National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for notable in creases

  1. In celebration of Women's History Month, Lab recognizes notable...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Frances Dunne answered the call to serve the nation by leaving Swarthmore College to work as an aircraft mechanic at Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque. She was recruited for ...

  2. A space-based, high-resolution view of notable changes in urban NO x

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    pollution around the world (2005-2014) (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A space-based, high-resolution view of notable changes in urban NO x pollution around the world (2005-2014) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A space-based, high-resolution view of notable changes in urban NO x pollution around the world (2005-2014) Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) are produced during combustion processes and, thus may serve as a proxy for fossil fuel-based energy usage and coemitted

  3. In celebration of Women's History Month, Lab recognizes notable firsts by

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Who We Are In The Spotlight Allison Davis Sandia National Laboratories Allison Davis October 2009 NNSA Defense Programs Award of Excellence Two individuals and nine teams received the NNSA Defense Programs Awards of Excellence at ceremonies this year at Sandia National Laboratories in New Mexico and California. The NNSA Defense Programs Awards of Excellence were created in the early 1980s to give special recognition to those at the laboratories and plants directly associated with the stockpile

  4. ARM - Research Highlights: Notable Findings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HighlightsNotable Research Findings Form Submit a New Research Highlight Sort Highlights Submitter Title Research Area Working Group Submission Date DOE Progress Reports Notable Research Findings for 2001-2006 Office of Science Abstracts Database Research Highlights Summaries Notable Research Findings for the Past Five Years Aerosols Cloud Parameterization and Modeling (Currently Cloud Modeling) Cloud Properties Instantaneous Radiative Flux (Currently Radiative Processes)

  5. Assessment of the Potential to Reduce Emissions from Road Transportation, Notably NOx, Through the Use of Alternative Vehicles and Fuels in the Great Smoky Mountains Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheffield, J.

    2001-08-30

    Air pollution is a serious problem in the region of the Great Smoky Mountains. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) may designate non-attainment areas by 2003 for ozone. Pollutants include nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), lead, and particulate matter (PM), which are health hazards, damage the environment, and limit visibility. The main contributors to this pollution are industry, transportation, and utilities. Reductions from all contributors are needed to correct this problem. While improvements are projected in each sector over the next decades, the May 2000 Interim Report issued by the Southern Appalachian Mountains Initiative (SAMI) suggests that the percentage of NO{sub x} emissions from transportation may increase.

  6. A space-based, high-resolution view of notable changes in urban...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the Republic of Korea and Japan, diminishing the impact of local pollution controls. ... within several megacities may reflect mixed efforts to cope with air quality degradation. ...

  7. Leadership and Stewardship of the Laboratory (Objective 4.1) Notable Outcome - Phase II Alternative Analysis and PNNL Site Plan Recommendation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pittman, Jeffery P.; Cassidy, Stephen R.; Mosey, Whitney LC; Leitz, Erlan M.; Oukrop, Lanson J.

    2013-07-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) have recently completed an effort to identify the current state of the campus and gaps that exist with regards to space needs, facilities and infrastructure. This effort has been used to establish a campus strategy to ensure PNNL is ready to further the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) mission. Ten-year business projections and the impacts on space needs were assessed and incorporated into the long-term facility plans. In identifying/quantifying the space needs for PNNL, the following categories were addressed: Multi-purpose Programmatic (wet chemistry and imaging laboratory space), Strategic (Systems Engineering and Computation Analytics, and Collaboration space), Remediation (space to offset the loss of the Research Technology Laboratory [RTL] Complex due to decontamination and demolition), and Optimization (the exit of older and less cost-effective facilities). The findings of the space assessment indicate a need for wet chemistry space, imaging space, and strategic space needs associated with systems engineering and collaboration space. Based on the analysis, a 10-year campus strategy evolved that balanced four strategic objectives, as directed by the DOE Office of Science (DOE-SC): • Mission Alignment - maintain customer satisfaction • Reasonable & Achievable - do what makes sense from a practical and cost perspective • Campus Continuity - increase the federal control of assets and follow the Campus Master Plan • Guiding Principles - modern, collaborative, flexible, and sustainable. This strategy considered the following possible approaches to meet the identified space needs: • Institutional General Plant Project (IGPP) funded projects • Third party leased facilities • Science Laboratory Infrastructure (SLI) line item funded projects. Pairing the four strategic objectives with additional key metrics as criteria for selection, an initial recommendation was made to DOE-SC to use all three funding mechanisms to deliver the mission need. DOE-SC provided feedback that third party facilities are not to be pursued at this time. The decision was made by DOE that an IGPP-funded program would be the base plan, while retaining the possibility of a 2019 SLI-funded project. The SLI project will be designed to deliver significant impact on science and technology (S&T) and support the development of a modern, synergistic core campus where a collaborative and innovative environment is fostered. The specific scientific impact will be further defined in the 2015 and 2016 Annual Laboratory Plans. Additionally, opportunities will be explored to construct annexes on current federal facilities, including the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), if proven synergistic and cost effective. The final result of this effort is an actionable, flexible plan with scope, schedule, and cost targets for individual acquisition projects. Implemented as planned, the result will increase federal ownership by approximately 15 percent, reduce the operating cost by approximately 7 percent, and reduce the geographic facility footprint by approximately 66,000 gross square feet (GSF). Reduction of surplus space will be addressed while maintaining customer satisfaction, lowering operating costs, reducing the campus footprint, and increasing the federal control of assets. This strategy is documented in PNNL’s 2014 Laboratory Plan.

  8. 431st Brookhaven Lecture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Robert Crease

    2010-09-01

    Crease presents "Recombinant Science: The Birth of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider," a lecture that follows on the 429th Brookhaven Lecture, in which Crease talked about the early history of BNL. Both lectures are part of the ongoing celebration of BNL's 60th anniversary year.

  9. Locked modes and magnetic field errors in the Madison Symmetric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Here A de- creases at the sawtooth crash, showing the flattening and inward shift of the ... triple its value. (b) The m 1 component of the magnetic field error of the poloidal gap. ...

  10. This Week In Petroleum Summary Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    basin, is altering both crude and product market dynamics. Meanwhile, the European economic recovery faces lingering credit issues, notably in Greece, while the U.S. recovery is...

  11. This Week In Petroleum Summary Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    production growth, notably Kinder Morgan's 100,000-bbld condensate splitter in Galena Park, Texas, 50,000 bbld of which is scheduled to start up this quarter and the rest in...

  12. Fact #769: March 4, 2013 Monthly Trend in Light Vehicle Sales, 2008-2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Over the last five years, there have been peaks in light vehicle sales in the months of March, May, and December. There are two notable exceptions: in 2009, the Cash for Clunkers program caused a...

  13. Humidity trends imply increased sensitivity to clouds in a warming...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    at wavelengths that are semi-transparent to greenhouse gases, most notably water vapour. ... and variability in clouds14, water vapour15,16 and surface emission16,17 all ...

  14. 429th Brookhaven Lecture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Robert P. Crease

    2010-09-01

    Robert P. Crease, historian for Brookhaven National Laboratory and Chair of the Philosophy Department at Stony Brook University, presents "How Big Science Came to Long Island: The Birth of Brookhaven Lab," covering the founding of the Laboratory, the key figures involved in starting BNL, and the many problems that had to be overcome in creating and designing its first big machines.

  15. Investigating an API for resilient exascale computing. (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Technical Report: Investigating an API for resilient exascale computing. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Investigating an API for resilient exascale computing. Increased HPC capability comes with increased complexity, part counts, and fault occurrences. In- creasing the resilience of systems and applications to faults is a critical requirement facing the viability of exascale systems, as the overhead of traditional checkpoint/restart is projected to outweigh its

  16. (trident.pdf)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scalable Framework for Representation and Exchange of Network Measurements Jason Zurawski, Martin Swany Dan Gunter Department of Computer and Information Sciences Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 Berkeley, CA 94720 {zurawski, swany}@cis.udel.edu dkgunter@lbl.gov Abstract Grid and distributed computing environments are evolving rapidly and driving the development of system and network technologies. The design of applications has placed an in- creased

  17. Revisions in Natural Gas Monthly Consumption and Price Data, 2004 - 2007

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the method in which natural gas consumption data are collected and processed for publication and details the most notable revisions in natural gas consumption data for the period 2004 to 2007. It is intended to assist data users in evaluating the quality of the monthly consumption and price data for residential, commercial, and industrial consumers of natural gas.

  18. Optical/electrical correlations in ZnO: the plasmonic resonance phase diagram

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Look, David C.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2013-08-05

    Following the Drude model for dielectric constant, ?(E) = ??(E) + i???(E), the plasmonic resonance energy Eres in a semiconductor depends on four parameters: ??(?) (or ??) , effective mass m*, optical mobility opt, and optical carrier concentration nopt. By solving the Drude equation at ?(Eres) = 0, we obtain a relationship between opt and nopt at constant Eres [or wavelength ?res(m) = 1.2395/Eres(eV)]. A family of opt vs nopt curves covering a range of ?res values (including the limiting wavelength ?res = ?) constitute a plasmonic resonance phase diagram (PRPD) for a semiconductor defined by only ?? and m*. The PRPD is a convenient instrument that allows an immediate prediction of ?res from Hall-effect measurements of H and nH. Furthermore, if the H/nH point falls outside the family of opt vs nopt curves, it shows that no resonance at all is possible. We apply the PRPD analysis to a series of ten ZnO samples grown by pulsed laser deposition at 200 ?C in an ambient of 33%H2:67%Ar and annealed in 25-?C steps for 10 min in air at various temperatures from 400 ?C to 600 ?C. The unannealed sample had a resistivity ? = 1.67 x 10-4 ?-cm, n = 1.39 x 1021 cm-3, and = 26.8 cm2/V-s, and the 600-?C sample, ? = 1.52 ?-cm, n = 5.03 x 1017 cm-3, and = 8.2 cm2/V-s. Each of the ten H/nH points was plotted on the PRPD. For the samples that were annealed at 550 ?C or lower, the H/nH points yielded predicted values of ?res that ranged from 1.07 to 2.80 m, respectively; however, the 575-?C and 600-?C samples were predicted to have no resonances at all. Reflectance curves for the eight samples annealed up to 550 ?C de-creased slowly from 6 eV down to about 1 eV, and then increased rapidly at an energy evidently close to Eres. In contrast, there was no such increase for the 575-?C and 600-?C samples, and thus presumably, no resonance. Satisfactory agreement is found between the reflectance and Hall-effect-predicted values of ?res.

  19. (U) Implementation and demonstration of a time-resolved pyrometry/spectroscopy capability in shock compression experiments on metal oxide powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodwin, Peter Marvin; Lang, Jr., John Michael; Dattelbaum, Dana Mcgraw; Scharff, Robert Jason

    2015-04-08

    Temperature is notably the most difficult quantity to measure in shock compression experiments; however, it is critical for accurately constraining theoretical or tabular equations of state. Until now, the temperature achieved during the shock loading of porous materials could only be calculated. The technique presented in this report measures, for the first time, the shocked temperature of porous systems.

  20. Advanced regenerator testing in the Raytheon dual-use cryocoolerr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T. J.

    2014-01-29

    Significant progress has been made on the Raytheon low cost space cryocooler called the Dual-Use Cryocooler (DUC). Most notably, the DUC has been integrated and tested with an advanced regenerator. The advanced regenerator is a drop-in replacement for stainless steel screens and has shown significant thermodynamic performance improvements. This paper will compare the performance of two different regenerators and explain the benefits of the advanced regenerator.

  1. Record External Quantum Efficiency in Blue OLED Device

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have created a blue organic light emitting diode (OLED) with an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 11% at 800 cd/m2, exceeding their previous record EQE of 8%. The EQE of blue OLEDs is a major challenge in OLED technology development. This achievement is particularly notable since it was accomplished at a much lower operating voltage (6.2V) than previous demonstrations using similar structures, revealing the potential for much higher power efficiencies.

  2. DOE Announces $80 Million in Funding to Increase SuperTruck Efficiency |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Announces $80 Million in Funding to Increase SuperTruck Efficiency DOE Announces $80 Million in Funding to Increase SuperTruck Efficiency March 1, 2016 - 2:59pm Addthis News release from the Department of Energy WASHINGTON - Building on the notable successes of the SuperTruck initiative, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Transportation Reuben Sarkar today announced SuperTruck II, an $80 million funding opportunity, subject to congressional appropriations, for research,

  3. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing; Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong; Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing; Yu, Hongyu

    2014-02-24

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics.

  4. Criegee intermediates in the indoor environment. New insights

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shallcross, D. E.; Taatjes, C. A.; Percival, C. J.

    2014-03-25

    Criegee intermediates are formed in the ozonolysis of alkenes and play an important role in indoor chemistry, notably as a source of OH radicals. Recent studies have shown that these Criegee intermediates react very quickly with NO2, SO2, and carbonyls, and in this study, steady-state calculations are used to inspect the potential impact of these data on indoor chemistry. It is shown that these reactions could accelerate NO3 formation and SO2 removal in the indoor environment significantly. In addition, reaction between Criegee intermediates and halogenated carbonyls could provide a significant loss process indoors, where currently one does not exist.

  5. Minerals Yearbook: Minerals in the world economy. 1988 International review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimbell, C.L.; Zajac, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    In overview, 1988 appeared to be the best year for the world's mineral industry since 1980, although the all-important petroleum component suffered severely from low prices. With this notable exception, the traditional statistical measures of mineral industry performance, namely production, trade, and consumption, reflected growth in most elements of the world mineral industry from crude material extraction through the gamut of downstream processing. Moreover, the growth was reasonably well distributed geographically, with many countries sharing in the substantial upturn in activity. The report discusses production, trade, consumption, investment, transportation, prices, and statistical summary of world production and trade of major mineral commodities.

  6. NREL: State and Local Governments - Feed-In Tariffs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Feed-In Tariffs A feed-in tariff (FIT) is an energy supply policy that promotes the rapid deployment of renewable energy resources. A FIT offers a guarantee of payments to renewable energy developers for the electricity they produce. Payments can be composed of electricity alone or of electricity bundled with renewable energy certificates. These payments are generally awarded as long-term contracts set over a period of 15-20 years. FIT policies are successful around the world, notably in Europe.

  7. Los Alamos safeguards program overview and NDA in safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keepin, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Over the years the Los Alamos safeguards program has developed, tested, and implemented a broad range of passive and active nondestructive analysis (NDA) instruments (based on gamma and x-ray detection and neutron counting) that are now widely employed in safeguarding nuclear materials of all forms. Here very briefly, the major categories of gamma ray and neutron based NDA techniques, give some representative examples of NDA instruments currently in use, and cite a few notable instances of state-of-the-art NDA technique development. Historical aspects and a broad overview of the safeguards program are also presented.

  8. Recent advances in the kinetics of oxygen reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adzic, R.

    1996-07-01

    Oxygen reduction is considered an important electrocatalytic reaction; the most notable need remains improvement of the catalytic activity of existing metal electrocatalysts and development of new ones. A review is given of new advances in the understanding of reaction kinetics and improvements of the electrocatalytic properties of some surfaces, with focus on recent studies of relationship of the surface properties to its activity and reaction kinetics. The urgent need is to improve catalytic activity of Pt and synthesize new, possibly non- noble metal catalysts. New experimental techniques for obtaining new level of information include various {ital in situ} spectroscopies and scanning probes, some involving synchrotron radiation. 138 refs, 18 figs, 2 tabs.

  9. Study on electron beam in a low energy plasma focus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Muhammad Zubair; Ling, Yap Seong; San, Wong Chiow

    2014-03-05

    Electron beam emission was investigated in a low energy plasma focus device (2.2 kJ) using copper hollow anode. Faraday cup was used to estimate the energy of the electron beam. XR100CR X-ray spectrometer was used to explore the impact of the electron beam on the target observed from top-on and side-on position. Experiments were carried out at optimized pressure of argon gas. The impact of electron beam is exceptionally notable with two different approaches using lead target inside hollow anode in our plasma focus device.

