglongbing (HLB) pathogen, which has yet to be cultivated in vitro. We employed a combination of high-density phylogenetic 16S rDNA microarray and 16S rDNA clone library sequencing to determine the microbial community composition of symptomatic and asymptomatic citrus midribs. Our results revealed that citrus leaf midribs can support a diversity of microbes. PhyloChip analysis indicated that 47 orders of bacteria from 15 phyla were present in the citrus leaf midribs while 20 orders from phyla were observed with the cloning and sequencing method. PhyloChip arrays indicated that nine taxa were significantly more abundant in symptomatic midribs compared to asymptomatic midribs. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) was detected at a very low level in asymptomatic plants, but was over 200 times more abundant in symptomatic plants. The PhyloChip analysis was further verified by sequencing 16S rDNA clone libraries, which indicated the dominance of Las in symptomatic leaves. These data implicate Las as the pathogen responsible for HLB disease. Citrus is the most important commercial fruit crop in Florida. In recent years, citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), also called citrus greening, has severely affected Florida's citrus production and hence has drawn an enormous amount of attention. HLB is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus (6,13), characterized by blotchy mottling with green islands on leaves, as well as stunting, fruit decline, and small, lopsided fruits with poor coloration. The disease tends to be associated with a phloem-limited fastidious {alpha}-proteobacterium given a provisional Candidatus status (Candidatus Liberobacter spp. later changed to Candidatus Liberibacter spp.) in nomenclature (18,25,34). Previous studies indicate that HLB infection causes disorder in the phloem and severely impairs the translocation of assimilates in host plants (5,27,40). Tatineni and colleagues discovered that the HLB bacteria were unevenly distributed in phloem of bark tissue, vascular tissue of the leaf midrib, roots, and different floral and fruit parts (43). Unsuccessful attempts in culturing the pathogen are notably hampering efforts to understand its biology and pathogenesis mechanism. Using a modified Koch's Postulates approach, Jagoueix and colleagues were able to re-infect periwinkle plants from a mixed microbial community harvested from HLB diseased plants (25). Emergence of the disease in otherwise healthy plants led to the conclusion that HLB was associated with Candidatus Liberibacter sp. based on its 16S rDNA sequence (18,25). Currently, three species of the pathogen are recognized from trees with HLB disease based on 16S rDNA sequence: Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), Ca. Liberibacter africanus (Laf), and Ca. Liberibacter americanus (Lam); Las is the most prevalent species among HLB diseased trees (5,12,18,25,44). Las is naturally transmitted to citrus by the psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, and can be artificially transmitted by grafting from citrus to citrus and dodder (Cuscuta campestris) to periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) or tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum Xanthi) (5). Based on current research regarding the associations of Liberibacter in planta there is not enough evidence to implicate Liberibacter as the definitive causal agent of HLB disease due to its resistance to cultivation in vitro. It is possible that HLB disease may be the result of complex etiology where Liberibacter interacts with other endophytic bacteria. However, there is not enough evidence regarding its association(s) in planta to make this conclusion, nor is it known whether associated microbial communities play a role in expression of pathogenic traits. The main objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that other bacteria besides Ca. Liberibacter spp. are associated with citrus greening disease. The differences between the relative abundance, species richness and phylogenetic diversity of the microbial communitie

  17. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program, Part B; Limnology, Primary Production, and Zooplankton in Lake Roosevelt, Washington, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shields, John; Spotts, Jim; Underwood, Keith

    2002-11-01

    The Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program is the result of a merger between two projects, the Lake Roosevelt Monitoring Program (BPA No. 8806300) and the Lake Roosevelt Data Collection Project (BPA No. 9404300). These projects were merged in 1996 to continue work historically completed under the separate projects, and is now referred to as the Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program. The 1998 Annual Report, Part B. Limnology, Primary Production, and Zooplankton in Lake Roosevelt, Washington examined the limnology, primary production, and zooplankton at eleven locations throughout the reservoir. The 1998 research protocol required a continuation of the more complete examination of limnological parameters in Lake Roosevelt that began in 1997. Phytoplankton and periphyton speciation, phytoplankton and periphyton chlorophyll a analysis, complete zooplankton biomass analysis by taxonomic group, and an increased number of limnologic parameters (TDG, TDS, etc.) were examined and compared with 1997 results. Total dissolved gas levels were greatly reduced in 1998, compared with 1997, likely resulting from the relatively normal water year experienced in 1998. Mean water temperatures were similar to what was observed in past years, with a maximum of 22.7 C and a minimum of 2.6 C. Oxygen concentrations were also relatively normal, with a maximum of 16.6 mg/L, and a minimum of 0.9 mg/L. Phytoplankton in Lake Roosevelt was primarily composed of microplankton (29.6%), Cryptophyceae (21.7%), and Bacillriophyceae (17.0 %). Mean total phytoplankton chlorophyll a maximum concentration occurred in May (3.53 mg/m{sup 3}), and the minimum in January (0.39 mg/m{sup 3}). Phytoplankton chlorophyll a concentrations appear to be influenced by hydro-operations and temperature. Trophic status as indicated by phytoplankton chlorophyll a concentrations place Lake Roosevelt in the oligomesotrophic range. Periphyton colonization rates and biovolume were significantly greater at a depth of 1.5 m (5 ft) when compared with a 4.6 m (15 ft) depth, and during the shorter incubation periods (two and four weeks). Mean zooplankton densities were greatest for Copepoda (88 %), then Daphnia spp. (10%) and other Cladocera (2.1%), while the zooplankton biomass assessment indicated Daphnia spp. had the greatest biomass (53.6%), then Copepoda (44.0%) and other Cladocera (2.5%). Mean overall zooplankton densities were the lowest observed since 1991. The cause was unclear, but may have been an artifact of human error. It seems unlikely that hydro-operations played a significant part in the reduction of zooplankton in light of the relatively friendly water year of 1998.

  18. Salmon Life Histories, Habitat, and Food Webs in the Columbia River Estuary: An Overview of Research Results, 2002-2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bottom, Daniel L.; Anderson, Greer; Baptisa, Antonio

    2008-08-01

    From 2002 through 2006 we investigated historical and contemporary variations in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha life histories, habitat associations, and food webs in the lower Columbia River estuary (mouth to rkm 101). At near-shore beach-seining sites in the estuary, Chinook salmon occurred during all months of the year, increasing in abundance from January through late spring or early summer and declining rapidly after July. Recently emerged fry dispersed throughout the estuary in early spring, and fry migrants were abundant in the estuary until April or May each year. Each spring, mean salmon size increased from the tidal freshwater zone to the estuary mouth; this trend may reflect estuarine growth and continued entry of smaller individuals from upriver. Most juvenile Chinook salmon in the mainstem estuary fed actively on adult insects and epibenthic amphipods Americorophium spp. Estimated growth rates of juvenile Chinook salmon derived from otolith analysis averaged 0.5 mm d-1, comparable to rates reported for juvenile salmon Oncorhynchus spp. in other Northwest estuaries. Estuarine salmon collections were composed of representatives from a diversity of evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) from the lower and upper Columbia Basin. Genetic stock groups in the estuary exhibited distinct seasonal and temporal abundance patterns, including a consistent peak in the Spring Creek Fall Chinook group in May, followed by a peak in the Western Cascades Fall Chinook group in July. The structure of acanthocephalan parasite assemblages in juvenile Chinook salmon from the tidal freshwater zone exhibited a consistent transition in June. This may have reflected changes in stock composition and associated habitat use and feeding histories. From March through July, subyearling Chinook salmon were among the most abundant species in all wetland habitat types (emergent, forested, and scrub/shrub) surveyed in the lower 100 km of the estuary. Salmon densities within wetland habitats fell to low levels by July, similar to the pattern observed at mainstem beach-seining sites and coincident with high water temperatures that approached or exceeded 19 C by mid-summer. Wetland habitats were used primarily by small subyearling Chinook salmon, with the smallest size ranges (i.e., rarely exceeding 70 mm by the end of the wetland rearing season) at scrub/shrub forested sites above rkm 50. Wetland sites of all types were utilized by a diversity of genetic stock groups, including less abundant groups such as Interior Summer/Fall Chinook.

  19. Comparative genomic analysis of nine Sphingobium strains: Insights into their evolution and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) degradation pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, Helianthous; Kumar, Roshan; Oldach, Phoebe; Sangwan, Naseer; Khurana, Jitendra P.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Lal, Rup

    2014-11-23

    Background: Sphingobium spp. are efficient degraders of a wide range of chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons. In particular, strains which harbour the lin pathway genes mediating the degradation of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers are of interest due to the widespread persistence of this contaminant. Here, we examined the evolution and diversification of the lin pathway under the selective pressure of HCH, by comparing the draft genomes of six newly-sequenced Sphingobium spp. (strains LL03, DS20, IP26, HDIPO4, P25 and RL3) isolated from HCH dumpsites, with three existing genomes (S. indicum B90A, S. japonicum UT26S and Sphingobium sp. SYK6). Results: Efficient HCH degraders phylogenetically clustered in a closely related group comprising of UT26S, B90A, HDIPO4 and IP26, where HDIPO4 and IP26 were classified as subspecies with ANI value >98%. Less than 10% of the total gene content was shared among all nine strains, but among the eight HCH-associated strains, that is all except SYK6, the shared gene content jumped to nearly 25%. Genes associated with nitrogen stress response and two-component systems were found to be enriched. The strains also housed many xenobiotic degradation pathways other than HCH, despite the absence of these xenobiotics from isolation sources. In addition, these strains, although non-motile, but posses flagellar assembly genes. While strains HDIPO4 and IP26 contained the complete set of lin genes, DS20 was entirely devoid of lin genes (except linKLMN) whereas, LL03, P25 and RL3 were identified as lin deficient strains, as they housed incomplete lin pathways. Further, in HDIPO4, linA was found as a hybrid of two natural variants i.e., linA1 and linA2 known for their different enantioselectivity. In conclusion, the bacteria isolated from HCH dumpsites provide a natural testing ground to study variations in the lin system and their effects on degradation efficacy. Further, the diversity in the lin gene sequences and copy number, their arrangement with respect to IS6100 and evidence for potential plasmid content elucidate possible evolutionary acquisition mechanisms for this pathway. This study further opens the horizon for selection of bacterial strains for inclusion in an HCH bioremediation consortium and suggests that HDIPO4, IP26 and B90A would be appropriate candidates for inclusion.

  20. Genomic analyses of bacterial porin-cytochrome gene clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, James K.; Zachara, John M.

    2014-11-26

    In this study, the porin-cytochrome (Pcc) protein complex is responsible for trans-outer membrane electron transfer during extracellular reduction of Fe(III) by the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA. The identified and characterized Pcc complex of G. sulfurreducens PCA consists of a porin-like outer-membrane protein, a periplasmic 8-heme c type cytochrome (c-Cyt) and an outer-membrane 12-heme c-Cyt, and the genes encoding the Pcc proteins are clustered in the same regions of genome (i.e., the pcc gene clusters) of G. sulfurreducens PCA. A survey of additionally microbial genomes has identified the pcc gene clusters in all sequenced Geobacter spp. and other bacteria from six different phyla, including Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans 2CP-1, A. dehalogenans 2CP-C, Anaeromyxobacter sp. K, Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis, Denitrovibrio acetiphilus DSM 12809, Desulfurispirillum indicum S5, Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus AHT2, Desulfurobacterium thermolithotrophum DSM 11699, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans DSM 684, Ignavibacterium album JCM 16511, and Thermovibrio ammonificans HB-1. The numbers of genes in the pcc gene clusters vary, ranging from two to nine. Similar to the metal-reducing (Mtr) gene clusters of other Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, such as Shewanella spp., additional genes that encode putative c-Cyts with predicted cellular localizations at the cytoplasmic membrane, periplasm and outer membrane often associate with the pcc gene clusters. This suggests that the Pcc-associated c-Cyts may be part of the pathways for extracellular electron transfer reactions. The presence of pcc gene clusters in the microorganisms that do not reduce solid-phase Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides, such as D. alkaliphilus AHT2 and I. album JCM 16511, also suggests that some of the pcc gene clusters may be involved in extracellular electron transfer reactions with the substrates other than Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides.

  1. Comparative genomic analysis of nine Sphingobium strains: Insights into their evolution and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) degradation pathways

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Verma, Helianthous; Kumar, Roshan; Oldach, Phoebe; Sangwan, Naseer; Khurana, Jitendra P.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Lal, Rup

    2014-11-23

    Background: Sphingobium spp. are efficient degraders of a wide range of chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons. In particular, strains which harbour the lin pathway genes mediating the degradation of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers are of interest due to the widespread persistence of this contaminant. Here, we examined the evolution and diversification of the lin pathway under the selective pressure of HCH, by comparing the draft genomes of six newly-sequenced Sphingobium spp. (strains LL03, DS20, IP26, HDIPO4, P25 and RL3) isolated from HCH dumpsites, with three existing genomes (S. indicum B90A, S. japonicum UT26S and Sphingobium sp. SYK6). Results: Efficient HCH degraders phylogeneticallymore » clustered in a closely related group comprising of UT26S, B90A, HDIPO4 and IP26, where HDIPO4 and IP26 were classified as subspecies with ANI value >98%. Less than 10% of the total gene content was shared among all nine strains, but among the eight HCH-associated strains, that is all except SYK6, the shared gene content jumped to nearly 25%. Genes associated with nitrogen stress response and two-component systems were found to be enriched. The strains also housed many xenobiotic degradation pathways other than HCH, despite the absence of these xenobiotics from isolation sources. In addition, these strains, although non-motile, but posses flagellar assembly genes. While strains HDIPO4 and IP26 contained the complete set of lin genes, DS20 was entirely devoid of lin genes (except linKLMN) whereas, LL03, P25 and RL3 were identified as lin deficient strains, as they housed incomplete lin pathways. Further, in HDIPO4, linA was found as a hybrid of two natural variants i.e., linA1 and linA2 known for their different enantioselectivity. In conclusion, the bacteria isolated from HCH dumpsites provide a natural testing ground to study variations in the lin system and their effects on degradation efficacy. Further, the diversity in the lin gene sequences and copy number, their arrangement with respect to IS6100 and evidence for potential plasmid content elucidate possible evolutionary acquisition mechanisms for this pathway. This study further opens the horizon for selection of bacterial strains for inclusion in an HCH bioremediation consortium and suggests that HDIPO4, IP26 and B90A would be appropriate candidates for inclusion.« less

  2. SPRUCE: Spruce and Peatland Responses under Climatic and Environmental Change

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    SPRUCE is an experiment to assess the response of northern peatland ecosystems to increases in temperature and exposures to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. It is the primary component of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Scientific Focus Area of ORNL's Climate Change Program, focused on terrestrial ecosystems and the mechanisms that underlie their responses to climatic change. The experimental work is to be conducted in a Picea mariana [black spruce] - Sphagnum spp. bog forest in northern Minnesota, 40 km north of Grand Rapids, in the USDA Forest Service Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The site is located at the southern margin of the boreal peatland forest. It is an ecosystem considered especially vulnerable to climate change, and anticipated to be near its tipping point with respect to climate change. Responses to warming and interactions with increased atmospheric CO2 concentration are anticipated to have important feedbacks on the atmosphere and climate, because of the high carbon stocks harbored by such ecosystems.[copied from http://mnspruce.ornl.gov/] While some data files are restricted to access by project members only, others are available for public download now, even as research is being actively conducted.

