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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

On-Road Motor Vehicle Emissions including Ammonia, Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Don Stedman, Gary Bishop, Allison Peddle, University of Denver Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry Denver CO 80208. www.feat.biochem.du.edu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On-Road Motor Vehicle Emissions including Ammonia, Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Don Stedman Nitrogen dioxide: Less than 5% of the NOx BUT with an outstanding peak for the 2007 MY in Fresno 0. Nitrogen dioxide: less than 5% of NOx except the Fresno fleet containing the 2007 Sprinter ambulances. #12;

Denver, University of

2

sulfur dioxide emissions | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

sulfur dioxide emissions sulfur dioxide emissions Dataset Summary Description Emissions from energy use in buildings are usually estimated on an annual basis using annual average multipliers. Using annual numbers provides a reasonable estimation of emissions, but it provides no indication of the temporal nature of the emissions. Therefore, there is no way of understanding the impact on emissions from load shifting and peak shaving technologies such as thermal energy storage, on-site renewable energy, and demand control. Source NREL Date Released April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Keywords buildings carbon dioxide emissions carbon footprinting CO2 commercial buildings electricity emission factors ERCOT hourly emission factors interconnect nitrogen oxides

3

A design strategy applied to sulfur resistant lean NOx̳ automotive catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Catalyst poisoning due to sulfur compounds derived from fuel sulfur presents a major challenge, intractable thus far, to development of many advanced technologies for automotive catalysts such as the lean NOx, trap. Under ...

Tang, Hairong

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide levels inside and outside homes and the implications on health effects research  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide levels inside and outside homes and the implications on health effects research ...

John D. Spengler; Benjamin G. Ferris Jr.; Douglas W. Dockery; Frank E. Speizer

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Method for Sequestering Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Utilizing a Plurality of Waste Streams  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sequestering Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Sequestering Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Utilizing a Plurality of Waste Streams Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,922,792 entitled "Method for Sequestering Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Utilizing a Plurality of Waste Streams." Disclosed in this patent is the invention of a neutralization/sequestration method that concomitantly treats bauxite residues from aluminum production processes, as well as brine wastewater from oil and gas production processes. The method uses an integrated approach that coincidentally treats multiple industrial waste by-product streams. The end results include neutralizing caustic

6

Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to a high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280.degree. C. and containing as little as 36 mol % ethylene and about 41-51 mol % sulfur dioxide; and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10.degree.-50.degree. C., and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

Johnson, Richard (Shirley, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

CATALYST EVALUATION FOR A SULFUR DIOXIDE-DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. Testing examined the activity and stability of platinum and palladium as the electrocatalyst for the SDE in sulfuric acid solutions. Cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry revealed that platinum provided better catalytic activity with much lower potentials and higher currents than palladium. Testing also showed that the catalyst activity is strongly influenced by the concentration of the sulfuric acid electrolyte.

Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H

2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

8

Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes (State College, PA); Zhang, Yinzhi (State College, PA); Kuchta, Matthew E. (State College, PA); Andresen, John M. (State College, PA); Fauth, Dan J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

9

Auction design and the market for sulfur dioxide emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Recent papers have argued that flaws in the design of the auctions that are part of this market have ...

Joskow, Paul L.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one and a half century were estimated by using a combination of bottom-up and best available inventory methods including all anthropogenic sources. We find that global sulfur dioxide emissions peaked about 1980 and have generally declined since this time. Emissions were extrapolated to a 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} grid for the time period 1850-2000 at annual resolution with two emission height levels and by season. Emissions are somewhat higher in the recent past in this new work as compared with some comprehensive estimates. This difference is largely due to our use of emissions factors that vary with time to account for sulfur removals from fossil fuels and industrial smelting processes.

Smith, Steven J.; Andres, Robert; Conception , Elvira; Lurz, Joshua

2004-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

11

Impact of Sulfur Dioxide on Lean NOx Trap Catalysts | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: University of New Mexico 2004deerhammache.pdf More Documents & Publications CLEERS Aftertreatment Modeling...

12

SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose a process that uses sulfur dioxide from coal combustion as a raw material to synthesize polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a water treatment agent. The process uses sodium chlorate as an oxidant and ferrous sulfate as an absorbent. The major chemical mechanisms in this reaction system include oxidation, hydrolysis, and polymerization. Oxidation determines sulfur conversion efficiency while hydrolysis and polymerization control the quality of product. Many factors, including SO{sub 2} inlet concentration, flow rate of simulated flue gas, reaction temperature, addition rate of oxidant and stirring rate, may affect the efficiencies of SO{sub 2} removal. Currently, the effects of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration, the flow rate of simulated flue gas and addition rate of flue gas on removal efficiencies of SO{sub 2}, are being investigated. Experiments shown in this report have demonstrated that the conversion efficiencies of sulfur dioxide with ferrous sulfate as an absorbent are in the range of 60-80% under the adopted process conditions. However, the conversion efficiency of sulfur dioxide may be improved by optimizing reaction conditions to be investigated. Partial quality indices of the synthesized products, including Fe{sup 2+} concentration and total iron concentration, have been evaluated.

Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbing sulfur dioxide Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

provides some chemicals which are incompatible with other compounds. Summary: Potassium carbon tetrachloride, carbon dioxide, water Potassium chlorate sulfuric and other acids...

14

E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient sulfur dioxide Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

provides some chemicals which are incompatible with other compounds. Summary: Potassium carbon tetrachloride, carbon dioxide, water Potassium chlorate sulfuric and other acids...

15

Instrument Development and Measurements of the Atmospheric Pollutants Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrate Radical, and Nitrous Acid by Cavity Ring-down Spectroscopy and Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A. , A method of nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxidedetermination of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide in theDOAS) have measured nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitrate

Medina, David Salvador

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

NONE

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Effects of Sulfur Dioxide on Formation of Fishy Off-Odor and Undesirable Taste in Wine Consumed with Seafood  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effects of Sulfur Dioxide on Formation of Fishy Off-Odor and Undesirable Taste in Wine Consumed with Seafood ... These results suggest that sulfur dioxide in wine participated in degradation of unsaturated fatty acids, causing an increase in undesirable taste and fishy off-odor in wine and seafood pairings. ... Wine; seafood; fishy off-odor; undesirable taste; unsaturated fatty acids; sulfur dioxide ...

Akiko Fujita; Atsuko Isogai; Michiko Endo; Hitoshi Utsunomiya; Shigeyoshi Nakano; Hiroshi Iwata

2010-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

18

NOx | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

NOx NOx Dataset Summary Description Emissions from energy use in buildings are usually estimated on an annual basis using annual average multipliers. Using annual numbers provides a reasonable estimation of emissions, but it provides no indication of the temporal nature of the emissions. Therefore, there is no way of understanding the impact on emissions from load shifting and peak shaving technologies such as thermal energy storage, on-site renewable energy, and demand control. Source NREL Date Released April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Keywords buildings carbon dioxide emissions carbon footprinting CO2 commercial buildings electricity emission factors ERCOT hourly emission factors interconnect nitrogen oxides NOx SO2 sulfur dioxide emissions

19

Physicochemical aspects of the adsorption of sulfur dioxide by carbon adsorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Literature data on the chemistry of the adsorption of sulfur dioxide on carbon adsorbents are surveyed and described systematically. The influence of various factors (the nature of the carbon matrix, the activation method, the chemistry of the adsorbent surfaces, temperature, the composition of the gas stream, etc.) on the sorption of SO2 by activated carbons and semicokes is examined. The possible ways in which sulfur dioxide interacts with the carbon surface are discussed. The bibliography includes 128 references.

Sergey A Anurov

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Fourth quarterly technical progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams.

NONE

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

world-best-practice-energy- intensity-values-selected-World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for Selectedof the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Deactivation mechanisms of NOx storage materials arising from thermal aging and sulfur poisoning  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presents the reliationship between Pt particle size and NOx storage performance over model catalysts. Novel reaction protocol designed to decouple effects of thermal deactivation and incomplete desulfation.

23

Contribution of isotopologue self-shielding to sulfur mass-independent fractionation during sulfur dioxide photolysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Signatures of sulfur mass-independent fractionation (S-MIF) are observed for sulfur minerals in Archean rocks, and for modern stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSA) deposited in polar ice. Ultraviolet light photolysis of ...

Lyons, J. R.

24

Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, the authors have planned a structured program including: Market/process/cost/evaluation; Lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; Lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; Bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and Utility review. Progress is reported from all three organizations.

NONE

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

25

Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, December 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

NONE

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, January - March 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

NONE

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Hybrid Microfabricated Device for Field Measurement of Atmospheric Sulfur Dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is also now generally agreed that forthcoming major volcanic eruptions will sensitively monitored for increasing sulfur gas emissions as indicated by increasing seismic activity. ... (12)?Fish, B. R.; Durham, J. L. Environ. ...

Shin-Ichi Ohira; Kei Toda; Shin-Ichiro Ikebe; Purnendu K. Dasgupta

2002-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

28

Advanced product recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Third quarterly technical progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied to 72,000 MW of US, coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed form the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its industry and commercialization advisor, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner, Tufts, plans to develop and scale-up an advanced, byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, catalytic process for reducing sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, they have planned a structured program including: market/process/cost/evaluation; lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and utility review. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning.

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Sulfur dioxide oxidation and plume formation at cement kilns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of source sampling at the Glens Falls cement kiln in Glens Falls, N.Y., are reported for sulfur oxides, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, oxygen, and moisture content. The origin of a detached, high-opacity, persistent plume originating from the cement kiln stack is investigated. It is proposed that this plume is due to ammonium salts of SOx and sulfuric acid that have been formed in condensed water droplets in the plume by the pseudocatalytic action of ammonia. (1 diagram, 1 graph, 22 references, 7 tables)

Dellinger, B.; Grotecloss, G.; Fortune, C.R.; Cheney, J.L.; Homolya, J.B.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 2: SOx/Nox/Hg Removal for High Sulfur Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxy-combustion technology. The objective of Task 2 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning high sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was not only to investigate a new method of flue gas purification but also to produce useful acid byproduct streams as an alternative to using a traditional FGD and SCR for flue gas processing. During the project two main constraints were identified that limit the ability of the process to achieve project goals. 1) Due to boiler island corrosion issues >60% of the sulfur must be removed in the boiler island with the use of an FGD. 2) A suitable method could not be found to remove NOx from the concentrated sulfuric acid product, which limits sale-ability of the acid, as well as the NOx removal efficiency of the process. Given the complexity and safety issues inherent in the cycle it is concluded that the acid product would not be directly saleable and, in this case, other flue gas purification schemes are better suited for SOx/NOx/Hg control when burning high sulfur coal, e.g. this project's Task 3 process or a traditional FGD and SCR.

Nick Degenstein; Minish Shah; Doughlas Louie

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

From Sulfur Dioxide to Greenhouse Gases: Trends and Events Shaping Future Emissions Trading Programs in the United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The success of the United States sulfur dioxide (SO2...) trading program has led to worldwide interest in emissions trading. The program has become a model for ... a theoretical option discussed only by economist...

Joseph Kruger

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project has investigated new metal oxide catalysts for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as CO. Significant progress in catalyst development has been made during the course of the project. We have found that fluorite oxides, CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}, and rare earth zirconates such as Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} are active and stable catalysts for reduction Of SO{sub 2} by CO. More than 95% sulfur yield was achieved at reaction temperatures about 450{degrees}C or higher with the feed gas of stoichiometric composition. Reaction of SO{sub 2} and CO over these catalysts demonstrated a strong correlation of catalytic activity with the catalyst oxygen mobility. Furthermore, the catalytic activity and resistance to H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} poisoning of these catalysts were significantly enhanced by adding small amounts of transition metals, such as Co, Ni, Co, etc. The resulting transition metal-fluorite oxide composite catalyst has superior activity and stability, and shows promise in long use for the development of a greatly simplified single-step sulfur recovery process to treat variable and dilute SO{sub 2} concentration gas streams. Among various active composite catalyst systems the Cu-CeO{sub 2} system has been extensively studied. XRD, XPS, and STEM analyses of the used Cu-CeO{sub 2} catalyst found that the fluorite crystal structure of ceria was stable at the present reaction conditions, small amounts of copper was dispersed and stabilized on the ceria matrix, and excess copper oxide particles formed copper sulfide crystals of little contribution to catalytic activity. A working catalyst consisted of partially sulfated cerium oxide surface and partially sulfided copper clusters. The overall reaction kinetics were approximately represented by a first order equation.

Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Measurement and Characterization of NOx Adsorber Regeneration...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields Progress Toward Targets of Efficient NOx Control for Diesels Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects...

34

EVALUATION OF PROTON-CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR USE IN A SULFUR-DIOXIDE DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemical stability, sulfur dioxide transport, ionic conductivity, and electrolyzer performance have been measured for several commercially available and experimental proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for use in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). The SDE's function is to produce hydrogen by using the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, a sulfur based electrochemical/thermochemical hybrid cycle. Membrane stability was evaluated using a screening process where each candidate PEM was heated at 80 C in 60 wt. % H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for 24 hours. Following acid exposure, chemical stability for each membrane was evaluated by FTIR using the ATR sampling technique. Membrane SO{sub 2} transport was evaluated using a two-chamber permeation cell. SO{sub 2} was introduced into one chamber whereupon SO{sub 2} transported across the membrane into the other chamber and oxidized to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at an anode positioned immediately adjacent to the membrane. The resulting current was used to determine the SO{sub 2} flux and SO{sub 2} transport. Additionally, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were prepared from candidate membranes to evaluate ionic conductivity and selectivity (ionic conductivity vs. SO{sub 2} transport) which can serve as a tool for selecting membranes. MEAs were also performance tested in a HyS electrolyzer measuring current density versus a constant cell voltage (1V, 80 C in SO{sub 2} saturated 30 wt% H2SO{sub 4}). Finally, candidate membranes were evaluated considering all measured parameters including SO{sub 2} flux, SO{sub 2} transport, ionic conductivity, HyS electrolyzer performance, and membrane stability. Candidate membranes included both PFSA and non-PFSA polymers and polymer blends of which the non-PFSA polymers, BPVE-6F and PBI, showed the best selectivity.

Hobbs, D.; Elvington, M.; Colon-Mercado, H.

2009-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

35

The vibrational and rotational structure of the 2400 to 1950 A? absorption spectrum of sulfur dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

0. $ ? Vs TBE YiaUSXOKtf U ? m sm U M A L M W of thb 2400 to 1950 2 Ammwim mmmm m s u m m m a m A. BisMrtatiim % James Willbom Biggs, Jfe. Submitted to the Gra4taata Sdtotd tdt HA* Agricultural and Maofcudoal Qtlltc* %ff I'M* 3*i partial... fulfillment of' %hm r*tuir??Mi*s f?r %ift ??' m m m m m m & m s t Major Sttfejoott Rupeio* THE VIBRATIONAL AND ROTATIONAL STRUCTURE OP THE 2400 TO 1950 A ABSORPTION SPECTRUM OP SULFUR DIOXIDE A Dissertation 37 James Willborn Riggs, Jr. Approved...

Riggs, James Willborn

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

36

Oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons on platinum and palladium catalysts in the presence of sulfur dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors report on a study of the effect of sulfur dioxide on the activity of platinum and palladium catalysts with respect to oxidation of the principal toxic components in the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines: carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons (propylene (C/sub 3/H/sub 6/) and propane (C/sub 3/H/sub 8/)). The experiments were carried out in a flow system equipped with Beckman infrared analyzers to monitor the concentrations of CO and hydrocarbons and of sulfur dioxide. A series of thermal desorption experiments was carried out in a low-pressure flow system with mass spectrometric analysis of the gas phase. The results indicate that the low-temperature adsorption of sulfur dioxide on platinum (and also palladium) catalysts inhibits the oxidation of carbon monoxide and propylene. The poisoning effect of O/sub 2/ is due to blockage of the platinum centers for adsorption of the oxidizable compounds and oxygen.

Panchishnyi, V.I.; Bondareva, N.K.; Sklyarov, A.V.; Rozanov, V.V.; Chadina, G.P.

1988-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

37

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 3: SOx/NOx/Hg Removal for Low Sulfur Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project was to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxycombustion technology. The objective of Task 3 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning low sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was to conduct an experimental investigation and to develop a novel process for simultaneously removal of SOx and NOx from power plants that would operate on low sulfur coal without the need for wet-FGD & SCRs. A novel purification process operating at high pressures and ambient temperatures was developed. Activated carbonâ??s catalytic and adsorbent capabilities are used to oxidize the sulfur and nitrous oxides to SO{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} species, which are adsorbed on the activated carbon and removed from the gas phase. Activated carbon is regenerated by water wash followed by drying. The development effort commenced with the screening of commercially available activated carbon materials for their capability to remove SO{sub 2}. A bench-unit operating in batch mode was constructed to conduct an experimental investigation of simultaneous SOx and NOx removal from a simulated oxyfuel flue gas mixture. Optimal operating conditions and the capacity of the activated carbon to remove the contaminants were identified. The process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx. In the longevity tests performed on a batch unit, the retention capacity could be maintained at high level over 20 cycles. This process was able to effectively remove up to 4000 ppm SOx from the simulated feeds corresponding to oxyfuel flue gas from high sulfur coal plants. A dual bed continuous unit with five times the capacity of the batch unit was constructed to test continuous operation and longevity. Full-automation was implemented to enable continuous operation (24/7) with minimum operator supervision. Continuous run was carried out for 40 days. Very high SOx (>99.9%) and NOx (98%) removal efficiencies were also achieved in a continuous unit. However, the retention capacity of carbon beds for SOx and NOx was decreased from ~20 hours to ~10 hours over a 40 day period of operation, which was in contrast to the results obtained in a batch unit. These contradictory results indicate the need for optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level and thus minimize the capital cost of the system. In summary, the activated carbon process exceeded performance targets for SOx and NOx removal efficiencies and it was found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. More efforts are needed to optimize the system performance.

Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Minish Shah

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

An Analysis of PM and NOx Train Emissions in the Alameda Corridor, CA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environment. Estimation of Nitrogen Dioxide Concentrationsmatter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide - Globalnitrate particles and nitrogen dioxide can reduce visibility

Sangkapichai, Mana; Saphores, Jean-Daniel M; Ritchie, Stephen G.; You, Soyoung Iris; Lee, Gunwoo

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

KINETICS OF OXIDATION OF AQUEOUS SULFUR(IV) BY NITROGEN DIOXIDE YIN-NAN LEE AND STEPHEN E. SCHWARTZ  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, reagent gas solubilities, mass trans- fer, stoichiometry, and reaction rate were not systematicallyKINETICS OF OXIDATION OF AQUEOUS SULFUR(IV) BY NITROGEN DIOXIDE YIN-NAN LEE AND STEPHEN E. SCHWARTZ for the oxidation of these compounds and their incorpo- ration into atmospheric liquid water are not fully

Schwartz, Stephen E.

40

Modeling of atmospheric corrosion behavior of weathering steel in sulfur dioxide-polluted atmospheres  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric corrosion resistance of carbon steel (CS) and high-phosphorus weathering steel (WS, Acr-Ten A) was compared after exposure for up to 6 years in Taiwan. In an industrial atmosphere, corrosion kinetics of WS after 3 years of exposure deviated from behavior predicted by the well-known bilogarithmic law. This deviation was simulated using a laboratory accelerated test under cyclic wet/dry conditions with addition of 1 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). In-situ electrochemical impedance measurements also were carried out in a modified three-electrode cell covered by a thin electrolyte layer to investigate corrosion behavior of WS in SO{sub 2}-polluted environments. Three impedance models were proposed to explain the characteristic corrosion behavior of WS in various stages of exposure.

Wang, J.H.; Shih, H.C. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Wei, F.I. [China Steel Corp., Kaoshiung (Taiwan, Province of China)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Remote measurement of sulfur dioxide emissions using an ultraviolet light sensitive video system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Remote measurements of SO/sub 2/ emissions and plume velocities were made with a portable ultraviolet light-sensitive video system and compared with EPA in-stack compliance measurement methods. The instrument system measures the ultraviolet light absorption of SO/sub 2/ and movement of SO/sub 2/ fluctuations in the effluent plume and relates these measurements to the SO/sub 2/ concentration and velocity of the plume. Laboratory and field tests were conducted to establish the potential for using this technique for rapid surveillance of SO/sub 2/ emissions. The effects caused by submicron aerosols also were investigated. The field tests were performed on two occasions. On the first occasion, SO/sub 2/ and plume velocity measurements were made at a typical coal-fired power plant with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) controls (concentrations ranged from 80 to 365 ppm). The second occasion involved participation in an urban particulate modeling study, which resulted in routine SO/sub 2/ emission measurements performed at 12 industrial sites. The results of smoke generator and field tests indicate that the sulfur dioxide concentration of smoke stack emissions can be made with an accuracy less than +/-120 ppm (relative to the EPA stack test compliance method), provided the particulate opacity of the emissions is less than 22 percent. The velocity measurement feature of the instrument correlated poorly with the EPA compliance method for stack gas velocity.

McElhoe, H.B.; Conner, W.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, October--December 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Elemental sulfur recovery from SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream is highly attractive as it produces a salable product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO{sub 2} with coke) and Claus plant (reaction of SO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S over catalyst). This project will investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified in recent work at MIT as a superior catalyst for SO{sub 2} reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range (400--650{degree}C). The detailed kinetic and parametric studies of SO{sub 2} reduction planned in this work over various CeO{sub 2} formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a very simplified process, namely that of a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams. The potential cost- and energy-efficiency benefits from this approach can not be overstated. A first apparent application is treatment of a regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought ``Claus-alternative`` for coal-fired power plant applications.

Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

43

Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Elemental sulfur recovery from SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream is highly attractive as it produces a salable product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO{sub 2} with coke) and Claus plant(reaction of SO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S over catalyst). This project will investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified in recent work at MIT as a superior catalyst for SO{sub 2} reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range(400--650{degrees}C). The detailed kinetic and parametric studies of SO{sub 2} reduction planned in this work over various CeO{sub 2}-formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a very simplified process, namely that of a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams, The potential cost- and energy-efficiency benefits from this approach can not be overstated. A first apparent application is treatment of a regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought ``Claus-alternative`` for coal-fired power plant applications.

Liu, Wei; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.; Williams, R.S.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

44

Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon Dioxide, and Mercury and a Renewable Portfolio Standard  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 ERRATA Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon Dioxide, and Mercury and a Renewable Portfolio Standard July 2001 Energy Information Administration Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This Service Report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Contacts This report was prepared by the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, Energy Information Adminis- tration. General questions concerning the report may be directed to Mary J. Hutzler (202/586-2222, mhutzler @eia.doe.gov), Director of the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, Scott B. Sitzer (202/586-2308,

45

Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, October 1993--December 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Elemental sulfur recovery from SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream is highly attractive as it produces a salable product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO{sub 2} with coke) and Claus plant (reaction of SO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S over catalyst). This project will investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified in recent work at MIT as a superior catalyst for SO{sub 2} reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range(400-650 {degrees}C). The detailed kinetic and parametric studies of SO{sub 2} reduction planned in this work over various CeO{sub 2}-formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a very simplified process, namely that of a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams. The potential cost- and energy-efficiency benefits from this approach can not be overstated. A first apparent application is treatment of a regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought {open_quotes}Claus-alternative{close_quotes} for coal-fired power plant applications.

Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Discharge characteristics of lithium/sulfur dioxide (LiSO{sub 2}) ``D`` cells (SAFT America Inc.)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents data which was generated during a series of discharge tests performed on Lithium/Sulfur Dioxide (LiSO{sub 2}) ``D`` cells manufactured by SAFT America Inc., Cockeysville, Maryland. The discharge tests were run using five different load conditions and six temperature regimes. This report contains graphs depicting cell discharge curves (cell voltage versus time). Test results indicate that the cells performed most consistently at temperatures between 0{degrees} and 60{degrees}C and at 10 mA loads. 1 ref., 43 figs.

Pitre, L.J. Jr.

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Presentation given...

50

Development of a new FGD process that converts sulfur dioxide to salable ammonium phosphate fertilizer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rich mineral resources have enabled Chinese coal output and energy consumption to rank second and third in the world, respectively. In 1992, up to 70 percent of the country`s electric power was generated by the combustion of some 300 million tons of coal. Although the average sulfur content level in Chinese coals is only about 0.8 percent, the share of high- sulfur coals with 2 percent or more sulfur content is as high as 18 percent. As a result, air pollution accompanied by acid rain now occurs over most of the country, especially in southwestern China. Currently, the area comprising Guangdong, Guangxi, the Sichuan Basin, and the greater part of Gueizhou, where the sulfur content in coal is between 2 and 7 percent and the average pH values of rain water are between 4 and 5 per annum, has become one of the three biggest acid rain-affected areas in the world. In 1992, the national installed coal-fired electricity generation capacity exceeded 100,000 MWe. By the year 2000, it is expected to reach as much as 200,000 MWe, according to a new scheduled program. Environmental pollution caused by large-scale coal combustion is a very important issue that needs to be considered in the implementation of the program. To ensure that the effects of coal-fired power generation on the environment can be properly controlled in the near future, TPRI (Thermal Power Research Institute), the sole thermal power engineering research institution within the Ministry of Electric Power Industry (MOEPI), has conducted a long-term research program to develop sulfur emission control technologies suitable to the special conditions prevalent in China since the early 1970s. The details are summarized. The objective of this chapter is to describe the fundamental concept and major pilot test results and present an economic evaluation of a new process combining flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and ammonium phosphate fertilizer production.

Ji-lu Chen

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

51

Ground level concentration of sulfur dioxide at Kuwait`s major population centers during the oil-field fires  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the Iraqi occupation, Kuwait`s oil wells were ignited. the fires were damaging to the country`s oil resources and air quality. The impact of the oil-field fires on the air quality was studied to determine the level of exposure to pollutants in major population centers. The period of July-September 1991 was selected for examination. A mathematical model was used to compute the ground-level concentration isopleths. The results of these computations are supported by significant concentrations measured and reported by the Environmental Protection Council, Kuwait. The ground-level concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the major population centers, whether measure or estimated, were less than the ambient standards of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s air pollution index. The dispersive characteristics were classified according to wind conditions. The results of this assessment provide historical data on Kuwait`s oil fires and may be useful in assessing risks resulting from this catastrophe. 6 refs., 10 fig., 2 tab.

Al-Ajmi, D.N.; Marmoush, Y.R. [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait)] [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters and Boilers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-6, 2000 Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters Air Pollution Control and Boilers Keeping the environment clean Presented by Ashutosh Garg Furnace Improvements Low cost solutions for fired heaters Trace compounds ? Nitric oxides ? Carbon monoxide ? Sulfur... it is essential to estimate accurately baseline NOx emissions. ? This will establish each units current compliance status. ? Emissions ? Current excess air level ? Carbon monoxide ? Combustibles ? NOx corrected to 3% 02 314 ESL-IE-00-04-46 Proceedings...

Garg, A.

53

Advances of flue gas desulfurization technology for coal-fired boilers and strategies for sulfur dioxide pollution prevention in China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal is one of the most important kinds of energy resources at the present time and in the immediate future in China. Sulfur dioxide resulting from combustion of coal is one of the principle pollutants in the air. Control of SO{sub 2} discharge is still a major challenge for environmental protection in developing China. In this paper, research, development and application of technology of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) for coal-fired boilers in China will be reviewed with emphasis on cost-effective technology, and the development trends of FGD technology, as well as the strategy for SO{sub 2} discharge control in China, will be analyzed. A practical technology for middle-small-sized boilers developed by the primary author and the field investigation results will also be presented. At present, there are four major kinds of FGD technologies that are practical to be applied in China for their cost-effectiveness and efficiency to middle-small-sized boilers. An important development trend of the FGD technology for middle-small-sized boilers for the next decade is improvement of the existing cost-effective wet-type FGD technology, and in the future it will be the development of dry-type FGD technology. For middle-sized generating boilers, the development direction of the FGD technology is the spraying and drying process. For large-sized generating boilers, the wet-type limestone-plaster process will still be applied in the immediate future, and dry-type FGD technologies, such as ammonia with electron beam irradiation, will be developed in the future. State strategies for the control of SO{sub 2} discharge will involve the development and popularization of efficient coal-fired devices, extension of gas coal and liquefied coal, spreading coal washing, and centralized heating systems.

Yang, C.; Zeng, G.; Li, G.; Qiu, J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Comparison of thermoelectric and permeation dryers for sulfur dioxide removal during sample conditioning of wet gas streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flue gas conditioning for moisture removal is commonly performed for criteria pollutant measurements, in particular for extractive CEM systems at combustion sources. An implicit assumption is that conditioning systems specifically remove moisture without affecting pollutant and diluent concentrations. Gas conditioning is usually performed by passing the flue gas through a cold trap (Peltier or thermoelectric dryer) to remove moisture by condensation, which is subsequently extracted by a peristaltic pump. Many air pollutants are water-soluble and potentially susceptible to removal in a condensation dryer from gas interaction with liquid water. An alternative technology for gas conditioning is the permeation dryer, where the flue gas passes through a selectively permeable membrane for moisture removal. In this case water is transferred through the membrane while other pollutants are excluded, and the gas does not contact condensed liquid. Laboratory experiments were performed to measure the relative removal of a water-soluble pollutant (sulfur dioxide, SO{sub 2}) by the two conditioning techniques. A wet gas generating system was used to create hot, wet gas streams of known composition (15% and 30% moisture, balance nitrogen) and flow rate. Pre-heated SO{sub 2} was dynamically spiked into the wet stream using mass flow meters to achieve concentrations of 20, 50, and 100 ppm. The spiked gas was directed through a heated sample line to either a thermoelectric or a permeation conditioning system. Two gas analyzers (Western Research UV gas monitor, KVB/Analect FTIR spectrometer) were used to measure the SO{sub 2} concentration after conditioning. Both analytic methods demonstrated that SO{sub 2} is removed to a significantly greater extent by the thermoelectric dryer. These results have important implications for SO{sub 2} monitoring and emissions trading.

Dunder, T.A. [Entropy, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Research Div.; Leighty, D.A. [Perma Pure, Inc., Toms River, NJ (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

55

Sulfur isotope fractionation during oxidation of sulfur dioxide: gas-phase oxidation by OH radicals and aqueous oxidation by H2O2, O3 and iron catalysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The oxidation of SO[subscript 2] to sulfate is a key reaction in determining the role of sulfate in the environment through its effect on aerosol size distribution and composition. Sulfur isotope analysis has been used to ...

Harris, E.

56

Electrochemical studies of the corrosion behavior of carbon and weathering steels in alternating wet/dry environments with sulfur dioxide gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrochemical impedance techniques were used to investigate the corrosion behavior of carbon steel (CS) and weathering steel (WS) in sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2})-containing environments. Impedance measurements were conducted in a modified three-electrode electrochemical cell covered by a thin electrolyte layer during the wet/dry period. Results showed WS was more resistant to SO{sub 2}-induced atmospheric corrosion than CS. Three forms of impedance spectra were observed, depending upon exposure period. Accordingly, three impedance models were proposed to explain the characteristic impedance data and corrosion behaviors in different stages of exposure. The proposed models and equivalent circuits produced good agreement with experimental impedance data.

Wang, J.H.; Shih, H.C. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Wei, F.I. [China Steel Corp., Kaoshiung (Taiwan, Province of China)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Notification to Mirant by the Commonwealth of Virginia of Serious Violations of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Sulfur Dioxide  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

9, 2005 9, 2005 Lisa D. Johnson, President Mirant Potomac River, LLC 8711 Westphalia Road Upper Marlboro, Maryland 20774 Dear Ms. Johnson: DEQ is in receipt of the results of Mirant's "downwash" modeling provided by Mirant to DEQ pursuant to the consent special order between the State Air Pollution Control Board and Mirant Potomac River, LLC. A cursory review of the modeling reveals that emissions from the Potomac River Generating Station result in, cause or substantially contribute to serious violations of the primary national ambient air quality standards or "NAAQS" for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and PM 10 . NAAQS are established by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency at concentrations necessary to protect human health with an adequate margin of safety.

58

Lubricant oil consumption effects on diesel exhaust ash emissions using a sulfur dioxide trace technique and thermogravimetry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A detailed experimental study was conducted targeting lubricant consumption effects on ,diesel exhaust ash levels using a model year 2002 5.9L diesel engine, high and low Sulfur commercial lubricants, and clean diesel ...

Plumley, Michael J

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

NOx Adsorber (Lean NOx Trap) Fundamentals (Agreement #10049 ...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

NOx Adsorber (Lean NOx Trap) Fundamentals (Agreement 10049 - PNNL Project 47120) NOx Adsorber (Lean NOx Trap) Fundamentals (Agreement 10049 - PNNL Project 47120) Presentation...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

N.A. Ottinger, J.A. Pihl, T.J. Toops, C. Finney, M. Lance, C. Stuart Daw, "Types, Spatial Distribution, Stability, and Performance Impact of Sulfur on a Lean NOx Trap...

62

Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. ace026peden2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Mechanisms of Sulfur Poisoning of NOx Adsorber (LNT) Materials...