  10. U.S. Continues to Lead the World in Wind Power Growth | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 29, 2008 - 12:32pm Addthis DOE Report Shows Rapidly Growing U.S. Wind Power Market WASHINGTON - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today released the 2007 edition of its Annual Report on U.S. Wind Power Installation, Cost, and Performance Trends, which provides a comprehensive overview of developments in the rapidly evolving U.S. wind power market. Notably, the report finds that U.S. wind power capacity increased by 46 percent in 2007, with $9 billion invested in U.S. wind plants in

  11. DOE Announces $80 Million in Funding to Increase SuperTruck Efficiency |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy $80 Million in Funding to Increase SuperTruck Efficiency DOE Announces $80 Million in Funding to Increase SuperTruck Efficiency March 1, 2016 - 11:42am Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT 202-586-4940 DOENews@hq.doe.gov Funding Opportunity Announcement and three new projects to focus on research, development and demonstration of plug-in electric powertrain technologies WASHINGTON - Building on the notable successes of the SuperTruck initiative, Deputy Assistant Secretary for

  12. Transmission Electron Microscope In Situ Straining Technique to Directly Observe Defects and Interfaces During Deformation in Magnesium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrow, Benjamin M.; Cerreta, E. K.; McCabe, R. J.; Tomé, C. N.

    2015-05-14

    In-situ straining was used to study deformation behavior of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) metals.Twinning and dislocation motion, both essential to plasticity in hcp materials, were observed.Typically, these processes are characterized post-mortem by examining remnant microstructural features after straining has occurred. By imposing deformation during imaging, direct observation of active deformation mechanisms is possible. This work focuses on straining of structural metals in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), and a recently developed technique that utilizes familiar procedures and equipment to increase ease of experiments. In-situ straining in a TEM presents several advantages over conventional post-mortem characterization, most notably time-resolution of deformation and streamlined identification of active deformation mechanisms. Drawbacks to the technique and applicability to other studies are also addressed. In-situ straining is used to study twin boundary motion in hcp magnesium. A {101¯2} twin was observed during tensile and compressive loading. Twin-dislocation interactions are directly observed. Notably, dislocations are observed to remain mobile, even after multiple interactions with twin boundaries, a result which suggests that Basinki’s dislocation transformation mechanism by twinning is not present in hcp metals. The coupling of in-situ straining with traditional post-mortem characterization yields more detailed information about material behavior during deformation than either technique alone.

  13. Transmission Electron Microscope In Situ Straining Technique to Directly Observe Defects and Interfaces During Deformation in Magnesium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Morrow, Benjamin M.; Cerreta, E. K.; McCabe, R. J.; Tomé, C. N.

    2015-05-14

    In-situ straining was used to study deformation behavior of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) metals.Twinning and dislocation motion, both essential to plasticity in hcp materials, were observed.Typically, these processes are characterized post-mortem by examining remnant microstructural features after straining has occurred. By imposing deformation during imaging, direct observation of active deformation mechanisms is possible. This work focuses on straining of structural metals in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), and a recently developed technique that utilizes familiar procedures and equipment to increase ease of experiments. In-situ straining in a TEM presents several advantages over conventional post-mortem characterization, most notably time-resolution of deformation andmore » streamlined identification of active deformation mechanisms. Drawbacks to the technique and applicability to other studies are also addressed. In-situ straining is used to study twin boundary motion in hcp magnesium. A {101¯2} twin was observed during tensile and compressive loading. Twin-dislocation interactions are directly observed. Notably, dislocations are observed to remain mobile, even after multiple interactions with twin boundaries, a result which suggests that Basinki’s dislocation transformation mechanism by twinning is not present in hcp metals. The coupling of in-situ straining with traditional post-mortem characterization yields more detailed information about material behavior during deformation than either technique alone.« less

  14. Transmission Electron Microscope In Situ Straining Technique to Directly Observe Defects and Interfaces During Deformation in Magnesium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrow, Benjamin M.; Cerreta, E. K.; McCabe, R. J.; Tom, C. N.

    2015-05-14

    In-situ straining was used to study deformation behavior of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) metals.Twinning and dislocation motion, both essential to plasticity in hcp materials, were observed.Typically, these processes are characterized post-mortem by examining remnant microstructural features after straining has occurred. By imposing deformation during imaging, direct observation of active deformation mechanisms is possible. This work focuses on straining of structural metals in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), and a recently developed technique that utilizes familiar procedures and equipment to increase ease of experiments. In-situ straining in a TEM presents several advantages over conventional post-mortem characterization, most notably time-resolution of deformation and streamlined identification of active deformation mechanisms. Drawbacks to the technique and applicability to other studies are also addressed. In-situ straining is used to study twin boundary motion in hcp magnesium. A {1012} twin was observed during tensile and compressive loading. Twin-dislocation interactions are directly observed. Notably, dislocations are observed to remain mobile, even after multiple interactions with twin boundaries, a result which suggests that Basinkis dislocation transformation mechanism by twinning is not present in hcp metals. The coupling of in-situ straining with traditional post-mortem characterization yields more detailed information about material behavior during deformation than either technique alone.

  15. U.S. Continues to Lead the World in Wind Power Growth | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 31, 2007 - 1:25pm Addthis DOE Report Shows Growing U.S. Wind Power Market WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today released its first Annual Report on U.S. Wind Power Installation, Cost, and Performance Trends: 2006, which provides a detailed and comprehensive overview of development and trends in the U.S. wind power market. Most notably, the Report concludes that U.S. wind power capacity increased by 27 percent in 2006; and that the U.S. had the fastest growing wind

  16. Humidity trends imply increased sensitivity to clouds in a warming...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    is modulated by cloud properties; however, CRE also depends on humidity because clouds emit at wavelengths that are semi-transparent to greenhouse gases, most notably water vapour. ...

  17. Coal quality trends and distribution of Title III trace elements in Eastern Kentucky coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eble, C.F.; Hower, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    The quality characteristics of eastern Kentucky coal beds vary both spatially and stratigraphically. Average total sulfur contents are lowest, and calorific values highest, in the Big Sandy and Upper Cumberland Reserve Districts. Average coal thickness is greatest in these two districts as well. Conversely, the thinnest coal with the highest total sulfur content, and lowest calorific value, on average, occurs in the Princess and Southwest Reserve Districts. Several Title III trace elements, notably arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, and nickel, mirror this distribution (lower average concentrations in the Big Sandy and Upper Cumberland Districts, higher average concentrations in the Princess and Southwest Districts), probably because these elements are primarily associated with sulfide minerals in coal. Ash yields and total sulfur contents are observed to increase in a stratigraphically older to younger direction. Several Title III elements, notably cadmium, chromium, lead, and selenium follow this trend, with average concentrations being higher in younger coals. Average chlorine concentration shows a reciprocal distribution, being more abundant in older coals. Some elements, such as arsenic, manganese, mercury, cobalt, and, to a lesser extent, phosphorus show concentration spikes in coal beds directly above, or below, major marine zones. With a few exceptions, average Title III trace element concentrations for eastern Kentucky coals are comparable with element distributions in other Appalachian coal-producing states.

  18. Irradiation-induced Ag nanocluster nucleation in silicate glasses: Analogy with photography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Espiau de Lamaestre, R.; Bea, H.; Bernas, H.; Belloni, J.; Marignier, J. L.

    2007-11-15

    The synthesis of Ag nanoclusters in soda lime silicate glasses and silica was studied by optical absorption and electron spin resonance experiments under both low (gamma ray) and high (MeV ion) deposited energy density irradiation conditions. Both types of irradiation create electrons and holes whose density and thermal evolution--notably via their interaction with defects--are shown to determine the clustering and growth rates of Ag nanocrystals. We thus establish the influence of redox interactions of defects and silver (poly)ions. The mechanisms are similar to the latent image formation in photography: Irradiation-induced photoelectrons are trapped within the glass matrix, notably on dissolved noble metal ions and defects, which are thus neutralized (reverse oxidation reactions are also shown to exist). Annealing promotes metal atom diffusion, which, in turn, leads to cluster nuclei formation. The cluster density depends not only on the irradiation fluence but also--and primarily--on the density of deposited energy and the redox properties of the glass. Ion irradiation (i.e., large deposited energy density) is far more effective in cluster formation, despite its lower neutralization efficiency (from Ag{sup +} to Ag{sup 0}) as compared to gamma photon irradiation.

  19. Search for underground openings for in situ test facilities in crystalline rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Strisower, B.; Corrigan, D.J.; Graf, A.N.; O'Brien, M.T.; Pratt, H.; Board, M.; Hustrulid, W.

    1980-01-01

    With a few exceptions, crystalline rocks in this study were limited to plutonic rocks and medium to high-grade metamorphic rocks. Nearly 1700 underground mines, possibly occurring in crystalline rock, were initially identified. Application of criteria resulted in the identification of 60 potential sites. Within this number, 26 mines and 4 civil works were identified as having potential in that they fulfilled the criteria. Thirty other mines may have similar potential. Most of the mines identified are near the contact between a pluton and older sedimentary, volcanic and metamorphic rocks. However, some mines and the civil works are well within plutonic or metamorphic rock masses. Civil works, notably underground galleries associated with pumped storage hydroelectric facilities, are generally located in tectonically stable regions, in relatively homogeneous crystalline rock bodies. A program is recommended which would identify one or more sites where a concordance exists between geologic setting, company amenability, accessibility and facilities to conduct in situ tests in crystalline rock.

  20. Role of polycrystallinity in CdTe and CuInSe sub 2 photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sites, J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    The polycrystalline nature of thin-film CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} solar cells continues to be a major factor in several individual losses that limit overall cell efficiency. This report describes progress in the quantitative separation of these losses, including both measurement and analysis procedures. It also applies these techniques to several individual cells to help document the overall progress with CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} cells. Notably, CdTe cells from Photon Energy have reduced window photocurrent losses to 1 mA/Cm{sup 2}; those from the University of South Florida have achieved a maximum power voltage of 693 mV; and CuInSe{sub 2} cells from International Solar Electric Technology have shown a hole density as high as 7 {times} 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}3}, implying a significant reduction in compensation. 9 refs.

  1. Synchronous digitization for high dynamic range lock-in amplification in beam-scanning microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muir, Ryan D.; Sullivan, Shane Z.; Oglesbee, Robert A.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2014-03-15

    Digital lock-in amplification (LIA) with synchronous digitization (SD) is shown to provide significant signal to noise (S/N) and linear dynamic range advantages in beam-scanning microscopy measurements using pulsed laser sources. Direct comparisons between SD-LIA and conventional LIA in homodyne second harmonic generation measurements resulted in S/N enhancements consistent with theoretical models. SD-LIA provided notably larger S/N enhancements in the limit of low light intensities, through the smooth transition between photon counting and signal averaging developed in previous work. Rapid beam scanning instrumentation with up to video rate acquisition speeds minimized photo-induced sample damage. The corresponding increased allowance for higher laser power without sample damage is advantageous for increasing the observed signal content.

  2. Characterization, organic modification of wollastonite coated with nano-Mg(OH){sub 2} and its application in filling PA6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Caili; Wang, Dong; Zheng, Shuilin

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: Wollastonite is first inorganic modified by coating nano-Mg(OH){sub 2} and then organic modified with silane. Filling 30% of this composite powder in PA6 the mechanical properties, the heat distortion temperature and oxygen index of the PA6 composites were notably enhanced. - Abstract: Nano-Mg(OH){sub 2} was deposited on the surface of wollastonite (MW) powder with heterogeneous nucleation method and then modified with silane. The microstructure and surface properties of wollastonite (W) and MW powders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The microstructure of W, MW and silane modified MW (SMW) powders were characterized by Fourier translation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The mechanical properties, heat distortion temperature (HDT) and oxygen index (OI) of PA6 composites having different fillers were discussed. It was shown that the surface of wollastonite was coated with a layer of 33 nm thickness of Mg(OH){sub 2} grains and the distribution of which was uniform. The number of the hydroxyl groups on the surface of wollastonite powder increased after coated with Mg(OH){sub 2}. Filling 30% of SMW powder in PA6 the mechanical properties, HDT and OI were notably enhanced.

  3. Tubular electric heater with a thermocouple assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    House, R.K.; Williams, D.E.

    1975-08-01

    This patent relates to a thermocouple or other instrumentation which is installed within the walls of a tubular sheath surrounding a process device such as an electric heater. The sheath comprises two concentric tubes, one or both of which have a longitudinal, concave crease facing the other tube. The thermocouple is fixedly positioned within the crease and the outer tube is mechanically reduced to form an interference fit onto the inner tube. (auth)

  4. The Role of Cellulosic Ethanol in Transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert M. Neilson, Jr.

    2007-10-01

    Petroleum provides essentially all of the energy used today in the transportation sector. To reduce this dependence on fossil energy, other fuels are beginning to be used, notably ethanol and biodiesel. Almost all fuel ethanol is produced by the conversion of corn grain to starch with subsequent fermentation to ethanol. In 2006, almost 5 billion gallons of fuel ethanol were produced, which used 17% of domestic corn production. The DOE has a goal to displace 30% of motor gasoline demand or 60 billion gallons per year by 2030. To achieve this goal, production of ethanol from lignocellulosic sources (e.g., agricultural residues, forest residues, and dedicated energy crops) is needed. This paper will describe the production of cellulosic ethanol as well as the issues and benefits associated with its production.

  5. FULLY CONVECTIVE MAGNETOROTATIONAL TURBULENCE IN STRATIFIED SHEARING BOXES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodo, G.; Rossi, P.; Cattaneo, F.; Mignone, A.

    2013-07-10

    We present a numerical study of turbulence and dynamo action in stratified shearing boxes with zero magnetic flux. We assume that the fluid obeys the perfect gas law and has finite (constant) thermal diffusivity. We choose radiative boundary conditions at the vertical boundaries in which the heat flux is proportional to the fourth power of the temperature. We compare the results with the corresponding cases in which fixed temperature boundary conditions are applied. The most notable result is that the formation of a fully convective state in which the density is nearly constant as a function of height and the heat is transported to the upper and lower boundaries by overturning motions is robust and persists even in cases with radiative boundary conditions. Interestingly, in the convective regime, although the diffusive transport is negligible, the mean stratification does not relax to an adiabatic state.

  6. Criegee intermediates in the indoor environment. New insights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shallcross, D. E.; Taatjes, C. A.; Percival, C. J.

    2014-03-25

    Criegee intermediates are formed in the ozonolysis of alkenes and play an important role in indoor chemistry, notably as a source of OH radicals. Recent studies have shown that these Criegee intermediates react very quickly with NO2, SO2, and carbonyls, and in this study, steady-state calculations are used to inspect the potential impact of these data on indoor chemistry. It is shown that these reactions could accelerate NO3 formation and SO2 removal in the indoor environment significantly. In addition, reaction between Criegee intermediates and halogenated carbonyls could provide a significant loss process indoors, where currently one does not exist.

  7. The geomechanics of CO{sub 2} storage in deep sedimentary formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutqvist, J.

    2011-11-01

    This paper provides a review of the geomechanics and modeling of geomechanics associated with geologic carbon storage (GCS), focusing on storage in deep sedimentary formations, in particular saline aquifers. The paper first introduces the concept of storage in deep sedimentary formations, the geomechanical processes and issues related with such an operation, and the relevant geomechanical modeling tools. This is followed by a more detailed review of geomechanical aspects, including reservoir stress-strain and microseismicity, well integrity, caprock sealing performance, and the potential for fault reactivation and notable (felt) seismic events. Geomechanical observations at current GCS field deployments, mainly at the In Salah CO2 storage project in Algeria, are also integrated into the review. The In Salah project, with its injection into a relatively thin, low-permeability sandstone is an excellent analogue to the saline aquifers that might be used for large scale GCS in parts of Northwest Europe, the U.S. Midwest, and China. Some of the lessons learned at In Salah related to geomechanics are discussed, including how monitoring of geomechanical responses is used for detecting subsurface geomechanical changes and tracking fluid movements, and how such monitoring and geomechanical analyses have led to preventative changes in the injection parameters. Recently, the importance of geomechanics has become more widely recognized among GCS stakeholders, especially with respect to the potential for triggering notable (felt) seismic events and how such events could impact the long-term integrity of a CO{sub 2} repository (as well as how it could impact the public perception of GCS). As described in the paper, to date, no notable seismic event has been reported from any of the current CO{sub 2} storage projects, although some unfelt microseismic activities have been detected by geophones. However, potential future commercial GCS operations from large power plants will require injection at a much larger scale. For such largescale injections, a staged, learn-as-you-go approach is recommended, involving a gradual increase of injection rates combined with continuous monitoring of geomechanical changes, as well as siting beneath a multiple layered overburden for multiple flow barrier protection, should an unexpected deep fault reactivation occur.

