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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox so2 sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Climate Co-benefits of Tighter SO2 and NOx Regulations in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air pollution has been recognized as a significant problem in China. In its Twelfth Five Year Plan (FYP), China proposes to reduce SO2 and NOx emissions significantly, and here we investigate the cost of achieving those ...

Nam, Kyung-Min

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Synthetic Assessment of Historical Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and climate change since industrial revolution. · This study assesses the original researches on historical 1850, anthropogenic SO2 emissions were distributed mostly by open burning sources and industrial

3

Implications of near-term coal power plant retirement for SO2 and NOX, and life cycle GHG emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

prices of electricity production Plant type Unit Price Nuclear ($/MWh) 16.51 Wind ($/MWh) 201 Hydro Top SO2 100 430 95 440 100 430 Top NOX 105 350 100 380 105 345 Small, inefficient 125 410 125 405 125) Manitoba Hydro Manitoba Hydro Undertaking # 57 http://www.pub.gov.mb.ca/exhibits/mh-83.pdf. (5) Sotkiewicz

Jaramillo, Paulina

4

Implications of Near-Term Coal Power Plant Retirement for SO2 and NOX and Life Cycle GHG Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Implications of Near-Term Coal Power Plant Retirement for SO2 and NOX and Life Cycle GHG Emissions emissions in the U.S. will likely result in coal plant retirement in the near-term. Life cycle assessment for electricity generation, by comparing systems that consist of individual natural gas and coal power plants

Jaramillo, Paulina

5

Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: SO2, Nox, CO2  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report responds to a request received from Senator David McIntosh on June 29, 2000 to analyze the impacts on energy consumers and producers of coordinated strategies to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide at U.S. power plants.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Excellent Sulfur Resistance of Pt/BaO/CeO2 Lean NOx Trap Catalysts...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NOx Trap Catalysts. Excellent Sulfur Resistance of PtBaOCeO2 Lean NOx Trap Catalysts. Abstract: In this work, we investigated the NOx storage behavior of Pt-BaOCeO2 catalysts,...

7

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric sulfur dioxide Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: (O3), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) will be measured... Ren...

8

A design strategy applied to sulfur resistant lean NOx̳ automotive catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Catalyst poisoning due to sulfur compounds derived from fuel sulfur presents a major challenge, intractable thus far, to development of many advanced technologies for automotive catalysts such as the lean NOx, trap. Under ...

Tang, Hairong

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

ADVANCED BYPRODUCT RECOVERY: DIRECT CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF SO2 TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its commercialization partner, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner Tufts, investigated a single-step process for direct, catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide from regenerable flue gas desulfurization processes to the more valuable elemental sulfur by-product. This development built on recently demonstrated SO{sub 2}-reduction catalyst performance at Tufts University on a DOE-sponsored program and is, in principle, applicable to processing of regenerator off-gases from all regenerable SO{sub 2}-control processes. In this program, laboratory-scale catalyst optimization work at Tufts was combined with supported catalyst formulation work at Engelhard, bench-scale supported catalyst testing at Arthur D. Little and market assessments, also by Arthur D. Little. Objectives included identification and performance evaluation of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. The catalyst formulation was improved significantly over the course of this work owing to the identification of a number of underlying phenomena that tended to reduce catalyst selectivity. The most promising catalysts discovered in the bench-scale tests at Tufts were transformed into monolith-supported catalysts at Engelhard. These catalyst samples were tested at larger scale at Arthur D. Little, where the laboratory-scale results were confirmed, namely that the catalysts do effectively reduce sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur when operated under appropriate levels of conversion and in conditions that do not contain too much water or hydrogen. Ways to overcome those limitations were suggested by the laboratory results. Nonetheless, at the end of Phase I, the catalysts did not exhibit the very stringent levels of activity or selectivity that would have permitted ready scale-up to pilot or commercial operation. Therefore, we chose not to pursue Phase II of this work which would have included further bench-scale testing, scale-up, pilot-scale (0.5 MW{sub e}) testing at conditions representative of various regenerable SO{sub 2}-control systems, preparation of a commercial process design, and development of a utility-scale demonstration plan.

Robert S. Weber

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Chemistry of Sulfur Oxides on Transition Metals I: Configurations, Energetics, Orbital Analyses, and Surface Coverage Effects of SO2 on Pt(111)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on understanding how SO2 promotes the oxidation of alkanes, such as propane.3-5 To understand the reactivity, Polcik et al. did not pro- pose any detailed structural information for this flat-lying configuration

Lin, Xi

11

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 2: SOx/Nox/Hg Removal for High Sulfur Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxy-combustion technology. The objective of Task 2 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning high sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was not only to investigate a new method of flue gas purification but also to produce useful acid byproduct streams as an alternative to using a traditional FGD and SCR for flue gas processing. During the project two main constraints were identified that limit the ability of the process to achieve project goals. 1) Due to boiler island corrosion issues >60% of the sulfur must be removed in the boiler island with the use of an FGD. 2) A suitable method could not be found to remove NOx from the concentrated sulfuric acid product, which limits sale-ability of the acid, as well as the NOx removal efficiency of the process. Given the complexity and safety issues inherent in the cycle it is concluded that the acid product would not be directly saleable and, in this case, other flue gas purification schemes are better suited for SOx/NOx/Hg control when burning high sulfur coal, e.g. this project's Task 3 process or a traditional FGD and SCR.

Nick Degenstein; Minish Shah; Doughlas Louie

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

NOx reduction by sulfur tolerant coronal-catalytic apparatus and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention presents an NO[sub x] environment effective reduction apparatus comprising a sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst such as high dielectric coronal-catalysts like glass wool, ceramic-glass wool or zirconium glass wool and method of use. In one embodiment the invention comprises an NO[sub x] reduction apparatus of sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst adapted and configured for hypercritical presentation to an NO[sub x] bearing gas stream at a minimum of at least about 75 watts/cubic meter.

Mathur, V.K.; Breault, R.W.; McLarnon, C.R.; Medros, F.G.

1993-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

13

Measurement and Characterization of NOx Adsorber Regeneration...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields Progress Toward Targets of Efficient NOx Control for Diesels Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects...

14

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 3: SOx/NOx/Hg Removal for Low Sulfur Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project was to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxycombustion technology. The objective of Task 3 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning low sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was to conduct an experimental investigation and to develop a novel process for simultaneously removal of SOx and NOx from power plants that would operate on low sulfur coal without the need for wet-FGD & SCRs. A novel purification process operating at high pressures and ambient temperatures was developed. Activated carbon??s catalytic and adsorbent capabilities are used to oxidize the sulfur and nitrous oxides to SO{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} species, which are adsorbed on the activated carbon and removed from the gas phase. Activated carbon is regenerated by water wash followed by drying. The development effort commenced with the screening of commercially available activated carbon materials for their capability to remove SO{sub 2}. A bench-unit operating in batch mode was constructed to conduct an experimental investigation of simultaneous SOx and NOx removal from a simulated oxyfuel flue gas mixture. Optimal operating conditions and the capacity of the activated carbon to remove the contaminants were identified. The process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx. In the longevity tests performed on a batch unit, the retention capacity could be maintained at high level over 20 cycles. This process was able to effectively remove up to 4000 ppm SOx from the simulated feeds corresponding to oxyfuel flue gas from high sulfur coal plants. A dual bed continuous unit with five times the capacity of the batch unit was constructed to test continuous operation and longevity. Full-automation was implemented to enable continuous operation (24/7) with minimum operator supervision. Continuous run was carried out for 40 days. Very high SOx (>99.9%) and NOx (98%) removal efficiencies were also achieved in a continuous unit. However, the retention capacity of carbon beds for SOx and NOx was decreased from ~20 hours to ~10 hours over a 40 day period of operation, which was in contrast to the results obtained in a batch unit. These contradictory results indicate the need for optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level and thus minimize the capital cost of the system. In summary, the activated carbon process exceeded performance targets for SOx and NOx removal efficiencies and it was found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. More efforts are needed to optimize the system performance.

Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Minish Shah

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Effect of sulfur loading on the desulfation chemistry of a commercial...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sulfur loading on the desulfation chemistry of a commercial lean NOx trap catalyst. Effect of sulfur loading on the desulfation chemistry of a commercial lean NOx trap catalyst....

16

SO2 emissions and lifetimes: Estimates from inverse modeling using in situ and global, spacebased  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SO2 emissions and lifetimes: Estimates from inverse modeling using in situ and global, spacebased 18 March 2011. [1] Topdown constraints on global sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions are inferred through of GEOSChem for inversion of SO2 columns to emissions. The seasonal mean SO2 lifetime calculated with the GEOS

Martin, Randall

17

A thermodynamic analysis of the SO2/H2SO4 system in SO2-depolarized electrolysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808, USA b Center for Electrochemical Engineering, the resulting operating potential will depend on the concentrations of dissolved SO2 and sulfuric acid potentials was found, sug- gesting that there may be considerable room for reducing the operating potential

Weidner, John W.

18

RESEARCH ARTICLE Apparent downwind depletion of volcanic SO2 flux--lessons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Volcano monitoring . FLYSPEC Introduction Volcanic gas emissions play an important role indicate that dry deposition of sulfur from the plume and conversion of SO2 to sulfate aerosols within 5km downwind, and is responsible for the apparent loss of SO2. Due to the importance of SO2 emission

Williams-Jones, Glyn

19

Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Presentation given...

20

CO2-SO2 clathrate hydrate formation on early Mars1 Eric Chassefirea,b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hal-00804822,version1-26Mar2013 #12;3 1. Introduction53 54 Sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been proposed1 CO2-SO2 clathrate hydrate formation on early Mars1 2 Eric Chassefièrea,b , Emmanuel Dartoisc hal-00804822,version1-26Mar2013 Author manuscript, published in "Icarus 223, 2 (2013) 878-891" DOI

Boyer, Edmond

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox so2 sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters and Boilers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-6, 2000 Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters Air Pollution Control and Boilers Keeping the environment clean Presented by Ashutosh Garg Furnace Improvements Low cost solutions for fired heaters Trace compounds ? Nitric oxides ? Carbon monoxide ? Sulfur... it is essential to estimate accurately baseline NOx emissions. ? This will establish each units current compliance status. ? Emissions ? Current excess air level ? Carbon monoxide ? Combustibles ? NOx corrected to 3% 02 314 ESL-IE-00-04-46 Proceedings...

Garg, A.

22

Application of Aura/OMI PBL SO2 product for estimating SO2 emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) values around the largest US coal power plants as a result of the implementation of SO2 pollution control significant enhancements in SO2 pollution in the vicinity of largest SO2 emitting coal-burning power plants pixel size GOME 2 Pixel size SCIAMACHY Pixel size John E. Amos power plant, USA For each grid point

Jacob, Daniel J.

23

Single photon ionization of van der Waals clusters with a soft x-ray laser: ,,SO2...n and ,,SO2...n,,H2O...m  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that return to earth in the form of acid depositions or "acid rain." Acid rain is one of the biggest environmental problems at present. Sulfur dioxide is the major contributor to acid rain and a generator of soot. The process of SO2 and water form- ing acid rain has been studied for some time in order to determine

Rocca, Jorge J.

24

Method for Determining Performance of Sulfur Oxide Adsorbents...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Method for Determining Performance of Sulfur Oxide Adsorbents for Diesel Emission Control Using Online Measurement of SO2 and Method for Determining Performance of Sulfur Oxide...

25

A dsorption of H2 S or SO2 on an activated carbon cloth modified by ammonia treatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent studies have reported that activated carbon fibers, such as PAN-ACF [1] or Nomex-ACF [2], have for the recovery of sulfuric acid compared to granular activated carbon because the diffusion of sulfuric acid rarely been investigated to improve the performance of activated carbon fibers for the removal of SO2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

26

Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

High SO2 Removal Efficiency Testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a discussion of the technical progress on DOE/PETC project number DE-AC22-92PC91338, "High Efficiency SO2 Removal Testing", for the time period 1 January through 31 March 1997. The project involves testing at six full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, to evaluate low capital cost upgrades that may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO2 removal efficiency. The upgrades being evaluated mostly involve using performance additives in the FGD systems. The "base" project involved testing at the Tampa Electric Company?s Big Bend Station. All five potential options to the base program have been exercised by DOE, involving testing at Hoosier Energy?s Merom Station (Option I), Southwestern Electric Power Company?s Pirkey Station (Option II), PSI Energy?s Gibson Station (Option III), Duquesne Light?s Elrama Station (Option IV), and New York State Electric and Gas Corporation?s (NYSEG) Kintigh Station (Option V). The originally planned testing has been completed for all six sites. However, additional testing is planned at the Big Bend Station. The remainder of this document is divided into four sections. Section 2, Project Summary, provides a brief overview of the status of technical efforts on this project. Section 3, Results, summarizes the outcome from technical efforts during the quarter, or results from prior quarters that have not been previously reported. In Section 4, Plans for the Next Reporting Period, an overview is provided of the technical efforts that are anticipated for the second quarter of calendar year 1997. Section 5 contains a brief acknowledgement.

Gary Blythe

1997-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

28

Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

N.A. Ottinger, J.A. Pihl, T.J. Toops, C. Finney, M. Lance, C. Stuart Daw, "Types, Spatial Distribution, Stability, and Performance Impact of Sulfur on a Lean NOx Trap...

29

Proof of concept testing of an integrated dry injection system for SO2/NOx control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the subscale test program were designed to provide sorbent and additive selection guidance, and, in so doing, supply answers to the questions posed in the preceding section. The objectives are: Identify the best commercial hydrate sorbent and the best enhanced hydrate sorbent from a list of nine types, based upon S0{sub 2} removal at Ca/S=2. Determine the relative effectiveness of sodium sesquicarbonate versus sodium bicarbonate for S0{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control over the temperature range of 200{degrees}F--400{degrees}F. Identify the best NO{sub 2} suppressing additive among the group of ammonia, urea, and activated carbon.

Helfritch, D.J.; Bortz, S.J. (Research-Cottrell, Inc., Somerville, NJ (United States)); Beittel, R. (Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access A 50-year record of NOx and SO2 sources in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of accelerating energy development [3]. For example, over 3,000 natural gas wells are being installed in the Green/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) data in western Wyoming. The most enriched 34 S value in the UFG ice River Basin, directly west of the WRR. Full development of the Jonah gas field could result

31

Evaluation of Gas Reburning & Low NOx Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler Performance and Economics Report Gas Reburning-Low NOx Burner System Cherokee Station Unit 3 Public Service Company of Colorado  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler NOX emissions and to a lesser degree, due to coal replacement, SO2 emissions. The project involved combining Gas Reburning with Low NOX Burners (GR-LNB) on a coal-fired electric utility boiler to determine if high levels of NOX reduction (70%) could be achieved. Sponsors of the project included the U.S. Department of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Public Service Company of Colorado, Colorado Interstate Gas, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The GR-LNB demonstration was performed on Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSCO) Cherokee Unit #3, located in Denver, Colorado. This unit is a 172 MW~ wall-fired boiler that uses Colorado Bituminous, low-sulfur coal. It had a baseline NOX emission level of 0.73 lb/106 Btu using conventional burners. Low NOX burners are designed to yield lower NOX emissions than conventional burners. However, the NOX control achieved with this technique is limited to 30-50%. Also, with LNBs, CO emissions can increase to above acceptable standards. Gas Reburning (GR) is designed to reduce NOX in the flue gas by staged fuel combustion. This technology involves the introduction of natural gas into the hot furnace flue gas stream. When combined, GR and LNBs minimize NOX emissions and maintain acceptable levels of CO emissions. A comprehensive test program was completed, operating over a wide range of boiler conditions. Over 4,000 hours of operation were achieved, providing substantial data. Measurements were taken to quantify reductions in NOX emissions, the impact on boiler equipment and operability and factors influencing costs. The GR-LNB technology achieved good NOX emission reductions and the goals of the project were achieved. Although the performance of the low NOX burners (supplied by others) was less than expected, a NOX reduction of 65% was achieved at an average gas heat input of 18Y0. The performance goal of 70% reduction was met on many test runs, but at a higher reburn gas heat input. S02 emissions, based on coal replacement, were reduced by 18Y0. The performance goal of 70% reduction was met on many test runs, but at a higher reburn gas heat input. S02 emissions, based on coal replacement, were reduced by 18Y0. Toward the end of the program, a Second Generation gas injection system was installed. Higher injector gas pressures were used that eliminated the need for flue gas recirculation as used in the first generation design. The Second Generation GR resulted in similar NOX reduction performance as that for the First Generation. With an improvement in the LNB performance in combination with the new gas injection system , the reburn gas could be reduced to 12.5% of the total boiler heat input to achieve al 64?40 reduction in NO, emissions. In addition, the OFA injectors were modified to provide for better mixing to lower CO emissions.

None

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA)

2006-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

33

Measuring Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Emissions in October, 2010 Catastrophic Eruption from Merapi Volcano in Java, Indonesia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Volcano in Java, Indonesia with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) José A. Morales-Collazo Geology This paper discusses sulfur dioxide (SO2) cloud emissions from Merapi Volcano in Java, Indonesia during, Indonesia. In October 26th , 2010, a catastrophic eruption was reported from Merapi causing nearly 386

Gilbes, Fernando

34

Quantifying Individual Potential Contributions of the Hybrid Sulfur Electrolyzer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transport to the anode influences the concentration of the sulfuric acid produced. The resulting sulfuric loss is the diffusion of SO2 through the sulfuric acid to the catalyst site. Here, we extend our and correlated the operating potential to the sulfuric acid concentration produced at the anode.15-17 We have

Weidner, John W.

35

Combining Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Posters 2005deerhuff.pdf More Documents & Publications Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Reductant Utilization in a LNT + SCR...

36

Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Jim Parks (parksjeii@ornl.gov), Matt Swartz, Shean Huff, Brian West Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

37

Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia detector for remote sensing of vehicle emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with sulfuric and nitric acids formed from at- mospheric oxidations of sulfur dioxide SO2 and nitrogen oxides mobile sources comes from the combustion of sulfur compounds in fuel. The U.S. is in the process of reducing sulfur in fuel for all mobile sources. This process begins with ultralow sulfur on-road diesel

Denver, University of

38

Low NOx combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

Kobayashi; Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY), Bool, III; Lawrence E. (Aurora, NY)

2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

39

Low NOx combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

Kobayashi, Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY); Bool, III, Lawrence E. (Aurora, NY)

2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

40

SCR Technologies for NOx Reduction  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

SCR Technology for NOx Reduction Outline Necessity of NOx Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Air-assisted Dosing Systems (HD applications) Field experience with DENOXTRONIC for MDHD...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox so2 sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

China's rapid deployment of SO2 scrubbers Robert H. Williamsb  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

China's rapid deployment of SO2 scrubbers Yuan Xu,*a Robert H. Williamsb and Robert H. Socolowcth March 2009 DOI: 10.1039/b901357c Details are gradually emerging regarding China's extraordinary also describe novel policies enacted by China in 2007 to increase the likelihood that installed

42

Durability of NOx Absorbers  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exhaust Flow Through Catalyst During Regen From Engine NOx Absorber Oxidation Catalyst Reactor 1 in Sorption Mode Reactor 2 in Regen Mode Open Valve Closed Valve Diesel Fuel In...

43

CLEERS Activities: Diesel Soot Filter Characterization & NOx...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Activities: Diesel Soot Filter Characterization & NOx Control Fundamentals CLEERS Activities: Diesel Soot Filter Characterization & NOx Control Fundamentals 2009 DOE Hydrogen...

44

Flexible NOx Abatement from Power  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Flexible NOx Abatement from Power Plants in the Eastern United States* Lin Sun, Mort Webster, Gary: globalchange@mit.edu Website: http://globalchange.mit.edu/ #12;Flexible NOx Abatement from Power Plants

45

University of Minnesota Energy Conservation and Use  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Carbon monoxide) NOx (Nitrogen oxides) SO2 (Sulfur dioxide) CO2 (Carbon dioxide) 1996 280 1,371 597

Gulliver, Robert

46

Optimization of Trona/Limestone Injection for SO2 Control in Coal-Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mobotec USA develops and markets air pollution control systems for utility boilers and other combustion systems. They have a particular interest in technologies that can reduce NOx, SOx, and mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers, and have been investigating the injection of sorbents such as limestone and trona into a boiler to reduce SOx and Hg emissions. WRI proposed to use the Combustion Test Facility (CTF) to enable Mobotec to conduct a thorough evaluation of limestone and trona injection for SO{sub 2} control. The overall goal of the project was to characterize the SO{sub 2} reductions resulting from the injection of limestone and trona into the CTF when fired with a high-sulfur eastern bituminous coal used in one of Mobotec's Midwest installations. Results revealed that when limestone was injected at Ca:S molar ratios of 1.5 to 3.0, the resulting SO{sub 2} reductions were 35-55%. It is believed that further reductions can be attained with improved mixing of the sorbent with the combustion gases. When limestone was added to the coal, at Ca:S molar ratios of 0.5 to 1.5, the SO{sub 2} reductions were 13-21%. The lower reductions were attributed to dead-burning of the sorbent in the high temperature flame zone. In cases where limestone was both injected into the furnace and added to the coal, the total SO{sub 2} reductions for a given Ca:S molar ratio were similar to the reductions for furnace injection only. The injection of trona into the mid-furnace zone, for Na:S molar ratios of 1.4 to 2.4, resulted in SO{sub 2} reductions of 29-43%. Limestone injection did not produce any slag deposits on an ash deposition probe while trona injection resulted in noticeable slag deposition.

None

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Reactive based NOx sensor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diesel engines exhibit better fuel economy and emit fewer greenhouse gases than gasoline engines. Modern diesel technology has virtually eliminated carbon monoxide and particulate emissions. Sulfur oxide emissions have ...

Vassiliou, Christophoros Christou

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aerosols can potentially result in an increase in acid deposition. [4] Acid rain has been studiedSulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols Ben Kravitz,1 Alan limit of hydration of all sulfate aerosols into sulfuric acid. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2

Robock, Alan

49

Lean NOx Catalysis Research and Development  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

4 Lean-NOx Catalyst Materials T NOx active T NOx selective Noble metals (ex. PtAl 2 O 3 ) highly active, stable narrow temperature range, poorly selective (N 2 O) ...

50

SO2-induced stability of Ag-alumina catalysts in the SCR of NO...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

SO2-induced stability of Ag-alumina catalysts in the SCR of NO with methane. SO2-induced stability of Ag-alumina catalysts in the SCR of NO with methane. Abstract: We report on a...

51

Sulfur-induced greenhouse warming on early Mars Sarah Stewart Johnson,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and 500 mbar CO2 with varying abundances of H2O and sulfur volatiles (H2S and SO2 mixing ratios of 10?3Sulfur-induced greenhouse warming on early Mars Sarah Stewart Johnson,1 Michael A. Mischna,2 melting model, we obtain a high sulfur solubility, approximately 1400 ppm, in Martian mantle melts. We

Zuber, Maria

52

Proceedings: 2000 NOx Controls Workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2000 EPRI workshop on nitrogen oxide (NOx) controls for utility boilers provided a medium for member utilities to augment their knowledge of recent operating experience and developments on NOx control technologies. The event focused on improving methods of compliance with emission regulations mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 without jeopardizing efficiency and plant performance.

None

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Mechanisms of Sulfur Poisoning of NOx Adsorber (LNT) Materials  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Stafford, John Stang (retired), Alex Yezerets Cummins Inc. Hai-Ying Chen, Howard Hess Johnson Matthey Project ID: ace24peden 2 Project Overview Timeline Budget Partners Barriers...

54

Mechanisms of Sulfur Poisoning of NOx Adsorber (LNT) Materials  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Stafford, Junhui Li, John Stang, Alex Yezerets Cummins Inc. Hai-Ying Chen, Howard Hess Johnson Matthey 2 The project is a CRADA between PNNL and Cummins Inc. It involves a...

55

Mechanisms of Sulfur Poisoning of NOx Adsorber (LNT) Materials | Department  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department of EnergyDevelopmentTechnologies | Department ofMeasuringof Energyofof

56

Mechanisms of Sulfur Poisoning of NOx Adsorber (LNT) Materials | Department  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office0-72.pdfGeorgeDoesn't32 Master EM Project Definitionof Energy Mechanisms of

57

NOx Adsorber (Lean NOx Trap) Fundamentals (Agreement #10049 ...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

on catalyst structure changes * Roles of catalyst promoters (e.g., J.R. Theis, et al., "The effect of Ceria Content on the Performance of a NOx Trap", SAE 2003-01-1160) - On...

58

Catalytic Combustion for Ultra-Low NOx Hydrogen Turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Precision Combustion, Inc., (PCI) in close collaboration with Solar Turbines, Incorporated, has developed and demonstrated a combustion system for hydrogen fueled turbines that reduces NOx to low single digit level while maintaining or improving current levels of efficiency and eliminating emissions of carbon dioxide. Full scale Rich Catalytic Hydrogen (RCH1) injector was developed and successfully tested at Solar Turbines, Incorporated high pressure test facility demonstrating low single digit NOx emissions for hydrogen fuel in the range of 2200F-2750F. This development work was based on initial subscale development for faster turnaround and reduced cost. Subscale testing provided promising results for 42% and 52% H2 with NOx emissions of less than 2 ppm with improved flame stability. In addition, catalytic reactor element testing for substrate oxidation, thermal cyclic injector testing to simulate start-stop operation in a gas turbine environment, and steady state 15 atm. operation testing were performed successfully. The testing demonstrated stable and robust catalytic element component life for gas turbine conditions. The benefit of the catalytic hydrogen combustor technology includes capability of delivering near-zero NOx without costly post-combustion controls and without requirement for added sulfur control. In addition, reduced acoustics increase gas turbine component life. These advantages advances Department of Energy (DOEs) objectives for achievement of low single digit NOx emissions, improvement in efficiency vs. postcombustion controls, fuel flexibility, a significant net reduction in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) system net capital and operating costs, and a route to commercialization across the power generation field from micro turbines to industrial and utility turbines.

Etemad, Shahrokh; Baird, Benjamin; Alavandi, Sandeep

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

59

Test Plan for Characterization Testing of SO2-depolarized Electrolyzer Cell Designs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

SRNL received funding in FY 2005 to test the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process for generating hydrogen. This technology employs an electrolyzer that uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized anode to greatly reduce the electrical energy requirement. The required current is the same as for conventional electrolysis of water, but the required cell voltage is reduced. The electrolyzer is a key part of HyS technology. Completing the material loop for HyS requires a high temperature decomposition of sulfuric acid to regenerate the sulfur dioxide gas needed for the anode reaction. Oxygen is also produced and could be sold. The decomposition of sulfuric acid is being studied by others in a separately funded task. It is not included in this SRNL task.

Steimke, J. L.

2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

60

Plant-Wide NOx Reduction Strategies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the public's awareness increased, industry began looking for new strategies to curb NOx emissions. The strategies for reducing NOx are discussed next. Table 1 shows a summary of common NOx control technologies [1]. Table 1 NOx reduction technologies... for NOx Control, in Industrial Combustion Technologies, ed. by M.A. Lukasiewicz, American Society of Metals, Warren, PA, pp. 345-350, 1986. 7. A. Garg, Trimming NOx, Chem Eng., Vol. 99, No. 11, pp. 122-124, 1992. 8. C.E. Baukal, Industrial Combustion...

Baukal, C.; Waibel, D.; Webster, T.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox so2 sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

NOx adsorber and method of regenerating same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

New technologies, such as NOx adsorber catalytic converters, are being used to meet increasingly stringent regulations on undesirable emissions, including NOx emissions. NOx adsorbers must be periodically regenerated, which requires an increased fuel consumption. The present disclosure includes a method of regenerating a NOx adsorber within a NOx adsorber catalytic converter. At least one sensor positioned downstream from the NOx adsorber senses, in the downstream exhaust, at least one of NOx, nitrous oxide and ammonia concentrations a plurality of times during a regeneration phase. The sensor is in communication with an electronic control module that includes a regeneration monitoring algorithm operable to end the regeneration phase when a time rate of change of the at least one of NOx, nitrous oxide and ammonia concentrations is after an expected plateau region begins.

Endicott, Dennis L. (Peoria, IL); Verkiel, Maarten (Metamora, IL); Driscoll, James J. (Dunlap, IL)

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

62

Control of NOx by combustion process modifications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A theoretical and experimental study was carried out to determine lower bounds of NOx emission from staged combustion of a 0.7%N #6 fuel oil. Thermodynamic and chemical kinetic calculations have shown minimum NOx emissions ...

Ber?, J. M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

The SO2 Allowance Trading System: The Ironic History of a Grand Policy Experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two decades have passed Two decades have passed since the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 launched a grand experiment in market-based environmental policy: the SO2 cap-and-trade system. That system performed well but ...

Schmalensee, Richard

64

Why are allowance prices so low? : an analysis of the SO2 emissions trading program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents an analysis of the reduction in SO2 emissions by electric utilities between 1985 and 1993. We find that emissions have been reduced for reasons largely unrelated to the emission reduction mandate ...

Ellerman, A. Denny

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

Norman, John H. (LaJolla, CA)

1983-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

66

Final Report for project titled "New fluoroionomer electrolytes with high conductivity and low SO2 crossover for use in electrolyzers being developed for hydrogen production from nuclear power plants"  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermochemical water splitting cycles, using the heat of nuclear power plants, offer an alternate highly efficient route for the production of hydrogen. Among the many possible thermochemical cycles for the hydrogen production, the sulfur-based cycles lead the competition in overall energy efficiency. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce hydrogen. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) selected the fuel cell MEA design concept for the SDE in the HyS process since the MEA concept provides a much smaller cell footprint than conventional parallel plate technology. The electrolyzer oxidizes sulfur dioxide to form sulfuric acid at the anode and reduces protons to form hydrogen at the cathode. The overall electrochemical cell reaction consists of the production of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and H{sub 2}. There is a significant need to provide the membrane materials that exhibit reduced sulfur dioxide transport characteristics without sacrificing other important properties such as high ionic conductivity and excellent chemical stability in highly concentrated sulfuric acid solutions saturated with sulfur dioxide. As an alternative membrane, sulfonated Perfluorocyclobutyl aromatic ether polymer (sPFCB) were expected to posses low SO2 permeability due to their stiff backbones as well as high proton conductivity, improved mechanical properties. The major accomplishments of this project were the synthesis, characterizations, and optimizations of suitable electrolyzers for good SDE performance and higher chemical stability against sulfuric acid. SDE performance results of developed sPFCB polyelectrolytes have shown that these membranes exhibit good chemical stability against H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}.

Dennis W. Smith; Stephen Creager

2012-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

67

Proof of concept testing of an integrated dry injection system for SO2/NOx control. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the subscale test program were designed to provide sorbent and additive selection guidance, and, in so doing, supply answers to the questions posed in the preceding section. The objectives are: Identify the best commercial hydrate sorbent and the best enhanced hydrate sorbent from a list of nine types, based upon S0{sub 2} removal at Ca/S=2. Determine the relative effectiveness of sodium sesquicarbonate versus sodium bicarbonate for S0{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control over the temperature range of 200{degrees}F--400{degrees}F. Identify the best NO{sub 2} suppressing additive among the group of ammonia, urea, and activated carbon.

Helfritch, D.J.; Bortz, S.J. [Research-Cottrell, Inc., Somerville, NJ (United States); Beittel, R. [Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

68

Implications of changing natural gas prices in the United States electricity sector for SO2, NOX and life cycle GHG emissions: Supplementary Information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/MJ = 59 kg CO2 e/MWh Combustion emissions at natural gas plant A in ERCOT: 500 kg CO2 e/MWh Annual = 59 kg CO2 e/MWh / 40% = 148 kg CO2 e/MWh Combustion emissions per MWh = 500 kg CO2 e/MWh Life cycle-level combustion emissions at fossil fuel plants in ERCOT, MISO and PJM. The red lines represent median values

Jaramillo, Paulina

69

Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Auction design and the market for sulfur dioxide emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Recent papers have argued that flaws in the design of the auctions that are part of this market have ...

Joskow, Paul L.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

NOx Reduction through Efficiency Gain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Approach, Fifth Edition, McGraw-Hill, June 2005 Kuo, K. K., Principles of Combustion 2 nd Edition, Wiley, January 2005 Erickson, K. T., Plant-Wide Process Control, 1 st Edition, Wiley, April 2005 ESL-IE-07-05-42 Proceedings... putting financial stress on steam generation plants to adhere to environmental regulations we provide an incentive to do so. The simplicity and elegance of the CompuNOx system minimizes system changes. Control related changes consist...

Benz, R.; Thompson, R.; Staedter, M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Regional climate responses to geoengineering with tropical and Arctic SO2 injections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Regional climate responses to geoengineering with tropical and Arctic SO2 injections Alan Robock,1 insolation and cool Earth, has been suggested as an emergency response to geoengineer the planet in response aerosols cooling the planet, the volcano analog actually argues against geoengineering because of ozone

Robock, Alan

73

SO2 emissions to the atmosphere from active volcanoes in Guatemala and El Salvador, 19992002  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SO2 emissions to the atmosphere from active volcanoes in Guatemala and El Salvador, 1999 Estudios Territoriales, km 5.5 Carretera a Nueva San Salvador, Avenida Las Mercedes, San Salvador, El Salvador, Central America d Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology (NASA/UMBC), University of Maryland

Rose, William I.

74

First Observations of SO2 from the Satellite Suomi NPP OMPS: Widespread Air Pollution Events over  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

First Observations of SO2 from the Satellite Suomi NPP OMPS: Widespread Air Pollution Events over author: Kai Yang, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, Code 614, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Rd Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA. (Kai.Yang-1@nasa.gov) 1 Department of Atmospheric

Dickerson, Russell R.

75

Resonance emission spectroscopy of predissociating SO2 C~ ,,1 1 Coupling with a repulsive 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra of the C~ X~ transition under bulb conditions at room temperature and showed clearly that the fluorescence intensity drops abruptly for ex- citation wavelengths. They observed the laser-induced fluores- cence LIF spectrum of jet-cooled SO2 and reported the pre- dissociation

Butler, Laurie J.

76

THE SO2 ALLOWANCE TRADING SYSTEM: THE IRONIC HISTORY OF A GRAND POLICY EXPERIMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Robert N. Stavins ABSTRACT Two decades have passed since the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 launched-based instruments, cap-and-trade, Clean Air Act amendments of 1990, sulfur dioxide, acid rain JEL Classification Policy Experiment Richard Schmalensee and Robert N. Stavins1 Two decades have passed since the Clean Air

Ford, Andrew

77

Mineralization of Basalts in the CO2-H2O-SO2-O2 System. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

SO2-O2 System. Mineralization of Basalts in the CO2-H2O-SO2-O2 System. Abstract: Sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2) containing minor amounts of co-contaminants in geologic...