63

Calcium looping process for high purity hydrogen production integrated with capture of carbon dioxide, sulfur and halides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: (i) gasifying a fuel into a raw synthesis gas comprising CO, hydrogen, steam, sulfur and halide contaminants in the form of H.sub.2S, COS, and HX, wherein X is a halide; (ii) passing the raw synthesis gas through a water gas shift reactor (WGSR) into which CaO and steam are injected, the CaO reacting with the shifted gas to remove CO.sub.2, sulfur and halides in a solid-phase calcium-containing product comprising CaCO.sub.3, CaS and CaX.sub.2; (iii) separating the solid-phase calcium-containing product from an enriched gaseous hydrogen product; and (iv) regenerating the CaO by calcining the solid-phase calcium-containing product at a condition selected from the group consisting of: in the presence of steam, in the presence of CO.sub.2, in the presence of synthesis gas, in the presence of H.sub.2 and O.sub.2, under partial vacuum, and combinations thereof.

Ramkumar, Shwetha; Fan, Liang-Shih

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

64

High Purity Hydrogen Production with In-Situ Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Capture in a Single Stage Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Enhancement in the production of high purity hydrogen (H{sub 2}) from fuel gas, obtained from coal gasification, is limited by thermodynamics of the water gas shift (WGS) reaction. However, this constraint can be overcome by conducting the WGS in the presence of a CO{sub 2}-acceptor. The continuous removal of CO{sub 2} from the reaction mixture helps to drive the equilibrium-limited WGS reaction forward. Since calcium oxide (CaO) exhibits high CO{sub 2} capture capacity as compared to other sorbents, it is an ideal candidate for such a technique. The Calcium Looping Process (CLP) developed at The Ohio State University (OSU) utilizes the above concept to enable high purity H{sub 2} production from synthesis gas (syngas) derived from coal gasification. The CLP integrates the WGS reaction with insitu CO{sub 2}, sulfur and halide removal at high temperatures while eliminating the need for a WGS catalyst, thus reducing the overall footprint of the hydrogen production process. The CLP comprises three reactors - the carbonator, where the thermodynamic constraint of the WGS reaction is overcome by the constant removal of CO{sub 2} product and high purity H{sub 2} is produced with contaminant removal; the calciner, where the calcium sorbent is regenerated and a sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} stream is produced; and the hydrator, where the calcined sorbent is reactivated to improve its recyclability. As a part of this project, the CLP was extensively investigated by performing experiments at lab-, bench- and subpilot-scale setups. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was also conducted to determine the feasibility of the CLP at commercial scale. This report provides a detailed account of all the results obtained during the project period.

Nihar Phalak; Shwetha Ramkumar; Daniel Connell; Zhenchao Sun; Fu-Chen Yu; Niranjani Deshpande; Robert Statnick; Liang-Shih Fan

2011-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

65

Elemental sulfur recovery process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

66

Method to prevent sulfur accumulation in membrane electrode assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of operating a hybrid sulfur electrolyzer to generate hydrogen is provided that includes the steps of providing an anolyte with a concentration of sulfur dioxide, and applying a current. During steady state generation of hydrogen a plot of applied current density versus concentration of sulfur dioxide is below a boundary line. The boundary line may be linear and extend through the origin of the graph with a slope of 0.001 in which the current density is measured in mA/cm2 and the concentration of sulfur dioxide is measured in moles of sulfur dioxide per liter of anolyte.

Steimke, John L; Steeper, Timothy J; Herman, David T

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

67

NETL: Emissions Characterization - Adv. Low-NOx Burner Emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Advanced Low-NOx Burner Emissions Characterization Advanced Low-NOx Burner Emissions Characterization The goal of this work is to develop a comprehensive, high-quality database characterizing PM2.5 emissions from utility plants firing high sulfur coals. The specific objectives are to: 1) develop and test an ultra low-NOx pulverized coal burner for plug-in retrofit applications without boiler wall tube modifications, 2) assess the impact of low-NOx PC burner operation on NOx and PM2.5 emissions, and 3) provide high-quality data to ensure that future PM2.5 regulations are based on good scientific information. The work will be performed in the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF), a 100 million Btu/hr near-full-scale facility located at the Alliance Research Center. Related Papers and Publications:

68

Combining Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Posters 2005deerhuff.pdf More Documents & Publications Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Reductant Utilization in a LNT + SCR...

69

Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Jim Parks (parksjeii@ornl.gov), Matt Swartz, Shean Huff, Brian West Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

70

Low NOx combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

Kobayashi; Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY), Bool, III; Lawrence E. (Aurora, NY)

2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

71

Low NOx combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

Kobayashi, Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY); Bool, III, Lawrence E. (Aurora, NY)

2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

72

Using ISC & GIS to predict sulfur deposition from coal-fired power plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The goal of this research project was to determine if atmospheric sources have the potential of contributing significantly to the sulfur content of grazed forage. Sulfur deposition resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions from coal- fired power...

Lopez, Jose Ignacio

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

73

ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Sulfur capture in combination bark boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review of sulfur dioxide emission data for eight combination bark boilers in conjunction with the sulfur contents of the fuels reveals significant sulfur capture ranging from 10% to over 80% within the solid ash phase. Wood ash characteristics similar to activated carbon as well as the significant wood ash alkali oxide and carbonate fractions are believed responsible for the sulfur capture. Sulfur emissions from combination bark-fossil fuel firing are correlated to the sulfur input per ton of bark or wood residue fired.

Someshwar, A.V.; Jain, A.K. (National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement, Gainesville, FL (United States))

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 5, July--September 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

NOx Reduction from Biodiesel Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

NOx Reduction from Biodiesel Fuels ... NOx emissions appear to be different for biodiesels from different feedstocks. ... For the suite of biodiesels prepared from nearly pure fatty acids, all biodiesel fuels produced higher NOx than certification diesel with the following exceptions:? methyl palmitate, methyl laurate, ethyl stearate, and the ethyl ester of hydrogenated soybean oil. ...

Sandun Fernando; Chris Hall; Saroj Jha

2005-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

77

GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Global Dry Deposition of Nitrogen Dioxide and1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-DERIVED NO2 AND SO2 DRY DEPOSITION 1. Introduction Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) haveGLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Global Dry Deposition of Nitrogen Dioxide and1 Sulfur Dioxide Inferred from Space-Based2 Measurements3 C. R. Nowlan, 1,2 R. V. Martin, 1,2 S

Martin, Randall

78

Why Sequence Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria? Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria? Several environmental problems, such as acid rain, biocorrosion, etc., are caused by sulfur compounds, such as sulfur dioxide (SO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). A sustainable process to remove these sulfur compounds is the production of elemental sulfur from H2S-containing gas streams by the use of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. In this process, H2S is absorbed into the alkaline solution in the scrubber unit, followed by the biological oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur and the recycling of water. With this two-step process, a variety of gas streams (i.e., natural gas, synthesis gas, biogas, and refinery gas) can be treated. For the treatment of sulfate-containing waste streams, an extra step has to be introduced: the transformation of sulfate into H2S by sulfate-reducing bacteria. In

79

Sulfur: its clinical and toxicologic aspects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Although there is no known dietary requirement for inorganic sulfur, it is an essential element for all animal species in as much as they all require the sulfur-containing amino acid methionine. There are three predominate forms of organic sulfur in animals and humans: 1) the thiomethyl of methionine residues in protein; 2) the sulfhydryl disulfides of protein; and 3) the compounds containing ester or amide bound sulfates of glycosaminoglycans, steroids, and many xenobiotic metabolites. Thus, sulfur becomes an important constituent of amino acids, proteins, enzymes, vitamins and other biomolecules. Unlike mammalian species, plants can use inorganic sulfur and synthesize methionine from which are synthesized all the other important sulfur compounds. Hence, sulfur deficiency occurs mainly when plants are grown in sulfur-depleted soils and when humans and animals consume low-protein diets. In recent times, however, the increasing prevalence of refining petroleum and smelting sulfur compounds of metallic minerals into free metals are having a large impact on the balance of sulfur in the environment. Sulfur toxicity is associated mainly with high levels of the element and its toxic volatile substances in the environment. Sulfur dioxide (SO2), a major air pollutant, may adversely affect animal and human health by causing bronchitis, bronchoconstriction, and increased pulmonary resistance.

Lioudmila A Komarnisky; Robert J Christopherson; Tapan K Basu

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - SCNR Field  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

SNCR Field Demonstration SNCR Field Demonstration American Electric Power (AEP), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy, FuelTech, the Ohio Coal Development Office, and fourteen EPRI member utilities, performed a full-scale demonstration of a urea-based Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) system at Cardinal Unit 1. Cardinal Unit 1 is a 600MWe opposed-wall dry bottom pulverized coal-fired boiler that began service in 1967. This unit burns eastern bituminous high-sulfur coal, (3.72%S). This unit was retrofitted with low NOx burners (LNB's) during its scheduled fall 1998 outage and the SNCR system was installed concurrently. SNCR is a post-combustion NOx control process developed to reduce NOx emissions from fossil-fuel combustion systems. SNCR processes involve the injection of a chemical containing nitrogen into the combustion products, where the temperature is in the range of 1600°F - 2200°F (870°C - 1205°C). In this temperature range, the chemical reacts selectively with NOx in the presence of oxygen, forming primarily nitrogen and water. Although a number of chemicals have been investigated and implemented for SNCR NOx reduction, urea and ammonia have been most widely used for full-scale applications.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - NOx Emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Emissions from Multi-Burners Emissions from Multi-Burners The University of Utah working with Reaction Engineering International and Brigham Young University is investigating a project that consists of integrated experimental, theoretical and computational modeling efforts. The primary objective is to evaluate NOx formation/destruction processes as they occur in multi-burner arrays, a geometry almost always utilized in utility practice. Most controlled experimental work examining NOx has been conducted on single burners. The range of potential intra-burner interactions are likely to provide added degrees of freedom for reducing NOx. The resultant findings may allow existing utilities to arrange fuel and air distribution to minimize NOx. In new applications, orientation of individual burners within an array may also be altered to reduce NOx. Comprehensive combustion codes will be modified to incorporate the latest submodels of nitrogen release and heterogeneous chemistry. Comparison of pilot scale experiments and simulations will be utilized to validate/develop theory.

82

Compact Potentiometric NOx Sensor | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Potentiometric NOx Sensor Compact Potentiometric NOx Sensor 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

83

9, 11231155, 2009 Lightning NOx  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of lightning intensities. By im-20 posing an updated lightning NO production value of 520 mol NO/Flash, weACPD 9, 1123­1155, 2009 Lightning NOx emissions over the USA investigated using TES L. Jourdain et to the corresponding final paper in ACP if available. Lightning NOx emissions over the USA investigated using TES, NLDN

84

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Model for NOx  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Model for NOx Emissions in Biomass Cofiring Model for NOx Emissions in Biomass Cofiring Southern Research Institute is developing a validated tool or methodology to accurately and confidently design and optimize biomass-cofiring systems for full-scale utility boilers to produce the lowest NOX emissions and the least unburned carbon. The computer model will be validated through an extensive set of tests at the 6 MMBtu/hr pilot combustor in the Southern Company/Southern Research Institute Combustion Research Facility. Full-scale demonstration testing can be compared to the model for further validation. The project is designed to balance the development of a systematic and expansive database detailing the effects of cofiring parameters on NOx formation with the complementary modeling effort that will yield a capability to predict, and therefore optimize, NOx reductions by the selection of those parameters. The database of biomass cofiring results will be developed through an extensive set of pilot-scale tests at the Southern Company/Southern Research Institute Combustion Research Facility. The testing in this program will monitor NOx, LOI, and other emissions over a broad domain of biomass composition, coal quality, and cofiring injection configurations to quantify the dependence of NOx formation and LOI on these parameters. This database of cofiring cases will characterize an extensive suite of emissions and combustion properties for each of the fuel and injection configuration combinations tested.

85

Nox1 and Nox4 enzymes are persistently elevated in human hepatocytes producing infectious hepatitis C virus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

location of NOX4 and NOX1 enzymes by cell fractionation. 6.13. Proposed role of hepatocyte NOX enzymes in HCV-inducedMERCED Nox1 and Nox4 enzymes are persistently elevated in

Reyes de Mochel, Nabora Soledad

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: SO2, Nox, CO2  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report responds to a request received from Senator David McIntosh on June 29, 2000 to analyze the impacts on energy consumers and producers of coordinated strategies to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide at U.S. power plants.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Mechanisms of Sulfur Poisoning of NOx Adsorber (LNT) Materials  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

88

Mechanisms of Sulfur Poisoning of NOx Adsorber (LNT) Materials  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland.

89

Mechanisms of Sulfur Poisoning of NOx Adsorber (LNT) Materials  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Stafford, John Stang (retired), Alex Yezerets Cummins Inc. Hai-Ying Chen, Howard Hess Johnson Matthey Project ID: ace24peden 2 Project Overview Timeline Budget Partners Barriers...

90

Mechanisms of Sulfur Poisoning of NOx Adsorber (LNT) Materials  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Stafford, Junhui Li, John Stang, Alex Yezerets Cummins Inc. Hai-Ying Chen, Howard Hess Johnson Matthey 2 The project is a CRADA between PNNL and Cummins Inc. It involves a...

91

Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalytic reduction process is described for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(FO[sub 2])[sub 1[minus]n](RO)[sub n

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Liu, W.

1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

92

Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 27792787 First detection of nitrogen from NOx in tree rings: a 15  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

abies; Air pollution; Dendroecology; Nitrogen deposition; Stable isotopes; Nitrogen dioxide 1Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 2779­2787 First detection of nitrogen from NOx in tree rings 2004; accepted 27 February 2004 Abstract Nitrogen isotope analysis (d15 N) of tree rings is potentially

93

Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Liquid Sulfur Dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mauro C. C. Ribeiro * ... Ribeiro, Mauro C. C. ... Marcelo J. Monteiro, Ro?mulo A. Ando, Leonardo J. A. Siqueira, Fernanda F. Camilo, Paulo S. Santos, Mauro C. C. Ribeiro, and Roberto M. Torresi ...

Mauro C. C. Ribeiro

2006-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

94

Intertemporal pricing of sulfur dioxide allowances  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 initiated the first large-scale use of the tradable permit approach to pollution control. The theoretical case for this approach rests on the assumption of an efficient market for ...

Bailey, Elizabeth M.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

Moore, Robert (Edgewood, NM); Pickard, Paul S. (Albuquerque, NM); Parma, Jr., Edward J. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, Milton E. (Albuquerque, NM); Gelbard, Fred (Albuquerque, NM); Lenard, Roger X. (Edgewood, NM)

2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

96

Sulfide catalysts for reducing SO2 to elemental sulfur  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A highly efficient sulfide catalyst for reducing sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur, which maximizes the selectivity of elemental sulfur over byproducts and has a high conversion efficiency. Various feed stream contaminants, such as water vapor are well tolerated. Additionally, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or hydrogen sulfides can be employed as the reducing gases while maintaining high conversion efficiency. This allows a much wider range of uses and higher level of feed stream contaminants than prior art catalysts.

Jin, Yun (Peking, CN); Yu, Qiquan (Peking, CN); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Transient Dynamometer Testing of a Single Leg NOx Adsorber Combined...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Transient Dynamometer Testing of a Single Leg NOx Adsorber Combined with a Fuel Processor for Enhanced NOx Control Transient Dynamometer Testing of a Single Leg NOx Adsorber...

98

Benchmark Reaction Mechanisms and Kinetics for Lean NOx Traps...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Benchmark Reaction Mechanisms and Kinetics for Lean NOx Traps Development of Chemical Kinetic Models for Lean NOx Traps Modeling the Regeneration Chemistry of Lean NOx Traps...

99

Bisphosphine dioxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

Moloy, K.G.

1990-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

100

Performance and cost models for the direct sulfur recovery process. Task 1 Topical report, Volume 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to develop performance and cost models of the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). The DSRP is an emerging technology for sulfur recovery from advanced power generation technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. In IGCC systems, sulfur present in the coal is captured by gas cleanup technologies to avoid creating emissions of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere. The sulfur that is separated from the coal gas stream must be collected. Leading options for dealing with the sulfur include byproduct recovery as either sulfur or sulfuric acid. Sulfur is a preferred byproduct, because it is easier to handle and therefore does not depend as strongly upon the location of potential customers as is the case for sulfuric acid. This report describes the need for new sulfur recovery technologies.

Frey, H.C. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Williams, R.B. [Carneigie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

RECENT ADVANCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In the HyS Process, sulfur dioxide is oxidized in the presence of water at the electrolyzer anode to produce sulfuric acid and protons. The protons are transported through a cation-exchange membrane electrolyte to the cathode and are reduced to form hydrogen. In the second stage of the process, the sulfuric acid by-product from the electrolyzer is thermally decomposed at high temperature to produce sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The two gases are separated and the sulfur dioxide recycled to the electrolyzer for oxidation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been exploring a fuel-cell design concept for the SDE using an anolyte feed comprised of concentrated sulfuric acid saturated with sulfur dioxide. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint compared to a parallel-plate electrolyzer design. This paper will provide a summary of recent advances in the development of the SDE for the HyS process.

Hobbs, D.

2010-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

102

Control of NOx by combustion process modifications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A theoretical and experimental study was carried out to determine lower bounds of NOx emission from staged combustion of a 0.7%N #6 fuel oil. Thermodynamic and chemical kinetic calculations have shown minimum NOx emissions ...

Ber?, J. M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Implications of Near-Term Coal Power Plant Retirement for SO2 and NOX and Life Cycle GHG Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Implications of Near-Term Coal Power Plant Retirement for SO2 and NOX and Life Cycle GHG Emissions ... Life cycle GHG emissions were found to decrease by less than 4% in almost all scenarios modeled. ... Resulting changes in fuel use, life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides are estimated. ...

Aranya Venkatesh; Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

2012-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

104

N-nitrosamine and N-nitramine Formation from NOx Reactions with Amines during Amine-Based CO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Capture for Post-combustion Carbon Sequestration Background! Generation of electricity and heat from power- combustion carbon sequestration, the capture and underground storage of CO2 from the exhaust gases of power formation from NOx reactions with amines during amine-based carbon dioxide capture for postcombustion carbon

Mitch, William A.

105

COMPONENT DEVELOPMENT NEEDS FOR THE HYBRID SULFUR ELECTROLYZER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fiscal year 2008 studies in electrolyzer component development have focused on the characterization of membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) after performance tests in the single cell electrolyzer, evaluation of electrocatalysts and membranes using a small scale electrolyzer and evaluating the contribution of individual cell components to the overall electrochemical performance. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies of samples taken from MEAs testing in the SRNL single cell electrolyzer test station indicates a sulfur-rich layer forms between the cathode catalyst layer and the membrane. Based on a review of operating conditions for each of the MEAs evaluated, we conclude that the formation of the layer results from the reduction of sulfur dioxide as it passes through the MEA and reaches the catalyst layer at the cathode-membrane interface. Formation of the sulfur rich layer results in partial delamination of the cathode catalyst layer leading to diminished performance. Furthermore we believe that operating the electrolyzer at elevated pressure significantly increases the rate of formation due to increased adsorption of hydrogen on the internal catalyst surface. Thus, identification of a membrane that exhibits much lower transport of sulfur dioxide is needed to reduce the quantity of sulfur dioxide that reaches the cathode catalyst and is reduced to produce the sulfur-rich layer. Three candidate membranes are currently being evaluated that have shown promise from preliminary studies, (1) modified Nafion{reg_sign}, (2) polybenzimidazole (PBI), and (3) sulfonated Diels Alder polyphenylene (SDAPP). Testing examined the activity for the sulfur dioxide oxidation of platinum (Pt) and platinum-alloy catalysts in 30 wt% sulfuric acid solution. Linear sweep voltammetry showed an increase in activity when catalysts in which Pt is alloyed with non-noble transition metals such as cobalt and chromium. However when Pt is alloyed with noble metals, such as iridium or ruthenium, the kinetic activity decreases. We recommend further testing to determine if these binary alloys will provide the increased reaction kinetic needed to meet the targets. We also plan to test the performance of these catalyst materials for both proton and sulfur dioxide reduction. The latter may provide another parameter by which we can control the reduction of sulfur dioxide upon transport to the cathode catalyst surface. A small scale electrolyzer (2 cm{sup 2}) has been fabricated and successfully installed as an additional tool to evaluate the effect of different operating conditions on electrolyzer and MEA performance. Currently this electrolyzer is limited to testing at temperatures up to 80 C and at atmospheric pressure. Selected electrochemical performance data from the single cell sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer were analyzed with the aid of an empirical equation which takes into account the overpotential of each of the components. By using the empirical equation, the performance data was broken down into its components and a comparison of the potential losses was made. The results indicated that for the testing conditions of 80 C and 30 wt% sulfuric acid, the major overpotential contribution ({approx}70 % of all losses) arise from the slow reaction rate of oxidation of sulfur dioxide. The results indicate that in order to meet the target of hydrogen production at 0.5 A/cm{sup 2} at 0.6 V and 50 wt% sulfuric acid, identification of a better catalyst for sulfur dioxide oxidation will provide the largest gain in electrolyzer performance.

Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H; Mark Elvington, M

2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

106

Utilization of computational fluid dynamics technique in low NOx burner/furnace retrofits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique has been utilized to provide design guidance for retrofitting low NOx combustion systems and incorporating associated furnace modifications into existing utility boilers. The CFD program utilized is FW-FIRES (Fossil fuel, Water-walled Furnace Integrated Reaction and Emission Simulation) which simulates furnace combustion, heat transfer and pollutant formation based on fundamental principals of mass, momentum and energy conservations. The program models the gas flow field as a three-dimensional turbulent reacting continuum and the particle flow as a series of discrete particle trajectories through the gas continuum. Chemical reaction, heat transfer, and pollutant formation mechanisms are incorporated in the program. FW-FIRES furnace simulation of low NOx combustion system retrofits has been performed for various furnace configurations including front wall-fired, front and real wall-fired, and tangentially-fired furnaces, to determine the effects of burner/furnace modifications on the NOx emission, furnace exit gas temperature, furnace heat absorption, unburned carbon, and furnace wall corrosion. For front wall-fired, and front and real wall-fired furnaces, the NOx emission requirement is met by the use of Foster Wheeler lox NOx burners and overfire air (OFA) staging. Studies of burner and OFA quantify and spacing are conducted to limit NOx emission and unburned carbon to acceptable levels. A major concern in once-through supercritical units with OFA is furnace wall corrosion which is caused by high furnace wall metal temperature and corrosive hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) created in a reducing atmosphere from part of coal sulfur. The FW-FIRES code is used to minimize this corrosion potential by selecting the proper location and quantity of boundary air. A simulation of tangentially-fired unit, which has been retrofitted with low NOx burners, is used to study the effect of the burner tilt on the furnace exit gas temperature. This paper details the basis and results of several CFD analyses conducted for potential retrofit programs.

Cho, S.M.; Seltzer, A.H.; Ma, J.; Steitz, T.H.; Grusha, J.; Cole, R.W.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Sulfur meter for blending coal at Plant Monroe: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An on-line sulfur analyzer, installed at the Detroit Edison, Monroe Power station, was placed into service and evaluated for coal blending optimization to minimize the cost of complying with changing stack gas sulfur dioxide regulations. The project involved debugging the system which consisted of an /open quotes/as-fired/close quotes/ sampler and nuclear source sulfur analyzer. The system was initially plagued with mechanical and electronic problems ranging from coal flow pluggages to calibration drifts in the analyzer. Considerable efforts were successfully made to make the system reliable and accurate. On-line testing showed a major improvement in control of sulfur dioxide emission rates and fuel blending optimization equivalent to as much as $6 million in fuel costs at the time of the evaluation. 7 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

Trentacosta, S.D.; Yurko, J.O.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Ultra Low-NOx  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ultra Low NOx Integrated System Ultra Low NOx Integrated System TFS 2000(tm) Low NOx Firing System Project Summary: ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important,

109

METHOD TO PREVENT SULFUR ACCUMULATION INSIDE MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HyS is conceptually the simplest of the thermochemical cycles and involves only sulfur chemistry. In the HyS Cycle hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) is produced at the cathode of the electrochemical cell (or electrolyzer). Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) is oxidized at the anode to form sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and protons (H{sup +}) as illustrated below. A separate high temperature reaction decomposes the sulfuric acid to water and sulfur dioxide which are recycled to the electrolyzers, and oxygen which is separated out as a secondary product. The electrolyzer includes a membrane that will allow hydrogen ions to pass through but block the flow of hydrogen gas. The membrane is also intended to prevent other chemical species from migrating between electrodes and undergoing undesired reactions that could poison the cathode or reduce overall process efficiency. In conventional water electrolysis, water is oxidized at the anode to produce protons and oxygen. The standard cell potential for conventional water electrolysis is 1.23 volts at 25 C. However, commercial electrolyzers typically require higher voltages ranging from 1.8 V to 2.6 V [Kirk-Othmer, 1991]. The oxidation of sulfur dioxide instead of water in the HyS electrolyzer occurs at a much lower potential. For example, the standard cell potential for sulfur dioxide oxidation at 25 C in 50 wt % sulfuric acid is 0.29 V [Westinghouse, 1980]. Since power consumption by the electrolyzers is equal to voltage times current, and current is proportional to hydrogen production, a large reduction in voltage results in a large reduction in electrical power cost per unit of hydrogen generated.

Steimke, J.; Steeper, T.; Herman, D.; Colon-Mercado, H.; Elvington, M.

2009-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

110

CLEERS Activities: Diesel Soot Filter Characterization & NOx...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Control Fundamentals CLEERS Activities: Diesel Soot Filter Characterization & NOx Control Fundamentals 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit...

111

Fe Promoted NOx Storage Materials: Structural Properties and NOx Uptake  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

According to the European Union regulations (EURO VI),(2) by the end of 2014, diesel passenger cars will be subject to a 3-fold decrease in NOx emissions from 0.25 to 0.08 g km?1. ... Barium oxide crystallizes in the rock salt structure, and the first order Raman scattering is symmetry forbidden(32, 33) However, broad and weak bands within 350?500 cm?1 due to the lattice modes of the defective BaO domains can still be visible via Raman spectroscopy (see for instance, Figure 3 in the Supporting Information). ...

Emine Kayhan; Stanislava M. Andonova; Go?ksu S. S?entu?rk; Charles C. Chusuei; Emrah Ozensoy

2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

112

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - NOx Combustion  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Control Options and Integration Control Options and Integration Reaction Engineering International (REI) is optimizing the performance of, and reduce the technical risks associated with the combined application of low-NOx firing systems (LNFS) and post combustion controls through modeling, bench-scale testing, and field verification. Teaming with REI are the University of Utah and Brown University. During this two-year effort, REI will assess real-time monitoring equipment to evaluate waterwall wastage, soot formation, and burner stoichiometry, demonstrate analysis techniques to improve LNFS in combination with reburning/SNCR, assess selective catalytic reduction catalyst life, and develop UBC/fly ash separation processes. The REI program will be applicable to coal-fired boilers currently in use in the United States, including corner-, wall-, turbo-, and cyclone-fired units. However, the primary target of the research will be cyclone boilers, which are high NOx producing units and represent about 20% of the U.S. generating capacity. The results will also be applicable to all U.S. coals. The research will be divided into four key components:

113

Transmural Catalysis - High Efficiency Catalyst Systems for NOx...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Transmural Catalysis - High Efficiency Catalyst Systems for NOx Adsorbers and SCR Transmural Catalysis - High Efficiency Catalyst Systems for NOx Adsorbers and SCR Presentation...

114

SCR Technologies for NOx Reduction | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Technologies for NOx Reduction SCR Technologies for NOx Reduction 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005deerhesser.pdf More...

115

An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

& Publications Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System New Diesel Emissions...

116

Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System EPA Mobile Source Rule Update...

117

Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Numerically evaluated and optimized proposed...

118

Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and...

119

Effect of Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions Effect of Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007)....

120

H2-Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

H2-Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations H2-Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: ArvinMeritor...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

122

Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies A virtual O2 sensor for...

123

Modeling the Regeneration Chemistry of Lean NOx Traps | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

the Regeneration Chemistry of Lean NOx Traps Modeling the Regeneration Chemistry of Lean NOx Traps Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored...

124

Electrochemical NOxSensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Diesel Emissions Electrochemical NOxSensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions pm02glass.pdf More Documents & Publications Electrochemical NOx Sensor for Monitoring Diesel...

125

Offshore Sulfur Comes In  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Offshore Sulfur Comes In ... "The deposit is a major new source of sulfur," say Hines H. Baker, president of Humble Oil, and Langbourne M. Williams, president of Freeport Sulphur. ... Humble's deposit, known as Grand Isle (Block 18), was discovered in the course of offshore oil exploration and it ranks among the most important sulfur discoveries of recent years. ...

1956-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

A Fundamental Consideration on NOx Adsorber Technology for DI Diesel Application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diesel engines are far more efficient than gasoline engines of comparable size, and emit less greenhouse gases that have been implicated in global warming. In 2000, the US EPA proposed very stringent emissions standards to be introduced in 2007 along with low sulfur (< 15 ppm) diesel fuel. The California Air Resource Board (CARB) has also established the principle that future diesel fueled vehicles should meet the same low emissions standards as gasoline fueled vehicles and the EPA followed suit with its Tier II emissions regulation. Achieving such low emissions cannot be done through engine development and fuel reformulation alone, and requires application of NOx and particulate matter (PM) aftertreatment control devices. There is a widespread consensus that NOx adsorbers and particulate filter are required in order for diesel engines to meet the 2007 emissions regulations for NOx and PM. In this paper, the key exhaust characteristics from an advanced diesel engine are reviewed. Development of the NOx adsorber technology is discussed. Spectroscopic techniques are applied to understand the underlying chemical reactions over the catalyst surface during NOx trapping and regeneration periods. In-situ surface probes are useful in providing not only thermodynamic and kinetics information required for model development but also a fundamental understanding of storage capacity and degradation mechanisms. The distribution of various nitration/sulfation species is related to surface basicity. Surface displacement reactions of carbonates also play roles in affecting the trapping capability of NOx adsorbers. When ultralow-S fuel is used as a reductant during the regeneration, sulfur induced performance degradation is still observed in an aged catalyst. Other possible sources related to catalyst deactivation include incomplete reduction of surface nitration, coke formation derived from incomplete hydrocarbon burning, and lubricant formulations. Sulfur management and the direction of future work for the successful implementation of such integrated engine and aftertreatment technology are discussed. SAE Paper SAE-2002-01-2889 {copyright} 2002 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.

Fang, Howard L.; Huang, Shyan C.; Yu, Robert C. (Cummins, Inc.); Wan, C. Z. (Engelhard Corp.); Howden, Ken (U.S. Dept. of Energy)

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

IEP - Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Regulatory Drivers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

IEP - Advanced NOx Emissions Control Regulatory Drivers Regulatory Drivers for Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants Regulatory and legislative requirements have predominantly driven the need to develop NOx control technologies for existing coal-fired power plants. The first driver was the Title IV acid rain program, established through the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). This program included a two-phase strategy to reduce NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants – Phase I started January 1, 1996 and Phase II started January 1, 2000. The Title IV NOx program was implemented through unit-specific NOx emission rate limits ranging from 0.40 to 0.86 lb/MMBtu depending on the type of boiler/burner configuration and based on application of LNB technology.

128

Low NOx combustion system for heavy oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a result of the increasing demand for white oil as one of countermeasures for pollution control and as a fuel for motor vehicle, coupled with the increasing import of heavy crude oil, heavy oils such as asphalt and distillation residue have become surplus in Japan. It is difficult by the conventional low NOx technology to control the NOx emission from the industrial small and medium capacity boilers, which use heavy oil as their fuels. The authors have been developing and improving NOx control technologies for boilers such as low NOx burners, two-stage combustion methods and so on. They have developed a new combustion system for heavy oil, which generates less NOx and soot than conventional systems, by applying the knowledge, obtained in the course of their development of Coal Partial Combustor (CPC). The conventional low NOx combustion method for oil firing boilers has been developed based on decreasing the flame temperature and delaying the combustion reaction. In the system, however, the heavy oil shall be combusted in the intense reducing atmosphere at the high flame temperature between 1,500 C and 1,600 C, and then the combustions gas shall be cooled and oxidized by two-stage combustion air. With this system, NOx emission can be suppressed below 100ppm (converted as O{sub 2}=4%).

Kurata, Chikatoshi; Sasaki, Hideki

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Data Report No. 2: NO{sub x} Adsorber Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim report discusses the results of the DECSE test program that demonstrates the potential of NOx adsorber catalyst technology across the range of diesel engine operation with a fuel economy penalty less than 4%.

DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

1999-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

130

NETL Report format template  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NGCC Natural gas combined cycle NOx Oxides of nitrogen PC Sub Pulverized coal subcritical PC Sup Pulverized coal supercritical PM Particulate matter SO 2 Sulfur dioxide...

131

Ammonia-Free NOx Control System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DEFC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia. This report describes the work performed during the January 1 to March 31, 2004 time period.

S. Wu; Z. Fan; R. Herman

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

132

Ammonia-Free NOx Control System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DEFC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia. This report describes the work performed during the October 1 to December 31, 2003 time period.

S. Wu

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

133

A Return Stroke NOx Production Model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A model is introduced for estimating the nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) production from a lightning return stroke channel. A realistic Modified Transmission Line Model return stroke current is assumed to propagate vertically upward along a ...