  8. Nonlinear Global Optimization Using Curdling Algorithm in Mathematica Environmet

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-08-05

    An algorithm for performing optimization which is a derivative-free, grid-refinement approach to nonlinear optimization was developed and implemented in software as OPTIMIZE. This approach overcomes a number of deficiencies in existing approaches. Most notably, it finds extremal regions rather than only single extremal points. the program is interactive and collects information on control parameters and constraints using menus. For up to two (and potentially three) dimensions, function convergence is displayed graphically. Because the algorithm doesmore » not compute derivatives, gradients, or vectors, it is numerically stable. It can find all the roots of a polynomial in one pass. It is an inherently parallel algorithm. OPTIMIZE-M is a modification of OPTIMIZE designed for use within the Mathematica environment created by Wolfram Research.« less

  9. Inhibition of B-NHEJ in Plateau-Phase Cells Is Not a Direct Consequence of Suppressed Growth Factor Signaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Satyendra K.; Bednar, Theresa; Zhang Lihua; Wu, Wenqi; Mladenov, Emil; Iliakis, George

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: It has long been known that the proliferation status of a cell is a determinant of radiation response, and the available evidence implicates repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the underlying mechanism. Recent results have shown that a novel, highly error-prone pathway of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) operating as backup (B-NHEJ) processes DSBs in irradiated cells when the canonical, DNA-PK (DNA-dependent protein kinase)-dependent pathway of NHEJ (D-NHEJ) is compromised. Notably, B-NHEJ shows marked reduction in efficiency when D-NHEJ-deficient cells cease to grow and enter a plateau phase. This phenomenon is widespread and observed in cells of different species with defects in core components of D-NHEJ, with the notable exception of DNA-PKcs (DNA-dependent protein kinase, catalytic subunit). Using new, standardized serum-deprivation protocols, we re-examine the growth requirements of B-NHEJ and test the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in its regulation. Methods and Materials: DSB repair was measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in cells maintained under different conditions of growth. Results: Serum deprivation in D-NHEJ-deficient cells causes a rapid reduction in B-NHEJ similar to that measured in normally growing cells that enter the plateau phase of growth. Upon serum deprivation, reduction in B-NHEJ activity is evident at 4 h and reaches a plateau reflecting maximum inhibition at 12-16 h. The inhibition is reversible, and B-NHEJ quickly recovers to the levels of actively growing cells upon supply of serum to serum-deprived cells. Chemical inhibition of EGFR in proliferating cells inhibits only marginally B-NHEJ and addition of EGFR in serum-deprived cells increases only a marginally B-NHEJ. Conclusions: The results document a rapid and fully reversible adaptation of B-NHEJ to growth activity and point to factors beyond EGFR in its regulation. They show notable differences in the regulation of error-prone DSB repair pathways between proliferating and non proliferating cells that may present new treatment design opportunities in radiation therapy.

  10. Role of polycrystallinity in CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} photovoltaic cells. Annual subcontract report, 1 April 1990--31 March 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sites, J.R.

    1991-12-31

    The polycrystalline nature of thin-film CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} solar cells continues to be a major factor in several individual losses that limit overall cell efficiency. This report describes progress in the quantitative separation of these losses, including both measurement and analysis procedures. It also applies these techniques to several individual cells to help document the overall progress with CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} cells. Notably, CdTe cells from Photon Energy have reduced window photocurrent losses to 1 mA/Cm{sup 2}; those from the University of South Florida have achieved a maximum power voltage of 693 mV; and CuInSe{sub 2} cells from International Solar Electric Technology have shown a hole density as high as 7 {times} 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}3}, implying a significant reduction in compensation. 9 refs.

  11. Biorenewable Process to Acrylic Acid - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the production of consumer products. Highly notable is its use in producing super absorbent polymers, the component of disposable diapers that attracts and retains moisture...

  12. Breakdown assisted by a novel electron drift injection in the J-TEXT tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Nengchao; Jin, Hai; Zhuang, Ge Ding, Yonghua; Pan, Yuan; Cen, Yishun; Chen, Zhipeng; Huang, Hai; Liu, Dequan; Rao, Bo; Zhang, Ming; Zou, Bichen

    2014-07-15

    A novel electron drift injection (EDI) system aiming to improve breakdown behavior has been designed and constructed on the Joint Texas EXperiment Tokamak Tokamak. Electrons emitted by the system undergo the EB drift, ?B drift and curvature drift in sequence in order to traverse the confining magnetic field. A local electrostatic well, generated by a concave-shaped plate biased more negative than the cathode, is introduced to interrupt the emitted electrons moving along the magnetic field line (in the parallel direction) in an attempt to bring an enhancement of the injection efficiency and depth. A series of experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of this method, and a penetration distance deeper than 9.5 cm is achieved. Notable breakdown improvements, including the reduction of breakdown delay and average loop voltage, are observed for discharges assisted by EDI. The lower limit of successfully ionized pressure is expanded.

  13. Study of element interaction in thermoacoustic engines. Annual report, 1 October 1992-30 September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raspet, R.; Bass, H.E.

    1993-11-13

    The physical understanding of thermoacoustic engines has progressed rapidly in the past five years. The general performance of prime movers and refrigerators is now reasonably well understood and documented. There are, however, notable discrepancies between theory and experiment, especially at large acoustic amplitudes. The discrepancies are typically attributed to non-linear terms not included in the theory. Acoustic streaming is often mentioned as the culprit and this may well be the case. There is evidence, however, that interactions between elements in the engine are at least partially responsible for the differences. This is illustrated, for example, by Swift's observation that the heat exchanger appears to be effective over larger acoustic displacements than simple geometric arguments predict. Additional element interactions will arise when a thermoacoustic prime mover and a refrigerator are placed in the same acoustic cavity. This three year project centers on studies of different thermoacoustic element geometries.

  14. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    field, in cooperation with other global players and key stakeholders, notably the business community. The UNECE also sets out norms, standards and conventions to facilitate...

  15. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Idaho National Laboratory Specific Manufacturing Plant Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho ... However, global ecosystem models typically ignore microbial dormancy, resulting in notable ...

  16. Diverse and divergent protein post-translational modifications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Notably, PTM events are detected on Cas proteins involved in antiviral defense, an aspect of Cas biochemistry not considered previously. Further, Cas PTM profiles from ...

  17. Financial Management Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    this fiscal year, putting downward pressure on net secondary revenues. - Some of this revenue shortfall is offset by reduced spending, most notably in the Residential Exchange...

  18. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable ...

  19. Reactivity of perovskites with water: Role of hydroxylation in wetting and implications for oxygen electrocatalysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stoerzinger, Kelsey A.; Hong, Wesley T.; Azimi, Gisele; Crumlin, Ethan J.; Biegalski, Michael D.; Bluhm, Hendrik; Varanasi, Kripa K.; Shao-Horn, Yang; Giordano, Livia; Lee, Yueh -Lin

    2015-07-15

    Oxide materials play an important role in technical applications such as gas sensing and catalysis, where they can react notably with water in vapor or liquid form. We find that the coverage of (*OH) measured at fixed relative humidity trends with the electron donor (basic) character of wetted perovskite oxide surfaces, corresponding to low contact angles when removing a droplet of water. We report for the first time that the affinity toward hydroxylation, coincident with strong adsorption energies calculated for dissociative and molecular adsorption of water, leads to strong H-bonding detrimental to catalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Furthermore,more » this suggests that hydrophobic oxides with low tendency to hydroxylate may demonstrate improved catalytic activity for the ORR.« less

  20. Precise measurement of the resolution in light microscopy using Fourier transform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vainrub, Arnold

    2008-04-15

    The resolution power of light microscope has been accurately measured ({+-}5%) by Fourier transform of various object images and further evaluation of the highest spatial frequency in Fourier spectrum. Any unknown shape plane object with a shape feature's size smaller than the resolution to be measured was shown to provide a reliable resolution test. This simple method gives a direct measurement of the resolution power as defined by Abbe [Archiv. F. Mikroskopische Anat. 9, 413 (1873)]. The results have been justified by comparison to a standard resolution measurement by using calibrated periodic line patterns. Notably, the approach is applicable in super-resolution light microscopy (transmission, reflection, and fluorescence), where calibrated resolution targets do not occur. It was conveniently implemented by using a compact disk as a test object and free IMAGEJ imaging software.

  1. Two-photon Absorption In Quantum Dots,quantum Dashes And Related Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Ravinder

    2009-08-31

    We have proposed the use of USQDs for various deep-tissue biological imaging applications, notably wavelength-multiplexed multicolor imaging and intra-nuclear studies such as those involving cell apoptosis, and have studied the issue of maximizing two-photon absorption-induced fluorescence (TPAF) signals from CdSe/ZnS USQDs to be used for this application. In particular, using 2 nm USQDs, we have shown that the TPAF signal at 780 nm is ~ 8 times that at 850 nm and 68 times that at 900 nm, two wavelengths that have been used in previous studies using CdSe/ZnS SQDs for deep-tissue imaging of biological studies via TPAF .

  2. Reactivity of perovskites with water: Role of hydroxylation in wetting and implications for oxygen electrocatalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoerzinger, Kelsey A.; Hong, Wesley T.; Azimi, Gisele; Crumlin, Ethan J.; Biegalski, Michael D.; Bluhm, Hendrik; Varanasi, Kripa K.; Shao-Horn, Yang; Giordano, Livia; Lee, Yueh -Lin

    2015-07-15

    Oxide materials play an important role in technical applications such as gas sensing and catalysis, where they can react notably with water in vapor or liquid form. We find that the coverage of (*OH) measured at fixed relative humidity trends with the electron donor (basic) character of wetted perovskite oxide surfaces, corresponding to low contact angles when removing a droplet of water. We report for the first time that the affinity toward hydroxylation, coincident with strong adsorption energies calculated for dissociative and molecular adsorption of water, leads to strong H-bonding detrimental to catalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Furthermore, this suggests that hydrophobic oxides with low tendency to hydroxylate may demonstrate improved catalytic activity for the ORR.

  3. Phased-Resolved Strain Measuremetns in Hydrated Ordinary Portland Cement Using Synchrotron x-Rays (Prop. 2003-033)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BIernacki, Joseph J.; Watkins, Thomas R; Parnham, C. J.; Hubbard, Camden R; Bai, J.

    2006-01-01

    X-ray diffraction methods developed for the determination of residual stress states in crystalline materials have been applied to study residual strains and strains because of mechanical loading of ordinary portland cement paste. Synchrotron X-rays were used to make in situ measurements of interplanar spacings in the calcium hydroxide (CH) phase of hydrated neat portland cement under uniaxial compression. The results indicate that strains on the order of 1/100 000 can be resolved providing an essentially new technique by which to measure the phase-resolved meso-scale mechanical behavior of cement under different loading conditions. Evaluation of these strain data in view of published elastic parameters for CH suggests that the CH carries a large fraction of the applied stress and that plastic interactions with the matrix are notable.

  4. A 45-year followup study of breast and other cancers in kindred 107 and linkage analysis of candidate loci

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldgar, D.E.; Neuhausen, S.L.; Ward, J.H.

    1994-09-01

    One of the earliest large kindreds with inherited susceptibility to breast cancer was reported by Gardner and Stephens in 1950. This family, denoted K107, was ascertained in 1947 by a genetics student with two great aunts who died of breast cancer in their 40`s. Subsequent clinical and genealogical follow-up identified 7 additional cases of early-onset breast cancer. The family was updated several times, most notably in 1980. For the present study K107 was recently reinvestigated and over 75 blood samples gathered for genotyping. The kindred now contains 38 cases of female breast cancer, 3 cases of male breast cancer, and 6 cases of ovarian cancer, 18 of which have been identified since the 1980 report. Examination of the obligate carriers demonstrates that that gene responsible for the breast and ovarian cancer in K107 is highly penetrant. Other cancers appear to be associated with expression of this gene, most notably prostate cancer, melanoma, and uterine cancer. Linkage to the BRCA1 region in K107 was excluded based upon the analysis of genotypings at four loci covering the BRCA1 gene on chromosome 17q has been excluded in this family, using four highly polymorphic markers in the BRCA1 region (multipoint LOD score -3.27). Eight other candidate breast cancer susceptibility genes and candidate regions, including p53 and ESR have also been tested for linkage and excluded. Studies to formally re-estimate penetrance and test for excesses of all cancer sites and a genomic search in this family are in progress.

  5. Vibronic fine structure in high-resolution x-ray absorption spectra from ion-bombarded boron nitride nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petravic, Mladen; Peter, Robert; Varasanec, Marijana; Li Luhua; Chen Ying; Cowie, Bruce C. C.

    2013-05-15

    The authors have applied high-resolution near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements around the nitrogen K-edge to study the effects of ion-bombardment on near-surface properties of boron nitride nanotubes. A notable difference has been observed between surface sensitive partial electron yield (PEY) and bulk sensitive total electron yield (TEY) fine-structure measurements. The authors assign the PEY fine structure to the coupling of excited molecular vibrational modes to electronic transitions in NO molecules trapped just below the surface. Oxidation resistance of the boron nitride nanotubes is significantly reduced by low energy ion bombardment, as broken B-N bonds are replaced by N-O bonds involving oxygen present in the surface region. In contrast to the PEY spectra, the bulk sensitive TEY measurements on as-grown samples do not exhibit any fine structure while the ion-bombarded samples show a clear vibronic signature of molecular nitrogen.

  6. Pressure tuning of competing magnetic interactions in intermetallic CeFe2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jiyang; Feng, Yejun; Jaramillo, R.; van Wezel, Jasper; Canfield, Paul C.; Rosenbaum, T.F.

    2012-07-20

    We use high-pressure magnetic x-ray diffraction and numerical simulation to determine the low-temperature magnetic phase diagram of stoichiometric CeFe2. Near 1.5 GPa we find a transition from ferromagnetism to antiferromagnetism, accompanied by a rhombohedral distortion of the cubic Laves crystal lattice. By comparing pressure and chemical substitution we find that the phase transition is controlled by a shift of magnetic frustration from the Ce-Ce to the Fe-Fe sublattice. Notably the dominant Ce-Fe magnetic interaction, which sets the temperature scale for the onset of long-range order, remains satisfied throughout the phase diagram but does not determine the magnetic ground state. Our results illustrate the complexity of a system with multiple competing magnetic energy scales and lead to a general model for magnetism in cubic Laves phase intermetallic compounds.

  7. Non-Standard Interactions in propagation at the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Coloma, Pilar

    2016-03-03

    Here, we study the sensitivity of current and future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments to the effects of dimension six operators affecting neutrino propagation through Earth, commonly referred to as Non-Standard Interactions (NSI). All relevant parameters entering the oscillation probabilities (standard and non-standard) are considered at once, in order to take into account possible cancellations and degeneracies between them. We find that the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment will significantly improve over current constraints for most NSI parameters. Most notably, it will be able to rule out the so-called LMA-dark solution, still compatible with current oscillation data, and will be sensitive to off-diagonal NSI parameters at the level of ε ~more » $$ \\mathcal{O} $$ (0.05 – 0.5). We also identify two degeneracies among standard and non-standard parameters, which could be partially resolved by combining T2HK and DUNE data.« less

  8. Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.

    2012-02-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

  9. Conceptual design of the HTTR-IS hydrogen production system - dynamic simulation code development for advanced process heat exchanger in the HTTR-IS system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Kubo, Shinji; Sakaba, Nariaki; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sano, Naoki; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this study is to confirm the availability of proposed mitigation methodology against thermal load increase events initiated by the thermochemical water splitting IS process hydrogen production system (IS process) coupling with the High temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been performing the development of dynamic simulation code which can evaluate complex phenomena in the HTTR-IS system all at one once to achieve the requirement. The notable feature of the developed code is the Advanced Process Heat Exchanger (APHX) module which enables to estimate the IS process thermal load variation considering phase change and chemical reaction behavior assumed in the APHX. In this paper, two cases of dynamic calculation for the thermal load increase events were performed using the newly developed APHX module. The results of the analytical studies clearly show the availability of the developed model for dynamic simulation of the HTTR-IS system and the thermal load increase mitigation methodology. (authors)

  10. Role of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in organophosphate metabolism: Implications in neurodegenerative diseases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P.; Kanavouras, Konstantinos; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M.