78

On-Road Motor Vehicle Emissions including Ammonia, Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Don Stedman, Gary Bishop, Allison Peddle, University of Denver Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry Denver CO 80208. www.feat.biochem.du.edu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On-Road Motor Vehicle Emissions including Ammonia, Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Don Stedman Nitrogen dioxide: Less than 5% of the NOx BUT with an outstanding peak for the 2007 MY in Fresno 0. Nitrogen dioxide: less than 5% of NOx except the Fresno fleet containing the 2007 Sprinter ambulances. #12;

Denver, University of

79

NOx reduction in gas turbine combustors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NOx REDUCTION IN GAS TURBINE COMBUSTORS A Thesis by Nak Won Sung Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fullfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Mechanical... Engineering NOx REDUCTION IN GAS TURBINE COMBUSTORS A Thesis by Nak Won Sung Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committe (Head of Department) (Member) August 1976 "40308 (Member) 1 1. 1 ABSTRACT NOx Reduction in Gas Turbine...

Sung, Nak Won

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

NETL Report format template  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NGCC Natural gas combined cycle NOx Oxides of nitrogen PC Sub Pulverized coal subcritical PC Sup Pulverized coal supercritical PM Particulate matter SO 2 Sulfur dioxide...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox so2 sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Plasma Assisted Catalysis System for NOx Reduction  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

SCHEMATIC Catalyst for NOx Reduction Plasma Region Exhaust Flow Solid State Pulser Power Modulator Motor Generator ENGINE Air Diesel Fuel Converter NO X + HC(Diesel) NO 2 +...

82

Characterization Testing of H20-SO2 Electrolyzer at Ambient Pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document reports work performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that resulted in a major accomplishment by demonstrating the proof-of-concept of the use of a proton exchange membrane or PEM-type electrochemical cell to produce hydrogen via SO{sub 2}-depolarized water electrolysis. For the first time sulfur dioxide dissolved in liquid sulfuric acid was used to depolarize water electrolysis in a modern PEM cell. The use of such a cell represents a major step in achieving the ultimate goal of an economical hydrogen production process based on the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Cycle. The HyS Process is a hybrid thermochemical cycle that may be used in conjunction with advanced nuclear reactors or centralized solar receivers to produce hydrogen by water-splitting. Like all other sulfur-based cycles, HyS utilizes the high temperature thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid to produce oxygen. The unique aspect of HyS is the generation of hydrogen in a water electrolyzer that is operated under conditions where dissolved sulfur dioxide depolarizes the anodic reaction, resulting in substantial voltage reduction. Sulfur dioxide is oxidized at the anode, producing sulfuric acid, that is sent to the acid decomposition portion of the cycle. The focus of this work was to conduct single cell electrolyzer tests in order to prove the concept of SO{sub 2}-depolarization and to determine how the results can be used to evaluate the performance of key components of the HyS Process. A test facility for conducting SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) testing was designed, constructed and commissioned. The maximum cell current is 50 amperes, which is equivalent to a hydrogen production rate of approximately 20 liters per hour. The test facility was designed for operation at room temperature with pressures up to 2 bar. Feed to the anode of the electrolyzer can be water, sulfuric acid of various concentrations, or sulfuric acid containing dissolved sulfur dioxide. Provisions are included to allow variation of the operating pressure in the range of 1 to 2 bar. Hydrogen generated at the cathode of the cell can be collected for the purpose of flow measurement and composition analysis. The test facility proved to be easy to operate, versatile, and reliable. Two slightly different SDE's were designed, procured and tested. The first electrolyzer was based on a commercially available PEM water electrolyzer manufactured by Proton Energy Systems, Inc. (PES). The PES electrolyzer was built with Hastelloy B and Teflon wetted parts, a PEM electrolyte, and porous titanium electrodes. The second electrolyzer was assembled for SRNL by the University of South Carolina (USC). It was constructed with platinized carbon cloth electrodes, a Nafion 115 PEM electrolyte, carbon paper flow fields, and solid graphite back plates. Proof-of-concept testing was performed on each electrolyzer at near-ambient pressure and room temperature under various feed conditions. SDE operation was evidenced by hydrogen production at the cathode and sulfuric acid production at the anode (witnessed by the absence of oxygen generation) and with cell voltages substantially less than the theoretical reversible voltage for simple water electrolysis (1.23 V). Cell performance at low currents equaled or exceeded that achieved in the two-compartment cells built by Westinghouse Electric Corporation during the original development of the HyS Process. Performance at higher currents was less efficient due to mass transfer and hydraulic issues associated with the use of cells not optimized for liquid feed. Test results were analyzed to determine performance trends, improvement needs, and long-term SDE potential. The PES cell failed after several days of operation due to internal corrosion of the titanium electrodes in the presence of sulfuric acid. Although it was anticipated that the titanium would react in the presence of acid, the rapid deterioration of the electrodes was unexpected. The USC cell was constructed of carbon-based components and had excellent corrosion resistance. Howeve

Steimke, J

2005-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

83

Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Presents...

84

Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and...

85

Retrofit Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Retrofit Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl Retrofit Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER)...

86

Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System EPA Mobile Source Rule Update...

87

Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Numerically evaluated and optimized proposed...

88

Rapid Aging Protocols for Diesel Aftertreatment Devices: NOx...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Rapid Aging Protocols for Diesel Aftertreatment Devices: NOx Abatement Catalysts Rapid Aging Protocols for Diesel Aftertreatment Devices: NOx Abatement Catalysts Poster...

89

Measurement and Characterization of Lean NOx Adsorber Regeneration...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

mode Measurement and Characterization of Lean NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation and Controlling NOx from Multi-mode 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies...

90

NOx Abatement Research and Development CRADA with Navistar Incorporate...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

NOx Abatement Research and Development CRADA with Navistar Incorporated NOx Abatement Research and Development CRADA with Navistar Incorporated 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and...

91

Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Catalysis Research: Fundamental SulfationDesulfation Studies of Lean NOx Traps CumminsORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines...

92

Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted catalysis: Catalyst development and mechanistic studies Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments...

93

Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies A virtual O2 sensor for...

94

NOx Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

NOx Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation NOx Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation This report provides the results of an...

95

H2-Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

H2-Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations H2-Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: ArvinMeritor...

96

Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Ford Motor...

97

Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Lean Natural Gas Engine Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Distributed energy is an approach for meeting energy needs that has several advantages. Distributed energy improves energy security during natural disasters or terrorist actions, improves transmission grid reliability by reducing grid load, and enhances power quality through voltage support and reactive power. In addition, distributed energy can be efficient since transmission losses are minimized. One prime mover for distributed energy is the natural gas reciprocating engine generator set. Natural gas reciprocating engines are flexible and scalable solutions for many distributed energy needs. The engines can be run continuously or occasionally as peak demand requires, and their operation and maintenance is straightforward. Furthermore, system efficiencies can be maximized when natural gas reciprocating engines are combined with thermal energy recovery for cooling, heating, and power applications. Expansion of natural gas reciprocating engines for distributed energy is dependent on several factors, but two prominent factors are efficiency and emissions. Efficiencies must be high enough to enable low operating costs, and emissions must be low enough to permit significant operation hours, especially in non-attainment areas where emissions are stringently regulated. To address these issues the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission launched research and development programs called Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) and Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (ARICE), respectively. Fuel efficiency and low emissions are two primary goals of these programs. The work presented here was funded by the ARES program and, thus, addresses the ARES 2010 goals of 50% thermal efficiency (fuel efficiency) and <0.1 g/bhp-hr emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). A summary of the goals for the ARES program is given in Table 1-1. ARICE 2007 goals are 45% thermal efficiency and <0.015 g/bhp-hr NOx. Several approaches for improving the efficiency and emissions of natural gas reciprocating engines are being pursued. Approaches include: stoichiometric engine operation with exhaust gas recirculation and three-way catalysis, advanced combustion modes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition, and extension of the lean combustion limit with advanced ignition concepts and/or hydrogen mixing. The research presented here addresses the technical approach of combining efficient lean spark-ignited natural gas combustion with low emissions obtained from a lean NOx trap catalyst aftertreatment system. This approach can be applied to current lean engine technology or advanced lean engines that may result from related efforts in lean limit extension. Furthermore, the lean NOx trap technology has synergy with hydrogen-assisted lean limit extension since hydrogen is produced from natural gas during the lean NOx trap catalyst system process. The approach is also applicable to other lean engines such as diesel engines, natural gas turbines, and lean gasoline engines; other research activities have focused on those applications. Some commercialization of the technology has occurred for automotive applications (both diesel and lean gasoline engine vehicles) and natural gas turbines for stationary power. The research here specifically addresses barriers to commercialization of the technology for large lean natural gas reciprocating engines for stationary power. The report presented here is a comprehensive collection of research conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on lean NOx trap catalysis for lean natural gas reciprocating engines. The research was performed in the Department of Energy's ARES program from 2003 to 2007 and covers several aspects of the technology. All studies were conducted at ORNL on a Cummins C8.3G+ natural gas engine chosen based on industry input to simulate large lean natural gas engines. Specific technical areas addressed by the research include: NOx reduction efficiency, partial oxidation and reforming chemistry, and the effects of sulfur poisons on the partial oxidation

Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Ponnusamy, Senthil [ORNL; Ferguson, Harley Douglas [ORNL; Williams, Aaron M [ORNL; Tassitano, James B [ORNL

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

EVALUATION OF AEROSOL EMISSIONS DOWNSTREAM OF AN AMMONIA-BASED SO2 SCRUBBER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Depending on the size and type of boiler, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments required specific reductions in SO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. To meet these requirements, SO{sub 2} reduction strategies have included installing scrubbing technology, switching to a more expensive low-sulfur coal, or purchasing SO{sub 2} allowances. It is expected that over the next 10 years there will be an increase in the price of low-sulfur coals, but that higher-sulfur coal costs will remain the same. Technologies must be strongly considered that allow the use of high-sulfur fuels while at the same time meeting current and future SO{sub 2} emission limits. One such technology is the ammonia based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) (NH{sub 3}-based FGD) system manufactured by Marsulex Environmental Technologies (MET). The MET scrubber is a patented NH{sub 3}-based FGD process that efficiently converts SO{sub 2} (>95%) into a fertilizer product, ammonium sulfate ([NH{sub 4}]{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). A point of concern for the MET technology, as well as other FGD systems, is the emission of sulfuric acid/SO{sub 3} aerosols that could result in increased opacity at the stack. This is a direct result of firing high-sulfur fuels that naturally generate more SO{sub 3} than do low-sulfur coals. SO{sub 3} is formed during the coal combustion process. SO{sub 3} is converted to gaseous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} by homogeneous condensation, leading to a submicron acid fume that is very difficult to capture in a dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The condensed acid can also combine with the fly ash in the duct and scale the duct wall, potentially resulting in corrosion of both metallic and nonmetallic surfaces. Therefore, SO{sub 3} in flue gas can have a significant impact on the performance of coal-fired utility boilers, air heaters, and ESPs. In addition to corrosion problems, excess SO{sub 3} emissions can result in plume opacity problems. Thus the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was contracted by MET and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the potential of a wet ESP for reducing SO{sub 3} emissions. The work consisted of pilot-scale tests using the EERC's slagging furnace system (SFS) to determine the effectiveness of a wet ESP to control SO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aerosol emissions in conjunction with a dry ESP and MET's NH{sub 3}-based FGD. Because these compounds are in the form of fine particles, it is speculated that a relatively small, highly efficient wet ESP following the MET scrubber would remove these fine aerosol particles. The performance target for the wet ESP was a particulate mass collection efficiency of >90%; this level of performance would likely ensure a stack opacity of <10%.

Dennis L. Laudal

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Data Report No. 2: NO{sub x} Adsorber Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim report discusses the results of the DECSE test program that demonstrates the potential of NOx adsorber catalyst technology across the range of diesel engine operation with a fuel economy penalty less than 4%.

DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

1999-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

100

The Different Impacts of SO2 and SO3 on Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox so2 sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Comment on the Role of SO2 for Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal Combustion Flue Gas by Activated Carbon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A communication in response to the excellent and timely paper entitled Role of SO2 for Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal Combustion Flue Gas by Activated Carbon.

Granite, E.J.; Presto, A.A.

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Molecular interactions of SO2 with carbonate minerals under co-sequestration conditions: a combined experimental and theoretical study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a combined experimental and theoretical study investigating the reactivity between selected and morphologically important surfaces of carbonate minerals with supercritical CO2 with co-existing H2O and SO2. Trace amounts of SO2 cause formation of CaSO3 in the form of hannebachite in the initial stages of SO2 adsorption and transformation. Atomistic simulations of these initial steps indicate a somewhat catalytic activity of water, which is enhanced by the presence of Magnesium atoms in the mineral surface. Under co-sequestration conditions, traces of water are not likely to cause carbonate dissolution, however the presence of SO2 greatly stabilizes the sulfite product.

Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; McGrail, B. Peter; Schaef, Herbert T.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Ammonia-Free NOx Control System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DEFC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia. This report describes the work performed during the January 1 to March 31, 2004 time period.

S. Wu; Z. Fan; R. Herman

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

105

Ammonia-Free NOx Control System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DEFC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia. This report describes the work performed during the October 1 to December 31, 2003 time period.

S. Wu

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

106

Elemental sulfur recovery process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

107

Morbidity And Sulfur Dioxide: Evidence From French Strikes At Oil Refineries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper examines the impact of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in France on health outcomes at a census track level. To do so, we use recent strikes affecting oil refineries in France, in October 2010, as a natural experiment. Our work offers several contributions. We first show that a temporal shut down in the refining process leads to a reduction in sulfur dioxide concentration. We then use this narrow time frame exogenous shock to assess the impact of a change in air pollution concentration on respiratory outcomes. Our estimates suggest that daily variation in SO2 air pollution has economically significant health effects at levels below the current standard. 0

Matthew Neidell; Emmanuelle Lavaine

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For more than two decades, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has developed a range of low cost, in-furnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes ALSTOM's internally developed TFS 2000 firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As of 2004, more than 200 units representing approximately 75,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with ALSTOM low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coals to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coals, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing (retrofit) boiler equipment. If enacted, proposed Clear Skies legislation will, by 2008, require an average, effective, domestic NOx emissions rate of 0.16 lb/MMBtu, which number will be reduced to 0.13 lb/MMBtu by 2018. Such levels represent a 60% and 67% reduction, respectively, from the effective 2000 level of 0.40 lb/MMBtu. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. In light of these needs, ALSTOM, in cooperation with the DOE, is developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner which, when integrated with ALSTOM's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems, will provide a means to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx at less than 3/4 the cost of an SCR with low to no impact on balance of plant issues when firing a high volatile bituminous coal. Such coals can be more economic to fire than subbituminous or Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, but are more problematic from a NOx control standpoint as existing firing system technologies do not provide a means to meet current or anticipated regulations absent the use of an SCR. The DOE/ALSTOM program performed large pilot scale combustion testing in ALSTOM's Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut. During this work, the near-field combustion environment was optimized to maximize NOx reduction while minimizing the impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down under globally reducing conditions. Initially, ALSTOM utilized computational fluid dynamic modeling to evaluate a series of burner and/or near field stoichiometry controls in order to screen promising design concepts in advance of the large pilot scale testing. The third and final test, to be executed, will utilize several variants of the best nozzle tip configuration and compare performance with 3 different coals. The fuels to be tested will cover a wide range of coals commonly fired at US utilities. The completion of this work will provide sufficient data to allow ALSTOM to design, construct, and demonstrate a commercial version of an enhanced combustion low NOx pulverized coal burner. A preliminary cost/performance analysis of the developed enhanced combustion low NOx burner applied to ALSTOM's state-of-the-art TFS 2000 firing system was performed to show that the burner enhancements is a cost effective means to reduce NOx.

Ray Chamberland; Aku Raino; David Towle

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

110

DSRP, direct sulfur production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to demonstrate on a bench-scale the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for up to 99 percent or higher recovery of sulfur (as elemental sulfur) from regeneration off-gases and coal-gas produced in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generating systems. Fundamental kinetic and thermodynamic studies will also be conducted to enable development of a model to predict DSRP performance in large-scale reactors and to shed light on the mechanism of DSRP reactions. The ultimate goal of the project is to advance the DSRP technology to the point where industry is willing to support its further development.

McMichael, W.J.; Agarwal, S.K.; Jang, B.L.; Howe, G.B. [Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Chen, D.H.; Hopper, J.R. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Sulfur Dioxide Regulations (Ohio)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This chapter of the law establishes that the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency provides sulfur dioxide emission limits for every county, as well as regulations for the emission, monitoring and...

112

A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

leg) 8 2004 DEER Conference September 2, 2004 Experimental Setup NOx Trap Engine Reformer Diesel Air Power NOx Trap NOx Trap Engine NOx Trap Diesel Diesel Fuel Reformer Setup...

113

Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Data Report No. 4: Diesel Particulate Filters -- Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This is the fourth and final report for the DPF test program and covers the effect of diesel sulfur level on: a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF), and a continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter (CR-DPF).

DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

2000-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

114

Cummins/ORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

CumminsORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines CumminsORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel...

115

Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air 2005 Diesel Engine...

116

Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic evaluation and commercial application. During the project performance period, Alstom performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and large pilot scale combustion testing in its Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut in support of these objectives. The NOx reduction approach was to optimize near-field combustion to ensure that minimum NOx emissions are achieved with minimal impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down. Several iterations of CFD and combustion testing on a Midwest coal led to an optimized design, which was extensively combustion tested on a range of coals. The data from these tests were then used to validate system costs and benefits versus SCR. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive subbituminous coal to a moderately reactive Western bituminous coal to a much less reactive Midwest bituminous coal. Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis. Bench-scale characterization of the three test coals showed that both NOx emissions and combustion performance are a strong function of coal properties. The more reactive coals evolved more of their fuel bound nitrogen in the substoichiometric main burner zone than less reactive coal, resulting in the potential for lower NOx emissions. From a combustion point of view, the more reactive coals also showed lower carbon in ash and CO values than the less reactive coal at any given main burner zone stoichiometry. According to bench-scale results, the subbituminous coal was found to be the most amenable to both low NOx, and acceptably low combustibles in the flue gas, in an air staged low NOx system. The Midwest bituminous coal, by contrast, was predicted to be the most challenging of the three coals, with the Western bituminous coal predicted to beh

David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

117

Transport Properties and Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for the Hybrid Sulfur Electrolyzer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

not consume fossil fuels or pro- duce CO2 while producing highly pure hydrogen.1-10 Gaseous SO2 fedTransport Properties and Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for the Hybrid Sulfur and Biological Systems Department, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123, USA c Department of Materials Science

Weidner, John W.

118

Modeling of NOx formation in circular laminar jet flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-premixed isolated circular laminar jet flame. The jet consists of the fuel rich inner region and the O2 rich outer region. The model estimates both thermal NOx and prompt NOx assuming single step kinetics for NOx formation and a thin flame model. Further the amount...

Siwatch, Vivek

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

119

Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills, 1980-2005  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Estimates of total SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills were developed from industry-wide surveys conducted at 5-yr intervals from 1980 to 2005. The following conclusions were drawn from these estimates: (1) Total SO{sub 2} emissions from pulp and paper mills were 340,000 t in 2005. Since 1980, SO{sub 2} emissions have decreased steadily. The decline over the 25-yr period was over 60%. Paper production increased by 50% over the same period. (2) Boilers burning coal and oil are the primary source of SO{sub 2} emissions, with minor contributions from black liquor combustion in kraft recovery furnaces and the burning of noncondensable gases in boilers at kraft pulp mills. Factors contributing to the decline in boiler SO{sub 2} emissions include large reductions in residual oil use, recent decreases in coal use, declines in the average sulfur content of residual oil and coal being burned, and increasing use of flue gas desulfurization systems.(3) NOx emissions from pulp and paper mills were 230,000 t in 2005. NOx emissions were fairly constant through 1995, but then declined by 12% in 2000 and an additional 17% between 2000 and 2005. (4) In 2005, boilers accounted for two-thirds of the NOx emissions, and kraft mill sources approximately 30%. Boiler NOx emissions exhibited very little change through 1995, but decreased by one third in the next 10 yr. The lower emissions resulted from declines in fossil fuel use, a reduction in the EPA emission factors for natural gas combustion in boilers without NOx controls, and more widespread use of combustion modifications and add-on NOx control technologies, particularly on coal-fired boilers subject to EPA's NOx SIP call. Total NOx emissions from kraft mill sources changed little over the 25-yr period. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

John E. Pinkerton [National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Air Quality Program

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

120

Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h.sup.-1. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications.

Jin, Yun (Peking, CN); Yu, Qiquan (Peking, CN); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox so2 sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

1 Mo 1 Do 1 Sa 1 Di 1 Fr 1 Fr 1 Mo 1 Mi 1 Sa 1 Mo 1 Do 1 So 2 Di 2 Fr 2 So 2 Mi 2 Sa 2 Sa 2 Di 2 Do 2 So 2 Di 2 Fr 2 Mo  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Mo 1 Do 1 Sa 1 Di 1 Fr 1 Fr 1 Mo 1 Mi 1 Sa 1 Mo 1 Do 1 So 2 Di 2 Fr 2 So 2 Mi 2 Sa 2 Sa 2 Di 2 Do 2 So 2 Di 2 Fr 2 Mo 3 Mi 3 Sa 3 Mo 3 Do 3 So 3 So 3 Mi 3 Fr 3 Mo 3 Mi 3 Sa 3 Di 4 Do 4 So 4 Di 4 Fr 4 Mo 4 Mo 4 Do 4 Sa 4 Di 4 Do P StAU4 So 4 Mi 5 Fr 5 Mo 5 Mi 5 Sa 5 Di 5 Di 5 Fr 5 So 5 Mi 5 Fr 5 Mo

Mayberry, Marty

122

ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further improve NOx emissions and related combustion performance. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive Powder River Basin coal (PRB) to a moderately reactive Midwestern bituminous coal (HVB) to a less reactive medium volatile Eastern bituminous coal (MVB). Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis.

Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

2002-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

123

Translational energy dependence of cross sections for reactions of OH? (H2O) n with CO2 and SO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A tandem mass spectrometer has been used to measure cross sections for reactions of the solvated negative ions OH?(H2O) n , where 0?n?3, with the neutral molecules CO2 and SO2 over the range of reactant translational energy 0.1525.0 eV (LAB...

Hierl, Peter M.; Paulson, John F.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

SULFUR POLYMER ENCAPSULATION.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is a thermoplastic polymer consisting of 95 wt% elemental sulfur and 5 wt% organic modifiers to enhance long-term durability. SPC was originally developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as an alternative to hydraulic cement for construction applications. Previous attempts to use elemental sulfur as a construction material in the chemical industry failed due to premature degradation. These failures were caused by the internal stresses that result from changes in crystalline structure upon cooling of the material. By reacting elemental sulfur with organic polymers, the Bureau of Mines developed a product that successfully suppresses the solid phase transition and significantly improves the stability of the product. SPC, originally named modified sulfur cement, is produced from readily available, inexpensive waste sulfur derived from desulfurization of both flue gases and petroleum. The commercial production of SPC is licensed in the United States by Martin Resources (Odessa, Texas) and is marketed under the trade name Chement 2000. It is sold in granular form and is relatively inexpensive ({approx}$0.10 to 0.12/lb). Application of SPC for the treatment of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes was initially developed and patented by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the mid-1980s (Kalb and Colombo, 1985; Colombo et al., 1997). The process was subsequently investigated by the Commission of the European Communities (Van Dalen and Rijpkema, 1989), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (Darnell, 1991), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Mattus and Mattus, 1994). SPC has been used primarily in microencapsulation applications but can also be used for macroencapsulation of waste. SPC microencapsulation has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for a wide variety of wastes, including incinerator hearth and fly ash; aqueous concentrates such as sulfates, borates, and chlorides; blowdown solutions; soils; and sludges. It is not recommended for treatment of wastes containing high concentrations of nitrates because of potentially dangerous reactions between sulfur, nitrate, and trace quantities of organics. Recently, the process has been adapted for the treatment of liquid elemental mercury and mercury contaminated soil and debris.

KALB, P.

2001-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

125

A ACID RAIN Audrey Gibson  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- SO2 Emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) react in the atmosphere with water;Gas Natural Sources Concentration Carbon dioxide CO2 Decomposition 355 ppm Nitric oxide NO Electric discharge 0.01 ppm Sulfur dioxide SO2 Volcanic gases 0-0.01 ppm Table 1 Carbon dioxide, produced

Toohey, Darin W.

126

New Houston NOx Rules: Implications and Solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Capex $MM NOx Reduction Tons/yr Net Cost NPV10 $MM Case 1 4 50 3.6 a. Defer 1 year 4.2 loss due to delay 0.6 b. Defer 2 years 5.4 loss due to delay 1.7 c. Defer 3 years 8.5 loss due to delay 4.8 Case 2 35 750 31.8 a. Defer 1 year 42...

Cascone, R.

127

ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500C to 700C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in a twenty-five-cycle test. The sorbent was exposed for 58 consecutive days to temperatures between 600C and 800C and gas atmospheres from highly reducing to highly oxidizing without measurable loss of sulfur capacity or reactivity. In the process analysis phase of this study, a two-stage desulfurization process using cerium sorbent with SO2 regeneration followed by zinc sorbent with dilute O2 regeneration was compared to a single-stage process using zinc sorbent and O2 regeneration with SO2 in the regeneration product gas converted to elemental sulfur using the direct sulfur recovery process (DSRP). Material and energy balances were calculated using the process simulation package PRO/II. Major process equipment was sized and a preliminary economic analysis completed. Sorbent replacement rate, which is determined by the multicycle sorbent durability, was found to be the most significant factor in both processes. For large replacement rates corresponding to average sorbent lifetimes of 250 cycles or less, the single-stage zinc sorbent process with DSRP was estimated to be less costly. However, the cost of the two-stage cerium sorbent process was more sensitive to sorbent replacement rate, and, as the required replacement rate decreased, the economics of the two-stage process improved. For small sorbent replacement rates corresponding to average sorbent lifetimes of 1000 cycles or more, the two-stage cerium process was estimated to be less costly. In the relatively wide middle range of sorbent replacement rates, the relative economics of the two processes depends on other factors such as the unit cost of sorbents, oxygen, nitrogen, and the relative capital costs.

A. LOPEZ ORTIZ; D.P. HARRISON; F.R. GROVES; J.D. WHITE; S. ZHANG; W.-N. HUANG; Y. ZENG

1998-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

128

Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

1996-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

129

Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

end date: 09312012 * Percent complete: 16.67% * Barriers addressed - Lean NOx emission reduction - Particulate filtering using new catalysts - New catalysts for reducing...

130

Investigation on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

4 th , 2009. Dearborn, MI Investigation on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction by SCR coated DPF Phillip Bush, Eminox Svetlana Iretskaya, Catalytic Solutions, Inc. Ted...

131

Effect of reductive treatments on Pt behavior and NOx storage...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

represent a promising approach to meet increasingly stringent NOx emission regulations on diesel and other lean-burn engines. Pt material properties, including dispersion and...

132

Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions Technology available for licensing: Selective permeation of gases using an air separation membrane. Can be retrofitted...

133

Lean NOx Reduction with Dual Layer LNT/SCR Catalysts  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

PGM & minimize fuel penalty in meeting NOx emission targets (adapted from Gandhi et al., US Patent, 2007) 3 Fundamental Issues for Dual Layer LNT - SCR proximity: Dual...

134

Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma- Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction February 20, 2003 CRADA Protected Document and Data 2 Introduction * Engine dynamometer evaluation of...

135

Cummins/ORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Evaluation ace032partridge2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications CumminsORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Vehicle...

136

Cummins/ORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Cummins-ORNLFEERC Emissions CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines CumminsORNL-FEERC...

137

Spatiotemporal Distribution of NOx Storage: a Factor Controlling...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

LNT & SCR CLEERS Coordination & Joint Development of Benchmark Kinetics for LNT & SCR CumminsORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines...

138

Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2009 - Poster Session August 3 rd , Hyatt Regency Dearborn Hotel Virtual Oxygen Sensor Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies J. Seebode, E. Stlting,...

139

Lean NOx Traps - Microstructural Studies of Real World and Model...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Traps - Microstructural Studies of Real World and Model Catalysts Lean NOx Traps - Microstructural Studies of Real World and Model Catalysts 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction...

140

An Experimental Investigation of the Origin of Increased NOx...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

NOx Emissions When Fueling a Heavy-Duty Compression-Ignition Engine with Soy Biodiesel Optical engine experiments suggest that near stoichiometric charge-gas mixtures in the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox so2 sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Emission Control Catalysts Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic Catalysts...

142

Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic Catalysts Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean...

143

Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Annual Merit Review 1 Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps Mark Crocker Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky May 20, 2009 This presentation...

144

Fuel Processor Enabled NOx Adsorber Aftertreatment System for...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

4 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction Conference Coronado, California August 29-September 2, 2004 Fuel Processor Enabled NOx Adsorber After-Treatment System for Diesel Engine...

145

H2-Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

* New Power Supply * Under 250W consumption * Minimal heat rejected * Compact transformer * High-temperature flange seals * Reduced leakage 4 H2-Assisted NOx Trap: Test...

146

Ultra-low Sulfur Reduction Emission Control Device/Development of an On-board Fuel Sulfur Trap  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Honeywell has completed working on a multiyear program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an 'on-vehicle' desulfurization fuel filter for both light duty and heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NOx adsorbers. The NOx adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and '2007-Rule' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters was also examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. In the second phase of the program a light duty diesel engine test was also demonstrated. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consisted of four phases. Phase I focused on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II concentrated on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III studied life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV focused on efficacy and benefits in the desulfation steps of a NOx adsorber on both a heavy and light duty engine. The project team included a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Navistar Inc. (formerly International Truck & Engine Corporation) and Mack Trucks Inc.), and filter recycler (American Wastes Industries).

Rohrbach, Ron; Barron, Ann

2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

147

NOx, SO{sub 3} in the spotlight at NETL's 2006 Environmental Controls conference  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As emissions caps drop, technological solutions must become increasingly effective and efficient. Researchers, equipment vendors, and plant operators are exploring alternatives to SCR and SNCR, with a view to reducing the overall costs of NOx reduction. They have also achieved 95% to 99% removal of SO{sub 3}, with no visible plume opacity. These topics were discussed at ECC 2006. The first conference session focussed on selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) control of nitrogen oxide emissions; the second session addressed the related issue of reducing stack emissions and flue gas concentrations of sulfur trioxide. The article summarises many papers presented. Summaries and/or full versions of all the papers mentioned, and others, are posted at www.netl.doe.gov/publications/proceedings/06/ecc/index.html. 2 figs.

Mann, A.N.; Makovsky, L.E.; Sarkus, T.A. [Technology and Management Services Inc. (United States)

2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

148

Excellent Sulfur Resistance of Pt/BaO/CeO2 Lean NOx Trap Catalysts. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicy and Assistance100 tonusing ARMEvenFlames.Exposedin this issueu

149

Impact of Sulfur Dioxide on Lean NOx Trap Catalysts | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe U.S. Department-2023 Idaho4Fuel Consumption Solutions

150

Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe10 DOE VehicleStationary Fuel CellDepartmentEffects |

151

UTILIZING WATER EMULSIFICATION TO REDUCE NOX AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BIODIESEL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A key barrier limiting extended utilization of biodiesel is higher NOx emissions compared to petrodiesel fuels. The reason for this effect is unclear, but various researchers have attributed this phenomena to the higher liquid bulk modulus associated with biodiesel and the additional heat released during the breaking of C-C double bonds in the methyl ester groups. In this study water was incorporated into neat biodiesel (B100) as an emulsion in an attempt to lower NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. A biodiesel emulsion containing 10wt% water was formulated and evaluated against an ultra-low sulfur petroleum diesel (ULSD) and neat biodiesel (B100) in a light-duty diesel engine operated at 1500RPM and at loads of 68Nm (50ft-lbs) and 102Nm (75ft-lbs). The influence of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was also examined. The incorporation of water was found to significantly lower the NOx emissions of B100, while maintaining fuel efficiency when operating at 0 and 27% EGR. The soot fraction of the particulates (as determined using an opacity meter) was much lower for the B100 and B100-water emulsion compared ULSD. In contrast, total PM mass (for the three fuel types) was unchanged for the 0% EGR condition but was significantly lower for the B100 and B100-emulsion during the 27% EGR condition compared to the ULSD fuel. Analysis of the emissions and heat release data indicate that water enhances air-fuel premixing to maintain fuel economy and lower soot formation. The exhaust chemistry of the biodiesel base fuels (B100 and water-emulsified B100) was found to be unique in that they contained measurable levels of methyl alkenoates, which were not found for the ULSD. These compounds were formed by the partial cracking of the methyl ester groups during combustion.

Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Lee, Doh-Won [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Swartz, Matthew M [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline...

153

Durability of NOx Absorbers | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat Pump Models |Conduct, Parent(CRADA andDriving Innovation atDumping09of NOx

154

NOx Sensor Development | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d F S i DOEToward aInnovation |NEXTDevelopment NOxAftertreatmentSensor

155

Leadership in Low NOx/ Lochinvar Corporation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Texas Nashville, Tennessee On April 19, 2000, the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission adopted statewide NOx emission limits for all natural gas-fired water heaters, boilers and process heaters with input rates of 2 million Btu/hr or less... for the purposes of generating efficient boilers, and process heaters having a BTU rating of up and environmentally friendly hot water production. to 2,000,000 BTU/hour within the state of Texas. Some readers of this paper may already be aware It's not everyday...

Sheko, D.; Boston, S.; Moore, J.

156

Low-NOx Gas Turbine Injectors Utilizing Hydrogen-Rich Opportunity...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

NOx Gas Turbine Injectors Utilizing Hydrogen-Rich Opportunity Fuels - Fact Sheet, 2011 Low-NOx Gas Turbine Injectors Utilizing Hydrogen-Rich Opportunity Fuels - Fact Sheet, 2011...

157

Plasma-Activated Lean NOx Catalysis for Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted catalysis: Catalyst development and mechanistic...

158

Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

NOx Catalysis for Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Control Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted catalysis: Catalyst development and mechanistic...

159

NOx reduction by electron beam-produced nitrogen atom injection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Deactivated atomic nitrogen generated by an electron beam from a gas stream containing more than 99% N.sub.2 is injected at low temperatures into an engine exhaust to reduce NOx emissions. High NOx reduction efficiency is achieved with compact electron beam devices without use of a catalyst.

Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the twelfth quarter, January-March 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Pilot scale experiments conducted at the University of Utah explored both the effectiveness of oxygen addition and the best way to add oxygen with a scaled version of Riley Power's newest low NOx burner design. CFD modeling was done to compare the REI's modeling results for James River Unit 3 with the NOx and LOI results obtained during the demonstration program at that facility. Investigation of an alternative method of fabrication of PSO1d elements was conducted. OTM process development work has concluded with the completion of a long-term test of a PSO1d element Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Proposals have been submitted for two additional beta test sites. Commercial proposals have been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox so2 sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program in the seventh quarter October-December 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3 - Economic Evaluation and Task 4 - Program Management. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling of oxygen injection strategies was performed during the quarter resulting in data that suggest the oxygen injection reduces NOx emissions while reducing LOI. Pilot-scale testing activities concluded at the University of Utah this quarter. Testing demonstrated that some experimental conditions can lead to NOx emissions well below the 0.15 lb/MMBtu limit. Evaluation of alternative OTM materials with improved mechanical properties continued this quarter. Powder procedure optimization continued and sintering trial began on an element with a new design. Several OTM elements were tested in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility under various conditions. A modified PSO1d element demonstrated stable oxygen product purity of >98% and oxygen flux of 68% of target. Updated test results and projected economic performance have been reviewed with the Utility Industrial Advisors. The economic comparison remains very favorable for O{sub 2} enhanced combustion. Discussions regarding possible Beta sites have been held with three other utilities in addition to the industrial advisors. Proposals will be prepared after the completion of full scale burner testing. Beta test cost estimating work has been initiated.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Ultra-Low NOx Advanced Vortex Combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An ultra lean-premixed Advanced Vortex Combustor (AVC) has been developed and tested. The natural gas fueled AVC was tested at the U.S. Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE NETL) test facility in Morgantown (WV). All testing was performed at elevated pressures and inlet temperatures and at lean fuel-air ratios representative of industrial gas turbines. The improved AVC design exhibited simultaneous NOx/CO/UHC emissions of 4/4/0 ppmv (all emissions are at 15% O2 dry). The design also achieved less than 3 ppmv NOx with combustion efficiencies in excess of 99.5%. The design demonstrated tremendous acoustic dynamic stability over a wide range of operating conditions which potentially makes this approach significantly more attractive than other lean premixed combustion approaches. In addition, a pressure drop of 1.75% was measured which is significantly lower than conventional gas turbine combustors. Potentially, this lower pressure drop characteristic of the AVC concept translates into overall gas turbine cycle efficiency improvements of up to one full percentage point. The relatively high velocities and low pressure drops achievable with this technology make the AVC approach an attractive alternative for syngas fuel applications.

Edmonds, R.G. (Ramgen Power Systems, Inc., Bellevue, WA); Steele, R.C. (Ramgen Power Systems, Inc., Bellevue, WA); Williams, J.T. (Ramgen Power Systems, Inc., Bellevue, WA); Straub, D.L.; Casleton, K.H.; Bining, Avtar (California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA)

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

ULTRA-LOW NOX ADVANCED VORTEX COMBUSTOR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An ultra lean-premixed Advanced Vortex Combustor (AVC) has been developed and tested. The natural gas fueled AVC was tested at the U.S. Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE NETL) test facility in Morgantown (WV). All testing was performed at elevated pressures and inlet temperatures and at lean fuel-air ratios representative of industrial gas turbines. The improved AVC design exhibited simultaneous NOx/CO/UHC emissions of 4/4/0 ppmv (all emissions are at 15% O2 dry). The design also achieved less than 3 ppmv NOx with combustion efficiencies in excess of 99.5%. The design demonstrated tremendous acoustic dynamic stability over a wide range of operating conditions which potentially makes this approach significantly more attractive than other lean premixed combustion approaches. In addition, a pressure drop of 1.75% was measured which is significantly lower than conventional gas turbine combustors. Potentially, this lower pressure drop characteristic of the AVC concept translates into overall gas turbine cycle efficiency improvements of up to one full percentage point. The relatively high velocities and low pressure drops achievable with this technology make the AVC approach an attractive alternative for syngas fuel applications.

Ryan G. Edmonds; Robert C. Steele; Joseph T. Williams; Douglas L. Straub; Kent H. Casleton; Avtar Bining

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

DENSE PHASE REBURN COMBUSTION SYSTEM (DPRCS) DEMONSTRATION ON A 154 MWE TANGENTIAL FURNACE: ADDITIONAL AREA OF INTEREST-TO DEVELOP AND DEMONSTRATE AN IN-FURNACE MULTI-POLLUTANT REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE NOx, SO2 & Hg  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Semi-dense phase pneumatic delivery and injection of calcium and sodium sorbents, and microfine powdered coal, at various sidewall elevations of an online operating coal-fired power plant, was investigated for the express purpose of developing an in-furnace, economic multi-pollutant reduction methodology for NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} & Hg. The 154 MWe tangentially-fired furnace that was selected for a full-scale demonstration, was recently retrofitted for NO{sub x} reduction with a high velocity rotating-opposed over-fire air system. The ROFA system, a Mobotec USA technology, has a proven track record of breaking up laminar flow along furnace walls, thereby enhancing the mix of all constituents of combustion. The knowledge gained from injecting sorbents and micronized coal into well mixed combustion gases with significant improvement in particulate retention time, should serve well the goals of an in-furnace multi-pollutant reduction technology; that of reducing back-end cleanup costs on a wide variety of pollutants, on a cost per ton basis, by first accomplishing significant in-furnace reductions of all pollutants.

Allen C. Wiley; Steven Castagnero; Geoff Green; Kevin Davis; David White

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Injection of CO2 with H2S and SO2 and Subsequent Mineral Trapping in Sandstone-Shale Formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection into deep geologic formations can potentially reduce atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases. Sequestering less-pure CO{sub 2} waste streams (containing H{sub 2}S and/or SO{sub 2}) would be less expensive or would require less energy than separating CO{sub 2} from flue gas or a coal gasification process. The long-term interaction of these injected acid gases with shale-confining layers of a sandstone injection zone has not been well investigated. We therefore have developed a conceptual model of injection of CO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S and/or SO{sub 2} into a sandstone-shale sequence, using hydrogeologic properties and mineral compositions commonly encountered in Gulf Coast sediments of the United States. We have performed numerical simulations of a 1-D radial well region considering sandstone alone and a 2-D model using a sandstone-shale sequence under acid-gas injection conditions. Results indicate that shale plays a limited role in mineral alteration and sequestration of gases within a sandstone horizon for short time periods (10,000 years in present simulations). The co-injection of SO{sub 2} results in different pH distribution, mineral alteration patterns, and CO{sub 2} mineral sequestration than the co-injection of H{sub 2}S or injection of CO{sub 2} alone. Simulations generate a zonal distribution of mineral alteration and formation of carbon and sulfur trapping minerals that depends on the pH distribution. The co-injection of SO{sub 2} results in a larger and stronger acidified zone close to the well. Precipitation of carbon trapping minerals occurs within the higher pH regions beyond the acidified zones. In contrast, sulfur trapping minerals are stable at low pH ranges (below 5) within the front of the acidified zone. Corrosion and well abandonment due to the co-injection of SO{sub 2} could be important issues. Significant CO{sub 2} is sequestered in ankerite and dawsonite, and some in siderite. The CO{sub 2} mineral-trapping capability can reach 80 kg per cubic meter of medium. Most sulfur is trapped through alunite precipitation, although some is trapped by anhydrite precipitation and minor amount of pyrite. The addition of the acid gases and induced mineral alteration result in changes in porosity. The limited information currently available on the mineralogy of natural high-pressure acid-gas reservoirs is generally consistent with our simulations.

Xu, Tianfu; Apps, John A.; Pruess, Karsten; Yamamoto, Hajime

2004-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

166

NOx Control for Utility Boiler OTR Compliance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under sponsorship of the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W), and Fuel Tech teamed together to investigate an integrated solution for NO{sub x} control. The system is comprised of B and W's DRB-4Z{trademark} ultra low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology and Fuel Tech's NOxOUT{reg_sign}, a urea-based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology. Development of the low-NO{sub x} burner technology has been a focus in B and W's combustion program. The DRB-4Z{trademark} burner is B and W's newest low-NO{sub x} burner capable of achieving very low NO{sub x}. The burner is designed to reduce NO{sub x} by controlled mixing of the fuel and air. Based on data from several 500 to 600 MWe boilers firing PRB coal, NOx emissions levels of 0.15 to 0.20 lb/ 106 Btu have been achieved from the DRB-4Z{trademark} burners in combination with overfire air ports. Although NOx emissions from the DRB-4Z{trademark} burner are nearing the Ozone Transport Rule (OTR) level of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/106 Btu, the utility boiler owners can still benefit from the addition of an SNCR and/or SCR system in order to comply with the stringent NO{sub x} emission levels facing them. Large-scale testing is planned in B and W's 100-million Btu/hr Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) that simulates the conditions of large coal-fired utility boilers. The objective of the project is to achieve a NO{sub x} level below 0.15 lb/106 Btu (with ammonia slip of less than 5 ppm) in the CEDF using PRB coal and B and W's DRB-4Z{trademark} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner in combination with dual zone overfire air ports and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign}. During this period B and W prepared and submitted the project management plan and hazardous substance plan to DOE. The negotiation of a subcontract for Fuel Tech has been started.

Hamid Farzan

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

167

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the fourth quarter January-March 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4 - Program Management. This report will also recap the results of the past year. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM material characterization was completed. 100% of commercial target flux was demonstrated with OTM disks. The design and assembly of Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility was completed. The production of oxygen with a purity of better than 99.5% was demonstrated. Coal combustion testing was conducted at the University of Arizona. Modest oxygen enhancement resulted in NOx emissions reduction. The injector for oxygen enhanced coal based reburning was conducted at Praxair. Combustion modeling with Keystone boiler was completed. Pilot-scale combustion test furnace simulations continued this quarter.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the thirteenth quarter, April-June 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with project objectives. REI's model was modified to evaluate mixing issues in the upper furnace of a staged unit. Analysis of the results, and their potential application to this unit is ongoing. Economic evaluation continues to confirm the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. A contract for a commercial demonstration has been signed with the Northeast Generation Services Company to supply oxygen and license the oxygen enhanced low NOx combustor technology for use at the 147-megawatt coal fired Mt. Tom Station in Holyoke, MA. Commercial proposals have been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Sugar yields from dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of switchgrass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sugar yields from dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic Dilute sulfuric acid Sulfur dioxide Biofuels Switchgrass a b s t r a c t Dacotah switchgrass was pretreated with sulfuric acid concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 wt.% at 140, 160, and 180 °C and with 1

California at Riverside, University of

170

Sulfur Dioxide Crossover during the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sulfur Dioxide Crossover during the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer in the thermochemical conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid for the large-scale production of hydrogen, 2009. Published May 19, 2009. The hybrid sulfur process is being investigated as an efficient way

Weidner, John W.

171

Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter less than 50 nm..

Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuiliang; Li, Xiaolin

2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

172

Sulfur-Free Selective Pulping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A joint research effort is being conducted on ways to produce cost-effective pulping catalysts from lignin. This project addresses improving selectivities and reducing the levels of sulfur chemicals used in pulping. Improved selectivity means...

Dimmel, D. R.; Bozell, J. J.

173

Sulfur minimization in bacterial leaching  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The production of sewage biosolids in Ontario in 1989 was estimated to be 7 million m{sup 3} of wet sludge per year. Of this amount, land application accounts for between 20 and 30% of the total. Unfortunately, the use of sewage biosolids on agricultural land is often prohibited because of heavy metal contamination of the biosolids. High cost and operational problems have made chemical methods of metal extraction unattractive. Consequently, microbiological methods of leaching of heavy metals have been studied for over a decade. A relatively simple microbiological process has been investigated in recent years in flask level experiments and recently in a semicontinuous system. The process exploits nonacidophilic and acidophilic indigenous thiobacilli to extract heavy metals from sewage biosolids. These thiobacilli use elemental sulfur as the energy source, producing sulfuric acid. However, the resulting decontaminated biosolids can cause environmental problems like acidification of the soil, when acid is generated from the residual sulfur in the biosolids. The present study examines the possibility of reducing the amount of sulfur added in batch and semicontinuous bacterial leaching systems, and maximizing sulfur oxidation efficiency, thereby reducing the residual sulfur in leached biosolids.

Seth, R.; Prasad, D.; Henry, J.G. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Air Pollution Grant Ideas Possible air pollutants to study: SO2, H2S, NO2, NH3, CO, CO2, O3.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of a group of highly reactive gasses known as "oxides://www.gradko.co.uk/ram/ Gradko tubes - http://www.gradko.co.uk/pdf/Nitrogen_Dioxide.pdf Grants and Funding Allegheny County of nitrogen," or "nitrogen oxides (NOx)." Other nitrogen oxides include nitrous acid and nitric acid. While

Short, Daniel

175

Oxidation State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. deer10li.pdf More Documents & Publications Lean NOx Trap...

176

Cummins/ORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

D.C. ace032partridge2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications CumminsORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines CumminsORNL-FEERC...

177

Cummins/ORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Washington D.C. ace32partridge.pdf More Documents & Publications CumminsORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines CumminsORNL-FEERC...

178

Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry During Lean NOx Trap Regeneration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts can effectively reduce NOx from lean engine exhaust. Significant research for LNTs in diesel engine applications has been performed and has led to commercialization of the technology. For lean gasoline engine applications, advanced direct injection engines have led to a renewed interest in the potential for lean gasoline vehicles and, thereby, a renewed demand for lean NOx control. To understand the gasoline-based reductant chemistry during regeneration, a BMW lean gasoline vehicle has been studied on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed for key reductant species such as H2, CO, NH3, and hydrocarbons during transient drive cycles. The relation of the reductant species to LNT performance will be discussed. Furthermore, the challenges of NOx storage in the lean gasoline application are reviewed.

Choi, Jae-Soon [ORNL] [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Partridge Jr, William P [ORNL] [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Norman, Kevin M [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL; Chambon, Paul H [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Nitrogen Isotopes as Indicators of NOx Source Contributions to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of NOx are dominated by fossilfuelcombustion(63%)frombothstationary(e.g.,power plant electricity andassociatedatmosphericdepositionofnitrate(NO3 - )pose threats to global ecosystems and human health (2, 3). Contemporary global emissions

Elliott, Emily M.

180

Modeling The NOx Emissions In A Low NOx Burner While Fired With Pulverized Coal And Dairy Biomass Blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by themselves already require cleanup technology; newer regulations will require development of new and economical technologies. Using a blend of traditional fuels & biomass is a promising technology to reduce NOX emissions. Experiments conducted previously...

Uggini, Hari

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox so2 sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the ninth quarter April-June 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Full-scale testing using the Industrial Boiler Simulation Facility (ISBF) at Alstom Power was completed. The pilot scale experiments to evaluate the effect of air preheat and transport air stoichiometric ratio (SR) on NOx emissions were conducted at the University of Utah. Combustion modeling activities continued with full-scale combustion test furnace simulations. An OTM element was tested in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility and two thermal cycles were completed. PSO1d elements of new dimension were tested resulting in a lower flux than previous PSO1d elements of different dimensions, however, no element deformation was observed. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Two potential host beta sites have been identified and proposals submitted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the fourth quarter January-March 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. This report will also recap the results of the past year. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the second year. The first round of pilot scale testing with 3 bituminous coals was completed at the University of Utah. Full-scale testing equipment is in place and experiments are underway. Coal combustion lab-scale testing was completed at the University of Arizona. Modest oxygen enhancement resulted in NOx emissions reduction. Combustion modeling activities continued with pilot-scale combustion test furnace simulations. 75% of target oxygen flux was demonstrated with small PSO1 tube in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility. The production of oxygen with a purity of better than 99.999% was demonstrated. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Two potential host sites have been identified.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Hit from both sides: tracking industrial and volcanic plumes in Mexico City with surface measurements and OMI SO2 retrievals during the MILAGRO field campaign  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Large sulfur dioxide plumes were measured in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO field campaign. This paper seeks to identify the sources of these plumes and the meteorological processes that affect ...

de Foy, B.

184

Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 3, January--March 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 6, October--December, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

NO[x] production by lightning in the continental U.S. and its impacts on tropospheric chemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrogen oxides (NOx) play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. High tropospheric NOx concentrations increase ozone (O?) levels via photochemical cycling of NO to NO?, whereas low NOx concentrations result in the catalytic destruction of O?...

Bond, Donald William

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Hybrid Sulfur Thermochemical Process Development Annual Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Thermochemical Process is a means of producing hydrogen via water-splitting through a combination of chemical reactions and electrochemistry. Energy is supplied to the system as high temperature heat (approximately 900 C) and electricity. Advanced nuclear reactors (Generation IV) or central solar receivers can be the source of the primary energy. Large-scale hydrogen production based on this process could be a major contributor to meeting the needs of a hydrogen economy. This project's objectives include optimization of the HyS process design, analysis of technical issues and concerns, creation of a development plan, and laboratory-scale proof-of-concept testing. The key component of the HyS Process is the SO2-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). Studies were performed that showed that an electrolyzer operating in the range of 500-600 mV per cell can lead to an overall HyS cycle efficiency in excess of 50%, which is superior to all other currently proposed thermochemical cycles. Economic analysis indicated hydrogen production costs of approximately $1.60 per kilogram for a mature nuclear hydrogen production plant. However, in order to meet commercialization goals, the electrolyzer should be capable of operating at high current density, have a long operating lifetime , and have an acceptable capital cost. The use of proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) technology, which leverages work for the development of PEM fuel cells, was selected as the most promising route to meeting these goals. The major accomplishments of this project were the design and construction of a suitable electrolyzer test facility and the proof-of-concept testing of a PEM-based SDE.

Summers, William A.; Buckner, Melvin R.

2005-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

190

Molecular Structures of Polymer/Sulfur Composites for Lithium...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Structures of PolymerSulfur Composites for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Long Cycle Life. Molecular Structures of PolymerSulfur Composites for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Long...

191

Fermentation, Hydrogen, and Sulfur Metabolism in Multiple Uncultivated...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fermentation, Hydrogen, and Sulfur Metabolism in Multiple Uncultivated Bacterial Phyla. Fermentation, Hydrogen, and Sulfur Metabolism in Multiple Uncultivated Bacterial Phyla....

192

Two stage sorption of sulfur compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A two stage method for reducing the sulfur content of exhaust gases is disclosed. Alkali- or alkaline-earth-based sorbent is totally or partially vaporized and introduced into a sulfur-containing gas stream. The activated sorbent can be introduced in the reaction zone or the exhaust gases of a combustor or a gasifier. High efficiencies of sulfur removal can be achieved.

Moore, William E. (Manassas, VA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Thermal Durability of Cu-CHA NH3-SCR Catalysts for Diesel NOx...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Durability of Cu-CHA NH3-SCR Catalysts for Diesel NOx Reduction. Thermal Durability of Cu-CHA NH3-SCR Catalysts for Diesel NOx Reduction. Abstract: Multiple catalytic functions...

194

Effect of BaO Morphology on NOx Abatement: NO Interaction with...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

BaO Morphology on NOx Abatement: NO Interaction with Unsupported and O-Supported BaO. Effect of BaO Morphology on NOx Abatement: NO Interaction with Unsupported and O-Supported...

195

Water-induced morphology changes in BaO/?-Al2O3 NOx storage...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

materials. Water-induced morphology changes in BaO?-Al2O3 NOx storage materials. Abstract: Exposure of NO2-saturated BaO?-Al2O3 NOx storage materials to H2O vapour...

196

Industry-Utility Collaborative Efforts to Address Environmental Concerns- Dispatching for Localized NOx Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

these objectives. The approach involves dispatching NOx-producing equipment (e.g., boilers and gas turbines) to achieve minimum NOx production during ozone alert periods and purchasing supplemental power under a special tariff to replace any loss in self...

Hamilton, D. E.; Helmick, R. W.; Lambert, W. J.

197

Development of a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction in Marine Diesel Engines Development of a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction in Marine Diesel Engines Stand-alone urea SCR...

198

Effect of Engine-Out NOx Control Strategies on PM Size Distribution...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Engine-Out NOx Control Strategies on PM Size Distribution in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Developed for 2010 Effect of Engine-Out NOx Control Strategies on PM Size Distribution in...

199

Combining Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions Combining Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel...

200

NH3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

NH3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx Traps NH3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx Traps Research to identify most promising...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox so2 sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Safe and compact ammonia storage/delivery systems for SCR-DeNOX...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Safe and compact ammonia storagedelivery systems for SCR-DeNOX in automotive units Safe and compact ammonia storagedelivery systems for SCR-DeNOX in automotive units Presentation...

202

Aeroderivative Gas Turbines Can Meet Stringent NOx Control Requirements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for controlling NOx emissions will be discussed. Steam injection has a very favorable effect on engine performance raising both the power output and efficiency. As an example, full steam injection in the GE LM5000 gas turbine :tncreases the power output from... methods for reducing the NOx levels of the LM2500 and LM5000 engines. These engines are aircraft-derivative turbine engines, which are used in a variety of industrial applications. Efforts have been concentrated on the use of water or steam injection...

Keller, S. C.; Studniarz, J. J.

203

Reduction of NOx by plasma-assisted methods , F. Leipold1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

acid rain and ozone production when it is released into the air. Reduction of NOx in the exhaust gas

204

Use of Simulation To Optimize NOx Abatement by Absorption and Selective Catalytic Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Use of Simulation To Optimize NOx Abatement by Absorption and Selective Catalytic Reduction Andrew This paper describes the development of an ASPEN PLUS simulation model for a commercial NOx abatement system nitric acid production and the abatement of NOx- laden effluent streams for environmental protection.1

Liu, Y. A.

205

Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty in Hourly NOx Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to quantify variability and uncertainty for NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants. Data for hourly NOx emissions, heat rate, gross load and capacity factor of 32 units from 9 different power plants were analyzed Uncertainty, Variability, Emission Factors, Coal-Fired Power Plants, NOx emissions, Regression Models

Frey, H. Christopher

206

Influence of combustion parameters on NOx production in an industrial boiler  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of combustion parameters on NOx production in an industrial boiler M.A. Habib a,*, M; accepted 14 April 2007 Available online 24 June 2007 Abstract NOx formation during the combustion process occurs mainly through the oxidation of nitrogen in the combustion air (thermal NOx) and through oxidation

Aldajani, Mansour A.

207

Waste Coal Fines Reburn for NOx and Mercury Emission Reduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Injection of coal-water slurries (CWS) made with both waste coal and bituminous coal was tested for enhanced reduction of NO{sub x} and Hg emissions at the AES Beaver Valley plant near Monaca, PA. Under this project, Breen Energy Solutions (BES) conducted field experiments on the these emission reduction technologies by mixing coal fines and/or pulverized coal, urea and water to form slurry, then injecting the slurry in the upper furnace region of a coal-fired boiler. The main focus of this project was use of waste coal fines as the carbon source; however, testing was also conducted using pulverized coal in conjunction with or instead of waste coal fines for conversion efficiency and economic comparisons. The host site for this research and development project was Unit No.2 at AES Beaver Valley cogeneration station. Unit No.2 is a 35 MW Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) front-wall fired boiler that burns eastern bituminous coal. It has low NO{sub x} burners, overfire air ports and a urea-based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system for NO{sub x} control. The back-end clean-up system includes a rotating mechanical ash particulate removal and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber. Coal slurry injection was expected to help reduce NOx emissions in two ways: (1) Via fuel-lean reburning when the slurry is injected above the combustion zone. (2) Via enhanced SNCR reduction when urea is incorporated into the slurry. The mercury control process under research uses carbon/water slurry injection to produce reactive carbon in-situ in the upper furnace, promoting the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal-fired power boilers. By controlling the water content of the slurry below the stoichiometric requirement for complete gasification, water activated carbon (WAC) can be generated in-situ in the upper furnace. As little as 1-2% coal/water slurry (heat input basis) can be injected and generate sufficient WAC for mercury capture. During July, August, and September 2007, BES designed, procured, installed, and tested the slurry injection system at Beaver Valley. Slurry production was performed by Penn State University using equipment that was moved from campus to the Beaver Valley site. Waste coal fines were procured from Headwaters Inc. and transported to the site in Super Sacks. In addition, bituminous coal was pulverized at Penn State and trucked to the site in 55-gallon drums. This system was operated for three weeks during August and September 2007. NO{sub x} emission data were obtained using the plant CEM system. Hg measurements were taken using EPA Method 30B (Sorbent Trap method) both downstream of the electrostatic precipitator and in the stack. Ohio Lumex Company was on site to provide rapid Hg analysis on the sorbent traps during the tests. Key results from these tests are: (1) Coal Fines reburn alone reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 0-10% with up to 4% heat input from the CWS. However, the NO{sub x} reduction was accompanied by higher CO emissions. The higher CO limited our ability to try higher reburn rates for further NO{sub x} reduction. (2) Coal Fines reburn with Urea (Carbon enhanced SNCR) decreased NO{sub x} emissions by an additional 30% compared to Urea injection only. (3) Coal slurry injection did not change Hg capture across the ESP at full load with an inlet temperature of 400-430 F. The Hg capture in the ESP averaged 40%, with or without slurry injection; low mercury particulate capture is normally expected across a higher temperature ESP because any oxidized mercury is thought to desorb from the particulate at ESP temperatures above 250 F. (4) Coal slurry injection with halogen salts added to the mixing tank increased the Hg capture in the ESP to 60%. This significant incremental mercury reduction is important to improved mercury capture with hot-side ESP operation and wherever hindrance from sulfur oxides limit mercury reduction, because the higher temperature is above sulfur oxide dew point interference.

Stephen Johnson; Chetan Chothani; Bernard Breen

2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

208

SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to utilities with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species, a precursor to acid aerosol/condensable emissions, and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of SCR for NOX control on some coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project is testing the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium- and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents have been tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry produced from a wet flue gas desulfurization system waste stream, from a system that employs a Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime scrubbing process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles into the front wall of upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests. The longer-term tests are being conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. This reports presents the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

2002-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

209

SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: LONG-TERM RESULTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corp., the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Dravo Lime, Inc. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to power generators with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NO{sub x} control on many coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project previously tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium-and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide byproduct slurry produced from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization system. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP, Unit 3, and the second test was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant testing provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. This report presents the results from those long-term tests. The tests determined the effectiveness of injecting commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP) for sulfuric acid control. The results show that injecting either slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, this overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NOX control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The long-term tests also determined balance-of-plant impacts from slurry injection during the two tests. These include impacts on boiler back-end temperatures and pressure drops, SCR catalyst properties, ESP performance, removal of other flue gas species, and flue gas opacity. For the most part the balance-of-plant impacts were neutral to positive, although adverse effects on ESP performance became an issue during the BMP test.

Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

2002-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

210

Simulation of the Impact of the SO2 Emissions from the Proposed Sithe Power Plant on the Grand Canyon and other Class I Areas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simulation of the Impact of the SO2 Emissions from the Proposed Sithe Power Plant on the Grand to simulate the proposed and existing power plant plumes during January 2001. Four-km MM5 wind fields were the region. During these stagnation events, emissions from the three simulated power plants mixed together

Fischer, Emily V.

211

Electrochemical NOx Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasingly stringent emissions regulations will require the development of advanced gas sensors for a variety of applications. For example, compact, inexpensive sensors are needed for detection of regulated pollutants, including hydrocarbons (HCs), CO, and NO{sub x}, in automotive exhaust. Of particular importance will be a sensor for NO{sub x} to ensure the proper operation of the catalyst system in the next generation of diesel (CIDI) automobiles. Because many emerging applications, particularly monitoring of automotive exhaust, involve operation in harsh, high-temperature environments, robust ceramic-oxide-based electrochemical sensors are a promising technology. Sensors using yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as an oxygen-ion-conducting electrolyte have been widely reported for both amperometric and potentiometric modes of operation. These include the well-known exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensor. More recently, ac impedance-based (i.e., impedance-metric) sensing techniques using YSZ have been reported for sensing water vapor, hydrocarbons, CO, and NO{sub x}. Typically small-amplitude alternating signal is applied, and the sensor response is measured at a specified frequency. Most impedance-metric techniques have used the modulus (or magnitude) at low frequencies (< 1 Hz) as the sensing signal and attribute the measured response to interfacial phenomena. Work by our group has also investigated using phase angle as the sensing signal at somewhat higher frequencies (10 Hz). The higher frequency measurements would potentially allow for reduced sampling times during sensor operation. Another potential advantage of impedance-metric NO{sub x} sensing is the similarity in response to NO and NO{sub 2} (i.e., total-NO{sub x} sensing). Potentiometric NO{sub x} sensors typically show higher sensitivity to NO2 than NO, and responses that are opposite in sign. However, NO is more stable than NO{sub 2} at temperatures > 600 C, and thermodynamic calculations predict {approx}90% NO, balance NO{sub 2}. Since automotive exhaust sensors will probably be required to operate at temperatures > 600 C, NO is the dominant component in thermodynamic equilibrium and the target NOx species. Also, the use of upstream catalysts could further promote the conversion of NO{sub x} species to NO. Therefore, the focus of current work is to investigate the response to NO. Nevertheless, minimizing the sensitivity to a variety of competing species is important in order to obtain the accuracy necessary for achieving the emission limits. Mitigating the effect of interfering gases (e.g., O{sub 2}, water vapor, HCs, etc.) is an area of current study. For impedance metric NO{sub x} sensors, our previous work has demonstrated that the cross-sensitivity to O{sub 2} may be accounted for by comparing measurements at multiple frequencies. Other strategies for compensation are also being explored, including calibration using data from existing sensors located nearby. Our current work has made significant advances in terms of developing prototype sensors more suitable for commercialization. Also, dynamometer testing has provided real-world sensor performance data that will be useful in approaching potential suppliers to whom we can transfer the technology for commercialization. The advances are a direct result of understanding the sensing mechanisms responsible for impedance-based NO{sub x} sensing and the effect of materials choice and sensor design/geometry.

Woo, L Y; Glass, R S

2008-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

212

JV Task 117 - Impact of Lignite Properties on Powerspan's NOx Oxidation System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Powerspan's multipollutant control process called electrocatalytic oxidation (ECO) technology is designed to simultaneously remove SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, PM{sub 2.5}, acid gases (such as hydrogen fluoride [HF], hydrochloric acid [HCl], and sulfur trioxide [SO{sub 3}]), Hg, and other metals from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The core of this technology is a dielectric barrier discharge reactor composed of cylindrical quartz electrodes residing in metal tubes. Electrical discharge through the flue gas, passing between the electrode and the tube, produces reactive O and OH radicals. The O and OH radicals react with flue gas components to oxidize NO to NO{sub 2} and HNO{sub 3} and a small portion of the SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The oxidized compounds are subsequently removed in a downstream scrubber and wet electrostatic precipitator. A challenging characteristic of selected North Dakota lignites is their high sodium content. During high-sodium lignite combustion and gas cooling, the sodium vaporizes and condenses to produce sodium- and sulfur-rich aerosols. Based on past work, it was hypothesized that the sodium aerosols would deposit on and react with the silica electrodes and react with the silica electrodes, resulting in the formation of sodium silicate. The deposit and reacted surface layer would then electrically alter the electrode, thus impacting its dielectric properties and NO{sub x} conversion capability. The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of lignite-derived flue gas containing sodium aerosols on Powerspan's dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with specific focus on the interaction with the quartz electrodes. Partners in the project were Minnkota Power Cooperative; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Montana Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnesota Power; the North Dakota Industrial Commission, the Lignite Energy Council, and the Lignite Research Council; the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); and the U.S. Department of Energy. An electrocatalytic oxidation (ECO) reactor slipstream system was designed by Powerspan and the EERC. The slipstream system was installed by the EERC at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young Station Unit 1 downstream of the electrostatic precipitator where the flue gas temperature ranged from 300 to 350 F. The system was commissioned on July 3, 2007, operated for 107 days, and then winterized upon completion of the testing campaign. Operational performance of the system was monitored, and data were archived for postprocessing. A pair of electrodes were extracted and replaced on a biweekly basis. Each pair of electrodes was shipped to Powerspan to determine NO conversion efficiency in Powerspan's laboratory reactor. Tested electrodes were then shipped to the EERC for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray microanalysis. Measurement of NO{sub x} conversion online in operating the slipstream system was not possible because the nitric and sulfuric acid production by the DBD reactor results in conditioning corrosion challenges in the sample extraction system and NO measurement technologies. The operational observations, performance results, and lab testing showed that the system was adversely affected by accumulation of the aerosol materials on the electrode. NO{sub x} conversion by ash-covered electrodes was significantly reduced; however, with electrodes that were rinsed with water, the NOx conversion efficiency recovered to nearly that of a new electrode. In addition, the visual appearance of the electrode after washing did not show evidence of a cloudy reacted surface but appeared similar to an unexposed electrode. Examination of the electrodes using SEM x-ray microanalysis showed significant elemental sodium, sulfur, calcium, potassium, and silica in the ash coating the electrodes. There was no evidence of the reaction of the sodium with the silica electrodes to produce sodium silicate layers. All SEM images showed a clearly marked boundary between the ash and the silica. Sodium and sulfur are the main culprits in the

Scott Tolbert; Steven Benson

2008-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

213

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP Unit 3, and the second was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant test provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. A final task in the project was to compare projected costs for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries to estimated costs for other potential sulfuric acid control technologies. Estimates were developed for reagent and utility costs, and capital costs, for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries and seven other sulfuric acid control technologies. The estimates were based on retrofit application to a model coal-fired plant.

Gary M. Blythe

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Controlling Emissions of SOx and NOx from power plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Sulfur Removal Sulfur is removed from crude oil by the catalytic reaction: R-S + H2 H2S + R Until the mid 1970's the H2S was mixed back into the fuel gas. The problem with this is that the H2S is burned + CO2 This is a two step process including the scrubber and the effluent hold tank. CaSO4 (gypsum

Toohey, Darin W.

215

Natural Gas Processing Plant- Sulfur (New Mexico)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This regulation establishes sulfur emission standards for natural gas processing plants. Standards are stated for both existing and new plants. There are also rules for stack height requirements,...

216

Sulfurization of a carbon surface for vapor phase mercury removal II: Sulfur forms and mercury uptake  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

promote the formation of organic sulfur and the presence of H2S during the cooling process increased in the presence of H2S was very effective towards Hg uptake in nitrogen. Corre- lation of mercury uptake capacitySulfurization of a carbon surface for vapor phase mercury removal ­ II: Sulfur forms and mercury

Borguet, Eric

217

December 2002 Issue #13 2002 SULFUR RESPONSES AND THE WISCONSIN ALFALFA SULFUR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

December 2002 Issue #13 ­ 2002 SULFUR RESPONSES AND THE WISCONSIN ALFALFA SULFUR SURVEY 1/ K response of alfalfa in the final 2 years of a 4-year experiment at Arlington on a 3.8% organic matter soil better identification of sulfur need and improved S management on Wisconsin alfalfa. Question #1

Balser, Teri C.

218

Transition metal-catalyzed oxidation of atmospheric sulfur: Global implications for the sulfur budget  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

processes, volca- noes) or produced within the atmosphere by oxidation of re- duced sulfur speciesTransition metal-catalyzed oxidation of atmospheric sulfur: Global implications for the sulfur importance of sulfate production by Fe(III)- and Mn(II)-catalyzed oxidation of S(IV) by O2. We scale

Alexander, Becky

219

LOW NOx EMISSIONS IN A FUEL FLEXIBLE GAS TURBINE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In alignment with Vision 21 goals, a study is presented here on the technical and economic potential for developing a gas turbine combustor that is capable of generating less that 2 ppm NOx emissions, firing on either coal synthesis gas or natural gas, and being implemented on new and existing systems. The proposed solution involves controlling the quantity of H2 contained in the fuel. The presence of H2 leads to increased flame stability such that the combustor can be operated at lower temperatures and produce less thermal NOx. Coal gas composition would be modified using a water gas shift converter, and natural gas units would implement a catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) reactor to convert part of the natural gas feed to a syngas before fed back into the combustor. While both systems demonstrated technical merit, the economics involved in implementing such a system are marginal at best. Therefore, Praxair has decided not to pursue the technology any further at this time.