  3. The soil microbiome influences grapevine-associated microbiota

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zarraonaindia, Iratxe; Owens, Sarah M.; Weisenhorn, Pamela; West, Kristin; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad; Lax, Simon; Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Mills, David A.; Martin, Gilles; Taghavi, Safiyh; et al

    2015-03-24

    Grapevine is a well-studied, economically relevant crop, whose associated bacteria could influence its organoleptic properties. In this study, the spatial and temporal dynamics of the bacterial communities associated with grapevine organs (leaves, flowers, grapes, and roots) and soils were characterized over two growing seasons to determine the influence of vine cultivar, edaphic parameters, vine developmental stage (dormancy, flowering, preharvest), and vineyard. Belowground bacterial communities differed significantly from those aboveground, and yet the communities associated with leaves, flowers, and grapes shared a greater proportion of taxa with soil communities than with each other, suggesting that soil may serve as a bacterialmore » reservoir. A subset of soil microorganisms, including root colonizers significantly enriched in plant growth-promoting bacteria and related functional genes, were selected by the grapevine. In addition to plant selective pressure, the structure of soil and root microbiota was significantly influenced by soil pH and C:N ratio, and changes in leaf- and grape-associated microbiota were correlated with soil carbon and showed interannual variation even at small spatial scales. Diazotrophic bacteria, e.g., Rhizobiaceae and Bradyrhizobium spp., were significantly more abundant in soil samples and root samples of specific vineyards. Vine-associated microbial assemblages were influenced by myriad factors that shape their composition and structure, but the majority of organ-associated taxa originated in the soil, and their distribution reflected the influence of highly localized biogeographic factors and vineyard management.« less

  4. Chemical Concentrations in Field Mice from Open-Detonation Firing Sites TA-36 Minie and TA-39 Point 6 at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fresquez, Philip R.

    2011-01-01

    Field mice (mostly Peromyscus spp.) were collected at two open-detonation (high explosive) firing sites - Minie at Technical Area (TA) 36 and Point 6 at TA-39 - at Los Alamos National Laboratory in August of 2010 and in February of 2011 for chemical analysis. Samples of whole body field mice from both sites were analyzed for target analyte list elements (mostly metals), dioxin/furans, polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, high explosives, and perchlorate. In addition, uranium isotopes were analyzed in a composite sample collected from TA-36 Minie. In general, all constituents, with the exception of lead at TA-39 Point 6, in whole body field mice samples collected from these two open-detonation firing sites were either not detected or they were detected below regional statistical reference levels (99% confidence level), biota dose screening levels, and/or soil ecological chemical screening levels. The amount of lead in field mice tissue collected from TA-39 Point 6 was higher than regional background, and some lead levels in the soil were higher than the ecological screening level for the field mouse; however, these levels are not expected to affect the viability of the populations over the site as a whole.

  5. The soil microbiome influences grapevine-associated microbiota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarraonaindia, Iratxe; Owens, Sarah M.; Weisenhorn, Pamela; West, Kristin; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad; Lax, Simon; Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Mills, David A.; Martin, Gilles; Taghavi, Safiyh; van der Lelie, Daniel; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2015-03-24

    Grapevine is a well-studied, economically relevant crop, whose associated bacteria could influence its organoleptic properties. In this study, the spatial and temporal dynamics of the bacterial communities associated with grapevine organs (leaves, flowers, grapes, and roots) and soils were characterized over two growing seasons to determine the influence of vine cultivar, edaphic parameters, vine developmental stage (dormancy, flowering, preharvest), and vineyard. Belowground bacterial communities differed significantly from those aboveground, and yet the communities associated with leaves, flowers, and grapes shared a greater proportion of taxa with soil communities than with each other, suggesting that soil may serve as a bacterial reservoir. A subset of soil microorganisms, including root colonizers significantly enriched in plant growth-promoting bacteria and related functional genes, were selected by the grapevine. In addition to plant selective pressure, the structure of soil and root microbiota was significantly influenced by soil pH and C:N ratio, and changes in leaf- and grape-associated microbiota were correlated with soil carbon and showed interannual variation even at small spatial scales. Diazotrophic bacteria, e.g., Rhizobiaceae and Bradyrhizobium spp., were significantly more abundant in soil samples and root samples of specific vineyards. Vine-associated microbial assemblages were influenced by myriad factors that shape their composition and structure, but the majority of organ-associated taxa originated in the soil, and their distribution reflected the influence of highly localized biogeographic factors and vineyard management.

  6. Integrating engineering design improvements with exoelectrogen enrichmentprocess to increase power output from microbial fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Leak, David; Andras, Calin; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Keller, Martin; Davison, Brian H

    2009-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC) hold promise as a green technology for bioenergy production. The challenge is to improve the engineering design while exploiting the ability of microbes to generate and transfer electrons directly to electrodes. A strategy using a combination of improved anode design and an enrichment processwas formulated to improve power densities. The designwas based on a flow-through anode with minimal dead volume and a high electrode surface area per unit volume. The strategy focused on promoting biofilm formation via a combination of forced flow through the anode, carbon limitation, and step-wise reduction of external resistance. The enrichment process resulted in development of exoelectrogenic biofilm communities dominated by Anaeromusa spp. This is the first report identifying organisms fromthe Veillonellaceae family in MFCs. The power density of the resulting MFC using a ferricyanide cathode reached 300Wm?3 net anode volume (3220mWm?2), which is about a third of what is estimated to be necessary for commercial consideration. The operational stability of the MFC using high specific surface area electrodes was demonstrated by operating the MFC for a period of over four months.

  7. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2003-12-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the second year of at least a three-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  8. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2003-01-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1914. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for future genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the first year of a three-year study, this report is restricted to describing our work on the first two objectives only.

  9. Parametric study of flow patterns behind the standing accretion shock wave for core-collapse supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwakami, Wakana; Nagakura, Hiroki [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Yamada, Shoichi, E-mail: wakana@heap.phys.waseda.ac.jp [Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2014-05-10

    In this study, we conduct three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations systematically to investigate the flow patterns behind the accretion shock waves that are commonly formed in the post-bounce phase of core-collapse supernovae. Adding small perturbations to spherically symmetric, steady, shocked accretion flows, we compute the subsequent evolutions to find what flow pattern emerges as a consequence of hydrodynamical instabilities such as convection and standing accretion shock instability for different neutrino luminosities and mass accretion rates. Depending on these two controlling parameters, various flow patterns are indeed realized. We classify them into three basic patterns and two intermediate ones; the former includes sloshing motion (SL), spiral motion (SP), and multiple buoyant bubble formation (BB); the latter consists of spiral motion with buoyant-bubble formation (SPB) and spiral motion with pulsationally changing rotational velocities (SPP). Although the post-shock flow is highly chaotic, there is a clear trend in the pattern realization. The sloshing and spiral motions tend to be dominant for high accretion rates and low neutrino luminosities, and multiple buoyant bubbles prevail for low accretion rates and high neutrino luminosities. It is interesting that the dominant pattern is not always identical between the semi-nonlinear and nonlinear phases near the critical luminosity; the intermediate cases are realized in the latter case. Running several simulations with different random perturbations, we confirm that the realization of flow pattern is robust in most cases.

  10. New methods for tightly regulated gene expression and highly efficient chromosomal integration of cloned genes for Methanosarcina species

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guss, Adam M.; Rother, Michael; Zhang, Jun Kai; Kulkkarni, Gargi; Metcalf, William W.

    2008-01-01

    A highly efficient method for chromosomal integration of cloned DNA into Methanosarcina spp. was developed utilizing the site-specific recombination system from the Streptomyces phage φC31. Host strains expressing the φC31 integrase gene and carrying an appropriate recombination site can be transformed with non-replicating plasmids carrying the complementary recombination site at efficiencies similar to those obtained with self-replicating vectors. We have also constructed a series of hybrid promoters that combine the highly expressed M. barkeri P mcrB promoter with binding sites for the tetracycline-responsive, bacterial TetR protein. These promoters are tightly regulated by the presence or absence of tetracycline inmore » strains that express the tetR gene. The hybrid promoters can be used in genetic experiments to test gene essentiality by placing a gene of interest under their control. Thus, growth of strains with tetR -regulated essential genes becomes tetracycline-dependent. A series of plasmid vectors that utilize the site-specific recombination system for construction of reporter gene fusions and for tetracycline regulated expression of cloned genes are reported. These vectors were used to test the efficiency of translation at a variety of start codons. Fusions using an ATG start site were the most active, whereas those using GTG and TTG were approximately one half or one fourth as active, respectively. The CTG fusion was 95% less active than the ATG fusion.« less

  11. Changes in the composition of the human fecal microbiome following bacteriotherapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khoruts, A.; Dicksved, J.; Jansson, J.K.; Sadowsky, M.J.

    2009-08-15

    CDAD is the major known cause of antibiotic-induced diarrhea and colitis, and the disease is thought to result from persistent disruption of commensal gut microbiota. Bacteriotherapy by way of fecal transplantation can be used to treat recurrent CDAD and is thought to re-establish the normal colonic microflora. However, limitations of conventional microbiologic techniques have until recently precluded testing of this idea. In this study we used T-RFLP and 16S rRNA gene sequencing approaches to characterize the bacterial composition of the colonic microflora in a patient suffering from recurrent CDAD, before and after treatment by fecal transplantation from a healthy donor. While the patient's residual colonic microbiota, prior to therapy, was deficient in members of the bacterial divisions-Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes, transplantation had a dramatic impact on the composition of the patient's gut microbiota. By 14 days post transplantation, the fecal bacterial composition of the recipient was highly similar to the donor and was dominated by Bacteroides spp. strains and an uncharacterized butyrate producing bacterium. The change in bacterial composition was accompanied by resolution of the patient's symptoms. The striking similarity of the recipient's and donor's intestinal microbiota following bacteriotherapy suggests that the donor's bacteria quickly occupied their requisite niches, resulting in restoration of both the structure and function of the microbial communities present.

  12. Residential Building Energy Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1990-09-01

    PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences) provides an easy-to-use and accurate method of estimating the energy and cost savings associated with various energy conservation measures in site-built single-family homes. Measures such as ceiling, wall, and floor insulation; different window type and glazing layers; infiltration levels; and equipment efficiency can be considered. PEAR also allows the user to consider the effects of roof and wall color, movable night insulation on the windows, reflective and heatmore » absorbing glass, an attached sunspace, and use of a night temperature setback. Regression techniques permit adjustments for different building geometries, window areas and orientations, wall construction, and extension of the data to 880 U.S. locations determined by climate parameters. Based on annual energy savings, user-specified costs of conservation measures, fuel, lifetime of measure, loan period, and fuel escalation and interest rates, PEAR calculates two economic indicators; the Simple Payback Period (SPP) and the Savings-to-Investment Ratio (SIR). Energy and cost savings of different sets of conservation measures can be compared in a single run. The program can be used both as a research tool by energy policy analysts and as a method for nontechnical energy calculation by architects, home builders, home owners, and others in the building industry.« less

  13. New methods for tightly regulated gene expression and highly efficient chromosomal integration of cloned genes forMethanosarcinaspecies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guss, Adam M.; Rother, Michael; Zhang, Jun Kai; Kulkkarni, Gargi; Metcalf, William W.

    2008-01-01

    A highly efficient method for chromosomal integration of cloned DNA intoMethanosarcina spp.was developed utilizing the site-specific recombination system from theStreptomycesphage ?C31. Host strains expressing the ?C31 integrase gene and carrying an appropriate recombination site can be transformed with non-replicating plasmids carrying the complementary recombination site at efficiencies similar to those obtained with self-replicating vectors. We have also constructed a series of hybrid promoters that combine the highly expressedM. barkeriPmcrBpromoter with binding sites for the tetracycline-responsive, bacterial TetR protein. These promoters are tightly regulated by the presence or absence of tetracycline in strains that express thetetRgene. The hybrid promoters can bemoreused in genetic experiments to test gene essentiality by placing a gene of interest under their control. Thus, growth of strains withtetR-regulated essential genes becomes tetracycline-dependent. A series of plasmid vectors that utilize the site-specific recombination system for construction of reporter gene fusions and for tetracycline regulated expression of cloned genes are reported. These vectors were used to test the efficiency of translation at a variety of start codons. Fusions using an ATG start site were the most active, whereas those using GTG and TTG were approximately one half or one fourth as active, respectively. The CTG fusion was 95% less active than the ATG fusion.less

  14. Comparative genome analysis of Bacillus cereus group genomes withBacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Iain; Sorokin, Alexei; Kapatral, Vinayak; Reznik, Gary; Bhattacharya, Anamitra; Mikhailova, Natalia; Burd, Henry; Joukov, Victor; Kaznadzey, Denis; Walunas, Theresa; D'Souza, Mark; Larsen, Niels; Pusch,Gordon; Liolios, Konstantinos; Grechkin, Yuri; Lapidus, Alla; Goltsman,Eugene; Chu, Lien; Fonstein, Michael; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Overbeek, Ross; Kyrpides, Nikos; Ivanova, Natalia

    2005-09-14

    Genome features of the Bacillus cereus group genomes (representative strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis sub spp israelensis) were analyzed and compared with the Bacillus subtilis genome. A core set of 1,381 protein families among the four Bacillus genomes, with an additional set of 933 families common to the B. cereus group, was identified. Differences in signal transduction pathways, membrane transporters, cell surface structures, cell wall, and S-layer proteins suggesting differences in their phenotype were identified. The B. cereus group has signal transduction systems including a tyrosine kinase related to two-component system histidine kinases from B. subtilis. A model for regulation of the stress responsive sigma factor sigmaB in the B. cereus group different from the well studied regulation in B. subtilis has been proposed. Despite a high degree of chromosomal synteny among these genomes, significant differences in cell wall and spore coat proteins that contribute to the survival and adaptation in specific hosts has been identified.

  15. An Assessment of the Status of Captive Broodstock Technology of Pacific Salmon, 1995 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnaken, Conrad V.W.; Hard, Jeffrey J.

    1995-06-01

    This report provides guidance for the refinement and use of captive broodstock technology for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) by bringing together information on the husbandry techniques, genetic risks, physiology, nutrition, and pathology affecting captive broodstocks. Captive broodstock rearing of Pacific salmon is an evolving technology, as yet without well defined standards. At present, we regard captive rearing of Pacific salmon as problematic: high mortality rates and low egg viability were common in the programs we reviewed for this report. One of the most important elements in fish husbandry is the culture environment itself. Many captive broodstock programs for Pacific salmon have reared fish from smolt-to-adult in seawater net-pens, and most have shown success in providing gametes for recovery efforts. However, some programs have lost entire brood years to diseases that transmitted rapidly in this medium. Current programs for endangered species of Pacific salmon rear most fish full-term to maturity in fresh well-water, since ground water is low in pathogens and thus helps ensure survival to adulthood. Our review suggested that captive rearing of fish in either freshwater, well-water, or filtered and sterilized seawater supplied to land-based tanks should produce higher survival than culture in seawater net-pens.

  16. Factors controlling pathogen destruction during anaerobic digestion of biowastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, S.R. . E-mail: s.r.smith@imperial.ac.uk; Lang, N.L.; Cheung, K.H.M.; Spanoudaki, K.

    2005-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion is the principal method of stabilising biosolids from urban wastewater treatment in the UK, and it also has application for the treatment of other types of biowaste. Increasing awareness of the potential risks to human and animal health from environmental sources of pathogens has focused attention on the efficacy of waste treatment processes at destroying pathogenic microorganisms in biowastes recycled to agricultural land. The degree of disinfection achieved by a particular anaerobic digester is influenced by a variety of interacting operational variables and conditions, which can often deviate from the ideal. Experimental investigations demonstrate that Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. are not damaged by mesophilic temperatures, whereas rapid inactivation occurs by thermophilic digestion. A hydraulic, biokinetic and thermodynamic model of pathogen inactivation during anaerobic digestion showed that a 2 log{sub 10} reduction in E. coli (the minimum removal required for agricultural use of conventionally treated biosolids) is likely to challenge most conventional mesophilic digesters, unless strict maintenance and management practices are adopted to minimise dead zones and by-pass flow. Efficient mixing and organic matter stabilisation are the main factors controlling the rate of inactivation under mesophilic conditions and not a direct effect of temperature per se on pathogenic organisms.

  17. Anaerobic metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds by sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boopathy, R.; Kulpa, C.F.

    1994-06-01

    Ecological observations suggest that sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria might metabolize nitroaromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions if appropriate electron donors and electron acceptors are present in the environment, but this ability had not been demonstrated until recently. Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds used aerobic microorganisms. In most cases no mineralization of nitroaromatics occurs, and only superficial modifications of the structures are reported. However, under anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions, the nitroaromatic compounds reportedly undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. For example, trinitrotoluene under sulfate-reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of ammonia from triaminotoluene is achieved by reductive deamination catalyzed by the enzyme reductive deaminase, with the production of ammonia and toluene. Some sulfate reducers can metabolize toluene to CO{sub 2}. Similar metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. Many methanogenic bacteria can reduce nitroaromatic compounds to amino compounds. In this paper we review the anaerobic metabolic processes of nitroaromatic compounds under sulfate-reducing And methanogenic conditions.