    2011-11-15

    Organophosphate pesticides are a class of compounds that are widely used in agricultural and rural areas. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a phase-I enzyme that is involved in the hydrolysis of organophosphate esters. Environmental poisoning by organophosphate compounds has been the main driving force of previous research on PON1 enzymes. Recent discoveries in animal models have revealed the important role of the enzyme in lipid metabolism. However although PON1 function is well established in experimental models, the contribution of PON1 in neurodegenerative diseases remains unclear. In this minireview we summarize the involvement of PON1 genotypes in the occurrence of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A brief overview of latest epidemiological studies, regarding the two most important PON1 coding region polymorphisms PON1-L55M and PON1-Q192R is presented. Positive and negative associations of PON1 with disease occurrence are reported. Notably the MM and RR alleles contribute a risk enhancing effect for the development of some neurodegenerative diseases, which may be explained by the reduced lipoprotein free radical scavenging activity that may give rise to neuronal damage, through distinct mechanism. Conflicting findings that fail to support this postulate may represent the human population ethnic heterogeneity, different sample size and environmental parameters affecting PON1 status. We conclude that further epidemiological studies are required in order to address the exact contribution of PON1 genome in combination with organophosphate exposure in populations with neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Changes in Concurrent Precipitation and Temperature Extremes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J.

    2013-08-01

    While numerous studies have addressed changes in climate extremes, analyses of concurrence of climate extremes are scarce, and climate change effects on joint extremes are rarely considered. This study assesses the occurrence of joint (concurrent) monthly continental precipitation and temperature extremes in Climate Research Unit (CRU) and University of Delaware (UD) observations, and in 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate simulations. Moreover, the joint occurrences of precipitation and temperature extremes simulated by CMIP5 climate models are compared with those derived from the CRU and UD observations for warm/wet, warm/dry, cold/wet, and cold/dry combinations of joint extremes. The number of occurrences of these four combinations during the second half of the 20th century (1951–2004) is assessed on a common global grid. CRU and UD observations show substantial increases in the occurrence of joint warm/dry and warm/wet combinations for the period 1978–2004 relative to 1951–1977. The results show that with respect to the sign of change in the concurrent extremes, the CMIP5 climate model simulations are in reasonable overall agreement with observations. The results reveal notable discrepancies between regional patterns and the magnitude of change in individual climate model simulations relative to the observations of precipitation and temperature.

  12. Changes in Concurrent Precipitation and Temperature Extremes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J.

    2013-08-01

    While numerous studies have addressed changes in climate extremes, analyses of concurrence of climate extremes are scarce, and climate change effects on joint extremes are rarely considered. This study assesses the occurrence of joint (concurrent) monthly continental precipitation and temperature extremes in Climate Research Unit (CRU) and University of Delaware (UD) observations, and in 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate simulations. Moreover, the joint occurrences of precipitation and temperature extremes simulated by CMIP5 climate models are compared with those derived from the CRU and UD observations for warm/wet, warm/dry, cold/wet, and cold/dry combinations of joint extremes.more » The number of occurrences of these four combinations during the second half of the 20th century (1951–2004) is assessed on a common global grid. CRU and UD observations show substantial increases in the occurrence of joint warm/dry and warm/wet combinations for the period 1978–2004 relative to 1951–1977. The results show that with respect to the sign of change in the concurrent extremes, the CMIP5 climate model simulations are in reasonable overall agreement with observations. The results reveal notable discrepancies between regional patterns and the magnitude of change in individual climate model simulations relative to the observations of precipitation and temperature.« less

  13. Innovations in subsea technology. [Poseidon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booth, D.

    1986-02-01

    The progress of subsea production technology has been punctuated from the beginning by notable achievements which stand out like billboards along a winding highway. At each twist and turn another successful innovation heaves into view, soon to be forgotten as its advantages are absorbed into the industry. This article traces those advances from 1960 to the present time. Particular attention is given to the Poseidon underwater production system. Its success relies on the pumping and transport of hydrocarbons and water in multiphase flow through a submarine pipeline from a totally submerged production system. Power for the pump is by submarine cable laid from the shore. Thus, processing would become a land-based operation, and platforms would be a thing of the past. Poseidon will comprise: A group of subsea completions; Flow lines linking the wells to the subsea station; A subsea station built on modular lines; A multiphase submarine export line; Remote control from shore for all subsea functions; A dedicated onshore power station; A submarine power cable. According to the sponsors of Poseidon, the technical cost per barrel will be two to three times less than conventional platforms. The system is also relatively weather insensitive. Operational limits are currently seen as 130 miles from shore and 1,300 ft water depth.

  14. Correlative Electron and Fluorescence Microscopy of Magnetotactic Bacteria in Liquid: Toward In Vivo Imaging

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Woehl, Taylor J.; Kashyap, Sanjay; Firlar, Emre; Perez-Gonzalez, Teresa; Faivre, Damien; Trubitsyn, Denis; Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Prozorov, Tanya

    2014-10-31

    Magnetotactic bacteria biomineralize ordered chains of uniform, membrane-bound magnetite or greigite nanocrystals that exhibit nearly perfect crystal structures and species-specific morphologies. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a critical technique for providing information regarding the organization of cellular and magnetite structures in these microorganisms. However, conventional TEM can only be used to image air-dried or vitrified bacteria removed from their natural environment. Here we present a correlative scanning TEM (STEM) and fluorescence microscopy technique for imaging viable cells of Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1 in liquid using an in situ fluid cell TEM holder. Fluorescently labeled cells were immobilized on microchip windowmore » surfaces and visualized in a fluid cell with STEM, followed by correlative fluorescence imaging to verify their membrane integrity. Notably, the post-STEM fluorescence imaging indicated that the bacterial cell wall membrane did not sustain radiation damage during STEM imaging at low electron dose conditions. We investigated the effects of radiation damage and sample preparation on the bacteria viability and found that approximately 50% of the bacterial membranes remained intact after an hour in the fluid cell, decreasing to ~30% after two hours. These results represent a first step toward in vivo studies of magnetite biomineralization in magnetotactic bacteria.« less

  15. Correlative Electron and Fluorescence Microscopy of Magnetotactic Bacteria in Liquid: Toward In Vivo Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woehl, Taylor J.; Kashyap, Sanjay; Firlar, Emre; Perez-Gonzalez, Teresa; Faivre, Damien; Trubitsyn, Denis; Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Prozorov, Tanya

    2014-10-31

    Magnetotactic bacteria biomineralize ordered chains of uniform, membrane-bound magnetite or greigite nanocrystals that exhibit nearly perfect crystal structures and species-specific morphologies. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a critical technique for providing information regarding the organization of cellular and magnetite structures in these microorganisms. However, conventional TEM can only be used to image air-dried or vitrified bacteria removed from their natural environment. Here we present a correlative scanning TEM (STEM) and fluorescence microscopy technique for imaging viable cells of Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1 in liquid using an in situ fluid cell TEM holder. Fluorescently labeled cells were immobilized on microchip window surfaces and visualized in a fluid cell with STEM, followed by correlative fluorescence imaging to verify their membrane integrity. Notably, the post-STEM fluorescence imaging indicated that the bacterial cell wall membrane did not sustain radiation damage during STEM imaging at low electron dose conditions. We investigated the effects of radiation damage and sample preparation on the bacteria viability and found that approximately 50% of the bacterial membranes remained intact after an hour in the fluid cell, decreasing to ~30% after two hours. These results represent a first step toward in vivo studies of magnetite biomineralization in magnetotactic bacteria.

  16. Sichuan province scores in antipollution efforts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-09-07

    According to State Council regulations, Sichuan Province has begun charging entrepreneurial units fees for discharging waste water, waste gas and waste residue in excess of state standards, and using the money to treat environmental pollution. Results have been notable. Charging fees for discharging wastes is a major economic measure which the state has adopted to promote environmental protection. So far over 120 cities and counties in the province have adopted this measure. From April 1980 to the end of 1982, the province collected a total of 68 million yuan to fund 1,200 waste treatment projects. As a spinoff of the measure, the enterprises began raising funds on their own to treat pollution. Before 1979, the province spent an average of 3 million yuan annually on treatment of pollution. Last year the figure reached 28 million yuan. Since effluent fees came into effect, Leshan City has invested more money on more pollution-treatment projects every year. Chengdu City invested 14 million yuan in 1982 on 514 projects, completing 292 projects the very same year. The completed projects treat 25,000 tons of effluent a day. Waste water containing disease germs discharged from the army-system hospitals in the province is by and large treated. Effluent fees have spurred the enterprises to strengthen management, conserve and comprehensively utilize resources and energy, thus improving the economic results of the enterprises.

  17. Essential Ingredients in Core-collapse Supernovae

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hix, William Raphael; Lentz, E. J.; Endeve, Eirik; Baird, Mark L.; Chertkow, Merek A.; Harris, James A.; Messer, Bronson; Mezzacappa, Anthony; Bruenn, S. W.; Blondin, J. M.

    2014-03-27

    Marking the inevitable death of a massive star, and the birth of a neutron star or black hole, core-collapse supernovae bring together physics at a wide range in spatial scales, from kilometer-sized hydrodynamic motions (eventually growing to gigameter scale) down to femtometer scale nuclear reactions. Carrying 10more » $$^{44}$$ joules of kinetic energy and a rich-mix of newly synthesized atomic nuclei, core-collapse supernovae are the preeminent foundries of the nuclear species which make up ourselves and our solar system. We will discuss our emerging understanding of the convectively unstable, neutrino-driven explosion mechanism, based on increasingly realistic neutrino-radiation hydrodynamic simulations that include progressively better nuclear and particle physics. Recent multi-dimensional models with spectral neutrino transport from several research groups, which slowly develop successful explosions for a range of progenitors, have motivated changes in our understanding of the neutrino reheating mechanism. In a similar fashion, improvements in nuclear physics, most notably explorations of weak interactions on nuclei and the nuclear equation of state, continue to refine our understanding of how supernovae explode. Recent progress on both the macroscopic and microscopic effects that affect core-collapse supernovae are discussed.« less

  18. Quick-change filter cartridge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rodgers, John C.; McFarland, Andrew R.; Ortiz, Carlos A.

    1995-01-01

    A quick-change filter cartridge. In sampling systems for measurement of airborne materials, a filter element is introduced into the sampled airstream such that the aerosol constituents are removed and deposited on the filter. Fragile sampling media often require support in order to prevent rupture during sampling, and careful mounting and sealing to prevent misalignment, tearing, or creasing which would allow the sampled air to bypass the filter. Additionally, handling of filter elements may introduce cross-contamination or exposure of operators to toxic materials. Moreover, it is desirable to enable the preloading of filter media into quick-change cartridges in clean laboratory environments, thereby simplifying and expediting the filter-changing process in the field. The quick-change filter cartridge of the present invention permits the application of a variety of filter media in many types of instruments and may also be used in automated systems. The cartridge includes a base through which a vacuum can be applied to draw air through the filter medium which is located on a porous filter support and held there by means of a cap which forms an airtight seal with the base. The base is also adapted for receiving absorbing media so that both particulates and gas-phase samples may be trapped for investigation, the latter downstream of the aerosol filter.

  19. Analysis of high-resolution spectra from a hybrid interferometric/dispersive spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ko, Phyllis; Scott, Jill R.; Jovanovic, Igor

    2015-09-05

    To fully take advantage of a low-cost, small footprint hybrid interferometric/dispersive spectrometer, a math- ematical reconstruction technique was developed to accurately capture the high-resolution and relative peak intensities from complex patterns. A Fabry-Perot etalon was coupled to a Czerny-Turner spectrometer, in- creasing spectral resolution by an order of magnitude without the commensurate increase in spectrometer size. Measurement of the industry standard Hg 313.1555/313.1844 nm doublet yielded a ratio of 0.682 with 1.8%error, which agreed well with an independent measurement and literature values. The doublet separation (29 pm), is similar to the U isotope shift (25 pm) at 424.437 nm that is of interest to monitoring nuclear nonpro-liferation activities. Additionally, the technique was applied to a LIBS measurement of the mineral cinnabar (HgS) and resulted in a ratio of 0.681. This reconstruction method could enable significantly smaller, portable high-resolution instruments with isotopic specificity, benefiting a variety of spectroscopic applications.

  20. Analysis of high-resolution spectra from a hybrid interferometric/dispersive spectrometer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ko, Phyllis; Scott, Jill R.; Jovanovic, Igor

    2015-09-05

    To fully take advantage of a low-cost, small footprint hybrid interferometric/dispersive spectrometer, a math- ematical reconstruction technique was developed to accurately capture the high-resolution and relative peak intensities from complex patterns. A Fabry-Perot etalon was coupled to a Czerny-Turner spectrometer, in- creasing spectral resolution by an order of magnitude without the commensurate increase in spectrometer size. Measurement of the industry standard Hg 313.1555/313.1844 nm doublet yielded a ratio of 0.682 with 1.8%error, which agreed well with an independent measurement and literature values. The doublet separation (29 pm), is similar to the U isotope shift (25 pm) at 424.437 nm thatmore » is of interest to monitoring nuclear nonpro-liferation activities. Additionally, the technique was applied to a LIBS measurement of the mineral cinnabar (HgS) and resulted in a ratio of 0.681. This reconstruction method could enable significantly smaller, portable high-resolution instruments with isotopic specificity, benefiting a variety of spectroscopic applications.« less

  1. Guest Editorial: Electric Machines in Renewable Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aliprantis, Dionysios; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed; Muljadi, Eduard; Brown, Ian; Chiba, Akira; Dorrell, David; Erlich, Istvan; Kerszenbaum, Isidor; Levi, Emil; Mayor, Kevin; Mohammed, Osama; Papathanassiou, Stavros; Popescu, Mircea; Qiao, Wei; Wu, Dezheng

    2015-12-01

    The main objective of this special issue is to collect and disseminate publications that highlight recent advances and breakthroughs in the area of renewable energy resources. The use of these resources for production of electricity is increasing rapidly worldwide. As of 2015, a majority of countries have set renewable electricity targets in the 10%-40% range to be achieved by 2020-2030, with a few notable exceptions aiming for 100% generation by renewables. We are experiencing a truly unprecedented transition away from fossil fuels, driven by environmental, energy security, and socio-economic factors.Electric machines can be found in a wide range of renewable energy applications, such as wind turbines, hydropower and hydrokinetic systems, flywheel energy storage devices, and low-power energy harvesting systems. Hence, the design of reliable, efficient, cost-effective, and controllable electric machines is crucial in enabling even higher penetrations of renewable energy systems in the smart grid of the future. In addition, power electronic converter design and control is critical, as they provide essential controllability, flexibility, grid interface, and integration functions.

  2. Monitoring pavement response and performance using in-situ instrumentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, D.H.; Bilyeu, J.; Hugo, F.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the effectiveness of in-situ instrumentation on diagnosing the pavement layer conditions under full-scale accelerated traffic loading. The test section is an in-service pavement (US281) in Jacksboro, Texas. Multi-Depth Deflectometers (MDDs) are used to measure both permanent deformations and transient deflections, caused by accelerated traffic loading and Falling Weight Deflectometers (MDDs) are used to measure both permanent deformations and transient deflections, caused by accelerated traffic loading and Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) tests. Four different FWD loads of 25, 40, 52, and 67 kN were applied in close proximity to the MDDs at various traffic loading intervals to determine pavement conditions. It was found that the majority of rutting occurred in the newly recycled asphalt mix. The aged ({gt}40 years) underlying base and subgrade layers contributed less than 30% to overall rutting. Only the top recycled Asphalt layer underwent notable deterioration due to traffic loading. Up to 1.5 million axle repetitions, the test pad responded to FWD load almost linearly, not only over the whole pavement system but also within individual layers. However, under higher FWD loads, the percentage of total deflection contributed by the subgrade increased.