Raymond Drnevich; James Meagher; Vasilis Papavassiliou; Troy Raybold; Peter Stuttaford; Leonard Switzer; Lee Rosen

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Small, Inexpensive Combined NOx Sensor and O2 Sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been successfully demonstrated in this program that a zirconia multilayer structure with rhodium-based porous electrodes performs well as an amperometric NOx sensor. The sensitivity of the sensor bodies operating at 650 to 700 C is large, with demonstrated current outputs of 14 mA at 500 ppm NOx from sensors with 30 layers. The sensor bodies are small (4.5 x 4.2 x 3.1 mm), rugged, and inexpensive. It is projected the sensor bodies will cost $5 - $10 in production. This program has built on another successful development program for an oxygen sensor based on the same principles and sponsored by DOE. This oxygen sensor is not sensitive to NOx. A significant technical hurdle has been identified and solved. It was found that the 100% Rh electrodes oxidize rapidly at the preferred operating temperatures of 650 - 700 C, and this oxidation is accompanied by a volume change which delaminates the sensors. The problem was solved by using alloys of Rh and Pt. It was found that a 10%/90% Rh/Pt alloy dropped the oxidation rate of the electrodes by orders of magnitude without degrading the NOx sensitivity of the sensors, allowing long-term stable operation at the preferred operating temperatures. Degradation in the sensor output caused by temperature cycling was identified as a change in resistance at the junction between the sensor body and the external leads attached to the sensor body. The degradation was eliminated by providing strong mechanical anchors for the wire and processing the junctions to obtain good electrical bonds. The NOx sensors also detect oxygen and therefore the fully-packaged sensor needs to be enclosed with an oxygen sensor in a small, heated zirconia chamber exposed to test gas through a diffusion plug which limits the flow of gas from the outside. Oxygen is pumped from the interior of the chamber to lower the oxygen content and the combination of measurements from the NOx and oxygen sensors yields the NOx content of the gas. Two types of electronic control units were designed and built. One control unit provides independent constant voltages to the NOx and oxygen sensors and reads the current from them (that is, detects the amount of test gas present). The second controller holds the fully-assembled sensor at the desired operating temperature and controllably pumps excess oxygen from the test chamber. While the development of the sensor body was a complete success, the development of the packaging was only partially successful. All of the basic principles were demonstrated, but the packaging was too complex to optimize the operation within the resources of the program. Thus, no fully-assembled sensors were sent to outside labs for testing of cross-sensitivities, response times, etc. Near the end of the program, Sensata Technologies of Attleboro, MA tested the sensor bodies and confirmed the CeramPhysics measurements as indicated in the following attached letter. Sensata was in the process of designing their own packaging for the sensor and performing cross-sensitivity tests when they stopped all sensor development work due to the automotive industry downturn. Recently Ceramatec Inc. of Salt Lake City has expressed an interest in testing the sensor, and other licensing opportunities are being pursued.

W. N. Lawless; C. F. Clark, Jr.

2008-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox so2 sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Congressionally Directed Project for Passive NOx Removal Catalysts Research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Recipient proposes to produce new scientific and technical knowledge and tools to enable the discovery and deployment of highly effective materials for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from lean combustion exhaust. A second goal is to demonstrate a closely coupled experimental and computational approach to heterogeneous catalysis research. These goals will be met through the completion of four primary technical objectives: First, an in-depth kinetic analysis will be performed on two prominent classes of NOx SCR catalysts, Fe- and Cu-exchanged beta and ZSM-5 zeolites, over a wide range of catalyst formulation and under identical, high conversion conditions as a function of gas phase composition. Second, the nanoscale structure and adsorption chemistry of these high temperature (HT) and low temperature (LT) catalysts will be determined using in situ and operando spectroscopy under the same reaction conditions. Third, first-principles molecular simulations will be used to model the metal-zeolite active sites, their adsorption chemistry, and key steps in catalytic function. Fourth, this information will be integrated into chemically detailed mechanistic and kinetic descriptions and models of the operation of these well- defined NOx SCR catalysts under practically relevant reaction conditions. The new knowledge and models that derive from this work will be published in the scientific literature.

Schneider, William

2014-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

222

Sulfur Poisoning and Regeneration of NOx Storage-Reduction Cu/K2Ti2O5 Qiang Wang,*,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Lamar UniVersity, Beaumont, Texas 77710 A new Cu/K2Ti2O5 catalyst has been developed recently to remove

Guo, John Zhanhu

223

Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Hybrid Anode Structures. Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Hybrid Anode...

224

Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

225

Formation of Nitrogen- and Sulfur-Containing Light-Absorbing...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nitrogen- and Sulfur-Containing Light-Absorbing Compounds Accelerated by Evaporation of Water from Secondary Formation of Nitrogen- and Sulfur-Containing Light-Absorbing Compounds...

226

Method of removal of sulfur from coal and petroleum products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the removal of sulfur from sulfur-bearing materials such as coal and petroleum products using organophosphine and organophosphite compounds is provided.

Verkade, John G. (Ames, IA); Mohan, Thyagarajan (Ames, IA); Angelici, Robert J. (Ames, IA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Ultra Low NOx Catalytic Combustion for IGCC Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to meet DOE's goals of developing low-emissions coal-based power systems, PCI has further developed and adapted it's Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL{reg_sign}) catalytic reactor to a combustion system operating on syngas as a fuel. The technology offers ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment, with high efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses and reduced diluent requirements), and with catalytically stabilized combustion which extends the lower Btu limit for syngas operation. Tests were performed in PCI's sub-scale high-pressure (10 atm) test rig, using a two-stage (catalytic then gas-phase) combustion process for syngas fuel. In this process, the first stage consists of a fuel-rich mixture reacting on a catalyst with final and excess combustion air used to cool the catalyst. The second stage is a gas-phase combustor, where the air used for cooling the catalyst mixes with the catalytic reactor effluent to provide for final gas-phase burnout and dilution to fuel-lean combustion products. During testing, operating with a simulated Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station syngas, the NOx emissions program goal of less than 0.03 lbs/MMBtu (6 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) was met. NOx emissions were generally near 0.01 lbs/MMBtu (2 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) (PCI's target) over a range on engine firing temperatures. In addition, low emissions were shown for alternative fuels including high hydrogen content refinery fuel gas and low BTU content Blast Furnace Gas (BFG). For the refinery fuel gas increased resistance to combustor flashback was achieved through preferential consumption of hydrogen in the catalytic bed. In the case of BFG, stable combustion for fuels as low as 88 BTU/ft{sup 3} was established and maintained without the need for using co-firing. This was achieved based on the upstream catalytic reaction delivering a hotter (and thus more reactive) product to the flame zone. The PCI catalytic reactor was also shown to be active in ammonia reduction in fuel allowing potential reductions in the burner NOx production. These reductions of NOx emissions and expanded alternative fuel capability make the rich catalytic combustor uniquely situated to provide reductions in capital costs through elimination of requirements for SCR, operating costs through reduction in need for NOx abating dilution, SCR operating costs, and need for co-firing fuels allowing use of lower value but more available fuels, and efficiency of an engine through reduction in dilution flows.

Shahrokh Etemad; Benjamin Baird; Sandeep Alavandi; William Pfefferle

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

228

The Goldstone theorem protects naturalness, and the absence of Brout-Englert-Higgs fine-tuning, in spontaneously broken SO(2)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Gell-Mann-Levy (GML), Schwinger and Standard Models were previously shown to lack a Brout-Englert-Higgs (BEH) fine-tuning problem due to quadratic divergences, with finite Euclidean cut-off \\Lambda, because of the symmetries obeyed by all O(\\Lambda^2) contributions. We extend those results to finite contributions from certain M_{Heavy}^2>> m_{BEH}^2 particles in SO(2) versions of GML and Schwinger. We demonstrate explicit 1-loop physical naturalness for two SO(2) singlet examples: a heavy real scalar S and a right-handed Type 1 see-saw Majorana neutrino. We prove that for low |q^2| the heavy degrees of freedom contribute, at worst, marginal operators in spontaneously broken SO(2) Schwinger. The key GML lesson from these examples is that the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson (NGB) mass-squared must be properly renormalized. A true NGB value, m_3^2 = 0, is then protected by the Goldstone theorem. For the Schwinger model, two crucial observations emerge: global Ward-Takahashi identities (WTI) force all relevant operators into the pseudo-NGB mass-squared; and WTI enforce the Goldstone theorem by forbidding all relevant operator contributions in the spontaneously broken Goldstone mode, \\pi_3 is a massless NGB there. Goldstone mode, with weak-scale m_{BEH}^2 \\& ^2, is not-fine-tuned even as a low-energy effective theory with certain high-mass-scale extensions. Its "Goldstone Exceptional Naturalness (GEN)," where all relevant operators vanish, a powerful suppression of fine-tuning, is simply another (albeit un-familiar) consequence of WTI, spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Goldstone theorem. If GEN can somehow be extended to the Standard Model (SM), there should be no expectation that LHC will discover any Beyond the SM physics unrelated to neutrino mixing, i.e. the only known experimentally necessary modification of the Standard Model plus General Relativity paradigm.

Bryan W. Lynn; Glenn D. Starkman

2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

229

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected in a pilot scale furnace and soot behavior predicted by the CFD model showed good agreement. Field and laboratory tests were performed for SCR catalysts used for coal and biomass co-firing applications. Fundamental laboratory studies were performed to better understand mechanisms involved with catalyst deactivation. Field tests with a slip stream reactor were used to create catalyst exposed to boiler flue gas for firing coal and for co-firing coal and biomass. The field data suggests the mechanisms leading to catalyst deactivation are, in order of importance, channel plugging, surface fouling, pore plugging and poisoning. Investigations were performed to better understand the mechanisms involved with catalyst regeneration through mechanical or chemical methods. A computer model was developed to predict NOx reduction across the catalyst in a SCR. Experiments were performed to investigate the fundamentals of ammonia/fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. Measurements were performed for ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes. This work resulted in the first fundamental ammonia isotherms on carbon-containing fly ash samples. This work confirms industrial reports that aqueous solution chemistry takes place upon the introduction of even very small amounts of water, while the ash remains in a semi-dry state.

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

230

Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysts investigation of potential synergies of low emission advanced combustion techniques and advanced lean exhaust catalytic aftertreatment....

231

Reduce NOx and Improve Energy Efficiency, Software Tools for Industry, Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes how the Industrial Technologies Program NOx and Energy Assessment Tool (NxEAT) can help petroleum refining and chemical plants improve energy efficiency.

Not Available

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Reduction of NOx in Synthetic Diesel Exhaust via Two-Step Plasma...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Citation: Tonkyn RG, SE Barlow, and J Hoard.2003."Reduction of NOx in Synthetic Diesel Exhaust via Two-Step Plasma-Catalysis Treatment."Applied Catalysis. B,...

233

Effect of Thermal Aging on NO oxidation and NOx storage in a...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Impacts of Biodiesel on Emission Control Devices NOx Abatement Research and Development CRADA with Navistar Incorporated Thermal Deactivation...

234

Plasma-Activated Lean NOx Catalysis for Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Lean NOx Catalysis l Chemistry l Reducing Agent Effects l Collaboration with LEP CRADA l Aging Studies Plasma Initiation - + Electron Avalanche e - e - e - e - e - e - e -...

235

Engine and Reactor Evaluations of HC-SCR for Diesel NOx Reduction  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

- Burch and Millington, Catalysis Today, 1996. - Shimizu et al., Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 2000. * DOE NOx Discovery Project - Initiated in August of 2002, completed...

236

Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions - Fact...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Sheet, 2014 Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions - Fact Sheet, 2014 The Gas Technology Institute, in collaboration with Cannon Boiler Works, Integrated CHP...

237

Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalytic reduction process is described for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(FO[sub 2])[sub 1[minus]n](RO)[sub n

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Liu, W.

1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

238

NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Field tests for NOx reduction in a cyclone fired utility boiler due to using Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) have been started. CFD modeling studies have been started to evaluate the use of RRI for NOx reduction in a corner fired utility boiler using pulverized coal. Field tests of a corrosion monitor to measure waterwall wastage in a utility boiler have been completed. Computational studies to evaluate a soot model within a boiler simulation program are continuing. Research to evaluate SCR catalyst performance has started. A literature survey was completed. Experiments have been outlined and two flow reactor systems have been designed and are under construction. Commercial catalyst vendors have been contacted about supplying catalyst samples. Several sets of new experiments have been performed to investigate ammonia removal processes and mechanisms for fly ash. Work has focused on a promising class of processes in which ammonia is destroyed by strong oxidizing agents at ambient temperature during semi-dry processing (the use of moisture amounts less than 5 wt-%). Both ozone and an ozone/peroxide combination have been used to treat both basic and acidic ammonia-laden ashes.

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

239

Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report to the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for DE-EE0000210 covers the period from October 1, 2009 to July 31, 2013. Under this project, DOE awarded UConn about $1,248,242 to conduct the research and development on a new class of 3D composite nanostructure based catalysts for lean NOx emission control. Much of the material presented here has already been submitted to DOE/NETL in quarterly technical reports. In this project, through a scalable solution process, we have successfully fabricated a new class of catalytic reactors, i.e., the composite nanostructure array (nano-array) based catalytic converters. These nanocatalysts, distinct from traditional powder washcoat based catalytic converters, directly integrate monolithic substrates together with nanostructures with well-defined size and shape during the scalable hydrothermal process. The new monolithic nanocatalysts are demonstrated to be able to save raw materials including Pt-group metals and support metal oxides by an order of magnitude, while perform well at various oxidation (e.g., CO oxidation and NO oxidation) and reduction reactions (H{sub 2} reduction of NOx) involved in the lean NOx emissions. The size, shape and arrangement of the composite nanostructures within the monolithic substrates are found to be the key in enabling the drastically reduced materials usage while maintaining the good catalytic reactivity in the enabled devices. The further understanding of the reaction kinetics associated with the unique mass transport and surface chemistry behind is needed for further optimizing the design and fabrication of good nanostructure array based catalytic converters. On the other hand, the high temperature stability, hydrothermal aging stability, as well as S-poisoning resistance have been investigated in this project on the nanocatalysts, which revealed promising results toward good chemical and mechanical robustness, as well as S-poisoning resistance. Further investigation is needed for unraveling the understanding, design and selection principles of this new class of nanostructure based monolithic catalysts.

Gao, Pu-Xian

2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

240

SOx/NOx sorbent and process of use  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600 C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilizing spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

Ziebarth, M.S.; Hager, M.J.; Beeckman, J.W.; Plecha, S.

1993-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox so2 sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Compact Potentiometric O2/NOx Sensor | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTieCelebrate Earth Codestheat Two AluminumWHAT:Energy1 DOEO2/NOx

242

Electrochemical NOxSensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions | Department of  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPC ENABLE: ECM SummaryandandElectrosynthesisDOEEnergy NOxSensor

243

NOx Adsorber Regeneration Phenomena In Heavy Duty Applications | Department  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d F S i DOEToward aInnovation |NEXTDevelopment NOx Abatementof

244

NOx Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation |  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d F S i DOEToward aInnovation |NEXTDevelopment NOx

245

NOx Aftertreatment Using Ethanol as Reductant | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d F S i DOEToward aInnovation |NEXTDevelopment NOxAftertreatment Using

246

Definition of Non-Conventional Sulfur Utilization in Western Kazakhstan for Sulfur Concrete (Phase 1)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Battelle received a contract from Agip-KCO, on behalf a consortium of international oil and gas companies with exploration rights in the North Caspian Sea, Kazakhstan. The objective of the work was to identify and help develop new techniques for sulfur concrete products from waste, by-product sulfur that will be generated in large quantitites as drilling operations begin in the near future. BNL has significant expertise in the development and use of sulfur concrete products and has direct experience collaborating with the Russian and Kazakh partners that participated. Feasibility testing was successfully conducted for a new process to produce cost-effective sulfur polymer cement that has broad commerical applications.

Kalb, Paul

2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

247

Experimental and numerical analysis of isothermal turbulent flows in interacting low NOx burners in coal-fired furnaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal firing power stations represent the second largest source of global NOx emissions. The current practice of predicting likely exit NOx levels from multi-burner furnaces on the basis of single burner test rig data has been proven inadequate...

Cvoro, Valentina

248

Process for removing sulfur from coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is disclosed for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

Aida, T.; Squires, T.G.; Venier, C.G.

1983-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

249

The effect of hydrogen addition on flammability limit and NOx emission in ultra-lean counterflow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. They indicated that the addition of hydrogen to natural gas or methane resulted in an increase in NOx for most increases, and then decreases with the increase in the fraction of hydrogen. Overall, hydrogen enrichment rights reserved. Keywords: Hydrogen enrichment; NOx; Extinction limit; Ultra-lean premixed flame. 1

Gülder, ?mer L.

250

Effect of propene on the remediation of NOx from engine exhausts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

been found to play an important role in the NOx conversion chemistry. Earlier studies on the effects to determine their effect on NOx conversion are input energy, gas temperature and the inlet hydrocarbon. Hydrocarbons in the exhausts have been found to play an important role in the reaction chemistry during

Kushner, Mark

251

Global impact of fossil fuel combustion on atmospheric NOx Larry W. Horowitz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

potential than emissions in the United States to perturb the global oxidizing power of the atmosphere. #12% of NOx concentrations in the lower and middle troposphere throughout the extratropical northern of the ocean. Sources in the United States are found to contribute about half of the fossil fuel NOx over

Jacob, Daniel J.

252

Active NOX Control of Cogen Gas Turbine Exhaust using a Nonlinear Feed Forward with Cascade Architecture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Active NOX Control of Cogen Gas Turbine Exhaust using a Nonlinear Feed Forward with Cascade control, cogeneration, gas turbine, model based control, feed forward, cascade ABSTRACT Presented is a model based strategy for controlling the NOX concentration of natural gas turbine emissions

Cooper, Doug

253

Asian emissions of CO and NOx: Constraints from aircraft and Chinese station data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and chemistry; KEYWORDS: inversion, Asian emissions, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides Citation: Wang, Y. X., MAsian emissions of CO and NOx: Constraints from aircraft and Chinese station data Yuxuan X. Wang to constrain estimates of Asian emissions of CO and NOx. A priori emissions are based on a detailed bottom

Palmer, Paul

254

World copper smelter sulfur balance-1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1989, the US Bureau of Mines initiated a contract to gather engineering, operating, and environmental cost data for 1988 for 30 major foreign primary copper smelters in market economy countries. Data were collected for 29 of the designated smelters together with information on applicable environmental regulations. Materials balance data obtained were used with available data for the eight US smelters to determine the approximate extent of copper smelter sulfur emission control in 1988. A broad characterization of the status of sulfur emission control regulation was made. The 37 US and foreign smelters represented roughly 73.2% of world and 89.3% of market economy primary copper production in 1988. The 29 non-US smelters attained 55.3% control of their input sulfur in 1988. Combined with the 90.4% control of US smelters, an aggregate 63.4% sulfur control existed. Roughly 1,951,100 mt of sulfur was emitted from the 37 market economy smelters in 1988. Identifiable SO[sub 2] control regulations covered 72.4% of the 29 foreign smelters, representing 65.5% of smelting capacity. Including US smelters, 78.4% of the major market economy smelters were regulated, representing 73.1% of smelting capacity. Significant changes since 1988 that may increase sulfur emission control are noted.

Towle, S.W. (Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Metal/metal oxide doped oxide catalysts having high deNOx selectivity for lean NOx exhaust aftertreatment systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A lean NOx catalyst and method of preparing the same is disclosed. The lean NOx catalyst includes a ceramic substrate, an oxide support material, preferably .gamma.-alumina, deposited on the substrate and a metal promoter or dopant introduced into the oxide support material. The metal promoters or dopants are selected from the group consisting of indium, gallium, tin, silver, germanium, gold, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chromium, cerium, vanadium, oxides thereof, and combinations thereof. The .gamma.-alumina preferably has a pore volume of from about 0.5 to about 2.0 cc/g; a surface area of between about 80 to 350 m.sup.2 /g; an average pore size diameter of between about 3 to 30 nm; and an impurity level of less than or equal to 0.2 weight percent. In a preferred embodiment the .gamma.-alumina is prepared by a sol-gel method, with the metal doping of the .gamma.-alumina preferably accomplished using an incipient wetness impregnation technique.

Park, Paul W.

2004-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

256

Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) generated by internal combustion (IC) engines are implicated in adverse environmental and health effects. Even though lean-burn natural gas engines have traditionally emitted lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions compared to their diesel counterparts, natural gas engines are being further challenged to reduce NOx emissions to 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) approach for NOx reduction involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the NOx from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By sending the desorbed NOx back into the intake and through the engine, a percentage of the NOx can be decomposed during the combustion process. SNR technology has the support of the Department of Energy (DOE), under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) program to reduce NOx emissions to under 0.1 g/bhp-hr from stationary natural gas engines by 2010. The NO decomposition phenomenon was studied using two Cummins L10G natural gas fueled spark-ignited (SI) engines in three experimental campaigns. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio ({lambda}), injected NO quantity, added exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentage, and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates within the engine. Chemical kinetic model predictions using the software package CHEMKIN were performed to relate the experimental data with established rate and equilibrium models. The model was used to predict NO decomposition during lean-burn, stoichiometric burn, and slightly rich-burn cases with added EGR. NOx decomposition rates were estimated from the model to be from 35 to 42% for the lean-burn cases and from 50 to 70% for the rich-burn cases. The modeling results provided an insight as to how to maximize NOx decomposition rates for the experimental engine. Results from this experiment along with chemical kinetic modeling solutions prompted the investigation of rich-burn operating conditions, with added EGR to prevent preignition. It was observed that the relative air/fuel ratio, injected NO quantity, added EGR fraction, and engine operating points affected the NO decomposition rates. While operating under these modified conditions, the highest NO decomposition rate of 92% was observed. In-cylinder pressure data gathered during the experiments showed minimum deviation from peak pressure as a result of NO injections into the engine. A NOx adsorption system, from Sorbent Technologies, Inc., was integrated with the Cummins engine, comprised a NOx adsorbent chamber, heat exchanger, demister, and a hot air blower. Data were gathered to show the possibility of NOx adsorption from the engine exhaust, and desorption of NOx from the sorbent material. In order to quantify the NOx adsorption/desorption characteristics of the sorbent material, a benchtop adsorption system was constructed. The temperature of this apparatus was controlled while data were gathered on the characteristics of the sorbent material for development of a system model. A simplified linear driving force model was developed to predict NOx adsorption into the sorbent material as cooled exhaust passed over fresh sorbent material. A mass heat transfer analysis was conducted to analyze the possibility of using hot exhaust gas for the desorption process. It was found in the adsorption studies, and through literature review, that NO adsorption was poor when the carrier gas was nitrogen, but that NO in the presence of oxygen was adsorbed at levels exceeding 1% by mass of the sorbent. From the three experimental campaigns, chemical kinetic modeling analysis, and the scaled benchtop NOx adsorption system, an overall SNR system model was developed. An economic analysis was completed, and showed that the system was impractical in cost for small engines, but that economies of scale favored the technology.

Nigel N. Clark

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

257

JV Task-Long-Kiln NOx Reduction Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Field sampling was conducted by the Energy & Environmental Research Center at two Lafarge North America cement kiln locations in Canada. Emissions including SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, and particulate were measured and reported at various locations throughout the kilns. At each site data were collected on two kilns during field sampling. However, only Kiln 1 at the Ravena site was utilized for modeling efforts. Experimental work was then conducted to estimate the effectiveness of various NO{sub x} control techniques on limiting both NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions in cement kiln exhaust. Theory-based models were constructed to estimate both NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions from cement kilns. These models were then applied to estimating the impact of various NO{sub x} control strategies on kiln exhaust emissions. The sulfur model constructed as part of this work was successful at predicting SO{sub 2} emissions and sulfur capture in the Alpena kiln. This model is designed to run as a postprocessing step that uses the output of a NO{sub x} model as input. With an accurate NO{sub x} model, the sulfur model may prove to be a valuable tool in estimating the impact of kiln modifications on sulfur emissions. The NO{sub x} model was also applied to model several operating scenarios on three of Lafarge's kilns: Alpena 20/21, Alpena 22/23, and Ravena 1. The predictions of the flue gas temperature at the kiln feed end, the kiln shell heat loss, the quality of clinker, and the excess O{sub 2} in the flue gas are consistent with the audit data. The developed simulation tool in this project has proven to be an effective way to investigate the NO{sub x} emissions, to optimize kiln performance, and to assess changes in operating condition on kiln performance.

Bruce Folkedahl; Joshua Strege; Darren Schmidt; Lingbu Kong

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Documents & Publications CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...

259

An Aerosol Condensation Model for Sulfur Trioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes a model for condensation of sulfuric acid aerosol given an initial concentration and/or source of gaseous sulfur trioxide (e.g. fuming from oleum). The model includes the thermochemical effects on aerosol condensation and air parcel buoyancy. Condensation is assumed to occur heterogeneously onto a preexisting background aerosol distribution. The model development is both a revisiting of research initially presented at the Fall 2001 American Geophysical Union Meeting [1] and a further extension to provide new capabilities for current atmospheric dispersion modeling efforts [2]. Sulfuric acid is one of the most widely used of all industrial chemicals. In 1992, world consumption of sulfuric acid was 145 million metric tons, with 42.4 Mt (mega-tons) consumed in the United States [10]. In 2001, of 37.5 Mt consumed in the U.S., 74% went into producing phosphate fertilizers [11]. Another significant use is in mining industries. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] estimate that, in 1996, 68% of use was for fertilizers and 5.8% was for mining. They note that H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} use has been and should continue to be very stable. In the United States, the elimination of MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether) and the use of ethanol for gasoline production are further increasing the demand for petroleum alkylate. Alkylate producers have a choice of either a hydrofluoric acid or sulfuric acid process. Both processes are widely used today. Concerns, however, over the safety or potential regulation of hydrofluoric acid are likely to result in most of the growth being for the sulfuric acid process, further increasing demand [11]. The implication of sulfuric acid being a pervasive industrial chemical is that transport is also pervasive. Often, this is in the form of oleum tankers, having around 30% free sulfur trioxide. Although sulfuric acid itself is not a volatile substance, fuming sulfuric acid (referred to as oleum) is [7], the volatile product being sulfur trioxide. Sulfate aerosols and mist may form in the atmosphere on tank rupture. From chemical spill data from 1990-1996, Lawuyi02 and Fingas [7] prioritize sulfuric acid as sixth most serious. During this period, they note 155 spills totaling 13 Mt, out of a supply volume of 3700 Mt. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] summarize information on three major sulfuric acid spills. On 12 February 1984, 93 tons of sulfuric acid were spilled when 14 railroad cars derailed near MacTier, Parry Sound, Ontario. On 13 December 1978, 51 railroad cars derailed near Springhill, Nova Scotia. One car, containing 93% sulfuric acid, ruptured, spilling nearly its entire contents. In July 1993, 20 to 50 tons of fuming sulfuric acid spilled at the General Chemical Corp. plant in Richmond, California, a major industrial center near San Francisco. The release occurred when oleum was being loaded into a nonfuming acid railroad tank car that contained only a rupture disk as a safety device. The tank car was overheated and this rupture disk blew. The resulting cloud of sulfuric acid drifted northeast with prevailing winds over a number of populated areas. More than 3,000 people subsequently sought medical attention for burning eyes, coughing, headaches, and nausea. Almost all were treated and released on the day of the spill. By the day after the release, another 5,000 people had sought medical attention. The spill forced the closure of five freeways in the region as well as some Bay Area Rapid Transit System stations. Apart from corrosive toxicity, there is the additional hazard that the reactions of sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid vapors with water are extremely exothermic [10, 11]. While the vapors are intrinsically denser than air, there is thus the likelihood of strong, warming-induced buoyancy from reactions with ambient water vapor, water-containing aerosol droplets, and wet environmental surface. Nordin [12] relates just such an occurrence following the Richmond, CA spill, with the plume observed to rise to 300 m. For all practical purposes, sulfur trioxide was the constituent released from the heated tank

Grant, K E

2008-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

260

Low NOx burner retrofits and enhancements for a 518 MW oil and gas fired boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low NOx oil/gas burners originally supplied to Jacksonville Electric Authority, Northside No. 3 .500 MW unit, were based on a duplex air register design with lobed spray oil atomizers providing additional fuel staging. Although the burners could meet the targeted NOx levels of 0.3 and 0.2 lbs/10{sup 6} BTU on oil and gas respectively. There was insufficient margin on these NOx levels to enable continuous low NOx operation to be achieved. Further burner development was undertaken based on improved aerodynamic control within the burner design to give an approximate 25% improvement in NOx emission reduction thus providing an adequate operating margin. This `RoBTAS` (Round Burner with Tilted Air Supply) burner design based on techniques developed successfully for front wall coal firing applications achieved the required NOx reductions in full scale firing demonstrations on both heavy fuel oil and natural gas firing. The paper describes the development work and the subsequent application of the `RoBTAS` burners to the Northside No. 3 boiler. The burner will also be test fired on Orimulsion fuel and thus the comparison between heavy fuel oil firing and Orimulsion firing under ultra low NOx conditions will be made.

King, J.J. [Jacksonville Electric Authority, FL (United States); Allen, J.W.; Beal, P.R. [International Combustion Ltd., Derby (United Kingdom). Rolls-Royce Industrial Power Group

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox so2 sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Low NOx nozzle tip for a pulverized solid fuel furnace  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nozzle tip [100] for a pulverized solid fuel pipe nozzle [200] of a pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace includes: a primary air shroud [120] having an inlet [102] and an outlet [104], wherein the inlet [102] receives a fuel flow [230]; and a flow splitter [180] disposed within the primary air shroud [120], wherein the flow splitter disperses particles in the fuel flow [230] to the outlet [104] to provide a fuel flow jet which reduces NOx in the pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace. In alternative embodiments, the flow splitter [180] may be wedge shaped and extend partially or entirely across the outlet [104]. In another alternative embodiment, flow splitter [180] may be moved forward toward the inlet [102] to create a recessed design.

Donais, Richard E; Hellewell, Todd D; Lewis, Robert D; Richards, Galen H; Towle, David P

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

262

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the fourteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Using the initial CFD baseline modeling of the Gavin Station and the plant corrosion maps, six boiler locations for the corrosion probes were identified and access ports have been installed. Preliminary corrosion data obtained appear consistent and believable. In situ, spectroscopic experiments at BYU reported in part last quarter were completed. New reactor tubes have been made for BYU's CCR that allow for testing smaller amounts of catalyst and thus increasing space velocity; monolith catalysts have been cut and a small reactor that can accommodate these pieces for testing is in its final stages of construction. A poisoning study on Ca-poisoned catalysts was begun this quarter. A possible site for a biomass co-firing test of the slipstream reactor was visited this quarter. The slipstream reactor at Rockport required repair and refurbishment, and will be re-started in the next quarter. This report describes the final results of an experimental project at Brown University on the fundamentals of ammonia / fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. The Brown task focused on the measurement of ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes.

Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding; Robert Hurt

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

263

METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary focus for the project during the quarter was shakedown testing of the large-scale coal preheater prototype in the CBTF with non-caking PRB coal. Additional pilot-scale tests were conducted in the PSCF in support of developing a preheating system design suitable for use with caking coals. Thirty-two additional pilot tests were conducted during the quarter with caking coal. These tests further evaluated the use of the air-bleed and indirect air-cooled liner designs to reduce or eliminate combustor plugging with caking coal. The air-bleed configurations tested used air injection holes perpendicular to the liner's longitudinal axis with the number, size and air flow though the air-bleed holes varied to determine the effect on combustor plugging. The indirect cooling configurations tested included a stainless steel liner with spiral fins in the annular space between the liner and the combustor wall, and a silicon carbide liner without fins. Continuous pilot operation was maintained for up to 30 minutes at a coal feed rate of 50 lb/h with the air-bleed liner. The best result achieved was for the stainless steel indirect air-cooled liner with 20 minutes of continuous operation at 126 lb/h of coal followed by an additional 20 minutes at 150 lb/h. The NOx results from these continue to indicate that even greater NOx reduction is possible with caking coal than with the PRB coal tested. The installation of the large-scale prototype coal preheater for PRB testing in the CBTF was completed and shakedown testing with natural gas and PRB coal started during the quarter. Stable operation of the coal system, combustor and burner were achieved at coal feed rates up to 6000 lb/h (50 MMBtu/h).

Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

264

An Analysis of PM and NOx Train Emissions in the Alameda Corridor, CA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environment. Estimation of Nitrogen Dioxide Concentrationsmatter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide - Globalnitrate particles and nitrogen dioxide can reduce visibility

Sangkapichai, Mana; Saphores, Jean-Daniel M; Ritchie, Stephen G.; You, Soyoung Iris; Lee, Gunwoo

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Safety considerations for the use of sulfur in sulfur-modified pavement materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the surround1ng environment. As sulfur-modified paving materials were being developed, there was a corresponding concern for studying the amounts of gaseous emiss1ons that were generated. The Texas Trans- portat1on Inst1tute (TTI) was one of the first... organizations in the United States to become 1nvolved in the research and development of sulfur-modified pavements, Throughout 1ts laboratory stud1es TTI cont1nually mon1tored hydrogen sulf1de (H25) and sulfur d1oxide (502) em1ssions produced during mix...

Jacobs, Carolyn Yuriko

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

266

Policy Analysis Changing Trends in Sulfur Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

global warming, but this warming effect could be partially offset by reductions in the emissions of black , A N D H I R O M A S A U E D A # Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research, The University,present,andfuturelevelsofsulfurdeposition and ambient levels of SO2 and sulfate aerosol is central to the evaluation of risks to ecosystems and human

Jacobson, Mark

267

Development of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

for increased sulfur loading Cathode Anode Investigatingoptimizing Li and Si composite anodes Exploring polymer electrolytes Electrolyte Determining new...

268

Time and location differentiated NOX control in competitive electricity markets using cap-and-trade mechanisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Due to variations in weather and atmospheric chemistry, the timing and location of nitrogen oxide (NOX) reductions determine their effectiveness in reducing ground-level ozone, which adversely impacts human health. Electric ...

Martin, Katherine C.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

APBF-DEC Light-duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

emission standards, the goal of this project is Tier 2 - BIN 5 limits of 0.07 gmi NOx and 0.01 gmi PM. Additionally, HC and CO emissions standards must be met....

270

Non-thermal plasma-assisted NOx reduction over Na-Y zeolites...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

investigated in the non-thermal plasma assisted NOx reduction reaction using a simulated diesel engine exhaust gas mixture. The acid sites were formed by NH4+ ion exchange and...

271

APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: SUV/Pick-Up Platform  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Status Principal Investigators: Cynthia Webb Phillip Weber DEER August 25, 2003 APBF-DEC NOx AdsorberDPF Project: SUVPick-Up Platform Program Goals Objectives Light-Duty SUV ...