  18. {phi}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{eta}{gamma} and {phi}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma} decays and mixing between low and high mass scalar mesons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teshima, T.; Kitamura, I.; Morisita, N.

    2007-09-01

    Radiative decays {phi}{yields}{eta}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma} and {phi}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma} are studied assuming that these decays are caused through the intermediate a{sub 0}(980){gamma} and f{sub 0}(980){gamma} states, respectively. Fitting the experimental data of the {eta}{pi}{sup 0} and {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} invariant mass spectrum in the decays {phi}{yields}{eta}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma} and {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}, it is shown that the processes {phi}{yields}a{sub 0}{gamma} and {phi}{yields}f{sub 0}{gamma} are dominated by the K{sup +}K{sup -} loop interaction rather than the pointlike {phi}a{sub 0}(f{sub 0}){gamma} one both for the nonderivative and derivative SPP coupling. The experimental data of {gamma}[{phi}{yields}f{sub 0}{gamma}]/{gamma}[{phi}{yields}a{sub 0}{gamma}] predicts that g{sub f{sub 0}}{sub KK}/g{sub a{sub 0}}{sub KK}{approx}2. Considering the effects of the mixing between low mass scalar qqqq states and high mass scalar qq states to these coupling constants g{sub f{sub 0}}{sub KK} and g{sub a{sub 0}}{sub KK}, one suggests that this mixing is rather large.

  19. RHIC electron lens beam transport system design considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, X.; Pikin, A.; Okamura, M.; Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.; Gupta, R.; Hock, J.; Jain, A.; Raparia, D.

    2010-10-01

    To apply head-on beam-beam compensation for RHIC, two electron lenses are designed and will be installed at IP10. Electron beam transport system is one of important subsystem, which is used to transport electron beam from electron gun side to collector side. This system should be able to change beam size inside superconducting magnet and control beam position with 5 mm in horizontal and vertical plane. Some other design considerations for this beam transport system are also reported in this paper. The head-on beam-beam effect is one of important nonlinear source in storage ring and linear colliders, which have limited the luminosity improvement of many colliders, such as SppS, Tevatron and RHIC. In order to enhance the performance of colliders, beam-beam effects can be compensated with direct space charge compensation, indirect space charge compensation or betatron phase cancellation scheme. Like other colliders, indirect space charge compensation scheme (Electron Lens) was also proposed for Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) beam-beam compensation at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The two similar electron lenses are located in IR10 between the DX magnets. One RHIC electron lens consists of one DC electron gun, one superconducting magnet, one electron collector and beam transport system.

  20. The initial phase of a Longleaf Pine-Wiregrass Savanna restoration: species establishment and community responses.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aschenbach, Todd, A; Foster, Bryan, L.; Imm, Donald, W.

    2010-09-01

    AbstractAbstract The significant loss of the longleaf pine-wiregrass ecosystem in the southeastern United States has serious implications for biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. In response to this loss, we have initiated a long-term and landscape-scale restoration experiment at the 80,125 ha (310 mi2) Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. Aristida beyrichiana (wiregrass), an important and dominant grass (i.e., a matrix species) of the longleaf pine savanna understory, and 31 other herbaceous non-matrix species were planted at six locations throughout SRS in 2002 and 2003. Of the 36,056 transplanted seedlings, 75% were still alive in June 2004, while mean 12 year survival across all planted species was 48%. Lespedeza hirta (hairy lespedeza) exhibited the greatest overall survival per 3 3 m cell at 95%, whereas Schizachyrium spp. (little bluestem) exhibited the greatest mean cover among individual species at 5.9%. Wiregrass survival and cover were significantly reduced when planted with non-matrix species. Aggregate cover of all planted species in restored cells averaged 25.9% in 2006. High rates of survival and growth of the planted species resulted in greater species richness (SR), diversity, and vegetative cover in restored cells. Results suggest that the loss of the longleaf pine-wiregrass ecosystem may be ameliorated through restoration efforts and illustrate the positive impact of restoration plantings on biodiversity and vegetative cover.

  1. Energetic Consequences of nitrite stress in Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough, inferred from global transcriptional analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Qiang; Huang, Katherine H.; He, Zhili; Alm, Eric J.; Fields,Matthew W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Wall, Judy D.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2005-11-03

    Many of the proteins that are candidates for bioenergetic pathways involved with sulfate respiration in Desulfovibrio spp. have been studied, but complete pathways and overall cell physiology remain to be resolved for many environmentally relevant conditions. In order to understand the metabolism of these microorganisms under adverse environmental conditions for improved bioremediation efforts, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough was used as a model organism to study stress response to nitrite, an important intermediate in the nitrogen cycle. Previous physiological studies demonstrated that growth was inhibited by nitrite and that nitrite reduction was observed to be the primary mechanism of detoxification. Global transcriptional profiling with whole-genome microarrays revealed coordinated cascades of responses to nitrite in pathways of energy metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, oxidative stress response, and iron homeostasis. In agreement with previous observations, nitrite-stressed cells showed a decrease in the expression of genes encoding sulfate reduction functions in addition to respiratory oxidative phosphorylation and ATP synthase activity. Consequently, the stressed cells had decreased expression of the genes encoding ATP-dependent amino acid transporters and proteins involved in translation. Other genes up-regulated in response to nitrite include the genes in the Fur regulon, which is suggested to be involved in iron homeostasis, and genes in the Per regulon, which is predicted to be responsible for oxidative stress response.

  2. Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polacek, Matt; Knuttgen, Kamia; Shipley, Rochelle

    2003-11-01

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife implemented the Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project (BLFEP) in September 2001 with funds from the Bonneville Power Administration. Fiscal Year (FY) 2001 of the BLFEP was used to gather historic information, establish methods and protocols, collect limnology data, and conduct the first seasonal fish surveys. FY 2002 was used to continue seasonal fish and lakewide creel surveys and adjust methods and protocols as needed. Water quality parameters were collected monthly from February to May and bi-monthly from June to August. Banks Lake water temperatures began to increase in April and stratification was apparent by June at all 3 limnology collection sites. By late August, the thermocline had dropped to nearly 20 meters deep, with 16-17 C temperatures throughout the epilimnion. Dissolved oxygen levels were generally above 10 mg/L until August when dissolved oxygen dropped near or below 5 mg/L below 20-meters deep. Secchi depths ranged from 2.5-8 meters and varied by location and date. Nearshore and offshore fish surveys were conducted in October 2002 and May and July 2003 using boat electrofishing, fyke net, gill net, and hydroacoustic surveys. Yellow Perch Perca flavescens (32 %) and cottid spp. (22 %) dominated the nearshore species composition in October; however, by May yellow perch (12 %) were the third most common species followed by smallmouth bass Micropterous dolomieui (34 %) and lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis (14 %). Lake whitefish dominated the offshore catch during October (78 %) and May (81 %). Fish diet analysis indicated that juvenile fishes consumed primarily insects and zooplankton, while adult piscivores consumed cottids spp. and yellow perch most frequently. For FY 2002, the following creel statistics are comprehensive through August 31, 2003. The highest angling pressure occurred in June 2003, when anglers were primarily targeting walleye and smallmouth bass. Boat anglers utilized Steamboat State Park more frequently than any other boat ramp on Banks Lake. Shore anglers used the rock jetty at Coulee City Park 76 % of the time, with highest use occurring from November through April. An estimated total of 11,915 ({+-}140 SD) smallmouth bass, 6,412 ({+-}59 SD) walleye, 5,470 ({+-}260 SD) rainbow trout, and 1,949 ({+-}118 SD) yellow perch were harvested from Banks Lake in FY 2002. Only 3 kokanee were reported in the catch during the FY 2002 creel survey. In the future, data from the seasonal surveys and creel will be used to identify potential factors that may limit the production and harvest of kokanee, rainbow trout, and various spiny-rayed fishes in Banks Lake. The limiting factors that will be examined consist of: abiotic factors including water temperature, dissolved oxygen levels, habitat, exploitation and entrainment; and biotic factors including food limitation and predation. The BLFEP will also evaluate the success of several rearing and stocking strategies for hatchery kokanee in Banks Lake.

  3. Ecological interactions between metals and microbes that impact bioremediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allan Konopka; Cindy Nakatsu

    2004-03-17

    Distinct microbial communities had been found in contaminated soils that varied in their concentrations of Pb, Cr and aromatic compounds. It is difficult to distinguish between their effects as their presence is highly correlated. Microcosms were constructed in which either Pb{sup +2} or CrO{sub 4}{sup -2} was added at levels that produced acute modest or severe acute effects (50 or 90% reduction). We previously reported on changes in microbial activity and broad patterns of Bacterial community composition. These results showed that addition of an organic energy source selected for a relatively small number of phylotypes and the addition of Pb or Cr(VI) modulated the community response. We sequenced dominant phylotypes from microcosms amended with xylene and Cr(VI) and from those with the simple addition of glucose only. In both cases, the dominant selected phylotypes were diverse. We found a number of distinct Arthrobacter strains, as well as several Pseudomonas spp. In addition, the high GC-content bands belonged to members of the genera Nocardioides and Rhodococcus. The focus of amended microcosm work has now shifted to anaerobic processes. The reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) as a detoxification mechanism is of greater interest, as is the specific role of particular physiological groups of anaerobes in mediating Cr(VI) detoxification. The correlation between microbial activity, community structure, and metal level has been analyzed on 150 mg of soil collected at spatial scales <1, 5, 15 and 50 cm. There was no correlation between metal content and activity level. Soils <1 cm apart could differ in activity 10-fold and extractable Pb and Cr 7-fold. Therefore, we turned to geostatistical analysis. There was spatial periodicity which is likely to reflect the heterogeneous distribution of active microbes and metal contaminants. Variograms indicated that the range of spatial dependence was up to 20 cm. To visualize the spatial relationships between the primary variate (activity) and its covariates (lead and chromium content), block kriging was used. The kriging maps suggest that areas exist where increased metal concentrations have zones of decreased metabolic microbial activity. Cr(VI) resistant bacteria have been isolated from two contaminated sites. Most isolates are Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, or Pseudomonas spp. A chrA gene has been cloned from Arthrobacter strain CR15 isolated from Cannelton, MI. PCR-primers have been produced against conserved motifs analyzed from 8 chrA sequences. Of the 96 Cr-resistant isolates from Cannelton, 85% gave a positive reaction to these primers. In contrast, none of the 38 isolates from Seymour, IN were positive. Therefore, at least for the culturable community, a particular resistance determinant appears to be widespread at a geographical site but rare (absent) at another site. The phylogenetic relatedness of the Arthrobacter strains is being evaluated via the distribution of repetitive elements as well as genome-wide restriction fragment analysis. Work to date on the latter has also suggested that Arthrobacter genomes are small (<2.5 Mbp). Gene capture experiments demonstrated that chromate-sensitive Gram-negative bacterial strains could obtain resistance from Cr-contaminated soil. However, frequency of transfer is low (10-6-10-8). Genetic diversity of the acquired chromate resistance mechanism is being assessed.

  4. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Sandy River Delta, Technical Report 2000-2002.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rocklage, Ann; Ratti, John

    2002-02-01

    Land managers are often challenged with the mandate to control exotic and invasive plant species. Reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) and Himalayan blackberry (Rubus discolor) are 2 such species that are currently threatening natural areas in western United States. Reed canarygrass may be native to the inland northwest (Antieau 2000), but it has invaded many wetland areas as dense, monoculture stands. Spread of this plant species is largely attributed to human disturbances, e.g., draining, farming (Antieau 2000). Reed canarygrass often dominates other emergent vegetation such as cattail (Typha spp.) and bulrush (Scirpus spp.) (Whitson et al. 1996, Apfelbaum and Sams 1987), and the resulting habitat is largely unsuitable for wetland birds. Himalayan blackberry was introduced to the United States as a garden shrub and was planted at wildlife-management areas for food and cover. It easily colonizes disturbed places, such as roadsides, ditches, and flood plains (Hoshovsky 2000). Once established, it forms a thick, impenetrable stand, which excludes native shrub species. Although Himalayan blackberry does provide food and cover for wildlife, particularly during fall and winter, it decreases habitat diversity, and therefore, may decrease wildlife diversity. Furthermore, patterns of avian nest predation may be altered in some exotic-shrub communities (Schmidt and Whelan 1999). For land managers to make sound decisions regarding invasive-plant control, it is useful to obtain information on current plant distributions in relation to targeted wildlife species, and then use models to predict how those species may respond to changes in vegetation. The Habitat Evaluations Program was developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to evaluate current and future habitat conditions for fish and wildlife (Stiehl 1994). The program is based on Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models for specific wildlife species. Each model contains several variables that represent life requisites (e.g., food and nesting cover) for that species. These variables are evaluated with vegetation sampling, and/or through the interpretation of aerial photographs and the like. Variable values are assigned a numerical score. The score may be based on a categorical rating (e.g . , different vegetation types receive different scores based on their importance for that species) or may be the result of a linear relationship (e.g., the score increases with the variable value; Figure 1). Variable scores are then input into a mathematical formula, which results in an HSI score. The HSI score ranges from 0-1, with 0 representing poor-quality habitat and 1 optimal habitat. HSI models assume a positive, linear relationship between wildlife-species density and the HSI score. For example, with an HSI score of 1, we assume that a species will be present at its highest density. Models can be projected into the future by changing variable values and observing the corresponding changes in HSI scores. Most models are relatively simple, but some are complex. These models have come under considerable scrutiny in the last several years, particularly concerning the validity of model assumptions (Van Horne 1983, Laymon and Barrett 1986, Hobbs and Hanley 1990, Kellner et al. 1992). Regardless of criticisms, these models may be used with success when there is an understanding and acceptance of model limitations. Each model should be evaluated as to its applicability in a given situation. Model validation, where results have on-the-ground verification, is highly recommended. Specific objectives of this project were to (1) conduct avian surveys and measure the present vegetation at the Sandy River Delta, (2) input the vegetation data into HSI models for 5 avian species, (3) evaluate the current habitat suitability for these species, and (4) predict species responses to potential changes in vegetation, resulting from the removal of reed canarygrass and/or Himalayan blackberry.

  5. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muir, William D.; Smith, Steven G.; Zabel, Richard W.

    2003-07-01

    In 2002, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the tenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 19,891 hatchery steelhead at Lower Granite Dam. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''Single-Release Model''). Primary research objectives in 2002 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2002 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures; details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

  6. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Marsh, Douglas M.

    2006-05-01

    In 2005, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the thirteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 18,439 hatchery steelhead, 5,315 wild steelhead, and 6,964 wild yearling Chinook salmon at Lower Granite Dam in the Snake River. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and at sites within the hydropower system in both the Snake and Columbia Rivers. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''single-release model''). Primary research objectives in 2005 were: (1) Estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss. (2) Evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions. (3) Evaluate the survival estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2005 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Additional details on the methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here.

  7. Rock Island Dam Smolt Monitoring; 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truscott, Keith B.; Fielder, Paul C.

    1995-10-01

    Downstream migrating salmon and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus spp.) smolts were monitored at the Rock Island Dam bypass trap from April 1 - August 31, 1954. This was the tenth consecutive year that the bypass trap was monitored. Data collected included: (1) number of fish caught by species, (2) number of adipose clipped and/or Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tagged fish caught by species, (3) daily average riverflow, (4) daily average powerhouse No. 1 and No. 2 flows and daily average spill. These data were transmitted to the Fish Passage Center, which manages the Smolt Monitoring Program throughout the Columbia River Basin. The Smolt Monitoring Program is used to manage the {open_quotes}water budget{close_quotes}, releasing upstream reservoir water storage allocated to supplement river flows to enhance survival of downstream migrating juvenile salmonids. The Rock Island Dam trapping facility collected 37,795 downstream migrating salmonids in 1994. Collected fish included 4 yearling and 4 sub-yearling chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) that had been previously PIT tagged to help determine migration rates. Additionally, 1,132 sub-yearling chinook, 4,185 yearling chinook, 6,627 steelhead, (O. mykiss) and 422 sockeye (O. nerka) with clipped adipose fins were collected. The middle 80% of the 1994 spring migration (excluding sub-yearling chinooks) passed Rock Island Dam during a 34 day period, April 25 - May 28. Passage rates of chinook and steelhead smolts released from hatcheries and the downstream migration timing of all salmonids are presented. The spring migration timing of juvenile salmonids is strongly influenced by hatchery releases above Rock Island Dam.