William J. Koshak; Richard J. Solakiewicz; Harold S. Peterson

134

Electrochemical NOx Sensors for Monitoring Diesel Emissions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A unique electrochemical sensing strategy correlating the level of NOx with an impedance-based signal shows promise for sensitivity, stability, and accuracy while incorporating single-cell structures and simple electronics into low-cost designs

135

Direct determination of organic and inorganic sulfur in coal by controlled oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project is to develop an analytical method to directly measure the forms of organic sulfur in coal. The method will provide a route to monitor the effectiveness of coal preparation research directed toward removal of organic sulfur in coal. The approach involves subjecting diluted coal samples simultaneously to an oxygen flow and a linear increase in temperature. Distinctive sulfur dioxide evolution patterns are observed among coals of different rank and between raw and treated coals. Assignments have been made relating each specific sulfur dioxide evolution to the non-aromatic organic, aromatic organic, and inorganic sulfur present in coals and treated coals. Work is progressing on schedule to optimize experimental conditions and to improve the efficiency of the controlled-atmosphere programmed-temperature oxidation (CAPTO) method by developing a multiple sample instrumental system.

LaCount, R.B.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Direct determination of organic and inorganic sulfur in coal by controlled oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project is to develop an analytical method to directly measure the forms of organic sulfur in coal. The method will provide a route to monitor the effectiveness of coal preparation research directed toward removal of organic sulfur in coal. The approach involves subjecting diluted coal samples simultaneously to an oxygen flow and a linear increase in temperature. Distinctive sulfur dioxide evolution patterns are observed among coals of different rank and between raw and treated coals. Assignments have been made relating each specific sulfur dioxide evolution to the non-aromatic organic, aromatic organic, and inorganic sulfur present in coals and treated coals. Work is progressing on schedule to optimize experimental conditions and to improve the efficiency of the controlled-atmosphere programmed-temperature oxidation (CAPTO) method by developing a multiple sample instrumental system.

LaCount, R.B.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

137

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries > Research...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electrode Channel Flow DEMS Cell Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells Epitaxial Single...

139

Sulfur-Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Cathodes for Lithium/Sulfur...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Sulfur-Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Cathodes for LithiumSulfur Cells Lawrence Berkeley National...

140

Chapter 11 - Sulfur Recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Sulfur is present in many raw industrial gases and in natural gas in the form of hydrogen sulfide. Sulfur removal facilities are located at the majority of oil and gas processing facilities throughout the world. The sulfur recovery unit does not make a profit for the operator but it is an essential processing step to allow the overall facility to operate, as the discharge of sulfur compounds to the atmosphere is severely restricted by environmental regulations. Concentration levels of H2S vary significantly depending upon their source. H2S produced from absorption processes, such as amine treating of natural gas or refinery gas, can contain 50–75% H2S by volume or higher. This chapter provides information about fundamentals of sulfur removal facilities in the natural gas industry.

Alireza Bahadori

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Oxyfuel CO2 compression: The gas phase reaction of elemental mercury and \\{NOx\\} at high pressure and absorption into nitric acid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Oxyfuel combustion is a technology which combusts coal in oxygen and recycled flue gas, producing a carbon dioxide rich flue gas for sequestration. Oxyfuel flue gas contains trace amounts of elemental mercury, which may corrode brazed aluminium heat exchangers used in the carbon dioxide purification system. International gas vendors have tested the use of the compression system to remove other flue gas impurities such as NOx; however, the reaction mechanism of mercury and its reaction products with \\{NOx\\} and nitric acid formed with condensed water vapour are unclear. This study used lab scale experiments to study the absorption of gaseous elemental mercury into nitric acid and the gas phase reaction between mercury and nitrogen dioxide formed from oxidised NO at pressures up to 25 bar. It was observed that mercury has limited absorption into nitric acid and may partially desorb out of solution after depressurisation. On the other hand, mercury reacted readily with nitrogen dioxide (formed from nitric oxide oxidation at high pressure) in the gas phase. These gas phase reactions from the oxidation of nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide to the subsequent oxidation of elemental mercury by nitrogen dioxide were predicted using existing global kinetic equations. The limited absorption of gaseous elemental mercury in nitric acid and significant oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury by nitrogen dioxide suggests that the primary removal step for elemental mercury is through the gas phase reaction. Oxyfuel compression circuits should therefore allow sufficient residence time for this gas phase reaction to occur.

Timothy Ting; Rohan Stanger; Terry Wall

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Bacterial Sulfur Storage Globules  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

by I. J. Pickering and G. N. George by I. J. Pickering and G. N. George Sulfur is essential for all life, but it plays a particularly central role in the metabolism of many anaerobic microorganisms. Prominent among these are the sulfide-oxidizing bacteria that oxidize sulfide (S2-) to sulfate (SO42-). Many of these organisms can store elemental sulfur (S0) in "globules" for use when food is in short supply (Fig. 1). The chemical nature of the sulfur in these globules has been an enigma since they were first described as far back as 1887 (1); all known forms (or allotropes) of elemental sulfur are solid at room temperature, but globule sulfur has been described as "liquid", and it apparently has a low density – 1.3 compared to 2.1 for the common yellow allotrope a-sulfur. Various exotic forms of sulfur have been proposed to explain these properties, including micelles (small bubble-like structures) formed from long-chain polythionates, but all of these deductions have been based upon indirect evidence (for example the density was estimated by flotation of intact cells), and many questions remained.

143

Ammonia Sensor for SCR NOX Reduction | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Sensor for SCR NOX Reduction Ammonia Sensor for SCR NOX Reduction Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August,...

144

Lean NOx Reduction with Dual Layer LNT/SCR Catalysts  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Results show that a series of dual layer catalysts with a bottom layer of LNT catalyst and a top layer of SCR catalyst can carry out coupled ammonia generation and NOx reduction, achieving high NOx conversion with minimal ammonia slip

145

Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic evaluation and commercial application. During the project performance period, Alstom performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and large pilot scale combustion testing in its Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut in support of these objectives. The NOx reduction approach was to optimize near-field combustion to ensure that minimum NOx emissions are achieved with minimal impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down. Several iterations of CFD and combustion testing on a Midwest coal led to an optimized design, which was extensively combustion tested on a range of coals. The data from these tests were then used to validate system costs and benefits versus SCR. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive subbituminous coal to a moderately reactive Western bituminous coal to a much less reactive Midwest bituminous coal. Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis. Bench-scale characterization of the three test coals showed that both NOx emissions and combustion performance are a strong function of coal properties. The more reactive coals evolved more of their fuel bound nitrogen in the substoichiometric main burner zone than less reactive coal, resulting in the potential for lower NOx emissions. From a combustion point of view, the more reactive coals also showed lower carbon in ash and CO values than the less reactive coal at any given main burner zone stoichiometry. According to bench-scale results, the subbituminous coal was found to be the most amenable to both low NOx, and acceptably low combustibles in the flue gas, in an air staged low NOx system. The Midwest bituminous coal, by contrast, was predicted to be the most challenging of the three coals, with the Western bituminous coal predicted to beh

David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

146

Experimental investigation of the thermal and diluent effects of EGR components on combustion and \\{NOx\\} emissions of a turbocharged natural gas SI engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is one of effective measures used in natural gas (NG) engines to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. Each component of EGR gases can exert different effects on NG combustion and \\{NOx\\} formation rates, such as thermal effect, diluent effect, and chemical effect. In this study, the thermal and diluent effects of the main components of EGR gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen (N2), were experimentally investigated. The experiments were arranged based on an electronically controlled heavy-duty natural gas spark-ignition (SI) engine with multi-point injection and 6-cylinder. In order to define the diluent effect of EGR components, argon (Ar) was introduced to the test, for its low and unchangeable specific heat capacity under different temperatures. The results showed that the contribution of the diluent effect on \\{NOx\\} reductions was 50–60% and 41–53% for N2 and CO2 respectively, and the relevant contribution of the thermal effect was 40–50% and 47–59% respectively. CO2 had greater effects on NG combustion and \\{NOx\\} formation rates than N2 at the same dilution ratio. Increasing Ar improved the thermal efficiency due to the higher specific heat ratio provided. Meanwhile, \\{NOx\\} emissions were found to be decreased with increasing DR as a result of the diluent effect of Ar on combustion and \\{NOx\\} formations.

Weifeng Li; Zhongchang Liu; Zhongshu Wang; Yun Xu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Methane de-NOx  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

METHANE de-NOx® METHANE de-NOx® The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is teaming with the All-Russian Thermal Engineering Institute and DB Riley to develop a pulverized-coal (PC)-combustion system that is an extension of IGT's METHANE de-NOx® technology. The technology is composed of a novel PC burner design using natural gas fired coal preheating developed and demonstrated in Russia, LNBs with internal combustion staging, and additional natural gas injection with overfire air. The coal is preheated at elevated temperatures (up to 1500oF) in oxygen deficient conditions prior to combustion. Coal preheat releases fuel-bound nitrogen together with volatiles present in the coal. These conditions promote the conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to molecular nitrogen rather than to NOx.

148

Development of the Hybrid Sulfur Thermochemical Cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The production of hydrogen via the thermochemical splitting of water is being considered as a primary means for utilizing the heat from advanced nuclear reactors to provide fuel for a hydrogen economy. The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process is one of the baseline candidates identified by the U.S. Department of Energy [1] for this purpose. The HyS Process is a two-step hybrid thermochemical cycle that only involves sulfur, oxygen and hydrogen compounds. Recent work has resulted in an improved process design with a calculated overall thermal efficiency (nuclear heat to hydrogen, higher heating value basis) approaching 50%. Economic analyses indicate that a nuclear hydrogen plant employing the HyS Process in conjunction with an advanced gas-cooled nuclear reactor system can produce hydrogen at competitive prices. Experimental work has begun on the sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer, the major developmental component in the cycle. Proof-of-concept tests have established proton-exchange-membrane cells (a state-of-the-art technology) as a viable approach for conducting this reaction. This is expected to lead to more efficient and economical cell designs than were previously available. Considerable development and scale-up issues remain to be resolved, but the development of a viable commercial-scale HyS Process should be feasible in time to meet the commercialization schedule for Generation IV gas-cooled nuclear reactors.

Summers, William A.; Steimke, John L

2005-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

149

FY08 MEMBRANE CHARACTERIZATION REPORT FOR HYBRID SULFUR ELECTROLYZER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes results from all of the membrane testing completed to date at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for the sulfur dioxide-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). Several types of commercially-available membranes have been analyzed for ionic resistance and sulfur dioxide transport including perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA), sulfonated polyether-ketone-ketone (SPEKK), and polybenzimidazole membranes (PBI). Of these membrane types, the poly-benzimidazole membrane, Celtec-L, exhibited the best combination of characteristics for use in an SDE. Several experimental membranes have also been analyzed including hydrated sulfonated Diels-Alder polyphenylenes (SDAPP) membranes from Sandia National Laboratory, perfluorosulfonimide (PFSI) and sulfonated perfluorocyclobutyl aromatic ether (S-PFCB) prepared by Clemson University, hydrated platinum-treated PFSA prepared by Giner Electrochemical Systems (GES) and Pt-Nafion{reg_sign} 115 composites prepared at SRNL. The chemical stability, SO{sub 2} transport and ionic conductivity characteristics have been measured for several commercially available and experimental proton-conducting membranes. Commercially available PFSA membranes such as the Nafion{reg_sign} series exhibited excellent chemical stability and ionic conductivity in sulfur dioxide saturated sulfuric acid solutions. Sulfur dioxide transport in the Nafion{reg_sign} membranes varied proportionally with the thickness and equivalent weight of the membrane. Although the SO{sub 2} transport in the Nafion{reg_sign} membranes is higher than desired, the excellent chemical stability and conductivity makes this membrane the best commercially-available membrane at this time. Initial results indicated that a modified Nafion{reg_sign} membrane incorporating Pt nanoparticles exhibited significantly reduced SO{sub 2} transport. Reduced SO{sub 2} transport was also measured with commercially available PBI membrane and several experimental membranes produced at SNL and Clemson. These membranes also exhibit good chemical stability and conductivity in concentrated sulfuric acid solutions and, thus, serve as promising candidates for the SDE. Therefore, we recommend further testing of these membranes including electrolyzer testing to determine if the reduced SO{sub 2} transport eliminates the formation of sulfur-containing films at the membrane/cathode interface. SO{sub 2} transport measurements in the custom built characterization cell identified experimental limitations of the original design. During the last quarter of FY08 we redesigned and fabricated a new testing cell to overcome the previous limitations. This cell also offers the capability to test membranes under polarized conditions as well as test the performance of MEAs under selected electrolyzer conditions.

Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H; Mark Elvington, M

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Effect of sulfur on heavy duty diesel engine lubricants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diesel engine exhaust legislation has become quite onerous for heavy duty engines. Yet, these high thermal efficiency engines continue to meet lower exhaust particulate and NOx emissions limits, due to new engine designs and the complementary engine oil performance requirements of the API service categories. In addition, the EPA has mandated changes in on-highway diesel fuel to help meet particulate emissions regulations. On October 1, 1993, when the EPA outlawed high sulfur fuels for on-highway use, the development of the API CG-4 engine oil performance specification was already in progress. All the new diesel engine tests in the category were therefore designed to run with low (< 0.05% wt.) sulfur fuel. In some engine tests, this new fuel improved some lubricant performance characteristics and degraded others. An engine oil specification for low sulfur fuel brings new challenges to developing future specifications for diesel engine oils. Both higher and lower lubricant additive treat rate products, high performance single grade oils, and formulations to meet world-wide specifications become viable. This paper discusses the results of a diesel engine oil technology that performs well with the new, low sulfur fuel in both engine tests and in the field.

Hayden, T.E. [Texaco Fuels and Lubricants Research Dept., Beacon, NY (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

China’s Functioning Market for Sulfur Dioxide Scrubbing Technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Department of Geography and Resource Management and Institute of Environment, Energy and Sustainability, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China ... (7, 8) The Roth criteria were proposed to fix broken markets or build new ones if they are missing, which could be especially useful for environmental protection as market failure is often the cause. ...

Yuan Xu

2011-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

152

Supplementary Material Sulfur Dioxide and Primary Carbonaceous Aerosol Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(-52%-62%) 14 (-52%-63%) Agricultural waste burning 54 (-86%-120%) 51 (-87%-115%) 52 (-85%-116%) 58 burning 12 (-51%-79%) 19 (-46%-65%) 10 (-52%-99%) 13 (-48%-84%) 12 (-46%-69%) Agricultural waste burning%-64%) 1756 (-37%-66%) 1912 (-38%-65%) Forest & savanna burning 14 (-55%-71%) 23 (-54%-71%) 10 (-56%-72%) 14

Meskhidze, Nicholas

153

Device and method for detecting sulfur dioxide at high temperatures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a method for selectively detecting and/or measuring gaseous SO.sub.2 at a temperature of at least 500.degree. C., the method involving: (i) providing a SO.sub.2-detecting device including an oxygen ion-conducting substrate having on its surface at least three electrodes comprising a first, second, and third electrode; (ii) driving a starting current of specified magnitude and temporal variation between the first and second electrodes; (iii) contacting the SO.sub.2-detecting device with the SO.sub.2-containing sample while maintaining the magnitude and any temporal variation of the starting current, wherein said SO.sub.2-containing sample causes a change in the electrical conductance of said device; and (iv) detecting the change in electrical conductance of the device based on measuring an electrical property related to or indicative of the conductance of the device between the first and third electrodes, or between the second and third electrodes, and detecting SO.sub.2 in the SO.sub.2-containing sample based on the measured change in electrical conductance.

West, David L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Montgomery, Frederick C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armstrong, Timothy R. (Clinton, TN)

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

A ACID RAIN Audrey Gibson  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- SO2 Emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) react in the atmosphere with water;Gas Natural Sources Concentration Carbon dioxide CO2 Decomposition 355 ppm Nitric oxide NO Electric discharge 0.01 ppm Sulfur dioxide SO2 Volcanic gases 0-0.01 ppm Table 1 Carbon dioxide, produced

Toohey, Darin W.

155

Nitrogen dioxide detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method and apparatus for detecting the presence of gaseous nitrogen dioxide and determining the amount of gas which is present. Though polystyrene is normally an insulator, it becomes electrically conductive in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. Conductance or resistance of a polystyrene sensing element is related to the concentration of nitrogen dioxide at the sensing element.

Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Agnew, Stephen F. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, William H. (Buena Park, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Freeport Begins Offshore Sulfur Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Freeport Begins Offshore Sulfur Plant ... Discovered by Humble Oil & Refining, the sulfur deposit off Grand Isle is believed by industry observers to be one of the largest discovered in recent years. ...

1958-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

157

SULFUR POLYMER ENCAPSULATION.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is a thermoplastic polymer consisting of 95 wt% elemental sulfur and 5 wt% organic modifiers to enhance long-term durability. SPC was originally developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as an alternative to hydraulic cement for construction applications. Previous attempts to use elemental sulfur as a construction material in the chemical industry failed due to premature degradation. These failures were caused by the internal stresses that result from changes in crystalline structure upon cooling of the material. By reacting elemental sulfur with organic polymers, the Bureau of Mines developed a product that successfully suppresses the solid phase transition and significantly improves the stability of the product. SPC, originally named modified sulfur cement, is produced from readily available, inexpensive waste sulfur derived from desulfurization of both flue gases and petroleum. The commercial production of SPC is licensed in the United States by Martin Resources (Odessa, Texas) and is marketed under the trade name Chement 2000. It is sold in granular form and is relatively inexpensive ({approx}$0.10 to 0.12/lb). Application of SPC for the treatment of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes was initially developed and patented by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the mid-1980s (Kalb and Colombo, 1985; Colombo et al., 1997). The process was subsequently investigated by the Commission of the European Communities (Van Dalen and Rijpkema, 1989), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (Darnell, 1991), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Mattus and Mattus, 1994). SPC has been used primarily in microencapsulation applications but can also be used for macroencapsulation of waste. SPC microencapsulation has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for a wide variety of wastes, including incinerator hearth and fly ash; aqueous concentrates such as sulfates, borates, and chlorides; blowdown solutions; soils; and sludges. It is not recommended for treatment of wastes containing high concentrations of nitrates because of potentially dangerous reactions between sulfur, nitrate, and trace quantities of organics. Recently, the process has been adapted for the treatment of liquid elemental mercury and mercury contaminated soil and debris.

KALB, P.

2001-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

158

HYBRID SULFUR ELECTROLYZER DEVELOPMENT FY09 SECOND QUARTER REPORT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of the DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) is to develop the nuclear hydrogen production technologies necessary to produce hydrogen at a cost competitive with other alternative transportation fuels. The focus of the NHI is on thermochemical cycles and high temperature electrolysis that can be powered by heat from high temperature gas reactors. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been tasked with the primary responsibility to perform research and development in order to characterize, evaluate and develop the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) thermochemical process. This report documents work during the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2009, for the period between January 1, 2009 and March 31, 2009. The HyS Process is a two-step hybrid thermochemical cycle that is part of the 'Sulfur Family' of cycles. As a sulfur cycle, it uses high temperature thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid to produce oxygen and to regenerate the sulfur dioxide reactant. The second step of the process uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to split water and produce hydrogen by electrochemically reacting sulfur dioxide with H{sub 2}O. The SDE produces sulfuric acid, which is then sent to the acid decomposer to complete the cycle. The DOE NHI program is developing the acid decomposer at Sandia National Laboratory for application to both the HyS Process and the Sulfur Iodine Cycle. The SDE is being developed at SRNL. During FY05 and FY06, SRNL designed and conducted proof-of-concept testing for a SDE using a low temperature, PEM fuel cell-type design concept. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency, small footprint and potential for low capital cost, characteristics that are crucial for successful implementation on a commercial scale. During FY07, SRNL extended the range of testing of the SDE to higher temperature and pressure, conducted a 100-hour longevity test with a 60-cm{sup 2} single cell electrolyzer, and designed and built a larger, multi-cell stack electrolyzer. During FY08, SRNL continued SDE development, including development and successful testing of a three-cell electrolyzer stack with a rated capacity of 100 liters per hour. The HyS program for FY09 program will address improving SDE performance by focusing on preventing or minimizing sulfur deposition inside the cell caused by SO{sub 2} crossover, reduction of cell voltage for improved efficiency, an extension of cell operating lifetime. During FY09 a baseline technology development program is being conducted to address each of these issues. Button-cell (2-cm{sup 2}) and single cell (60-cm{sup 2}) SDEs will be fabricated and tested. A pressurized button-cell test facility will be designed and constructed to facilitate addition testing. The single cell test facility will be upgraded for unattended operation, and later for operation at higher temperature and pressure. Work will continue on development of the Gas Diffusion Electrode (GDE), or Gap Cell, as an alternative electrolyzer design approach that is being developed under subcontract with industry partner Giner Electrochemical Systems. If successful, it could provide an alternative means of preventing sulfur crossover through the proton exchange membrane, as well as the possibility for higher current density operation based on more rapid mass transfer in a gas-phase anode. Promising cell components will be assembled into membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) and tested in the single cell test facility. Upon modification for unattended operation, test will be conducted for 200 hours or more. Both the button-cell and modified single cell facility will be utilized to demonstrate electrolyzer operation without sulfur build-up limitations, which is a Level 1 Milestone.

Herman, D; David Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H; Timothy Steeper, T; John Steimke, J; Mark Elvington, M

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

159

Why sequence Alkaliphilic sulfur oxidizing bacteria for sulfur pollution  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Alkaliphilic sulfur oxidizing Alkaliphilic sulfur oxidizing bacteria for sulfur pollution remediation? Burning sulfur-containing fuels, such as coal, oil, and natural gas, contributes significantly to global environmental problems, such as air pollution and acid rain, besides contributing to the loss of the ozone layer. One method of managing sulfur compounds released as byproducts from industrial processes is to scrub them out using chemical treatments and activated charcoal beds. A lower-cost solution relies on incorporating alkaliphic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria into biofilters to convert the volatile and toxic compounds into insoluble sulfur for easier removal. Discovered in the last decade, these bacteria have been found to thrive in habitats that span the full pH range. The bacteria could have applications

160

Sulfur Dioxide Crossover during the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and must be resup- plied. For example, researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory SRNL have

Weidner, John W.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Lower Freezing DEF For Higher NOx Reduction Attainment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

NOx emissions data from bench-scale experiments and Class III truck operated using a low freezing point diesel exhaust fluid

162

Cummins/ORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

CumminsORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Cummins-ORNLFEERC Emissions CRADA:...

163

Unique Catalyst System for NOx Reduction in Diesel Exhaust |...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

More Documents & Publications Noxtechs PAC System Development and Demonstration Plasma Assisted Catalysis System for NOx Reduction Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement...

164

Two Catalyst Formulations - One Solution for NOx After-treatment...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Two Catalyst Formulations - One Solution for NOx After-treatment Systems Low-temperature SCR combined with standard high-temperature SCR catalyst formulation in one system provides...

165

Measurement and Characterization of Lean NOx Adsorber Regeneration...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

for the Department of Energy Purpose of Work: Enable efficient lean engine market penetration by meeting emission regulations with aftertreatment * Research of Lean NOx...

166

Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials 2013 DOE AMR Review This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted...

167

NOx Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation NOx Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation This report provides the results of an...

168

H2-Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Sam Crane August 28, 2003 H 2 -Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations 2 Project Objectives * Determine Advantages of H 2 Assisted NO x Trap Regeneration *...

169

Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

"Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. merit08johnson.pdf More Documents & Publications Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps...

170

Fuel Processor Enabled NOx Adsorber Aftertreatment System for...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

for Diesel Engine Emissions Control R. Dalla Betta, D. Sheridan, J. Cizeron Catalytica Energy Systems Inc. Mountain View, California 2 Outline Why use a fuel processor for NOx...

171

Status of APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Projects  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

* Examine other fuel properties 6 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Each platform will determine effects of fuel properties on: * NOx and PM reduction...

172

Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2009 - Poster Session August 3 rd , Hyatt Regency Dearborn Hotel Virtual Oxygen Sensor Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies J. Seebode, E. Stlting,...

173

Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Emission Control Catalysts Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic Catalysts...

174

Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic Catalysts Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean...

175

Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Numerically evaluated and optimized proposed state-of-the-art passive catalytic technology designed to reduce NOx released during vehicle cold start portion of the FTP-75 cycle

176

Rapid Aging Protocols for Diesel Aftertreatment Devices: NOx...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Aftertreatment (Agreement 13415) Thermal Deactivation Mechanisms of Fully-Formed Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Aged by LeanRich Cycling Impacts of Biodiesel on Emission Control Devices...

177

Viscosity of tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

NOx, SO{sub 3} in the spotlight at NETL's 2006 Environmental Controls conference  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As emissions caps drop, technological solutions must become increasingly effective and efficient. Researchers, equipment vendors, and plant operators are exploring alternatives to SCR and SNCR, with a view to reducing the overall costs of NOx reduction. They have also achieved 95% to 99% removal of SO{sub 3}, with no visible plume opacity. These topics were discussed at ECC 2006. The first conference session focussed on selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) control of nitrogen oxide emissions; the second session addressed the related issue of reducing stack emissions and flue gas concentrations of sulfur trioxide. The article summarises many papers presented. Summaries and/or full versions of all the papers mentioned, and others, are posted at www.netl.doe.gov/publications/proceedings/06/ecc/index.html. 2 figs.

Mann, A.N.; Makovsky, L.E.; Sarkus, T.A. [Technology and Management Services Inc. (United States)

2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

179

Transient Dynamometer Testing of a Single-Leg NOX Adsorber Combined...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Transient Dynamometer Testing of a Single-Leg NOX Adsorber Combined with a Fuel Processor for Enhanced NOx Control Transient Dynamometer Testing of a Single-Leg NOX Adsorber...

180

Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs.

182

High pressure sulfuric acid decomposition experiments for the sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of three pressurized sulfuric acid decomposition tests were performed to (1) obtain data on the fraction of sulfuric acid catalytically converted to sulfur dioxide, oxygen, and water as a function of temperature and pressure, (2) demonstrate real-time measurements of acid conversion for use as process control, (3) obtain multiple measurements of conversion as a function of temperature within a single experiment, and (4) assess rapid quenching to minimize corrosion of metallic components by undecomposed acid. All four of these objectives were successfully accomplished. This report documents the completion of the NHI milestone on high pressure H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decomposition tests for the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle project. All heated sections of the apparatus, (i.e. the boiler, decomposer, and condenser) were fabricated from Hastelloy C276. A ceramic acid injection tube and a ceramic-sheathed thermocouple were used to minimize corrosion of hot liquid acid on the boiler surfaces. Negligible fracturing of the platinum on zirconia catalyst was observed in the high temperature decomposer. Temperature measurements at the exit of the decomposer and at the entry of the condenser indicated that the hot acid vapors were rapidly quenched from about 400 C to less than 20 C within a 14 cm length of the flow path. Real-time gas flow rate measurements of the decomposition products provided a direct measurement of acid conversion. Pressure in the apparatus was preset by a pressure-relief valve that worked well at controlling the system pressure. However, these valves sometimes underwent abrupt transitions that resulted in rapidly varying gas flow rates with concomitant variations in the acid conversion fraction.

Velasquez, Carlos E; Reay, Andrew R.; Andazola, James C.; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Gelbard, Fred

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Flue Gas Purification Utilizing SOx/NOx Reactions During Compressin of CO2 Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Flue Gas Purification Flue Gas Purification Utilizing SO X /NO X Reactions During Compression of CO 2 Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion Background Oxy-combustion in a pulverized coal-fired power station produces a raw carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) product containing contaminants such as water vapor, oxygen, nitrogen, and argon from impurities in the oxygen used and any air leakage into the system. Acid gases are also produced as combustion products, such as sulfur oxides (SO

184

Method and system for capturing carbon dioxide and/or sulfur dioxide from gas stream  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a system for capturing CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2, comprising: (a) a CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2 absorber comprising an amine and/or amino acid salt capable of absorbing the CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2 to produce a CO.sub.2- and/or SO.sub.2-containing solution; (b) an amine regenerator to regenerate the amine and/or amino acid salt; and, when the system captures CO.sub.2, (c) an alkali metal carbonate regenerator comprising an ammonium catalyst capable catalyzing the aqueous alkali metal bicarbonate into the alkali metal carbonate and CO.sub.2 gas. The present invention also provides for a system for capturing SO.sub.2, comprising: (a) a SO.sub.2 absorber comprising aqueous alkali metal carbonate, wherein the alkali metal carbonate is capable of absorbing the SO.sub.2 to produce an alkali metal sulfite/sulfate precipitate and CO.sub.2.

Chang, Shih-Ger; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xinglei

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

185

Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions - Presentation...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions - Presentation by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), June 2011 Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions -...

186

Low-NOx Gas Turbine Injectors Utilizing Hydrogen-Rich Opportunity...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

NOx Gas Turbine Injectors Utilizing Hydrogen-Rich Opportunity Fuels - Fact Sheet, 2011 Low-NOx Gas Turbine Injectors Utilizing Hydrogen-Rich Opportunity Fuels - Fact Sheet, 2011...

187

It's Elemental - The Element Sulfur  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Phosphorus Phosphorus Previous Element (Phosphorus) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Chlorine) Chlorine The Element Sulfur [Click for Isotope Data] 16 S Sulfur 32.065 Atomic Number: 16 Atomic Weight: 32.065 Melting Point: 388.36 K (115.21°C or 239.38°F) Boiling Point: 717.75 K (444.60°C or 832.28°F) Density: 2.067 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 3 Group Number: 16 Group Name: Chalcogen What's in a name? From the Sanskrit word sulvere and the Latin word sulphurium. Say what? Sulfur is pronounced as SUL-fer. History and Uses: Sulfur, the tenth most abundant element in the universe, has been known since ancient times. Sometime around 1777, Antoine Lavoisier convinced the rest of the scientific community that sulfur was an element. Sulfur is a

188

Why sequence purple sulfur bacteria?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

purple sulfur bacteria? purple sulfur bacteria? The process by which plants and some bacteria can convert light energy to sugar, or photosynthesis, is crucial to global food webs, and complicated. Very little is known about the photosynthetic bacteria in the purple sulfur bacteria group, which may represent one of the most primitive photosynthetic organisms and are capable of carbon fixation and sequestration in both light and dark conditions with the help of sulfur compounds. Purple sulfur bacteria are autotrophic and can synthesize organic compounds from inorganic sources. Researchers hope to learn more by sequencing nine type strains of purple sulfur bacteria that are found in freshwater, brackish and marine systems. The information would lead to a better understanding of the process of photosynthesis as well as the global

189

Ultra-Low NOx Advanced Vortex Combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An ultra lean-premixed Advanced Vortex Combustor (AVC) has been developed and tested. The natural gas fueled AVC was tested at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE NETL) test facility in Morgantown (WV). All testing was performed at elevated pressures and inlet temperatures and at lean fuel-air ratios representative of industrial gas turbines. The improved AVC design exhibited simultaneous NOx/CO/UHC emissions of 4/4/0 ppmv (all emissions are at 15% O2 dry). The design also achieved less than 3 ppmv NOx with combustion efficiencies in excess of 99.5%. The design demonstrated tremendous acoustic dynamic stability over a wide range of operating conditions which potentially makes this approach significantly more attractive than other lean premixed combustion approaches. In addition, a pressure drop of 1.75% was measured which is significantly lower than conventional gas turbine combustors. Potentially, this lower pressure drop characteristic of the AVC concept translates into overall gas turbine cycle efficiency improvements of up to one full percentage point. The relatively high velocities and low pressure drops achievable with this technology make the AVC approach an attractive alternative for syngas fuel applications.

Edmonds, R.G. (Ramgen Power Systems, Inc., Bellevue, WA); Steele, R.C. (Ramgen Power Systems, Inc., Bellevue, WA); Williams, J.T. (Ramgen Power Systems, Inc., Bellevue, WA); Straub, D.L.; Casleton, K.H.; Bining, Avtar (California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA)

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

ULTRA-LOW NOX ADVANCED VORTEX COMBUSTOR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An ultra lean-premixed Advanced Vortex Combustor (AVC) has been developed and tested. The natural gas fueled AVC was tested at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE NETL) test facility in Morgantown (WV). All testing was performed at elevated pressures and inlet temperatures and at lean fuel-air ratios representative of industrial gas turbines. The improved AVC design exhibited simultaneous NOx/CO/UHC emissions of 4/4/0 ppmv (all emissions are at 15% O2 dry). The design also achieved less than 3 ppmv NOx with combustion efficiencies in excess of 99.5%. The design demonstrated tremendous acoustic dynamic stability over a wide range of operating conditions which potentially makes this approach significantly more attractive than other lean premixed combustion approaches. In addition, a pressure drop of 1.75% was measured which is significantly lower than conventional gas turbine combustors. Potentially, this lower pressure drop characteristic of the AVC concept translates into overall gas turbine cycle efficiency improvements of up to one full percentage point. The relatively high velocities and low pressure drops achievable with this technology make the AVC approach an attractive alternative for syngas fuel applications.