272

A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Alternative Ozone Control Strategies: Flexible Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Abatement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Abatement from Power Plants in the Eastern United States by Lin Sun B.S. Chemistry, Peking University, China: Flexible Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Abatement from Power Plants in the Eastern United States by Lin Sun Submitted

273

Water-induced morphology changes in BaO/?-Al2O3 NOx storage...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

materials: an FTIR, TPD, and time-resolved synchrotron XRD Water-induced morphology changes in BaO?-Al2O3 NOx storage materials: an FTIR, TPD, and time-resolved synchrotron...

274

NH3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Gasoline Emissions Control: NH 3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx Traps Todd J. Toops, James E. Parks II and Josh A. Pihl Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

275

Simultaneously Low-Engine-Out NOx and PM with Highly Diluted...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Simultaneous Low-Engine-Out NOx and PM with Highly Diluted Diesel Combustion Robert M. Wagner, Johney B. Green, Thang Q. Dam, K. Dean Edwards, John M. Storey Oak Ridge National...

276

Consequences of propene and propane on plasma remediation of NOx Rajesh Doraia)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Consequences of propene and propane on plasma remediation of NOx Rajesh Doraia) Department exhausts with hydrocarbons propane (C3H8) and propene (C3H6) has been investigated. In general

Kushner, Mark

277

Posting type Advisory update Subject Inconstant bias in XRF sulfur  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Posting type Advisory update Subject Inconstant bias in XRF sulfur Module/Species A/ S Sites entire attention to observable discontinuities in XRF sulfur data. Shifts in the sulfur/sulfate ratio during 2003-4 were shown to coincide with recalibrations of the XRF system and to correlate with other XRF biases

Fischer, Emily V.

278

Short communication Influence of molybdenum and sulfur on copper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Short communication Influence of molybdenum and sulfur on copper metabolism in sheep: comparison of molybdenum able to trigger the copper sulfur molybdenum interference in sheep was measured with either only) and 4 increasing molybdenum doses. The sulfur-molybdenum-copper interference was quantified

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

279

Clean Air Interstate Rule (released in AEO2009)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) is a cap-and-trade program promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency in 2005, covering 28 eastern U.S. states and the District of Columbia. It was designed to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions in order to help states meet their National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and particulate matter (PM2.5) and to further emissions reductions already achieved through the Acid Rain Program and the NOx State Implementation Plan call program. The rule was set to commence in 2009 for seasonal and annual NOx emissions and in 2010 for SO2 emissions.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases: high calcium fly-ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present disclosure relates to improved processes for treating hot sulfur-containing flue gas to remove sulfur therefrom. Processes in accordance with the present invention include preparing an aqueous slurry composed of a calcium alkali source and a source of reactive silica and/or alumina, heating the slurry to above-ambient temperatures for a period of time in order to facilitate the formation of sulfur-absorbing calcium silicates or aluminates, and treating the gas with the heat-treated slurry components. Examples disclosed herein demonstrate the utility of these processes in achieving improved sulfur-absorbing capabilities. Additionally, disclosure is provided which illustrates preferred configurations for employing the present processes both as a dry sorbent injection and for use in conjunction with a spray dryer and/or bagfilter. Retrofit application to existing systems is also addressed.

Rochelle, Gary T. (Austin, TX); Chang, John C. S. (Cary, NC)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox so2 sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Method to prevent sulfur accumulation in membrane electrode assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of operating a hybrid sulfur electrolyzer to generate hydrogen is provided that includes the steps of providing an anolyte with a concentration of sulfur dioxide, and applying a current. During steady state generation of hydrogen a plot of applied current density versus concentration of sulfur dioxide is below a boundary line. The boundary line may be linear and extend through the origin of the graph with a slope of 0.001 in which the current density is measured in mA/cm2 and the concentration of sulfur dioxide is measured in moles of sulfur dioxide per liter of anolyte.

Steimke, John L; Steeper, Timothy J; Herman, David T

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

282

Release of Ammonium and Mercury from NOx Controlled Fly Ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the goals of the Department of Energy is to increase the reuse of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) to 50% by 2010. This will require both developing new markets and maintaining traditional ones such as the use of fly ash in concrete. However, the addition of pollution control devices can introduce side-effects that affect the marketability of the CUB. Such can be the case when NOx control is achieved using selective catalytic or non-catalytic reduction (SCR or SNCR). Depending on site-specific details, the ammonia slip can cause elevated levels of NH3 in the fly ash. Disposal of ammoniated fly ash can present environmental concerns related to the amount of ammonia that might be released, the amount of water that might become contaminated, and the extent to which metals might be mobilized by the presence of the ammonia. Ammonia retained in fly ash appears to be present as either an ammonium salt or as a chemisorbed species. Mercury in the leachates correlated to neither the amount of leachable ammonium nor to the total amount of Hg in the ash. The strongest correlation was between the decreases in the amount of Hg leached with increased LOI.

Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; Kim, A.G

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Method of preparing doped oxide catalysts for lean NOx exhaust  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The lean NOx catalyst includes a substrate, an oxide support material, preferably .gamma.-alumina deposited on the substrate and a metal or metal oxide promoter or dopant introduced into the oxide support material. The metal promoters or dopants are selected from the group consisting of indium, gallium, tin, silver, germanium, gold, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chromium cerium, and vanadium, and oxides thereof, and any combinations thereof. The .gamma.-alumina preferably has a pore volume of from about 0.5 to about 2.0 cc/g; a surface area of between 80 and 350 m.sup.2 /g; an average pore size diameter of between about 3 to 30 nm; and an impurity level of less than or equal to about 0.2 weight percent. In a preferred embodiment the .gamma.-alumina is prepared by a sol-gel method, with the metal doping of the .gamma.-alumina preferably accomplished using an incipient wetness impregnation technique.

Park, Paul W.

2004-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

284

Discovery of New NOx Reduction Catalysts for CIDI Engines Using Combinatorial Techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project for the discovery of new lean reduction NOx catalysts was initiated on August 16th, 2002 and is now into its fourth year. Several materials have already been identified as NOx reduction catalysts for possible future application. NOx reduction catalysts are a critical need in the North American vehicle market since these catalysts are needed to enable both diesels and lean gasoline engines to meet the 2007-2010 emission standards. Hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a preferred technology since it requires no infrastructure changes (as may be expected for urea SCR) and most likely has the simplest engine control strategy of the three proposed NOx reduction approaches. The use of fast throughput techniques and informatics greatly enhances the possibility of discovering new NOx reduction catalysts. Using fast throughput techniques this project has already screened over 3000 new materials and evaluates hundreds of new materials a month. Evaluating such a high number of new materials puts this approach into a very different paradigm than previous discovery approaches for new NOx reduction catalysts. With so much data on materials it is necessary to use statistical techniques to identify the potential catalysts and these statistical techniques are needed to optimize compositions of the multi-component materials that are identified under the program as possible new lean NOx catalysts. Several new materials have conversions in excess of 80% at temperatures above 300 C. That is more than twice the activity of previous HC SCR materials. These materials are candidates for emission control on heavy-duty systems (i.e.; over 8500 pounds gross weight). Tests of one of the downselected materials on an engine dynamometer show NOx reductions greater than 80% under some conditions even though the net NOx reductions on the HWFET and the US06 cycles were relatively low. The program is scheduled to continue until the end of the 2006 calendar year. Work in the final year will focus on continued discovery and identity of candidate materials, and also on refining the engine operating strategies to increase NOx reduction over a full engine cycle.

Blint, Richard J

2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

285

Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By returning the desorbed, concentrated NOx into the engine intake and through the combustion chamber, a percentage of the NOx is decomposed during the combustion process. An initial study of NOx decomposition during lean-burn combustion was concluded in 2004 using a 1993 Cummins L10G 240hp natural gas engine. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio, injected NO (nitric oxide) quantity and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates of the engine. Chemical kinetic modeling results were also used to determine optimum NOx decomposition operating points and were published in the 2004 annual report. A NOx decomposition rate of 27% was measured from this engine under lean-burn conditions while the software model predicted between 35-42% NOx decomposition for similar conditions. A later technology 1998 Cummins L10G 280hp natural gas engine was procured with the assistance of Cummins Inc. to replace the previous engine used for 2005 experimental research. The new engine was equipped with an electronic fuel management system with closed-loop control that provided a more stable air/fuel ratio control and improved the repeatability of the tests. The engine was instrumented with an in-cylinder pressure measurement system and electronic controls, and was adapted to operate over a range of air/fuel ratios. The engine was connected to a newly commissioned 300hp alternating current (AC) motoring dynamometer. The second experimental campaign was performed to acquire both stoichiometric and slightly rich (0.97 lambda ratio) burn NOx decomposition rates. Effects of engine load and speed on decomposition were quantified, but Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) was not varied independently. Decomposition rates of up to 92% were demonstrated. Following recommendations at the 2004 ARES peer review meeting at Argonne National Laboratories, in-cylinder pressure was measured to calculate engine indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) changes due to NOx injections and EGR variations, and to observe conditions in the cylinder. The third experimental campaign gathered NOx decomposition data at 800, 1200 and 1800 rpm. EGR was added via an external loop, with EGR ranging from zero to the point of misfire. The air/fuel ratio was set at both stoichiometric and slightly rich conditions, and NOx decomposition rates were calculated for each set of runs. Modifications were made to the engine exhaust manifold to record individual exhaust temperatures. The three experimental campaigns have provided the data needed for a comprehensive model of NOx decomposition during the combustion process, and data have confirmed that there was no significant impact of injected NO on in-cylinder pressure. The NOx adsorption system provided by Sorbent Technologies Corp. (Twinsburg, OH), comprised a NOx adsorber, heat exchanger and a demister. These components were connected to the engine, and data were gathered to show both the adsorption of NOx from the engine, and desorption of NOx from the carbon-based sorbent material back into the engine intake, using a heated air stream. In order to quantify the NOx adsorption/desorption characteristics of the sorbent material, a bench top adsorption system was constructed and instrumented with thermocouples and the system output was fed into a NOx analyzer. The temperature of this apparatus was controlled while gathering data on the characteristics of the sorbent material. These data were required for development of a system model. Preliminary data were gathered in 2005, and will continue in early 2006. To assess the economic benefits of the proposed SNR technology the WVU research team has been joined in the last quarter by Dr Richard Turton (WVU-Chemical Engineering), who is modeling, sizing and costing the major components. The tasks will address modeling and preliminary design of the heat exchanger, demister and NOx sorbent chamber s

Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Richard Turton; Chamila Tissera; Emre Tatli; Andy Zimmerman

2005-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

286

Cyclone Boiler Field Testing of Advanced Layered NOx Control Technology in Sioux Unit 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A four week testing program was completed during this project to assess the ability of the combination of deep staging, Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) to reduce NOx emissions below 0.15 lb/MBtu in a cyclone fired boiler. The host site for the tests was AmerenUE's Sioux Unit 1, a 500 MW cyclone fired boiler located near St. Louis, MO. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team including AmerenUE, FuelTech Inc., and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). This layered approach to NOx reduction is termed the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA). Installed RRI and SNCR port locations were guided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based modeling conducted by REI. During the parametric testing, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were achieved consistently from overfire air (OFA)-only baseline NOx emissions of 0.25 lb/MBtu or less, when firing the typical 80/20 fuel blend of Powder River Basin (PRB) and Illinois No.6 coals. From OFA-only baseline levels of 0.20 lb/MBtu, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were also achieved, but at significantly reduced urea flow rates. Under the deeply staged conditions that were tested, RRI performance was observed to degrade as higher blends of Illinois No.6 were used. NOx emissions achieved with ALTA while firing a 60/40 blend were approximately 0.15 lb/MBtu. NOx emissions while firing 100% Illinois No.6 were approximately 0.165 lb/MBtu. Based on the performance results of these tests, economics analyses of the application of ALTA to a nominal 500 MW cyclone unit show that the levelized cost to achieve 0.15 lb/MBtu is well below 75% of the cost of a state of the art SCR.

Marc A. Cremer; Bradley R. Adams

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

287

Sulfur dioxide removal by enhanced electrostatics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The economic removal of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) still represents a significant technical challenge which could determine the use of certain types of fossil fuels for energy production. This paper will present the preliminary results of an innovative research project utilizing a low-cost wet electrostatic precipitator to remove sulfur dioxide. There are many aspects for gas removal in an electrostatic precipitator which are not currently being used. This project utilizes electron attachment of free electrons onto gas molecules and ozone generation to remove sulfur dioxide which is a typical flue gas pollutant. This research was conducted on a bench-scale, wet electrostatic precipitator. A direct-current negative discharge corona is used to generate the ozone in-situ. This ozone will be used to oxidize SO{sub 2} to form sulfuric acid, which is very soluble in water. However, it is believed that the primary removal mechanism is electron attachment of the free electrons from the corona which force the SO{sub 2} to go to equilibrium with the water and be removed from the gas stream. Forcing the equilibrium has been shown to achieve removal efficiencies of up to 70%. The bench scale unit has been designed to operate wet or dry, positive and negative for comparison purposes. The applied dc voltage is variable from 0 to 100 kV, the flow rate is a nominal 7 m{sup 3}/hr and the collecting electrode area is 0.20 m{sup 2}. Tests are conducted on a simulated flue gas stream with SO{sub 2} ranging from 0 to 4,000 ppmv. This paper presents the results of tests conducted to determine the effect of operating conditions on removal efficiency. The removal efficiency was found to vary with gas residence time, water flow rate, inlet concentration, applied power, and the use of corona pulsing.

Larkin, K.; Tseng, C.; Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

288

Development of the Hybrid Sulfur Thermochemical Cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The production of hydrogen via the thermochemical splitting of water is being considered as a primary means for utilizing the heat from advanced nuclear reactors to provide fuel for a hydrogen economy. The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process is one of the baseline candidates identified by the U.S. Department of Energy [1] for this purpose. The HyS Process is a two-step hybrid thermochemical cycle that only involves sulfur, oxygen and hydrogen compounds. Recent work has resulted in an improved process design with a calculated overall thermal efficiency (nuclear heat to hydrogen, higher heating value basis) approaching 50%. Economic analyses indicate that a nuclear hydrogen plant employing the HyS Process in conjunction with an advanced gas-cooled nuclear reactor system can produce hydrogen at competitive prices. Experimental work has begun on the sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer, the major developmental component in the cycle. Proof-of-concept tests have established proton-exchange-membrane cells (a state-of-the-art technology) as a viable approach for conducting this reaction. This is expected to lead to more efficient and economical cell designs than were previously available. Considerable development and scale-up issues remain to be resolved, but the development of a viable commercial-scale HyS Process should be feasible in time to meet the commercialization schedule for Generation IV gas-cooled nuclear reactors.

Summers, William A.; Steimke, John L

2005-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

289

Two-stage Catalytic Reduction of NOx with Hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two-stage system for the catalytic reduction of NO from lean-burn natural gas reciprocating engine exhaust is investigated. Each of the two stages uses a distinct catalyst. The first stage is oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2} and the second stage is reduction of NO{sub 2} to N{sub 2} with a hydrocarbon. The central idea is that since NO{sub 2} is a more easily reduced species than NO, it should be better able to compete with oxygen for the combustion reaction of hydrocarbon, which is a challenge in lean conditions. Early work focused on demonstrating that the N{sub 2} yield obtained when NO{sub 2} was reduced was greater than when NO was reduced. NO{sub 2} reduction catalysts were designed and silver supported on alumina (Ag/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was found to be quite active, able to achieve 95% N{sub 2} yield in 10% O{sub 2} using propane as the reducing agent. The design of a catalyst for NO oxidation was also investigated, and a Co/TiO{sub 2} catalyst prepared by sol-gel was shown to have high activity for the reaction, able to reach equilibrium conversion of 80% at 300 C at GHSV of 50,000h{sup -1}. After it was shown that NO{sub 2} could be more easily reduced to N{sub 2} than NO, the focus shifted on developing a catalyst that could use methane as the reducing agent. The Ag/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was tested and found to be inactive for NOx reduction with methane. Through iterative catalyst design, a palladium-based catalyst on a sulfated-zirconia support (Pd/SZ) was synthesized and shown to be able to selectively reduce NO{sub 2} in lean conditions using methane. Development of catalysts for the oxidation reaction also continued and higher activity, as well as stability in 10% water, was observed on a Co/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst, which reached equilibrium conversion of 94% at 250 C at the same GHSV. The Co/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst was also found to be extremely active for oxidation of CO, ethane, and propane, which could potential eliminate the need for any separate oxidation catalyst. At every stage, catalyst synthesis was guided by the insights gained through detailed characterization of the catalysts using many surface and bulk analysis techniques such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Temperature-programmed Reduction, Temperature programmed Desorption, and Diffuse Reflectance InfraRed Fourier Transform Spectroscopy as well as steady state reaction experiments. Once active catalysts for each stage had been developed, a physical mixture of the two catalysts was tested for the reduction of NO with methane in lean conditions. These experiments using a mixture of the catalysts produced N2 yields as high as 90%. In the presence of 10% water, the catalyst mixture produced 75% N{sub 2} yield, without any optimization. The dual catalyst system developed has the potential to be implemented in lean-burn natural gas engines for reducing NOx in lean exhaust as well as eliminating CO and unburned hydrocarbons without any fuel penalty or any system modifications. If funding continues, future work will focus on improving the hydrothermal stability of the system to bring the technology closer to application.

Umit S. Ozkan; Erik M. Holmgreen; Matthew M. Yung; Jonathan Halter; Joel Hiltner

2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

290

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the sixteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. During an unplanned outage, damage occurred to the electrochemical noise corrosion probes installed at the AEP Gavin plant; testing is expected to resume in August. The KEMCOP corrosion coupons were not affected by the unplanned outage; the coupons were removed and sent for analysis. BYU conducted a series of tests before the ISSR lab was relocated. Ammonia adsorption experiments provided clear evidence of the types of acidic sites present on catalyst surfaces. Data collected this quarter indicate that surface sulfation decreases Lewis acid site concentrations for all catalysts thus far studied, confirming that catalytic activity under commercial coal-based SCR conditions occurs primarily on Br{o}nsted acid sites and would be susceptible to basic impurities such as alkali and alkaline earth oxides, chlorides, and sulfates. SCR activity tests based on MS analysis showed that increasing sulfation generally increases NO reduction activity for both 0% and 1% vanadia catalysts. During this quarter, the slipstream reactor at Rockport operated for 720 hours on flue gas. Catalyst exposure time reached 4500 hours since installation. The reactor is out of service at the Rockport plant and plans are being made to move it to the Gadsden Plant. At Gadsden, modifications have begun in preparation for installation of the slipstream reactor next quarter.

Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

291

NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Preliminary results from laboratory and field tests of a corrosion probe to predict waterwall wastage indicate good agreement between the electrochemical noise corrosion rates predicted by the probe and corrosion rates measured by a surface profilometer. Four commercial manufacturers agreed to provide catalyst samples to the program. BYU has prepared two V/Ti oxide catalysts (custom, powder form) containing commercially relevant concentrations of V oxide and one containing a W oxide promoter. Two pieces of experimental apparatus being built at BYU to carry out laboratory-scale investigations of SCR catalyst deactivation are nearly completed. A decision was made to carry out the testing at full-scale power plants using a slipstream of gas instead of at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal combustor as originally planned. Design of the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor was completed during this quarter. One utility has expressed interest in hosting a long-term test at one of their plants that co-fire wood with coal. Tests to study ammonia adsorption onto fly ash have clearly established that the only routes that can play a role in binding significant amounts of ammonia to the ash surface, under practical ammonia slip conditions, are those that must involve co-adsorbates.

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

2002-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

292

Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report documents the technical results of the 3-year project entitled, Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels, funded under the NETL of DOE. The research was conducted under six main tasks: 1) program management and planning; 2) turbulent flame speed measurements of syngas mixtures; 3) laminar flame speed measurements with diluents; 4) NOx mechanism validation experiments; 5) fundamental NOx kinetics; and 6) the effect of impurities on NOx kinetics. Experiments were performed using primary constant-volume vessels for laminar and turbulent flame speeds and shock tubes for ignition delay times and species concentrations. In addition to the existing shock- tube and flame speed facilities, a new capability in measuring turbulent flame speeds was developed under this grant. Other highlights include an improved NOx kinetics mechanism; a database on syngas blends for real fuel mixtures with and without impurities; an improved hydrogen sulfide mechanism; an improved ammonia kintics mechanism; laminar flame speed data at high pressures with water addition; and the development of an inexpensive absorption spectroscopy diagnostic for shock-tube measurements of OH time histories. The Project Results for this work can be divided into 13 major sections, which form the basis of this report. These 13 topics are divided into the five areas: 1) laminar flame speeds; 2) Nitrogen Oxide and Ammonia chemical kinetics; 3) syngas impurities chemical kinetics; 4) turbulent flame speeds; and 5) OH absorption measurements for chemical kinetics.

Peterson, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankat; Plichta, Drew; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Camou, Alejandro; Aul, Christopher

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

293

Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

Najjar, Mitri S. (Hopewell Junction, NY); Corbeels, Roger J. (Wappingers Falls, NY); Kokturk, Uygur (Wappingers Falls, NY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Exhaust gas fuel reforming of Diesel fuel by non-thermal arc discharge for NOx trap regeneration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Exhaust gas fuel reforming of Diesel fuel by non- thermal arc discharge for NOx trap regeneration to the reforming of Diesel fuel with Diesel engine exhaust gas using a non-thermal plasma torch for NOx trap Diesel fuel reforming with hal-00617141,version1-17May2013 Author manuscript, published in "Energy

Boyer, Edmond

295

Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Coal-Fired Power Plant NOx: Influence of Emission Controls and Implications for Global Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Coal-Fired Power Plant NOx: Influence of Emission Controls from coal-fired power plants in the U.S. at typical operating conditions with and without the presence this, a novel method for collection and isotopic analysis of coal-fired stack NOx emission samples

Elliott, Emily M.

296

Analyses of sulfur-asphalt field trials in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

128 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGF Layout of SNPA sulfur bitumen binder pavem nt test ? U. S. Highway 69, Lufkin, Texas 15 Col 1oi d mi 1 1 furnished by SNPA for preparation of sul fur-asphalt emulsions View of mixing station showing sulfur... designed to investigate the advantage of using a colloid mill to prepare sulfur-asphalt binders as compared to comingling the asphalt and molten sulfur in a pipeline leading directly to the pug mill. After only six months of testing, the results...

Newcomb, David Edward

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of long cycle-life in half cells and expand the synthesis of sulfurcarbon composite materials of various sulfur loadings 2. Compare the performance for different...

298

Fundamental Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry PI: Nitash Balsara LBNL June 17, 2014 Project ID ESS224 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise...

299

LARGE-SCALE MEASUREMENT OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE SULFUR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dispersive x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Concentrationsvalida- tion studies of XRF measurements have establishedelemental sulfur measurement by XRF can be closely related

Loo, B.W.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Project Profile: Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Related Links FAQs Contact Us Offices You are here Home Concentrating Solar Power Project Profile: Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox so2 sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

SULFUR-TOLERANT CATALYST FOR THE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??JP-8 fuel is easily accessible, transportable, and has hydrogen content essential to solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operation. However, this syngas has sulfur content which (more)

Bozeman, Joe Frank, III

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

NONE

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product.

Narain, Nand K. (Bethel Park, PA); Ruether, John A. (McMurray, PA); Smith, Dennis N. (Herminie, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product. 2 figs.

Narain, N.K.; Ruether, J.A.; Smith, D.N.

1987-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

305

Correlation for the total sulfur content in char after devolatilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall process of coal combustion takes place in two successive steps: devolatilization and char combustion. The fate of sulfur during the devolatilization of coal of different rank was investigated. The significance of the investigation is in fact that a major part of sulfur release occurs during devolatilization of coal, (i.e., emission of sulfur oxides during combustion of coal largely depends on sulfur release during devolatilization). The experimental investigations were conducted to obtain the data about the quantitative relation between sulfur content in the coal and sulfur content in the char. Standard procedures were used for obtaining the chars in a laboratory oven and determining the sulfur forms in the coal and char samples. The experiments were done with ground coal samples ({lt}0.2 mm), at the temperatures in the range of 500-1000{sup o}C. We showed that the amount of sulfur remaining in the char decreases, but not significantly in the temperature range 600-900{sup o}C. On the basis of the theoretical consideration of behavior of sulfur forms during devolatilization, certain simplifying assumptions, and obtained experimental data, we propose two correlations to associate the content of sulfur in the coal and in the char. The correlations are based on the results of the proximate analysis and sulfur forms in coal. Good agreement was found when the proposed correlations were compared with the experimental results obtained for investigated coals. Moreover, the correlations were verified by results found in the literature for numerous Polish, Albanian, and Turkish coals. Significant correlations (P {lt}0.05) between observed and calculated data with correlation coefficient, R {gt}0.9, were noticed in the case of all coals. 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Vasilije Manovic; Borislav Grubor [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia & Montenegro)

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

The NOx system in nuclear waste. 1997 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

'The authors highlight their results from the title project. The project is a coordinated effort of the three Co-PIs to assist the Safety Programs at the Hanford and other DOE Environmental Management Sites. The authors present in the report their observations and interactively discuss their implications for safety concerns. They focus on three issues: (1) Reducing radicals in the NOx system The authors show that the only reducing radical that lasts longer than a few ns in typical waste solutions, and is capable of generating hydrogen, is NO{sub 3}{sup 2-}. The authors measured the lifetime of this species across the whole pH range (3 {le} pH {le} 14) and found it to be shorter than -15 \\265s, before it dissociates to give the strongly oxidizing NO, radicals. They found that it reacts with many proton donors (H{sup +}, phosphate, borate, NH{prime}, amines) in a reaction that is not merely an acid-base equilibrium reaction but is probably a dissociative proton transfer. They estimate the redox potential from theoretical considerations and obtain an experimental verification. They conclude that it is highly unlikely, although thermodynamically possible, that this radi-cal will generate hydrogen in waste solutions. (2) Aging of organic chelators and their degradation products by NO, Methodologies to study the degradation of organic substrates (including the important waste components, formate and oxalate) to CO;, or carbonate, by NO, were developed. This radical dimerizes and disproportionates to nitrate and nitrite. Therefore, mineraliza-tion of the organic substrates competes with the disproportionation of NO,. Among the organic substrates, formate and oxalate are also mineralized but because they are of low fuel value their mineralization is not very helpful, yet it consumes NO,. (3) Interfacial processes in aqueous suspensions Yields of charge transfer from solid silica particles to water and other liquids were meas-ured. If the particles are small enough, essentially all of the charge that is originally depos-ited in the solid escapes into the liquid. This implies that the solid/liquid interface does not provide a significant barrier to the transfer of charges into the solution when the particles are very small (I 20 nm). Electrons may reach the liquid and generate hydrogen, for example. On the other hand, the same mechanism may also provide a pathway for oxidative aging of organics by holes even when the organic is dissolved in the liquid or adsorbed on the solid surface. The authors have started to study reactions of NO,. Methodology and instrumentation to measure reactions of relevant organic radicals with NO, and with its parent NO, were developed. Because of low extinction coefficients, conductivity will be the method of choice.'

Meisel, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US). Chemistry Div.; Camaioni, D.; Orlando, T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (US)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Small, Inexpensive Combined NOx and O2 Sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been successfully demonstrated in this program that a zirconia multilayer structure with rhodium-based porous electrodes performs well as an amperometric NO{sub x} sensor. The sensitivity of the sensor bodies operating at 650 to 700 C is large, with demonstrated current outputs of 14 mA at 500 ppm NO{sub x} from sensors with 30 layers. The sensor bodies are small (4.5 x 4.2 x 3.1 mm), rugged, and inexpensive. It is projected the sensor bodies will cost $5-$10 in production. This program has built on another successful development program for an oxygen sensor based on the same principles and sponsored by DOE. This oxygen sensor is not sensitive to NO{sub x}. A significant technical hurdle has been identified and solved. It was found that the 100% Rh electrodes oxidize rapidly at the preferred operating temperatures of 650-700 C, and this oxidation is accompanied by a volume change which delaminates the sensors. The problem was solved by using alloys of Rh and Pt. It was found that a 10%/90% Rh/Pt alloy dropped the oxidation rate of the electrodes by orders of magnitude without degrading the NO{sub x} sensitivity of the sensors, allowing long-term stable operation at the preferred operating temperatures. Degradation in the sensor output caused by temperature cycling was identified as a change in resistance at the junction between the sensor body and the external leads attached to the sensor body. The degradation was eliminated by providing strong mechanical anchors for the wire and processing the junctions to obtain good electrical bonds. The NO{sub x} sensors also detect oxygen and therefore the fully-packaged sensor needs to be enclosed with an oxygen sensor in a small, heated zirconia chamber exposed to test gas through a diffusion plug which limits the flow of gas from the outside. Oxygen is pumped from the interior of the chamber to lower the oxygen content and the combination of measurements from the NO{sub x} and oxygen sensors yields the NO{sub x} content of the gas. Two types of electronic control units were designed and built. One control unit provides independent constant voltages to the NOx and oxygen sensors and reads the current from them (that is, detects the amount of test gas present). The second controller holds the fully-assembled sensor at the desired operating temperature and controllably pumps excess oxygen from the test chamber. While the development of the sensor body was a complete success, the development of the packaging was only partially successful. All of the basic principles were demonstrated, but the packaging was too complex to optimize the operation within the resources of the program. Thus, no fully-assembled sensors were sent to outside labs for testing of cross-sensitivities, response times, etc. Near the end of the program, Sensata Technologies of Attleboro, MA tested the sensor bodies and confirmed the CeramPhysics measurements as indicated in the following attached letter. Sensata was in the process of designing their own packaging for the sensor and performing cross-sensitivity tests when they stopped all sensor development work due to the automotive industry downturn. Recently Ceramatec Inc. of Salt Lake City has expressed an interest in testing the sensor, and other licensing opportunities are being pursued.

W. Lawless; C. Clark

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Distribution and origin of sulfur in Colorado oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sulfur content of 1,225 samples of Green River oil shale from two core holes in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado, ranges from nearly 0 to 4.9 weight percent. In one core hole, the average sulfur content of a sequence of oil shale 555 m thick, which represents nearly the maximum thickness of oil shale in the basin, is 0.76 weight percent. The vertical distribution of sulfur through the oil shale is cyclic. As many as 25 sulfur cycles have lateral continuity and can be traced between the core holes. Most of the sulfur resides in iron sulfides (pyrite, marcasite, and minor. pyrrhotite), and small amounts are organically bound in kerogen. In general, the concentration of sulfur correlates moderately with oil shale yield, but the degree of association ranges from quite high in the upper 90 m of the oil shale sequence to low or none in the leached zone and in illitic oil shale in the lower part of the sequence. Sulfur also correlates moderately with iron in the carbonate oil shale sequence, but no correlation was found in the illitic samples. Sulfide mineralization is believed to have occurred during early and late stages of diagenesis, and after lithification, during development of the leached zone. Significant amounts of iron found in ankeritic dolomite and in illite probably account for the lack of a strong correlation between sulfur and iron.

Dyni, J.R.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

Moore, Robert (Edgewood, NM); Pickard, Paul S. (Albuquerque, NM); Parma, Jr., Edward J. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, Milton E. (Albuquerque, NM); Gelbard, Fred (Albuquerque, NM); Lenard, Roger X. (Edgewood, NM)

2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

310

Process for removing pyritic sulfur from bituminous coals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is provided for removing pyritic sulfur and lowering ash content of bituminous coals by grinding the feed coal, subjecting it to micro-agglomeration with a bridging liquid containing heavy oil, separating the microagglomerates and separating them to a water wash to remove suspended pyritic sulfur. In one embodiment the coal is subjected to a second micro-agglomeration step.

Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Janiak, Jerzy S. (Edmonton, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw L. (Edmonton, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Vivek Shankar Bharadwaj 521, 16th St., Apt #6, Golden CO, 80401 | 720-878-5671 | vbharadw@mines.edu | http://inside.mines.edu/~vbharadw  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited Visakh Petroleum Refinery 2008 ­ 2010 Process Engineer Responsible improvements to the refinery's 3 Claus Sulfur Recovery Units (capacity of 65 TPD each). Monitoring and suggesting proactive measures to reduce refinery emissions with respect to hydrocarbons, SO2, CO, NOx

312

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

clean-coal technologies such as SO2 Control Systems, NOx Control Technology, Fluidized Bed Combustion Project Manager, Illinois Clean Coal Institute, 5776 Coal Drive, Suite 200, Carterville, IL 62918-sulfur coal. Ponded ash is usually a mixture of fly ash and bottom ash or boiler slag. Concrete was made

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

313

Spatially Differentiated Trade of Permits for Multipollutant Electric Power Supply Chains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

regulations to control multiple pollutants. The Regional Clean Air Incentives Market (RECLAIM) program). Berlin, Germany: Springer, in press. 1 Introduction Electric power plants emit several different air pollutants, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrous oxide (NOx), and mercury (Hg

Nagurney, Anna

314

Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 27792787 First detection of nitrogen from NOx in tree rings: a 15  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

abies; Air pollution; Dendroecology; Nitrogen deposition; Stable isotopes; Nitrogen dioxide 1Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 2779­2787 First detection of nitrogen from NOx in tree rings 2004; accepted 27 February 2004 Abstract Nitrogen isotope analysis (d15 N) of tree rings is potentially

315

tive emissions from EVs (e.g., power plant NOx) and GPVs (tailpipe and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a few sluggish electric vehicles would cause enough traffic slowing that the gasoline- powered fleet Analy- sis article on battery-powered vehicles (Sept. 1996, p. 402A) serves as a useful remindertive emissions from EVs (e.g., power plant NOx) and GPVs (tailpipe and associated NO.,. emissions

Denver, University of

316

Observation of NOx enhancement and ozone depletion in the Northern and Southern  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Clarmann, G. P. Stiller, M. Ho¨pfner, S. Kellmann, and H. Fischer Institut fu¨r Meteorologie und Clarmann, G. P. Stiller, M. Ho¨pfner, S. Kellmann, H. Fischer, and C. H. Jackman (2005), Observation of NOx

Jackman, Charles H.

317

Interaction between soot particles and NOx during dielectric barrier discharge plasma remediation of simulated diesel exhaust  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of simulated diesel exhaust Rajesh Doraia) University of Illinois, Department of Chemical Engineering, 1406 from combustion effluent and from diesel exhausts in particular. Soot particles are inevitably present, a computational investigation of the effect of soot on the plasma chemistry of NOx removal in a simulated diesel

Kushner, Mark

318

A Numerical Investigation into the Anomalous Slight NOx Increase when Burning Biodiesel: A New (Old) Theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biodiesel is a notable alternative to petroleum derived diesel fuel because it comes from natural domestic sources and thus reduces dependence on diminishing petroleum fuel from foreign sources, it likely lowers lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, and it lowers an engine's emission of most pollutants as compared to petroleum derived diesel. However, the use of biodiesel often slightly increases a diesel engine's emission of smog forming nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) relative to petroleum diesel. In this paper, previously proposed theories for this slight NOx increase are reviewed, including theories based on biodiesel's cetane number, which leads to differing amounts of charge preheating, and theories based on the fuel's bulk modulus, which affects injection timing. This paper proposes an additional theory for the slight NO{sub x} increase of biodiesel. Biodiesel typically contains more double bonded molecules than petroleum derived diesel. These double bonded molecules have a slightly higher adiabatic flame temperature, which leads to the increase in NOx production for biodiesel. Our theory was verified using numerical simulations to show a NOx increase, due to the double bonded molecules, that is consistent with observation. Further, the details of these numerical simulations show that NOx is predominantly due to the Zeldovich mechanism.