  8. Systematic review of the influence of foraging habitat on red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garabedian, James E.

    2014-04-01

    Relationships between foraging habitat and reproductive success provide compelling evidence of the contribution of specific vegetative features to foraging habitat quality, a potentially limiting factor for many animal populations. For example, foraging habitat quality likely will gain importance in the recovery of the threatened red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis (RCW) in the USA as immediate nesting constraints are mitigated. Several researchers have characterized resource selection by foraging RCWs, but emerging research linking reproductive success (e.g. clutch size, nestling and fledgling production, and group size) and foraging habitat features has yet to be synthesized. Therefore, we reviewed peer-refereed scientific literature and technical resources (e.g. books, symposia proceedings, and technical reports) that examined RCW foraging ecology, foraging habitat, or demography to evaluate evidence for effects of the key foraging habitat features described in the species’ recovery plan on group reproductive success. Fitness-based habitat models suggest foraging habitat with low to intermediate pine Pinus spp. densities, presence of large and old pines, minimal midstory development, and herbaceous groundcover support more productive RCW groups. However, the relationships between some foraging habitat features and RCW reproductive success are not well supported by empirical data. In addition, few regression models account for > 30% of variation in reproductive success, and unstandardized multiple and simple linear regression coefficient estimates typically range from -0.100 to 0.100, suggesting ancillary variables and perhaps indirect mechanisms influence reproductive success. These findings suggest additional research is needed to address uncertainty in relationships between foraging habitat features and RCW reproductive success and in the mechanisms underlying those relationships.

  9. Event activity dependence of Y(nS) production in $$\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$$=5.02 TeV pPb and $$\\sqrt{s}$$=2.76 TeV pp collisions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei

    2014-04-15

    The production of Y(1S), Y(2S), and Y(3S) is investigated in pPb and pp collisions at centre-of-mass energies per nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV and 2.76 TeV, respectively. The datasets correspond to integrated luminosities of about 31 nb–1 (pPb) and 5.4 pb–1 (pp), collected in 2013 by the CMS experiment at the LHC. Upsilons that decay into muons are reconstructed within the rapidity interval (yCM) < 1.93 in the nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass frame. Their production is studied as a function of two measures of event activity, namely the charged-particle multiplicity measured in the pseudorapidity interval |η| < 2.4, and the sum ofmore » transverse energy deposited at forward pseudorapidity, 4.0 < |η|< 5.2. The Y cross sections normalized by their event activity integrated values, Y(nS)/, are found to rise with both measures of the event activity in pp and pPb. In both collision systems, the ratios of the excited to the ground state cross sections, Y(nS)/Y(1S), are found to decrease with the charged-particle multiplicity, while as a function of the transverse energy the variation is less pronounced. Lastly, the event activity integrated double ratios, [Y(nS)/Y(1S)]pPb / [Y(nS)/Y(1S)]pp, are also measured and found to be 0.83 +/- 0.05 (stat.) +/- 0.05 (syst.) and 0.71 +/- 0.08 (stat.) +/- 0.09 (syst.) for Y(2S) and Y(3S), respectively.« less

  10. Radiation resistance of lactobacilli isolated from radurized meat relative to growth and environment. [Lactobacillus sake; Lactobacillus curvatus; Lactobacillus farciminis; Staphylococcus aureus; Salmonella typimurium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hastings, J.W.; Holzapfel, W.H.; Niemand, J.G.

    1986-10-01

    Of 113 lactobacilli isolated from radurized (5 kGy) minced meat, 7 Lactobacillus sake strains, 1 L. curvatus strain, and 1 L. farciminis strain were used for radiation resistance studies in a semisynthetic substrate (i.e., modified MRS broth). Five reference Lactobacillus spp. one Staphylococcus aureus strain, and one Salmonella typhimurium strain were used for comparative purposes. All L. sake isolates exhibited the phenomenon of being more resistant to gamma-irradiation in the exponential (log) phase than in the stationary phase of their growth cycles by a factor of 28%. Four reference strains also exhibited this phenomenon, with L. sake (DSM 20017) showing a 68% increase in resistance in the log phase over the stationary phase. This phenomenon was not common to all bacteria tested and is not common to all strains with high radiation resistance. Four L. sake isolates and three reference strains were used in radiation sensitivity testing in a natural food system (i.e., meat). The bacteria were irradiated in minced meat and packaged under four different conditions (air, vacuum, CO/sub 2/, and N/sub 2/). Organisms exhibited the highest death rate (lowest D/sub 10/ values (doses required to reduce the logarithm of the bacterial population by 1) under CO/sub 2/ packaging conditions, but resistance to irradiation was increased under N/sub 2/. The D/sup 10/ values of the isolates were generally greater than those of the reference strains. The D/sup 10/ values were also higher (approximately two times) in meat than in a semisynthetic growth medium.

  11. Long-term monitoring of reef corals at the Flower Garden Banks (northwest Gulf of Mexico): Reef coral population changes and historical incorporation of barium in Montastrea annularis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deslarzes, K.J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Reef coral populations were monitored from 1988 to 1991 at the Flower Garden Banks located in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. The status of reef coral populations, and natural or man-made factors potentially affecting their well-being were determined. Man-made chronic disturbances are degrading coral reef resources on a global scale. Yet, the Flower Garden coral reefs seem to have been sheltered from the effects of regional stresses generated by population growth and increased industrial activity. Since 1974, reef coral population levels have remained unchanged in the Montastrea-Diploria Zones at the Flower Garden Banks. Live coral cover ranges between 46 and 46.5%. Montastrea annularis and Diploria strigosa comprise 80% of the coral cover on either bank. The remainder of the cover is mostly shared by eight other taxa. Coral taxa appear to be more homogeneously distributed on the West Bank. The relatively greater number of Agaricia spp., Madracis decastis, and P. astreoides colonies on the East Bank may be the source of a decreased evenness. The health of reef corals was assessed using repetitive and non-repetitive photographic methods, and accretionary growth measurements of M. annularis. Reef corals have undergone small scale changes at the Flower Gardens probably reflecting natural disturbance, predation, disease, and inter-specific competition. White mat disease (ridge disease) is shown to generate more tissue loss than any of the three bleaching events that took place at the Flower Gardens (1989, 1990, and 1991). Advance to retreat linear ratios of encrusting growth revealed a net tissue gain on the East Bank and a net tissue loss on the West Bank. Growth rates of M. annularis were highly variable. The annual barium content from 1910 in 1989 in a M. annularis colony from the West Flower Garden did not reveal trends associated with the extensive oil and gas exploration in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

  12. Ecophysiology of an uncultivated lineage of Aigarchaeota from an oxic, hot spring filamentous ‘streamer’ community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beam, Jacob P.; Jay, Zackary J.; Schmid, Markus C.; Rusch, Douglas B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Jennings, Ryan de M.; Kozubal, Mark A.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Wagner, Michael; Inskeep, William P.

    2015-07-03

    In this study, the candidate archaeal phylum ‘Aigarchaeota’ contains microorganisms from terrestrial and subsurface geothermal ecosystems. The phylogeny and metabolic potential of Aigarchaeota has been deduced from several recent single-cell amplified genomes; however, a detailed description of their metabolic potential and in situ transcriptional activity is absent. Here, we report a comprehensive metatranscriptome-based reconstruction of the in situ metabolism of Aigarchaeota in an oxic, hot spring filamentous ‘streamer’ community. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that these newly discovered Aigarchaeota are filamentous, which is consistent with the presence and transcription of an actin-encoding gene. Aigarchaeota filaments are intricately associated with other community members, which include both bacteria (for example, filamentous Thermocrinis spp.) and archaea. Metabolic reconstruction of genomic and metatranscriptomic data suggests that this aigarchaeon is an aerobic, chemoorganoheterotroph with autotrophic potential. A heme copper oxidase complex was identified in the environmental genome assembly and highly transcribed in situ. Potential electron donors include acetate, fatty acids, amino acids, sugars and aromatic compounds, which may originate from extracellular polymeric substances produced by other microorganisms shown to exist in close proximity and/or autochthonous dissolved organic carbon (OC). Transcripts related to genes specific to each of these potential electron donors were identified, indicating that this aigarchaeon likely utilizes several OC substrates. Characterized members of this lineage cannot synthesize heme, and other cofactors and vitamins de novo, which suggests auxotrophy. We propose the name Candidatus ‘Calditenuis aerorheumensis’ for this aigarchaeon, which describes its filamentous morphology and its primary electron acceptor, oxygen.

  13. Integrated Genome-Based Studies of Shewanella Ecophysiology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrei L. Osterman, Ph.D.

    2012-12-17

    Integration of bioinformatics and experimental techniques was applied to mapping and characterization of the key components (pathways, enzymes, transporters, regulators) of the core metabolic machinery in Shewanella oneidensis and related species with main focus was on metabolic and regulatory pathways involved in utilization of various carbon and energy sources. Among the main accomplishments reflected in ten joint publications with other participants of Shewanella Federation are: (i) A systems-level reconstruction of carbohydrate utilization pathways in the genus of Shewanella (19 species). This analysis yielded reconstruction of 18 sugar utilization pathways including 10 novel pathway variants and prediction of > 60 novel protein families of enzymes, transporters and regulators involved in these pathways. Selected functional predictions were verified by focused biochemical and genetic experiments. Observed growth phenotypes were consistent with bioinformatic predictions providing strong validation of the technology and (ii) Global genomic reconstruction of transcriptional regulons in 16 Shewanella genomes. The inferred regulatory network includes 82 transcription factors, 8 riboswitches and 6 translational attenuators. Of those, 45 regulons were inferred directly from the genome context analysis, whereas others were propagated from previously characterized regulons in other species. Selected regulatory predictions were experimentally tested. Integration of this analysis with microarray data revealed overall consistency and provided additional layer of interactions between regulons. All the results were captured in the new database RegPrecise, which is a joint development with the LBNL team. A more detailed analysis of the individual subsystems, pathways and regulons in Shewanella spp included bioinfiormatics-based prediction and experimental characterization of: (i) N-Acetylglucosamine catabolic pathway; (ii)Lactate utilization machinery; (iii) Novel NrtR regulator of NAD biosynthesis; (iv) HexR-controlled global regulon in central metabolism. In addition to numerous specific findings contributing to basic understanding of ecophysiology and evolution of Shewanella, the key components of the integrative genomic methodology of general utility for the community were optimized, validated and disseminated.

  14. Influence of Carbon and Microbial Community Priming on the Attenuation of Uranium in a Contaminated Floodplain Aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mouser, Paula J.; N'Guessan, A. Lucie; Qafoku, Nikolla; Sinha, M.; Williams, K. H.; Dangelmayr, M.; Resch, Charles T.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Wang, Zheming; Figueroa, Linda A.; Long, P. E.

    2015-07-01

    The capacity for subsurface sediments to sequester metal contaminants, such as uranium (U), and retain them after bioremediation efforts are completed is critical to site stewardship. Sediments enriched in natural organic matter are capable of sequestering significant quantities of U, but may also serve as sources to the aquifer, contributing to plume persistence. Two types of sediments were compared to better understand the mechanisms contributing to the sequestration and release of U in the presence of organic matter. Artificially bioreduced sediments were retrieved from a field experimental plot previously stimulated with acetate while naturally bioreduced sediments were collected from a location enriched in organic matter but never subject to acetate amendment. Batch incubations demonstrated that the artificially bioreduced sediments were primed to rapidly remove uranium from the groundwater whereas naturally bioreduced sediments initially released a sizeable portion of sediment U before U(VI)-removal commenced. Column experiments confirmed that U release persisted for 65 pore volumes in naturally bioreduced sediments, demonstrating the sink-source behavior of this sediment. Acetate addition to artificially bioreduced sediments shifted the microbial community from one dominated by sulfate-reducing bacteria within Desulfobacteraceae to the iron-reducing family Geobacteraceae and Firmicutes during U(VI) reduction. In contrast, initial Geobacteraceae communities innaturally reduced sediments were replaced by clone sequences with similarity to opportunistic Pseudomonas spp. during U release, while U(VI) removal occurred concurrent with enrichment of Firmicutes. These investigations stress the importance of characterizing zones with heterogeneous carbon pools at U contaminated sites prior to the determination of a remedial strategy.

  15. Characterization of a novel insect-specific flavivirus from Brazil: Potential for inhibition of infection of arthropod cells with medically important flaviviruses.

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kenney, Joan L.; Solberg, Owen D.; Langevin, Stanley A.; Brault, Aaron C.

    2014-01-12

    In the past decade, there has been an upsurge in the number of newly described insect-specific flaviviruses isolated pan-globally. We recently described the isolation of a novel flavivirus (tentatively designated ‘Nhumirim virus’; NHUV) that represents an example of a unique subset of apparently insect-specific viruses that phylogenetically affiliate with dual-host mosquito-borne flaviviruses despite appearing to be limited to replication in mosquito cells. We characterized the in vitro growth potential and 3' untranslated region (UTR) sequence homology with alternative flaviviruses, and evaluated the virus’s capacity to suppress replication of representative Culex spp.-vectored pathogenic flaviviruses in mosquito cells. Only mosquito cell linesmore » were found to support NHUV replication, further reinforcing the insect-specific phenotype of this virus. Analysis of the sequence and predicted RNA secondary structures of the 3' UTR indicated NHUV to be most similar to viruses within the yellow fever serogroup and Japanese encephalitis serogroup, and viruses in the tick-borne flavivirus clade. NHUV was found to share the fewest conserved sequence elements when compared with traditional insect-specific flaviviruses. This suggests that, despite apparently being insect specific, this virus probably diverged from an ancestral mosquito-borne flavivirus. Co-infection experiments indicated that prior or concurrent infection of mosquito cells with NHUV resulted in a significant reduction in virus production of West Nile virus (WNV), St Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and Japanese encephalitis virus. As a result, the inhibitory effect was most effective against WNV and SLEV with over a 106-fold and 104-fold reduction in peak titres, respectively.« less

  16. Forestry herbicide influences on biodiversity and wildlife habitats in Southern forests.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Karl V.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract In the southern United States, herbicide use continues to increase for timber management in commercial pine (Pinus spp.) plantations, for modifying wildlife habitats, and for invasive plant control. Several studies have reported that single applications of forestry herbicides at stand initiation have minor and temporary impacts on plant communities and wildlife habitat conditions, with some reports of enhanced habitat conditions for both game and nongame species. Due to the high resiliency of floral communities, plant species richness and diversity rebound rapidly after single herbicide treatments, with short- and long-term compositional shifts according to the selectivity and efficacy of the herbicide used. Recently, however, a shift to the Southeast in North American timber supplies has resulted in increased forest management intensity. Current site-preparation techniques rely on herbicide combinations, often coupled with mechanical treatments and >1 years of post-planting applications to enhance the spectrum and duration of vegetation control. This near-total control of associated vegetation at establishment and more rapid pine canopy closure, coupled with shortened and repeated rotations, likely will affect plant diversity and wildlife habitat quality. Development of mitigation methods at the stand and landscape levels will be required to minimize vegetative and wildlife impacts while allowing continued improvement in pine productivity. More uncertain are long-term impacts of increasing invasive plant occupation and the projected increase in herbicide use that will be needed to reverse this worsening situation. In addition, the potential of herbicides to meet wildlife management objectives in areas where traditional techniques have high social costs (e.g., prescribed fire) should be fully explored.

  17. Forestry herbicide influences on biodiversity and wildlife habitat in Southern forests.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Karl V.; Miller, James, H.