Ryan G. Edmonds; Robert C. Steele; Joseph T. Williams; Douglas L. Straub; Kent H. Casleton; Avtar Bining

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the twelfth quarter, January-March 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Pilot scale experiments conducted at the University of Utah explored both the effectiveness of oxygen addition and the best way to add oxygen with a scaled version of Riley Power's newest low NOx burner design. CFD modeling was done to compare the REI's modeling results for James River Unit 3 with the NOx and LOI results obtained during the demonstration program at that facility. Investigation of an alternative method of fabrication of PSO1d elements was conducted. OTM process development work has concluded with the completion of a long-term test of a PSO1d element Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Proposals have been submitted for two additional beta test sites. Commercial proposals have been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program in the seventh quarter October-December 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3 - Economic Evaluation and Task 4 - Program Management. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling of oxygen injection strategies was performed during the quarter resulting in data that suggest the oxygen injection reduces NOx emissions while reducing LOI. Pilot-scale testing activities concluded at the University of Utah this quarter. Testing demonstrated that some experimental conditions can lead to NOx emissions well below the 0.15 lb/MMBtu limit. Evaluation of alternative OTM materials with improved mechanical properties continued this quarter. Powder procedure optimization continued and sintering trial began on an element with a new design. Several OTM elements were tested in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility under various conditions. A modified PSO1d element demonstrated stable oxygen product purity of >98% and oxygen flux of 68% of target. Updated test results and projected economic performance have been reviewed with the Utility Industrial Advisors. The economic comparison remains very favorable for O{sub 2} enhanced combustion. Discussions regarding possible Beta sites have been held with three other utilities in addition to the industrial advisors. Proposals will be prepared after the completion of full scale burner testing. Beta test cost estimating work has been initiated.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 41 - Nox Budget Trading Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

41 - Nox Budget Trading 41 - Nox Budget Trading Program (Rhode Island) Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 41 - Nox Budget Trading Program (Rhode Island) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Program Info State Rhode Island Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Environmental Management These regulations establish a budget trading program for nitrogen oxide emissions, setting NOx budget units for generators and an NOx Allowance Tracking System to account for emissions. These regulations apply to units that serve generators with a nameplate capacity greater than 15 MWe and sell any amount of electricity, as well as to units that have a maximum

194

Microbial transformations of sulfur compounds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oct 13, 1978 ... tains a large part of the chemical energy transferred ... ical energy is partly preserved in the bio- mass of .... ethanol to remove elemental sulfur.

2000-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

195

What's Next for Vanadium Dioxide?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

How Atomic Vibrations Transform Vanadium Dioxide How Atomic Vibrations Transform Vanadium Dioxide Calculations Confirm Material's Potential for Next-Generation Electronics, Energy...

196

METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to ready technology for full-scale commercial deployment to meet the market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies. Over half of the electric power generated in the U.S. is produced by coal combustion, and more than 80% of these units utilize PC combustion technology. Conventional measures for NOx reduction in PC combustion processes rely on combustion and post-combustion modifications. A variety of combustion-based NO{sub x} reduction technologies are in use today, including low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBs), flue gas recirculation (FGR), air staging, and natural gas or other fuel reburning. Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are post-combustion techniques. NO{sub x} reduction effectiveness from these technologies ranges from 30 to 60% and up to 90-93% for SCR. Typically, older wall-fired PC burner units produce NO{sub x} emissions in the range of 0.8-1.6 lb/million Btu. Low-NO{sub x} burner systems, using combinations of fuel staging within the burner and air staging by introduction of overfire air in the boiler, can reduce NO{sub x} emissions by 50-60%. This approach alone is not sufficient to meet the desired 0.15 lb/million Btu NO{sub x} standard with a range of coals and boiler loads. Furthermore, the heavy reliance on overfire air can lead to increased slagging and corrosion in furnaces, particularly with higher-sulfur coals, when LNBs are operated at sub-stoichiometric conditions to reduce fuel-derived NOx in the flame. Therefore, it is desirable to minimize the need for overfire air by maximizing NO{sub x} reduction in the burner. The proposed combustion concept aims to greatly reduce NO{sub x} emissions by incorporating a novel modification to conventional or low-NO{sub x} PC burners using gas-fired coal preheating to destroy NO{sub x} precursors and prevent NO{sub x} formation. A concentrated PC stream enters the burner, where flue gas from natural gas combustion is used to heat the PC up to about 1500 F prior to coal combustion. Secondary fuel consumption for preheating is estimated to be 3 to 5% of the boiler heat input. This thermal pretreatment releases coal volatiles, including fuel-bound nitrogen compounds into oxygen-deficient atmosphere, which converts the coal-derived nitrogen compounds to molecular N{sub 2} rather than NO. Design, installation, shakedown, and testing on Powder River Basin (PRB) coal at a 3-million Btu/h pilot system at RPI's (Riley Power, Inc.) pilot-scale combustion facility (PSCF) in Worcester, MA demonstrated that the PC PREHEAT process has a significant effect on final O{sub x} formation in the coal burner. Modifications to both the pilot system gas-fired combustor and the PC burner led to NO{sub x} reduction with PRB coal to levels below 0.15 lb/million Btu with CO in the range of 35-112 ppmv without any furnace air staging.

Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Joseph Rabovitser; Stan Wohadlo

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

197

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the fourth quarter January-March 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4 - Program Management. This report will also recap the results of the past year. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM material characterization was completed. 100% of commercial target flux was demonstrated with OTM disks. The design and assembly of Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility was completed. The production of oxygen with a purity of better than 99.5% was demonstrated. Coal combustion testing was conducted at the University of Arizona. Modest oxygen enhancement resulted in NOx emissions reduction. The injector for oxygen enhanced coal based reburning was conducted at Praxair. Combustion modeling with Keystone boiler was completed. Pilot-scale combustion test furnace simulations continued this quarter.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the thirteenth quarter, April-June 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with project objectives. REI's model was modified to evaluate mixing issues in the upper furnace of a staged unit. Analysis of the results, and their potential application to this unit is ongoing. Economic evaluation continues to confirm the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. A contract for a commercial demonstration has been signed with the Northeast Generation Services Company to supply oxygen and license the oxygen enhanced low NOx combustor technology for use at the 147-megawatt coal fired Mt. Tom Station in Holyoke, MA. Commercial proposals have been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions- Fact Sheet, 2014  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Utilizing Supplemental Ultra-Low-NOx Burner Technology to Meet Emissions Standards and Improve System Efficiency

200

Ion-mobility Spectrometry Based NOx Sensor - Nuclear Engineering Division  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NPNS > Sensors and NPNS > Sensors and Instrumentation and NDE > Energy System Application > DOE Office of Transportation Technologies > Ion-mobility Spectrometry Based NOx Sensor Capabilities Sensors and Instrumentation and Nondestructive Evaluation Overview Energy System Applications Overview DOE Office of Fossil Energy DOE Office of Transportation Technologies Ion-mobility Spectrometry Based NOx Sensor DOE Office of Power Technology Work for Others Safety-Related Applications Homeland Security Applications Biomedical Applications Millimiter Wave Group Papers Other NPNS Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Sensors and Instrumentation and Nondestructive Evaluation Ion-mobility Spectrometry Based NOx Sensor

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This second quarter report of 2002 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. Previous reports described development of a catalyst with the required selectivity and efficiency for producing sulfur dioxide from H{sub 2}S. In the laboratory, the catalyst was shown to be robust and stable in the presence of several intentionally added contaminants, including condensate from the pilot plant site. This report describes testing using the laboratory apparatus but operated at the pilot plant using the actual pilot plant gas, which contains far more contaminants than can be simulated in the laboratory. The results are very encouraging, with stable and efficient operation being obtained for a prolonged period of time.

Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Oxidation State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. deer10li.pdf More Documents & Publications Lean NOx Trap...

203

Reducing NOx emissions using the humid air motor concept  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of water to prevent NOx...formation during the combustion process is well known. The H.A.M. system (Humid Air Motor) is an original and promising solution compared ... . This system involves evaporating l...

Emmanuel Riom; Lars-Ola Larsson; Ulf Hagström

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry During Lean NOx Trap Regeneration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts can effectively reduce NOx from lean engine exhaust. Significant research for LNTs in diesel engine applications has been performed and has led to commercialization of the technology. For lean gasoline engine applications, advanced direct injection engines have led to a renewed interest in the potential for lean gasoline vehicles and, thereby, a renewed demand for lean NOx control. To understand the gasoline-based reductant chemistry during regeneration, a BMW lean gasoline vehicle has been studied on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed for key reductant species such as H2, CO, NH3, and hydrocarbons during transient drive cycles. The relation of the reductant species to LNT performance will be discussed. Furthermore, the challenges of NOx storage in the lean gasoline application are reviewed.

Choi, Jae-Soon [ORNL] [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Partridge Jr, William P [ORNL] [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Norman, Kevin M [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL; Chambon, Paul H [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Reducing fishing vessel fuel consumption and NOX emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There is a growing concern with the impact of marine operations on the environment. This requires reducing fuel consumption and vessel pollution during operation. On-board computers and satellite communications will enable the operator to reduce fuel consumption and NOX emissions during vessel operations. This paper presents the results of a study on this problem and how such an on-board system could be implemented to reduce fuel consumption and engine NOX emissions.

Robert Latorre

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Group effects on fuel NOx emissisons from coal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GROUP EFFECTS ON FUEL NOX EMISSIONS FROM COAL A Thesis by ANAND ANAKKARA VADAKKATH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1991 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering GROUP EFFECTS ON FUEL NOX EMISSIONS FROM COAL A Thesis by ANAND ANAKKARA VADAKKATH Approved ss to style and content by: K. Annamalai (Chair of Committee) Cr, R. Laster (Member) J. Wagne (Member...

Vadakkath, Anand Anakkara

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

207

Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter less than 50 nm..

Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuiliang; Li, Xiaolin

2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

208

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the ninth quarter April-June 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Full-scale testing using the Industrial Boiler Simulation Facility (ISBF) at Alstom Power was completed. The pilot scale experiments to evaluate the effect of air preheat and transport air stoichiometric ratio (SR) on NOx emissions were conducted at the University of Utah. Combustion modeling activities continued with full-scale combustion test furnace simulations. An OTM element was tested in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility and two thermal cycles were completed. PSO1d elements of new dimension were tested resulting in a lower flux than previous PSO1d elements of different dimensions, however, no element deformation was observed. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Two potential host beta sites have been identified and proposals submitted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the fourth quarter January-March 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. This report will also recap the results of the past year. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the second year. The first round of pilot scale testing with 3 bituminous coals was completed at the University of Utah. Full-scale testing equipment is in place and experiments are underway. Coal combustion lab-scale testing was completed at the University of Arizona. Modest oxygen enhancement resulted in NOx emissions reduction. Combustion modeling activities continued with pilot-scale combustion test furnace simulations. 75% of target oxygen flux was demonstrated with small PSO1 tube in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility. The production of oxygen with a purity of better than 99.999% was demonstrated. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Two potential host sites have been identified.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Sulfur minimization in bacterial leaching  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The production of sewage biosolids in Ontario in 1989 was estimated to be 7 million m{sup 3} of wet sludge per year. Of this amount, land application accounts for between 20 and 30% of the total. Unfortunately, the use of sewage biosolids on agricultural land is often prohibited because of heavy metal contamination of the biosolids. High cost and operational problems have made chemical methods of metal extraction unattractive. Consequently, microbiological methods of leaching of heavy metals have been studied for over a decade. A relatively simple microbiological process has been investigated in recent years in flask level experiments and recently in a semicontinuous system. The process exploits nonacidophilic and acidophilic indigenous thiobacilli to extract heavy metals from sewage biosolids. These thiobacilli use elemental sulfur as the energy source, producing sulfuric acid. However, the resulting decontaminated biosolids can cause environmental problems like acidification of the soil, when acid is generated from the residual sulfur in the biosolids. The present study examines the possibility of reducing the amount of sulfur added in batch and semicontinuous bacterial leaching systems, and maximizing sulfur oxidation efficiency, thereby reducing the residual sulfur in leached biosolids.

Seth, R.; Prasad, D.; Henry, J.G. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.5 Primary Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions for Selected US Chemical Subsectors in 1994 ...............................................................................................................16 Table 2.7 1999 Energy Consumption and Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) in the U.S. Cement Efficiency Technologies and Measures in Cement Industry.................22 Table 2.9 Energy Consumption

Delaware, University of

212

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 6, October--December, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 3, January--March 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Optimized Fuel  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Optimized Fuel Injector Design Optimized Fuel Injector Design This project includes fundamental research and engineering development of low NOx burners and reburning fuel injectors. The team of Reaction Engineering International (REI), the University of Utah, Brown University and DB Riley, Inc., will develop fundamental information on low NOx burners. The work has two phases. In the first phase, the University of Utah will examine two-phase mixing and near-field behavior of coal injectors using a 15-million Btu/hr bench-scale furnace, Brown University will examine char deactivation and effectiveness of reburning, and REI will develop a comprehensive burner model using the data produced by the University of Utah and Brown University. In the second phase, an optimized injector design will be tested at the 100-million Btu/hr Riley Coal Burner Test Facility. It is anticipated that this work will provide improved hardware designs and computer simulation models for reduced NOx emissions and minimized carbon loss.

217

SCReaming for Low NOx - SCR for the Light Duty Market | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

SCReaming for Low NOx - SCR for the Light Duty Market SCReaming for Low NOx - SCR for the Light Duty Market Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan....

218

Engine and Reactor Evaluations of HC-SCR for Diesel NOx Reduction...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Engine and Reactor Evaluations of HC-SCR for Diesel NOx Reduction Engine and Reactor Evaluations of HC-SCR for Diesel NOx Reduction Focus is the heavy duty, US dynamometer...

219

Safe and compact ammonia storage/delivery systems for SCR-DeNOX...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Safe and compact ammonia storagedelivery systems for SCR-DeNOX in automotive units Safe and compact ammonia storagedelivery systems for SCR-DeNOX in automotive units Presentation...

220

Development of a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction in Marine Diesel Engines Development of a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction in Marine Diesel Engines Stand-alone urea SCR...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Fuel-Borne Reductants for NOx Aftertreatment: Preliminary EtOH...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Reductants for NOx Aftertreatment: Preliminary EtOH SCR Study Fuel-Borne Reductants for NOx Aftertreatment: Preliminary EtOH SCR Study 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Oak Ridge...

222

Initial Results of the DeNOx SCR System by Urea Injection in...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Initial Results of the DeNOx SCR System by Urea Injection in the Euro 5 Bus Initial Results of the DeNOx SCR System by Urea Injection in the Euro 5 Bus 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions...

223

The Effects of Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR Catalyst  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Study of effects of hydrocarbons on ammonia storage and NOx reduction over a commercial Fe-zeolite SCR catalyst to understand catalyst behaviors at low temperatures and improve NOx reduction performance and reduce system cost

224

Industry-Utility Collaborative Efforts to Address Environmental Concerns- Dispatching for Localized NOx Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

these objectives. The approach involves dispatching NOx-producing equipment (e.g., boilers and gas turbines) to achieve minimum NOx production during ozone alert periods and purchasing supplemental power under a special tariff to replace any loss in self...

Hamilton, D. E.; Helmick, R. W.; Lambert, W. J.

225

NOx formation by steam injection using detailed chemical kinetics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to improve thermal efficiency of gas turbine system and better control NOx emission, the injection of steam into a gas turbine combustor has been employed. This study has used both chemical equilibrium calculations and the counterflow diffusion flame calculations of methane-air flame aiming at the elucidation of the NOx reduction mechanism due to the steam injection. The influence of the equivalence ratios, the amount of steam and method of injection, the influence of the temperature of the preheated air and fuel has been also investigated. In this study, the GRI-Mech was employed for modelling the chemical reactions.

H. Yamashita; D. Zhao; S.N. Danov; T. Furuhata; N. Arai

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Aeroderivative Gas Turbines Can Meet Stringent NOx Control Requirements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for controlling NOx emissions will be discussed. Steam injection has a very favorable effect on engine performance raising both the power output and efficiency. As an example, full steam injection in the GE LM5000 gas turbine :tncreases the power output from... methods for reducing the NOx levels of the LM2500 and LM5000 engines. These engines are aircraft-derivative turbine engines, which are used in a variety of industrial applications. Efforts have been concentrated on the use of water or steam injection...

Keller, S. C.; Studniarz, J. J.

227

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

is carbon dioxide? is carbon dioxide? CO2 Dipole Carbon Dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical name CO2) is a clear gas composed of one atom of carbon (C) and two atoms of oxygen (O). Carbon dioxide is one of many chemical forms of carbon on the Earth. It does not burn, and in standard temperature and pressure conditions it is stable, inert, and non-toxic. Carbon dioxide occurs naturally in small amounts (about 0.04%) in the Earth's atmosphere. The volume of CO2 in the atmosphere is equivalent to one individual in a crowd of 2,500. Carbon dioxide is produced naturally by processes deep within the Earth. This CO2 can be released at the surface by volcanoes or might be trapped in natural underground geologic CO2 deposits, similar to underground deposits of oil and natural gas. As a major greenhouse gas, CO2 helps create and

228

Molecular Structures of Polymer/Sulfur Composites for Lithium...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Structures of PolymerSulfur Composites for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Long Cycle Life. Molecular Structures of PolymerSulfur Composites for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Long...

229

Amylopectin Wrapped Graphene Oxide/Sulfur for Improved Cyclability of Lithium–Sulfur Battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Amylopectin Wrapped Graphene Oxide/Sulfur for Improved Cyclability of Lithium–Sulfur Battery ... An amylopectin wrapped graphene oxide-sulfur composite was prepared to construct a 3-dimensionally cross-linked structure through the interaction between amylopectin and graphene oxide, for stabilizing lithium sulfur batteries. ...

Weidong Zhou; Hao Chen; Yingchao Yu; Deli Wang; Zhiming Cui; Francis J. DiSalvo; Héctor D. Abruña

2013-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

230

Two stage sorption of sulfur compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A two stage method for reducing the sulfur content of exhaust gases is disclosed. Alkali- or alkaline-earth-based sorbent is totally or partially vaporized and introduced into a sulfur-containing gas stream. The activated sorbent can be introduced in the reaction zone or the exhaust gases of a combustor or a gasifier. High efficiencies of sulfur removal can be achieved.

Moore, William E. (Manassas, VA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

FUJITA,E.

2000-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

232

The Chemistry of the Thermal DeNOx Process: A Review of the Technology's Possible Application to control of NOx from Diesel Engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a review of the Thermal DeNOx process with respect to its application to control of NOx emissions from diesel engines. The chemistry of the process is discussed first in empirical and then theoretical terms. Based on this discussion the possibilities of applying the process to controlling NOx emissions from diesel engines is considered. Two options are examined, modifying the requirements of the chemistry of the Thermal DeNOx process to suit the conditions provided by diesel engines and modifying the engines to provide the conditions required by the process chemistry. While the former examination did not reveal any promising opportunities, the latter did. Turbocharged diesel engine systems in which the turbocharger is a net producer of power seem capable of providing the conditions necessary for NOx reduction via the Thermal DeNOx reaction.

Lyon, Richard

2001-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

233

Refractive index of tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Dielectric constant of tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - ALTA for Cyclone  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Full-Scale Demonstration of ALTA NOx Control for Cyclone-Fired Boilers Full-Scale Demonstration of ALTA NOx Control for Cyclone-Fired Boilers The primary goal of this project was to evaluate a technology called advanced layered technology application (ALTA) as a means to achieve NOx emissions below 0.15 lb/MMBtu in a cyclone boiler. Reaction Engineering International (REI) conducted field testing and combustion modeling to refine the process design, define the optimum technology parameters, and assess system performance. The ALTA NOx control technology combines deep staging from overfire air, rich reagent injection (RRI), and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR). Field testing was conducted during May-June 2005 at AmerenUE's Sioux Station Unit 1, a 500 MW cyclone boiler unit that typically burns an 80/20 blend of Powder River Basin subbituminous coal and Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. Parametric testing was also conducted with 60/40 and 0/100 blends. The testing also evaluated process impacts on balance-of-plant issues such as the amount of unburned carbon in the ash, slag tapping, waterwall corrosion, ammonia slip, and heat distribution.

236

Lean NOx Reduction with Dual Layer LNT/SCR Catalysts  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Roles of ceria in LNT SCR: I ncreases NOx storage & NO conversion at low tem perature P rom otes W GS reaction Conditions: Lean: 500 ppm NO, 5% O 2 ; 60s Rich: 2.5% H 2 ; 5s X H2...

237

The use of ethanol to remove sulfur from coal. Final report, September 1991--December 1992; Revision  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The initial technical goal in the project was to develop a chemical method for the cost effective removal of both inorganic and organic sulfur from Ohio coals. Verifying and using a process of reacting ethanol vapors with coal under conditions disclosed in U.S. Patent 4,888,029, the immediate technical objectives were to convert a small scale laborative batch process to a larger scale continuous process which can serve as the basis for commercial development of the technology. This involved getting as much information as possible from small scale batch autoclave or fluid bed laboratory reactors for use in pilot plant studies. The laboratory data included material balances on the coal and sulfur, temperature and pressure ranges for the reaction, minimum reaction times at different conditions, the effectiveness of different activators such as oxygen and nitric oxide, the amount and nature of by-products such as sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and acetaldehyde, the effect of coal particle size on the speed and completeness of the reaction, and the effectiveness of the reaction on different Ohio coals. Because the laboratory experiments using the method disclosed in U.S. 4,888,029 were not successful, the objective for the project was changed to develop a new laboratory process to use ethanol to remove sulfur from coal. Using copper as a catalyst and as an H{sub 2}S scavenger, a new laboratory procedure to use ethanol to remove sulfur from coal has been developed at Ohio University and a patent application covering this process was filed in March, 1993. The process is based on the use of copper as a catalyst for the dehydrogenation of ethanol to produce nascent hydrogen to remove sulfur from the coal and the use of copper as a scavenger to capture the hydrogen sulfide formed from the sulfur removed from coal.

Savage, R.L.; Lazarov, L.K.; Prudich, M.E.; Lange, C.A.; Kumar, N.

1994-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

238

SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to utilities with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species, a precursor to acid aerosol/condensable emissions, and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of SCR for NOX control on some coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project is testing the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium- and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents have been tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry produced from a wet flue gas desulfurization system waste stream, from a system that employs a Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime scrubbing process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles into the front wall of upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests. The longer-term tests are being conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. This reports presents the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

2002-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

239

SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: LONG-TERM RESULTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corp., the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Dravo Lime, Inc. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to power generators with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NO{sub x} control on many coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project previously tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium-and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide byproduct slurry produced from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization system. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP, Unit 3, and the second test was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant testing provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. This report presents the results from those long-term tests. The tests determined the effectiveness of injecting commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP) for sulfuric acid control. The results show that injecting either slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, this overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NOX control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The long-term tests also determined balance-of-plant impacts from slurry injection during the two tests. These include impacts on boiler back-end temperatures and pressure drops, SCR catalyst properties, ESP performance, removal of other flue gas species, and flue gas opacity. For the most part the balance-of-plant impacts were neutral to positive, although adverse effects on ESP performance became an issue during the BMP test.

Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

2002-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

240

Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur. First quarterly technical progress report, [October--December 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation will be conducting Phase I of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. this catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria or zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an ongoing DOE-sponsored University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicates that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. the performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams.

Benedek, K. [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

JV Task 117 - Impact of Lignite Properties on Powerspan's NOx Oxidation System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Powerspan's multipollutant control process called electrocatalytic oxidation (ECO) technology is designed to simultaneously remove SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, PM{sub 2.5}, acid gases (such as hydrogen fluoride [HF], hydrochloric acid [HCl], and sulfur trioxide [SO{sub 3}]), Hg, and other metals from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The core of this technology is a dielectric barrier discharge reactor composed of cylindrical quartz electrodes residing in metal tubes. Electrical discharge through the flue gas, passing between the electrode and the tube, produces reactive O and OH radicals. The O and OH radicals react with flue gas components to oxidize NO to NO{sub 2} and HNO{sub 3} and a small portion of the SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The oxidized compounds are subsequently removed in a downstream scrubber and wet electrostatic precipitator. A challenging characteristic of selected North Dakota lignites is their high sodium content. During high-sodium lignite combustion and gas cooling, the sodium vaporizes and condenses to produce sodium- and sulfur-rich aerosols. Based on past work, it was hypothesized that the sodium aerosols would deposit on and react with the silica electrodes and react with the silica electrodes, resulting in the formation of sodium silicate. The deposit and reacted surface layer would then electrically alter the electrode, thus impacting its dielectric properties and NO{sub x} conversion capability. The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of lignite-derived flue gas containing sodium aerosols on Powerspan's dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with specific focus on the interaction with the quartz electrodes. Partners in the project were Minnkota Power Cooperative; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Montana Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnesota Power; the North Dakota Industrial Commission, the Lignite Energy Council, and the Lignite Research Council; the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); and the U.S. Department of Energy. An electrocatalytic oxidation (ECO) reactor slipstream system was designed by Powerspan and the EERC. The slipstream system was installed by the EERC at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young Station Unit 1 downstream of the electrostatic precipitator where the flue gas temperature ranged from 300 to 350 F. The system was commissioned on July 3, 2007, operated for 107 days, and then winterized upon completion of the testing campaign. Operational performance of the system was monitored, and data were archived for postprocessing. A pair of electrodes were extracted and replaced on a biweekly basis. Each pair of electrodes was shipped to Powerspan to determine NO conversion efficiency in Powerspan's laboratory reactor. Tested electrodes were then shipped to the EERC for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray microanalysis. Measurement of NO{sub x} conversion online in operating the slipstream system was not possible because the nitric and sulfuric acid production by the DBD reactor results in conditioning corrosion challenges in the sample extraction system and NO measurement technologies. The operational observations, performance results, and lab testing showed that the system was adversely affected by accumulation of the aerosol materials on the electrode. NO{sub x} conversion by ash-covered electrodes was significantly reduced; however, with electrodes that were rinsed with water, the NOx conversion efficiency recovered to nearly that of a new electrode. In addition, the visual appearance of the electrode after washing did not show evidence of a cloudy reacted surface but appeared similar to an unexposed electrode. Examination of the electrodes using SEM x-ray microanalysis showed significant elemental sodium, sulfur, calcium, potassium, and silica in the ash coating the electrodes. There was no evidence of the reaction of the sodium with the silica electrodes to produce sodium silicate layers. All SEM images showed a clearly marked boundary between the ash and the silica. Sodium and sulfur are the main culprits in the

Scott Tolbert; Steven Benson

2008-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

242

The Viscosity of Carbon Dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

26 July 1912 research-article The Viscosity of Carbon Dioxide P. Phillips The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to Proceedings...

1912-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Photosynthesis and carbon dioxide fixation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Photosynthesis and carbon dioxide fixation ... Photosynthetic pigments, photosystems, the Calvin cycle, the Hatch-Slack pathway, photorespiration, and photosynthetic yield improvement. ...

Muriel B. Bishop; Carl B. Bishop

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report describes the objectives, technical approach, results and conclusions for a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept is a configuration of CrystaTech, Inc.'s CrystaSulf{reg_sign} process which utilizes a direct oxidation catalyst upstream of the absorber tower to oxidize a portion of the inlet hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and elemental sulfur. This hybrid configuration of CrystaSulf has been named CrystaSulf-DO and represents a low-cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day and more. This hybrid process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both onshore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf is a nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes H{sub 2}S from gas streams and converts it to elemental sulfur. In CrystaSulf, H{sub 2}S in the inlet gas is reacted with SO{sub 2} to make elemental sulfur according to the liquid phase Claus reaction: 2H{sub 2}S + SO{sub 2} {yields} 2H{sub 2}O + 3S. The SO{sub 2} for the reaction can be supplied from external sources by purchasing liquid SO{sub 2} and injecting it into the CrystaSulf solution, or produced internally by converting a portion of the inlet gas H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} or by burning a portion of the sulfur produced to make SO{sub 2}. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, the needed SO{sub 2} is produced by placing a bed of direct oxidation catalyst in the inlet gas stream to oxidize a portion of the inlet H{sub 2}S. Oxidation catalysts may also produce some elemental sulfur under these conditions, which can be removed and recovered prior to the CrystaSulf absorber. The CrystaSulf-DO process can utilize direct oxidation catalyst from many sources. Numerous direct oxidation catalysts are available from many suppliers worldwide. They have been used for H{sub 2}S oxidation to sulfur and/or SO{sub 2} for decades. It was believed at the outset of the project that TDA Research, Inc., a subcontractor, could develop a direct oxidation catalyst that would offer advantages over other commercially available catalysts for this CrystaSulf-DO process application. This project involved the development of several of TDA's candidate proprietary direct oxidation catalysts through laboratory bench-scale testing. These catalysts were shown to be effective for conversion of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} and to elemental sulfur under certain operating conditions. One of these catalysts was subsequently tested on a commercial gas stream in a bench-scale reactor at CrystaTech's pilot plant site in west Texas with good results. However, commercial developments have precluded the use of TDA catalysts in the CrystaSulf-DO process. Nonetheless, this project has advanced direct oxidation catalyst technology for H{sub 2}S control in energy industries and led to several viable paths to commercialization. TDA is commercializing the use of its direct oxidation catalyst technology in conjunction with the SulfaTreat{reg_sign} solid scavenger for natural gas applications and in conjunction with ConocoPhillips and DOE for gasification applications using ConocoPhillips gasification technology. CrystaTech is commercializing its CrystaSulf-DO process in conjunction with Gas Technology Institute for natural gas applications (using direct oxidation catalysts from other commercial sources) and in conjunction with ChevronTexaco and DOE for gasification applications using ChevronTexaco's gasification technology.

Dennis Dalrymple

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Blundell and Fraser Armstrong Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage Sam...Nottingham NG12 5GG, UK Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage is a...80-90%. It involves the capture of carbon dioxide at a large industrial...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Controlling Emissions of SOx and NOx from power plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Sulfur Removal Sulfur is removed from crude oil by the catalytic reaction: R-S + H2 H2S + R Until the mid 1970's the H2S was mixed back into the fuel gas. The problem with this is that the H2S is burned + CO2 This is a two step process including the scrubber and the effluent hold tank. CaSO4 (gypsum

Toohey, Darin W.

247

Flue gas carbon dioxide sequestration during water softening with ion-exchange fibers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study examines the use of ion-exchange fibers (IX fibers) to permanently sequester carbon dioxide present in flue gas into an aqueous phase as calcium or magnesium alkalinity while concurrently softening hard water. The only process inputs besides carbon dioxide (or flue gas) are snowmelt (or rainwater); no other chemicals are required for the regeneration of the IX fibers. Importantly, the process is not energy intensive and carbon dioxide does not need to be compressed to excessive pressures (>150 psi) for efficient use. Sources of carbon dioxide do not require concentration and, therefore, the use of raw flue gas (similar to 17% CO{sub 2}) is feasible with the rate of sequestration governed only by the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. While valid for flue gas obtained from any combustion process (e.g., coal, oil, natural gas, etc.), emissions from oil or gas combustion may be more appropriate for use in the described process due to the absence of mercury and particulates. It should also be noted that the presence of sulfur dioxide in flue gas would not adversely affect the process and may even enhance regeneration efficiency. The only product of the proposed process is an environmentally benign regenerant stream containing calcium and/or magnesium alkalinity. The unique property of IX fibers that makes the proposed process both environmentally sustainable and economically feasible is amenability to efficient regeneration with carbon dioxide and harvested snowmelt. Low intraparticle diffusional resistance is the underlying reason why IX fibers are amenable to efficient regeneration using snowmelt sparged with carbon dioxide; 95% calcium recovery was attained at a CO{sub 2} partial pressure of 6.8 atm. The energy balance for a typical electric utility shows that up to 1% of carbon dioxide emitted during combustion would be sequestered in the softening process.

Greenleaf, J.E.; SenGupta, A.K. [Lafayette College, Easton, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

248

Carbon dioxide and climate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

Not Available

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

LOW NOx EMISSIONS IN A FUEL FLEXIBLE GAS TURBINE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In alignment with Vision 21 goals, a study is presented here on the technical and economic potential for developing a gas turbine combustor that is capable of generating less that 2 ppm NOx emissions, firing on either coal synthesis gas or natural gas, and being implemented on new and existing systems. The proposed solution involves controlling the quantity of H2 contained in the fuel. The presence of H2 leads to increased flame stability such that the combustor can be operated at lower temperatures and produce less thermal NOx. Coal gas composition would be modified using a water gas shift converter, and natural gas units would implement a catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) reactor to convert part of the natural gas feed to a syngas before fed back into the combustor. While both systems demonstrated technical merit, the economics involved in implementing such a system are marginal at best. Therefore, Praxair has decided not to pursue the technology any further at this time.

Raymond Drnevich; James Meagher; Vasilis Papavassiliou; Troy Raybold; Peter Stuttaford; Leonard Switzer; Lee Rosen

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Diesel Aftertreatment Modeling:? A Systems Approach to NOx Control  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Diesel Aftertreatment Modeling:? A Systems Approach to NOx Control ... Despite these challenges, the proposed system was able to make several advances:? (1) meeting the T2B5 CO, HC, and PM standards; (2) quantifying the ability to meet T2B5 NOx levels with a more durable DOC and a rapid warm-up strategy to heat the exhaust, especially during the initial cold-start portion of the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) drive cycle. ... The remainder of this work is organized as follows:? The formulation, calibration, and validation of the DOC and SCR models are presented in section 2. The DOC and SCR models are combined for an analysis of the AT system as a whole in section 3. The final section of the article summarizes the results and offers some general conclusions. ...

Santhoji R. Katare; Joseph E. Patterson; Paul M. Laing

2007-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

251

Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries 2011 DOE...