Ban-Weiss, G A; Chen, J Y; Buchholz, B A; Dibble, R W

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

319

NOx-Mediated Homogeneous Pathways for the Synthesis of Formaldehyde from CH4-O2 Mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CH4 conversion, because weaker C-H bonds in HCHO and CH3OH relative to CH4 lead to their fast that the O2 distribution along a reactor will not improve HCHO yields but may prove useful to inhibit NOx losses to less reactive N-compounds. 1. Introduction The practical conversion of remote natural gas

Iglesia, Enrique

320

The effect of reformate gas enrichment on extinction limits and NOX formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

premixed combustion. When the reformate gas is added, the formation of NO is reduced in a near advantage of the reformate gas enriched lean premixed combustion is that it greatly reduces the formation combustion; Fuel enrichment; NOX; Extinction limit; Reformate gas 1. Introduction Lean premixed combustion

Gülder, ?mer L.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox so2 sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Procedure to Calculate NOx Reductions Using the Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (E-Grid) Spreadsheet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy savings in the American Electric Power West/PCA(Table 7). This was input in the last row of the American Electric Power West/PCA column in Table 9. Then, the NOx emissions reductions due to the energy savings by county were calculated as shown...

Haberl, J. S.; Im, P.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Verdict, M.; Turner, W. D.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

NOx reduction with the use of feedlot biomass as a reburn fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Additional air called overfire air (about 20 % of total air) is injected in order to complete combustion. Typically reburn fuel is natural gas (NG). From previous research at TAMU, it was found that firing feedlot biomass (FB) as reburn fuel lowers the NOx...

Goughnour, Paul Gordon

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

323

Latest developments and application of DB Riley's low NOx CCV{reg{underscore}sign} burner technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent developments in DB Riley (DBR) low NOx burner technology and the application of this technology in coal fired utility boilers are discussed. Since the promulgation of the Clean Air Act Amendment in 1990, DBR has sold nearly 1,500 Controlled Combustion Venturi (CCV{reg{underscore}sign}) burners on pulverized coal fired utility boilers reducing NOx emissions 50--70% from uncontrolled levels. This technology has been retrofitted on boiler designs ranging in size and type from 50 MW front wall fired boilers to 1,300 MW opposed fired cell type boilers. In DBR's latest version of the CCV{reg{underscore}sign} burner, a second controlled flow air zone was added to enhance NOx control capability. Other developments included improved burner air flow measurement accuracy and several mechanical design upgrades such as new coal spreader designs for 3 year wear life. Test results of the CCV{reg{underscore}sign} dual air zone burner in DBR's 100 million Btu/hr (29 MW) coal burner test facility are presented. In the test program, coals from four utility boiler sites were fired to provide a range of coal properties. A baseline high volatile bituminous coal was also fired to provide a comparison with 1992 test data for the CCV{reg{underscore}sign} single register burner. The tests results showed that the second air zone enhanced NOx reduction capability by an additional 20% over the single register design. Computational fluid dynamic (DFD) modeling results of the CCV{reg{underscore}sign} dual air zone burner are also presented showing near field mixing patterns conducive to low NOx firing. DBR was recently awarded Phase IV of the Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) program by the US Department of Energy to build a proof of concept facility representing the next major advancement in pulverized coal burning technology. A key part of winning that award were test results of the CCV{reg{underscore}sign} dual air zone burner with advanced air staging and coal reburning in a 100 million Btu/hr (20 MW) U-fired slagging combustor test facility. These results showed NOx emissions of less than 0.2 lb/million Btu (0.086 g/MJ) while converting the coal ash into an inert, non-leachable solid. This results is an 80% reduction in NOx emissions from currently operating U-fired slagging boilers.

Penterson, C.; Ake, T.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Metal-sulfur type cell having improved positive electrode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An novel metal-sulfur type cell operable at a temperature of 200.degree. C. or less with an energy density of 150 Whrs/Kg or better is disclosed characterized by an organo-sulfur cathode formed from an organic-sulfur compound having the general formula, in its charged state, of (R(S).sub.y).sub.n wherein y=1 to 6; n=2 to 20; and R is one or more different aliphatic or aromatic organic moieties having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, which may include one or more oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen heteroatoms when R comprisises one of more aromatic rings, or one or more oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, or fluorine atoms associtated with the chain when R comprises an aliphatic chain, wherein the aliphatic group may be linear or branched, saturated or unsaturated, and wherein either the aliphatic chain or the aromatic ring may have substituted groups thereon.

Dejonghe, Lutgard C. (Berkeley, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Mailhe, Catherine C. (Berkeley, CA); Armand, Michel B. (St. Martin D'Uriage, FR)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...

326

E-Print Network 3.0 - amoco sulfur recovery process Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Medicine 80 Sulfur and oxygen isotope composition of the atmosphere in Saxony (Germany) Tichomirowa et al. Summary: ? a) Mixing processes 12;Sulfur and oxygen isotope...

327

High-sulfur coals in the eastern Kentucky coal field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Eastern Kentucky coal field is notable for relatively low-sulfur, [open quotes]compliance[close quotes] coals. Virtually all of the major coals in this area do have regions in which higher sulfur lithotypes are common, if not dominant, within the lithologic profile. Three Middle Pennsylvanian coals, each representing a major resource, exemplify this. The Clintwood coal bed is the stratigraphically lowest coal bed mined throughout the coal field. In Whitley County, the sulfur content increase from 0.6% at the base to nearly 12% in the top lithotype. Pyrite in the high-sulfur lithotype is a complex mixture of sub- to few-micron syngenetic forms and massive epigenetic growths. The stratigraphically higher Pond Creek coal bed is extensively mined in portions of the coal field. Although generally low in sulfur, in northern Pike and southern Martin counties the top one-third can have up to 6% sulfur. Uniformly low-sulfur profiles can occur within a few hundred meters of high-sulfur coal. Pyrite occurs as 10-50 [mu]m euhedra and coarser massive forms. In this case, sulfur distribution may have been controlled by sandstone channels in the overlying sediments. High-sulfur zones in the lower bench of the Fire Clay coal bed, the stratigraphically highest coal bed considered here, are more problematical. The lower bench, which is of highly variable thickness and quality, generally is overlain by a kaolinitic flint clay, the consequence of a volcanic ash fall into the peat swamp. In southern Perry and Letcher counties, a black, illite-chlorite clay directly overlies the lower bench. General lack of lateral continuity of lithotypes in the lower bench suggests that the precursor swamp consisted of discontinuous peat-forming environments that were spatially variable and regularly inundated by sediments. Some of the peat-forming areas may have been marshlike in character.

Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M. (Univ. of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)); Eble, C.F. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States))

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Babcock and Wilcox`s (B and W) SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} process effectively removes SOx, NOx and particulate (Rox) from flue gas generated from coal-fired boilers in a single unit operation, a high temperature baghouse. The SNRB technology utilizes dry sorbent injection upstream of the baghouse for removal of SOx and ammonia injection upstream of a zeolitic selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst incorporated in the baghouse to reduce NOx emissions. Because the SOx and NOx removal processes require operation at elevated gas temperatures (800--900 F) for high removal efficiency, high-temperature fabric filter bags are used in the baghouse. The SNRB technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B and W tested the SNRB pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R.E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B and W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB process. The SNRB facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993. About 2,300 hours of high-temperature operation were achieved. The main emissions control performance goals of: greater than 70% SO{sub 2} removal using a calcium-based sorbent; greater than 90% NOx removal with minimal ammonia slip; and particulate emissions in compliance with the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) of 0.03 lb/million Btu were exceeded simultaneously in the demonstration program when the facility was operated at optimal conditions. Testing also showed significant reductions in emissions of some hazardous air pollutants.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Molecular Structures of Polymer/Sulfur Composites for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Long Cycle Life  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vulcanizedpolyaniline/sulfur (SPANI/S) nanostructures were investigated for Li-S battery applications, but the detailed molecular structures of such composites have not been fully illustrated. In this paper, we synthesize SPANI/S composites with different S content in a nanorod configuration. FTIR, Raman, XPS, XRD, SEM and elemental analysis methods are used to characterize the molecular structure of the materials. We provide clear evidence that a portion of S was grafted on PANI during heating and connected the PANI chains with disulfide bonds to form a crosslinked network and the rest of S was encapsulated within it.. Polysulfides and elementary sulfur nanoparticles are physically trapped inside the polymer network and are not chemically bound to the polymer. The performance of the composites is further improved by reducing the particle size. Even after 500 cycles a capacity retention rate of 68.8% is observed in the SPANI/S composite with 55% S content.

Xiao, Lifen; Cao, Yuliang; Xiao, Jie; Schwenzer, Birgit; Engelhard, Mark H.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Nie, Zimin; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Liu, Jun

2013-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

330

Autothermal reforming of sulfur-free and sulfur-containing hydrocarbon liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mechanisms by which various fuel component hydrocarbons related to both heavy petroleum and coal-derived liquids are converted to hydrogen without forming carbon were investigated. Reactive differences between paraffins and aromatics in autothermal reforming (ATR) were shown to be responsible for the observed fuel-specific carbon formation characteristics. The types of carbon formed in the reformer were identified by SEM and XRD analyses of catalyst samples and carbon deposits. From tests with both light and heavy paraffins and aromatics, it is concluded that high boiling point hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatics enhance the propensity for carbon formation. The effects of propylene addition on the ATR performance of benzene are described. In ATR tests with mixtures of paraffins and aromatics, synergistic effects on conversion characteristics were identified. Indications that the sulfur content of the fuel may be the limiting factor for efficient ATR operation were found. The conversion and degradation effects of the sulfur additive (thiophene) were examined.

Not Available

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

High pressure sulfuric acid decomposition experiments for the sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of three pressurized sulfuric acid decomposition tests were performed to (1) obtain data on the fraction of sulfuric acid catalytically converted to sulfur dioxide, oxygen, and water as a function of temperature and pressure, (2) demonstrate real-time measurements of acid conversion for use as process control, (3) obtain multiple measurements of conversion as a function of temperature within a single experiment, and (4) assess rapid quenching to minimize corrosion of metallic components by undecomposed acid. All four of these objectives were successfully accomplished. This report documents the completion of the NHI milestone on high pressure H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decomposition tests for the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle project. All heated sections of the apparatus, (i.e. the boiler, decomposer, and condenser) were fabricated from Hastelloy C276. A ceramic acid injection tube and a ceramic-sheathed thermocouple were used to minimize corrosion of hot liquid acid on the boiler surfaces. Negligible fracturing of the platinum on zirconia catalyst was observed in the high temperature decomposer. Temperature measurements at the exit of the decomposer and at the entry of the condenser indicated that the hot acid vapors were rapidly quenched from about 400 C to less than 20 C within a 14 cm length of the flow path. Real-time gas flow rate measurements of the decomposition products provided a direct measurement of acid conversion. Pressure in the apparatus was preset by a pressure-relief valve that worked well at controlling the system pressure. However, these valves sometimes underwent abrupt transitions that resulted in rapidly varying gas flow rates with concomitant variations in the acid conversion fraction.

Velasquez, Carlos E; Reay, Andrew R.; Andazola, James C.; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Gelbard, Fred

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Performance and cost models for the direct sulfur recovery process. Task 1 Topical report, Volume 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to develop performance and cost models of the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). The DSRP is an emerging technology for sulfur recovery from advanced power generation technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. In IGCC systems, sulfur present in the coal is captured by gas cleanup technologies to avoid creating emissions of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere. The sulfur that is separated from the coal gas stream must be collected. Leading options for dealing with the sulfur include byproduct recovery as either sulfur or sulfuric acid. Sulfur is a preferred byproduct, because it is easier to handle and therefore does not depend as strongly upon the location of potential customers as is the case for sulfuric acid. This report describes the need for new sulfur recovery technologies.

Frey, H.C. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Williams, R.B. [Carneigie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Effect of Aging on the NOx Storage and Regeneration Characteristics of Fully Formulated Lean NOx Trap Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to elucidate the effect of washcoat composition on lean NO{sub x} trap (LNT) aging characteristics, fully formulated monolithic LNT catalysts containing varying amounts of Pt, Rh and BaO were subjected to accelerated aging on a bench reactor. Subsequent catalyst evaluation revealed that in all cases aging resulted in deterioration of the NO{sub x} conversion as a consequence of impaired NO{sub x} storage and NO{sub x} reduction functions, while increased selectivity to NH{sub 3} was observed in the temperature range 250--450 C. Elemental analysis, H{sub 2} chemisorption and TEM data revealed two main changes which account for the degradation in LNT performance. First, residual sulfur in the catalysts, associated with the Ba phase, decreased catalyst NO{sub x} storage capacity. Second, sintering of the precious metals in the washcoat occurred, resulting in decreased contact between the Pt and Ba, and hence in less efficient NO{sub x} spillover from Pt to Ba during NO{sub x} adsorption, as well as decreased rates of reductant spillover from Pt to Ba and reverse NO{sub x} spillover during catalyst regeneration. For the aged catalysts, halving the Pt loading from 100 to 50 g/ft{sup 3} was found to result in a significant decrease in overall NO{sub x} conversion, while for catalysts with the same 100 g/ft{sup 3} Pt loading, increasing the relative amount of Pt on the NO{sub x} storage components (BaO and La-stabilized CeO{sub 2}), as opposed to an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} support material (where it was co-located with Rh), was found to be beneficial. The effect of Rh loading on aged catalyst performance was found to be marginal within the range studied (10--20 g/ft{sup 3}), as was the effect of BaO loading in the range 30--45 g/L.

Ji, Yaying [University of Kentucky; Easterling, Vencon [University of Kentucky; Graham, Uschi [University of Kentucky; Fisk, Courtney [University of Kentucky; Crocker, Mark [University of Kentucky; Choi, Jae-Soon [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

The South Karelia Air Pollution Study. The effects of malodorous sulfur compounds from pulp mills on respiratory and other symptoms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper mills in South Karelia, the southeast part of Finland, are responsible for releasing a substantial amount of malodorous sulfur compounds such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH), and methyl sulfides ((CH3)2S and (CH3)2S2), into ambient air. In the most polluted residential area the annual mean concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan are estimated to be 8 and 2 to 5 micrograms/m3 and the highest daily average concentration 100 and 50 micrograms/m3. The annual mean and highest daily concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) are very low. We studied the effects of malodorous sulfur compounds on eye, nasal and respiratory symptoms, and headache in adults. A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire was distributed in February 1987 and responded to by 488 adults living in a severely (n = 198), a moderately (n = 204), and a nonpolluted community (n = 86). This included questions about occurrence of the symptoms of interest during the previous 4 wk and 12 months and individual, behavioral, and other environmental determinants of the symptoms. The response rate was 83%. The odds ratios (OR) for symptoms experienced often or constantly in severely versus nonpolluted and moderately versus nonpolluted communities were estimated in logistic regression analysis controlling potential confounders. The odds ratios for eye (moderate exposure OR 11.70, Cl95% 2.33 to 58.65; severe exposure OR 11.78, Cl95% 2.35 to 59.09) and nasal symptoms (OR 2.01, Cl95% 0.97 to 4.15; OR 2.19, Cl95% 1.06 to 4.55) and cough (OR 1.89, Cl95% 0.61 to 5.86; OR 3.06, Cl95% 1.02 to 9.29) during the previous 12 months were increased, with a dose-response pattern.

Jaakkola, J.J.; Vilkka, V.; Marttila, O.; Jaeppinen, P.H.; Haahtela, T. (South Karelia Allergy and Environment Institute, Espoo (Finland))

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

HYDROGEN GENERATION FROM PLASMATRON REFORMERS: A PROMISING TECHNOLOGY FOR NOX ADSORBER REGENERATION AND OTHER AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plasmatron reformers are being developed at MIT and ArvinMeritor [1]. In these reformers a special low power electrical discharge is used to promote partial oxidation conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into hydrogen and CO. The partial oxidation reaction of this very fuel rich mixture is difficult to initiate. The plasmatron provides continuous enhanced volume initiation. To minimize electrode erosion and electrical power requirements, a low current, high voltage discharge with wide area electrodes is used. The reformers operate at or slightly above atmospheric pressure. Plasmatron reformers provide the advantages of rapid startup and transient response; efficient conversion of the fuel to hydrogen rich gas; compact size; relaxation or elimination of reformer catalyst requirements; and capability to process difficult to reform fuels, such as diesel and bio-oils. These advantages facilitate use of onboard hydrogen-generation technology for diesel exhaust after-treatment. Plasma-enhanced reformer technology can provide substantial conversion even without the use of a catalyst. Recent progress includes a substantial decrease in electrical power consumption (to about 200 W), increased flow rate (above 1 g/s of diesel fuel corresponding to approximately 40 kW of chemical energy), soot suppression and improvements in other operational features.. Plasmatron reformer technology has been evaluated for regeneration of NOx adsorber after-treatment systems. At ArvinMeritor tests were performed on a dual-leg NOx adsorber system using a Cummins 8.3L diesel engine both in a test cell and on a vehicle. A NOx adsorber system was tested using the plasmatron reformer as a regenerator and without the reformer i.e., with straight diesel fuel based regeneration as the baseline case. The plasmatron reformer was shown to improve NOx regeneration significantly compared to the baseline diesel case. The net result of these initial tests was a significant decrease in fuel penalty, roughly 50% at moderate adsorber temperatures. This fuel penalty improvement is accompanied by a dramatic drop in slipped hydrocarbon emissions, which decreased by 90% or more. Significant advantages are demonstrated across a wide range of engine conditions and temperatures. The study also indicated the potential to regenerate NOx adsorbers at low temperatures where diesel fuel based regeneration is not effective, such as those typical of idle conditions. Two vehicles, a bus and a light duty truck, have been equipped for plasmatron reformer NOx adsorber regeneration tests.

Bromberg, L.; Crane, S; Rabinovich, A.; Kong, Y; Cohn, D; Heywood, J; Alexeev, N.; Samokhin, A.

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

336

HYBRID SULFUR CYCLE FLOWSHEETS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION USING HIGH-TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTORS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two hybrid sulfur (HyS) cycle process flowsheets intended for use with high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) are presented. The flowsheets were developed for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program, and couple a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer for the SO2-depolarized electrolysis step with a silicon carbide bayonet reactor for the high-temperature decomposition step. One presumes an HTGR reactor outlet temperature (ROT) of 950 C, the other 750 C. Performance was improved (over earlier flowsheets) by assuming that use of a more acid-tolerant PEM, like acid-doped poly[2,2'-(m-phenylene)-5,5'-bibenzimidazole] (PBI), instead of Nafion{reg_sign}, would allow higher anolyte acid concentrations. Lower ROT was accommodated by adding a direct contact exchange/quench column upstream from the bayonet reactor and dropping the decomposition pressure. Aspen Plus was used to develop material and energy balances. A net thermal efficiency of 44.0% to 47.6%, higher heating value basis is projected for the 950 C case, dropping to 39.9% for the 750 C case.

Gorensek, M.

2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

337

Sulfur Dioxide Treatment from Flue Gases Using a Biotrickling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

acid rain and adversely affect human health, livestock, and plants. Various methods exist to reduce SO2 I L I P Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, India 600 036 M A R

338

Calculation of Integrated Nox Emissions Reductions from Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Programs across State Agencies in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents an update of the integrated NOx emissions reductions calculations developed by the Energy Systems Laboratory (ESL) for the State of Texas to satisfy the reporting requirements for Senate Bill 5 of the Texas State Legislature...

Hberl, J.; Yazdani, B.; Baltazar, J. C.; Kim, H.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Zilbershtein, G.; Ellis, S.; Parker, P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

NOx Emissions Reduction from Continuous Commissioning(R) Measures for the Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Total NOx Reductions (lbs/day) Total NOx Reductions (Tons/day) TOT EQ ELECTRICITY (MWh) (Electricity and Chilled water) 4,761 7,278.7 3.6393 24.2 36.7 0.0184 HOT WATER (MCF) 8,358 1,170.2 0.5851 41.0 5.7 0.0029 Total 8,448.9 4.2244 42.5 0....0212 NOTES: 1) Assuming 7% for T&D losses and a Discount factor of 25%. Corresponding factors to integrated savings presented to the TCEQ. 2) A factor of 0.140 lb of NOx/MCF of Natural Gas (Controlled - Low NOx burners 140 A...

Yazdani, B.; Haberl, J. S.; Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.

340

Chemical Consequences of Heme Distortion and the Role of Heme Distortion in Signal Transduction of H-NOX Proteins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of wild-type Tt H-NOX as well as energy minimizations 19with energy minimizations and visual inspection of the wild-high- energy frontier orbitals. 81 Heme distortion in wild-

Olea, Jr., Charles

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox so2 sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Heavy-duty diesel vehicle Nox? aftertreatment in 2010 : the infrastructure and compliance challenges of urea-SCR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Increasingly stringent heavy-duty vehicle emission regulations are prompting the use of PM and NOx aftertreatment systems in the US, the EU and Japan. In the US, the EPA Highway Diesel Rule, which will be fully implemented ...

Bodek, Kristian M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

An Analysis of the health impacts from PM and NOx emissions resulting from train operations in the Alameda Corridor, CA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2009). Estimating PM and NOx Train Emissions in the AlamedaAuthority. Number of Trains Running on the Alameda Corridor.x emissions resulting from train operations in the Alameda

Sangkapichai, Mana; Saphores, Jean-Daniel M; Ogunseitan, Oladele; Ritchie, Stephen G.; You, Soyoung Iris; Lee, Gunwoo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Amphiphilic Surface Modification of Hollow Carbon Nanofibers for Improved Cycle Life of Lithium Sulfur Batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lithium sulfur batteries, due to their high specific energy and relatively low cost. Despite recent progress in addressing the various problems of sulfur cathodes, lithium sulfur batteries still exhibit at C/2. KEYWORDS: Lithium sulfur batteries; energy storage; surface modification Increasing the energy

Cui, Yi

344

Low Temperature Sorbents for Removal of Sulfur Compounds from Fluid Feed Streams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sorbent material is provided comprising a material reactive with sulfur, a binder unreactive with sulfur and an inert material, wherein the sorbent absorbs the sulfur at temperatures between 30 and 200 C. Sulfur absorption capacity as high as 22 weight percent has been observed with these materials.

Siriwardane, Ranjani

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Low Temperature Sorbents for removal of Sulfur Compounds from fluid feed Streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sorbent material is provided comprising a material reactive with sulfur, a binder unreactive with sulfur and an inert material, wherein the sorbent absorbs the sulfur at temperatures between 30 and 200 C. Sulfur absorption capacity as high as 22 weight percent has been observed with these materials.

Siriwardane, Ranjan

1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

346

NOx Emissions Reductions from Implementation of the 2000 IECC/IRC Conservation Code to Residential Construction in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.1000 0.1500 0.2000 0.2500 0.3000 0.3500 0.4000 0.0000 0.0500 0.1000 0.1500 0.2000 0.2500 0.3000 0.3500 0.4000 To ns - NOx/day (average) Tons - NOX/day (p eak) Apx 2x difference 1:1 2...

Haberl, J. S.; Im, P.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.; Fitzpatrick, T.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Closed loop engine control for regulating NOx emissions, using a two-dimensional fuel-air curve  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An engine control strategy that ensures that NOx emissions from the engine will be maintained at an acceptable level. The control strategy is based on a two-dimensional fuel-air curve, in which air manifold pressure (AMP) is a function of fuel header pressure and engine speed. The control strategy provides for closed loop NOx adjustment to a base AMP value derived from the fuel-air curve.

Bourn, Gary D.; Smith, Jack A.; Gingrich, Jess W.

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

348

System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for adding sulfur to a reformate stream feeding a fuel cell stack, having a sulfur source for providing sulfur to the reformate stream and a metering device in fluid connection with the sulfur source and the reformate stream. The metering device injects sulfur from the sulfur source to the reformate stream at a predetermined rate, thereby providing a conditioned reformate stream to the fuel cell stack. The system provides a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J; Weissman, Jeffrey G

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

349

Sulfur meter for blending coal at Plant Monroe: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An on-line sulfur analyzer, installed at the Detroit Edison, Monroe Power station, was placed into service and evaluated for coal blending optimization to minimize the cost of complying with changing stack gas sulfur dioxide regulations. The project involved debugging the system which consisted of an /open quotes/as-fired/close quotes/ sampler and nuclear source sulfur analyzer. The system was initially plagued with mechanical and electronic problems ranging from coal flow pluggages to calibration drifts in the analyzer. Considerable efforts were successfully made to make the system reliable and accurate. On-line testing showed a major improvement in control of sulfur dioxide emission rates and fuel blending optimization equivalent to as much as $6 million in fuel costs at the time of the evaluation. 7 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

Trentacosta, S.D.; Yurko, J.O.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Sulfurized olefin lubricant additives and compositions containing same  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lubricant additives having substantially improved extreme pressure characteristics are provided by modifying certain sulfurized olefins by reacting said olefins with a cyclic polydisulfide under controlled reaction conditions and at a temperature of at least about 130/sup 0/ C.

Braid, M.

1980-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

351

Diesel Emissions Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program Status  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Determine the impact of fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems that could be implemented to lower emissions of NO{sub x} and PM from on-highway trucks in the 2002-2004 time frame.

None

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

352

Novel Sulfur-Tolerant Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the unique advantages of SOFCs over other types of fuel cells is the potential for direct utilization of hydrocarbon fuels (it may involve internal reforming). Unfortunately, most hydrocarbon fuels contain sulfur, which would dramatically degrade SOFC performance at parts-per-million (ppm) levels. Low concentration of sulfur (ppm or below) is difficult to remove efficiently and cost-effectively. Therefore, knowing the exact poisoning process for state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFCs with Ni-YSZ cermet anodes, understanding the detailed anode poisoning mechanism, and developing new sulfur-tolerant anodes are essential to the promotion of SOFCs that run on hydrocarbon fuels. The effect of cell operating conditions (including temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration, cell voltage/current density, etc.) on sulfur poisoning and recovery of nickel-based anode in SOFCs was investigated. It was found that sulfur poisoning is more severe at lower temperature, higher H{sub 2}S concentration or lower cell current density (higher cell voltage). In-situ Raman spectroscopy identified the nickel sulfide formation process on the surface of a Ni-YSZ electrode and the corresponding morphology change as the sample was cooled in H{sub 2}S-containing fuel. Quantum chemical calculations predicted a new S-Ni phase diagram with a region of sulfur adsorption on Ni surfaces, corresponding to sulfur poisoning of Ni-YSZ anodes under typical SOFC operating conditions. Further, quantum chemical calculations were used to predict the adsorption energy and bond length for sulfur and hydrogen atoms on various metal surfaces. Surface modification of Ni-YSZ anode by thin Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} coating was utilized to enhance the sulfur tolerance. A multi-cell testing system was designed and constructed which is capable of simultaneously performing electrochemical tests of 12 button cells in fuels with four different concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Through systematical study of state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFC button cells, it is seen that the long-term sulfur poisoning behavior of those cells indicate that there might be a second-stage slower degradation due to sulfur poisoning, which would last for a thousand hour or even longer. However, when using G-18 sealant from PNNL, the 2nd stage poisoning was effectively prohibited.

Lei Yang; Meilin Liu

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

353

NOx reduction in combustion with concentrated coal streams and oxygen injection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

NOx formation in the combustion of solid hydrocarbonaceous fuel such as coal is reduced by obtaining, from the incoming feed stream of fuel solids and air, a stream having a ratio of fuel solids to air that is higher than that of the feed steam, and injecting the thus obtained stream and a small amount of oxygen to a burner where the fuel solids are combusted.

Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool III, Lawrence E.; Snyder, William J.

2004-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

354

Development of METHANE de-NOX Reburn Process for Wood Waste and Biomass Fired Stoker Boilers - Final Report - METHANE de-NOX Reburn Technology Manual  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the METHANE de-NOX (MdN) Reburn process in the Forest Products Industry (FPI) to provide more efficient use of wood and sludge waste (biosolids) combustion for both energy generation and emissions reduction (specifically from nitrogen oxides (NOx)) and to promote the transfer of the technology to the wide range of wood waste-fired stoker boilers populating the FPI. This document, MdN Reburn Commercial Technology Manual, was prepared to be a resource to promote technology transfer and commercialization activities of MdN in the industry and to assist potential users understand its application and installation requirements. The Manual includes a compilation of MdN commercial design data from four different stoker boiler designs that were baseline tested as part of the development effort. Design information in the Manual include boiler CFD model studies, process design protocols, engineering data sheets and commercial installation drawings. Each design package is unique and implemented in a manner to meet specific mill requirements.

J. Rabovitser; B. Bryan; S. Wohadlo; S. Nester; J. Vaught; M. Tartan (Gas Technology Institute); R. Glickert (ESA Environmental Solutions)

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

355

METHOD TO PREVENT SULFUR ACCUMULATION INSIDE MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HyS is conceptually the simplest of the thermochemical cycles and involves only sulfur chemistry. In the HyS Cycle hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) is produced at the cathode of the electrochemical cell (or electrolyzer). Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) is oxidized at the anode to form sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and protons (H{sup +}) as illustrated below. A separate high temperature reaction decomposes the sulfuric acid to water and sulfur dioxide which are recycled to the electrolyzers, and oxygen which is separated out as a secondary product. The electrolyzer includes a membrane that will allow hydrogen ions to pass through but block the flow of hydrogen gas. The membrane is also intended to prevent other chemical species from migrating between electrodes and undergoing undesired reactions that could poison the cathode or reduce overall process efficiency. In conventional water electrolysis, water is oxidized at the anode to produce protons and oxygen. The standard cell potential for conventional water electrolysis is 1.23 volts at 25 C. However, commercial electrolyzers typically require higher voltages ranging from 1.8 V to 2.6 V [Kirk-Othmer, 1991]. The oxidation of sulfur dioxide instead of water in the HyS electrolyzer occurs at a much lower potential. For example, the standard cell potential for sulfur dioxide oxidation at 25 C in 50 wt % sulfuric acid is 0.29 V [Westinghouse, 1980]. Since power consumption by the electrolyzers is equal to voltage times current, and current is proportional to hydrogen production, a large reduction in voltage results in a large reduction in electrical power cost per unit of hydrogen generated.

Steimke, J.; Steeper, T.; Herman, D.; Colon-Mercado, H.; Elvington, M.

2009-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

356

Low temperature fracture evaluation of plasticized sulfur paving mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

May 1985 Major Subject: Civil Engineering LOW TEMPERATURE FRACTURE EVALUATION OF PLASTICIZED SULFUR PAVING MIXTURES A Thesis by KAMYAR MAHBOUB Approved as to style and content by: Dallas N. Li tie (Chai rman of Committee) Ro e . Lytto Member... modifications to the standard ASTM procedure. These modifications were required due to the nature of plasticized sulfur mixtures and asphalt cement mixtures. The J-integral version of Paris ' law was successfully used to characterize the fatigue...

Mahboub, Kamyar

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

357

Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project has investigated new metal oxide catalysts for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as CO. Significant progress in catalyst development has been made during the course of the project. We have found that fluorite oxides, CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}, and rare earth zirconates such as Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} are active and stable catalysts for reduction Of SO{sub 2} by CO. More than 95% sulfur yield was achieved at reaction temperatures about 450{degrees}C or higher with the feed gas of stoichiometric composition. Reaction of SO{sub 2} and CO over these catalysts demonstrated a strong correlation of catalytic activity with the catalyst oxygen mobility. Furthermore, the catalytic activity and resistance to H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} poisoning of these catalysts were significantly enhanced by adding small amounts of transition metals, such as Co, Ni, Co, etc. The resulting transition metal-fluorite oxide composite catalyst has superior activity and stability, and shows promise in long use for the development of a greatly simplified single-step sulfur recovery process to treat variable and dilute SO{sub 2} concentration gas streams. Among various active composite catalyst systems the Cu-CeO{sub 2} system has been extensively studied. XRD, XPS, and STEM analyses of the used Cu-CeO{sub 2} catalyst found that the fluorite crystal structure of ceria was stable at the present reaction conditions, small amounts of copper was dispersed and stabilized on the ceria matrix, and excess copper oxide particles formed copper sulfide crystals of little contribution to catalytic activity. A working catalyst consisted of partially sulfated cerium oxide surface and partially sulfided copper clusters. The overall reaction kinetics were approximately represented by a first order equation.

Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Modeling Species Inhibition of NO oxidation in Urea-SCR Catalysts for Diesel Engine NOx Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are regarded as the leading NOx aftertreatment technology to meet the 2010 NOx emission standards for on-highway vehicles running on heavy-duty diesel engines. However, issues such as low NOx conversion at low temperature conditions still exist due to various factors, including incomplete urea thermolysis, inhibition of SCR reactions by hydrocarbons and H2O. We have observed a noticeable reduction in the standard SCR reaction efficiency at low temperature with increasing water content. We observed a similar effect when hydrocarbons are present in the stream. This effect is absent under fast SCR conditions where NO ~ NO2 in the feed gas. As a first step in understanding the effects of such inhibition on SCR reaction steps, kinetic models that predict the inhibition behavior of H2O and hydrocarbons on NO oxidation are presented in the paper. A one-dimensional SCR model was developed based on conservation of species equations and was coded as a C-language S-function and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. NO oxidation and NO2 dissociation kinetics were defined as a function of the respective adsorbates storage in the SCR catalyst. The corresponding kinetic models were then validated on temperature ramp tests that showed good match with the test data.

Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Tran, Diana N.; Lee, Jong H.; Herling, Darrell R.

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

359

Modeling Species Inhibition of NO Oxidation in Urea-SCR Catalysts for Diesel Engine NOx Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are regarded as the leading NOx aftertreatment technology to meet the 2010 NOx emission standards for on-highway vehicles running on heavy-duty diesel engines. However, issues such as low NOx conversion at low temperature conditions still exist due to various factors, including incomplete urea thermolysis, inhibition of SCR reactions by hydrocarbons and H2O. We have observed a noticeable reduction in the standard SCR reaction efficiency at low temperature with increasing water content. We observed a similar effect when hydrocarbons are present in the stream. This effect is absent under fast SCR conditions where NO ~ NO2 in the feed gas. As a first step in understanding the effects of such inhibition on SCR reaction steps, kinetic models that predict the inhibition behavior of H2O and hydrocarbons on NO oxidation are presented in the paper. A one-dimensional SCR model was developed based on conservation of species equations and was coded as a C-language S-function and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. NO oxidation and NO2 dissociation kinetics were defined as a function of the respective adsorbates storage in the Fe-zeolite SCR catalyst. The corresponding kinetic models were then validated on temperature ramp tests that showed good match with the test data. Such inhibition models will improve the accuracy of model based control design for integrated DPF-SCR aftertreatment systems.

Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Tran, Diana N.; Lee, Jong H.; Herling, Darrell R.

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

360

Ammonia Generation over TWC for Passive SCR NOX Control for Lean Gasoline Engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A commercial three-way catalyst (TWC) was evaluated for ammonia (NH3) generation on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine as a component in a passive ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The passive NH3 SCR system is a potential low cost approach for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from lean burn gasoline engines. In this system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. NH3 generation was evaluated at different air-fuel equivalence ratios at multiple engine speed and load conditions. Near complete conversion of NOX to NH3 was achieved at =0.96 for nearly all conditions studied. At the =0.96 condition, HC emissions were relatively minimal, but CO emissions were significant. Operation at AFRs richer than =0.96 did not provide more NH3 yield and led to higher HC and CO emissions. Results of the reductant conversion and consumption processes were used to calculate a representative fuel consumption of the engine operating with an ideal passive SCR system. The results show a 1-7% fuel economy benefit at various steady-state engine speed and load points relative to a stoichiometric engine operation.

Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL] [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox so2 sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Heat Transfer Characteristics of Sulfur and Sulfur Diluted with Hydrogen Sulfide Flowing Through Circular Tubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is called the pumping-power advantage factor, and has the value 2. 5 x 10 for sodium. The only metals having a higher value of H are 13 lithium 7 and bismuth. Lithium 7 comprises 92. 5% of natural lithium, but the cost of separating it from lithium 6...-section for thermal neutrons being 0. 130 barns. For comparison, water has an absorption cross-section of 0. 58 barns for thermal neutrons (2) . Sulfur is not activated by exposure to neutron flux in such a way as to produce a radioactive isotope which...

Stone, Porter Walwyn

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Reaction of Elemental Sulfur with a Copper(I) Complex Forming a trans--1,2 End-On Disulfide Complex: New Directions in Copper-Sulfur Chemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reaction of Elemental Sulfur with a Copper(I) Complex Forming a trans-µ-1,2 End-On Disulfide Complex: New Directions in Copper-Sulfur Chemistry Matthew E. Helton, Peng Chen, Partha P. Paul, Zolta, investigations into copper-sulfur interactions have been of marked interest in the research fields of copper

Chen, Peng

363

NOx Emissions Reduction from CPS Energy's "Save For Tomorrow Energy Plan" Within the Alamo Area Council of Governments Report to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ESL-TR-10-10-01 NOx EMISSIONS REDUCTION FROM CPS ENERGY?S ?SAVE FOR TOMORROW ENERGY PLAN? WITHIN THE ALAMO AREA COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS REPORT TO THE TEXAS COMMISSION ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (TCEQ) Sung Lok Do Juan.../yr and annual NOx emissions reductions of non-residential sector were 32.01 Ton/yr. The NOx emissions reductions estimated through 2020 energy savings potential were 3,344 ton/year. Annual NOx emissions reductions of residential sector were 1,873 ton...

Do, S. L.; Baltazar, J. C.; Haberl, J.; Yazdani, B.

364

Evaluation and demonstration of the chemically active fluid bed. Final report May 75-Jul 81  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report gives results of the operation of a 17-MW Chemically Active Fluid Bed (CAFB) demonstration unit, retrofitted to a natural gas boiler. The CAFB process gasifies high-sulfur, high-metals-content liquid and solid fuels. Residual oil, lignite, and bituminous coal were gasified separately or together between November 1979 and June 1981. Design and operational areas where upgrading would be beneficial were identified. Continuous monitors were used to measure boiler flue gas emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, oxygen, CO2, and opacity. Periodic manual emission tests were conducted for particulate, SO2, and NOx, using EPA reference methods. Emissions of these three criteria pollutants were generally lower than New Source Performance Standards for utility boilers, although occasionally excessive particulate and SO2 emissions were observed. NOx emissions were consistently lower than those from natural gas combustion. Results of detailed chemical analyses and biological assays are reported.

Sommer, R.E.; Werner, A.S.; Kowszun, Z.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

CLOSEOUT REPORT FOR HYBRID SULFUR PRESSURIZED BUTTON CELL TEST FACILITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the Close-Out Report for design and partial fabrication of the Pressurized Button Cell Test Facility at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This facility was planned to help develop the sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) that is a key component of the Hybrid Sulfur Cycle for generating hydrogen. The purpose of this report is to provide as much information as possible in case the decision is made to resume research. This report satisfies DOE Milestone M3GSR10VH030107.0. The HyS Cycle is a hybrid thermochemical cycle that may be used in conjunction with advanced nuclear reactors or centralized solar receivers to produce hydrogen by watersplitting. The HyS Cycle utilizes the high temperature (>800 C) thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid to produce oxygen and regenerate sulfur dioxide. The unique aspect of HyS is the generation of hydrogen in a water electrolyzer that is operated under conditions where dissolved sulfur dioxide depolarizes the anodic reaction, resulting in substantial voltage reduction. Low cell voltage is essential for both high thermodynamic efficiency and low hydrogen cost. Sulfur dioxide is oxidized at the anode, producing sulfuric acid that is sent to the high temperature acid decomposition portion of the cycle. Sulfur dioxide from the decomposer is cycled back to electrolyzers. The electrolyzer cell uses the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) concept. Anode and cathode are formed by spraying a catalyst, typically platinized carbon, on both sides of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM). SRNL has been testing SDEs for several years including an atmospheric pressure Button Cell electrolyzer (2 cm{sup 2} active area) and an elevated temperature/pressure Single Cell electrolyzer (54.8 cm{sup 2} active area). SRNL tested 37 MEAs in the Single Cell electrolyzer facility from June 2005 until June 2009, when funding was discontinued. An important result of the final months of testing was the development of a method that prevents the formation of a sulfur layer previously observed in MEAs used in the Hybrid Sulfur Cycle electrolyzer. This result is very important because the sulfur layer increased cell voltage and eventually destroyed the MEA that is the heart of the cell. Steimke and Steeper [2005, 2006, 2007, 2008] reported on testing in the Single Cell Electrolyzer test facility in several periodic reports. Steimke et. al [2010] issued a final facility close-out report summarizing all the testing in the Single Cell Electrolyzer test facility. During early tests, significant deterioration of the membrane occurred in 10 hours or less; the latest tests ran for at least 200 hours with no sign of deterioration. Ironically, the success with the Single Cell electrolyzer meant that it became dedicated to long runs and not available for quick membrane evaluations. Early in this research period, the ambient pressure Button Cell Electrolyzer test facility was constructed to quickly evaluate membrane materials. Its small size allowed testing of newly developed membranes that typically were not available in sizes large enough to test in the Single Cell electrolyzer. The most promising membranes were tested in the Single Cell Electrolyzer as soon as sufficient large membranes could be obtained. However, since the concentration of SO{sub 2} gas in sulfuric acid decreases rapidly with increasing temperature, the ambient pressure Button Cell was no longer able to achieve the operating conditions needed to evaluate the newer improved high temperature membranes. Significantly higher pressure operation was required to force SO{sub 2} into the sulfuric acid to obtain meaningful concentrations at increased temperatures. A high pressure (200 psig), high temperature (120 C) Button Cell was designed and partially fabricated just before funding was discontinued in June 2009. SRNL completed the majority of the design of the test facility, including preparation of a process and instrument drawing (P&ID) and preliminary designs for the major components. SRNL intended to complete the designs and procu

Steeper, T.

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

366

LOW SULFUR HOME HEATING OIL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT SUMMARY REPORT.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was funded by NYSERDA and has clearly demonstrated many advantages of using low sulfur content heating oil to provide thermal comfort in homes. Prior laboratory research in the United States and Canada had indicated a number of potential benefits of using lower sulfur (0.05%) heating oil. However, this prior research has not resulted in the widespread use of low sulfur fuel oil in the marketplace. The research project described in this report was conducted with the assistance of a well-established fuel oil marketer in New York State (NYS) and has provided clear proof of the many real-world advantages of marketing and using low sulfur content No. 2 fuel oil. The very positive experience of the participating marketer over the past three years has already helped to establish low sulfur heating oil as a viable option for many other fuel marketers. In large part, based on the initial findings of this project and the experience of the participating NYS oilheat marketer, the National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) has already fully supported a resolution calling for the voluntary use of low sulfur (0.05 percent) home heating oil nationwide. The NORA resolution has the goal of converting eighty percent of all oil-heated homes to the lower sulfur fuel (0.05 percent by weight) by the year 2007. The Oilheat Manufacturers Association (OMA) has also passed a resolution fully supporting the use of lower sulfur home heating oil in the equipment they manufacture. These are important endorsements by prominent national oil heat associations. Using lower sulfur heating oil substantially lowers boiler and furnace fouling rates. Laboratory studies had indicated an almost linear relationship between sulfur content in the oil and fouling rates. The completed NYSERDA project has verified past laboratory studies in over 1,000 occupied residential homes over the course of three heating seasons. In fact, the reduction in fouling rates so clearly demonstrated by this project is almost the same as predicted by past laboratory studies. Fouling deposition rates are reduced by a factor of two to three by using lower sulfur oil. This translates to a potential for substantial service cost savings by extending the interval between labor-intensive cleanings of the internal surfaces of the heating systems in these homes. In addition, the time required for annual service calls can be lowered, reducing service costs and customer inconvenience. The analyses conducted as part of this field demonstration project indicates that service costs can be reduced by up to $200 million a year nationwide by using lower sulfur oil and extending vacuum cleaning intervals depending on the labor costs and existing cleaning intervals. The ratio of cost savings to added fuel costs is economically attractive based on past fuel price differentials for the lower sulfur product. The ratio of cost savings to added costs vary widely as a function of hourly service rates and the additional cost for lower sulfur oil. For typical values, the expected benefit is a factor of two to four higher than the added fuel cost. This means that for every dollar spent on higher fuel cost, two to four dollars can be saved by lowered vacuum cleaning costs when the cleaning intervals are extended. Information contained in this report can be used by individual oil marketers to estimate the benefit to cost ratio for their specific applications. Sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide air emissions are reduced substantially by using lower sulfur fuel oil in homes. Sulfur oxides emissions are lowered by 75 percent by switching from fuel 0.20 percent to 0.05 percent sulfur oil. This is a reduction of 63,000 tons a year nationwide. In New York State, sulfur oxide emissions are reduced by 13,000 tons a year. This translates to a total value of $12 million a year in Sulfur Oxide Emission Reduction Credits for an emission credit cost of $195 a ton. While this ''environmental cost'' dollar savings is smaller than the potential service costs reduction, it is very significant. It represents an important red

BATEY, J.E.; MCDONALD, R.J.

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Process and system for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gaseous streams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multi-stage UCSRP process and system for removal of sulfur from a gaseous stream in which the gaseous stream, which contains a first amount of H.sub.2S, is provided to a first stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess SO.sub.2 mode at a first amount of SO.sub.2, producing an effluent gas having a reduced amount of SO.sub.2, and in which the effluent gas is provided to a second stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess H.sub.2S mode, producing a product gas having an amount of H.sub.2S less than said first amount of H.sub.2S.

Basu, Arunabha (Aurora, IL); Meyer, Howard S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Lynn, Scott (Pleasant Hill, CA); Leppin, Dennis (Chicago, IL); Wangerow, James R. (Medinah, IL)

2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

368

Near-Zero NOx Combustion Technology for ATS Mercury 50 Gas Turbine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A project to demonstrate a near-zero NOx, catalytic combustion technology for natural gas-fired, industrial gas turbines is described. In a cooperative effort between Solar Turbines Incorporated and Precision Combustion Incorporated (PCI), proof-of-concept rig testing of PCI's fuel-rich catalytic combustion technology has been completed successfully. The primary technical goal of the project was to demonstrate NOx and CO emissions below 5ppm and 10 ppm, respectively, (corrected to 15% O{sub 2}) at realistic gas turbine operating conditions. The program consisted of two tasks. In the first task, a single prototype RCL{trademark} (Rich Catalytic Lean Burn) module was demonstrated at Taurus 70 (7.5 Mw) operating conditions (1.6 MPa, 16 atm) in a test rig. For a Taurus 70 engine, eight to twelve RCL modules will be required, depending on the final system design. In the second task, four modules of a similar design were adapted to a Saturn engine (1 Mw) test rig (600 kPa, 6 atm) to demonstrate gas turbine light-off and operation with an RCL combustion system. This project was initially focused on combustion technology for the Mercury 50 engine. However, early in the program, the Taurus 70 replaced the Mercury. This substitution was motivated by the larger commercial market for an ultra-low NOx Taurus 70 in the near-term. Rig tests using a single prototype RCL module at Taurus 70 conditions achieved NOx emissions as low as 0.75 ppm. A combustor turndown of approximately 110C (200F) was achieved with NOx and CO emissions below 3 ppm and 10 ppm, respectively. Catalyst light-off occurred at an inlet temperature of 310C (590F). Once lit the module remained active at inlet air temperatures as low as 204C (400F). Combustor pressure oscillations were acceptably low during module testing. Single module rig tests were also conducted with the Taurus 70 module reconfigured with a central pilot fuel injector. Such a pilot will be required in a commercial RCL system for turbine light-off and transient operation. At and near simulated full load engine conditions, the pilot operated at low pilot fueling rates without degrading overall system emissions. In the second project task, a set of four Taurus 70 modules was tested in an existing Saturn engine rig. The combustion system allowed smooth engine startup and load variation. At steady state conditions (between 82% and 89.7% engine speed; 32% and 61% load), NOx and CO emissions were below 3ppm and 10ppm, respectively. Rig limitations unrelated to the RCL technology prevented low emissions operation outside of this speed range. Combustor pressure oscillations were low, below 0.25 % (peak-to-peak) of the mean combustor pressure.

Kenneth Smith

2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

369

Indication of Meissner Effect in Sulfur-Substituted Strontium Ruthenates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ceramic samples of Sr2RuO(4-y)Sy (y=0.03-1.2) with intended isovalent substitution of oxygen by sulfur have been synthesized and explored in the temperature range 4-300K. It is found that at a range of optimum sulfur substitution the magnetic response of ceramic samples reveals large diamagnetic signal with amplitudes approaching comparability with that of the YBCO-superconductors. Contrary to a pure ceramic Sr2RuO4, if properly optimized, the resistivity of sulfur-substituted samples has a metallic behavior except at lower temperatures where an upturn occurs. Both synthesis conditions and results of measurements are reported. The Meissner effect may point to high-temperature superconductivity.

Gulian, Armen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one and a half century were estimated by using a combination of bottom-up and best available inventory methods including all anthropogenic sources. We find that global sulfur dioxide emissions peaked about 1980 and have generally declined since this time. Emissions were extrapolated to a 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} grid for the time period 1850-2000 at annual resolution with two emission height levels and by season. Emissions are somewhat higher in the recent past in this new work as compared with some comprehensive estimates. This difference is largely due to our use of emissions factors that vary with time to account for sulfur removals from fossil fuels and industrial smelting processes.

Smith, Steven J.; Andres, Robert; Conception , Elvira; Lurz, Joshua

2004-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

371

Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, October--December 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Elemental sulfur recovery from SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream is highly attractive as it produces a salable product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO{sub 2} with coke) and Claus plant (reaction of SO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S over catalyst). This project will investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified in recent work at MIT as a superior catalyst for SO{sub 2} reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range (400--650{degree}C). The detailed kinetic and parametric studies of SO{sub 2} reduction planned in this work over various CeO{sub 2} formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a very simplified process, namely that of a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams. The potential cost- and energy-efficiency benefits from this approach can not be overstated. A first apparent application is treatment of a regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought ``Claus-alternative`` for coal-fired power plant applications.

Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

372

Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Elemental sulfur recovery from SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream is highly attractive as it produces a salable product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO{sub 2} with coke) and Claus plant(reaction of SO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S over catalyst). This project will investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified in recent work at MIT as a superior catalyst for SO{sub 2} reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range(400--650{degrees}C). The detailed kinetic and parametric studies of SO{sub 2} reduction planned in this work over various CeO{sub 2}-formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a very simplified process, namely that of a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams, The potential cost- and energy-efficiency benefits from this approach can not be overstated. A first apparent application is treatment of a regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought ``Claus-alternative`` for coal-fired power plant applications.

Liu, Wei; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.; Williams, R.S.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

373

Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Fourth quarterly technical progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams.

NONE

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Transient Dynamometer Testing of a Single Leg NOx Adsorber Combined with a  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of EnergyThe EnergyDepartment7 thFuel Processor for Enhanced NOx Control |

375

Transient Dynamometer Testing of a Single-Leg NOX Adsorber Combined with a  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of EnergyThe EnergyDepartment7 thFuel Processor for Enhanced NOx Control

376

Status of APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Projects | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage » SearchEnergyDepartmentScopingOverviewFranklin M.EngineReport onAPBF-DEC NOx

377

APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: SUV/Pick-Up Platform | Department of  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartment of Energy 601 High IntegrityEnergy NOx Adsorber/DPF Project:

378

Reduction of NOx in Synthetic Diesel Exhaust via Two-Step Plasma-Catalysis  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST 800-53 NationalTreatment. | EMSL NOx in

379

Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:Ground Hawaii CleanHeat PumpDuty HCCIModelingLean NOx

380

NOx Measurement Errors in Ammonia-Containing Exhaust | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d F S i DOEToward aInnovation |NEXTDevelopment NOxAftertreatment

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox so2 sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Sulfur gas geochemical detection of hydrothermal systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether a system of exploration using sulfur gases was capable of detecting convecting hydrothermal systems. Three surveying techniques were used at the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA in Utah. These were (a) a sniffing technique, capable of instantaneous determinations of sulfur gas concentration, (b) an accumulator technique, capable of integrating the sulfur gas emanations over a 30 day interval, and (c) a method of analyzing the soils for vaporous sulfur compounds. Because of limitations in the sniffer technique, only a limited amount of surveying was done with this method. The accumulator and soil sampling techniques were conducted on a 1000 foot grid at Roosevelt Hot Springs, and each sample site was visited three times during the spring of 1980. Thus, three soil samples and two accumulator samples were collected at each site. The results are shown as averages of three soil and two accumulator determinations of sulfur gas concentrations at each site. Soil surveys and accumulator surveys were conducted at two additional KGRA's which were chosen based on the state of knowledge of these hydrothermal systems and upon their differences from Roosevelt Hot Springs in an effort to show that the exploration methods would be effective in detecting geothermal reservoirs in general. The results at Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah show that each of the three surveying methods was capable of detecting sulfur gas anomalies which can be interpreted to be related to the source at depth, based on resistivity mapping of that source, and also correlatable with major structural features of the area which are thought to be controlling the geometry of the geothermal reservoir. The results of the surveys at Roosevelt did not indicate that either the soil sampling technique or the accumulator technique was superior to the other.

Rouse, G.E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Sulfur dioxide oxidation and plume formation at cement kilns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of source sampling at the Glens Falls cement kiln in Glens Falls, N.Y., are reported for sulfur oxides, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, oxygen, and moisture content. The origin of a detached, high-opacity, persistent plume originating from the cement kiln stack is investigated. It is proposed that this plume is due to ammonium salts of SOx and sulfuric acid that have been formed in condensed water droplets in the plume by the pseudocatalytic action of ammonia. (1 diagram, 1 graph, 22 references, 7 tables)

Dellinger, B.; Grotecloss, G.; Fortune, C.R.; Cheney, J.L.; Homolya, J.B.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This second quarter report of 2002 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. Previous reports described development of a catalyst with the required selectivity and efficiency for producing sulfur dioxide from H{sub 2}S. In the laboratory, the catalyst was shown to be robust and stable in the presence of several intentionally added contaminants, including condensate from the pilot plant site. This report describes testing using the laboratory apparatus but operated at the pilot plant using the actual pilot plant gas, which contains far more contaminants than can be simulated in the laboratory. The results are very encouraging, with stable and efficient operation being obtained for a prolonged period of time.

Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is [dis]associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

Harkness, J.B.L.; Gorski, A.J.; Daniels, E.J.

1993-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

385

Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

Harkness, John B. L. (Naperville, IL); Gorski, Anthony J. (Woodridge, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Oak Lawn, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

The Quantitation of Sulfur Mustard By-Products, Sulfur-Containing Herbicides, and Organophosphonates in Soil and Concrete  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the past fifty years, the facilities at Rocky Mountain Arsenal have been used for the manufacturing, bottling, and shipping sulfur- containing herbicides, sulfur mustard, and Sarin. There is a need for analytical methods capable of determining these constituents quickly to determine exactly how specific waste structural materials should be handled, treated, and landfilled.These species are extracted rapidly from heated samples of soil or crushed concrete using acetonitrile at elevated pressure, then analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector. Thiodiglycol, the major hydrolysis product of sulfur mustard, must be converted to a silylated derivative prior to quantitation. Detection limits, calculated using two statistically-unbiased protocols, ranged between 2-13 micrograms analyte/g soil or concrete.

Tomkins, B.A., Sega, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)], Macnaughton, S.J. [Microbial Insights, Inc., Rockford, TN (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

387

Effects of ambient sulfur oxides and suspended particles on respiratory health of preadolescent children  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reported here are the results from an ongoing study of outdoor air pollution and respiratory health of children living in six cities in the eastern and midwestern United States. The study enrolled 10,106 white preadolescent children between 1974 and 1977 in 3 successive annual visits to each city. Each child received a spirometric examination, and a parent completed a standard questionnaire. Of this cohort, 8,380 children were seen for a second examination 1 yr later. An air pollution monitoring program was begun in each community at about the time of the first examination. For this report, measurements of total suspended particulates (TSP), the sulfate fraction of TSP (TSO/sub 4/), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations at study-affiliated outdoor stations were combined with measurements at other public and private monitoring sites to create a record of TSP, TSO/sub 4/, and SO/sub 2/ concentrations in each of 9 air pollution regions during the 1-yr period preceding each examination and, for TSP, during each child's lifetime up to the time of testing. Across the 6 cities, frequency of cough was significantly associated with the average of 24-h mean concentrations of all 3 air pollutants during the year preceding the health examination (p less than 0.01). Rates of bronchitis and a composite measure of lower respiratory illness were significantly associated with average particulate concentrations (p less than 0.05). In analyses restricted to lifetime residents, these outcomes were significantly associated with measures of lifetime mean TSP concentration. Within the cities, however, temporal and spatial variation in air pollutant concentrations and illness and symptom rates were not positively associated.

Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.; Dockery, D.W.; Spengler, J.D.; Stram, D.O.; Speizer, F.E.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Characteristics of cabin air quality in school buses in Central Texas Donghyun Rim, Jeffrey Siegel, Jarett Spinhirne, Alba Webb, Elena McDonald-Buller*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur compounds, and hydrocarbons, including formaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, 1

Siegel, Jeffrey

389

System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack, having a reformer adapted to reform a hydrocarbon fuel stream containing sulfur contaminants, thereby providing a reformate stream having sulfur; a sulfur trap fluidly coupled downstream of the reformer for removing sulfur from the reformate stream, thereby providing a desulfurized reformate stream; and a metering device in fluid communication with the reformate stream upstream of the sulfur trap and with the desulfurized reformate stream downstream of the sulfur trap. The metering device is adapted to bypass a portion of the reformate stream to mix with the desulfurized reformate stream, thereby producing a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

Mukerjee, Subhasish (Pittsford, NY); Haltiner, Jr., Karl J (Fairport, NY); Weissman, Jeffrey G. (West Henrietta, NY)

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

390

Mitigation of Sulfur Poisoning of Ni/Zirconia SOFC Anodes by...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mitigation of Sulfur Poisoning of NiZirconia SOFC Anodes by Antimony and Tin . Mitigation of Sulfur Poisoning of NiZirconia SOFC Anodes by Antimony and Tin . Abstract: Surface...

391

Correction to "Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Correction to "Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols (2010), Correction to "Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols" (Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, D14109

Robock, Alan

392

Chromium modified nickel-iron aluminide useful in sulfur bearing environments  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved nickel-iron aluminide containing chromium and molybdenum additions to improve resistance to sulfur attack.

Cathcart, John V. (Knoxville, TN); Liu, Chain T. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1989-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

393

Sulfur Degassing From Volcanoes: Source Conditions, Surveillance, Plume Chemistry and Earth System Impacts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of sulfur in magmas owes much to its multiple valence states (-II, 0, IV, VI), speciation (e.g., S2, H2S, SO on the redox chemistry of sulfur: by reducing sulfur, thiosulfate, sulfite and sulfate to H2S, or oxidizing sulfur and H2S to sulfate (e.g., Takano et al. 1997; Amend and Shock 2001; Shock et al. 2010

Boyer, Edmond

394

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous organic sulfur Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Prediction Laboratory, University of South Florida Collection: Geosciences 13 Microbial Architecture of Environmental Sulfur Processes: A Summary: ) Transmission electron...

395

NOx Emission Reduction and its Effects on Ozone during the 2008 Olympic Games  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We applied a daily-assimilated inversion method to estimate NOx (NO+NO2) emissions for June-September 2007 and 2008 on the basis of the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and model simulations using the Regional chEmistry and trAnsport Model (REAM). Over urban Beijing, rural Beijing, and the Huabei Plain, OMI column NO2 reductions are approximately 45%, 33%, and 14%, respectively, while the corresponding anthropogenic NOx emission reductions are only 28%, 24%, and 6%, during the full emission control period (July 20 Sep 20, 2008). The emission reduction began in early July and was in full force by July 20, corresponding to the scheduled implementation of emission controls over Beijing. The emissions did not appear to recover after the emission control period. Meteorological change from summer 2007 to 2008 is the main factor contributing to the column NO2 decreases not accounted for by the emission reduction. Model simulations suggest that the effect of emission reduction on ozone concentrations over Beijing is relatively minor using a standard VOC emission inventory in China. With an adjustment of the model emissions to reflect in situ observations of VOCs in Beijing, the model simulation suggests a larger effect of the emission reduction.

Yang, Qing; Wang, Yuhang; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Zhen; Gustafson, William I.; Shao, Min

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

396

Method for control of NOx emission from combustors using fuel dilution  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of controlling NOx emission from combustors. The method involves the controlled addition of a diluent such as nitrogen or water vapor, to a base fuel to reduce the flame temperature, thereby reducing NOx production. At the same time, a gas capable of enhancing flame stability and improving low temperature combustion characteristics, such as hydrogen, is added to the fuel mixture. The base fuel can be natural gas for use in industrial and power generation gas turbines and other burners. However, the method described herein is equally applicable to other common fuels such as coal gas, biomass-derived fuels and other common hydrocarbon fuels. The unique combustion characteristics associated with the use of hydrogen, particularly faster flame speed, higher reaction rates, and increased resistance to fluid-mechanical strain, alter the burner combustion characteristics sufficiently to allow operation at the desired lower temperature conditions resulting from diluent addition, without the onset of unstable combustion that can arise at lower combustor operating temperatures.

Schefer, Robert W. (Alamo, CA); Keller, Jay O (Oakland, CA)

2007-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

397

Agricultural Bio-Fueled Generation of Electricity and Development of Durable and Efficent NOx Reduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to define the scope and cost of a technology research and development program that will demonstrate the feasibility of using an off-the-shelf, unmodified, large bore diesel powered generator in a grid-connected application, utilizing various blends of BioDiesel as fuel. Furthermore, the objective of project was to develop an emissions control device that uses a catalytic process and BioDiesel (without the presence of Ammonia or Urea)to reduce NOx and other pollutants present in a reciprocating engine exhaust stream with the goal of redefining the highest emission reduction efficiencies possible for a diesel reciprocating generator. Process: Caterpillar Power Generation adapted an off-the-shelf Diesel Generator to run on BioDiesel and various Petroleum Diesel/BioDiesel blends. EmeraChem developed and installed an exhaust gas cleanup system to reduce NOx, SOx, volatile organics, and particulates. The system design and function was optimized for emissions reduction with results in the 90-95% range;

Boyd, Rodney

2007-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

398

Sulfur Impregnation on Activated Carbon Fibers through H2S Oxidation for Vapor Phase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sulfur Impregnation on Activated Carbon Fibers through H2S Oxidation for Vapor Phase Mercury: Sulfur was impregnated onto activated carbon fibers ACFs through H2S oxidation catalyzed by the sorbent CE Database subject headings: Activated carbon; Sulfur; Mercury; Hydrogen sulfides; Oxidation

Borguet, Eric

399

Vapor phase elemental sulfur amendment for sequestering mercury in contaminated soil  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The process of treating elemental mercury within the soil is provided by introducing into the soil a heated vapor phase of elemental sulfur. As the vapor phase of elemental sulfur cools, sulfur is precipitated within the soil and then reacts with any elemental mercury thereby producing a reaction product that is less hazardous than elemental mercury.

Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Jackson, Dennis G.

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

400

REGULAR PAPER Photoproduction of hydrogen by sulfur-deprived C. reinhardtii  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dramatic was the effect of sulfur deprivation on the H2-production process, which depends both on the presREGULAR PAPER Photoproduction of hydrogen by sulfur-deprived C. reinhardtii mutants with impaired+Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract Photoproduction of H2 was examined in a series of sulfur-deprived Chlamydomonas

Meier, Iris

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401

Dissociation of Import of the Rieske Iron-Sulfur Protein into Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mitochondria from Proteolytic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

processing peptidase was investigated using high concentrations of metal chelators and iron-sulfur protein- sulfur protein into the mitochondrial matrix is inde- pendent of proteolytic processing first removes a 22-amino acid peptide from the prese- quence of the precursor iron-sulfur protein (p

Trumpower, Bernard L.

402

Revisit Carbon/Sulfur Composite for Li-S Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To correlate the carbon properties e.g. surface area and porous structure, with the electrochemical behaviors of carbon/sulfur (C/S) composite cathodes for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, four different carbon frameworks including Ketjen Black (KB, high surface area and porous), Graphene (high surface area and nonporous), Acetylene Black (AB, low surface area and nonporous) and Hollow Carbon Nano Sphere (HCNS, low surface area and porous) are employed to immobilize sulfur (80 wt.%). It has been revealed that high surface area of carbon improves the utilization rate of active sulfur and decreases the real current density during the electrochemical reactions. Accordingly, increased reversible capacities and reduced polarization are observed for high surface area carbon hosts such as KB/S and graphene/S composites. The porous structure of KB or HCNS matrix promotes the long-term cycling stability of C/S composites but only at relatively low rate (0.2 C). Once the current density increases, the pore effect completely disappears and all Li-S batteries show similar trend of capacity degradation regardless of the different carbon hosts used in the cathodes. The reason has been assigned to the formation of reduced amount of irreversible Li2S on the cathode as well as shortened time for polysulfides to transport towards lithium anode at elevated current densities. This work provides valuable information for predictive selection on carbon materials to construct C/S composite for practical applications from the electrochemical point of view.

Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Wagner, Michael J.; Hays, Kevin; Li, Xiaohong S.; Zuo, Pengjian; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

403

Argonne Electrochemical Technology Program Sulfur removal from reformate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Argonne Electrochemical Technology Program Sulfur removal from reformate Xiaoping Wang, Theodore Krause, and Romesh Kumar Chemical Engineering Division Argonne National Laboratory Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies 2003 Merit Review Berkeley, CA May 19-22, 2003 #12;Argonne Electrochemical Technology

404

The Hybrid Sulfur Cycle for Nuclear Hydrogen Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two Sulfur-based cycles--the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) and the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS)--have emerged as the leading thermochemical water-splitting processes for producing hydrogen utilizing the heat from advanced nuclear reactors. Numerous international efforts have been underway for several years to develop the SI Cycle, but development of the HyS Cycle has lagged. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the background, current status, recent development results, and the future potential for this thermochemical process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology since 2004 to evaluate and to conduct research and development for the HyS Cycle. Process design studies and flowsheet optimization have shown that an overall plant efficiency (based on nuclear heat converted to hydrogen product, higher heating value basis) of over 50% is possible with this cycle. Economic studies indicate that a nuclear hydrogen plant based on this process can be economically competitive, assuming that the key component, the sulfur dioxide-depolarized electrolyzer, can be successfully developed. SRNL has recently demonstrated the use of a proton-exchange-membrane electrochemical cell to perform this function, thus holding promise for economical and efficient hydrogen production.

Summers, William A.; Gorensek, Maximilian B.; Buckner, Melvin R.

2005-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

405

Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

Remick, Robert J. (Naperville, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

FY08 MEMBRANE CHARACTERIZATION REPORT FOR HYBRID SULFUR ELECTROLYZER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes results from all of the membrane testing completed to date at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for the sulfur dioxide-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). Several types of commercially-available membranes have been analyzed for ionic resistance and sulfur dioxide transport including perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA), sulfonated polyether-ketone-ketone (SPEKK), and polybenzimidazole membranes (PBI). Of these membrane types, the poly-benzimidazole membrane, Celtec-L, exhibited the best combination of characteristics for use in an SDE. Several experimental membranes have also been analyzed including hydrated sulfonated Diels-Alder polyphenylenes (SDAPP) membranes from Sandia National Laboratory, perfluorosulfonimide (PFSI) and sulfonated perfluorocyclobutyl aromatic ether (S-PFCB) prepared by Clemson University, hydrated platinum-treated PFSA prepared by Giner Electrochemical Systems (GES) and Pt-Nafion{reg_sign} 115 composites prepared at SRNL. The chemical stability, SO{sub 2} transport and ionic conductivity characteristics have been measured for several commercially available and experimental proton-conducting membranes. Commercially available PFSA membranes such as the Nafion{reg_sign} series exhibited excellent chemical stability and ionic conductivity in sulfur dioxide saturated sulfuric acid solutions. Sulfur dioxide transport in the Nafion{reg_sign} membranes varied proportionally with the thickness and equivalent weight of the membrane. Although the SO{sub 2} transport in the Nafion{reg_sign} membranes is higher than desired, the excellent chemical stability and conductivity makes this membrane the best commercially-available membrane at this time. Initial results indicated that a modified Nafion{reg_sign} membrane incorporating Pt nanoparticles exhibited significantly reduced SO{sub 2} transport. Reduced SO{sub 2} transport was also measured with commercially available PBI membrane and several experimental membranes produced at SNL and Clemson. These membranes also exhibit good chemical stability and conductivity in concentrated sulfuric acid solutions and, thus, serve as promising candidates for the SDE. Therefore, we recommend further testing of these membranes including electrolyzer testing to determine if the reduced SO{sub 2} transport eliminates the formation of sulfur-containing films at the membrane/cathode interface. SO{sub 2} transport measurements in the custom built characterization cell identified experimental limitations of the original design. During the last quarter of FY08 we redesigned and fabricated a new testing cell to overcome the previous limitations. This cell also offers the capability to test membranes under polarized conditions as well as test the performance of MEAs under selected electrolyzer conditions.

Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H; Mark Elvington, M

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Strong Sulfur Binding with Conducting Magneli-Phase TinO2n-1 Nanomaterials for Improving Lithium-Sulfur Batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will go through a series of soluble intermediate higher-order polysulfides (Li2S8, Li2S6, and Li2S4 of Li2S2, Li2S, and sulfur.6-8 In order to solve these challenges, there have been recent developmentsStrong Sulfur Binding with Conducting Magneli-Phase TinO2n-1 Nanomaterials for Improving Lithium-Sulfur

Cui, Yi

408

Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, December 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

NONE

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, January - March 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

NONE

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Mass-dependent fractionation of quadruple stable sulfur isotope system as a new tracer of sulfur biogeochemical cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- ing rare isotopes for Earth materials was the discovery of anomalous 17 O abundance in a wide variety, USA b Department of Geology and Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland and extraterrestrial materials. ? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Sulfur (32 S, 33 S, 34 S

Long, Bernard

411

Method of burning sulfur-containing fuels in a fluidized bed boiler  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of burning a sulfur-containing fuel in a fluidized bed of sulfur oxide sorbent wherein the overall utilization of sulfur oxide sorbent is increased by comminuting the bed drain solids to a smaller average particle size, preferably on the order of 50 microns, and reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed. In comminuting the bed drain solids, particles of spent sulfur sorbent contained therein are fractured thereby exposing unreacted sorbent surface. Upon reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed, the newly-exposed unreacted sorbent surface is available for sulfur oxide sorption, thereby increasing overall sorbent utilization.

Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Sulfur-tolerant anode materials for solid oxide fuel cell application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the degradation mechanisms for SOFC anodes in the presence of sulfur and recent developments in sulfur-tolerant anodes. There are two primary sulfur-degradation mechanisms for the anode materials: physical absorption of sulfur that blocks the hydrogen reaction sites, and chemical reaction that forms nickel sulfide. The sulfur-tolerant anodes are categorized into three kinds of materials: thiospinels and metal sulfides, metal cermets, and mixed ionic and electronic conductors. Each material has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the combined application of available materials to serve as different functional components in anodes through proper design may be effective to achieve a balance between stability and performance.

Gong, M. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV); Liu, X. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV); Trembly, J.; Johnson, C.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Impact of different energies of precipitating particles on NOx1 generation in the middle and upper atmosphere during geomagnetic2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and energy spectra available today of solar proton events, auroral energy30 electrons, and relativistic1 Impact of different energies of precipitating particles on NOx1 generation in the middle a Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, Tähteläntie 62, FI-99600 Sodankylä, Finland.8 b Earth Observation

Otago, University of

414

NOx uptake on alkaline earth oxides (BaO, MgO, CaO and SrO) supported...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

uptake on alkaline earth oxides (BaO, MgO, CaO and SrO) supported on ?-Al2O3. NOx uptake on alkaline earth oxides (BaO, MgO, CaO and SrO) supported on ?-Al2O3....

415

Increase in NOx Emissions from Indian Thermal Power Plants during 1996-2010: Unit-Based Inventories and Multisatellite Observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Multisatellite Observations Zifeng Lu* and David G. Streets Decision and Information Sciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Driven by rapid economic development and growing electricity demand, NOx emissions (E) from the power sector in India have

Jacob, Daniel J.

416

N-nitrosamine and N-nitramine Formation from NOx Reactions with Amines during Amine-Based CO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Capture for Post-combustion Carbon Sequestration Background! Generation of electricity and heat from power- combustion carbon sequestration, the capture and underground storage of CO2 from the exhaust gases of power formation from NOx reactions with amines during amine-based carbon dioxide capture for postcombustion carbon

Mitch, William A.

417

Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, October 1993--December 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Elemental sulfur recovery from SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream is highly attractive as it produces a salable product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO{sub 2} with coke) and Claus plant (reaction of SO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S over catalyst). This project will investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified in recent work at MIT as a superior catalyst for SO{sub 2} reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range(400-650 {degrees}C). The detailed kinetic and parametric studies of SO{sub 2} reduction planned in this work over various CeO{sub 2}-formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a very simplified process, namely that of a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams. The potential cost- and energy-efficiency benefits from this approach can not be overstated. A first apparent application is treatment of a regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought {open_quotes}Claus-alternative{close_quotes} for coal-fired power plant applications.

Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, the authors have planned a structured program including: Market/process/cost/evaluation; Lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; Lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; Bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and Utility review. Progress is reported from all three organizations.

NONE

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

419

DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF AN ULTRA LOW NOx COMBUSTOR FOR GAS TURBINES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alzeta Corporation has developed surface-stabilized fuel injectors for use with lean premixed combustors which provide extended turndown and ultra-low NOX emission performance. These injectors use a patented technique to form interacting radiant and blue-flame zones immediately above a selectively-perforated porous metal surface. This allows stable operation at low reaction temperatures. This technology is being commercialized under the product name nanoSTAR. Initial tests demonstrated low NOX emissions but, were limited by flashback failure of the injectors. The weld seams required to form cylindrical injectors from flat sheet material were identified as the cause of the failures. The approach for this project was to first develop new fabrication methods to produce injectors without weld seams, verify similar emissions performance to the original flat sheet material and then develop products for microturbines and small gas turbines along parallel development paths. A 37 month project was completed to develop and test a surface stabilized combustion system for gas turbine applications. New fabrication techniques developed removed a technological barrier to the success of the product by elimination of conductive weld seams from the injector surface. The injectors demonstrated ultra low emissions in rig tests conducted under gas turbine operating conditions. The ability for injectors to share a common combustion chamber allowing for deployment in annular combustion liner was also demonstrated. Some further development is required to resolve integration issues related to specific engine constraints, but the nanoSTAR technology has clearly demonstrated its low emissions potential. The overall project conclusions can be summarized: (1) A wet-laid casting method successfully eliminated weld seams from the injector surface without degrading performance. (2) Gas turbine cycle analysis identified several injector designs and control schemes to start and load engines using nanoSTAR technology. A mechanically simple single zone injector can be used in Solar Turbine's Taurus 60 engine. (3) Rig testing of single monolithic injectors demonstrated sub 3 ppmv NOX and sub 10 ppmv CO and UHC emissions (all corrected to 15% O2) at Taurus 60 full-load pressure and combustion air inlet temperature. (4) Testing of two nanoSTAR injectors in Solar Turbine's sector rig demonstrated the ability for injectors to survive when fired in close proximity at Taurus 60 full load pressure and combustion air inlet temperature. (5) Sector rig tests demonstrated emissions performance and range of operability consistent with single injector rig tests. Alzeta has committed to the commercialization of nanoSTAR injectors and has sufficient production capability to conclude development and meet initial demand.

NEIL K. MCDOUGALD

2005-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

420

Pilot-Scale Demonstration of ALTA for NOx Control in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and pilot-scale testing conducted to demonstrate the ability of the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. Testing specifically focused on characterizing NO{sub x} behavior with deep burner staging combined with Rich Reagent Injection (RRI). Tests were performed in a 4 MBtu/hr pilot-scale furnace at the University of Utah. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team which included the University of Utah and Combustion Components Associates (CCA). Deep burner staging and RRI, combined with selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), make up the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) for NO{sub x} reduction. The application of ALTA in a PC environment requires homogenization and rapid reaction of post-burner combustion gases and has not been successfully demonstrated in the past. Operation of the existing low-NO{sub x} burner and design and operation of an application specific ALTA burner was guided by CFD modeling conducted by REI. Parametric pilot-scale testing proved the chemistry of RRI in a PC environment with a NOx reduction of 79% at long residence times and high baseline NOx rate. At representative particle residence times, typical operation of the dual-register low-NO{sub x} burner provided an environment that was unsuitable for NO{sub x} reduction by RRI, showing no NOx reduction. With RRI, the ALTA burner was able to produce NO{sub x} emissions 20% lower than the low-NO{sub x} burner, 76 ppmv vs. 94 ppmv, at a burner stoichiometric ratio (BSR) of 0.7 and a normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) of 2.0. CFD modeling was used to investigate the application of RRI for NO{sub x} control on a 180 MW{sub e} wall-fired, PC boiler. A NO{sub x} reduction of 37% from baseline (normal operation) was predicted using ALTA burners with RRI to produce a NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.185 lb/MBtu at the horizontal nose of the boiler. When combined with SNCR, a NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.12-0.14 lb/MBtu can be expected when implementing a full ALTA system on this unit. Cost effectiveness of the full ALTA system was estimated at $2,152/ton NO{sub x} removed; this was less than 75% of the cost estimated for an SCR system on a unit of this size.

Andrew Fry; Devin Davis; Marc Cremer; Bradley Adams

2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox so2 sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report describes the objectives, technical approach, results and conclusions for a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept is a configuration of CrystaTech, Inc.'s CrystaSulf{reg_sign} process which utilizes a direct oxidation catalyst upstream of the absorber tower to oxidize a portion of the inlet hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and elemental sulfur. This hybrid configuration of CrystaSulf has been named CrystaSulf-DO and represents a low-cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day and more. This hybrid process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both onshore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf is a nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes H{sub 2}S from gas streams and converts it to elemental sulfur. In CrystaSulf, H{sub 2}S in the inlet gas is reacted with SO{sub 2} to make elemental sulfur according to the liquid phase Claus reaction: 2H{sub 2}S + SO{sub 2} {yields} 2H{sub 2}O + 3S. The SO{sub 2} for the reaction can be supplied from external sources by purchasing liquid SO{sub 2} and injecting it into the CrystaSulf solution, or produced internally by converting a portion of the inlet gas H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} or by burning a portion of the sulfur produced to make SO{sub 2}. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, the needed SO{sub 2} is produced by placing a bed of direct oxidation catalyst in the inlet gas stream to oxidize a portion of the inlet H{sub 2}S. Oxidation catalysts may also produce some elemental sulfur under these conditions, which can be removed and recovered prior to the CrystaSulf absorber. The CrystaSulf-DO process can utilize direct oxidation catalyst from many sources. Numerous direct oxidation catalysts are available from many suppliers worldwide. They have been used for H{sub 2}S oxidation to sulfur and/or SO{sub 2} for decades. It was believed at the outset of the project that TDA Research, Inc., a subcontractor, could develop a direct oxidation catalyst that would offer advantages over other commercially available catalysts for this CrystaSulf-DO process application. This project involved the development of several of TDA's candidate proprietary direct oxidation catalysts through laboratory bench-scale testing. These catalysts were shown to be effective for conversion of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} and to elemental sulfur under certain operating conditions. One of these catalysts was subsequently tested on a commercial gas stream in a bench-scale reactor at CrystaTech's pilot plant site in west Texas with good results. However, commercial developments have precluded the use of TDA catalysts in the CrystaSulf-DO process. Nonetheless, this project has advanced direct oxidation catalyst technology for H{sub 2}S control in energy industries and led to several viable paths to commercialization. TDA is commercializing the use of its direct oxidation catalyst technology in conjunction with the SulfaTreat{reg_sign} solid scavenger for natural gas applications and in conjunction with ConocoPhillips and DOE for gasification applications using ConocoPhillips gasification technology. CrystaTech is commercializing its CrystaSulf-DO process in conjunction with Gas Technology Institute for natural gas applications (using direct oxidation catalysts from other commercial sources) and in conjunction with ChevronTexaco and DOE for gasification applications using ChevronTexaco's gasification technology.

Dennis Dalrymple

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Integrated Process Configuration for High-Temperature Sulfur Mitigation during Biomass Conversion via Indirect Gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sulfur present in biomass often causes catalyst deactivation during downstream operations after gasification. Early removal of sulfur from the syngas stream post-gasification is possible via process rearrangements and can be beneficial for maintaining a low-sulfur environment for all downstream operations. High-temperature sulfur sorbents have superior performance and capacity under drier syngas conditions. The reconfigured process discussed in this paper is comprised of indirect biomass gasification using dry recycled gas from downstream operations, which produces a drier syngas stream and, consequently, more-efficient sulfur removal at high temperatures using regenerable sorbents. A combination of experimental results from NREL's fluidizable Ni-based reforming catalyst, fluidizable Mn-based sulfur sorbent, and process modeling information show that using a coupled process of dry gasification with high-temperature sulfur removal can improve the performance of Ni-based reforming catalysts significantly.

Dutta. A.; Cheah, S.; Bain, R.; Feik, C.; Magrini-Bair, K.; Phillips, S.

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

423

Effect of B20 and Low Aromatic Diesel on Transit Bus NOx Emissions Over Driving Cycles with a Range of Kinetic Intensity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions for transit buses for up to five different fuels and three standard transit duty cycles were compared to establish whether there is a real-world biodiesel NOx increase for transit bus duty cycles and engine calibrations. Six buses representing the majority of the current national transit fleet and including hybrid and selective catalyst reduction systems were tested on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer with certification diesel, certification B20 blend, low aromatic (California Air Resources Board) diesel, low aromatic B20 blend, and B100 fuels over the Manhattan, Orange County and UDDS test cycles. Engine emissions certification level had the dominant effect on NOx; kinetic intensity was the secondary driving factor. The biodiesel effect on NOx emissions was not statistically significant for most buses and duty cycles for blends with certification diesel, except for a 2008 model year bus. CARB fuel had many more instances of a statistically significant effect of reducing NOx. SCR systems proved effective at reducing NOx to near the detection limit on all duty cycles and fuels, including B100. While offering a fuel economy benefit, a hybrid system significantly increased NOx emissions over a same year bus with a conventional drivetrain and the same engine.

Lammert, M. P.; McCormick, R. L.; Sindler, P.; Williams, A.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Method for reducing NOx during combustion of coal in a burner  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An organically complexed nanocatalyst composition is applied to or mixed with coal prior to or upon introducing the coal into a coal burner in order to catalyze the removal of coal nitrogen from the coal and its conversion into nitrogen gas prior to combustion of the coal. This process leads to reduced NOx production during coal combustion. The nanocatalyst compositions include a nanoparticle catalyst that is made using a dispersing agent that can bond with the catalyst atoms. The dispersing agent forms stable, dispersed, nano-sized catalyst particles. The catalyst composition can be formed as a stable suspension to facilitate storage, transportation and application of the catalyst nanoparticles to a coal material. The catalyst composition can be applied before or after pulverizing the coal material or it may be injected directly into the coal burner together with pulverized coal.

Zhou, Bing (Cranbury, NJ); Parasher, Sukesh (Lawrenceville, NJ); Hare, Jeffrey J. (Provo, UT); Harding, N. Stanley (North Salt Lake, UT); Black, Stephanie E. (Sandy, UT); Johnson, Kenneth R. (Highland, UT)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

425

Vortex combustor for low NOX emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

Steele, Robert C; Edmonds, Ryan G; Williams, Joseph T; Baldwin, Stephen P

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

426

Vortex combustor for low NOx emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

Steele, Robert C. (Woodinville, WA); Edmonds, Ryan G. (Renton, WA); Williams, Joseph T. (Kirkland, WA); Baldwin, Stephen P. (Winchester, MA)

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

427

Task 3.15 -- Impacts of low-NOx combustion on fly ash and slagging. Semi-annual report, July 1--December 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the advent of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the coal-fired power industry began a more accelerated move toward using low-NOx burner (LNB) technologies to reduce NOx emissions. Most LNBs incorporate less oxygen with the coal initially, creating a cooler and somewhat substoichiometric initial combustion zone, with additional oxygen added further on in the combustion process to complete char combustion. Another method used to achieve lower NOx emissions is to fire the coal substoichiometrically and add additional air through overfire air ports. Both of these methods create certain impacts on fireside performance that are different from conventional high-excess-air firing arrangements. Some of the impacts that have been noticed by the utility industry are higher levels of unburned carbon in the fly ash and bottom ash, increased boiler tube corrosion, higher particulate loadings on control devices, and changes in slagging in the main furnace. Work on the fundamental mechanisms of entrained ash and ash deposit formation during low-NOx combustion has been sparse. This project by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) focuses on the issues of entrained ash formation and slagging for low-NOx combustion systems in general. Time-resolved combustion tests under conventional and low-NOx conditions have been conducted to note particle-size formation and slagging deposition. The results from this work are yielding an increased understanding of the mechanisms of ash formation during low-NOx combustion along with methods for enhancing heat transfer and fly ash collectability. Specific objectives of this research project include (1) determining whether initial char and ash generated under low-NOx conditions have greater tendencies for slagging than conventionally generated ash and (2) determining the differences, if any, between particle size and composition for entrained ash generated under low-NOx and conventional combustion conditions.

Zygarlicke, C.J.; McCollor, D.P.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Method of making sulfur-resistant composite metal membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides thin, hydrogen-permeable, sulfur-resistant membranes formed from palladium or palladium-alloy coatings on porous, ceramic or metal supports. Also disclosed are methods of making these membranes via sequential electroless plating techniques, wherein the method of making the membrane includes decomposing any organic ligands present on the substrate, reducing the palladium crystallites on the substrate to reduced palladium crystallites, depositing a film of palladium metal on the substrate and then depositing a second, gold film on the palladium film. These two metal films are then annealed at a temperature between about 200.degree. C. and about 1200.degree. C. to form a sulfur-resistant, composite PdAu alloy membrane.

Way, J. Douglas (Boulder, CO) [Boulder, CO; Lusk, Mark (Golden, CO) [Golden, CO; Thoen, Paul (Littleton, CO) [Littleton, CO

2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

429

Posting type Informational Subject Changed reporting of XRF sulfur  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Posting type Informational Subject Changed reporting of XRF sulfur Module/Species A/ S Sites entire network Period Starting 1/1/05 Submitter W.H. White, white@crocker.ucdavis.edu Supporting information XRF and 2005 seen in Figure 1. 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 12/1/04 1/1/05 2/1/05 3S/SO4 = ADJUSTMENT REPORTED XRF

Fischer, Emily V.

430

Intensities of electronic transitions in sulfur dioxide vapor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Relation between Oscillator Strength and Probability Coefficient of Absorption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 V. The Ultraviolet Spectrum of Sulfur Dioxide Gas . . . . . . 22 ) VI. Experimental Procedure and Computations . . . . . . . . . 23 U A... where )(e is defined as the dielectric constant of the medium. This equation holds for radiation which has a frequency sufficiently dif- ferent from that of the resonant frequencies of'the molecules of the medium, The polarizability o( of a molecule...

McCray, James Arthur

1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

How to Obtain Reproducible Results for Lithium Sulfur Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The basic requirements for getting reliable Li-S battery data have been discussed in this work. Unlike Li-ion batteries, electrolyte-rich environment significantly affects the cycling stability of Li-S batteries prepared and tested under the same conditions. The reason has been assigned to the different concentrations of polysulfide-containing electrolytes in the cells, which have profound influences on both sulfur cathode and lithium anode. At optimized S/E ratio of 50 g L-1, a good balance among electrolyte viscosity, wetting ability, diffusion rate dissolved polysulfide and nucleation/growth of short-chain Li2S/Li2S2 has been built along with largely reduced contamination on the lithium anode side. Accordingly, good cyclability, high reversible capacity and Coulombic efficiency are achieved in Li-S cell with controlled S/E ratio without any additive. Other factors such as sulfur content in the composite and sulfur loading on the electrode also need careful concern in Li-S system in order to generate reproducible results and gauge the various methods used to improve Li-S battery technology.

Zheng, Jianming; Lu, Dongping; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Process for recovery of sulfur from acid gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Elemental sulfur is recovered from the H.sub.2 S present in gases derived from fossil fuels by heating the H.sub.2 S with CO.sub.2 in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of a catalyst selected as one which enhances the thermal dissociation of H.sub.2 S to H.sub.2 and S.sub.2. The equilibrium of the thermal decomposition of H.sub.2 S is shifted by the equilibration of the water-gas-shift reaction so as to favor elemental sulfur formation. The primary products of the overall reaction are S.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. Small amounts of COS, SO.sub.2 and CS.sub.2 may also form. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture results in a substantial increase in the efficiency of the conversion of H.sub.2 S to elemental sulfur. Plant economy is further advanced by treating the product gases to remove byproduct carbonyl sulfide by hydrolysis, which converts the COS back to CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S. Unreacted CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H.sub.2 and CO, which has value either as a fuel or as a chemical feedstock and recovers the hydrogen value from the H.sub.2 S.

Towler, Gavin P. (Kirkbymoorside, GB2); Lynn, Scott (Pleasant Hill, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for enhancing the removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale. The process consists of: (a) contacting the oil-shale with a sufficient amount of an aqueous base solution comprised of at least a stoichiometric amount of one or more alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal hydroxides based on the total amount of nitrogen and sulfur present in the oil-shale. Also necessary is an amount sufficient to form a two-phase liquid, solid system, a temperature from about 50/sup 0/C to about 350/sup 0/C., and pressures sufficient to maintain the solution in liquid form; (b) separating the effluents from the treated oil-shale, wherein the resulting liquid effluent contains nitrogen moieties and sulfur moieties from the oil-shale and any resulting gaseous effluent contains nitrogen moieties from the oil-shale, and (c) converting organic material of the treated oil-shale to shale-oil at a temperature from about 450/sup 0/C to about 550/sup 0/C.

Olmstead, W.N.

1986-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

434

RECENT ADVANCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In the HyS Process, sulfur dioxide is oxidized in the presence of water at the electrolyzer anode to produce sulfuric acid and protons. The protons are transported through a cation-exchange membrane electrolyte to the cathode and are reduced to form hydrogen. In the second stage of the process, the sulfuric acid by-product from the electrolyzer is thermally decomposed at high temperature to produce sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The two gases are separated and the sulfur dioxide recycled to the electrolyzer for oxidation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been exploring a fuel-cell design concept for the SDE using an anolyte feed comprised of concentrated sulfuric acid saturated with sulfur dioxide. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint compared to a parallel-plate electrolyzer design. This paper will provide a summary of recent advances in the development of the SDE for the HyS process.

Hobbs, D.

2010-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

435

Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility of the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.

Zheng, Dong [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Zhang, Xuran [Wuhan Univ. of Technology, Hubei (China); Dept. of Chemistry; Li, Chao [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; McKinnon, Meaghan E. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Sadok, Rachel G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Qu, Deyu [Wuhan Univ. of Technology, Hubei (China); Dept. of Chemistry; Yu, Xiqian [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Lee, Hung-Sui [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Qu, Deyang [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Date Report No. 3: Diesel Fuel Sulfur Effects on Particulate Matter Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim report covers the effects of diesel fuel sulfur level on particulate matter emissions for four technologies.

DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

437

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub X} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub X} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the previous semi-annual technical progress report (April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001). During the current reporting period, additional balance of plant impact information was determined for one of the two tests. These additional balance-of-plant results are presented and discussed in this report. There was no other technical progress to report, because all planned testing as part of this project has been completed.

Gary M. Blythe

2002-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

438

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. Balance of plant impacts, primarily on the ESP particulate control device, were also determined during both tests. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

Gary M. Blythe

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

439

ENERGY EFFICIENCY LIMITS FOR A RECUPERATIVE BAYONET SULFURIC ACID DECOMPOSITION REACTOR FOR SULFUR CYCLE THERMOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A recuperative bayonet reactor design for the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition step in sulfur-based thermochemical hydrogen cycles was evaluated using pinch analysis in conjunction with statistical methods. The objective was to establish the minimum energy requirement. Taking hydrogen production via alkaline electrolysis with nuclear power as the benchmark, the acid decomposition step can consume no more than 450 kJ/mol SO{sub 2} for sulfur cycles to be competitive. The lowest value of the minimum heating target, 320.9 kJ/mol SO{sub 2}, was found at the highest pressure (90 bar) and peak process temperature (900 C) considered, and at a feed concentration of 42.5 mol% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. This should be low enough for a practical water-splitting process, even including the additional energy required to concentrate the acid feed. Lower temperatures consistently gave higher minimum heating targets. The lowest peak process temperature that could meet the 450-kJ/mol SO{sub 2} benchmark was 750 C. If the decomposition reactor were to be heated indirectly by an advanced gas-cooled reactor heat source (50 C temperature difference between primary and secondary coolants, 25 C minimum temperature difference between the secondary coolant and the process), then sulfur cycles using this concept could be competitive with alkaline electrolysis provided the primary heat source temperature is at least 825 C. The bayonet design will not be practical if the (primary heat source) reactor outlet temperature is below 825 C.

Gorensek, M.; Edwards, T.

2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

440

Advanced product recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Third quarterly technical progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied to 72,000 MW of US, coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed form the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its industry and commercialization advisor, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner, Tufts, plans to develop and scale-up an advanced, byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, catalytic process for reducing sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, they have planned a structured program including: market/process/cost/evaluation; lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and utility review. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning.

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox so2 sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Lithium Polysulfidophosphates: A Family of Lithium-Conducting Sulfur-Rich Compounds for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Given the great potential for improving the energy density of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries by a factor of 5, a breakthrough in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries will have a dramatic impact in a broad scope of energy related fields. Conventional Li-S batteries that use liquid electrolytes are intrinsically short-lived with low energy efficiency. The challenges stem from the poor electronic and ionic conductivities of elemental sulfur and its discharge products. We report herein lithium polysulfidophosphates (LPSP), a family of sulfur-rich compounds, as the enabler of long-lasting and energy-efficient Li-S batteries. LPSP have ionic conductivities of 3.0 10-5 S cm-1 at 25 oC, which is 8 orders of magnitude higher than that of Li2S (~10-13 S cm-1). The high Li-ion conductivity of LPSP is the salient characteristic of these compounds that impart the excellent cycling performance to Li-S batteries. In addition, the batteries are configured in an all-solid state that promises the safe cycling of high-energy batteries with metallic lithium anodes.

Lin, Zhan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Zengcai [ORNL] [ORNL; Fu, Wujun [ORNL] [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Characteristics of Pt-K/MgAl2O4 lean NOx trap catalysts. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation SitesStanding FriedelIron-Sulfur3-1 November8-1 November36

443

Characterization of NOx Species in Dehydrated and Hydrated Na- and Ba-Y,  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation SitesStanding FriedelIron-Sulfur3-1ImplantationApurinic/ApyrimidicFAU

444

A cost-effectiveness analysis of alternative ozone control strategies : flexible nitrogen oxide (NOx) abatement from power plants in the eastern United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ozone formation is a complex, non-linear process that depends on the atmospheric concentrations of its precursors, nitrogen oxide (NOx) and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), as well as on temperature and the available ...

Sun, Lin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

doi:10.1016/j.gca.2005.02.002 Sulfur diffusion in basaltic melts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

doi:10.1016/j.gca.2005.02.002 Sulfur diffusion in basaltic melts CARMELA FREDA,1, * DON R. BAKER,1,2 February 3, 2005) Abstract--We measured the diffusion coefficients of sulfur in two different basaltic for sulfur diffusion in anhydrous basalts: D 2.19 10 4 exp 226.3 58.3 RT where D is the diffusion coefficient

Long, Bernard

446

Selective catalytic reduction system and process for treating NOx emissions using a palladium and rhodium or ruthenium catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process for the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in a gas stream (29) in the presence of H.sub.2 is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream with a catalyst system (38) comprising zirconia-silica washcoat particles (41), a pre-sulfated zirconia binder (44), and a catalyst combination (40) comprising palladium and at least one of rhodium, ruthenium, or a mixture of ruthenium and rhodium.

Sobolevskiy, Anatoly (Orlando, FL); Rossin, Joseph A. (Columbus, OH); Knapke, Michael J. (Columbus, OH)

2011-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

447

Portable instrument and method for detecting reduced sulfur compounds in a gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A portable real time instrument for detecting concentrations in the part per billion range of reduced sulfur compounds in a sample gas. Ozonized air or oxygen and reduced sulfur compounds in a sample gas stream react to produce chemiluminescence in a reaction chamber and the emitted light is filtered and observed by a photomultiplier to detect reduced sulfur compounds. Selective response to individual sulfur compounds is achieved by varying reaction chamber temperature and ozone and sample gas flows, and by the use of either air or oxygen as the ozone source gas.

Gaffney, J.S.; Kelly, T.J.; Tanner, R.L.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of long cycle life in half cells and expand the synthesis of sulfurcarbon composite materials of various sulfur loading 2. Compare the performance for different...

449

Sulfur barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for forming a barrier around at least a portion of a treatment area in a subsurface formation are described herein. Sulfur may be introduced into one or more wellbores located inside a perimeter of a treatment area in the formation having a permeability of at least 0.1 darcy. At least some of the sulfur is allowed to move towards portions of the formation cooler than the melting point of sulfur to solidify the sulfur in the formation to form the barrier.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Christensen, Del Scot (Friendswood, TX)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

450

E-Print Network 3.0 - ashless low-sulfur fuel Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Blendstocks for Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel in PADD III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17... markets for low ... Source: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Center for Transportation...

451

Sulfur-tolerant natural gas reforming for fuel-cell applications.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??An attractive simplification of PEM-FC systems operated with natural gas would be the use of a sulfur tolerant reforming catalyst, but such a catalyst has (more)

Hennings, Ulrich

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous sulfuric acid Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Chemistry, Temple University Collection: Materials Science ; Chemistry 13 Microbial Architecture of Environmental Sulfur Processes: A Summary: , 2009. Accepted July 9, 2009....

453

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbing sulfur dioxide Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

provides some chemicals which are incompatible with other compounds. Summary: Potassium carbon tetrachloride, carbon dioxide, water Potassium chlorate sulfuric and other acids...

454

E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient sulfur dioxide Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

provides some chemicals which are incompatible with other compounds. Summary: Potassium carbon tetrachloride, carbon dioxide, water Potassium chlorate sulfuric and other acids...

455

Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

200 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type, and PAD District (Cents per Gallon...

456

Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type, and PAD District (Cents per Gallon...

457

Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

200 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type, and PAD District (Cents per Gallon...

458

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic sulfur heterocycles Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

distribution in the oil fractions obtained by thermal cracking of Jordanian El-Lajjun oil Shale Summary: . Polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles IV. Determination of polycyclic...

459

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric sulfur behavior Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

change are intimately linked to sulfur (1). Over the last 25 years the primary energy demand in Asia has Source: Jacobson, Mark - Department of Civil and Environmental...

460

E-Print Network 3.0 - agent sulfur mustard Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Types of defensive stragegies Summary: . 4 Glucosinolates (Thioglucosides, or Mustard Oils) sulfur containing glycosides - amino acid... as a foods - B. nigra, other species...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nox so2 sulfur" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. Previous research results have demonstrated that the inhalation of coal/MSS ash particles cause an increase in lung permeability than coal ash particles alone. Elemental analysis of the coal/MSS ash particles showed that Zn was more abundant in these ash particles than the ash particles of coal ash alone.

Jost O.L. Wendt

2003-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

462

Effect of Environmental Factors on Sulfur Gas Emissions from Drywall  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Problem drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) investigation of problem drywall incorporates three parallel tracks: (1) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and reported health symptoms; (2) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and electrical and fire safety issues in affected homes; and (3) tracing the origin and the distribution of the drywall. To assess the potential impact on human health and to support testing for electrical and fire safety, the CPSC has initiated a series of laboratory tests that provide elemental characterization of drywall, characterization of chemical emissions, and in-home air sampling. The chemical emission testing was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The LBNL study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1 of this study, LBNL tested thirty drywall samples provided by CPSC and reported standard emission factors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, reactive sulfur gases (RSGs) and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). The standard emission factors were determined using small (10.75 liter) dynamic test chambers housed in a constant temperature environmental chamber. The tests were all run at 25 C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and with an area-specific ventilation rate of {approx}1.5 cubic meters per square meter of emitting surface per hour [m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}/h]. The thirty samples that were tested in Phase 1 included seventeen that were manufactured in China in 2005, 2006 and 2009, and thirteen that were manufactured in North America in 2009. The measured emission factors for VOCs and aldehydes were generally low and did not differ significantly between the Chinese and North American drywall. Eight of the samples tested had elevated emissions of volatile sulfur-containing compounds with total RSG emission factors between 32 and 258 micrograms per square meter per hour [{micro}g/m{sup 2}/h]. The dominant sulfur containing compounds in the RSG emission stream were hydrogen sulfide with emission factors between 17-201 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h, and sulfur dioxide with emission factors between 8-64 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h. The four highest emitting samples also had a unique signature of VSC emissions including > 40 higher molecular weight sulfur-containing compounds although the emission rate for the VSCs was several orders of magnitude lower than that of the RSGs. All of the high emitting drywall samples were manufactured in China in 2005-2006. Results from Phase 1 provided baseline emission factors for drywall samples manufactured in China and in North America but the results exclude variations in environmental conditions that may exist in homes or other built structures, including various combinations of temperature, RH, ventilation rate and the influence of coatings such as texture and paints. The objective of Phase 2 was to quantify the effect of temperature and RH on the RSG emission factors for uncoated drywall, and to measure the effect of plaster and paint coatings on RSG emission factors from drywall. Additional experiments were also performed to assess the influence of ventilation rate on measured emission factors for drywall.

Maddalena, Randy

2011-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

463

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2003 through September, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the eighth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the semi-annual Technical Progress Report for the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. Additional balance of plant impact information for the two tests was reported in the Technical Progress Report for the time period October 1, 2001 through March 30, 2002. Additional information became available about the effects of byproduct magnesium hydroxide injection on SCR catalyst coupons during the long-term test at BMP, and those results were reported in the report for the time period April 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002. During the current period, process economic estimates were developed, comparing the costs of the furnace magnesium hydroxide slurry injection process tested as part of this project to a number of other candidate SO{sub 3}/sulfuric acid control technologies for coal-fired power plants. The results of this economic evaluation are included in this progress report.

Gary M. Blythe

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to utilities with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species, a precursor to acid aerosol/condensable emissions, and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of SCR for NO{sub x} control on some coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project is testing the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium- and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents have been tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry produced from a wet flue gas desulfurization system waste stream, from a system that employs a Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime scrubbing process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles into the front wall of upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests. The longer-term tests are being conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. This reports presents the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

2002-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

465

Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Sulfur polymer cement for macroencapsulation of mixed waste debris  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In FY 1997, the US DOE Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) sponsored a demonstration of the macroencapsulation of mixed waste debris using sulfur polymer cement (SPC). Two mixed wastes were tested--a D006 waste comprised of sheets of cadmium and a D008/D009 waste comprised of lead pipes and joints contaminated with mercury. The demonstration was successful in rendering these wastes compliant with Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR), thereby eliminating one Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) waste stream from the national inventory.

Mattus, C.H.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429Lacey,(MonasterLowellis a town inRiver93.Information Martinez Sulfuric Acid

468

A Soft Approach to Encapsulate Sulfur: Polyaniline Nanotubes for  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert SouthwestTechnologies |November 2011A FirstEMSL Shell Model forIronLithium-Sulfur

469

Economics of pollution trading for SO{sub 2} and NOx  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For years economists have urged policymakers to use market-based approaches such as cap-and-trade programs or emission taxes to control pollution. The sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) allowance market created by Title IV of the 1990 US Clean Air Act Amendments represents the first real test of the wisdom of economists' advice. Subsequent urban and regional applications of NOx emission allowance trading took shape in the 1990s in the United States, culminating in a second large experiment in emission trading in the eastern United States that began in 2003. This paper provides an overview of the economic rationale for emission trading and a description of the major US programs for SO{sub 2} and nitrogen oxides. These programs are evaluated along measures of performance including cost savings, environmental integrity, and incentives for technological innovation. The authors offer lessons for the design of future programs including, most importantly, those reducing carbon dioxide. 128 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Dallas Burtraw; David A. Evans; Alan Krupnick; Karen Palmer; Russell Toth

2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z