    2004-07-01

    Abstract In the southern United States, herbicide use continues to increase for timber management in commercial pine (Pinus spp.) plantations, for modifying wildlife habitats, and for invasive plant control. Several studies have reported that single applications of forestry herbicides at stand initiation have minor and temporary impacts on plant communities and wildlife habitat conditions, with some reports of enhanced habitat conditions for both game and nongame species. Due to the high resiliency of floral communities, plant species richness and diversity rebound rapidly after single herbicide treatments, with short- and long-term compositional shifts according to the selectivity and efficacy of the herbicide used. Recently, however, a shift to the Southeast in North American timber supplies has resulted in increased forest management intensity. Current site-preparation techniques rely on herbicide combinations, often coupled with mechanical treatments and >1 years of post-planting applications to enhance the spectrum and duration of vegetation control. This near-total control of associated vegetation at establishment and more rapid pine canopy closure, coupled with shortened and repeated rotations, likely will affect plant diversity and wildlife habitat quality. Development of mitigation methods at the stand and landscape levels will be required to minimize vegetative and wildlife impacts while allowing continued improvement in pine productivity. More uncertain are long-term impacts of increasing invasive plant occupation and the projected increase in herbicide use that will be needed to reverse this worsening situation. In addition, the potential of herbicides to meet wildlife management objectives in areas where traditional techniques have high social costs (e.g., prescribed fire) should be fully explored.

  18. Ecophysiology of an uncultivated lineage of Aigarchaeota from an oxic, hot spring filamentous ‘streamer’ community

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Beam, Jacob P.; Jay, Zackary J.; Schmid, Markus C.; Rusch, Douglas B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Jennings, Ryan de M.; Kozubal, Mark A.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Wagner, Michael; Inskeep, William P.

    2015-07-03

    In this study, the candidate archaeal phylum ‘Aigarchaeota’ contains microorganisms from terrestrial and subsurface geothermal ecosystems. The phylogeny and metabolic potential of Aigarchaeota has been deduced from several recent single-cell amplified genomes; however, a detailed description of their metabolic potential and in situ transcriptional activity is absent. Here, we report a comprehensive metatranscriptome-based reconstruction of the in situ metabolism of Aigarchaeota in an oxic, hot spring filamentous ‘streamer’ community. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that these newly discovered Aigarchaeota are filamentous, which is consistent with the presence and transcription of an actin-encoding gene. Aigarchaeota filaments are intricately associated with othermore » community members, which include both bacteria (for example, filamentous Thermocrinis spp.) and archaea. Metabolic reconstruction of genomic and metatranscriptomic data suggests that this aigarchaeon is an aerobic, chemoorganoheterotroph with autotrophic potential. A heme copper oxidase complex was identified in the environmental genome assembly and highly transcribed in situ. Potential electron donors include acetate, fatty acids, amino acids, sugars and aromatic compounds, which may originate from extracellular polymeric substances produced by other microorganisms shown to exist in close proximity and/or autochthonous dissolved organic carbon (OC). Transcripts related to genes specific to each of these potential electron donors were identified, indicating that this aigarchaeon likely utilizes several OC substrates. Characterized members of this lineage cannot synthesize heme, and other cofactors and vitamins de novo, which suggests auxotrophy. We propose the name Candidatus ‘Calditenuis aerorheumensis’ for this aigarchaeon, which describes its filamentous morphology and its primary electron acceptor, oxygen.« less

  19. Radiological Impact Associated to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) from Coal-Fired Power Plants Emissions - 13436

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiuza, Antonio; Soeiro de Carvalho, Jose; Gois, Joaquim; Meira Castro, Ana Cristina

    2013-07-01

    Certain materials used and produced in a wide range of non-nuclear industries contain enhanced activity concentrations of natural radionuclides. In particular, electricity production from coal is one of the major sources of increased human exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials. A methodology was developed to assess the radiological impact due to natural radiation background. The developed research was applied to a specific case study, the Sines coal-fired power plant, located in the southwest coastline of Portugal. Gamma radiation measurements were carried out with two different instruments: a sodium iodide scintillation detector counter (SPP2 NF, Saphymo) and a gamma ray spectrometer with energy discrimination (Falcon 5000, Canberra). Two circular survey areas were defined within 20 km of the power plant. Forty relevant measurements points were established within the sampling area: 15 urban and 25 suburban locations. Additionally, ten more measurements points were defined, mostly at the 20-km area. The registered gamma radiation varies from 20 to 98.33 counts per seconds (c.p.s.) corresponding to an external gamma exposure rate variable between 87.70 and 431.19 nGy/h. The highest values were measured at locations near the power plant and those located in an area within the 6 and 20 km from the stacks. In situ gamma radiation measurements with energy discrimination identified natural emitting nuclides as well as their decay products (Pb-212, Pb-2142, Ra-226, Th-232, Ac-228, Th-234, Pa-234, U- 235, etc.). According to the results, an influence from the stacks emissions has been identified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The developed methodology accomplished the lack of data in what concerns to radiation rate in the vicinity of Sines coal-fired power plant and consequently the resulting exposure to the nearby population. (authors)

  20. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2008.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faulkner, James R.; Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.

    2009-06-23

    In 2008, the National Marine Fisheries Service completed the sixteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We PIT tagged and released a total of 18,565 hatchery steelhead O. mykiss, 15,991 wild steelhead, and 9,714 wild yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha at Lower Granite Dam in the Snake River. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and at sites within the hydropower system in both the Snake and Columbia Rivers. These included 122,061 yearling Chinook salmon tagged at Lower Granite Dam for evaluation of latent mortality related to passage through Snake River dams. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the single-release model). Primary research objectives in 2008 were to: (1) estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead, (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions, and (3) evaluate the survival estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2008 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Additional details on the methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Survival and detection probabilities were estimated precisely for most of the 2008 yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead migrations. Hatchery and wild fish were combined in some of the analyses. For yearling Chinook salmon, overall percentages for combined release groups used in survival analyses in the Snake River were 80% hatchery-reared and 20% wild. For steelhead, the overall percentages were 65% hatchery-reared and 35% wild. Estimated survival from the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam to the tailrace of Little Goose Dam averaged 0.939 for yearling Chinook salmon and 0.935 for steelhead.

  1. A comparative multidimensional LC-MS proteomic analysis reveals mechanisms for furan aldehyde detoxification in Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus 39E

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Clarkson, Sonya M.; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D.; Giannone, Richard J.; Engle, Nancy L.; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Hettich, Robert L.; Elkins, James G.

    2014-12-03

    Background: Chemical and physical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass improves substrate reactivity for increased microbial biofuel production, but also restricts growth via the release of furan aldehydes such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF). The physiological effects of these inhibitors on thermophilic, fermentative bacteria is important to understand; especially as cellulolytic strains are being developed for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of lignocellulosic feedstocks. Identifying mechanisms for detoxification of aldehydes in naturally resistant strains such as Thermoanaerobacter spp. may also enable improvements in candidate CBP microorganisms. Results: T. pseudethanolicus 39E, an anaerobic, saccharolytic thermophile, was found to grow readily in the presence of 30more » mM furfural and 20 mM 5-HMF and reduce these aldehydes to their respective alcohols in situ. The proteomes of T. pseudethanolicus 39E grown in the presence or absence of 15 mM furfural were compared to identify upregulated enzymes potentially responsible for the observed reduction. A total of 225 proteins were differentially regulated in response to the 15 mM furfural treatment with 152 upregulated vs. 73 downregulated. Only 86 proteins exhibited a 2-fold change in abundance in either direction. Of these, 53 were upregulated in the presence of furfural and 33 were downregulated. Two oxidoreductases were upregulated at least 2-fold by furfural and were targeted for further investigation: Teth39_1597, encodes a predicted butanol dehydrogenase (BdhA) and Teth39_1598, a predicted aldo/keto reductase (AKR). Both genes were cloned from T. pseudethanolicus 39E, with the respective enzymes overexpressed in E. coli and specific activities determined against a variety of aldehydes. BdhA showed significant activity with all aldehydes tested, including furfural and 5-HMF, using NADPH as the cofactor. AKR also showed significant activity with NADPH, but only with four carbon butyr- and isobutyraldehydes. Conclusions: Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus 39E displays intrinsic tolerance to the common pretreatment inhibitors furfural and 5-HMF. Multidimensional proteomics analysis was used as an effective tool to identify putative mechanisms for detoxification of furfural and 5-HMF. T. pseudethanolicus was found to upregulate an NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase 6.8-fold in response to furfural. In vitro enzyme assays confirmed the reduction of furfural and 5-HMF to their respective alcohols.« less

  2. Novel mechanism for scavenging of hypochlorite involving a periplasmic methionine-rich peptide and methionine sulfoxide reductase

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Melnyk, Ryan A.; Youngblut, Matthew D.; Clark, Iain C.; Carlson, Hans K.; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Price, Morgan N.; Lavarone, Anthony T.; Deutschbauer, Adam M.; Arkin, Adam P.; Coates, John D.

    2015-05-12

    Reactive chlorine species (RCS) defense mechanisms are important for bacterial fitness in diverse environments. In addition to the anthropogenic use of RCS in the form of bleach, these compounds are also produced naturally through photochemical reactions of natural organic matter and in vivo by the mammalian immune system in response to invading microorganisms. To gain insight into bacterial RCS defense mechanisms, we investigated Azospira suillum strain PS, which produces periplasmic RCS as an intermediate of perchlorate respiration. Our studies identified an RCS response involving an RCS stress-sensing sigma/anti-sigma factor system (SigF/NrsF), a soluble hypochlorite-scavenging methionine-rich periplasmic protein (MrpX), and amore » putative periplasmic methionine sulfoxide reductase (YedY1). We investigated the underlying mechanism by phenotypic characterization of appropriate gene deletions, chemogenomic profiling of barcoded transposon pools, transcriptome sequencing, and biochemical assessment of methionine oxidation. Our results demonstrated that SigF was specifically activated by RCS and initiated the transcription of a small regulon centering around yedY1 and mrpX. A yedY1 paralog (yedY2) was found to have a similar fitness to yedY1 despite not being regulated by SigF. Markerless deletions of yedY2 confirmed its synergy with the SigF regulon. MrpX was strongly induced and rapidly oxidized by RCS, especially hypochlorite. Our results suggest a mechanism involving hypochlorite scavenging by sacrificial oxidation of the MrpX in the periplasm. Reduced MrpX is regenerated by the YedY methionine sulfoxide reductase activity. The phylogenomic distribution of this system revealed conservation in several Proteobacteria of clinical importance, including uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Brucella spp., implying a putative role in immune response evasion in vivo. In addition, bacteria are often stressed in the environment by reactive chlorine species (RCS) of either anthropogenic or natural origin, but little is known of the defense mechanisms they have evolved. Using a microorganism that generates RCS internally as part of its respiratory process allowed us to uncover a novel defense mechanism based on RCS scavenging by reductive reaction with a sacrificial methionine-rich peptide and redox recycling through a methionine sulfoxide reductase. As a result, this system is conserved in a broad diversity of organisms, including some of clinical importance, invoking a possible important role in innate immune system evasion.« less

  3. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Laing

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. This report covers Task 1.4, Industrial Trial of candidate materials developed by refractory producers and in the laboratory based on the results of Task 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3. Refractories provided by in-kind sponsors to industrial installations tested by cup testing, density/porosity determinations, chemical analysis and microscopy. None of the materials produced in this program have been tried in high temperature gasifiers, but the mortar developed Morcocoat SP-P is outperforming other mortars tested at ORNL. MORCO PhosGun M-90-O has shown in laboratory testing to be an acceptable candidate for hot and cold repairs of existing high temperature gasifiers. It may prove to be an acceptable lining material.

  4. Novel mechanism for scavenging of hypochlorite involving a periplasmic methionine-rich peptide and methionine sulfoxide reductase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melnyk, Ryan A.; Youngblut, Matthew D.; Clark, Iain C.; Carlson, Hans K.; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Price, Morgan N.; Lavarone, Anthony T.; Deutschbauer, Adam M.; Arkin, Adam P.; Coates, John D.

    2015-05-12

    Reactive chlorine species (RCS) defense mechanisms are important for bacterial fitness in diverse environments. In addition to the anthropogenic use of RCS in the form of bleach, these compounds are also produced naturally through photochemical reactions of natural organic matter and in vivo by the mammalian immune system in response to invading microorganisms. To gain insight into bacterial RCS defense mechanisms, we investigated Azospira suillum strain PS, which produces periplasmic RCS as an intermediate of perchlorate respiration. Our studies identified an RCS response involving an RCS stress-sensing sigma/anti-sigma factor system (SigF/NrsF), a soluble hypochlorite-scavenging methionine-rich periplasmic protein (MrpX), and a putative periplasmic methionine sulfoxide reductase (YedY1). We investigated the underlying mechanism by phenotypic characterization of appropriate gene deletions, chemogenomic profiling of barcoded transposon pools, transcriptome sequencing, and biochemical assessment of methionine oxidation. Our results demonstrated that SigF was specifically activated by RCS and initiated the transcription of a small regulon centering around yedY1 and mrpX. A yedY1 paralog (yedY2) was found to have a similar fitness to yedY1 despite not being regulated by SigF. Markerless deletions of yedY2 confirmed its synergy with the SigF regulon. MrpX was strongly induced and rapidly oxidized by RCS, especially hypochlorite. Our results suggest a mechanism involving hypochlorite scavenging by sacrificial oxidation of the MrpX in the periplasm. Reduced MrpX is regenerated by the YedY methionine sulfoxide reductase activity. The phylogenomic distribution of this system revealed conservation in several Proteobacteria of clinical importance, including uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Brucella spp., implying a putative role in immune response evasion in vivo. In addition, bacteria are often stressed in the environment by reactive chlorine species (RCS) of either anthropogenic or natural origin, but little is known of the defense mechanisms they have evolved. Using a microorganism that generates RCS internally as part of its respiratory process allowed us to uncover a novel defense mechanism based on RCS scavenging by reductive reaction with a sacrificial methionine-rich peptide and redox recycling through a methionine sulfoxide reductase. As a result, this system is conserved in a broad diversity of organisms, including some of clinical importance, invoking a possible important role in innate immune system evasion.

  5. A comparative multidimensional LC-MS proteomic analysis reveals mechanisms for furan aldehyde detoxification in Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus 39E

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarkson, Sonya M.; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D.; Giannone, Richard J.; Engle, Nancy L.; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Hettich, Robert L.; Elkins, James G.

    2014-12-03

    Background: Chemical and physical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass improves substrate reactivity for increased microbial biofuel production, but also restricts growth via the release of furan aldehydes such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF). The physiological effects of these inhibitors on thermophilic, fermentative bacteria is important to understand; especially as cellulolytic strains are being developed for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of lignocellulosic feedstocks. Identifying mechanisms for detoxification of aldehydes in naturally resistant strains such as Thermoanaerobacter spp. may also enable improvements in candidate CBP microorganisms. Results: T. pseudethanolicus 39E, an anaerobic, saccharolytic thermophile, was found to grow readily in the presence of 30 mM furfural and 20 mM 5-HMF and reduce these aldehydes to their respective alcohols in situ. The proteomes of T. pseudethanolicus 39E grown in the presence or absence of 15 mM furfural were compared to identify upregulated enzymes potentially responsible for the observed reduction. A total of 225 proteins were differentially regulated in response to the 15 mM furfural treatment with 152 upregulated vs. 73 downregulated. Only 86 proteins exhibited a 2-fold change in abundance in either direction. Of these, 53 were upregulated in the presence of furfural and 33 were downregulated. Two oxidoreductases were upregulated at least 2-fold by furfural and were targeted for further investigation: Teth39_1597, encodes a predicted butanol dehydrogenase (BdhA) and Teth39_1598, a predicted aldo/keto reductase (AKR). Both genes were cloned from T. pseudethanolicus 39E, with the respective enzymes overexpressed in E. coli and specific activities determined against a variety of aldehydes. BdhA showed significant activity with all aldehydes tested, including furfural and 5-HMF, using NADPH as the cofactor. AKR also showed significant activity with NADPH, but only with four carbon butyr- and isobutyraldehydes. Conclusions: Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus 39E displays intrinsic tolerance to the common pretreatment inhibitors furfural and 5-HMF. Multidimensional proteomics analysis was used as an effective tool to identify putative mechanisms for detoxification of furfural and 5-HMF. T. pseudethanolicus was found to upregulate an NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase 6.8-fold in response to furfural. In vitro enzyme assays confirmed the reduction of furfural and 5-HMF to their respective alcohols.