252

Improve reformer operation with trace sulfur removal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modern bimetallic reforming catalysts typically have feed specifications for sulfur of 0.5 to 1 wppm in the reformer naphtha carge. Sulfur in the raw naphtha is reduced to this level by naphtha hydrotreating. While most naphtha hydrotreating operations can usually obtain these levels without substantial problems. It is difficult to obtain levels much below 0.5 to 1 wppm with this process. Revamp of a constrained existing hydrotreater to reduce product sulfur slightly can be extremely costly typically entailing replacement or addition of a new reactor. At Engelhard the authors demonstrated that if the last traces of sulfur remaining from hydrotreating can be removed, the resulting ultra-low sulfur feed greatly improves the reformer operation and provides substantial economic benefit to the refiner. Removal of the remaining trace sulfur is accomplished in a simple manner with a special adsorbent bed, without adding complexity to the reforming operation.

McClung, R.G.; Novak, W.J.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

The Cost of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in Geologic Formations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CosT of Carbon DioxiDe CapTure CosT of Carbon DioxiDe CapTure anD sTorage in geologiC formaTions The sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in geologic formations is a viable option for achieving deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions without hindering economic prosperity. Due to the abundance of fossil fuels in the United States and around the globe as compared to other energy sources, there is strong interest in geologic sequestration, but cost is a key issue. The volume of CO 2 emitted from power plants and other energy systems is enormous compared to other emissions of concern. For example, a pulverized coal (PC) boiler operating on Illinois #6 coal (2.5 percent sulfur) may generate 0.03 pounds of sulfur dioxide per kilowatt hour (kWh) and emit CO 2 at a rate of 1.7 pounds per kWh.

254

HYDROCARBON AND SULFUR SENSORS FOR SOFC SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following report summarizes work conducted during the Phase I program Hydrocarbon and Sulfur Sensors for SOFC Systems under contract No. DE-FC26-02NT41576. For the SOFC application, sensors are required to monitor hydrocarbons and sulfur in order to increase the operation life of SOFC components. This report discusses the development of two such sensors, one based on thick film approach for sulfur monitoring and the second galvanic based for hydrocarbon monitoring.

A.M. Azad; Chris Holt; Todd Lesousky; Scott Swartz

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Sulfur-Free Selective Pulping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Technoeconomic Appraisal," December 1991. 5. DOE Annual Report on Contract No. AC02-83CH10093, Bozell, J. J., Hames, B., Chum, H. L., Dimmel, D. R, Althen, E., Caldwell, P. L., Daube, Oxidation ;; Diels-Alder .. I I -Methanol .. ~ 5 I 3 (C~O) OCH... - Hydrogen 3 (Q-IP) # Q-I 3 o o ~ o 1 2 ~ (H) Lignin DMBQ =two OCH3 groups Anthraquinone MMBQ =one OCH3 group A. K, and Kuroda, K-I.,"Sulfur-free Selective Pulping," March 1992. 6. DOE Annual Report on Contrac No. DE-AC02-83CH10093, Bozell, J. J...

Dimmel, D. R.; Bozell, J. J.

256

THE EFFECT OF ANOLYTE PRODUCT ACID CONCENTRATION ON HYBRID SULFUR CYCLE PERFORMANCE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) cycle (Fig. 1) is one of the simplest, all-fluids thermochemical cycles that has been devised for splitting water with a high-temperature nuclear or solar heat source. It was originally patented by Brecher and Wu in 1975 and extensively developed by Westinghouse in the late 1970s and early 1980s. As its name suggests, the only element used besides hydrogen and oxygen is sulfur, which is cycled between the +4 and +6 oxidation states. HyS comprises two steps. One is the thermochemical (>800 C) decomposition of sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), oxygen (O{sub 2}), and water. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} = SO{sub 2} + 1/2 O{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O. The other is the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis of water to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and hydrogen (H{sub 2}), SO{sub 2} + 2 H{sub 2}O = H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}, E{sup o} = -0.156 V, explaining the 'hybrid' designation. These two steps taken together split water into H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} using heat and electricity. Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and at the University of South Carolina (USC) have successfully demonstrated the use of proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzers (Fig. 2) for the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis (sulfur oxidation) step, while Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) successfully demonstrated the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition (sulfur reduction) step using a bayonet-type reactor (Fig. 3). This latter work was performed as part of the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) cycle Integrated Laboratory Scale demonstration at General Atomics (GA). The combination of these two operations results in a simple process that will be more efficient and cost-effective for the massive production of hydrogen than alkaline electrolysis. Recent developments suggest that the use of PEMs other than Nafion will allow sulfuric acid to be produced at higher concentrations (>60 wt%), offering the possibility of net thermal efficiencies around 50% (HHV basis). The effect of operation at higher anolyte concentrations on the flowsheet, and on the net thermal efficiency for a nuclear-heated HyS process, is examined and quantified.

Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.

2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

257

Sulfurization of a carbon surface for vapor phase mercury removal II: Sulfur forms and mercury uptake  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

promote the formation of organic sulfur and the presence of H2S during the cooling process increased in the presence of H2S was very effective towards Hg uptake in nitrogen. Corre- lation of mercury uptake capacitySulfurization of a carbon surface for vapor phase mercury removal ­ II: Sulfur forms and mercury

Borguet, Eric

258

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected in a pilot scale furnace and soot behavior predicted by the CFD model showed good agreement. Field and laboratory tests were performed for SCR catalysts used for coal and biomass co-firing applications. Fundamental laboratory studies were performed to better understand mechanisms involved with catalyst deactivation. Field tests with a slip stream reactor were used to create catalyst exposed to boiler flue gas for firing coal and for co-firing coal and biomass. The field data suggests the mechanisms leading to catalyst deactivation are, in order of importance, channel plugging, surface fouling, pore plugging and poisoning. Investigations were performed to better understand the mechanisms involved with catalyst regeneration through mechanical or chemical methods. A computer model was developed to predict NOx reduction across the catalyst in a SCR. Experiments were performed to investigate the fundamentals of ammonia/fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. Measurements were performed for ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes. This work resulted in the first fundamental ammonia isotherms on carbon-containing fly ash samples. This work confirms industrial reports that aqueous solution chemistry takes place upon the introduction of even very small amounts of water, while the ash remains in a semi-dry state.

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

259

Sorbent utilization prediction methodology: sulfur control in fluidized-bed combustors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States Government has embarked on an ambitious program to develop and commercialize technologies to efficiently extract energy from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. One of the more promising new technologies for steam and power generation is the fluidized-bed combustion of coal. In this process, coal is burned in a fluidized bed composed mainly of calcined limestone sorbent. The calcium oxide reacts chemically to capture the sulfur dioxide formed during the combustion and to maintain the stack gas sulfur emissions at acceptable levels. The spent sulfur sorbent, containing calcium sulfate, is a dry solid that can be disposed of along with coal ash or potentially used. Other major advantages of fluidized-bed combustion are the reduction in nitrogen oxide emissions because of the relatively low combustion temperatures, the capability of burning wide varieties of fuel, the high carbon combustion efficiencies, and the high heat-transfer coefficients. A key to the widespread commercialization of fluidized-bed technology is the ability to accurately predict the amount of sulfur that will be captured by a given sorbent. This handbook meets this need by providing a simple, yet reliable, user-oriented methodology (the ANL method) that allows performance of a sorbent to be predicted. The methodology is based on only three essential sorbent parameters, each of which can be readily obtained from standardized laboratory tests. These standard tests and the subsequent method of data reduction are described in detail.

Fee, D.C.; Wilson, W.I.; Shearer, J.A.; Smith, G.W.; Lenc, J.F.; Fan, L.S.; Myles, K.M.; Johnson, I.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Regional air pollution study: effects of airborne sulfur pollutants on materials. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Samples of galvanized steel, weathering steel, A1 2014 and 7079 stress samples, silver, marble, nylon and two types of house paint were exposed at nine sites of the Regional Air Monitoring System in the St. Louis area. Wind speed and direction, temperature, dew point, total sulfur, SO2, H2S, O3, NOx, total hydrocarbons, total suspended particulate matter, sulfate and nitrate were recorded. For galvanized steel a pronounced effect of time of first exposure was observed. The corrosion behavior of weathering steel was not seasonally dependent. House paint showed discontinuous erosive behavior. Exposure to the south was more erosive than exposure to the north. Rates for latex paint were higher than for oil based paint. The erosion rate of marble decreased with time. At some sites 50% reflectance loss of silver occurred after 3 months exposure. All samples of A1 7079 at 25 Ksi failed in less than 255 days, while complete failure at 15 Ksi occurred between 277 and 630 days. For A1 2014 more scatter was observed. The pollution levels in St. Louis were found to be rather low. Ozone showed similar seasonal changes as the temperature. Sites close to the center of St. Louis had lower ozone but higher NOx and total hydrocarbon levels. Sulfate was about twice as high in summer as in winter. A first attempt at multiple regression analysis was made. Apparent inconsistencies in the estimated effects are believed to be due to multicollinearity.

Mansfeld, F.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres with ultra-high sulfur loading for high energy density lithium–sulfur batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery with high theoretical energy density is one of the most promising energy storage systems for electric vehicles and intermittent renewable energy. However, due to the poor conductivity of the active material, considerable weight of the electrode is occupied by the conductive additives. Here we report a graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres composite (S-nanosphere@G) with sulfur content up to 91 wt% as the high energy density cathode material for Li–S battery. The sulfur nanospheres with diameter of 400–500 nm are synthesized through a solution-based approach with the existence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Then the sulfur nanospheres are uniformly wrapped by conductive graphene sheets through the electrostatic interaction between graphene oxide and PVP, followed by reducing of graphene oxide with hydrazine. The design of graphene wrapped sulfur nanoarchitecture provides flexible conductive graphene coating with void space to accommodate the volume expansion of sulfur and to minimize polysulfide dissolution. As a result, the S-nanosphere@G nanocomposite with 91 wt% sulfur shows a reversible initial capacity of 970 mA h g?1 and an average columbic efficiency > 96% over 100 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C. Taking the total mass of electrode into account, the S-nanosphere@G composite is a promising cathode material for high energy density Li–S batteries.

Ya Liu; Jinxin Guo; Jun Zhang; Qingmei Su; Gaohui Du

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Impact of the Presence of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide on Gas Oil Hydrotreatment: Investigation on Liquids from Biomass Cotreatment with Petroleum Cuts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Impact of the Presence of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide on Gas Oil Hydrotreatment: Investigation on Liquids from Biomass Cotreatment with Petroleum Cuts ... A potential way of utilizing these bioliquids as fuels could be the direct hydrotreatment(6) or the cohydrotreatment with petroleum fractions,(7) such as atmospheric gas oils, to achieve the technical and environmental fuel standards, especially in terms of sulfur content. ...

Ana Pinheiro; Nathalie Dupassieux; Damien Hudebine; Christophe Geantet

2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

263

A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel Processor for Rapid and Efficient Regeneration of Single Leg NOx Adsorber Systems Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust aftertreatment...

264

High-Throughput Program for the Discovery of NOx Reduction Catalysts...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

2004deerblint.pdf More Documents & Publications WA02042GENERALMOTORSPOWERTRAINDIVWaiverofDomestic.pdf Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs....

265

Boosted HCCI for High Power without Engine Knock, and with Ultra-Low NOX Emissions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Advanced engines using HCCI or HCCI-like combustion can provide both high efficiencies and very low emissions of NOX and PM

266

Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysts investigation of potential synergies of low emission advanced combustion techniques and advanced lean exhaust catalytic aftertreatment....

267

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminosilicates nox reduction Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN Summary: Non-Catalytic Reduction SNCR NOx control throughout the United States and Canada. They correspond... explain why mass balances are not an appro...

268

Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Emissions Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions Introduction A combined heat and power (CHP) system can be a financially attractive energy option for many...

269

Reduce NOx and Improve Energy Efficiency, Software Tools for Industry, Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes how the Industrial Technologies Program NOx and Energy Assessment Tool (NxEAT) can help petroleum refining and chemical plants improve energy efficiency.

Not Available

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

16 - Ultra-low nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions combustion in gas turbine systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: The historical development of gas turbine low \\{NOx\\} combustion from the pioneering NASA work in the early 1970s to the present generation of ultra-low \\{NOx\\} industrial gas turbine combustors is reviewed. The principles of operation of single digit ultra-low \\{NOx\\} gas turbine combustion for industrial applications are outlined. The review shows the potential has been demonstrated by several investigators using different flame stabilizers for \\{NOx\\} to be reduced to 1 ppm at 1700 K, 2 ppm at 1800 K and 3–4 ppm at 1900 K with no influence of operating pressure and with a practical operating flame stability margin. Under these conditions it is shown that no thermal \\{NOx\\} should occur and all the \\{NOx\\} is formed by the prompt \\{NOx\\} mechanisms. The elimination of thermal \\{NOx\\} makes the \\{NOx\\} emissions independent of residence time or reference velocity and independent of pressure. Also there is no influence of air inlet temperature for the same flame temperature. Where legislation requires emissions to be as low as can be achieved, emissions below 4 ppm in production engines are current technology and this review shows the potential to get even lower than this in the future.

G.E. Andrews

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide from the post-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide dioxide separation and sequestration because the lower cost of carbon dioxide separation from for injection of carbon dioxide into oil or gas-bearing formations. An advantage of sequestration involving

272

Integrated Dry NOx/SO2 Emissions Control System, A DOE Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of a project selected in CCT Round III, the Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System (IDECS), as described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy 1991). The desire to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO, nitric oxide, and NO{sub 2}, nitrogen dioxide, collectively referred to as NO{sub x}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) by up to 70 percent at a minimum capital expenditure, while limiting waste production to dry solids that can be handled by conventional ash-removal equipment, prompted Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCC) to submit the proposal for the IDECS project. In March 1991, PSCC entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct the study. The project was sited at PSCC's Arapahoe Steam Electric Generating Station in Denver, Colorado. The purpose of this CCT project was to demonstrate the reduction of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions by installing a combination of existing and emerging technologies, which were expected to work synergistically to reduce emissions. The technologies were low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBS), overfire air (OFA), and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) for NO{sub x} reduction; and dry sorbent injection (DSI), both with and without flue-gas humidification (FGH), for SO{sub 2} reduction. DOE provided 50 percent of the total project funding of $26.2 million.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

High-Sulfur Coal for Generating Electricity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-Sulfur...FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTORS, COMBUSTION...MAY FLUE GAS DES S E...1971 ). High-sulfur...was brief. Natural gas became...overdependent on natural gas and oil to...elevated pressure with a downward...coals of high ash-fusion...

James T. Dunham; Carl Rampacek; T. A. Henrie

1974-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

274

Reducing carbon dioxide to products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

275

decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) storage wells. The manual builds on lessons learned through NETL research; the experiences of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships' (RCSPs) carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) field tests; and the acquired knowledge of industries that have been actively drilling wells for more than 100 years. In addition, the BPM provides an overview of the well-

276

Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

277

Method of removal of sulfur from coal and petroleum products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the removal of sulfur from sulfur-bearing materials such as coal and petroleum products using organophosphine and organophosphite compounds is provided.

Verkade, John G. (Ames, IA); Mohan, Thyagarajan (Ames, IA); Angelici, Robert J. (Ames, IA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Investigation of Sulfur Deactivation on Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of Sulfur Deactivation on CuZeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel Application Investigation of Sulfur Deactivation on CuZeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel Application Investigation of...

279

Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

280

Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Hybrid Anode Structures. Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Hybrid Anode...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

METHANE de-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project seeks to develop and validate a new pulverized coal combustion system to reduce utility PC boiler NOx emissions to 0.15 lb per million Btu or less without post-combustion flue gas cleaning. Work during previous reporting periods completed the design, installation, shakedown and initial PRB coal testing of a 3-million Btu/h pilot system at BBP's Pilot-Scale Combustion Facility (PSCF) in Worcester, MA. Based on these results, modifications to the gas-fired preheat combustor and PC burner were defined, along with a modified testing plan and schedule. A revised subcontract was executed with BBP to reflect changes in the pilot testing program. Modeling activities were continued to develop and verify revised design approaches for both the Preheat gas combustor and PC burner. Reactivation of the pilot test system was then begun with BBP personnel. During the previous reporting period, reactivation of the pilot test system was completed with the modified Preheat gas combustor. Following shakedown of the modified gas combustor alone, a series of successful tests of the new combustor with PRB coal using the original PC burner were completed. NOx at the furnace exit was reduced significantly with the modified gas combustor, to as low as 150 ppm with only 36 ppm CO (both corrected to 3% O2). Concurrent with testing, GTI and BBP collaborated on development of two modified designs for the PC burner optimized to fire preheated char and pyrolysis products from the Preheat gas combustor. During the current reporting period, one of the two modified PC burner designs was fabricated and installed in the pilot test facility. Testing of the modified pilot system (modified gas combustor and modified PC burner) during the quarter included 38 tests with PRB coal. NOx reduction was significantly improved to levels as low as 60-100 ppmv with CO in the range of 35-112 ppmv without any furnace air staging.

Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

2002-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

282

NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Field tests for NOx reduction in a cyclone fired utility boiler due to using Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) have been started. CFD modeling studies have been started to evaluate the use of RRI for NOx reduction in a corner fired utility boiler using pulverized coal. Field tests of a corrosion monitor to measure waterwall wastage in a utility boiler have been completed. Computational studies to evaluate a soot model within a boiler simulation program are continuing. Research to evaluate SCR catalyst performance has started. A literature survey was completed. Experiments have been outlined and two flow reactor systems have been designed and are under construction. Commercial catalyst vendors have been contacted about supplying catalyst samples. Several sets of new experiments have been performed to investigate ammonia removal processes and mechanisms for fly ash. Work has focused on a promising class of processes in which ammonia is destroyed by strong oxidizing agents at ambient temperature during semi-dry processing (the use of moisture amounts less than 5 wt-%). Both ozone and an ozone/peroxide combination have been used to treat both basic and acidic ammonia-laden ashes.

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

283

SOx/NOx sorbent and process of use  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600 C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilizing spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

Ziebarth, M.S.; Hager, M.J.; Beeckman, J.W.; Plecha, S.

1993-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

284

Controlling NOx to Obtain Offsets or Meet Compliance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

monitored and regu lated a number of pollutants: lead, carbon monoxide, oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, ozone and PM-lO. The Clean Air Act Amendments increased the focus on these pollutants, mandating the reductions to specified limits. Title I...

Mincy, J. E.

285

Sonic enhanced ash agglomeration and sulfur capture. Nineteenth quarterly technical progress report, January 3, 1994--March 27, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major concern with the utilization of coal in directly fired gas turbines is the control of particulate emissions and reduction of sulfur dioxide, and alkali vapor from combustion of coal, up-stream of the gas turbine. Much research and development has been sponsored on methods for particulate emissions control and the direct injection of calcium-based sorbents to reduce SO{sub 2} emission levels. The results of this research and development indicate that both acoustic agglomeration of particulates and direct injection of sorbents have the potential to become a significant emissions control strategy. The Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture program focuses upon the application of an MTCI proprietary invention (Patent No. 5,197,399) for simultaneously enhancing sulfur capture and particulate agglomeration of the combustor effluent. This application can be adapted as either a ``hot flue gas cleanup`` subsystem for the current concepts for combustor islands or as an alternative primary pulse combustor island in which slagging, sulfur capture, particulate agglomeration and control, and alkali gettering as well as NO{sub x} control processes become an integral part of the pulse combustion process. The goal of the program is to support the DOE mission in developing coal-fired combustion gas turbines. In particular, the MTCI proprietary process for bimodal ash agglomeration and simultaneous sulfur capture will be evaluated and developed.

Not Available

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Sulfur nanocrystals anchored graphene composite with highly improved electrochemical performance for lithium–sulfur batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Two kinds of graphene–sulfur composites with 50 wt% of sulfur are prepared using hydrothermal method and thermal mixing, respectively. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectra mapping show that sulfur nanocrystals with size of ?5 nm dispersed on graphene sheets homogeneously for the sample prepared by hydrothermal method (NanoS@G). While for the thermal mixed graphene–sulfur composite (S–G mixture), sulfur shows larger and uneven size (50–200 nm). X-ray Photoelectron Spectra (XPS) reveals the strong chemical bonding between the sulfur nanocrystals and graphene. Comparing with the S–G mixture, the NanoS@G composite shows highly improved electrochemical performance as cathode for lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery. The NanoS@G composite delivers an initial capacity of 1400 mAh g?1 with the sulfur utilization of 83.7% at a current density of 335 mA g?1. The capacity keeps above 720 mAh g?1 over 100 cycles. The strong adherence of the sulfur nanocrystals on graphene immobilizes sulfur and polysulfides species and suppressed the “shuttle effect”, resulting higher coulombic efficiency and better capacity retention. Electrochemical impedance also suggests that the strong bonding enabled rapid electronic/ionic transport and improved electrochemical kinetics, therefore good rate capability is obtained. These results demonstrate that the NanoS@G composite is a very promising candidate for high-performance Li–S batteries.

Jun Zhang; Zimin Dong; Xiuli Wang; Xuyang Zhao; Jiangping Tu; Qingmei Su; Gaohui Du

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Global impact of fossil fuel combustion on atmospheric NOx Larry W. Horowitz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

potential than emissions in the United States to perturb the global oxidizing power of the atmosphere. #12% of NOx concentrations in the lower and middle troposphere throughout the extratropical northern of the ocean. Sources in the United States are found to contribute about half of the fossil fuel NOx over

Jacob, Daniel J.

288

On the NOx production by laboratory electrical discharges and lightning Vernon Cooraya,, Mahbubur Rahman a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in estimating the global production of NOx by lightning flashes, including field measurements carried out during influence extrapolation of laboratory data to lightning flashes. Second, an estimation of the NOx yield per lightning flash is made by treating the lightning flash as a composite event consisting of several discharge

Florida, University of

289

Measurements of NOX produced by rocket-triggered lightning M. Rahman,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lightning flashes were triggered using the rocket- and-wire technique at the International Center atmosphere. [3] A direct measurement of the NOX generated by a natural lightning flash is impractical because generated by lightning flashes. Due to a large number of uncertainties involved, the estimates of global NOX

Florida, University of

290

A Novel Technology for the Reduction of NOx on Char by Microwaves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of these applications. The technology is directed at NOx reduction but may also address other pollutants like SO2. The technology employees char, a heat treated and devolitilized form of coal, to adsorb NOx from the flue (or waste) gas. Adsorption of greater than 99...

Buenger, C.; Peterson, E.

291

Improvement of lightning NOx in the TM5 global chemistry transport model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, a key greenhouse gas, and for the formation of the hydroxyl28 radical, which removes methane, also a key greenhouse gas. Estimates of the global lightning NOx production vary29 by an order of magnitude interpreting the lighting NOx contribu-36 tion from satellite and aircraft observations of NO2 in comparison

Haak, Hein

292

Development of a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction in Marine Diesel Engines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Stand-alone urea SCR system was developed for marine diesel engines and showed a 50-percent reduction in NOx.

293

Development of Compact Gaseous Sensors with Internal Reference for Monitoring O2 and NOx in Combustion Environments  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Compact sensors have been developed to allow for real-time monitoring of O2 and NOx during combustion.

294

Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Second Generation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Second Generation Advanced Reburning Second Generation Advanced Reburning General Electric - Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE-EER) is carrying out a two Phase research program to develop novel Advanced Reburning (AR) concepts for high efficiency and low cost NOx control from coal-fired utility boilers. AR technologies are based on combination of basic reburning and N-agent/promoter injections. Phase I of the project was successfully completed and EER was selected to continue to develop AR technology during Phase II. Phase I demonstrated that AR technologies are able to provide effective NOx control for coal-fired combustors. Three technologies were originally envisioned for development: AR-Lean, AR-Rich, and Multiple Injection AR (MIAR). Along with these, three additional technologies were identified during the project: reburning plus promoted SNCR; AR-Lean plus promoted SNCR; and AR-Rich plus promoted SNCR. The promoters are sodium salts, in particular sodium carbonate. These AR technologies have different optimum reburn heat input levels and furnace temperature requirements. For full scale application, an optimum technology can be selected on a boiler-specific basis depending on furnace temperature profile and regions of injector access.

295

2004 Conference on Reburning for NOX Control Reburning on Trial  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2004 Conf. on Reburning for NOx Control Reburning on Trial 2004 Conf. on Reburning for NOx Control Reburning on Trial May 18, 2004 Table of Contents Disclaimer Papers and Presentations Reburning Overview Commercial Reburning Experience Biomass Reburning Other Applications of Reburning Posters Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government or any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

296

NETL: PPII - Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for Boiler Combustion Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for Boiler Combustion - Project Brief [PDF-72KB] Sunflower Electric Power Corp., Garden City, Finney County, KS PROJECT FACT SHEET Achieving New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Through Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for Boiler Combustion [PDF-260KB] (Oct 2008) PROGRAM PUBLICATIONS Final Report Achieving NSPS Emission Standards Through Integration of Low NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for Boiler Combustion [PDF-3.4MB] (June 2006) CCT Reports: Project Performance Summaries, Post-Project Assessments, & Topical Reports Achieving New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Emission Standards through Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for Boiler Combustion: A DOE Assessment [PDF-1.4MB] (Nov 2006)

297

EA-1472: Commercial Demonstration fo the Low Nox Burner/Separated Over-Fire  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

472: Commercial Demonstration fo the Low Nox Burner/Separated 472: Commercial Demonstration fo the Low Nox Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) Integration System Emission Reduction Technology, Holcolm Station, Sunflower Electric Power Corporation Finnety County, Kansas EA-1472: Commercial Demonstration fo the Low Nox Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) Integration System Emission Reduction Technology, Holcolm Station, Sunflower Electric Power Corporation Finnety County, Kansas SUMMARY The DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), to analyze the potential impacts of the commercial application of the Low-NOx Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) integration system to achieve nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions reduction at Sunflower's Holcomb Unit No. 1 (Holcomb Station), located near Garden City, in Finney County, Kansas.

298

Simultaneous Removal of NOx and Mercury in Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of a 18-month investigation to advance the development of a novel Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor (LTSCAR), for the simultaneous removal of NO{sub x} and mercury (elemental and oxidized) from flue gases in a single unit operation located downstream of the particulate collectors, are reported. In the proposed LTSCAR, NO{sub x} removal is in a traditional SCR mode but at low temperature, and, uniquely, using carbon monoxide as a reductant. The concomitant capture of mercury in the unit is achieved through the incorporation of a novel chelating adsorbent. As conceptualized, the LTSCAR will be located downstream of the particulate collectors (flue gas temperature 140-160 C) and will be similar in structure to a conventional SCR. That is, it will have 3-4 beds that are loaded with catalyst and adsorbent allowing staged replacement of catalyst and adsorbent as required. Various Mn/TiO{sub 2} SCR catalysts were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to reduce NO at low temperature using CO as the reductant. It has been shown that with a suitably tailored catalyst more than 65% NO conversion with 100% N{sub 2} selectivity can be achieved, even at a high space velocity (SV) of 50,000 h-1 and in the presence of 2 v% H{sub 2}O. Three adsorbents for oxidized mercury were developed in this project with thermal stability in the required range. Based on detailed evaluations of their characteristics, the mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS) adsorbent was found to be most promising for the capture of oxidized mercury. This adsorbent has been shown to be thermally stable to 200 C. Fixed-bed evaluations in the targeted temperature range demonstrated effective removal of oxidized mercury from simulated flue gas at very high capacity ({approx}>58 mg Hg/g adsorbent). Extension of the capability of the adsorbent to elemental mercury capture was pursued with two independent approaches: incorporation of a novel nano-layer on the surface of the chelating mercury adsorbent to achieve in situ oxidation on the adsorbent, and the use of a separate titania-supported manganese oxide catalyst upstream of the oxidized mercury adsorbent. Both approaches met with some success. It was demonstrated that the concept of in situ oxidation on the adsorbent is viable, but the future challenge is to raise the operating capacity beyond the achieved limit of 2.7 mg Hg/g adsorbent. With regard to the manganese dioxide catalyst, elemental mercury was very efficiently oxidized in the absence of sulfur dioxide. Adequate resistance to sulfur dioxide must be incorporated for the approach to be feasible in flue gas. A preliminary benefits analysis of the technology suggests significant potential economic and environmental advantages.

Neville G. Pinto; Panagiotis G. Smirniotis

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

299

Sulfur-graphene oxide material for lithium-sulfur battery cathodes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sulfur-graphene oxide material for lithium-sulfur battery cathodes Sulfur-graphene oxide material for lithium-sulfur battery cathodes Theoretical specific energy and theoretical energy density Scanning electron micrograph of the GO-S nanocomposite June 2013 Searching for a safer, less expensive alternative to today's lithium-ion batteries, scientists have turned to lithium-sulfur as a possible chemistry for next-generation batteries. Li/S batteries have several times the energy storage capacity of the best currently available rechargeable Li-ion battery, and sulfur is inexpensive and nontoxic. Current batteries using this chemistry, however, suffer from extremely short cycle life-they don't last through many charge-discharge cycles before they fail. A research team led by Elton Cairns and Yuegang Zhang has developed a new

300

Weyburn Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Project  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Weyburn Carbon DioxiDe SequeStration Weyburn Carbon DioxiDe SequeStration ProjeCt Background Since September 2000, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has been transported from the Dakota Gasification Plant in North Dakota through a 320-km pipeline and injected into the Weyburn oilfield in Saskatchewan, Canada. The CO 2 has given the Weyburn field, discovered 50 years ago, a new life: 155 million gross barrels of incremental oil are slated to be recovered by 2035 and the field is projected to be able to store 30 million tonnes of CO 2 over 30 years. CO 2 injection began in October of 2005 at the adjacent Midale oilfield, and an additional 45-60 million barrels of oil are expected to be recovered during 30 years of continued operation. A significant monitoring project associated with the Weyburn and Midale commercial

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Phosphazene groups modified sulfur composites as active cathode materials for rechargeable lithium/sulfur batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel phosphazene groups modified sulfur composites cathode [triphosphazene sulfide composite (PS) or nitroaniline–triphosphazene disulfide composite (NPS)] which can give good affinity with electrolytes was...

J. D. Liu; S. Q. Zhang; S. B. Yang; Z. F. Shi; S. T. Zhang; L. K. Wu

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Energy Levels in Sulfur Nuclei  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A study has been made of the proton groups from the reaction of 3.22-Mev deuterons with sulfur in the form, primarily, of H2S gas. The following Q values have been assigned to the reaction S32(dp)S33:6.48, 5.69, 4.58, 4.31, 3.63, 3.33, 2.60, 2.33, 2.06, 1.78, 1.37, 0.85, and 0.18 Mev, corresponding to the ground state and twelve excited states of S33. Four of these groups have been investigated for proton gamma-ray coincidences to confirm this assignment. The yield as a function of deuteron energy has been observed for the six highest energy groups and indication of the presence of some broad resonances found. A qualitative measurement of the variation with angle of relative yields of the groups has indicated a proton intensity distribution that is symmetric for some groups and asymmetric for others. The cross section for the reaction for 90° observation has been found to be 1.2 barns. The mass difference S33-S32 has been calculated to be 0.99963 mass unit.Two low intensity, high energy groups have been assigned to the reaction S33(dp)S34 with Q values of 8.67 and 7.85 Mev. This, together with the above observation, leads to a value of 1.99691 for the mass difference S34-S32.

Perry W. Davison

1949-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Carbon Dioxide: Threat or Opportunity?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tion will be by direct combustion for the generation of power, but an increasing proportion will be con verted to syngas for chemical and fuel uses. Coal gasification is projected to become a major industry in the next decade. For every ton of coal... entering the gasification process, 1.88 lons of carbon dio xide are produced. This carbon dioxide is removed in virtually pure form by existing technology. This same technology can be applied to remove carbon dioxide from stack gases produced by power...

McKinney, A. R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Steam reforming utilizing sulfur tolerant catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a steam reforming process for converting hydrocarbon material to hydrogen gas in the presence of sulfur which consists of: adding steam to the hydrocarbon material and passing the steam and hydrocarbon material over catalyst material at elevated temperatures. The improvement comprises utilizing as a catalyst material high activity, sulfur tolerant catalyst of platinum supported on lanthanum stabilized alumina or magnesium promoted lanthanum stabilized alumina. It also describes a steam process for converting hydrocarbon material to hydrogen gas in the presence of sulfur which consists of steam to the hydrocarbon material over catalyst material at elevated temperatures. The improvement comprises utilizing as a catalyst material high activity, sulfur tolerant catalysts consisting essentially of iridium supported on lanthanum stabilized alumina or magnesium promoted lanthanum stabilized alumina. In addition a steam reforming process is described for converting hydrocarbon material to hydrogen gas in the presence of sulfur comprising adding steam to the hydrocarbon material and passing the steam and hydrocarbon material over catalyst material at elevated temperatures. The improvement comprises utilizing as a catalyst material high activity sulfur tolerant catalysts consisting essentially of palladium supported on lanthanum stabilized alumina or magnesium promoted lanthanum stabilized alumina.

Setzer, H.J.; Karavolis, S.; Bett, J.A.S.

1987-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

305

Capture of carbon dioxide from ambient air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide capture from ambient air could compensate for all carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. Such capture would, for example, make it possible to use liquid, carbon-based fuels in cars or airplane...

K.S. Lackner

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions from Estuaries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from estuaries are reviewed in relation with biogeochemical processes and carbon cycling. In estuaries, carbon dioxide and methane emissions show a large spatial and temporal ...