  3. Emissions Benefits of Distributed Generation in the Texas Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, SW

    2005-06-16

    One potential benefit of distributed generation (DG) is a net reduction in air emissions. While DG will produce emissions, most notably carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides, the power it displaces might have produced more. This study used a system dispatch model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to simulate the 2012 Texas power market with and without DG. This study compares the reduction in system emissions to the emissions from the DG to determine the net savings. Some of the major findings are that 85% of the electricity displaced by DG during peak hours will be simple cycle natural gas, either steam or combustion turbine. Even with DG running as baseload, 57% of electricity displaced will be simple cycle natural gas. Despite the retirement of some gas-fired steam units and the construction of many new gas turbine and combined cycle units, the marginal emissions from the system remain quite high (1.4 lb NO{sub x}/MWh on peak and 1.1 lb NO{sub x}/MWh baseload) compared to projected DG emissions. Consequently, additions of DG capacity will reduce emissions in Texas from power generation in 2012. Using the DG exhaust heat for combined heat and power provides an even greater benefit, since it eliminates further boiler emissions while adding none over what would be produced while generating electricity. Further studies are warranted concerning the robustness of the result with changes in fuel prices, demands, and mixes of power generating technology.

  4. Waste drum gas generation sampling program at Rocky Flats during FY 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roggenthen, D.K.; McFeeters, T.L.; Nieweg, R.G.

    1991-02-11

    Rocky Flats Plant Transuranic Waste Drums were sampled for gas composition. Combustibles, plastics, Raschig rings, solidified organic sludge, and solidified inorganic sludge transuranic waste forms were sampled. Plastic bag material and waste samples were also taken from some solidified sludge waste drums. A vacuum system was used to sample each layer of containment inside a waste drum, including individual waste bags. G values (gas generation) were calculated for the waste drums. Analytical results indicate that very low concentrations of potentially flammable or corrosive gas mixtures will be found in vented drums. G(H{sub 2}) was usually below 1.6, while G(Total) was below 4.0. Hydrogen permeability tests on different types of plastic waste bags used at Rocky Flats were also conducted. Polyvinylchloride was slightly more permeable to hydrogen than polyethylene for new or creased material. Permeability of aged material to hydrogen was slightly higher than for new material. Solidified organic and inorganic sludges were sampled for volatile organics. The analytical results from two drums of solidified organic sludges showed concentrations were above detection limits for four of the 36 volatile organics analyzed. The analytical results for four of the five solidified inorganic sludges show that concentrations were below detection limits for all volatile organics analyzed. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. March

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March /newsroom/_assets/images/newsroom-icon.jpg March We are your source for reliable, up-to-date news and information; our scientists and engineers can provide technical insights on our innovations for a secure nation. Women scientists/engineers make notable firsts at Laboratory In celebration of Women's History Month, Lab recognizes notable firsts by Los Alamos women Women scientist and engineers at Los Alamos make notable impacts in their fields and in the Lab's mission. - 3/24/16 Shown are

  6. The microbe-mediated mechanisms affecting topsoil carbon stock in Tibetan grasslands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue, Haowei; Wang, Mengmeng; Wang, Shiping; Gilbert, Jack A.; Sun, Xin; Wu, Linwei; Lin, Qiaoyan; Hu, Yigang; Li, Xiangzhen; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng

    2015-02-17

    Warming has been shown to cause soil carbon (C) loss in northern grasslands owing to accelerated microbial decomposition that offsets increased grass productivity. Yet, a multi-decadal survey indicated that the surface soil C stock in Tibetan alpine grasslands remained relatively stable. To investigate this inconsistency, we analyzed the feedback responses of soil microbial communities to simulated warming by soil transplant in Tibetan grasslands. Microbial functional diversity decreased in response to warming, whereas microbial community structure did not correlate with changes in temperature. The relative abundance of catabolic genes associated with nitrogen (N) and C cycling decreased with warming, most notably in genes encoding enzymes associated with more recalcitrant C substrates. By contrast, genes associated with C fixation increased in relative abundance. The relative abundance of genes associated with urease, glutamate dehydrogenase and ammonia monoxygenase (ureC, gdh and amoA) were significantly correlated with N2O efflux. These results suggest that unlike arid/semiarid grasslands, Tibetan grasslands maintain negative feedback mechanisms that preserve terrestrial C and N pools. To examine whether these trends were applicable to the whole plateau, we included these measurements in a model and verified that topsoil C stocks remained relatively stable. Thus, by establishing linkages between microbial metabolic potential and soil biogeochemical processes, we conclude that long-term C loss in Tibetan grasslands is ameliorated by a reduction in microbial decomposition of recalcitrant C substrates.

  7. Energy and IAQ Implications of Alternative Minimum Ventilation Rates in California Retail and School Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutton, Spencer M.; Fisk, William J.

    2015-01-01

    For a stand-alone retail building, a primary school, and a secondary school in each of the 16 California climate zones, the EnergyPlus building energy simulation model was used to estimate how minimum mechanical ventilation rates (VRs) affect energy use and indoor air concentrations of an indoor-generated contaminant. The modeling indicates large changes in heating energy use, but only moderate changes in total building energy use, as minimum VRs in the retail building are changed. For example, predicted state-wide heating energy consumption in the retail building decreases by more than 50% and total building energy consumption decreases by approximately 10% as the minimum VR decreases from the Title 24 requirement to no mechanical ventilation. The primary and secondary schools have notably higher internal heat gains than in the retail building models, resulting in significantly reduced demand for heating. The school heating energy use was correspondingly less sensitive to changes in the minimum VR. The modeling indicates that minimum VRs influence HVAC energy and total energy use in schools by only a few percent. For both the retail building and the school buildings, minimum VRs substantially affected the predicted annual-average indoor concentrations of an indoor generated contaminant, with larger effects in schools. The shape of the curves relating contaminant concentrations with VRs illustrate the importance of avoiding particularly low VRs.

  8. Archaeal and bacterial communities across a chronosequence of drained lake basins in arctic alaska

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kao-Kniffin, J.; Woodcroft, B. J.; Carver, S. M.; Bockheim, J. G.; Handelsman, J.; Tyson, G. W.; Hinkel, K. M.; Mueller, C. W.

    2015-12-18

    We examined patterns in soil microbial community composition across a successional gradient of drained lake basins in the Arctic Coastal Plain. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that methanogens closely related to Candidatus ‘Methanoflorens stordalenmirensis’ were the dominant archaea, comprising >50% of the total archaea at most sites, with particularly high levels in the oldest basins and in the top 57 cm of soil (active and transition layers). Bacterial community composition was more diverse, with lineages from OP11, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria found in high relative abundance across all sites. Notably, microbial composition appeared to converge in the activemore » layer, but transition and permafrost layer communities across the sites were significantly different to one another. Microbial biomass using fatty acid-based analysis indicated that the youngest basins had increased abundances of gram-positive bacteria and saprotrophic fungi at higher soil organic carbon levels, while the oldest basins displayed an increase in only the gram-positive bacteria. While this study showed differences in microbial populations across the sites relevant to basin age, the dominance of Candidatus ‘M. stordalenmirensis’ across the chronosequence indicates the potential for changes in local carbon cycling, depending on how these methanogens and associated microbial communities respond to warming temperatures.« less

  9. Effects of spiral arms on star formation in nuclear rings of barred-spiral galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, Woong-Tae E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2014-09-01

    We use hydrodynamic simulations to study the effect of spiral arms on the star formation rate (SFR) in nuclear rings of barred-spiral galaxies. We find that spiral arms can be an efficient means of gas transport from the outskirts to the central parts, provided that the arms are rotating slower than the bar. While the ring star formation in models with no arms or corotating arms is active only during around the bar growth phase, arm-driven gas accretion both significantly enhances and prolongs the ring star formation in models with slow-rotating arms. The arm-enhanced SFR is larger by a factor of ?3-20 than in the no-arm model, with larger values corresponding to stronger and slower arms. Arm-induced mass inflows also make dust lanes stronger. Nuclear rings in slow-arm models are ?45% larger than in the no-arm counterparts. Star clusters that form in a nuclear ring exhibit an age gradient in the azimuthal direction only when the SFR is small, whereas no notable age gradient is found in the radial direction for models with arm-induced star formation.

  10. Archaeal and bacterial communities across a chronosequence of drained lake basins in arctic alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kao-Kniffin, J.; Woodcroft, B. J.; Carver, S. M.; Bockheim, J. G.; Handelsman, J.; Tyson, G. W.; Hinkel, K. M.; Mueller, C. W.

    2015-12-18

    We examined patterns in soil microbial community composition across a successional gradient of drained lake basins in the Arctic Coastal Plain. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that methanogens closely related to Candidatus ‘Methanoflorens stordalenmirensis’ were the dominant archaea, comprising >50% of the total archaea at most sites, with particularly high levels in the oldest basins and in the top 57 cm of soil (active and transition layers). Bacterial community composition was more diverse, with lineages from OP11, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria found in high relative abundance across all sites. Notably, microbial composition appeared to converge in the active layer, but transition and permafrost layer communities across the sites were significantly different to one another. Microbial biomass using fatty acid-based analysis indicated that the youngest basins had increased abundances of gram-positive bacteria and saprotrophic fungi at higher soil organic carbon levels, while the oldest basins displayed an increase in only the gram-positive bacteria. While this study showed differences in microbial populations across the sites relevant to basin age, the dominance of Candidatus ‘M. stordalenmirensis’ across the chronosequence indicates the potential for changes in local carbon cycling, depending on how these methanogens and associated microbial communities respond to warming temperatures.

  11. Next-Generation Photovoltaic Technologies in the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConnell, R.; Matson, R.

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes highlights of exploratory research into next-generation photovoltaic (PV) technologies funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) through its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the purpose of finding disruptive or ''leap frog'' technologies that may leap ahead of conventional PV in energy markets. The most recent set of 14 next-generation PV projects, termed Beyond the Horizon PV, will complete their third year of research this year. The projects tend to take two notably different approaches: high-efficiency solar cells that are presently too expensive, or organic solar cells having potential for low cost although efficiencies are currently too low. We will describe accomplishments for several of these projects. As prime examples of what these last projects have accomplished, researchers at Princeton University recently reported an organic solar cell with 5% efficiency (not yet NREL-verified). And Ohio State University scientists recently demonstrated an 18% (NREL-verified) single-junction GaAs solar cell grown on a low-cost silicon substrate. We also completed an evaluation of proposals for the newest set of exploratory research projects, but we are unable to describe them in detail until funding becomes available to complete the award process.

  12. Akuo Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    investor in renewable projects, most notably a BIPV project in France. Also plans to invest in solar, wind, hydro, bioethanol and biomass. Coordinates: 48.85693, 2.3412 Show...

  13. Accelerated Evolution of Conserved Noncoding Sequences in theHuman Genome

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prambhakar, Shyam; Noonan, James P.; Paabo, Svante; Rubin, EdwardM.

    2006-07-06

    Genomic comparisons between human and distant, non-primatemammals are commonly used to identify cis-regulatory elements based onconstrained sequence evolution. However, these methods fail to detect"cryptic" functional elements, which are too weakly conserved amongmammals to distinguish from nonfunctional DNA. To address this problem,we explored the potential of deep intra-primate sequence comparisons. Wesequenced the orthologs of 558 kb of human genomic sequence, coveringmultiple loci involved in cholesterol homeostasis, in 6 nonhumanprimates. Our analysis identified 6 noncoding DNA elements displayingsignificant conservation among primates, but undetectable in more distantcomparisons. In vitro and in vivo tests revealed that at least three ofthese 6 elements have regulatory function. Notably, the mouse orthologsof these three functional human sequences had regulatory activity despitetheir lack of significant sequence conservation, indicating that they arecryptic ancestral cis-regulatory elements. These regulatory elementscould still be detected in a smaller set of three primate speciesincluding human, rhesus and marmoset. Since the human and rhesus genomesequences are already available, and the marmoset genome is activelybeing sequenced, the primate-specific conservation analysis describedhere can be applied in the near future on a whole-genome scale, tocomplement the annotation provided by more distant speciescomparisons.

  14. Towards Direct Simulation of Future Tropical Cyclone Statistics in a High-Resolution Global Atmospheric Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wehner, Michael F.; Bala, G.; Duffy, Phillip; Mirin, Arthur A.; Romano, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    We present a set of high-resolution global atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations focusing on the model's ability to represent tropical storms and their statistics. We find that the model produces storms of hurricane strength with realistic dynamical features. We also find that tropical storm statistics are reasonable, both globally and in the north Atlantic, when compared to recent observations. The sensitivity of simulated tropical storm statistics to increases in sea surface temperature (SST) is also investigated, revealing that a credible late 21st century SST increase produced increases in simulated tropical storm numbers and intensities in all ocean basins. Whilemore » this paper supports previous high-resolution model and theoretical findings that the frequency of very intense storms will increase in a warmer climate, it differs notably from previous medium and high-resolution model studies that show a global reduction in total tropical storm frequency. However, we are quick to point out that this particular model finding remains speculative due to a lack of radiative forcing changes in our time-slice experiments as well as a focus on the Northern hemisphere tropical storm seasons.« less

  15. Preserved DNA Damage Checkpoint Pathway Protects against Complications in Long-Standing Type 1 Diabetes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatt, Shweta; Gupta, Manoj; Khamaisi, Mogher; Martinez, Rachael; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Wagner, Bridget; Guye, Patrick; Busskamp, Volker; Shirakawa, Jun; Wu, Gongxiong; Liew, Chong Wee; Clauss, Therese RW; Valdez, Ivan; EL Ouaaman, Abdelfattah; Dirice, Ercument; Takatani, Tomozumi; Keenan, Hillary; Smith, Richard D.; Church, George; Weiss, Ron; Wagers, Amy J.; Qian, Weijun; King, George L.; Kulkami, Rohit N.

    2015-08-04

    Themechanisms underlying the development of complications in type 1 diabetes (T1D) are poorly understood. Disease modeling of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients with longstanding T1D(disease durationR50 years) with severe (Medalist +C) or absent to mild complications (Medalist *C) revealed impaired growth, reprogramming, and differentiation in Medalist +C. Genomics and proteomics analyses suggested differential regulation of DNA damage checkpoint proteins favoring protection from cellular apoptosis in Medalist *C. In silico analyses showed altered expression patterns of DNA damage checkpoint factors among the Medalist groups to be targets of miR200, whose expression was significantly elevated in Medalist +C serum. Notably, neurons differentiated from Medalist +C iPSCs exhibited enhanced susceptibility to genotoxic stress that worsened upon miR200 overexpression. Furthermore, knockdown of miR200 in Medalist +C fibroblasts and iPSCs rescued checkpoint protein expression and reduced DNA damage.WeproposemiR200-regulated DNA damage checkpoint pathway as a potential therapeutic target for treating complications of diabetes.

  16. Rattling Nucleons: New Developments in Active Interrogation of Special Nuclear Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert C. Runkle; David L. Chichester; Scott J. Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Active interrogation is a vigorous area of research and development due to its promise of offering detection and characterization capabilities of special nuclear material in environments where passive detection fails. The primary value added by active methods is the capability to penetrate shielding - special nuclear material itself, incidental materials, or intentional shielding - and advocates hope that active interrogation will provide a solution to the problem of detecting shielded uranium, which is at present the greatest obstacle to interdiction efforts. The technique also provides a unique benefit for quantifying nuclear material in high background-radiation environments, an area important for nuclear material safeguards and material accountancy. Progress has been made in the field of active interrogation on several fronts, most notably in the arenas of source development, systems integration, and the integration and exploitation of multiple fission and non-fission signatures. But penetration of interrogating radiation often comes at a cost, not only in terms of finance and dose but also in terms of induced backgrounds, system complexity, and extended measurement times (including set up and acquisition). These costs make the calculus for deciding to implement active interrogation more subtle than may be apparent. The purpose of this review is thus to examine existing interrogation methods, compare and contrast their attributes and limitations, and identify missions where active interrogation may hold the most promise.

  17. EQUILIBRIUM DISKS, MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY MODE EXCITATION, AND STEADY-STATE TURBULENCE IN GLOBAL ACCRETION DISK SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkin, E. R.; Bicknell, G. V.

    2013-02-15

    Global three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of turbulent accretion disks are presented which start from fully equilibrium initial conditions in which the magnetic forces are accounted for and the induction equation is satisfied. The local linear theory of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is used as a predictor of the growth of magnetic field perturbations in the global simulations. The linear growth estimates and global simulations diverge when nonlinear motions-perhaps triggered by the onset of turbulence-upset the velocity perturbations used to excite the MRI. The saturated state is found to be independent of the initially excited MRI mode, showing that once the disk has expelled the initially net flux field and settled into quasi-periodic oscillations in the toroidal magnetic flux, the dynamo cycle regulates the global saturation stress level. Furthermore, time-averaged measures of converged turbulence, such as the ratio of magnetic energies, are found to be in agreement with previous works. In particular, the globally averaged stress normalized to the gas pressure <{alpha}{sub P}>bar = 0.034, with notably higher values achieved for simulations with higher azimuthal resolution. Supplementary tests are performed using different numerical algorithms and resolutions. Convergence with resolution during the initial linear MRI growth phase is found for 23-35 cells per scale height (in the vertical direction).