  6. Kootenay Lake Fertilization Experiment, Year 15 (North Arm) and Year 3 (South Arm) (2006) Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schindler, E.U.; Sebastian, D.; Andrusak, G.F.

    2009-07-01

    This report summarizes results from the fifteenth year (2006) of nutrient additions to the North Arm of Kootenay Lake and three years of nutrient additions to the South Arm. Experimental fertilization of the lake has been conducted using an adaptive management approach in an effort to restore lake productivity lost as a result of nutrient uptake in upstream reservoirs. The primary objective of the experiment is to restore kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations, which are the main food source for Gerrard rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). The quantity of agricultural grade liquid fertilizer (10-34-0, ammonium polyphosphate and 28-0-0, urea ammonium nitrate) added to the North Arm in 2006 was 44.7 tonnes of P and 248.4 tonnes of N. The total fertilizer load added to the South Arm was 257 tonnes of nitrogen; no P was added. Kootenay Lake has an area of 395 km{sup 2}, a maximum depth of 150 m, a mean depth of 94 m, and a water renewal time of approximately two years. Kootenay Lake is a monomictic lake, generally mixing from late fall to early spring and stratifying during the summer. Surface water temperatures generally exceed 20 C for only a few weeks in July. Results of oxygen profiles were similar to previous years with the lake being well oxygenated from the surface to the bottom depths at all stations. Similar to past years, Secchi disc measurements at all stations in 2006 indicate a typical seasonal pattern of decreasing depths associated with the spring phytoplankton bloom, followed by increasing depths as the bloom gradually decreases by the late summer and fall. Total phosphorus (TP) ranged from 2-7 {micro}g/L and tended to decrease as summer advanced. Over the sampling season dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations decreased, with the decline corresponding to nitrate (the dominant component of DIN) being utilized by phytoplankton during summer stratification. Owing to the importance of epilimnetic nitrate that is required for optimal phytoplankton growth discrete depth water sampling occurred in 2006 to measure more accurately changes in the nitrate concentrations. As expected there was a seasonal decline in nitrate concentrations, thus supporting the strategy of increasing the nitrogen loading in both arms. These in-season changes emphasize the need for an adaptive management approach to ensure the nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) ratio does not decrease below 15:1 (weight:weight) during the fertilizer application period. Phytoplankton composition determined from the integrated samples (0-20m) was dominated by diatoms, followed by cryptophytes and chrysophytes. The contribution of cryptophytes to total biomass was higher in 2006 than in 2005. Cryptophytes, considered being edible biomass for zooplankton and Daphnia spp., increased in 2006. Phytoplankton in the discrete depth samples (2, 5, 10, 15 and 20m) demonstrated a clear north to south gradient in average phytoplankton density and biomass among the three stations sampled, with highest values at the North Arm station (KLF 2) and lowest values in the most southern station in the South Arm (KLF 7). Populations were dominated by flagellates at all stations and depths in June and July, then dominated by diatoms in August and September in the North and South arms of the lake. There were no large bluegreen (cyanobacteria) populations in either arm of the lake in 2006. Seasonal average zooplankton abundance and biomass in both the main body of the lake and in the West Arm increased in 2006 compared to 2005. Zooplankton density was numerically dominated by copepods and biomass was dominated by Daphnia spp. The annual average mysid biomass data at deep stations indicated that the North Arm of Kootenay Lake was more productive than the South Arm in 2006. Mysid densities increased through the summer and declined in the winter; mean whole lake values remain within prefertilization densities. Kokanee escapement to Meadow Creek declined in 2006 to approximately 400,000 spawners. The Lardeau River escapement also declined wit

  7. Quantifying the Behavioral Response of Spawning Chum Salmon to Elevated Discharges from Bonneville Dam, Columbia River : Annual Report 2005-2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Haskell, Craig A.; Kock, Tobias J.

    2008-12-01

    In unimpounded rivers, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) typically spawn under relatively stable stream flows, with exceptions occurring during periodic precipitation events. In contrast, hydroelectric development has often resulted in an artificial hydrograph characterized by rapid changes in discharge and tailwater elevation that occur on a daily, or even an hourly basis, due to power generation (Cushman 1985; Moog 1993). Consequently, populations of Pacific salmon that are known to spawn in main-stem habitats below hydroelectric dams face the risks of changing habitat suitability, potential redd dewatering, and uncertain spawning success (Hamilton and Buell 1976; Chapman et al. 1986; Dauble et al. 1999; Garland et al. 2003; Connor and Pflug 2004; McMichael et al. 2005). Although the direct effects of a variable hydrograph, such as redd dewatering are apparent, specific effects on spawning behavior remain largely unexplored. Chum salmon (O. keta) that spawn below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River are particularly vulnerable to the effects of water level fluctuations. Although chum salmon generally spawn in smaller tributaries (Johnson et al. 1997), many fish spawn in main-stem habitats below Bonneville Dam near Ives Island (Tomaro et al. 2007; Figure 1). The primary spawning area near Ives Island is shallow and sensitive to changes in water level caused by hydroelectric power generation at Bonneville Dam. In the past, fluctuating water levels have dewatered redds and changed the amount of available spawning habitat (Garland et al. 2003). To minimize these effects, fishery managers attempt to maintain a stable tailwater elevation at Bonneville Dam of 3.5 m (above mean sea level) during spawning, which ensures adequate water is provided to the primary chum salmon spawning area below the mouth of Hamilton Creek (Figure 1). Given the uncertainty of winter precipitation and water supply, this strategy has been effective at restricting spawning to a specific riverbed elevation and providing minimum spawning flows that have the greatest chance of being maintained through egg incubation and fry emergence. However, managing the lower Columbia River for a stable tailwater elevation does not provide much operational flexibility at Bonneville Dam, which has little storage capacity. When river discharges increase due to rain events, the traditional approach has been to pass excess water at night to maintain stable tailwater elevations during the daytime. The underlying assumption of this strategy, referred to as reverse load following, is that fish do not spawn at night. However, Tiffan et al. (2005) showed that this assumption is false by documenting nighttime spawning by chum salmon in the Ives Island area. Similarly, McMichael et al. (2005) reported nighttime spawning by Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in the Columbia River, indicating that diel spawning may be a common occurrence in Pacific salmon. During the latter portion of the chum spawning period in December 2003 and 2004, discharges from Bonneville Dam increased from an average of 3,398 m3/s (tailwater elevation {approx} 3.5 m above mean sea level) during the day to over 5,664 m3/s (tailwater elevation {approx} 5.1 m) at night, with peak discharges of 7,080 m{sup 3}/s (tailwater elevation {approx} 6.1 m). This caused concern among fishery managers regarding the potential effects of these high discharges on this population of spawning chum salmon, which is listed under the Endangered Species Act (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1999). We hypothesized that increased water velocities associated with elevated tailwaters might alter chum salmon spawning behavior if water velocities at redd locations increased beyond the range of suitability (>0.8 m/s; Salo 1991). In 2005, we investigated the movement and behavioral responses of spawning chum salmon at Ives Island to increased tailwater elevations at Bonneville Dam. We used acoustic telemetry to determine if the higher velocities associated with increased tailwater elevations caused fish to leave their re

  8. Bacterial Population Genetics in a Forensic Context

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velsko, S P

    2009-11-02

    This report addresses the recent Department of Homeland Security (DHS) call for a Phase I study to (1) assess gaps in the forensically relevant knowledge about the population genetics of eight bacterial agents of concern, (2) formulate a technical roadmap to address those gaps, and (3) identify new bioinformatics tools that would be necessary to analyze and interpret population genetic data in a forensic context. The eight organisms that were studied are B. anthracis, Y. pestis, F. tularensis, Brucella spp., E. coli O157/H7, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, and C. botulinum. Our study focused on the use of bacterial population genetics by forensic investigators to test hypotheses about the possible provenance of an agent that was used in a crime or act of terrorism. Just as human population genetics underpins the calculations of match probabilities for human DNA evidence, bacterial population genetics determines the level of support that microbial DNA evidence provides for or against certain well-defined hypotheses about the origins of an infecting strain. Our key findings are: (1) Bacterial population genetics is critical for answering certain types of questions in a probabilistic manner, akin (but not identical) to 'match probabilities' in DNA forensics. (2) A basic theoretical framework for calculating likelihood ratios or posterior probabilities for forensic hypotheses based on microbial genetic comparisons has been formulated. This 'inference-on-networks' framework has deep but simple connections to the population genetics of mtDNA and Y-STRs in human DNA forensics. (3) The 'phylogeographic' approach to identifying microbial sources is not an adequate basis for understanding bacterial population genetics in a forensic context, and has limited utility, even for generating 'leads' with respect to strain origin. (4) A collection of genotyped isolates obtained opportunistically from international locations augmented by phylogenetic representations of relatedness will not and enzootic outbreaks noted through international outbreak surveillance systems, and 'representative' genetic sequences from each outbreak. (5) Interpretation of genetic comparisons between an attack strain and reference strains requires a model for the network structure of maintenance foci, enzootic outbreaks, and human outbreaks of that disease, coupled with estimates of mutational rate constants. Validation of the model requires a set of sequences from exemplary outbreaks and laboratory data on mutation rates during animal passage. The necessary number of isolates in each validation set is determined by disease transmission network theory, and is based on the 'network diameter' of the outbreak. (6) The 8 bacteria in this study can be classified into 4 categories based on the complexity of the transmission network structure of their natural maintenance foci and their outbreaks, both enzootic and zoonotic. (7) For B. anthracis, Y. pestis, E. coli O157, and Brucella melitensis, and their primary natural animal hosts, most of the fundamental parameters needed for modeling genetic change within natural host or human transmission networks have been determined or can be estimated from existing field and laboratory studies. (8) For Burkholderia mallei, plausible approaches to transmission network models exist, but much of the fundamental parameterization does not. In addition, a validated high-resolution typing system for characterizing genetic change within outbreaks or foci has not yet been demonstrated, although a candidate system exists. (9) For Francisella tularensis, the increased complexity of the transmission network and unresolved questions about maintenance and transmission suggest that it will be more complex and difficult to develop useful models based on currently available data. (10) For Burkholderia pseudomallei and Clostridium botulinum, the transmission and maintenance networks involve complex soil communities and metapopulations about which very little is known. It is not clear that these pathogens can be brought into the in

  9. Influence of a Weak Field of Pulsed DC Electricity on the Behavior and Incidence of Injury in Adult Steelhead and Pacific Lamprey, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mesa, Matthew

    2009-02-13

    Predation by pinnipeds, such as California sea lions Zalophus californianus, Pacific harbor seals Phoca vitulina, and Stellar sea lions Eumetopias jubatus on adult Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp in the lower Columbia River has become a serious concern for fishery managers trying to conserve and restore runs of threatened and endangered fish. As a result, Smith-Root, Incorporated (SRI; Vancouver, Washington), manufacturers of electrofishing and closely-related equipment, proposed a project to evaluate the potential of an electrical barrier to deter marine mammals and reduce the amount of predation on adult salmonids (SRI 2007). The objectives of their work were to develop, deploy, and evaluate a passive, integrated sonar and electric barrier that would selectively inhibit the upstream movements of marine mammals and reduce predation, but would not injure pinnipeds or impact anadromous fish migrations. However, before such a device could be deployed in the field, concerns by regional fishery managers about the potential effects of such a device on the migratory behavior of Pacific salmon, steelhead O. mykiss, Pacific lampreys Entoshpenus tridentata, and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, needed to be addressed. In this report, we describe the results of laboratory research designed to evaluate the effects of prototype electric barriers on adult steelhead and Pacific lampreys. The effects of electricity on fish have been widely studied and include injury or death (e.g., Sharber and Carothers 1988; Dwyer et al. 2001; Snyder 2003), physiological dysfunction (e.g., Schreck et al. 1976; Mesa and Schreck 1989), and altered behavior (Mesa and Schreck 1989). Much of this work was done to investigate the effects of electrofishing on fish in the wild. Because electrofishing operations would always use more severe electrical settings than those proposed for the pinniped barrier, results from these studies are probably not relevant to the work proposed by SRI. Field electrofishing operations typically use high voltage and amperage settings and a variety of waveforms, pulse widths (PW), and pulse frequencies (PF), depending on conditions and target species. For example, when backpack electrofishing for trout in a small stream, one might use settings such as 500 V pulsed DC, a PW of 1 ms, and a PF of 60 Hz. In contrast, the electrical barrier proposed by SRI will produce electrical conditions significantly lower than those used in electrofishing, particularly for PW and PF (e.g., PW ranging from 300-1,000 {micro}s and PF from 2-3 Hz). Further, voltage gradients (in V/cm) are predicted to be lower in the electric barrier than those produced during typical electrofishing. Although the relatively weak, pulsed DC electric fields to be produced by the barrier may be effective at deterring pinnipeds, little, if anything, is known about the effects of such low intensity electrical fields on fish behavior. For this research, we evaluated the effects of weak, pulsed DC electric currents on the behavior of adult steelhead and Pacific lamprey and the incidence of injury in steelhead only. In a series of laboratory experiments, we: (1) documented the rate of passage of fish over miniature, prototype electric barriers when they were on and off; (2) determined some electric thresholds beyond which fish would not pass over the barrier; and (3) assessed the incidence and severity of injury in steelhead exposed to relatively severe electrical conditions. The results of this study should be useful for making decisions about whether to install electrical barriers in the lower Columbia River, or elsewhere, to reduce predation on upstream migrating salmonids and other fishes by marine pinnipeds.

  10. Evaluating the Potential for Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices to Act as Artificial Reefs or Fish Aggregating Devices. Based on Analysis of Surrogates in Tropical, Subtropical, and Temperate U.S. West Coast and Hawaiian Coastal Waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, Sharon H.; Hamilton, Christine D.; Spencer, Gregory C.; Ogston, Heather O.

    2015-05-12

    Wave energy converters (WECs) and tidal energy converters (TECs) are only beginning to be deployed along the U.S. West Coast and in Hawai‘i, and a better understanding of their ecological effects on fish, particularly on special-status fish (e.g., threatened and endangered) is needed to facilitate project design and environmental permitting. The structures of WECs and TECs placed on to the seabed, such as anchors and foundations, may function as artificial reefs that attract reef-associated fishes, while the midwater and surface structures, such as mooring lines, buoys, and wave or tidal power devices, may function as fish aggregating devices (FADs), forming the nuclei for groups of fishes. Little is known about the potential for WECs and TECs to function as artificial reefs and FADs in coastal waters of the U.S. West Coast and Hawai‘i. We evaluated these potential ecological interactions by reviewing relevant information about fish associations with surrogate structures, such as artificial reefs, natural reefs, kelps, floating debris, oil and gas platforms, marine debris, anchored FADs deployed to enhance fishing opportunities, net-cages used for mariculture, and piers and docks. Based on our review, we postulate that the structures of WECs and TECs placed on or near the seabed in coastal waters of the U.S. West Coast and Hawai‘i likely will function as small-scale artificial reefs and attract potentially high densities of reef-associated fishes (including special-status rockfish species [Sebastes spp.] along the mainland), and that the midwater and surface structures of WECs placed in the tropical waters of Hawai‘i likely will function as de facto FADs with species assemblages varying by distance from shore and deployment depth. Along the U.S. West Coast, frequent associations with midwater and surface structures may be less likely: juvenile, semipelagic, kelp-associated rockfishes may occur at midwater and surface structures of WECs in coastal waters of southern California to Washington, and occasional, seasonal, or transitory associations of coastal pelagic fishes such as jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus) may also occur at WECs in these waters. Importantly, our review indicated that negative effects of WEC structures on special-status fish species, such as increased predation of juvenile salmonids or rockfishes, are not likely. In addition, WECs installed in coastal California, especially in southern California waters, have the potential to attract high densities of reef-associated fishes and may even contribute to rockfish productivity, if fish respond to the WECs similarly to oil and gas platforms, which have some of the highest secondary production per unit area of seafloor of any marine habitat studied globally (Claisse et al. 2014). We encountered some information gaps, owing to the paucity or lack, in key locations, of comparable surrogate structures in which fish assemblages and ecological interactions were studied. TECs are most likely to be used in the Puget Sound area, but suitable surrogates are lacking there. However, in similarly cold-temperate waters of Europe and Maine, benthopelagic fish occurred around tidal turbines during lower tidal velocities, and this type of interaction may be expected by similar species at TECs in Puget Sound. To address information gaps in the near term, such as whether WECs would function as FADs in temperate waters, studies of navigation buoys using hydroacoustics are recommended.