Gwenaël Abril; Alberto Vieira Borges

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

FISCAL YEAR 2006 REPORT ON ELECTROLYZER COMPONENT DEVELOPMENT FOR THE HYBRID SULFUR PROJECT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In FY05, testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) explored a low temperature fuel cell design concept for the SDE. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small volumetric footprint that is crucial for successful implementation on a commercial scale. A key component of the SDE is the ion conductive membrane through which protons produced at anode migrate to the cathode and react to produce hydrogen. An ideal membrane for the SDE should have both low ionic resistivity and low sulfur dioxide transport. These features allow the electrolyzer to perform at high currents with low potentials, along with preventing contamination of both the hydrogen output and poisoning of the catalysts involved. Another key component is the electrocatalyst material used for the anode and cathode. Good electrocatalysts should be chemically stable and low overpotential for the desired electrochemical reactions. This report summarizes results from activities to evaluate different membrane and electrocatalyst materials for the SDE. Several different types of commercially-available membranes were analyzed for ionic resistance and sulfur dioxide transport including perfluorinated sulfonic acid, sulfonated poly-etherketone-ketone, and poly-benzimidazole membranes. Of these membrane types, the poly-benzimidazole (PBI) membrane, Celtec-L, exhibited the best combination of characteristics for use in an SDE. Testing examined the activity and stability of platinum and palladium as electrocatalyst for the SDE in sulfuric acid solutions. Cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry revealed that platinum provided better catalytic activity with much lower potentials and higher currents than palladium. Testing also showed that the catalyst activity is strongly influenced by concentration of the sulfuric acid. Various cell configurations were examined with respect to the deposition of electrocatalyst and use of conductive carbon materials such as carbon cloth and carbon paper. Findings from these evaluations and the results of the membrane and electrocatalyst testing, we prepared three different membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for electrolyzer testing. The first MEA consisted of a Nafion{reg_sign} membrane with platinum electrocatalyst deposited on carbon cloths, which were heat pressed onto the membrane, an assembly identical to those used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The second MEA also used a Nafion membrane with the electrocatalysts deposited directly onto the membrane. The third MEA proved similar to the second but utilized a PBI membrane in place of the Nafion{reg_sign} membrane. Tailor of the membrane and catalysts properties for the SDE system was concluded as a required step for the technology to move forward. It was also recommended the evaluation of the tested and new developed materials at conditions closer to the SDE operating conditions and for longer period of time.

Colon-Mercado, H; David Hobbs, D; Daryl Coleman, D; Amy Ekechukwu, A

2006-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

308

NETL: News Release - DOE Selects Five NOx-Control Projects to Combat Acid  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

November 5, 2004 November 5, 2004 DOE Selects Five NOx-Control Projects to Combat Acid Rain and Smog Industry Partners to Focus on Reducing Emissions While Cutting Energy Costs PITTSBURGH, PA - Continuing efforts to cut acid rain and smog-producing nitrogen oxides (NOx) have prompted the U.S. Department of Energy to partner with industry experts to develop advanced NOx-control technologies. With the selection of five new NOx-control projects, the Energy Department continues as a leader in developing advanced technologies to achieve environmental compliance for the nation's fleet of coal-fired power plants. Although today's NOx-control workhorses, such as low-NOx burners and selective catalytic reduction (SCR), have been successfully deployed to address existing regulations, proposed regulations will require deeper cuts in NOx emissions, at a greater number of generating facilities. Many of the smaller affected plants will not be able to cost-effectively use today's technologies; these are the focus of the advanced technologies selected in this announcement.

309

Low NOx burner retrofits and enhancements for a 518 MW oil and gas fired boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low NOx oil/gas burners originally supplied to Jacksonville Electric Authority, Northside No. 3 .500 MW unit, were based on a duplex air register design with lobed spray oil atomizers providing additional fuel staging. Although the burners could meet the targeted NOx levels of 0.3 and 0.2 lbs/10{sup 6} BTU on oil and gas respectively. There was insufficient margin on these NOx levels to enable continuous low NOx operation to be achieved. Further burner development was undertaken based on improved aerodynamic control within the burner design to give an approximate 25% improvement in NOx emission reduction thus providing an adequate operating margin. This `RoBTAS` (Round Burner with Tilted Air Supply) burner design based on techniques developed successfully for front wall coal firing applications achieved the required NOx reductions in full scale firing demonstrations on both heavy fuel oil and natural gas firing. The paper describes the development work and the subsequent application of the `RoBTAS` burners to the Northside No. 3 boiler. The burner will also be test fired on Orimulsion fuel and thus the comparison between heavy fuel oil firing and Orimulsion firing under ultra low NOx conditions will be made.

King, J.J. [Jacksonville Electric Authority, FL (United States); Allen, J.W.; Beal, P.R. [International Combustion Ltd., Derby (United Kingdom). Rolls-Royce Industrial Power Group

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

310

Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Why and How They are Controlled  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Air Quality EPA 456/F-99-006R Air Quality EPA 456/F-99-006R Environmental Protection Planning and Standards November 1999 Agency Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 Air EPA-456/F-99-006R November 1999 Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Why and How They Are Controlled Prepared by Clean Air Technology Center (MD-12) Information Transfer and Program Integration Division Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711 ii DISCLAIMER This report has been reviewed by the Information Transfer and Program Integration Division of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and approved for publication. Approval does not signify that the contents of this report reflect the views and policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Mention of trade

311

Low NOx nozzle tip for a pulverized solid fuel furnace  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nozzle tip [100] for a pulverized solid fuel pipe nozzle [200] of a pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace includes: a primary air shroud [120] having an inlet [102] and an outlet [104], wherein the inlet [102] receives a fuel flow [230]; and a flow splitter [180] disposed within the primary air shroud [120], wherein the flow splitter disperses particles in the fuel flow [230] to the outlet [104] to provide a fuel flow jet which reduces NOx in the pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace. In alternative embodiments, the flow splitter [180] may be wedge shaped and extend partially or entirely across the outlet [104]. In another alternative embodiment, flow splitter [180] may be moved forward toward the inlet [102] to create a recessed design.

Donais, Richard E; Hellewell, Todd D; Lewis, Robert D; Richards, Galen H; Towle, David P

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

312

METHANE de-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project seeks to develop and validate a new pulverized coal combustion system to reduce utility PC boiler NOx emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less without post-combustion flue gas cleaning. Work during previous reporting periods completed the design, installation, shakedown and initial PRB coal testing of a 3-million Btu/h pilot system at BBP's Pilot-Scale Combustion Facility (PSCF) in Worcester, MA. Based on these results, modifications to the gas-fired preheat combustor and PC burner were defined, along with a modified testing plan and schedule. During the current reporting period, BBP's subcontract was modified to reflect changes in the pilot testing program, and the modifications to the gas-fired preheat combustor were completed. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling approach was defined for the combined PC burner and 3-million Btu/h pilot system. Modeling of the modified gas-fired preheat combustor was also started.

Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

2002-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

313

Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt executive summary Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) referS to the Set of technologies developed to capture carbon dioxide (Co2) gas from the exhausts of technologies developed to capture carbon dioxide (Co2) gas from the exhausts of power stations and from other

314

Condenser-type diffusion denuders for the collection of sulfur dioxide in a cleanroom  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-efficiency condenser-type diffusion denuders of cylindrical and planar geometries are described. The film condensation of water vapor onto a cooled denuder surface can be used as a method for collecting w...

In-Hyoung Chang; Dong Soo Lee; Soon-Ho Ock

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

The excited state geometry associated with the 2900A absorption spectrum of sulfur dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Za in Eqs. [18], [19], and [ZO], and the ground state vibrational frequencies Vl" and VZ" in Eq. [16]. Once the L" matrix has been determined, the normal coordi- nates ql" and qZ" could be obtained by the transformation [24] written for the ground... vs. log E for any plate or film has the form shown in Figure l. a b Log Exposure Figure l. Optical density vs. log exposure for a film or plate. Note that over the range (a, b) the graph is practically linear, We may also write Eq. I 2...

Smith, David Robert, Jr

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

316

Wave lengths of some new absorption bands of sulfur dioxide vapor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is made in two sections with flanges on each end to permit, bolting the sections and end plates together. One en/, the left in figure 3, is equipped with two pair of adjusting screws which are used to change the orientation of two half mirrors, mounted... in figure 4, was based on two objectives. One was getting the maximum amount of light through the system and to the photographic plate. This was a major problem because the light rays become quite weak after being re- flected many times by the mirrors...

Landrum, Bobby Lee

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

317

U.S. Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Trading Program: Results and Further Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of emissions trading (cap and trade) is gaining worldwide...2 have been reduced annually from sources participating in the US SO2 emissions trading program. Ambient SO2 levels and sulfate deposition have ...

Stephanie Rose Benkovic; Joseph Kruger

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Quantitative application of the Franck-Condon theory to sulfur dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

there are N(G^) molecules In the absorbing path. Since the absorption 2J. H. Clements, Phys. Rev. 47. 220 (1935). ^F. Almassy and H. Laemmel, Helv. Chlm. Acta. 33, 2092, (1950). ^G. B. Kistiakowski and A. H. Solomon, JN Chem. Phys. 1, 609 (1937). 2... there are N(G^) molecules In the absorbing path. Since the absorption 2J. H. Clements, Phys. Rev. 47. 220 (1935). ^F. Almassy and H. Laemmel, Helv. Chlm. Acta. 33, 2092, (1950). ^G. B. Kistiakowski and A. H. Solomon, JN Chem. Phys. 1, 609 (1937). 2...

Coffman, Moody Lee

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

319

METHANE DE-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary focus for the project continues to be on developing a PC PREHEAT system design suitable for use with caking coals and readying the 100 MMBtu/h CBTF for testing with noncaking PRB coal. During the current quarter, twenty-two pilot tests were conducted with Central Appalachian (CA) caking coal. The objective for these tests was to achieve continuous operation of the pilot system at its design coal feed rate of 156 lb/h, without plugging or agglomeration in the combustor. One combustor air distribution method tested achieved continuous operation at 110 lb/hr, and inspection of the combustor afterward indicated that this method has potential to solve the caking problem. The NOx results from the pilot caking coal runs indicate that even greater NOx reduction is possible with CA coal than with the PRB coal tested, to levels near 100 ppmv or lower at 4-6% exit oxygen. It was therefore decided to conduct additional pilot tests of the air distribution method to determine how to incorporate this into a workable CA combustor design. Based on current weather and manpower restrictions at the site, this pilot testing is expected to be started in February. The design for the 100 MMBtu/h unit for PRB testing in the CBTF was completed and fabrication and installation started during the quarter. While significant progress has been made in the installation of the unit, weather and combustor fabrication delays are expected to move the start of large-scale testing with PRB coal into February, which will push the project completion date beyond the current 3/30/04 end date. GTI is in the process of developing a revised project schedule and estimated cost to complete.

Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

2004-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

320

METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary focus for the project during the quarter was shakedown testing of the large-scale coal preheater prototype in the CBTF with non-caking PRB coal. Additional pilot-scale tests were conducted in the PSCF in support of developing a preheating system design suitable for use with caking coals. Thirty-two additional pilot tests were conducted during the quarter with caking coal. These tests further evaluated the use of the air-bleed and indirect air-cooled liner designs to reduce or eliminate combustor plugging with caking coal. The air-bleed configurations tested used air injection holes perpendicular to the liner's longitudinal axis with the number, size and air flow though the air-bleed holes varied to determine the effect on combustor plugging. The indirect cooling configurations tested included a stainless steel liner with spiral fins in the annular space between the liner and the combustor wall, and a silicon carbide liner without fins. Continuous pilot operation was maintained for up to 30 minutes at a coal feed rate of 50 lb/h with the air-bleed liner. The best result achieved was for the stainless steel indirect air-cooled liner with 20 minutes of continuous operation at 126 lb/h of coal followed by an additional 20 minutes at 150 lb/h. The NOx results from these continue to indicate that even greater NOx reduction is possible with caking coal than with the PRB coal tested. The installation of the large-scale prototype coal preheater for PRB testing in the CBTF was completed and shakedown testing with natural gas and PRB coal started during the quarter. Stable operation of the coal system, combustor and burner were achieved at coal feed rates up to 6000 lb/h (50 MMBtu/h).

Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Influencing factors on NOX emission level during grate conversion of three pelletized energy crops  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract NOX emission behavior of three different pelletized energy crops, a herbaceous one, Brassica carinata, a short rotation coppice, Populus sp., and a blend of them, was assessed during fixed grate conversion. Measurements of NOX emissions were done at combustion conditions that yielded both thermal efficiency and CO emissions according to the European norm (EN 303-5:2012), and results compared to limits established by the Austrian deviations. Based on the experimental data, NOX results fulfilled the Austrian restrictions except during combustion of brassica, which exhibited the highest Fuel-N content. The Fuel-NOX was identified as the main formation mechanism. An opposite relation was determined between the specific NOX emissions and the Fuel-N conversion ratio obtained between the N-rich and the N-lean fuels tested here. The influence of the air supply (amount and distribution) on the NOX formation was also noticeable. In general, a higher proportion of air increased the specific NOX emissions and the Fuel-N conversion ratio. Possibilities to control the NOX emissions level by air staging were rather limited, particularly, during combustion of brassica and the blend because of their peculiarities as ash-rich fuels with high slag formation risk. For attaining an appropriate conversion of these fuels, primary air requirements substantially increased. Due to limitations found during the energy crops conversion, efforts to minimize the level of NOX emissions identified here for the troublesome fuels tested should be mainly focused on attaining both a properly designed air supply system and the grate temperature control as well as on conditioning the Fuel-N content, for instance, by blending.

Maryori Díaz-Ramírez; Fernando Sebastián; Javier Royo; Adeline Rezeau

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Exergy analysis of combustion characteristics and NOx emissions of a dual-fuel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combustion characteristics and NOx emissions of compression ignition engines working on a dual fuel mode are investigated numerically and their exergetic efficiencies are determined. The model has been validated with available experimental results. The simulation results show that dual fuel engine combustion and trend of NOx emissions are well predicted by the present model. Parametric study showed improvements in engine performance and an increase in NOx emissions with decreased advanced injection timing of the pilot fuel as well as with increased intake temperature and pilot fuel quantity. The maximum values for energy and exergy are found to be comparable.

Mohamed H. Morsy; Abdelrahman El-Leathy; Arif Hepbasli

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

The reaction kinetics of gasoline sulfur compounds: Catalytic mechanisms for sulfur reduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the key elements of reformulated gasoline is the reduction of the sulfur compounds produced by fluid catalytic cracking. This paper probes the reaction kinetics of refractory gasoline-range thiophene derivatives (thiophene, tetrahydrothiophene, and alkylthiophenes) in an effort to determine the mechanisms of sulfur compound cracking in the FCC unit. The gasoline-range sulfur compounds were analyzed using gas chromatography with an atomic emission detector. The authors` results show that the FCC catalysts affects the cracking of sulfur compounds through both hydrogen transfer and zeolite pore restriction mechanisms. An experimental FCC catalyst is shown to reduce gasoline sulfur content in the Davidson Circulating Riser (DCR{sup TM}) pilot unit. Model compound tests show that the activity of the catalyst is due to both its catalytic and adsorptive properties. Tetrahydrothiophene, which is produced from thiophenes by hydrogen transfer, is completely removed by the experimental catalyst.

Harding, R.H.; Gatte, R.R.; Albro, T.G.; Wormsbecher, R.F. [W.R. Grace & Co. Conn, Columbia, MD (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

324

Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

& Publications Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries...

325

Spatially Differentiated Trade of Permits for Multipollutant Electric Power Supply Chains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

regulations to control multiple pollutants. The Regional Clean Air Incentives Market (RECLAIM) program). Berlin, Germany: Springer, in press. 1 Introduction Electric power plants emit several different air pollutants, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrous oxide (NOx), and mercury (Hg

Nagurney, Anna

326

An Aerosol Condensation Model for Sulfur Trioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes a model for condensation of sulfuric acid aerosol given an initial concentration and/or source of gaseous sulfur trioxide (e.g. fuming from oleum). The model includes the thermochemical effects on aerosol condensation and air parcel buoyancy. Condensation is assumed to occur heterogeneously onto a preexisting background aerosol distribution. The model development is both a revisiting of research initially presented at the Fall 2001 American Geophysical Union Meeting [1] and a further extension to provide new capabilities for current atmospheric dispersion modeling efforts [2]. Sulfuric acid is one of the most widely used of all industrial chemicals. In 1992, world consumption of sulfuric acid was 145 million metric tons, with 42.4 Mt (mega-tons) consumed in the United States [10]. In 2001, of 37.5 Mt consumed in the U.S., 74% went into producing phosphate fertilizers [11]. Another significant use is in mining industries. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] estimate that, in 1996, 68% of use was for fertilizers and 5.8% was for mining. They note that H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} use has been and should continue to be very stable. In the United States, the elimination of MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether) and the use of ethanol for gasoline production are further increasing the demand for petroleum alkylate. Alkylate producers have a choice of either a hydrofluoric acid or sulfuric acid process. Both processes are widely used today. Concerns, however, over the safety or potential regulation of hydrofluoric acid are likely to result in most of the growth being for the sulfuric acid process, further increasing demand [11]. The implication of sulfuric acid being a pervasive industrial chemical is that transport is also pervasive. Often, this is in the form of oleum tankers, having around 30% free sulfur trioxide. Although sulfuric acid itself is not a volatile substance, fuming sulfuric acid (referred to as oleum) is [7], the volatile product being sulfur trioxide. Sulfate aerosols and mist may form in the atmosphere on tank rupture. From chemical spill data from 1990-1996, Lawuyi02 and Fingas [7] prioritize sulfuric acid as sixth most serious. During this period, they note 155 spills totaling 13 Mt, out of a supply volume of 3700 Mt. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] summarize information on three major sulfuric acid spills. On 12 February 1984, 93 tons of sulfuric acid were spilled when 14 railroad cars derailed near MacTier, Parry Sound, Ontario. On 13 December 1978, 51 railroad cars derailed near Springhill, Nova Scotia. One car, containing 93% sulfuric acid, ruptured, spilling nearly its entire contents. In July 1993, 20 to 50 tons of fuming sulfuric acid spilled at the General Chemical Corp. plant in Richmond, California, a major industrial center near San Francisco. The release occurred when oleum was being loaded into a nonfuming acid railroad tank car that contained only a rupture disk as a safety device. The tank car was overheated and this rupture disk blew. The resulting cloud of sulfuric acid drifted northeast with prevailing winds over a number of populated areas. More than 3,000 people subsequently sought medical attention for burning eyes, coughing, headaches, and nausea. Almost all were treated and released on the day of the spill. By the day after the release, another 5,000 people had sought medical attention. The spill forced the closure of five freeways in the region as well as some Bay Area Rapid Transit System stations. Apart from corrosive toxicity, there is the additional hazard that the reactions of sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid vapors with water are extremely exothermic [10, 11]. While the vapors are intrinsically denser than air, there is thus the likelihood of strong, warming-induced buoyancy from reactions with ambient water vapor, water-containing aerosol droplets, and wet environmental surface. Nordin [12] relates just such an occurrence following the Richmond, CA spill, with the plume observed to rise to 300 m. For all practical purposes, sulfur trioxide was the constituent released from the heated tank

Grant, K E

2008-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

327

Definition: Reduced Sox, Nox, And Pm-2.5 Emissions | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sox, Nox, And Pm-2.5 Emissions Sox, Nox, And Pm-2.5 Emissions Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Reduced Sox, Nox, And Pm-2.5 Emissions Functions that provide this benefit can lead to avoided vehicle miles, decrease the amount of central generation needed to their serve load (through reduced electricity consumption, reduced electricity losses, more optimal generation dispatch), and or reduce peak generation. These impacts translate into a reduction in pollutant emissions produced by fossil-based electricity generators and vehicles.[1] Related Terms electricity generation, reduced electricity losses, smart grid References ↑ SmartGrid.gov 'Description of Benefits' An in LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. line Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Reduced_Sox,_Nox,_And_Pm-2.5_Emissions&oldid=502508

328

Demonstration of a Low-NOx Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of a Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle engine research project: A Caterpillar C-12 natural gas engine with Clean Air Power Dual-Fuel technology and exhaust gas recirculation demonstrated low NOx and PM emissions.

Not Available

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

NH3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

formulations and operation for the in-situ generation of NH3, storage on a downstream SCR catalyst, and utilized to reduce the remaining NOx deer12toops.pdf More Documents &...

330

NOx Emissions of Alternative Diesel Fuels:? A Comparative Analysis of Biodiesel and FT Diesel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study explores the diesel injection and combustion processes in an effort to better understand the differences in NOx emissions between biodiesel, Fischer?Tropsch (FT) diesel, and their blends with a conventional diesel fuel. Emissions studies were ...

James P. Szybist; Stephen R. Kirby; André L. Boehman

2005-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

331

Sulphur Removal Characteristics from a Commercial NOx Storage/Reduction Catalyst.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The ability to effectively remove sulphur from sulphur-poisoned NOx storage/reduction (NSR) catalysts, while minimizing associated fuel penalties and thermal degradation, is important for commercial application… (more)

Kisinger, Darren

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presents latest progress in the development of a new type of lean NOx trapping catalyst based on heterogenous composite nanowires, which could potentially be used in gasoline and diesel engines.

333

Time and location differentiated NOX control in competitive electricity markets using cap-and-trade mechanisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Due to variations in weather and atmospheric chemistry, the timing and location of nitrogen oxide (NOX) reductions determine their effectiveness in reducing ground-level ozone, which adversely impacts human health. Electric ...

Martin, Katherine C.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

An experimental study on combustion processes and nox emission characteristics of the air-staged burner  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combustion processes and emission characteristics in air-staged burner...5H5N) is used to investigate the fuel NOX emission characteristics. Experiments are carried out for a wide range of operating condition...

Kook-Young Ahn; Han-Seok Kim; Eun-Seong Cho; Jin-Hyuk Ahn…

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Capturing Carbon Dioxide From Air  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Capturing Carbon Dioxide From Air Capturing Carbon Dioxide From Air Klaus S. Lackner (kl2010@columbia.edu; 212-854-0304) Columbia University 500 West 120th Street New York, NY 10027 Patrick Grimes (pgrimes@worldnet.att.net; 908-232-1134) Grimes Associates Scotch Plains, NJ 07076 Hans-J. Ziock (ziock@lanl.gov; 505-667-7265) Los Alamos National Laboratory P.O.Box 1663 Los Alamos, NM 87544 Abstract The goal of carbon sequestration is to take CO 2 that would otherwise accumulate in the atmosphere and put it in safe and permanent storage. Most proposed methods would capture CO 2 from concentrated sources like power plants. Indeed, on-site capture is the most sensible approach for large sources and initially offers the most cost-effective avenue to sequestration. For distributed, mobile sources like cars, on-board capture at affordable cost would not be

336

Reductive Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reductive Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Reductive Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide T. Mill (ted.mill@sri.com; 650-859-3605) SRI, PS273 333 Ravenswood Menlo Park, CA 94025 D. Ross (dsross3@yahoo.com; 650-327-3842) U.S. Geological Survey, Bldg 15 MS 999 345 Middlefield Rd. Menlo Park, CA 94025 Introduction The United States currently meets 80% of its energy needs by burning fossil fuels to form CO 2 . The combustion-based production of CO 2 has evolved into a major environmental challenge that extends beyond national borders and the issue has become as politically charged as it is technologically demanding. Whereas CO 2 levels in the atmosphere had remained stable over the 10,000 years preceeding the industrial revolution, that event initiated rapid growth in CO 2 levels over the past 150 years (Stevens, 2000). The resulting accelerating accumulation of

337

IEP - Carbon Dioxide: Regulatory Drivers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

IEP - Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Regulatory Drivers In July 7, 2009 testimony before the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, Secretary of Energy Steven Chu made the following statements:1 "...Overwhelming scientific evidence shows that carbon dioxide from human activity has increased the atmospheric level of CO2 by roughly 40 percent, a level one- third higher than any time in the last 800,000 years. There is also a consensus that CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions have caused our planet to change. Already, we have seen the loss of about half of the summer arctic polar ice cap since the 1950s, a dramatically accelerating rise in sea level, and the loss of over two thousand cubic miles of glacial ice, not on geological time scales but over a mere hundred years.

338

METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the current quarter, pilot-scale testing with the modified air nozzle version of the PC burner was completed with PRB coal at the Riley Power Inc. (RPI) test facility. A total of 8 different burner configurations were tested utilizing various burner air nozzle arrangements in place of the burner air channels. It was found that with the arrangements tested, a stable flame could not be maintained at coal feed rates above 100 lb/h. While it is felt that the air nozzle approach can ultimately be used effectively, in the interest of holding to the current project schedule it was decided to proceed with the balance of the project using the air channel design. The pilot-scale PC burner was therefore restored to the air-channel configuration and benchmark testing with PRB coal to confirmed previous operating results. A series of tests was then conducted with PRB and West Virginia caking coal to evaluate modifications to the gas combustor configuration and operation for improved performance with caking coal. Continuous operation was achieved with caking coal up to 50 lb/h vs. the full load target of 150 lb/h. Impingement and deposition of partially devolatilized coal occurred at various points within the combustor when the caking coal feed was increased above 50 lb/h. The 100 MMBtu/h commercial-scale prototype design was continued with coal burner design input from both RPI and VTI. Based on typical burner installation layout considerations, it was decided that the preheat combustor should be oriented horizontally on the axial centerline of the coal burner. Accordingly, the pilot gas combustor was changed to this orientation so that the pilot results with caking coal will be directly applicable to the preferred 100 MMBtu design. Testing with caking coal in the horizontal pilot combustor achieved feed rates up to 126 lb/h, although some deposition and LOI issues remain. Several promising approaches to further improve operation with caking coal were identified. NOx results with caking coal are promising, with NOx as low as 150 ppmv at exit oxygen levels of 4% and higher. The 100 MMBtu/h commercial-scale prototype design is nearing completion. Design of the caking coal version of the unit continues with additional pilot testing in support of this design expected. GTI and RPI are expediting the fabrication of the 100 MMBtu/h PRB unit in order to start testing in early- to mid-December. Inspection and repair of the 100 MMBtu/h Coal Burner Test Facility (CBTF) is nearing completion. As of mid-September, this activity was 95% complete.

Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

339

Advanced furnace air staging and burner modifications for ultra-low NOx firing systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Overfire air is an effective means to reduce NOx emissions from coal fired furnaces. The current range of overfire air usage on wall-fired boilers in the US is in the range of 10 to 20%. In most cases this is enough to achieve current Title IV NOx reduction requirements. Future applications are likely to go beyond 20% Overfire Air to reduce NOx further for lower investment and operating costs of SCR retrofits. Summer ozone reduction requires NOx emissions of 0.15 lb/MBtu. Currently, industry is exploring the conditions under which this goal is attainable. The paper discussed the approach to achieve ultra-low NOx emissions by using advanced furnace air staging. It describes the unique approach of redesigning the burner to maintain low NOx burner performance when the overfire air system is added or increased in capacity. The impact on furnace corrosion and unburned carbon losses are presented. A case study is used to show the effects of overfire air both on emissions and unburned carbon.

McCarthy, K.; Laux, S.; Grusha, J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Safety considerations for the use of sulfur in sulfur-modified pavement materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the surround1ng environment. As sulfur-modified paving materials were being developed, there was a corresponding concern for studying the amounts of gaseous emiss1ons that were generated. The Texas Trans- portat1on Inst1tute (TTI) was one of the first... organizations in the United States to become 1nvolved in the research and development of sulfur-modified pavements, Throughout 1ts laboratory stud1es TTI cont1nually mon1tored hydrogen sulf1de (H25) and sulfur d1oxide (502) em1ssions produced during mix...

Jacobs, Carolyn Yuriko

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Dielectric constant of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) pyridine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Viscosity of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) ethylbenzene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Dielectric constant of the mixture (1) water; (2) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Viscosity of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) 1,4-dimethylbenzene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Viscosity of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) toluene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Refractive index of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) 1-methylnapthalene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Viscosity of the mixture (1) 1,3-dioxolane; (2) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Viscosity of the mixture (1) water; (2) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Viscosity of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) 1,3-dimethylbenzene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Viscosity of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) benzene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Viscosity of the mixture (1) tetrahydrofuran; (2) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Viscosity of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) 1,2-dimethylbenzene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Fact #824: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Sulfur naturally occurs in gasoline and diesel fuel, contributing to pollution when the fuel is burned. Beginning in 2004, standards were set on the amount of sulfur in gasoline (Tier 2 standards)....

354

ADVANCED BYPRODUCT RECOVERY: DIRECT CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF SO2 TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its commercialization partner, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner Tufts, investigated a single-step process for direct, catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide from regenerable flue gas desulfurization processes to the more valuable elemental sulfur by-product. This development built on recently demonstrated SO{sub 2}-reduction catalyst performance at Tufts University on a DOE-sponsored program and is, in principle, applicable to processing of regenerator off-gases from all regenerable SO{sub 2}-control processes. In this program, laboratory-scale catalyst optimization work at Tufts was combined with supported catalyst formulation work at Engelhard, bench-scale supported catalyst testing at Arthur D. Little and market assessments, also by Arthur D. Little. Objectives included identification and performance evaluation of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. The catalyst formulation was improved significantly over the course of this work owing to the identification of a number of underlying phenomena that tended to reduce catalyst selectivity. The most promising catalysts discovered in the bench-scale tests at Tufts were transformed into monolith-supported catalysts at Engelhard. These catalyst samples were tested at larger scale at Arthur D. Little, where the laboratory-scale results were confirmed, namely that the catalysts do effectively reduce sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur when operated under appropriate levels of conversion and in conditions that do not contain too much water or hydrogen. Ways to overcome those limitations were suggested by the laboratory results. Nonetheless, at the end of Phase I, the catalysts did not exhibit the very stringent levels of activity or selectivity that would have permitted ready scale-up to pilot or commercial operation. Therefore, we chose not to pursue Phase II of this work which would have included further bench-scale testing, scale-up, pilot-scale (0.5 MW{sub e}) testing at conditions representative of various regenerable SO{sub 2}-control systems, preparation of a commercial process design, and development of a utility-scale demonstration plan.

Robert S. Weber

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Second Generation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

In Situ Device for Real-Time Catalyst Deactivation Measurements in Full-Scale SCR Systems In Situ Device for Real-Time Catalyst Deactivation Measurements in Full-Scale SCR Systems To support trends in the electric generating industry of moving from seasonal to year-round operation of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) for control of NOx and mercury, as well as extending the time between generating unit outages, Fossil Energy Research Corporation (FERCo) is developing technology to determine SCR catalyst activity and remaining life without requiring an outage to obtain and analyze catalyst samples. FERCo intends to use SCR catalyst performance results measured with their in situ device at Alabama PowerÂ’s Plant Gorgas during the 2005 and 2006 ozone seasons, along with EPRIÂ’s CatReactTM catalyst management software, to demonstrate the value of real-time activity measurements with respect to the optimization of catalyst replacement strategy. Southern Company and the Electric Power Research Institute are co-funding the project.

356

Release of Ammonium and Mercury from NOx Controlled Fly Ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the goals of the Department of Energy is to increase the reuse of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) to 50% by 2010. This will require both developing new markets and maintaining traditional ones such as the use of fly ash in concrete. However, the addition of pollution control devices can introduce side-effects that affect the marketability of the CUB. Such can be the case when NOx control is achieved using selective catalytic or non-catalytic reduction (SCR or SNCR). Depending on site-specific details, the ammonia slip can cause elevated levels of NH3 in the fly ash. Disposal of ammoniated fly ash can present environmental concerns related to the amount of ammonia that might be released, the amount of water that might become contaminated, and the extent to which metals might be mobilized by the presence of the ammonia. Ammonia retained in fly ash appears to be present as either an ammonium salt or as a chemisorbed species. Mercury in the leachates correlated to neither the amount of leachable ammonium nor to the total amount of Hg in the ash. The strongest correlation was between the decreases in the amount of Hg leached with increased LOI.

Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; Kim, A.G

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Sulfur oxidizers dominate carbon fixation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). Methylotrophs and iron oxidizers were also active in plume waters and expressed key proteins for methane by bacteria (especially, alpha-, gamma- and epsilon-proteobacteria) that likely participate in the oxidationORIGINAL ARTICLE Sulfur oxidizers dominate carbon fixation at a biogeochemical hot spot in the dark

Hansell, Dennis

358

High-Sulfur Coal for Generating Electricity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...amounts of coal, because...Director-Mineral Re-sources...of Gas from Coal through a...on coals of high ash-fusion temperature...per ton of high-sulfur coal burned. Absorp-tion...particulate matter as well as...capable of remov-ing up to...

James T. Dunham; Carl Rampacek; T. A. Henrie

1974-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

359

Short communication Influence of molybdenum and sulfur on copper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Short communication Influence of molybdenum and sulfur on copper metabolism in sheep: comparison of molybdenum able to trigger the copper sulfur molybdenum interference in sheep was measured with either only) and 4 increasing molybdenum doses. The sulfur-molybdenum-copper interference was quantified

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

360

A novel lithium/sulfur battery based on sulfur/graphene nanosheet composite cathode and gel polymer electrolyte  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel sulfur/graphene nanosheet (S/GNS) composite was prepared ... ball milling of sulfur with commercial multi-layer graphene nanosheet, followed by a heat treatment. ... of irregularly interlaced nanosheet-li...

Yongguang Zhang; Yan Zhao; Zhumabay Bakenov

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

A simple approach to synthesize nanosized sulfur/graphene oxide materials for high-performance lithium/sulfur batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on a simple and facile synthesis route for the sulfur/graphene oxide composite via ultrasonic mixing of the nano-sulfur and graphene oxide aqueous suspensions followed by a low-temperature heat treat...