  18. Generalized entering coefficients: A criterion for foam stability against oil in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergeron, V.; Fagan, M.E.; Radke, C.J.

    1993-09-01

    The unique mobility-control properties of foam in porous media make it an attractive choice as an injection fluid for enhanced oil recovery. Unfortunately, in many cases oil has a major destabilizing effect on foam. Therefore, it is important to understand how oil destabilizes foam and what surfactant properties lead to increased stability against oil. To explain the stability of foam in porous media in the presence of oil, we generalize the ideas of spreading and entering behavior using Frumkin-Deryaguin wetting theory. This formulation overcomes the inherent deficiencies in the classical spreading and entering coefficients used to explain foam stability against oil. We find that oil-tolerant foam can be produced by making the oil surface ``water wet``. To test our theoretical ideas, we measure foam-flow resistance through 45--70 {mu}m glass beadpacks, surface and interfacial tensions, and disjoining pressure isotherms for foam and pseudoemulsion films for a variety of surfactant/oil systems. Most notably, we measure pseudoemulsion-film disjoining pressure isotherms for the first time and directly establish that pseudoemulsion film stability controls the stability of the foam in the systems we tested. Moreover, we demonstrate the correspondence between stable pseudoemulsion films, negative entering behavior, and oil-tolerant foams.

  19. City of Greensburg- Green Building Requirement for New Municipal Buildings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    As of 2014, Greensburg is home to the most LEED buildings per capita in the U.S. Other notable clean energy achievements include 100% of the electricity used in the City of Greensburg is renewabl...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    is home to the most LEED buildings per capita in the U.S. Other notable clean energy achievements include 100% of the electricity used in the City of Greensburg is...

  1. Radiative Penguin Decays at the B Factories (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in radiative penguin decays from the B factories Belle and BABAR. Most notably, I will talk about the recent new observations in the decays B yields (rhoomega) gamma, a...

  2. Transport of thermal neutrons in D/sub 2/O in the temperature Range 5 to 60/sup 0/C based on a new scattering kernel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, R.M.; Kothari, L.S.; Tewari, S.P.

    1980-10-01

    A new scattering kernel for heavy water has been proposed. The kernel takes into account the chemical binding energy effects and also includes the rotational and intramolecular vibrational modes. Using this scattering kernel, various neutron transport processes in the temperature range 5 to 60/sup 0/C have been studied and compared with the corresponding experimental results. The calculated results include total neutron scattering cross section at 20/sup 0/C; asymptotic decay of neutron pulses in the temperature range 5 to 60/sup 0/C and temperature variation of the diffusion coefficient and diffusion cooling coefficient; timedependent spectra inside finite-sized assemblies of heavy water at 20 and 43.3/sup 0/C thermalization time; and diffusion length and space-dependent study in pure and poisoned assemblies of heavy water. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental results. At some places notable differences are observed between the results obtained using our scattering kernel and those based on the Honeck kernel.

  3. Structure of the protein core of translation initiation factor 2 in apo, GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simonetti, Angelita; Fabbretti, Attilio; Hazemann, Isabelle; Jenner, Lasse; Gualerzi, Claudio O.; Klaholz, Bruno P.

    2013-06-01

    The crystal structures of the eubacterial translation initiation factor 2 in apo form and with bound GDP and GTP reveal conformational changes upon nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, notably of the catalytically important histidine in the switch II region. Translation initiation factor 2 (IF2) is involved in the early steps of bacterial protein synthesis. It promotes the stabilization of the initiator tRNA on the 30S initiation complex (IC) and triggers GTP hydrolysis upon ribosomal subunit joining. While the structure of an archaeal homologue (a/eIF5B) is known, there are significant sequence and functional differences in eubacterial IF2, while the trimeric eukaryotic IF2 is completely unrelated. Here, the crystal structure of the apo IF2 protein core from Thermus thermophilus has been determined by MAD phasing and the structures of GTP and GDP complexes were also obtained. The IF2GTP complex was trapped by soaking with GTP in the cryoprotectant. The structures revealed conformational changes of the protein upon nucleotide binding, in particular in the P-loop region, which extend to the functionally relevant switch II region. The latter carries a catalytically important and conserved histidine residue which is observed in different conformations in the GTP and GDP complexes. Overall, this work provides the first crystal structure of a eubacterial IF2 and suggests that activation of GTP hydrolysis may occur by a conformational repositioning of the histidine residue.

  4. Results from Tight and Loose Coupled Multiphysics in Nuclear Fuels Performance Simulations using BISON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. R. Novascone; B. W. Spencer; D. Andrs; R. L. Williamson; J. D. Hales; D. M. Perez

    2013-05-01

    The behavior of nuclear fuel in the reactor environment is affected by multiple physics, most notably heat conduction and solid mechanics, which can have a strong influence on each other. To provide credible solutions, a fuel performance simulation code must have the ability to obtain solutions for each of the physics, including coupling between them. Solution strategies for solving systems of coupled equations can be categorized as loosely-coupled, where the individual physics are solved separately, keeping the solutions for the other physics fixed at each iteration, or tightly coupled, where the nonlinear solver simultaneously drives down the residual for each physics, taking into account the coupling between the physics in each nonlinear iteration. In this paper, we compare the performance of loosely and tightly coupled solution algorithms for thermomechanical problems involving coupled thermal and mechanical contact, which is a primary source of interdependence between thermal and mechanical solutions in fuel performance models. The results indicate that loosely-coupled simulations require significantly more nonlinear iterations, and may lead to convergence trouble when the thermal conductivity of the gap is too small. We also apply the tightly coupled solution strategy to a nuclear fuel simulation of an experiment in a test reactor. Studying the results from these simulations indicates that perhaps convergence for either approach may be problem dependent, i.e., there may be problems for which a loose coupled approach converges, where tightly coupled wont converge and vice versa.

  5. The Future of Food Demand: Understanding Differences in Global Economic Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Nelson, Gerald; Ahammad, Helal; Blanc, Elodie; Bodirsky, Benjamin; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Havlik, Petr; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, G. Page; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; Paltsev, S.; Rolinski, Susanne; Tabeau, Andrzej; van Meijl, Hans; von Lampe, Martin; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the capacity of agricultural systems to feed the world population under climate change requires a good prospective vision on the future development of food demand. This paper reviews modeling approaches from ten global economic models participating to the AgMIP project, in particular the demand function chosen and the set of parameters used. We compare food demand projections at the horizon 2050 for various regions and agricultural products under harmonized scenarios. Depending on models, we find for a business as usual scenario (SSP2) an increase in food demand of 59-98% by 2050, slightly higher than FAO projection (54%). The prospective for animal calories is particularly uncertain with a range of 61-144%, whereas FAO anticipates an increase by 76%. The projections reveal more sensitive to socio-economic assumptions than to climate change conditions or bioenergy development. When considering a higher population lower economic growth world (SSP3), consumption per capita drops by 9% for crops and 18% for livestock. Various assumptions on climate change in this exercise do not lead to world calorie losses greater than 6%. Divergences across models are however notable, due to differences in demand system, income elasticities specification, and response to price change in the baseline.

  6. Effects of Light and Temperature on Fatty Acid Production in Nannochloropsis Salina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Wagenen, Jonathan M.; Miller, Tyler W.; Hobbs, Samuel J.; Hook, Paul W.; Crowe, Braden J.; Huesemann, Michael H.

    2012-03-12

    Accurate prediction of algal biofuel yield will require empirical determination of physiological responses to the climate, particularly light and temperature. One strain of interest, Nannochloropsis salina, was subjected to ranges of light intensity (5-850 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and temperature (13-40 C); exponential growth rate, total fatty acids (TFA) and fatty acid composition were measured. The maximum acclimated growth rate was 1.3 day{sup -1} at 23 C and 250 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Fatty acids were detected by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) after transesterification to corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). A sharp increase in TFA containing elevated palmitic acid (C16:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1) during exponential growth at high light was observed, indicating likely triacylglycerol accumulation due to photo-oxidative stress. Lower light resulted in increases in the relative abundance of unsaturated fatty acids; in thin cultures, increases were observed in palmitoleic and eicosapentaenoeic acids (C20:5{omega}3). As cultures aged and the effective light intensity per cell converged to very low levels, fatty acid profiles became more similar and there was a notable increase of oleic acid (C18:1{omega}9). The amount of unsaturated fatty acids was inversely proportional to temperature, demonstrating physiological adaptations to increase membrane fluidity. This data will improve prediction of fatty acid characteristics and yields relevant to biofuel production.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of DNP enhancements in a rotor spinning at the magic angle

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Perras, Frederic A.; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Pruski, Marek

    2016-02-23

    Simulations performed on model, static, samples have shown that the microwave power is non-uniformly distributed in the magic angle spinning (MAS) rotor when using conventional dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) instrumentation. Here, we applied the stray-field magic angle spinning imaging (STRAFI–MAS) experiment to generate a spatial map of the DNP enhancements in a full rotor, which is spun at a low rate in a commercial DNP–MAS NMR system. Notably, we observed that the enhancement factors produced in the center of the rotor can be twice as large as those produced at the top of the rotor. Surprisingly, we observed that themore » largest enhancement factors are observed along the axis of the rotor as opposed to against its walls, which are most directly irradiated by the microwave beam. We lastly observed that the distribution of enhancement factors can be moderately improved by degassing the sample and increasing the microwave power. The inclusion of dielectric particles greatly amplifies the enhancement factors throughout the rotor. Furthermore, the STRAFI–MAS approach can provide useful guidance for optimizing the access of microwave power to the sample, and thereby lead to further increases in sensitivity of DNP–MAS NMR.« less

  8. More on loops in reheating: non-gaussianities and tensor power spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katirci, Nihan; Kaya, Ali; Tarman, Merve E-mail: ali.kaya@boun.edu.tr

    2014-06-01

    We consider the single field chaotic m{sup 2}?{sup 2} inflationary model with a period of preheating, where the inflaton decays to another scalar field ? in the parametric resonance regime. In a recent work, one of us has shown that the ? modes circulating in the loops during preheating notably modify the (??) correlation function. We first rederive this result using a different gauge condition hence reconfirm that superhorizon ? modes are affected by the loops in preheating. Further, we examine how ? loops give rise to non-gaussianity and affect the tensor perturbations. For that, all cubic and some higher order interactions involving two ? fields are determined and their contribution to the non-gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} and the tensor power spectrum are calculated at one loop. Our estimates for these corrections show that while a large amount of non-gaussianity can be produced during reheating, the tensor power spectrum receive moderate corrections. We observe that the loop quantum effects increase with more ? fields circulating in the loops indicating that the perturbation theory might be broken down. These findings demonstrate that the loop corrections during reheating are significant and they must be taken into account for precision inflationary cosmology.

  9. Competing pairing states for ultracold fermions in optical lattices with an artificial staggered magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Lih-King; Lazarides, Achilleas; Morais Smith, C.; Hemmerich, Andreas

    2010-07-15

    We study fermionic superfluidity in an ultracold Bose-Fermi mixture loaded into a square optical lattice subjected to a staggered flux. While the bosons form a Bose-Einstein condensate at very low temperature and weak interaction, the interacting fermions experience an additional long-ranged attractive interaction mediated by phonons in the bosonic condensate. This leads us to consider a generalized Hubbard model with on-site and nearest-neighbor attractive interactions, which give rise to two competing pairing channels. We use the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory to determine the regimes where distinct fermionic superfluids are stabilized and find that the nonlocal pairing channel favors a superfluid state which breaks both the gauge and the lattice symmetries, similar to unconventional superconductivity occurring in some strongly correlated systems. Furthermore, the particular structure of the single-particle spectrum leads to unexpected consequences, for example, a dome-shaped superfluid region in the temperature versus filing fraction phase diagram, with a normal phase that contains much richer physics than a Fermi liquid. Notably, the relevant temperature regime and coupling strength are readily accessible in state of the art experiments with ultracold trapped atoms.

  10. More on loops in reheating: non-gaussianities and tensor power spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katırcı, Nihan; Kaya, Ali; Tarman, Merve

    2014-06-11

    We consider the single field chaotic m{sup 2}ϕ{sup 2} inflationary model with a period of preheating, where the inflaton decays to another scalar field χ in the parametric resonance regime. In a recent work, one of us has shown that the χ modes circulating in the loops during preheating notably modify the <ζζ> correlation function. We first rederive this result using a different gauge condition hence reconfirm that superhorizon ζ modes are affected by the loops in preheating. Further, we examine how χ loops give rise to non-gaussianity and affect the tensor perturbations. For that, all cubic and some higher order interactions involving two χ fields are determined and their contribution to the non-gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} and the tensor power spectrum are calculated at one loop. Our estimates for these corrections show that while a large amount of non-gaussianity can be produced during reheating, the tensor power spectrum receive moderate corrections. We observe that the loop quantum effects increase with more χ fields circulating in the loops indicating that the perturbation theory might be broken down. These findings demonstrate that the loop corrections during reheating are significant and they must be taken into account for precision inflationary cosmology.

  11. Trends in emissions of acidifying species in Asia, 1985-1997.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streets, D. G.; Tsai, N. Y.; Akimoto, H.; Oka, K.

    2000-05-31

    Acid deposition is a serious problem throughout much of Asia. Emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) have been increasing steadily, as nations strive to increase their levels of economic development. Coal and fuel oil have been the main choices for powering industrial development; and, until recently, only a few countries (notably Japan and Taiwan) had taken significant steps to avert the atmospheric emissions that accompany fuel combustion. This paper discusses trends in emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} that have occurred in Asian countries in the period 1985--1997, using results from the RAINS-ASIA computer model and energy-use trends from the IEA Energy Statistics and Balances database. Emissions of SO{sub 2} in Asia grew from 26.6 Tg in 1985 to 33.7 Tg in 1990 and to 39.2 Tg in 1997. Though SO{sub 2} emissions used to grow as fast as fossil-fuel use, recent limitations on the sulfur content of coal and oil have slowed the growth. The annual-average emissions growth between 1990 and 1997 was only 1.1%, considerably less than the economic growth rate. Emissions of NO{sub x}, on the other hand, continue to grow rapidly, from 14.1 Tg in 1985 to 18.7 Tg in 1990 and 28.5 Tg in 1997, with no signs of abating. Thus, though SO{sub 2} remains the major contributor to acidifying emissions in Asia, the role of NO{sub x}, will become more and more important in the future.

  12. Increased bile acids in enterohepatic circulation by short-term calorie restriction in male mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Zidong Donna; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2013-12-15

    Previous studies showed glucose and insulin signaling can regulate bile acid (BA) metabolism during fasting or feeding. However, limited knowledge is available on the effect of calorie restriction (CR), a well-known anti-aging intervention, on BA homeostasis. To address this, the present study utilized a doseresponse model of CR, where male C57BL/6 mice were fed 0, 15, 30, or 40% CR diets for one month, followed by BA profiling in various compartments of the enterohepatic circulation by UPLC-MS/MS technique. This study showed that 40% CR increased the BA pool size (162%) as well as total BAs in serum, gallbladder, and small intestinal contents. In addition, CR dose-dependently increased the concentrations of tauro-cholic acid (TCA) and many secondary BAs (produced by intestinal bacteria) in serum, such as tauro-deoxycholic acid (TDCA), DCA, lithocholic acid, ?-muricholic acid (?MCA), and hyodeoxycholic acid. Notably, 40% CR increased TDCA by over 1000% (serum, liver, and gallbladder). Interestingly, 40% CR increased the proportion of 12?-hydroxylated BAs (CA and DCA), which correlated with improved glucose tolerance and lipid parameters. The CR-induced increase in BAs correlated with increased expression of BA-synthetic (Cyp7a1) and conjugating enzymes (BAL), and the ileal BA-binding protein (Ibabp). These results suggest that CR increases BAs in male mice possibly through orchestrated increases in BA synthesis and conjugation in liver as well as intracellular transport in ileum. - Highlights: Dose response effects of short-term CR on BA homeostasis in male mice. CR increased the BA pool size and many individual BAs. CR altered BA composition (increased proportion of 12?-hydroxylated BAs). Increased mRNAs of BA enzymes in liver (Cyp7a1 and BAL) and ileal BA binding protein.