  11. Status Report on the Microbial Characterization of Halite and Groundwater Samples from the WIPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, Juliet S.; Reed, Donald T.; Ams, David A.; Norden, Diana; Simmons, Karen A.

    2012-07-10

    This report summarizes the progress made in the ongoing task of characterizing the microbial community structures within the WIPP repository and in surrounding groundwaters. Through cultivation and DNA-based identification, the potential activity of these organisms is being inferred, thus leading to a better understanding of their impact on WIPP performance. Members of the three biological domains - Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya (in this case, Fungi) - that are associated with WIPP halite have been identified. Thus far, their activity has been limited to aerobic respiration; anaerobic incubations are underway. WIPP halite constitutes the near-field microbial environment. We expect that microbial activity in this setting will proceed from aerobic respiration, through nitrate reduction to focus on sulfate reduction. This is also the current WIPP performance assessment (PA) position. Sulfate reduction can occur at extremely high ionic strengths, and sulfate is available in WIPP brines and in the anhydrite interbeds. The role of methanogenesis in the WIPP remains unclear, due to both energetic constraints imposed by a high-salt environment and substrate selectivity, and it is no longer considered in PA. Archaea identified in WIPP halite thus far fall exclusively within the family Halobacteriaceae. These include Halobacterium noricense, cultivated from both low- and high-salt media, and a Halorubrum-like species. The former has also been detected in other salt mines worldwide; the latter likely constitutes a new species. Little is known of its function, but it was prevalent in experiments investigating the biodegradation of organic complexing agents in WIPP brines. Bacterial signatures associated with WIPP halite include members of the phylum Proteobacteria - Halomonas, Pelomonas, Limnobacter, and Chromohalobacter - but only the latter has been isolated. Also detected and cultivated were Salinicoccus and Nesterenkonia spp. Fungi were also isolated from halite. Although these were most likely introduced into the WIPP as contaminants from above-ground, their survival and potential role in the WIPP (e.g., cellulose degradation) is under investigation. WIPP groundwaters comprise the far-field microbial environment. Bacteria cultivated and identified from the overlying Culebra and nearby borehole groundwater are capable of aerobic respiration, denitrification, fermentation, metal reduction, and sulfate reduction and are distributed across many different phyla. Two of the Bacteria found in groundwater were also found in WIPP halite (Chromohalobacter sp. and Virgibacillus sp.). Archaea identified in groundwater include Halococcus saccharolyticus, Haloferax sp., and Natrinema sp. The differences in the microbial communities detected thus far in halite and groundwater suggest that there will be significant differences in the associated metabolic potential of the near- and far-field environments. Whereas the near-field is dominated by Archaea with more limited metabolic capabilities, the far-field is dominated by Bacteria with extremely broad capabilities. Because the majority of the repository's lifetime will be anoxic, ongoing and future work focuses on the presence and role of anaerobic organisms in WIPP. Further tasks on biosorption, cellulose degradation, and bioreduction are being performed using organisms obtained from this characterization work.

  12. Wind Energy Forecasting: A Collaboration of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and Xcel Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, K.; Wan, Y. H.; Wiener, G.; Liu, Y.

    2011-10-01

    The focus of this report is the wind forecasting system developed during this contract period with results of performance through the end of 2010. The report is intentionally high-level, with technical details disseminated at various conferences and academic papers. At the end of 2010, Xcel Energy managed the output of 3372 megawatts of installed wind energy. The wind plants span three operating companies1, serving customers in eight states2, and three market structures3. The great majority of the wind energy is contracted through power purchase agreements (PPAs). The remainder is utility owned, Qualifying Facilities (QF), distributed resources (i.e., 'behind the meter'), or merchant entities within Xcel Energy's Balancing Authority footprints. Regardless of the contractual or ownership arrangements, the output of the wind energy is balanced by Xcel Energy's generation resources that include fossil, nuclear, and hydro based facilities that are owned or contracted via PPAs. These facilities are committed and dispatched or bid into day-ahead and real-time markets by Xcel Energy's Commercial Operations department. Wind energy complicates the short and long-term planning goals of least-cost, reliable operations. Due to the uncertainty of wind energy production, inherent suboptimal commitment and dispatch associated with imperfect wind forecasts drives up costs. For example, a gas combined cycle unit may be turned on, or committed, in anticipation of low winds. The reality is winds stayed high, forcing this unit and others to run, or be dispatched, to sub-optimal loading positions. In addition, commitment decisions are frequently irreversible due to minimum up and down time constraints. That is, a dispatcher lives with inefficient decisions made in prior periods. In general, uncertainty contributes to conservative operations - committing more units and keeping them on longer than may have been necessary for purposes of maintaining reliability. The downside is costs are higher. In organized electricity markets, units that are committed for reliability reasons are paid their offer price even when prevailing market prices are lower. Often, these uplift charges are allocated to market participants that caused the inefficient dispatch in the first place. Thus, wind energy facilities are burdened with their share of costs proportional to their forecast errors. For Xcel Energy, wind energy uncertainty costs manifest depending on specific market structures. In the Public Service of Colorado (PSCo), inefficient commitment and dispatch caused by wind uncertainty increases fuel costs. Wind resources participating in the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) footprint make substantial payments in the real-time markets to true-up their day-ahead positions and are additionally burdened with deviation charges called a Revenue Sufficiency Guarantee (RSG) to cover out of market costs associated with operations. Southwest Public Service (SPS) wind plants cause both commitment inefficiencies and are charged Southwest Power Pool (SPP) imbalance payments due to wind uncertainty and variability. Wind energy forecasting helps mitigate these costs. Wind integration studies for the PSCo and Northern States Power (NSP) operating companies have projected increasing costs as more wind is installed on the system due to forecast error. It follows that reducing forecast error would reduce these costs. This is echoed by large scale studies in neighboring regions and states that have recommended adoption of state-of-the-art wind forecasting tools in day-ahead and real-time planning and operations. Further, Xcel Energy concluded reduction of the normalized mean absolute error by one percent would have reduced costs in 2008 by over $1 million annually in PSCo alone. The value of reducing forecast error prompted Xcel Energy to make substantial investments in wind energy forecasting research and development.

  13. Arrow Lakes Reservoir Fertilization Experiment; Years 4 and 5, Technical Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schindler, E.

    2007-02-01

    This report presents the fourth and fifth year (2002 and 2003, respectively) of a five-year fertilization experiment on the Arrow Lakes Reservoir. The goal of the experiment was to increase kokanee populations impacted from hydroelectric development on the Arrow Lakes Reservoir. The impacts resulted in declining stocks of kokanee, a native land-locked sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), a key species of the ecosystem. Arrow Lakes Reservoir, located in southeastern British Columbia, has undergone experimental fertilization since 1999. It is modeled after the successful Kootenay Lake fertilization experiment. The amount of fertilizer added in 2002 and 2003 was similar to the previous three years. Phosphorus loading from fertilizer was 52.8 metric tons and nitrogen loading from fertilizer was 268 metric tons. As in previous years, fertilizer additions occurred between the end of April and the beginning of September. Surface temperatures were generally warmer in 2003 than in 2002 in the Arrow Lakes Reservoir from May to September. Local tributary flows to Arrow Lakes Reservoir in 2002 and 2003 were generally less than average, however not as low as had occurred in 2001. Water chemistry parameters in select rivers and streams were similar to previous years results, except for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations which were significantly less in 2001, 2002 and 2003. The reduced snow pack in 2001 and 2003 would explain the lower concentrations of DIN. The natural load of DIN to the Arrow system ranged from 7200 tonnes in 1997 to 4500 tonnes in 2003; these results coincide with the decrease in DIN measurements from water samples taken in the reservoir during this period. Water chemistry parameters in the reservoir were similar to previous years of study except for a few exceptions. Seasonal averages of total phosphorus ranged from 2.11 to 7.42 {micro}g/L from 1997 through 2003 in the entire reservoir which were indicative of oligo-mesotrophic conditions. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations have decreased in 2002 and 2003 compared to previous years. These results indicate that the surface waters in Arrow Lakes Reservoir were approaching nitrogen limitation. Results from the 2003 discrete profile series indicate nitrate concentrations decreased significantly below 25 {micro}g/L (which is the concentration where nitrate is considered limiting to phytoplankton) between June and July at stations in Upper Arrow and Lower Arrow. Nitrogen to phosphorus ratios (weight:weight) were also low during these months indicating that the surface waters were nitrogen deficient. These results indicated that the nitrogen to phosphorus blends of fertilizer added to the reservoir need to be fine tuned and closely monitored on a weekly basis in future years of nutrient addition. Phytoplankton results shifted during 2002 and 2003 compared to previous years. During 2002, there was a co-dominance of potentially 'inedible' diatoms (Fragilaria spp. and Diatoma) and 'greens' (Ulothrix). Large diatom populations occurred in 2003 and these results indicate it may be necessary to alter the frequency and amounts of weekly loads of nitrogen and phosphorus in future years to prevent the growth of inedible diatoms. Zooplankton density in 2002 and 2003, as in previous years, indicated higher densities in Lower Arrow than in Upper Arrow. Copepods and other Cladocera (mainly tiny specimens such as Bosmina sp.) had distinct peaks, higher than in previous years, while Daphnia was not present in higher numbers particularly in Upper Arrow. This density shift in favor to smaller cladocerans was mirrored in a weak biomass increase. In Upper Arrow, total zooplankton biomass decreased from 1999 to 2002, and in 2003 increased slightly, while in Lower Arrow the biomass decreased from 2000-2002. In Lower Arrow the majority of biomass was comprised of Daphnia throughout the study period except in 2002, while in Upper Arrow the total biomass was comprised of copepods from 2000-2003.

  14. Kelt Reconditioning: A Research Project to Enhance Iteroparity in Columbia Basin Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatch, Douglas R.; Branstetter, Ryan; Whiteaker, John

    2004-11-01

    Iteroparity, the ability to repeat spawn, is a life history strategy that is expressed by some species from the family Salmonidae. Rates of repeat spawning for post-development Columbia River steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations range from 1.6 to 17%. It is expected that currently observed iteroparity rates for wild steelhead in the Basin are severely depressed due to development and operation of the hydropower system and various additional anthropogenic factors. Increasing the expression of historical repeat spawning rates using fish culturing methods could be a viable technique to assist the recovery of depressed steelhead populations, and could help reestablish this naturally occurring life history trait. Reconditioning is the process of culturing post-spawned fish (kelts) in a captive environment until they are able to reinitiate feeding, growth, and redevelop mature gonads. Kelt reconditioning techniques were initially developed for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and sea-trout S. trutta. The recent Endangered Species Act listing of many Columbia River Basin steelhead populations has prompted interest in developing reconditioning methods for wild steelhead populations within the Basin. To test kelt steelhead reconditioning as a potential recovery tool, wild emigrating steelhead kelts were placed into one of three study groups (direct capture and transport, short-term reconditioning, or long-term reconditioning). Steelhead kelts from the Yakima River were collected at the Chandler Juvenile Monitoring Facility (CJMF, located on the Yakima River at river kilometer 75.6) from 15 March to 21 June 2004. In total, 842 kelts were collected for reconditioning at Prosser Hatchery. Captive specimens represented 30.5% (842 of 2,755) of the entire 2003-2004 Yakima River wild steelhead population, based on fish ladder counts at Prosser Dam. All steelhead kelts were reconditioned in 20-foot circular tanks, and fed freeze-dried krill initially or for the duration of the experiment. All steelhead kelts received hw-wiegandt multi vit dietary supplement as a means to improve initial nutrition. Long-term steelhead kelts received Moore-Clark pellets to provide essential minerals and nutrients necessary for gonadal redevelopment. Oxytetracycline was administered to all reconditioned fish to boost immune system response following the stress of initial capture. To control parasitic infestations two methods were used, first, after initial capture an intubation of Ivermectin{trademark} was administered to control internal parasites (e.g., Salmincola spp.). Next, a Formalin drip was used for the duration of reconditioning to prevent fungal outbreaks. Captured kelts were separated into three experimental groups: short-term reconditioning, long-term reconditioning, and direct transport and release. Success indicators for the short-term experiment include the proportion of fish that survived the reconditioning process and the proportion of fish that initiated a feeding response. Short-term kelts were reconditioned for 3 to 5 weeks. Surviving specimens were released for natural spawning on May 11, 2004. Survival-to-release was good for the short-term experiment, with a rate of 79.0%. Long-term steelhead kelts are currently being held for a 6-9 month period with a scheduled release in December 2004. Long-term success indicators include the proportion of fish that survived the reconditioning process and the proportion of surviving fish that successfully remature. Survival and rematuration for long-term kelts has not been determined and will be presented in the 2005 annual report. Direct transport and release kelts and short-term reconditioned kelts were radio or acoustic tagged to assess their travel time and migratory behaviors below Bonneville Dam. A total of 29 direct-transport and release kelts and 29 short-term reconditioned kelts received surgically implanted radio tags, and a total of 28 direct-transport/release and 26 short-term reconditioned fish received surgically implanted hydro acoustic tags. These tags will allow us to determine outm

  15. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Avian Predation on Salmonid Smolts in the Lower and Mid-Columbia River, 2006 Final Season Summary.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roby, Daniel D.; Collis, Ken; Lyons, Donald E.

    2009-06-18

    This study investigates predation by piscivorous waterbirds on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) from throughout the Columbia River Basin. During 2006, study objectives in the Columbia River estuary, work funded by the Bonneville Power Administration, were to (1) monitor and evaluate previous management initiatives to reduce Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) predation on juvenile salmonids (smolts); (2) measure the impact of double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) predation on smolt survival, and assess potential management options to reduce cormorant predation; and (3) monitor large colonies of other piscivorous waterbirds in the estuary (i.e., glaucous-winged/western gulls [Larus glaucescens/occidentalis]) to determine the potential impacts on smolt survival. Study objectives on the mid-Columbia River, work funded by the Walla Walla District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, were to (1) measure the impact of predation by Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants on smolt survival; and (2) monitor large nesting colonies of other piscivorous waterbirds (i.e., California gulls [L. californicus], ring-billed gulls [L. delawarensis], American white pelicans [Pelecanus erythrorhynchos]) on the mid-Columbia River to determine the potential for significant impacts on smolt survival. Our efforts to evaluate system-wide losses of juvenile salmonids to avian predation indicated that Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants were responsible for the vast majority of smolt losses to avian predators in the Columbia Basin, with most losses occurring in the Columbia River estuary. In 2006, East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary supported the largest known breeding colonies of Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants in the world. The Caspian tern colony on East Sand Island consisted of about 9,200 breeding pairs in 2006, up slightly (but not significantly so) from the estimate of colony size in 2005 (8,820 pairs). There has not been a statistically significant change in the size of the Caspian tern colony on East Sand Island since 2000. Tern nesting success averaged 0.72 fledglings per breeding pair in 2006, significantly higher than in 2005 (0.37 fledglings per breeding pair), a year of poor ocean conditions. Despite the presumably higher availability of marine forage fishes in 2006, the proportion of juvenile salmonids in diets of Caspian terns (32% of prey items) averaged higher than in 2005 (23% of prey items) and 2004 (18% of prey items). Steelhead smolts were particular vulnerable to predation by East Sand Island terns in 2006, with predation rates as high as 20% on particular groups of PIT-tagged fish reaching the estuary. Consumption of juvenile salmonids by terns nesting at the East Sand Island colony in 2006 was approximately 5.3 million smolts (95% c.i. = 4.4-6.2 million), significantly higher than the estimated 3.6 million smolts consumed in 2005, but still roughly 7 million fewer smolts consumed compared to 1998 (when all terns nested on Rice Island in the upper estuary). Caspian terns nesting on East Sand Island continue to rely primarily on marine forage fishes as a food supply, even in 2005 when availability of marine forage fishes declined due to poor ocean conditions. Further management of Caspian terns to reduce losses of juvenile salmonids would be implemented under the Caspian Tern Management Plan for the Columbia River Estuary; the Records of Decision (RODs) authorizing implementation of the plan were signed in November 2006. The ROD lists as the management goal the redistribution of approximately half of the East Sand Island Caspian tern colony to alternative colony sites in interior Oregon and San Francisco Bay, California (USFWS 2006). Implementation of the management plan is stalled, however, because of the lack of appropriated funds.