Yongguang Zhang; Yan Zhao; Zhumabay Bakenov

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

An analysis of the impact of having uranium dioxide mixed in with plutonium dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An assessment was performed to show the impact on airborne release fraction, respirable fraction, dose conversion factor and dose consequences of postulated accidents at the Plutonium Finishing Plant involving uranium dioxide rather than plutonium dioxide.

MARUSICH, R.M.

1998-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

363

HYBRID SULFUR ELECTROLYZER DEVELOPMENT, NHI WORK PACKAGE N-SR07TC0301, FY07 FIRST QUARTER REPORT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proof of concept of SO2 electrolysis for the hybrid sulfur (HyS) process is the second priority research target of the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative's thermochemical program for FY07. The proof of concept of the liquid-phase option must be demonstrated at the single cell level for an extended run times (>100 hours). The rate of development of HyS will depend on the identification of a promising membrane or an alternative means for controlling sulfur formation. Once successful long-duration operation has been demonstrated, SRNL will develop a multi-cell stack that can be connected to the H2SO4 decomposer being developed by SNL for the S-I ILS for a Hybrid Sulfur Integrated Laboratory-Scale Experiment during FY 2008. During the first quarter of FY07, SRNL continued the component development and membrane development activities with the goal of identifying and characterizing improved electrodes, electrocatalysts, membranes and MEA configurations which could then be tested at larger scale in the SDE test facility. A modified glass cell was fabricated to allow measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2) transport across membrane samples at elevated temperatures (up to 70 C). This testing also includes evaluating SO2 transport in different sulfuric acid concentrations (30-70 wt%). A new potentiostat/frequency analyzer was installed for determining ionic conductivity of membranes. This instrument enhances our capabilities to characterize membrane, electrocatalyst and MEA properties and performance. Continuing work from FY06, evaluations were preformed on various commercial and experimental membranes and electrocatalyst materials for the SDE. Several different types of commercially-available membranes were analyzed for sulfur dioxide transport as a function of acid strength including perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA), sulfonated polyetherketone-ketone, and poly-benzimidazole (PBI) membranes. Experimental membranes from the sulfonated diels-alder polyphenylenes (SDAPP) and modified Nafion{reg_sign} 117 were evaluated for SO{sub 2} transport as well. These membranes exhibited reduced transport coefficient for SO{sub 2} transport without the loss in ionic conductivity.

Summers, W

2006-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

364

Putting the pressure on carbon dioxide | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Putting the pressure on carbon dioxide Improving the chances for fuel recovery and carbon sequestration Artwork from this research graces the cover of Environmental Science...

365

Sandia National Laboratories: reducing carbon dioxide emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

carbon dioxide emissions Measurements of Thermal Stratification in a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition Engine On February 27, 2013, in CRF, Energy, Facilities, News, News &...

366

Club Convergence in Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We examine convergence in carbon dioxide emissions among 128 countries for the period 1960–...2 emissions among all the countries under scrutiny in...

Ekaterini Panopoulou; Theologos Pantelidis

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Understanding the Distributed Intra-Catalyst Impact of Sulfation on Water Gas Shift in a Lean NOx Trap Catalyst  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Lean NOx Trap catalyst is an aftertreatment technology for abatement of nitrogen-oxide emissions from lean-burn vehicle engines.

368

Pilot-Scale Aftertreatment Using Nonthermal Plasma Reduction of Adsorbed NOx in Marine Diesel-Engine Exhaust Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Regulations governing marine diesel engine NOx emissions have recently become more stringent. As it is difficult to fulfill these requirements by combustion improvements alone, effective aftertreatment technologi...

Takuya Kuwahara; Keiichiro Yoshida…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Graphene-Wrapped Sulfur Particles as a Rechargeable Lithium–Sulfur Battery Cathode Material with High Capacity and Cycling Stability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Graphene-Wrapped Sulfur Particles as a Rechargeable Lithium–Sulfur Battery Cathode Material with High Capacity and Cycling Stability ... The resulting graphene–sulfur composite showed high and stable specific capacities up to ?600 mAh/g over more than 100 cycles, representing a promising cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries with high energy density. ...

Hailiang Wang; Yuan Yang; Yongye Liang; Joshua Tucker Robinson; Yanguang Li; Ariel Jackson; Yi Cui; Hongjie Dai

2011-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

370

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the sixteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. During an unplanned outage, damage occurred to the electrochemical noise corrosion probes installed at the AEP Gavin plant; testing is expected to resume in August. The KEMCOP corrosion coupons were not affected by the unplanned outage; the coupons were removed and sent for analysis. BYU conducted a series of tests before the ISSR lab was relocated. Ammonia adsorption experiments provided clear evidence of the types of acidic sites present on catalyst surfaces. Data collected this quarter indicate that surface sulfation decreases Lewis acid site concentrations for all catalysts thus far studied, confirming that catalytic activity under commercial coal-based SCR conditions occurs primarily on Br{o}nsted acid sites and would be susceptible to basic impurities such as alkali and alkaline earth oxides, chlorides, and sulfates. SCR activity tests based on MS analysis showed that increasing sulfation generally increases NO reduction activity for both 0% and 1% vanadia catalysts. During this quarter, the slipstream reactor at Rockport operated for 720 hours on flue gas. Catalyst exposure time reached 4500 hours since installation. The reactor is out of service at the Rockport plant and plans are being made to move it to the Gadsden Plant. At Gadsden, modifications have begun in preparation for installation of the slipstream reactor next quarter.

Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

371

Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report documents the technical results of the 3-year project entitled, “Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels,” funded under the NETL of DOE. The research was conducted under six main tasks: 1) program management and planning; 2) turbulent flame speed measurements of syngas mixtures; 3) laminar flame speed measurements with diluents; 4) NOx mechanism validation experiments; 5) fundamental NOx kinetics; and 6) the effect of impurities on NOx kinetics. Experiments were performed using primary constant-volume vessels for laminar and turbulent flame speeds and shock tubes for ignition delay times and species concentrations. In addition to the existing shock- tube and flame speed facilities, a new capability in measuring turbulent flame speeds was developed under this grant. Other highlights include an improved NOx kinetics mechanism; a database on syngas blends for real fuel mixtures with and without impurities; an improved hydrogen sulfide mechanism; an improved ammonia kintics mechanism; laminar flame speed data at high pressures with water addition; and the development of an inexpensive absorption spectroscopy diagnostic for shock-tube measurements of OH time histories. The Project Results for this work can be divided into 13 major sections, which form the basis of this report. These 13 topics are divided into the five areas: 1) laminar flame speeds; 2) Nitrogen Oxide and Ammonia chemical kinetics; 3) syngas impurities chemical kinetics; 4) turbulent flame speeds; and 5) OH absorption measurements for chemical kinetics.

Peterson, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankat; Plichta, Drew; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Camou, Alejandro; Aul, Christopher

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

372

Coal characterisation for \\{NOx\\} prediction in air-staged combustion of pulverised coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A series of world-traded coal samples has been tested using the Imperial College high temperature wire mesh apparatus (HTWM) in order to assess the relationship between high temperature (1600°C) char nitrogen content and \\{NOx\\} formation in Hemweg Power Station (in the Netherlands) using deep furnace air staging. A linear relationship between high temperature char nitrogen and \\{NOx\\} formation has been confirmed. These results suggest that high temperature char N content is the main factor limiting \\{NOx\\} emissions with deep air-staged combustion. Char N and (hence apparently deep air-staged NOx) can be predicted with an accuracy of approximately ±20% for most coals from the coal proximate and ultimate analysis—but this might not be sufficient for stations operating close to their emission limits. Measuring high temperature char N directly reduces the likely uncertainty in deep air-staged \\{NOx\\} emissions for coals (and most blends) to approximately ±10%. Its use should be considered on a routine basis for coal selection on plants employing this technology.

C.K. Man; J.R. Gibbins; J.G. Witkamp; J. Zhang

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis May 2005 MIT LFEE 2005 are valued using the "real options" valuation methodology in an uncertain carbon dioxide (CO2) price (baseline IGCC), and IGCC with pre-investments that make future retrofit for CO2 capture less expensive (pre

374

Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- 1 - Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery January 8, 2014 Los Alamos simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known production. Due to carbon capture and storage technology advances, prolonged high oil prices

375

Predicting Future Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Levels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Predicting future atmospheric carbon dioxide levels...1978012175 air atmosphere biosphere carbon...Predicting future atmospheric carbon dioxide levels...re-quired 5-Mhz bandwidth, which...synchronization rate of 16 khz and the picture...the interstellar plasma. For UHF frequencies...

U. Siegenthaler; H. Oeschger

1978-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

376

Haverford Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer August 1, 2012 | Tags: Basic Energy...

377

Table 2. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emisssions...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel million metric tons of carbon dioxide shares State Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Total Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Alabama...

378

carbon dioxide emissions | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

dioxide emissions dioxide emissions Dataset Summary Description Total annual carbon dioxide emissions by country, 2005 to 2009 (million metric tons). Compiled by Energy Information Administration (EIA). Source EIA Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords carbon dioxide emissions EIA world Data text/csv icon total_carbon_dioxide_emissions_from_the_consumption_of_energy_2005_2009million_metric_tons.csv (csv, 12.3 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 2005 - 2009 License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote Usefulness of the dataset Average vote Your vote Ease of access Average vote Your vote Overall rating

379

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2.1. Total carbon dioxide emissions Annual U.S. carbon dioxide emissions fell by 419 million metric tons in 2009 (7.1 percent), to 5,447 million metric tons (Figure 9 and Table 6). The annual decrease-the largest over the 19-year period beginning with the 1990 baseline-puts 2009 emissions 608 million metric tons below the 2005 level, which is the Obama Administration's benchmark year for its goal of reducing U.S. emissions by 17 percent by 2020. The key factors contributing to the decrease in carbon dioxide emissions in 2009 included an economy in recession with a decrease in gross domestic product of 2.6 percent, a decrease in the energy intensity of the economy of 2.2 percent, and a decrease in the carbon intensity of energy supply of

380

Sulfur-isotope separation by distillation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sulfur-isotope separation by low-temperature distillation of hydrogen sulfide was studied in an 8-m, 25-mm diameter distillation column. Column temperature was controlled by a propane-propylene heat pipe. Column packing HETP was measured using nitric oxide in the column. The column was operated at pressures from 45 to 125 kPa. The relative volatility of S-32 vs. S-34 varied from 1.0008 to 1.0014.

Mills, T.R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Sulfur/three-dimensional graphene composite for high performance lithium–sulfur batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A sulfur/graphene composite is prepared by loading elemental sulfur into three-dimensional graphene (3D graphene), which is assembled using a metal ions assisted hydrothermal method. When used as cathode materials for lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries, the sulfur/graphene composite (S@3D-graphene) with 73 wt % sulfur shows a significantly enhanced cycling performance (>700 mAh g?1 after 100 cycles at 0.1C rate with a Coulombic efficiency > 96%) as well as high rate capability with a capacity up to 500 mAh g?1 at 2C rate (3.35 A g?1). The superior electrochemical performance could be attributed to the highly porous structure of three-dimensional graphene that not only enables stable and continue pathway for rapid electron and ion transportation, but also restrain soluble polysulfides and suppress the “shuttle effect”. Moreover, the robust structure of 3D graphene can keep cathode integrity and accommodate the volume change during high-rate charge/discharge processes, making it a promising candidate as cathode for high performance Li–S batteries.

Chunmei Xu; Yishan Wu; Xuyang Zhao; Xiuli Wang; Gaohui Du; Jun Zhang; Jiangping Tu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Closed-loop control of a SCR system using a NOx sensor cross-sensitive to NH3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Closed-loop control of a SCR system using a NOx sensor cross-sensitive to NH3 A.Bonfils , Y. Creff for an automotive selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system, for which the feedback is based on a NOx sensor the variety of en- countered technologies, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is one of the most appealing

383

Exhaust gas fuel reforming of Diesel fuel by non-thermal arc discharge for NOx trap regeneration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Exhaust gas fuel reforming of Diesel fuel by non- thermal arc discharge for NOx trap regeneration to the reforming of Diesel fuel with Diesel engine exhaust gas using a non-thermal plasma torch for NOx trap Diesel fuel reforming with hal-00617141,version1-17May2013 Author manuscript, published in "Energy

Boyer, Edmond

384

Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Coal-Fired Power Plant NOx: Influence of Emission Controls and Implications for Global Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Coal-Fired Power Plant NOx: Influence of Emission Controls and Implications for Global Emission Inventories J. David Felix,*, Emily M. Elliott, and Stephanie L. Shaw contributions, prior documentation of 15 N of various NOx emission sources is exceedingly limited

Elliott, Emily M.

385

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

is the greenhouse effect? is the greenhouse effect? Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect is used to describe the phenomenon whereby the Earth's atmosphere traps solar radiation, caused by the presence of gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and water vapor (H2O), in the atmosphere that allow incoming sunlight to pass through but absorb heat radiated back from the Earth's surface, resulting in higher temperatures. The greenhouse effect gets its name from what actually happens in a greenhouse. In a greenhouse, short wavelength visible sunlight shines through the glass panes and warms the air and the plants inside. The radiation emitted from the heated objects is of longer wavelength and is unable to pass through the glass barrier, maintaining a warm temperature

386

Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2} in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives using a monolithic catalyst reactor, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 40-560 seconds at 120-150 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperatures, total pressure, space time, and catalyst regeneration on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,600-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,800-2,000 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 23-27 v% hydrogen, 36-41 v% CO, 10-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 30-180 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-150 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is mai

K. C. Kwon

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

387

Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

Najjar, Mitri S. (Hopewell Junction, NY); Corbeels, Roger J. (Wappingers Falls, NY); Kokturk, Uygur (Wappingers Falls, NY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Lithium/Sulfur Batteries Based on Doped Mesoporous Carbon - Energy...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search LithiumSulfur Batteries Based on Doped Mesoporous Carbon Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About...

389

Analyses of sulfur-asphalt field trials in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

128 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGF Layout of SNPA sulfur bitumen binder pavem nt test ? U. S. Highway 69, Lufkin, Texas 15 Col 1oi d mi 1 1 furnished by SNPA for preparation of sul fur-asphalt emulsions View of mixing station showing sulfur... designed to investigate the advantage of using a colloid mill to prepare sulfur-asphalt binders as compared to comingling the asphalt and molten sulfur in a pipeline leading directly to the pug mill. After only six months of testing, the results...

Newcomb, David Edward

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Development of sulfur cathode material for Li-S batteries.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??M.S. Efforts were taken to fabricate a cathode material having Sulfur as the active material. First step is composed of identifying potential ways of fabricating… (more)

Dharmasena, Ruchira Ravinath, 1984-

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Project Profile: Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Related Links FAQs Contact Us Offices You are here Home Concentrating Solar Power Project Profile: Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based...

392

SULFUR-TOLERANT CATALYST FOR THE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??JP-8 fuel is easily accessible, transportable, and has hydrogen content essential to solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operation. However, this syngas has sulfur content which… (more)

Bozeman, Joe Frank, III

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Fundamental Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry PI: Nitash Balsara LBNL June 17, 2014 Project ID ESS224 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise...

394

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Compound Emissions  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Compound Emissions Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Compound Emissions (Connecticut) Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Compound Emissions (Connecticut) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Connecticut Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Energy and Environmental Protection These regulations set limits on the sulfur content of allowable fuels (1.0%

395

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the fifteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. At AEP's Gavin Plant, data from the corrosion probes showed that corrosion rate increased as boiler load was increased. During an outage at the plant, the drop in boiler load, sensor temperature and corrosion rate could all be seen clearly. Restarting the boiler saw a resumption of corrosion activity. This behavior is consistent with previous observations made at a 600MWe utility boiler. More data are currently being examined for magnitudes of corrosion rates and changes in boiler operating conditions. Considerable progress was made this quarter in BYU's laboratory study of catalyst deactivation. Surface sulfation appears to partially suppress NO adsorption when the catalyst is not exposed to NH3; NH3 displaces surface-adsorbed NO on SCR catalysts and surface sulfation increases the amount of adsorbed NH3, as confirmed by both spectroscopy and TPD experiments. However, there is no indication of changes in catalyst activity despite changes in the amount of adsorbed NH3. A monolith test reactor (MTR), completed this quarter, provided the first comparative data for one of the fresh and field-exposed monolith SCR catalysts yet developed in this project. Measurements of activity on one of the field-exposed commercial monolith catalysts do not show significant changes in catalyst activity (within experimental error) as compared to the fresh catalyst. The exposed surface of the sample contains large amounts of Ca and Na, neither of which is present in the fresh sample, even after removal of visibly obvious fouling deposits. However, these fouling compounds do not deactivate the catalyst to the extent that these same poisons do in the deliberately wet-impregnated laboratory-prepared samples (1%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-9%WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}). At least in this case, the fouling deposits generated by field exposure present little if any chemical deactivation or barrier to mass transfer. During this quarter, the slipstream reactor at Rockport operated for 1000 hours on flue gas. Periodic NO{sub x} reduction measurements were made, showing some decrease in activity relative to fresh catalyst samples. Plans are being made to take the reactor out of service at the Rockport plant and move it to Plant Gadsden. At Gadsden, inlet and outlet ports were installed on Unit 1 for the slipstream reactor during an outage.

Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

396

Influence of combustion parameters on NOx production in an industrial boiler  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of combustion parameters on NOx production in an industrial boiler M.A. Habib a,*, M pollution using a model furnace of an industrial boiler utilizing fuel gas. The importance of this problem is mainly due to its relation to the pollutants produced by large boiler furnaces used widely in thermal

Aldajani, Mansour A.

397

REAL-WORLD EFFICACY OF HEAVY DUTY DIESEL TRUCK NOX AND PM EMISSIONS CONTROLS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are International. b DOC = Diesel Oxidation Catalyst; DPF = Diesel Particulate Filter; EGR = Exhaust GasREAL-WORLD EFFICACY OF HEAVY DUTY DIESEL TRUCK NOX AND PM EMISSIONS CONTROLS Gurdas Sandhu H 26-28, 2012 #12;2 Objectives 1. Quantify inter-run variability in exhaust emission rates 2. Assess

Frey, H. Christopher

398

Consequences of propene and propane on plasma remediation of NOx Rajesh Doraia)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. INTRODUCTION Plasma remediation of exhaust from internal combustion engines, and diesel engines in particular of achieving high E/N electric field/ gas number density are promising in this regard.11 Actual diesel exhaust discharge DBD reactors are being investigated for plasma remediation of NOx from the exhaust of internal

Kushner, Mark

399

tive emissions from EVs (e.g., power plant NOx) and GPVs (tailpipe and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a few sluggish electric vehicles would cause enough traffic slowing that the gasoline- powered fleet Analy- sis article on battery-powered vehicles (Sept. 1996, p. 402A) serves as a useful remindertive emissions from EVs (e.g., power plant NOx) and GPVs (tailpipe and associated NO.,. emissions

Denver, University of

400

Observation of NOx enhancement and ozone depletion in the Northern and Southern  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Clarmann, G. P. Stiller, M. Ho¨pfner, S. Kellmann, and H. Fischer Institut fu¨r Meteorologie und Clarmann, G. P. Stiller, M. Ho¨pfner, S. Kellmann, H. Fischer, and C. H. Jackman (2005), Observation of NOx

Jackman, Charles H.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Transport of NOx in East Asia identified by satellite and in situ measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 3 Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 4 School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul burning, and natural phenomena like lightning, wildfires, and soil microbial activity. NOx play

Park, Rokjin

402

NOx reduction with the use of feedlot biomass as a reburn fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Additional air called overfire air (about 20 % of total air) is injected in order to complete combustion. Typically reburn fuel is natural gas (NG). From previous research at TAMU, it was found that firing feedlot biomass (FB) as reburn fuel lowers the NOx...

Goughnour, Paul Gordon

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

403

Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product. 2 figs.

Narain, N.K.; Ruether, J.A.; Smith, D.N.

1987-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

404

Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product.

Narain, Nand K. (Bethel Park, PA); Ruether, John A. (McMurray, PA); Smith, Dennis N. (Herminie, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Sulfur isotopes in coal constrain the evolution of the Phanerozoic sulfur cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...obviously influence the average isotope values. For the other data, samples...pp 87–105 . 19 Price FT Casagrande DJ ( 1991 ) Sulfur...coals. Geology of Fossil Fuels, Proc 30th Int Geol Congress...Jersey Pinelands and its effect on stream water chemistry...223 – 248 . 29 Price FT Shieh YN ( 1979 ) Fractionation...

Donald E. Canfield

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Latest developments and application of DB Riley's low NOx CCV{reg{underscore}sign} burner technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent developments in DB Riley (DBR) low NOx burner technology and the application of this technology in coal fired utility boilers are discussed. Since the promulgation of the Clean Air Act Amendment in 1990, DBR has sold nearly 1,500 Controlled Combustion Venturi (CCV{reg{underscore}sign}) burners on pulverized coal fired utility boilers reducing NOx emissions 50--70% from uncontrolled levels. This technology has been retrofitted on boiler designs ranging in size and type from 50 MW front wall fired boilers to 1,300 MW opposed fired cell type boilers. In DBR's latest version of the CCV{reg{underscore}sign} burner, a second controlled flow air zone was added to enhance NOx control capability. Other developments included improved burner air flow measurement accuracy and several mechanical design upgrades such as new coal spreader designs for 3 year wear life. Test results of the CCV{reg{underscore}sign} dual air zone burner in DBR's 100 million Btu/hr (29 MW) coal burner test facility are presented. In the test program, coals from four utility boiler sites were fired to provide a range of coal properties. A baseline high volatile bituminous coal was also fired to provide a comparison with 1992 test data for the CCV{reg{underscore}sign} single register burner. The tests results showed that the second air zone enhanced NOx reduction capability by an additional 20% over the single register design. Computational fluid dynamic (DFD) modeling results of the CCV{reg{underscore}sign} dual air zone burner are also presented showing near field mixing patterns conducive to low NOx firing. DBR was recently awarded Phase IV of the Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) program by the US Department of Energy to build a proof of concept facility representing the next major advancement in pulverized coal burning technology. A key part of winning that award were test results of the CCV{reg{underscore}sign} dual air zone burner with advanced air staging and coal reburning in a 100 million Btu/hr (20 MW) U-fired slagging combustor test facility. These results showed NOx emissions of less than 0.2 lb/million Btu (0.086 g/MJ) while converting the coal ash into an inert, non-leachable solid. This results is an 80% reduction in NOx emissions from currently operating U-fired slagging boilers.

Penterson, C.; Ake, T.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Latest Estimates Latest Estimates Atmos CO2 Level 397.31 ppm Fossil CO2 Emissions 9,167 MMT Carbon Global Temp Anomaly +0.56°C / +1.01°F Global Sea Level Rise +2.9 ± 0.4 mm/y Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) is the primary climate-change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). CDIAC is located at DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and includes the World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases. CDIAC's data holdings include estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and land-use changes; records of atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active trace gases; carbon cycle and terrestrial carbon management datasets and analyses; and

408

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Storage of Carbon Dioxide in Offshore Sediments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Carbon Dioxide in Offshore Sediments 10...efforts to increase energy efficiency; efforts...sources, including renewable and nuclear energy; and investment...repositories. Offshore geological repositories...between Scotland and Norway and far out of...

Daniel P. Schrag

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

410

Production of elemental sulfur and ammonium thiosulfate by the oxidation of H2S containing water vapor and ammonia over V/Zr-PILC catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The catalytic oxidation of hydrogen sulfide in the presence of water and ammonia was studied over V2O5 supported on Zr-pillared clay catalysts (V/Zr-PILCs). The synthesized catalysts were examined using a variety of characterization techniques. A catalytic performance study using V/Zr-PILC catalysts showed that H2S was successfully converted to elemental sulfur and ammonium thiosulfate (ATS) without considerable emission of sulfur dioxide. The H2S conversion over V/Zr-PILCs increased with increasing the content of vanadia up to 6 wt.%. This superior catalytic performance might be related to the uniform dispersion of vanadia species on the Zr-PILC support.

Kanattukara Vijayan Bineesh; Moon-il Kim; Goo-Hwa Lee; Manickam Selvaraj; Kyu Hyun; Dae-Won Park

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 130-156 seconds at 120-140 C to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases, evaluate removal capabilities of hydrogen sulfide and COS from coal gases with formulated catalysts, and develop an economic regeneration method of deactivated catalysts. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,300-3,800-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-1,900 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-21 v% hydrogen, 29-34 v% CO, 8-10 v% CO{sub 2}, 5-18 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 114-132 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-140 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 116-129 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is

K. C. Kwon

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

412

Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash coat, and catalytic metals, to develop a regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor. The task of developing kinetic rate equations and modeling the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants will be abandoned since formulation of catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS is being in progress. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 46-570 seconds under reaction conditions to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases and evaluate their capabilities in reducing hydrogen sulfide and COS in coal gases. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,200-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-20,000-ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-27 v% hydrogen, 29-41 v% CO, 8-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of simulated coal gas mixtures to the reactor are 30 - 180 cm{sup 3}/min at 1 atm and 25 C (SCCM). The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio

K.C. Kwon

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

413

Displacement of crude oil by carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DISPLACEMENT OF CRUDE OIL BY CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by OLUSEGUN OMOLE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in part';al fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject...: Petroleum Engineering DISPLACEMENT OF CRUDE OIL BY CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by OLUSEGUN OMOLE Approved as to style and content by: hairman of Committee / (Member (Member (Member (Hea o Depart ent December 1980 ABSTRACT Displacement of Crude Oil...

Omole, Olusegun

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Lithium–sulfur batteries: Influence of C-rate, amount of electrolyte and sulfur loading on cycle performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In the past four years major improvement of the lithium sulfur battery technology has been reported. Novel carbon cathode materials offer high sulfur loading, sulfur utilization and cycle stability. An often neglected aspect is that sulfur loading and amount of electrolyte strongly impact the performance. In this paper, we demonstrate how the amount of electrolyte, sulfur loading, lithium excess and cycling rate influences the cycle stability and sulfur utilization. We chose vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNT) as model system with a constant areal loading of carbon. For a high reproducibility, decreased weight of current collector and good mechanical adhesion of the VA-CNTs we present a layer transfer technique that enables a light-weight sulfur cathode. The sulfur loading of the cathode was adjusted from 20 to 80 wt.-%. Keeping the total amount of electrolyte constant and varying the C-rate, we are able to demonstrate that the capacity degradation is reduced for high rates, high amount of electrolyte and low sulfur loading. In addition idle periods in the cycling regiment and lower rates result in an increased degradation. We attribute this to the redox-reaction between reactive lithium and polysulfides that correlates with the cycling time, rather than cycle number.

Jan Brückner; Sören Thieme; Hannah Tamara Grossmann; Susanne Dörfler; Holger Althues; Stefan Kaskel

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Chemistry of NOx on TiO2 surfaces studied by ambient pressure XPS:  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Chemistry of NOx on TiO2 surfaces studied by ambient pressure XPS: Chemistry of NOx on TiO2 surfaces studied by ambient pressure XPS: products, effect of UV irradiation, water and coadsorbed K+ Title Chemistry of NOx on TiO2 surfaces studied by ambient pressure XPS: products, effect of UV irradiation, water and coadsorbed K+ Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Rosseler, Olivier, Mohamad Sleiman, Nahuel V. Montesinos, Andrey Shavorskiy, Valerie Keller, Nicolas Keller, Marta I. Litter, Hendrik Bluhm, Miquel Salmeron, and Hugo Destaillats Journal J. Phys. Chem. Lett. Volume 4 Start Page 536 Issue 3 Pagination 536-541 Date Published 01/2013 Abstract Self-cleaning surfaces containing TiO2 nanoparticles have been postulated to efficiently remove NOx from the atmosphere. However, UV irradiation of NOx adsorbed on TiO2 also was shown to form harmful gas-phase byproducts such as HONO and N2O that may limit their depolluting potential. Ambient pressure XPS was used to study surface and gas-phase species formed during adsorption of NO2 on TiO2 and subsequent UV irradiation at λ = 365 nm. It is shown here that NO3-, adsorbed on TiO2 as a byproduct of NO2 disproportionation, was quantitatively converted to surface NO2 and other reduced nitrogenated species under UV irradiation in the absence of moisture. When water vapor was present, a faster NO3- conversion occurred, leading to a net loss of surface-bound nitrogenated species. Strongly adsorbed NO3- in the vicinity of coadsorbed K+ cations was stable under UV light, leading to an efficient capture of nitrogenated compounds.

416

SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Babcock and Wilcox`s (B and W) SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} process effectively removes SOx, NOx and particulate (Rox) from flue gas generated from coal-fired boilers in a single unit operation, a high temperature baghouse. The SNRB technology utilizes dry sorbent injection upstream of the baghouse for removal of SOx and ammonia injection upstream of a zeolitic selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst incorporated in the baghouse to reduce NOx emissions. Because the SOx and NOx removal processes require operation at elevated gas temperatures (800--900 F) for high removal efficiency, high-temperature fabric filter bags are used in the baghouse. The SNRB technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B and W tested the SNRB pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R.E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B and W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB process. The SNRB facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993. About 2,300 hours of high-temperature operation were achieved. The main emissions control performance goals of: greater than 70% SO{sub 2} removal using a calcium-based sorbent; greater than 90% NOx removal with minimal ammonia slip; and particulate emissions in compliance with the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) of 0.03 lb/million Btu were exceeded simultaneously in the demonstration program when the facility was operated at optimal conditions. Testing also showed significant reductions in emissions of some hazardous air pollutants.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Dielectric constant of the mixture (1) ethane-1,2-diol; (2) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Refractive index of the mixture (1) ethane-1,2-diol; (2) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Dielectric constant of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) 2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Refractive index of the mixture (1) tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; (2) 2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Substance name(s): tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydrothiophene-S,S-dioxide; tetrahydro-thiophene-1,1 ... ,1-dioxide; thiacyclopentane dioxide; tetramethylene sulfone; tetrahydrothiophene 1...

Ch. Wohlfarth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Combustion and \\{NOx\\} emissions of biomass-derived syngas under various gasification conditions utilizing oxygen-enriched-air and steam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to investigate the \\{NOx\\} emissions from combustion of syngas derived from gasification of three different biomass feedstock (i.e., pine, maple–oak mixture, and seed corn) at different oxygen-enriched-air and steam conditions. Three different oxygen-enriched-air and steam conditions were tested for each feedstock, thus resulting in nine different sets of syngas. The biomass-derived syngas was burned in an industrial burner that was integrated into the gasification system. The gasifier and burner are rated at 800 kW and 879 kW thermal, respectively. For each set of biomass-derived syngas, \\{NOx\\} emissions were measured at different burner operating conditions including various heat rates and equivalence ratios using emission analyzers with chemiluminescence technology. All the combustion test conditions are in the lean mixture ranges in order to avoid the peak temperature limitation of both the burner and combustion chamber. Results show that \\{NOx\\} emissions using syngas obtained from woody feedstock decrease almost linearly as the combustion mixture becomes leaner and the heat rate decreases. When compared to natural gas, syngas from both woody feedstock generates higher \\{NOx\\} emissions even when the heat rates are comparable, indicating that fuel \\{NOx\\} formation is highly important in biomass-derived syngas combustion. In contrast to syngas from woody feedstock, syngas from seed corn results in peak \\{NOx\\} emissions before \\{NOx\\} decreases with leaner conditions. The trend is observed for all fuel flow rates and all oxygen-enriched-air and steam conditions of seed corn-derived syngas. Among the three feedstock, seed corn has the highest nitrogen content which yields the highest ammonia concentration in syngas, which, in turn, results in the highest \\{NOx\\} emissions for all test conditions. Overall, the \\{NOx\\} emissions from seed corn-derived syngas combustion are approximately in the range of 450–900 ppm higher compared to those from wood-derived syngas combustion.

Cuong Van Huynh; Song-Charng Kong

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

On the Promoting Effect of Water during NOx Removal over Single-Site Copper in Hydrophobic Silica APD-Aerogels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reversibility of the Cu2+/Cu+ redox pair was confirmed in the Cu-aerogel during and after wet redox cycling. ... (1) Popular solutions to selective catalytic reduction of NOx include the use of exhaust hydrocarbon residuals (SCR-HC-deNOx) or ammonia added to the exhaust (SCR-NH3-deNOx) as the reductant; the former technology being suitable for light duty passenger vehicles, whereas the latter is applied to medium or heavy duty vehicles. ... During vehicle use, the converter is exposed to heat, which causes the metal particles to agglomerate and grow, and their overall surface area to decrease. ...

Tina Kristiansen; Karina Mathisen

2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

423

HEALTH AND CLIMATE POLICY IMPACTS ON SULFUR EMISSION CONTROL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the climate and health effects of sulfate aerosol into an integrated-assessment model of fossil fuel emission warming and health simultaneously will support more stringent fossil fuel and sulfur controls control. Our simulations show that a policy that adjusts fossil fuel and sulfur emissions to address both

Russell, Lynn

424

Metal-sulfur type cell having improved positive electrode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An novel metal-sulfur type cell operable at a temperature of 200.degree. C. or less with an energy density of 150 Whrs/Kg or better is disclosed characterized by an organo-sulfur cathode formed from an organic-sulfur compound having the general formula, in its charged state, of (R(S).sub.y).sub.n wherein y=1 to 6; n=2 to 20; and R is one or more different aliphatic or aromatic organic moieties having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, which may include one or more oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen heteroatoms when R comprisises one of more aromatic rings, or one or more oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, or fluorine atoms associtated with the chain when R comprises an aliphatic chain, wherein the aliphatic group may be linear or branched, saturated or unsaturated, and wherein either the aliphatic chain or the aromatic ring may have substituted groups thereon.