  13. Seismicity in the Vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the Period October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Ken

    2007-11-26

    This report describes earthquake activity within approximately 65 km of Yucca Mountain site during the October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2006 time period (FY05-06). The FY05-06 earthquake activity will be compared with the historical and more recent period of seismic activity in the Yucca Mountain region. The relationship between the distribution of seismicity and active faults, historical patterns of activity, and rates of earthquakes (number of events and their magnitudes) are important components in the assessment of the seismic hazard for the Yucca Mountain site. Since October 1992 the University of Nevada has compiled a catalog of earthquakes in the Yucca Mountain area. Seismicity reports have identified notable earthquake activity, provided interpretations of the seismotectonics of the region, and documented changes in the character of earthquake activity based on nearly 30 years of site-characterization monitoring. Data from stations in the seismic network in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain is collected and managed at the Nevada Seismological Laboratory (NSL) at the University of Nevada Reno (UNR). Earthquake events are systematically identified and cataloged under Implementing Procedures developed in compliance with the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) Quality Assurance Program. The earthquake catalog for FY05-06 in the Yucca Mountain region submitted to the Yucca Mountain Technical Data Management System (TDMS) forms the basis of this report.

  14. Analysis of loss of off-site power ATWS in VVER-440 concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeppner, G.; Siltanen, P.; Kotro, J.

    1987-01-01

    During 1985 the Finnish state-owned utility Imatran Voima Oy signed a work order with Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit mbH of the Federal Republic of Germany (GRS) for the analysis of abnormal transients in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) concept based on a Soviet design. The results of these calculations were intended to be introduced into the licensing process and to support a decision to build such a nuclear power station. A computer model was constructed of the VVER-440 concept, a 500-MW(electric) PWR designed in the USSR and modified for Finland. The ALMOD4 code, developed at GRS, was used for the investigation. The ALMOD4 code is a fast running code for the analysis of operational and abnormal transients in PWRs. Input data were set up to calculate anticipated transients without scram, most notably the loss of off-site power case. One-dimensional neutron kinetics was used to correctly model the neutronics feedback of axially distributed moderator density and fuel temperature in a changing axial power profile. Interlocking signals and the engineered safety systems were modeled to assess the overall systems response to this abnormal transient. Special analytical problems were encountered since a detailed and verified model of the steam generator (SG) with horizontally positioned heat exchanger tubes was not available. Therefore, two bounding calculations were performed with different SG models.

  15. Humidity trends imply increased sensitivity to clouds in a warming Arctic

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cox, Christopher J.; Walden, Von P.; Rowe, Penny M.; Shupe, Matthew D.

    2015-12-10

    Infrared radiative processes are implicated in Arctic warming and sea-ice decline. The infrared cloud radiative effect (CRE) at the surface is modulated by cloud properties; however, CRE also depends on humidity because clouds emit at wavelengths that are semi-transparent to greenhouse gases, most notably water vapour. Here we show how temperature and humidity control CRE through competing influences between the mid- and far-infrared. At constant relative humidity, CRE does not decrease with increasing temperature/absolute humidity as expected, but rather is found to be approximately constant for temperatures characteristic of the Arctic. This stability is disrupted if relative humidity varies. Ourmore » findings explain observed seasonal and regional variability in Arctic CRE of order 10Wm 2. With the physical properties of Arctic clouds held constant, we calculate recent increases in CRE of 1–5Wm 2 in autumn and winter, which are projected to reach 5–15Wm 2 by 2050, implying increased sensitivity of the surface to clouds.« less

  16. Humidity trends imply increased sensitivity to clouds in a warming Arctic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Christopher J.; Walden, Von P.; Rowe, Penny M.; Shupe, Matthew D.

    2015-12-10

    Infrared radiative processes are implicated in Arctic warming and sea-ice decline. The infrared cloud radiative effect (CRE) at the surface is modulated by cloud properties; however, CRE also depends on humidity because clouds emit at wavelengths that are semi-transparent to greenhouse gases, most notably water vapour. Here we show how temperature and humidity control CRE through competing influences between the mid- and far-infrared. At constant relative humidity, CRE does not decrease with increasing temperature/absolute humidity as expected, but rather is found to be approximately constant for temperatures characteristic of the Arctic. This stability is disrupted if relative humidity varies. Our findings explain observed seasonal and regional variability in Arctic CRE of order 10Wm 2. With the physical properties of Arctic clouds held constant, we calculate recent increases in CRE of 1–5Wm 2 in autumn and winter, which are projected to reach 5–15Wm 2 by 2050, implying increased sensitivity of the surface to clouds.

  17. Proteomic Analysis of Saliva in HIV-positive Heroin Addicts Reveals Proteins Correlated with Cognition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dominy, Stephen; Brown, Joseph N.; Ryder, Mark I.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains high despite effective antiretroviral therapies. Multiple etiologies have been proposed over the last few years to account for this phenomenon, including the neurotoxic effects of antiretrovirals and co-morbid substance abuse. However, no underlying molecular mechanism has been identified. Emerging evidence in several fields has linked the gut to brain diseases, but the effect of the gut on the brain during HIV infection has not been explored. Saliva is the most accessible gut biofluid, and is therefore of great scientific interest for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. This study presents a longitudinal, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics study investigating saliva samples taken from 8 HIV-positive (HIV+) and 11 -negative (HIV-) heroin addicts. In the HIV+ group, 58 proteins were identified that show significant correlations with cognitive scores and that implicate disruption of protein quality control pathways by HIV. Notably, no proteins from the HIV- heroin addict cohort showed significant correlations with cognitive scores. In addition, the majority of correlated proteins have been shown to be associated with exosomes, allowing us to propose that the salivary glands and/or oral epithelium may modulate brain function during HIV infection through the release of discrete packets of proteins in the form of exosomes.

  18. Scalar dark matter and fermion coannihilations in the radiative seesaw model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasen, Michael; Yaguna, Carlos E.; Ruiz-lvarez, Jos D.; Restrepo, Diego; Zapata, Oscar E-mail: carlos.yaguna@uni-muenster.de E-mail: restrepo@udea.edu.co

    2013-04-01

    By extending the Standard Model with three right-handed neutrinos (N{sub i}) and a second Higgs doublet (H{sub 2}), odd under a Z{sub 2} symmetry, it is possible to explain non-zero neutrino masses and to account for the dark matter. We consider the case where the dark matter is a scalar and study its coannihilations with the right-handed neutrinos. These coannihilations tend to increase, rather than reduce, the dark matter density and they modify in a significant way the viable parameter space of the model. In particular, they allow to satisfy the relic density constraint for dark matter masses well below 500 GeV. The dependence of the relic density on the relevant parameters of the model, such as the dark matter mass, the mass splitting, and the number of coannihilating fermions, is analyzed in detail. We also investigate, via a scan over the parameter space, the new viable regions that are obtained when coannihilations are taken into account. Notably, they feature large indirect detection rates, with (?v) reaching values of order 10{sup ?24}cm{sup 3}s{sup ?1}. Finally, we emphasize that coannihilation effects analogous to those discussed here can be used to reconcile a thermal freeze-out with a large (?v) also in other models of dark matter.

  19. miR-502 inhibits cell proliferation and tumor growth in hepatocellular carcinoma through suppressing phosphoinositide 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Suling; Li, Fang; Chai, Haiyun; Tao, Xin; Wang, Haili; Ji, Aifang

    2015-08-21

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in carcinogenesis and tumor progression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, we demonstrated that miR-502 significantly inhibits HCC cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. G1/S cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of HCC cells were induced by miR-502. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma (PIK3CG) was identified as a direct downstream target of miR-502 in HCC cells. Notably, overexpression of PIK3CG reversed the inhibitory effects of miR-502 in HCC cells. Our findings suggest that miR-502 functions as a tumor suppressor in HCC via inhibition of PI3KCG, supporting its utility as a promising therapeutic gene target for this tumor type. - Highlights: • miR-502 suppresses HCC cell proliferation in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. • miR-502 regulates cell cycle and apoptosis in HCC cells. • PIK3CG is a direct target of miR-502. • miR-502 and PIK3CG expression patterns are inversely correlated in HCC tissues.

  20. High resolution NMR study of T{sub 1} magnetic relaxation dispersion. IV. Proton relaxation in amino acids and Met-enkephalin pentapeptide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pravdivtsev, Andrey N.; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V.; Ivanov, Konstantin L.; Vieth, Hans-Martin

    2014-10-21

    Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation Dispersion (NMRD) of protons was studied in the pentapeptide Met-enkephalin and the amino acids, which constitute it. Experiments were run by using high-resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) in combination with fast field-cycling, thus enabling measuring NMRD curves for all individual protons. As in earlier works, Papers I–III, pronounced effects of intramolecular scalar spin-spin interactions, J-couplings, on spin relaxation were found. Notably, at low fields J-couplings tend to equalize the apparent relaxation rates within networks of coupled protons. In Met-enkephalin, in contrast to the free amino acids, there is a sharp increase in the proton T{sub 1}-relaxation times at high fields due to the changes in the regime of molecular motion. The experimental data are in good agreement with theory. From modelling the relaxation experiments we were able to determine motional correlation times of different residues in Met-enkephalin with atomic resolution. This allows us to draw conclusions about preferential conformation of the pentapeptide in solution, which is also in agreement with data from two-dimensional NMR experiments (rotating frame Overhauser effect spectroscopy). Altogether, our study demonstrates that high-resolution NMR studies of magnetic field-dependent relaxation allow one to probe molecular mobility in biomolecules with atomic resolution.

  1. Mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate induces oxidative stress responses in human placental cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tetz, Lauren M.; Cheng, Adrienne A.; Korte, Cassandra S.; Giese, Roger W.; Wang, Poguang; Harris, Craig; Meeker, John D.; Loch-Caruso, Rita

    2013-04-01

    Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is an environmental contaminant commonly used as a plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride products. Exposure to DEHP has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans including preterm birth, low birth-weight, and pregnancy loss. Although oxidative stress is linked to the pathology of adverse pregnancy outcomes, effects of DEHP metabolites, including the active metabolite, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), on oxidative stress responses in placental cells have not been previously evaluated. The objective of the current study is to identify MEHP-stimulated oxidative stress responses in human placental cells. We treated a human placental cell line, HTR-8/SVneo, with MEHP and then measured reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation using the dichlorofluorescein assay, oxidized thymine with mass-spectrometry, redox-sensitive gene expression with qRT-PCR, and apoptosis using a luminescence assay for caspase 3/7 activity. Treatment of HTR-8 cells with 180 ?M MEHP increased ROS generation, oxidative DNA damage, and caspase 3/7 activity, and resulted in differential expression of redox-sensitive genes. Notably, 90 and 180 ?M MEHP significantly induced mRNA expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), an enzyme important for synthesis of prostaglandins implicated in initiation of labor. The results from the present study are the first to demonstrate that MEHP stimulates oxidative stress responses in placental cells. Furthermore, the MEHP concentrations used were within an order of magnitude of the highest concentrations measured previously in human umbilical cord or maternal serum. The findings from the current study warrant future mechanistic studies of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and prostaglandins as molecular mediators of DEHP/MEHP-associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. - Highlights: ? MEHP increased reactive oxygen species, oxidative DNA damage, and caspase activity. ? MEHP induced expression of PTGS2, a gene important in pregnancy and parturition ? MEHP treatment resulted in differential expression of GLRX2, TXNRD1, and DHCR24.

  2. FY 2012 DOE Agency Financial Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FY 2012 DOE Agency Financial Report Notable accomplishments in FY 2012 include: the first electric grid-connected tidal energy project off the coast of Maine a new approach to sea ...

  3. John Podesta

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

     John Podesta is Chair of the Center for American Progress and the Center for American Progress Action Fund. Under his leadership American Progress has become a notable leader in the...

  4. Women @ Energy: Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    high-strength materials (including steels) and modeling are vital to energy efficiency and renewable energy and have led to notable weight savings in the U.S. automotive industry. ...

  5. Influence of composition fluctuations on the linear viscoelastic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the terminal viscoelastic regime to a temperature-independent form. However, for some materials, most notably poly(styrene-b-isoprene) (PS-PI), no signature of these...

  6. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    compared with a year ago. Consumption of gas for electric power generation (power burn) fell 1.8%, led by declines in the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast. Notable, however,...

  7. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    locations in the Lower 48 States. For the week (Wednesday-Wednesday), prices at the Henry Hub fell 6 cents or 2 percent to 2.98 per MMBtu. Notable exceptions to the general...

  8. Energy & Financial Markets - U.S. Energy Information Administration...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Several major oil price shocks have occurred at the same time as supply disruptions triggered by political events, most notably the Arab Oil Embargo in 1973-74, the Iranian ...

  9. Understanding Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints, October...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Notable examples of byproduct fuels include the use of black liquor and wood byproducts in ... represent a genuine distribution of energy use and losses across the sector as a whole. ...

  10. Recovery Act Investment Moves EM Past Milestone of 100 Project Completions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Environmental Management's (EM) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Program recently paused to observe a notable achievement: completion of more than 100 projects in its $6 billion...

  11. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    celebration of Women's History Month, Lab recognizes notable firsts by Los Alamos women March 24, 2016 Women scientists and engineers make notable firsts at the Laboratory To celebrate women in science during March's national Women's History Month, we take a look at remarkable "firsts" women have set in science and engineering here at the Laboratory. Today, as more women enter the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, Los Alamos has seen a steady increase in women

  12. On the influence of polarization effects in predicting the interfacial structure and capacitance of graphene-like electrodes in ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paek, Eunsu; Pak, Alexander J.; Hwang, Gyeong S.

    2015-01-14

    The electric double layer (C{sub D}) and electrode quantum (C{sub Q}) capacitances of graphene-based supercapacitors are investigated using a combined molecular dynamics and density functional theory approach. In particular, we compare an approach that includes electronic polarization to one that is polarization-free by evaluating both C{sub D} and C{sub Q} using [EMIM][BF{sub 4}] ionic liquid as a model electrolyte. Our results indicate that the inclusion of polarization effects can yield higher C{sub D} values—in this study by up to 40% around ±2 V—which we attribute primarily to the presence of charge smearing at the electrode-electrolyte interface. On the other hand, we find that the polarization-induced distortion of the electronic structure of graphene does not noticeably alter the predicted C{sub Q}. Our analysis suggests that an accurate description of the spatial charge distribution at the graphene interface due to polarization is necessary to improve our predictive capabilities, though more notably for C{sub D}. However, the conventional polarization-free approximation can serve as an efficient tool to study trends associated with both the C{sub Q} and C{sub D} at the interface of various graphene-like materials.

  13. Energy-scales convergence for optimal and robust quantum transport in photosynthetic complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohseni, M.; Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 ; Shabani, A.; Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 ; Lloyd, S.; Rabitz, H.

    2014-01-21

    Underlying physical principles for the high efficiency of excitation energy transfer in light-harvesting complexes are not fully understood. Notably, the degree of robustness of these systems for transporting energy is not known considering their realistic interactions with vibrational and radiative environments within the surrounding solvent and scaffold proteins. In this work, we employ an efficient technique to estimate energy transfer efficiency of such complex excitonic systems. We observe that the dynamics of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex leads to optimal and robust energy transport due to a convergence of energy scales among all important internal and external parameters. In particular, we show that the FMO energy transfer efficiency is optimum and stable with respect to important parameters of environmental interactions including reorganization energy ?, bath frequency cutoff ?, temperature T, and bath spatial correlations. We identify the ratio of k{sub B}?T/???g as a single key parameter governing quantum transport efficiency, where g is the average excitonic energy gap.