  16. Monitoring the Reproductive Success of Naturally Spawning Hatchery and Natural Spring Chinook Salmon in the Wenatchee River, 2008-2009 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, Michael J.; Williamson, Kevin S.

    2009-05-28

    We investigated differences in the statistical power to assign parentage between an artificially propagated and wild salmon population. The propagated fish were derived from the wild population, and are used to supplement its abundance. Levels of genetic variation were similar between the propagated and wild groups at 11 microsatellite loci, and exclusion probabilities were >0.999999 for both groups. The ability to unambiguously identify a pair of parents for each sampled progeny was much lower than expected, however. Simulations demonstrated that the proportion of cases the most likely pair of parents were the true parents was lower for propagated parents than for wild parents. There was a clear relationship between parentage assignment ability and the degree of linkage disequilibrium, the estimated effective number of breeders that produced the parents, and the size of the largest family within the potential parents. If a stringent threshold for parentage assignment was used, estimates of relative fitness were biased downward for the propagated fish. The bias appeared to be largely eliminated by either fractionally assigning progeny among parents in proportion to their likelihood of parentage, or by assigning progeny to the most likely set of parents without using a statistical threshold. We used a DNA-based parentage analysis to measure the relative reproductive success of hatchery- and natural-origin spring Chinook salmon in the natural environment. Both male and female hatchery-origin fish produced far fewer juvenile progeny per parent when spawning naturally than did natural origin fish. Differences in age structure, spawning location, weight and run timing were responsible for some of the difference in fitness. Male size and age had a large influence on fitness, with larger and older males producing more offspring than smaller or younger individuals. Female size had a significant effect on fitness, but the effect was much smaller than the effect of size on male fitness. For both sexes, run time had a smaller but still significant effect on fitness, with earlier returning fish favored. Spawning location within the river had a significant effect on fitness for both males and females, and for females explained most of the reduced fitness observed for hatchery fish in this population. While differences have been reported in the relative reproductive success of hatchery and naturally produced salmonids Oncorhynchus spp., factors explaining the differences are often confounded. We examined the spawning site habitat and redd structure variables of hatchery and naturally produced spring Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha of known size that spawned in two tributaries of the Wenatchee River. We controlled for variability in spawning habitat by limiting our analysis to redds found within four selected reaches. No difference in the instantaneous spawner density or location of the redd in the stream channel was detected between reaches. Within each reach, no difference in the fork length or weight of hatchery and naturally produced fish was detected. While most variables differed between reaches, we found no difference in redd characteristics within a reach between hatchery and naturally produced females. Correlation analysis of fish size and redd characteristics found several weak but significant relationships suggesting larger fish contract larger redds in deeper water. Spawner density was inversely related to several redd structure variables suggesting redd size may decrease as spawner density increases. Results should be considered preliminary until samples size and statistical power goals are reached in future years. Trends in relative reproductive success of hatchery and naturally produced spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Wenatchee Basins suggest females that spawn in the upper reaches of the tributaries produced a great number of offspring compared to females that spawn in the lower reaches of the tributaries. To better understand this trend, redd microhabitat data was collected from spring Chinook sa

  17. Pair-Trawl Detection of PIT-Tagged Juvenile Salmonids Migrating in the Columbia River Estuary, 2008 Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magie, Robert J.; Morris, Matthew S.; Ledgerwood, Richard D.

    2009-06-03

    In 2008, we sampled migrating juvenile Pacific salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags using a surface pair trawl in the upper Columbia River estuary (rkm 61-83). The cod-end of the trawl was replaced with a cylindrical PIT-tag detection antenna with an 86-cm-diameter fish-passage opening and two detection coils connected in series. The pair trawl was 105 m long with a 91.5-m opening between the wings and a sample depth of 4.9 m. Also during 2008, we finalized the development of a prototype 'matrix' antenna, which was larger than previous antennas by a considerable magnitude. The matrix antenna consisted of 6 coils: a 3-coil front component and a 3-coil rear component, which were separated by 1.5-m of net mesh. The fish-passage opening was 2.5 m wide by 3.0 m tall and was attached to a standard-size pair trawl net. Intermittent sampling with a single crew began on 7 March and targeted yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss. Daily sampling using two crews began on 30 April and continued through 14 June; during this period we detected 2.7% of all juvenile salmonids previously detected at Bonneville Dam--a measure of sample efficiency. Sampling with a single crew continued through 20 August and targeted subyearling Chinook salmon. We detected 7,397 yearling Chinook salmon, 2,735 subyearling Chinook salmon, 291 coho salmon O. kisutch, 5,950 steelhead, and 122 sockeye salmon O. nerka in the upper estuary. We deployed the matrix antenna system and the older, cylindrical antenna system (86-cm-diameter fish-passage opening) simultaneously in mid-May 2008 to test matrix detection efficiency. The cylindrical antenna system had been used successfully in 2007 and early 2008. Because distribution of migrating salmonids in the estuary changes rapidly, we felt that a tandem sampling effort between the two systems was the only way to truly evaluate comparative detection efficiency. We deployed both systems within 1 km of each other during a period of high fish densities on 13, 14, and 15 May. Detections of the matrix system surpassed those of the cylindrical system by 53% in 14 h of simultaneous sampling (total detections 716 and 339, respectively). We believe that the higher detection rate observed with the matrix system was due to fewer smolts escaping the trawl entrance and to more smolts readily passing through the larger fish-passage opening. After tandem sampling, we continued exclusive use of the matrix system for the remainder of the 2008 juvenile migration season. Mean survival rates from Lower Granite to Bonneville Dam for yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead were 42% (SE = 3.7%) and 46% (SE = 1.5%), respectively. Over 358,000 PIT-tagged salmonids were transported, and we detected 4,619 of these fish.

  18. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Marsh, Douglas M.

    2005-10-01

    In 2004, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the twelfth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 19,621 hatchery steelhead, 8,128 wild steelhead, and 9,227 wild yearling Chinook salmon at Lower Granite Dam. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the single-release model). Primary research objectives in 2004 were to (1) estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2004 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures; details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Survival and detection probabilities were estimated precisely for most of the 2004 yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead migrations. Hatchery and wild fish were combined in some of the analyses. Overall, the percentages for combined release groups used in survival analyses were 68% hatchery-reared yearling Chinook salmon and 32% wild. For steelhead, the overall percentages were 73% hatchery-reared and 27% wild. Estimated survival from the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam to the tailrace of Little Goose Dam averaged 0.923 for yearling Chinook salmon and 0.860 for steelhead. Respective average survival estimates for yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead were 0.875 and 0.820 from Little Goose Dam tailrace to Lower Monumental Dam tailrace; 0.818 and 0.519 from Lower Monumental Dam tailrace to McNary Dam tailrace (including passage through Ice Harbor Dam); and 0.809 and 0.465 from McNary Dam tailrace to John Day Dam tailrace. Survival for yearling Chinook salmon from John Day Dam tailrace to Bonneville Dam tailrace (including passage through The Dalles Dam) was 0.735. We were unable to estimate survival through this reach for steelhead during 2004 because too few fish were detected at Bonneville Dam due to operation of the new corner collector at the second powerhouse. Combining average estimates from the Snake River smolt trap to Lower Granite Dam, from Lower Granite Dam to McNary Dam, and from McNary Dam to Bonneville Dam, estimated annual average survival through the entire hydropower system from the head of Lower Granite reservoir to the tailrace of Bonneville Dam (eight projects) was 0.353 (s.e. 0.045) for Snake River yearling Chinook salmon. We could not empirically estimate survival through the entire system for steelhead in 2004 because of low detection rates for this species at Bonneville Dam. For yearling spring Chinook salmon released in the Upper Columbia River, estimated survival from point of release to McNary Dam tailrace was 0.484 (s.e. 0.005) for fish released from Leavenworth Hatchery, 0.748 (s.e. 0.015) for fish released from Entiat Hatchery, 0.738 (s.e. 0.036) for fish released from Winthrop Hatchery, and 0.702 (s.e. 0.048) and 0.747 (s.e.0.047) for those from Methow Hatchery, Chewuch Pond and

  19. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF SUBSURFACE MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES AFFECTING RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT AND BIOIMMOBILIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel E. Kostka; Lee Kerkhof; Kuk-Jeong Chin; Martin Keller; Joseph W. Stucki

    2011-06-15

    The objectives of this project were to: (1) isolate and characterize novel anaerobic prokaryotes from subsurface environments exposed to high levels of mixed contaminants (U(VI), nitrate, sulfate), (2) elucidate the diversity and distribution of metabolically active metal- and nitrate-reducing prokaryotes in subsurface sediments, and (3) determine the biotic and abiotic mechanisms linking electron transport processes (nitrate, Fe(III), and sulfate reduction) to radionuclide reduction and immobilization. Mechanisms of electron transport and U(VI) transformation were examined under near in situ conditions in sediment microcosms and in field investigations at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center (ORFRC), in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, where the subsurface is exposed to mixed contamination predominated by uranium and nitrate. A total of 20 publications (16 published or 'in press' and 4 in review), 10 invited talks, and 43 contributed seminars/ meeting presentations were completed during the past four years of the project. PI Kostka served on one proposal review panel each year for the U.S. DOE Office of Science during the four year project period. The PI leveraged funds from the state of Florida to purchase new instrumentation that aided the project. Support was also leveraged by the PI from the Joint Genome Institute in the form of two successful proposals for genome sequencing. Draft genomes are now available for two novel species isolated during our studies and 5 more genomes are in the pipeline. We effectively addressed each of the three project objectives and research highlights are provided. Task I - Isolation and characterization of novel anaerobes: (1) A wide range of pure cultures of metal-reducing bacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, and denitrifying bacteria (32 strains) were isolated from subsurface sediments of the Oak Ridge Field Research Center (ORFRC), where the subsurface is exposed to mixed contamination of uranium and nitrate. These isolates which are new to science all show high sequence identity to sequences retrieved from ORFRC subsurface. (2) Based on physiological and phylogenetic characterization, two new species of subsurface bacteria were described: the metal-reducer Geobacter daltonii, and the denitrifier Rhodanobacter denitrificans. (3) Strains isolated from the ORFRC show that Rhodanobacter species are well adapted to the contaminated subsurface. Strains 2APBS1 and 116-2 grow at high salt (3% NaCl), low pH (3.5) and tolerate high concentrations of nitrate (400mM) and nitrite (100mM). Strain 2APBS1 was demonstrated to grow at in situ acidic pHs down to 2.5. (4) R. denitrificans strain 2APBS1 is the first described Rhodanobacter species shown to denitrify. Nitrate is almost entirely converted to N2O, which may account for the large accumulation of N2O in the ORFRC subsurface. (5) G. daltonii, isolated from uranium- and hydrocarbon-contaminated subsurface sediments of the ORFRC, is the first organism from the subsurface clade of the genus Geobacter that is capable of growth on aromatic hydrocarbons. (6) High quality draft genome sequences and a complete eco-physiological description are completed for R. denitrificans strain 2APBS1 and G. daltonii strain FRC-32. (7) Given their demonstrated relevance to DOE remediation efforts and the availability of detailed genotypic/phenotypic characterization, Rhodanobacter denitrificans strain 2APBS1 and Geobacter daltonii strain FRC-32 represent ideal model organisms to provide a predictive understanding of subsurface microbial activity through metabolic modeling. Tasks II and III-Diversity and distribution of active anaerobes and Mechanisms linking electron transport and the fate of radionuclides: (1) Our study showed that members of genus Rhodanobacter and Geobacter are abundant and active in the uranium and nitrate contaminated subsurface. In the contaminant source zone of the Oak Ridge site, Rhodanobacter spp. are the predominant, active organisms detected (comprising 50% to 100% of rRNA detected). (2) We demonstrated for the first time that the function of microbial communities can be quantified in subsurface sediments using messenger RNA assays (molecular proxies) under in situ conditions. (3) Active Geobacteraceae were identified and phylogenetically characterized from the cDNA of messenger RNA extracted from ORFRC subsurface sediment cores. Multiple clone sequences were retrieved from G. uraniireducens, G. daltonii, and G. metallireducens. (4) Results show that Geobacter strain FRC-32 is capable of growth on benzoate, toluene and benzene as the electron donor, thereby providing evidence that this strain is physiologically distinct from other described members of the subsurface Geobacter clade. (5) Fe(III)-reducing bacteria transform structural Fe in clay minerals from their layer edges rather than from their basal surfaces.

  20. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Avian Predation on Salmonid Smolts in the Lower and Mid-Columbia River, 2008 Draft Season Summary.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roby, Daniel D.; Collis, Ken; Lyons, Donald E.

    2009-07-08

    This report describes investigations into predation by piscivorous colonial waterbirds on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) from throughout the Columbia River basin during 2008. East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary again supported the largest known breeding colony of Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) in the world (approximately 10,700 breeding pairs) and the largest breeding colony of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in western North America (approximately 10,950 breeding pairs). The Caspian tern colony increased from 2007, but not significantly so, while the double-crested cormorant colony experienced a significant decline (20%) from 2007. Average cormorant nesting success in 2008, however, was down only slightly from 2007, suggesting that food supply during the 2008 nesting season was not the principal cause of the decline in cormorant colony size. Total consumption of juvenile salmonids by East Sand Island Caspian terns in 2008 was approximately 6.7 million smolts (95% c.i. = 5.8-7.5 million). Caspian terns nesting on East Sand Island continued to rely primarily on marine forage fishes as a food supply. Based on smolt PIT tag recoveries on the East Sand Island Caspian tern colony, predation rates were highest on steelhead in 2008; minimum predation rates on steelhead smolts detected passing Bonneville Dam averaged 8.3% for wild smolts and 10.7% for hatchery-raised smolts. In 2007, total smolt consumption by East Sand Island double-crested cormorants was about 9.2 million juvenile salmonids (95% c.i. = 4.4-14.0 million), similar to or greater than that of East Sand Island Caspian terns during that year (5.5 million juvenile salmonids; 95% c.i. = 4.8-6.2 million). The numbers of smolt PIT tags recovered on the cormorant colony in 2008 were roughly proportional to the relative availability of PIT-tagged salmonids released in the Basin, suggesting that cormorant predation on salmonid smolts in the estuary was less selective than tern predation. Cormorant predation rates in excess of 30%, however, were observed for some groups of hatchery-reared fall Chinook salmon released downstream of Bonneville Dam. Implementation of the federal plan 'Caspian Tern Management to Reduce Predation of Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia River Estuary' was initiated in 2008 with construction by the Corps of Engineers of two alternative colony sites for Caspian terns in interior Oregon: a 1-acre island on Crump Lake in the Warner Valley and a 1-acre island on Fern Ridge Reservoir near Eugene. We deployed Caspian tern social attraction (decoys and sound systems) on these two islands and monitored for Caspian tern nesting. Caspian terns quickly colonized the Crump Lake tern island; about 430 pairs nested there, including 5 terns that had been banded at the East Sand Island colony in the Columbia River estuary, over 500 km to the northwest. No Caspian terns nested at the Fern Ridge tern island in 2008, but up to 9 Caspian terns were recorded roosting on the island after the nesting season. There were two breeding colonies of Caspian terns on the mid-Columbia River in 2008: (1) about 388 pairs nested at the historical colony on Crescent Island in the McNary Pool and (2) about 100 pairs nested at a relatively new colony site on Rock Island in the John Day Pool. Nesting success at the Crescent Island tern colony was only 0.28 young fledged per breeding pair, the lowest nesting success recorded at that colony since monitoring began in 2000, while only three fledglings were raised at the Rock Island tern colony. The diet of Crescent Island Caspian terns consisted of 68% salmonid smolts; total smolt consumption was estimated at 330,000. Since 2004, total smolt consumption by Crescent Island terns has declined by 34%, due mostly to a decline in colony size, while steelhead consumption has increased 10% during this same period. In 2008, approximately 64,000 steelhead smolts were consumed by Caspian terns nesting at Crescent Island. Based on smolt PIT tag recoveries on the Crescent Island Caspian tern colony, the average