Dejonghe, Lutgard C. (Berkeley, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Mailhe, Catherine C. (Berkeley, CA); Armand, Michel B. (St. Martin D'Uriage, FR)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4: April 9, 2007 4: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on AddThis.com... Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the transportation sector began to

426

Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

May 2011 CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries "This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise...

427

E-Print Network 3.0 - amoco sulfur recovery process Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Medicine 80 Sulfur and oxygen isotope composition of the atmosphere in Saxony (Germany) Tichomirowa et al. Summary: ? a) Mixing processes 12;Sulfur and oxygen isotope...

428

HYDROGEN GENERATION FROM PLASMATRON REFORMERS: A PROMISING TECHNOLOGY FOR NOX ADSORBER REGENERATION AND OTHER AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plasmatron reformers are being developed at MIT and ArvinMeritor [1]. In these reformers a special low power electrical discharge is used to promote partial oxidation conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into hydrogen and CO. The partial oxidation reaction of this very fuel rich mixture is difficult to initiate. The plasmatron provides continuous enhanced volume initiation. To minimize electrode erosion and electrical power requirements, a low current, high voltage discharge with wide area electrodes is used. The reformers operate at or slightly above atmospheric pressure. Plasmatron reformers provide the advantages of rapid startup and transient response; efficient conversion of the fuel to hydrogen rich gas; compact size; relaxation or elimination of reformer catalyst requirements; and capability to process difficult to reform fuels, such as diesel and bio-oils. These advantages facilitate use of onboard hydrogen-generation technology for diesel exhaust after-treatment. Plasma-enhanced reformer technology can provide substantial conversion even without the use of a catalyst. Recent progress includes a substantial decrease in electrical power consumption (to about 200 W), increased flow rate (above 1 g/s of diesel fuel corresponding to approximately 40 kW of chemical energy), soot suppression and improvements in other operational features.. Plasmatron reformer technology has been evaluated for regeneration of NOx adsorber after-treatment systems. At ArvinMeritor tests were performed on a dual-leg NOx adsorber system using a Cummins 8.3L diesel engine both in a test cell and on a vehicle. A NOx adsorber system was tested using the plasmatron reformer as a regenerator and without the reformer i.e., with straight diesel fuel based regeneration as the baseline case. The plasmatron reformer was shown to improve NOx regeneration significantly compared to the baseline diesel case. The net result of these initial tests was a significant decrease in fuel penalty, roughly 50% at moderate adsorber temperatures. This fuel penalty improvement is accompanied by a dramatic drop in slipped hydrocarbon emissions, which decreased by 90% or more. Significant advantages are demonstrated across a wide range of engine conditions and temperatures. The study also indicated the potential to regenerate NOx adsorbers at low temperatures where diesel fuel based regeneration is not effective, such as those typical of idle conditions. Two vehicles, a bus and a light duty truck, have been equipped for plasmatron reformer NOx adsorber regeneration tests.

Bromberg, L.; Crane, S; Rabinovich, A.; Kong, Y; Cohn, D; Heywood, J; Alexeev, N.; Samokhin, A.

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

429

An Analysis of the health impacts from PM and NOx emissions resulting from train operations in the Alameda Corridor, CA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2009). Estimating PM and NOx Train Emissions in the AlamedaAuthority. Number of Trains Running on the Alameda Corridor.x emissions resulting from train operations in the Alameda

Sangkapichai, Mana; Saphores, Jean-Daniel M; Ogunseitan, Oladele; Ritchie, Stephen G.; You, Soyoung Iris; Lee, Gunwoo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Heavy-duty diesel vehicle Nox? aftertreatment in 2010 : the infrastructure and compliance challenges of urea-SCR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Increasingly stringent heavy-duty vehicle emission regulations are prompting the use of PM and NOx aftertreatment systems in the US, the EU and Japan. In the US, the EPA Highway Diesel Rule, which will be fully implemented ...

Bodek, Kristian M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Cold-Start Emissions Control in Hybrid Vehicles Equipped with a Passive Adsorber for Hydrocarbons and NOx  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Reports results from study of potential for using chemisorbing materials to temporally trap HC and NOx emissions during cold-start of HEVs and PHEVs over transient driving cycles

432

Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Hoffman, James S. (Library, PA)

2002-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

433

Gasification combined cycle: Carbon dioxide recovery, transport, and disposal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the project is to develop engineering evaluations of technologies for the capture, use, and disposal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This project emphasizes CO{sub 2}-capture technologies combined with integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. Complementary evaluations address CO{sub 2} transportation, CO{sub 2} use, and options for the long-term sequestering of unused CO{sub 2}. Commercially available CO{sub 2}-capture technology is providing a performance and economic baseline against which to compare innovative technologies. The intent is to provide the CO{sub 2} budget, or an {open_quotes}equivalent CO{sub 2}{close_quotes} budget, associated with each of the individual energy-cycle steps, in addition to process design capital and operating costs. The value used for the {open_quotes}equivalent CO{sub 2}{close_quotes} budget is 1 kg of CO{sub 2} per kilowatt-hour (electric). The base case is a 458-MW IGCC system that uses an air-blown Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse agglomerating fluidized-bed gasifier, Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal feed, and in-bed sulfur removal. Mining, feed preparation, and conversion result in a net electric power production of 454 MW, with a CO{sub 2} release rate of 0.835 kg/kWhe. Two additional life-cycle energy balances for emerging technologies were considered: (1) high-temperature CO{sub 2} separation with calcium- or magnesium-based sorbents, and (2) ambient-temperature facilitated-transport polymer membranes for acid-gas removal.

Doctor, R.D.; Molburg, J.C.; Thimmapuram, P.R.; Berry, G.F.; Livengood, C.D.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

NOx Emissions Reductions from Implementation of the 2000 IECC/IRC Conservation Code to Residential Construction in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.1000 0.1500 0.2000 0.2500 0.3000 0.3500 0.4000 0.0000 0.0500 0.1000 0.1500 0.2000 0.2500 0.3000 0.3500 0.4000 To ns - NOx/day (average) Tons - NOX/day (p eak) Apx 2x difference 1:1 2...

Haberl, J. S.; Im, P.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.; Fitzpatrick, T.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Application of Taguchi's orthogonal array in reducing the NOx emission of a stationary diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main objective of this investigation is to reduce the NOx emission of a stationary diesel engine with less sacrifice on smoke intensity and brake thermal efficiency (BTE). Fuel injection timing, percentage of EGR and fuel injection pressure are chosen as factors influencing the objective. Three levels were chosen in each factor and design of experiments method was employed to design the experiments. Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array was used to conduct the engine tests with different levels of the chosen factors. Test results were analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) method and ANOVA table was formed for each response variable. From the ANOVA table the most influencing factor and also the significance of each factor affecting the NOx emission, smoke intensity and BTE was found out. Response graph was drawn for each response variable to determine the optimum combination of the factor levels. This optimum combination was confirmed experimentally. [Received: November 14, 2010; Accepted: March 17, 2011

S. Saravanan; G. Nagarajan; R. Ramanujam; S. Sampath

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure, and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project developed, an important additional objective was added to the above original list. Namely, we were encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project are summarized below in three broad categories: experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; J.E. Fitzgerald; Z. Pan; M. Sudibandriyo

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

437

A Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations Kevin T. Raterman (ratekt@inel.gov; 208-526-5444) Michael McKellar (mgq@inel.gov; 208-526-1346) Anna Podgorney (poloak@inel.gov; 208-526-0064) Douglas Stacey (stacde@inel.gov; 208-526-3938) Terry Turner (tdt@inel.gov; 208-526-8623) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory P.O. Box 1625 Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415-2110 Brian Stokes (bxs9@pge.com; 415-972-5591) John Vranicar (jjv2@pge.com; 415-972-5591) Pacific Gas & Electric Company 123 Mission Street San Francisco, CA 94105 Introduction Many analysts 1,2,3 identify carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture and separation as a major roadblock in efforts to cost effectively mitigate greenhouse gas emissions via sequestration. An assessment 4 conducted by the International Energy Agency (IEA)

438

Reaction of titanium polonides with carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been ascertained that heating titanium and tantalum in carbon dioxide to temperatures of 500 or 800/sup 0/C alters the composition of the gas phase, causing the advent of carbon monoxide and lowering the oxygen content. Investigation of the thermal stability of titanium polonides in a carbon dioxide medium has shown that titanium mono- and hemipolonides are decomposed at temperatures below 350/sup 0/C. The temperature dependence of the vapor pressure of polonium produced in the decomposition of these polonides in a carbon dioxide medium have been determined by a radiotensimetric method. The enthalpy of the process, calculated from this relationship, is close to the enthalpy of vaporization of elementary polonium in vacuo.

Abakumov, A.S.; Malyshev, M.L.; Reznikova, N.F.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

A decoupled approach for NOx–N2O 3-D CFD modeling in CFB plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, a 3D CFD model for the formation of \\{NOx\\} and N2O in a lignite fired 1.2 MWth CFB pilot plant is developed. The decoupled approach (decoupled from combustion simulation) is tested for the minimization of computational cost. As combustion simulation is prerequired, this was achieved through a simplified 3-D CFD combustion model. The developed model is then applied to the pilot-scale 1.2 MWth CFB plant and validated against experimental data. As concerns the NOx–N2O model, an extensive literature review is also carried out for the incorporation of the appropriate reactions network and respective reaction rates expressions. Results show that homogenous reactions are favoured on the lower section of the bed, due to the abundance of fuel devolatilization products. On the other hand, on the upper section, heterogeneous reactions govern nitric oxide formation/reduction. It is found that for the lignite examined in this work, HCN is released in negligible amounts during char combustion. The proposed and validated CFD model for \\{NOx\\} and N2O, is capable of examining the effect of different operational parameters and coal properties on the overall nitric oxides emissions from a CFB combustor, with low computational cost and without the additional expenses for pilot-scale experiments.

A. Nikolopoulos; I. Malgarinos; N. Nikolopoulos; P. Grammelis; S. Karrelas; E. Kakaras

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Ammonia Generation over TWC for Passive SCR NOX Control for Lean Gasoline Engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A commercial three-way catalyst (TWC) was evaluated for ammonia (NH3) generation on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine as a component in a passive ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The passive NH3 SCR system is a potential low cost approach for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from lean burn gasoline engines. In this system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. NH3 generation was evaluated at different air-fuel equivalence ratios at multiple engine speed and load conditions. Near complete conversion of NOX to NH3 was achieved at =0.96 for nearly all conditions studied. At the =0.96 condition, HC emissions were relatively minimal, but CO emissions were significant. Operation at AFRs richer than =0.96 did not provide more NH3 yield and led to higher HC and CO emissions. Results of the reductant conversion and consumption processes were used to calculate a representative fuel consumption of the engine operating with an ideal passive SCR system. The results show a 1-7% fuel economy benefit at various steady-state engine speed and load points relative to a stoichiometric engine operation.

Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL] [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Modeling Species Inhibition of NO oxidation in Urea-SCR Catalysts for Diesel Engine NOx Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are regarded as the leading NOx aftertreatment technology to meet the 2010 NOx emission standards for on-highway vehicles running on heavy-duty diesel engines. However, issues such as low NOx conversion at low temperature conditions still exist due to various factors, including incomplete urea thermolysis, inhibition of SCR reactions by hydrocarbons and H2O. We have observed a noticeable reduction in the standard SCR reaction efficiency at low temperature with increasing water content. We observed a similar effect when hydrocarbons are present in the stream. This effect is absent under fast SCR conditions where NO ~ NO2 in the feed gas. As a first step in understanding the effects of such inhibition on SCR reaction steps, kinetic models that predict the inhibition behavior of H2O and hydrocarbons on NO oxidation are presented in the paper. A one-dimensional SCR model was developed based on conservation of species equations and was coded as a C-language S-function and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. NO oxidation and NO2 dissociation kinetics were defined as a function of the respective adsorbate’s storage in the SCR catalyst. The corresponding kinetic models were then validated on temperature ramp tests that showed good match with the test data.

Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Tran, Diana N.; Lee, Jong H.; Herling, Darrell R.

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

442

Modeling Species Inhibition of NO Oxidation in Urea-SCR Catalysts for Diesel Engine NOx Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are regarded as the leading NOx aftertreatment technology to meet the 2010 NOx emission standards for on-highway vehicles running on heavy-duty diesel engines. However, issues such as low NOx conversion at low temperature conditions still exist due to various factors, including incomplete urea thermolysis, inhibition of SCR reactions by hydrocarbons and H2O. We have observed a noticeable reduction in the standard SCR reaction efficiency at low temperature with increasing water content. We observed a similar effect when hydrocarbons are present in the stream. This effect is absent under fast SCR conditions where NO ~ NO2 in the feed gas. As a first step in understanding the effects of such inhibition on SCR reaction steps, kinetic models that predict the inhibition behavior of H2O and hydrocarbons on NO oxidation are presented in the paper. A one-dimensional SCR model was developed based on conservation of species equations and was coded as a C-language S-function and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. NO oxidation and NO2 dissociation kinetics were defined as a function of the respective adsorbate’s storage in the Fe-zeolite SCR catalyst. The corresponding kinetic models were then validated on temperature ramp tests that showed good match with the test data. Such inhibition models will improve the accuracy of model based control design for integrated DPF-SCR aftertreatment systems.

Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Tran, Diana N.; Lee, Jong H.; Herling, Darrell R.

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

443

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2007 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Relaated Carbon Dioxide Emissions Energy-Relaated Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2007 Chapter 7 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In 2004, non-OECD emissions of carbon dioxide were greater than OECD emissions for the first time. In 2030, carbon dioxide emissions from the non-OECD countries are projected to exceed those from the OECD countries by 57 percent. Figure 77. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Region, 2003-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center on 202-585-8800. Figure Data Figure 78. World energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Carbon dioxide is the most abundant anthropogenic (human-caused) greenhouse

444

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2008-Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2008 Chapter 7 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In 2005, non-OECD emissions of carbon dioxide exceeded OECD emissions by 7 percent. In 2030, carbon dioxide emissions from the non-OECD countries are projected to exceed those from the OECD countries by 72 percent. Figure 75. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2005-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 76. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 77. Average Annual Growth in Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the OECD Economies, 2005-2030 (Percent per Year). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

445

Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

12 SCIENCE Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapour, inert gases. On the basis of proton affinity, the major constituents of air and breath (nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide

446

A methodology for forecasting carbon dioxide flooding performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A methodology was developed for forecasting carbon dioxide (CO2) flooding performance quickly and reliably. The feasibility of carbon dioxide flooding in the Dollarhide Clearfork "AB" Unit was evaluated using the methodology. This technique is very...

Marroquin Cabrera, Juan Carlos

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

447

Graph Model for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Metallurgical Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mathematical models are presented for estimating carbon dioxide emissions from metallurgical processes. The article also presents ... in graph form to calculate transit and net emissions of carbon dioxide based o...

Yu. N. Chesnokov; V. G. Lisienko; A. V. Lapteva

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

E-Print Network 3.0 - arterial carbon dioxide Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

reactivity. inserm-00495071... , manufactured nanoparticles, especially carbon or titanium dioxide nanoparticles, could be relevant surrogate... of carbon or titanium dioxide...

449

The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon dioxide emissions per 1,000 cubic feet of natural gas. In this case, there is much less energy

Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Office of Fossil Energy’s Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (1986-1993) laid the foundation for effective technologies now in use that have helped significantly lower emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and airborne particulates (PM10).

451

Low Temperature Sorbents for removal of Sulfur Compounds from fluid feed Streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sorbent material is provided comprising a material reactive with sulfur, a binder unreactive with sulfur and an inert material, wherein the sorbent absorbs the sulfur at temperatures between 30 and 200 C. Sulfur absorption capacity as high as 22 weight percent has been observed with these materials.

Siriwardane, Ranjan

1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

452

Low Temperature Sorbents for Removal of Sulfur Compounds from Fluid Feed Streams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sorbent material is provided comprising a material reactive with sulfur, a binder unreactive with sulfur and an inert material, wherein the sorbent absorbs the sulfur at temperatures between 30 and 200 C. Sulfur absorption capacity as high as 22 weight percent has been observed with these materials.

Siriwardane, Ranjani

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture Dan Lia,b,c,1 , Hiroyasu demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence

454

Array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization includes a plurality of nanotubes, each nanotube including an outer layer coaxial with an inner layer, where the inner layer comprises p-type titanium dioxide and the outer layer comprises n-type titanium dioxide. An interface between the inner layer and the outer layer defines a p-n junction.

Qiu, Xiaofeng; Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chi, Miaofang; Ivanov, Ilia N; Zhang, Zhenyu

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

455

Thermal Infrared Radiation and Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dioxide Water vapor #12;Atmospheric composition (parts per million by volume) · Nitrogen (N2) 780Thermal Infrared Radiation and Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere Bill Satzer 3M Company #12;Outline,840 · Oxygen (O2) 209,460 · Argon (Ar) 9340 · Carbon dioxide (CO2) 394 · Methane (CH4) 1.79 · Ozone (O3) 0

Olver, Peter

456

World Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-U" relation with a within- sample peak between carbon dioxide emissions (and energy use) per capita and perWorld Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 Ã? 2050 Richard Schmalensee, Thomas M. Stoker, andRuth A. Judson* Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may

457

Glutamate Surface Speciation on Amorphous Titanium Dioxide and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Glutamate Surface Speciation on Amorphous Titanium Dioxide and Hydrous Ferric Oxide D I M I T R I (HFO) and titanium dioxide exhibit similar strong attachment of many adsorbates including biomolecules on amorphous titanium dioxide. The results indicate that glutamate adsorbs on HFO as a deprotonated divalent

Sverjensky, Dimitri A.

458

System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for adding sulfur to a reformate stream feeding a fuel cell stack, having a sulfur source for providing sulfur to the reformate stream and a metering device in fluid connection with the sulfur source and the reformate stream. The metering device injects sulfur from the sulfur source to the reformate stream at a predetermined rate, thereby providing a conditioned reformate stream to the fuel cell stack. The system provides a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J; Weissman, Jeffrey G

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

459

Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility Facility Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Sector Biomass Facility Type Non-Fossil Waste Location Contra Costa County, California Coordinates 37.8534093°, -121.9017954° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.8534093,"lon":-121.9017954,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

460

Diesel Emissions Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program Status  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Determine the impact of fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems that could be implemented to lower emissions of NO{sub x} and PM from on-highway trucks in the 2002-2004 time frame.

None

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Recovery Act: Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsion for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxid  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide-Water Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsion for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Background The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) distributed a portion of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds to advance technologies for chemical conversion of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) captured from industrial sources. The focus of the research projects is permanent sequestration of CO 2 through mineralization or development

462

Novel Sulfur-Tolerant Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the unique advantages of SOFCs over other types of fuel cells is the potential for direct utilization of hydrocarbon fuels (it may involve internal reforming). Unfortunately, most hydrocarbon fuels contain sulfur, which would dramatically degrade SOFC performance at parts-per-million (ppm) levels. Low concentration of sulfur (ppm or below) is difficult to remove efficiently and cost-effectively. Therefore, knowing the exact poisoning process for state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFCs with Ni-YSZ cermet anodes, understanding the detailed anode poisoning mechanism, and developing new sulfur-tolerant anodes are essential to the promotion of SOFCs that run on hydrocarbon fuels. The effect of cell operating conditions (including temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration, cell voltage/current density, etc.) on sulfur poisoning and recovery of nickel-based anode in SOFCs was investigated. It was found that sulfur poisoning is more severe at lower temperature, higher H{sub 2}S concentration or lower cell current density (higher cell voltage). In-situ Raman spectroscopy identified the nickel sulfide formation process on the surface of a Ni-YSZ electrode and the corresponding morphology change as the sample was cooled in H{sub 2}S-containing fuel. Quantum chemical calculations predicted a new S-Ni phase diagram with a region of sulfur adsorption on Ni surfaces, corresponding to sulfur poisoning of Ni-YSZ anodes under typical SOFC operating conditions. Further, quantum chemical calculations were used to predict the adsorption energy and bond length for sulfur and hydrogen atoms on various metal surfaces. Surface modification of Ni-YSZ anode by thin Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} coating was utilized to enhance the sulfur tolerance. A multi-cell testing system was designed and constructed which is capable of simultaneously performing electrochemical tests of 12 button cells in fuels with four different concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Through systematical study of state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFC button cells, it is seen that the long-term sulfur poisoning behavior of those cells indicate that there might be a second-stage slower degradation due to sulfur poisoning, which would last for a thousand hour or even longer. However, when using G-18 sealant from PNNL, the 2nd stage poisoning was effectively prohibited.

Lei Yang; Meilin Liu

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

463

CARBON DIOXIDE AND OUR OCEAN LEGACY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to energy-consuming activities that burn fossil fuels. On a yearly basis, the average Ameri- can produces 22 of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, or nearly half of the fossil fuel carbon emissions over this period sea life that depend on the health and avail- ability of these shelled organisms. At present, ocean

464

Predicting Future Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Levels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...re-quired 5-Mhz bandwidth...interstellar plasma. For UHF frequencies of 500 Mhz, this amounts...chang-ing the atmospheric carbon dioxide...in the polar areas. Although...The shaded area indicates the...per-missible atmospheric CO2 level might...emission rates are largest between 2000...

U. Siegenthaler; H. Oeschger

1978-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

465

Synthetic fuels, carbon dioxide and climate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The observed increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has been attributed to the use of fossil fuels. There is concern that the generation and use of synthetic fuels derived from oil shale and coal will accelerate the increase of CO2.

Alex R. Sapre; John R. Hummel; Ruth A. Reck

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Introduction Air Quality and Nitrogen Dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- Global update 2005. Primary sources of air pollutants include combustion products from power generationIntroduction Air Quality and Nitrogen Dioxide Air pollution can be defined as "the presence effects to man and/or the environment". (DEFRA) "Clean air is considered to be a basic requirement

467

Hydroelectric Reservoirs -the Carbon Dioxide and Methane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydroelectric Reservoirs - the Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions of a "Carbon Free" Energy an overview on the greenhouse gas production of hydroelectric reservoirs. The goals are to point out the main how big the greenhouse gas emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs are compared to thermo-power plants

Fischlin, Andreas

468

Low temperature fracture evaluation of plasticized sulfur paving mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

May 1985 Major Subject: Civil Engineering LOW TEMPERATURE FRACTURE EVALUATION OF PLASTICIZED SULFUR PAVING MIXTURES A Thesis by KAMYAR MAHBOUB Approved as to style and content by: Dallas N. Li tie (Chai rman of Committee) Ro e . Lytto Member... modifications to the standard ASTM procedure. These modifications were required due to the nature of plasticized sulfur mixtures and asphalt cement mixtures. The J-integral version of Paris ' law was successfully used to characterize the fatigue...

Mahboub, Kamyar

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

469

Recent advances in lithium–sulfur batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries have attracted much attention lately because they have very high theoretical specific energy (2500 Wh kg?1), five times higher than that of the commercial LiCoO2/graphite batteries. As a result, they are strong contenders for next-generation energy storage in the areas of portable electronics, electric vehicles, and storage systems for renewable energy such as wind power and solar energy. However, poor cycling life and low capacity retention are main factors limiting their commercialization. To date, a large number of electrode and electrolyte materials to address these challenges have been investigated. In this review, we present the latest fundamental studies and technological development of various nanostructured cathode materials for Li–S batteries, including their preparation approaches, structure, morphology and battery performance. Furthermore, the development of other significant components of Li–S batteries including anodes, electrolytes, additives, binders and separators are also highlighted. Not only does the intention of our review article comprise the summary of recent advances in Li–S cells, but also we cover some of our proposals for engineering of Li–S cell configurations. These systematic discussion and proposed directions can enlighten ideas and offer avenues in the rational design of durable and high performance Li–S batteries in the near future.

Lin Chen; Leon L. Shaw

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Heat Transfer Characteristics of Sulfur and Sulfur Diluted with Hydrogen Sulfide Flowing Through Circular Tubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is called the pumping-power advantage factor, and has the value 2. 5 x 10 for sodium. The only metals having a higher value of H are 13 lithium 7 and bismuth. Lithium 7 comprises 92. 5% of natural lithium, but the cost of separating it from lithium 6...-section for thermal neutrons being 0. 130 barns. For comparison, water has an absorption cross-section of 0. 58 barns for thermal neutrons (2) . Sulfur is not activated by exposure to neutron flux in such a way as to produce a radioactive isotope which...

Stone, Porter Walwyn

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

\\{NOx\\} emission characteristics of fluidized bed combustion in atmospheres rich in oxygen and water vapor for high-nitrogen fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The present study examines the influence of water vapor in combustion atmosphere on \\{NOx\\} emission from oxygen-enriched combustion of air-dried distilled spirit lees and its char in a laboratory fluidized bed of 760 mm high and 68 mm in inner diameter. Steam was added into the fluidizing gas to vary the vapor content in the combustion atmosphere. At a combustion temperature of 950 °C and a steam-to-fuel mass ratio (S/F) of 0.5, the presence of water vapor reduced the \\{NOx\\} concentration in the flue gas for low O2 contents (?30 vol.%) in the combustion agent but increased the \\{NOx\\} emission for high O2 contents (?40 vol.%). The possible causes were clarified for this shift from suppression to promotion of fuel-N conversion into \\{NOx\\} with raising O2 concentration in the combustion agent. Varying temperature from 850 °C to 1150 °C resulted in a peak conversion of fuel-N to \\{NOx\\} in the temperature range of 950–1050 °C for all the tested O2 concentrations. Increasing the O2 concentration tended to lower the critical temperature corresponding to such a peak fuel-N conversion. Testing results also suggested that the presence of excessive water vapor in the combustion atmosphere would inhibit the release of fuel-N in the devolatilization stage and promote the formation of some reducing gases. In addition to the anticipated diluting effect, the steam addition also shortened the reaction time for homogeneous and heterogeneous \\{NOx\\} reduction by the reducing gases and char. It is postulated that the formation of OH radicals at high O2 content and high temperature could cause the observed increase in the \\{NOx\\} emission.

Chuanqiang Zhu; Shuyuan Liu; Huan Liu; Juan Yang; Xiaoxing Liu; Guangwen Xu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

controls or integrated measures could simultaneously reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and criteria air pollutantcontrols or integrated measures that simultaneously reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and criteria air pollutantcontrols or integrated measures that are defined as simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and criteria air pollutant

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Impact of additives for enhanced sulfur dioxide removal on re-emissions of mercury in wet flue gas desulfurization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The wet flue gas desulfurization process (FGD) in fossil fired power plants offers the advantage of simultaneously removing SO2 and other water soluble pollutants, such as certain oxidized mercury compounds (Hg2+). In order to maximize SO2 removal efficiency of installed FGD units, organic additives can be utilized. In the context of multi-pollutant control by wet FGD, the effect of formic and adipic acid on redox reactions of dissolved mercury compounds is investigated with a continuously operated lab-scale test-rig. For sulfite ( SO 3 2 - ) concentrations above a certain critical value, their potential as reducing agent leads to rapidly increasing formation and re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg0). Increasing chloride concentration and decreasing pH and slurry temperature have been identified as key factors for depressing Hg0 re-emissions. Both organic additives have a negative impact on Hg-retention and cause increased Hg0 re-emissions in the wet FGD process, with formic acid being the significantly stronger reducing agent. Different pathways of Hg2+ reduction were identified by qualitative interpretation of the pH-dependence and by comparison of activation enthalpies and activation entropies. While the first mechanism proposed identifies SO 3 2 - as reducing agent and is therefore relevant for any FGD process, the second mechanism involves the formate anion, thus being exclusively relevant for \\{FGDs\\} utilizing formic acid as additive.

Barna Heidel; Melanie Hilber; Günter Scheffknecht

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water outflow of the steam turbine condenser. Due to theHigh-temperature CHP Steam expansion turbine Combined CycleNatural gas expansion turbine Steam Distribution System

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since 2006, China has set goals of reducing energy intensity, emissions, and pollutants in multiple guidelines and in the Five Year Plans. Various strategies and measures have then been taken to improve the energy efficiency in all sectors and to reduce pollutants. Since controlling energy, CO{sub 2} emissions, and pollutants falls under the jurisdiction of different government agencies in China, many strategies are being implemented to fulfill only one of these objectives. Co-controls or integrated measures could simultaneously reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and criteria air pollutant emissions. The targets could be met in a more cost effective manner if the integrated measures can be identified and prioritized. This report provides analysis and insights regarding how these targets could be met via co-control measures focusing on both CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} emissions in the cement, iron &steel, and power sectors to 2030 in China. An integrated national energy and emission model was developed in order to establish a baseline scenario that was used to assess the impact of actions already taken by the Chinese government as well as planned and expected actions. In addition, CO{sub 2} mitigation scenarios and SO{sub 2} control scenarios were also established to evaluate the impact of each of the measures and the combined effects. In the power sector, although the end of pipe SO{sub 2} control technology such as flue gas desulfurization (FGD) has the largest reduction potential for SO{sub 2} emissions, other CO{sub 2} control options have important co-benefits in reducing SO{sub 2} emissions of 52.6 Mt of SO{sub 2} accumulatively. Coal efficiency improvements along with hydropower, renewable and nuclear capacity expansion will result in more than half of the SO{sub 2} emission reductions as the SO{sub 2} control technology through 2016. In comparison, the reduction from carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is much less and has negative SO{sub 2} reductions potential. The expanded biomass generation scenario does not have significant potential for reducing SO{sub 2} emissions, because of its limited availability. For the cement sector, the optimal co-control strategy includes accelerated adoption of energy efficiency measures, decreased use of clinker in cement production, increased use of alternative fuels, and fuel-switching to biomass. If desired, additional SO{sub 2} mitigation could be realized by more fully adopting SO{sub 2} abatement mitigation technology measures. The optimal co-control scenario results in annual SO{sub 2} emissions reductions in 2030 of 0.16 Mt SO{sub 2} and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reductions of 76 Mt CO{sub 2}. For the iron and steel sector, the optimal co-control strategy includes accelerated adoption of energy efficiency measures, increased share of electric arc furnace steel production, and reduced use of coal and increased use of natural gas in steel production. The strategy also assumes full implementation of sinter waste gas recycling and wet desulfurization. This strategy results in annual SO{sub 2} emissions reductions in 2030 of 1.3 Mt SO{sub 2} and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reductions of 173 Mt CO{sub 2}.

Zhou, Nan; Price, Lynn; Zheng, Nina; Ke, Jing; Hasanbeigi, Ali

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

476

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NG Fired CC Nuclear Power Wind Power Coal Not all of theand other Renew Solar Wind Power Hydropower Nuclear Power NGcapacity of solar and wind power increasing rapidly after

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

committed to reduce its carbon intensity (CO 2 per unit ofcommitted to reduce its carbon intensity (CO 2 per unit of2 emissions, and the 40-45% carbon intensity reduction goals

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coal Gas coal Fat coal Coking coal Lean coal Meagre coalCoal used for coking Natural Gas Coal used as fuel Source:

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

improvements along with hydropower, renewable and nuclearreport are: Power Sector Hydropower in particular has theEfficiency Expanded Hydropower Generation Capacity

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as energy use per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) byas energy use per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Remediation of chromium(VI) in the vadose zone: stoichiometry and kinetics of chromium(VI) reduction by sulfur dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The reaction was also rapid, with the half-time of about 45 minutes at pH 6 and about 16 hours at pH 7. A two-step kinetic model was developed to describe changes in concentrations of Cr(VI), S(IV), and S(V). Nonlinear regression was applied to obtain...

Ahn, Min

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

482

Polyaniline-modified cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-graphene oxide-sulfur nanocomposites with enhanced performance for lithium-sulfur batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Conductive polymer coatings can boost the power storage capacity of lithium-sulfur batteries. We report here on the design and ... polyaniline (PANI)-modified cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-graphene oxide ...

Yongcai Qiu; Wanfei Li; Guizhu Li; Yuan Hou; Lisha Zhou; Hongfei Li…

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport,  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport, and Storage Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport, and Storage Project Summary Full Title: Techno-Economic Models for Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport, and Storage & Correlations for Estimating Carbon Dioxide Density and Viscosity Project ID: 195 Principal Investigator: David McCollum Brief Description: This project addresses several components of carbon capture and storage (CCS) costs, provides technical models for determining the engineering and infrastructure requirements of CCS, and describes some correlations for estimating CO2 density and viscosity. Keywords: Pipeline, transportation, greenhouse gases (GHG), costs, technoeconomic analysis Purpose Estimate costs of carbon dioxide capture, compression, transport, storage, etc., and provide some technical models for determining the engineering and

484

HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS REFERENCE DESIGN AND COST ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents a detailed study to determine the expected efficiency and product costs for producing hydrogen via water-splitting using energy from an advanced nuclear reactor. It was determined that the overall efficiency from nuclear heat to hydrogen is high, and the cost of hydrogen is competitive under a high energy cost scenario. It would require over 40% more nuclear energy to generate an equivalent amount of hydrogen using conventional water-cooled nuclear reactors combined with water electrolysis compared to the proposed plant design described herein. There is a great deal of interest worldwide in reducing dependence on fossil fuels, while also minimizing the impact of the energy sector on global climate change. One potential opportunity to contribute to this effort is to replace the use of fossil fuels for hydrogen production by the use of water-splitt