  14. Natural equilibria in steady-state neutron diffusion with temperature feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pounders, J. M.; Ingram, R. [Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, P.O. Box 79, West Mifflin, PA 15122-0079 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The critical diffusion equation with feedback is investigated within the context of steady-state multiphysics. It is proposed that for critical configurations there is no need to include the multiplication factor k in the formulation of the diffusion equation. This is notable because exclusion of k from the coupled system of equations precludes the mathematically tenuous notion of a nonlinear eigenvalue problem. On the other hand, it is shown that if the factor k is retained in the diffusion equation, as is currently common practice, then the resulting problem is equivalent to the constrained minimization of a functional representing the critical equilibrium of neutron and temperature distributions. The unconstrained solution corresponding to k = 1 represents the natural equilibrium of a critical system at steady-state. Computational methods for solving the constrained problem (with k) are briefly reviewed from the literature and a method for the unconstrained problem (without k) is outlined. A numerical example is studied to examine the effects of the constraint in the nonlinear system. (authors)

  15. Sowing the seeds of massive black holes in small galaxies: Young clusters as the building blocks of ultracompact dwarf galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Konstantinidis, Symeon; Freitag, Marc Dewi; Coleman Miller, M.; Rasio, Frederic A. E-mail: simos@ari.uni-heidelberg.de E-mail: miller@astro.umd.edu

    2014-02-20

    Interacting galaxies often have complexes of hundreds of young stellar clusters of individual masses ∼10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} in regions that are a few hundred parsecs across. These cluster complexes interact dynamically, and their coalescence is a candidate for the origin of some ultracompact dwarf galaxies. Individual clusters with short relaxation times are candidates for the production of intermediate-mass black holes of a few hundred solar masses, via runaway stellar collisions prior to the first supernovae in a cluster. It is therefore possible that a cluster complex hosts multiple intermediate-mass black holes that may be ejected from their individual clusters due to mergers or binary processes, but bound to the complex as a whole. Here we explore the dynamical interaction between initially free-flying massive black holes and clusters in an evolving cluster complex. We find that, after hitting some clusters, it is plausible that the massive black hole will be captured in an ultracompact dwarf forming near the center of the complex. In the process, the hole typically triggers electromagnetic flares via stellar disruptions, and is also likely to be a prominent source of gravitational radiation for the advanced ground-based detectors LIGO and VIRGO. We also discuss other implications of this scenario, notably that the central black hole could be considerably larger than expected in other formation scenarios for ultracompact dwarfs.

  16. Transmission and reflection of terahertz plasmons in two-dimensional plasmonic devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sydoruk, Oleksiy; Choonee, Kaushal; Dyer, Gregory Conrad

    2015-03-10

    We found that plasmons in two-dimensional semiconductor devices will be reflected by discontinuities, notably, junctions between gated and non-gated electron channels. The transmitted and reflected plasmons can form spatially- and frequency-varying signals, and their understanding is important for the design of terahertz detectors, oscillators, and plasmonic crystals. Using mode decomposition, we studied terahertz plasmons incident on a junction between a gated and a nongated channel. The plasmon reflection and transmission coefficients were found numerically and analytically and studied between 0.3 and 1 THz for a range of electron densities. At higher frequencies, we could describe the plasmons by a simplifiedmore » model of channels in homogeneous dielectrics, for which the analytical approximations were accurate. At low frequencies, however, the full geometry and mode spectrum had to be taken into account. Moreover, the results agreed with simulations by the finite-element method. As a result, mode decomposition thus proved to be a powerful method for plasmonic devices, combining the rigor of complete solutions of Maxwell's equations with the convenience of analytical expressions.« less

  17. Performance Characterization and Remedy of Experimental CuInGaSe2 Mini-Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pern, F. J.; Yan, F.; Mansfield, L.; Glynn, S.; Rekow, M.; Murion, R.

    2011-07-01

    We employed current-voltage (I-V), quantum efficiency (QE), photoluminescence (PL), electroluminescence (EL), lock-in thermography (LIT), and (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy (ECIS) to complementarily characterize the performance and remedy for two pairs of experimental CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) mini-modules. One pair had the three scribe-lines (P1/P2/P3) done by a single pulse-programmable laser, and the other had the P2/P3 lines by mechanical scribe. Localized QE measurements for each cell strip on all four mini-modules showed non-uniform distributions that correlated well with the presence of performance-degrading strips or spots revealed by PL, EL, and LIT imaging. Performance of the all-laser-scribed mini-modules improved significantly by adding a thicker Al-doped ZnO layer and reworking the P3 line. The efficiency on one of the all-laser-scribed mini-modules increased notably from 7.80% to 8.56% after the performance-degrading spots on the side regions along the cell array were isolated by manual scribes.

  18. X-ray microtomography shows pore structure and tortuosity in alkali-activated binders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Provis, John L.; Myers, Rupert J.; White, Claire E.; Rose, Volker; Deventer, Jannie S.J. van

    2012-06-15

    Durability of alkali-activated binders is of vital importance in their commercial application, and depends strongly on microstructure and pore network characteristics. X-ray microtomography ({mu}CT) offers, for the first time, direct insight into microstructural and pore structure characteristics in three dimensions. Here, {mu}CT is performed on a set of sodium metasilicate-activated fly ash/slag blends, using a synchrotron beamline instrument. Segmentation of the samples into pore and solid regions is then conducted, and pore tortuosity is calculated by a random walker method. Segmented porosity and diffusion tortuosity are correlated, and vary as a function of slag content (slag addition reduces porosity and increases tortuosity), and sample age (extended curing gives lower porosity and higher tortuosity). This is particularly notable for samples with {>=} 50% slag content, where a space-filling calcium (alumino)silicate hydrate gel provides porosity reductions which are not observed for the sodium aluminosilicate ('geopolymer') gels which do not chemically bind water of hydration.

  19. WIYN open cluster study. LX. Spectroscopic binary orbits in NGC 6819

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milliman, Katelyn E.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Gosnell, Natalie M.; Geller, Aaron M.; Meibom, Sren; Platais, Imants

    2014-08-01

    We present the current state of the WOCS radial-velocity (RV) survey for the rich open cluster NGC 6819 (2.5 Gyr) including 93 spectroscopic binary orbits with periods ranging from 1.5 to 8000 days. These results are the product of our ongoing RV survey of NGC 6819 using the Hydra Multi-Object Spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope. We also include a detailed analysis of multiple prior sets of optical photometry for NGC 6819. Within a 1 field of view, our stellar sample includes the giant branch, the red clump, and blue straggler candidates, and extends to almost 2 mag below the main sequence (MS) turnoff. For each star observed in our survey we present all RV measurements, the average RV, and velocity variability information. Additionally, we discuss notable binaries from our sample, including eclipsing binaries (WOCS 23009, WOCS 24009, and WOCS 40007), stars noted in Kepler asteroseismology studies (WOCS 4008, WOCS 7009, and WOCS 8007), and potential descendants of past blue stragglers (WOCS 1006 and WOCS 6002). We find the incompleteness-corrected binary fraction for all MS binaries with periods less than 10{sup 4} days to be 22% 3% and a tidal circularization period of 6.2{sub ?1.1}{sup +1.1} days for NGC 6819.

  20. THE MASS-DEPENDENCE OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM EVOLUTION IN SUN-LIKE STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matt, Sean P.; Baraffe, Isabelle; Chabrier, Gilles; Brun, A. Sacha

    2015-02-01

    To better understand the observed distributions of the rotation rate and magnetic activity of Sun-like and low-mass stars, we derive a physically motivated scaling for the dependence of the stellar wind torque on the Rossby number. The torque also contains an empirically derived scaling with stellar mass (and radius), which provides new insight into the mass-dependence of stellar magnetic and wind properties. We demonstrate that this new formulation explains why the lowest mass stars are observed to maintain rapid rotation for much longer than solar-mass stars, and simultaneously why older populations exhibit a sequence of slowly rotating stars, in which the low-mass stars rotate more slowly than solar-mass stars. The model also reproduces some previously unexplained features in the period-mass diagram for the Kepler field, notably: the particular shape of the ''upper envelope'' of the distribution, suggesting that ∼95% of Kepler field stars with measured rotation periods are younger than ∼4 Gyr; and the shape of the ''lower envelope'', corresponding to the location where stars transition between magnetically saturated and unsaturated regimes.

  1. Transmission and reflection of terahertz plasmons in two-dimensional plasmonic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sydoruk, Oleksiy; Choonee, Kaushal; Dyer, Gregory Conrad

    2015-03-10

    We found that plasmons in two-dimensional semiconductor devices will be reflected by discontinuities, notably, junctions between gated and non-gated electron channels. The transmitted and reflected plasmons can form spatially- and frequency-varying signals, and their understanding is important for the design of terahertz detectors, oscillators, and plasmonic crystals. Using mode decomposition, we studied terahertz plasmons incident on a junction between a gated and a nongated channel. The plasmon reflection and transmission coefficients were found numerically and analytically and studied between 0.3 and 1 THz for a range of electron densities. At higher frequencies, we could describe the plasmons by a simplified model of channels in homogeneous dielectrics, for which the analytical approximations were accurate. At low frequencies, however, the full geometry and mode spectrum had to be taken into account. Moreover, the results agreed with simulations by the finite-element method. As a result, mode decomposition thus proved to be a powerful method for plasmonic devices, combining the rigor of complete solutions of Maxwell's equations with the convenience of analytical expressions.

  2. Systematics of the temperature-dependent interplane resistivity in Ba(Fe1-xMx)₂As₂ (M=Co, Rh, Ni, and Pd)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tanatar, M. A.; Ni, N.; Thaler, A.; Bud’ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Prozorov, R.

    2011-07-27

    Temperature-dependent interplane resistivity ρc(T) was measured systematically as a function of transition-metal substitution in the iron-arsenide superconductors Ba(Fe1-xMx)₂As₂, M=Ni, Pd, Rh. The data are compared with the behavior found in Ba(Fe1-xCox)₂As₂, revealing resistive signatures of pseudogap. In all compounds we find resistivity crossover at a characteristic pseudogap temperature T* from nonmetallic to metallic temperature dependence on cooling. Suppression of T* proceeds very similarly in cases of Ni and Pd doping and much faster than in similar cases of Co and Rh doping. In cases of Co and Rh doping an additional minimum in the temperature-dependent ρc emerges for high dopings,more » when superconductivity is completely suppressed. These features are consistent with the existence of a charge gap covering part of the Fermi surface. The part of the Fermi surface affected by this gap is notably larger for Ni- and Pd-doped compositions than in Co- and Rh-doped compounds.« less

  3. Analysis of the Salmonella regulatory network suggests involvement of SsrB and H-NS in σE-regulated SPI-2 gene expression

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Jie; Overall, Christopher C.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Jones, Marcus B.; Johnson, Rudd; Nguyen, Nhu T.; McDermott, Jason E.; Ansong, Charles; Heffron, Fred; et al

    2015-02-10

    The extracytoplasmic functioning sigma factor ?E is known to play an essential role for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to survive and proliferate in macrophages and mice. However, its regulatory network is not well characterized, especially during infection. Here we used microarray to identify genes regulated by ?E in Salmonella grown in three conditions: a nutrient-rich condition and two others that mimic early and late intracellular infection. We found that in each condition ?E regulated different sets of genes, and notably, several global regulators. When comparing nutrient-rich and infection-like conditions, large changes were observed in the expression of genes involved inmoreSalmonella pathogenesis island (SPI)-1 type-three secretion system (TTSS), SPI-2 TTSS, protein synthesis, and stress responses. In total, the expression of 58% of Salmonella genes was affected by ?E in at least one of the three conditions. An important finding is that ?E up-regulates SPI-2 genes, which are essential for Salmonella intracellular survival, by up-regulating SPI-2 activator ssrB expression at the early stage of infection and down-regulating SPI-2 repressor hns expression at a later stage. Moreover, ?E is capable of countering the silencing of H-NS, releasing the expression of SPI-2 genes. This connection between ?E and SPI-2 genes, combined with the global regulatory effect of ?E, may account for the lethality of rpoE-deficient Salmonella in murine infection.less

  4. Bioenergy in Energy Transformation and Climate Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, Steven K.; Kriegler, Elmar; Bibas, Ruben; Calvin, Katherine V.; Popp, Alexander; van Vuuren, Detlef; Weyant, John

    2014-04-01

    Unlike fossil fuels, biomass is a renewable resource that can sequester carbon during growth, be converted to energy, and then re-grown. Biomass is also a flexible fuel that can service many end-uses. This paper explores the importance of bioenergy to potential future energy transformation and climate change management. Using a model comparison of fifteen models, we characterize and analyze future dependence on, and the value of, bioenergy in achieving potential long-run climate objectivesreducing radiative forcing to 3.7 and 2.8 W/m2 in 2100 (approximately 550 and 450 ppm carbon dioxide equivalent atmospheric concentrations). Model scenarios project, by 2050, bioenergy growth of 2 to 10% per annum reaching 5 to 35 percent of global primary energy, and by 2100, bioenergy becoming 15 to 50 percent of global primary energy. Non-OECD regions are projected to be the dominant suppliers of biomass, as well as consumers, with up to 35 percent of regional electricity from biopower by 2050, and up to 70 percent of regional liquid fuels from biofuels by 2050. Bioenergy is found to be valuable to many models with significant implications for mitigation costs and world consumption. The availability of bioenergy, in particular biomass with carbon dioxide capture and storage (BECCS), notably affects the cost-effective global emissions trajectory for climate management by accommodating prolonged near-term use of fossil fuels. We also find that models cost-effectively trade-off land carbon and nitrous oxide emissions for the long-run climate change management benefits of bioenergy. Overall, further evaluation of the viability of global large-scale bioenergy is merited.

  5. Real-Time Structure Changes during Uniaxial Stretching of Poly (omega-pentadecalactone) by in Situ Synchrotron WAXD/SAXS Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J Cai; B Hsiao; R Gross

    2011-12-31

    Poly({omega}-pentadecalactone) (PPDL), a model polymer in the poly({omega}-hydroxyl fatty acids) family, is a new biopolymer with monomer synthesized by yeast-catalyzed {omega}-hydroxylation of fatty acids. In this study, deformation-induced structural changes in two PPDL samples with different molecular weights were studied by in situ wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. The high molecular weight PPDL (PPDL-high) sample exhibited notable strain hardening, while the low molecular weight PPDL (PPDL-low) sample did not. The behavior can be explained by the entanglement density concept. The evolution of crystallinity (from WAXD) as a function of strain could be divided into four distinct regions, but their respective mechanisms differ slightly in each sample. During stretching, a mesomorphic phase formed in both samples, bridging between the amorphous and strain-induced crystal phases. The SAXS data verified the effect of molecular weight (or the entanglement density) on the deformation-induced structure of PPDL. The parameters of chain orientation factor (f) calculated from the orthorhombic crystal cell as well as the nonorthorhombic crystal cell proposed by Wilchinsky were used to follow the orientation process during stretching of PPDLs. It was found that the different molecular entanglement network (i.e., PPDL-low versus PPDL-high) led to different crystal orientation behavior, especially in the low strain range.

  6. Economic and Non-proliferation Policy Considerations of Uranium Enrichment in Brazil and Argentina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Short, Steven M.; Phillips, Jon R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2008-09-01

    The nuclear development programs of both Argentina and Brazil have, since the 1970s, been premised on the desire for self-sufficiency and assurance of nuclear fuel supply. While military rivalry and mutual distrust led to nuclear weapons related development programs in the 1970s and 1980s, both countries have since terminated these programs. Furthermore, the governments of both countries have pledged their commitment to exclusively non-explosive use of nuclear energy and have signed the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Utilizing rights provided for under the NPT, both Argentina and Brazil have nuclear fuel production facilities, with the notable exception of enrichment plants, that provide much of the current indigenous fuel requirements for their nuclear power plants. However, both countries are actively developing enrichment capability to fill this gap. The purpose of this report is to assess the economic basis and non-proliferation policy considerations for indigenous enrichment capability within the context of their desired self-sufficiency and to evaluate possible United States Government policy options.

  7. Penetration and radial force balance in field-reversed configuration with large rotating magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohnishi, M.; Fukuhara, M.; Masaki, T.; Osawa, H.; Chikano, T.; Hugrass, W.

    2008-10-15

    A field-reversed configuration (FRC) is formed by applying a rotating magnetic field (RMF) much larger than the axial magnetic field to a cylindrical glass vacuum chamber filled with 10 Pa argon gas without a preionization. The FRC with the plasma density 2.2x10{sup 19} m{sup -3}, the temperature 8.0 eV, the separatrix length 0.45 m, and the separatrix radius 0.035 m is sustained for the notably long period of 40 ms. It is observed that the antenna current which produces the RMF is reduced by about half after the FRC is formed. The interaction between the plasma and the antenna circuit increases the antenna resistance and changes the inductance of the antenna so that the circuit becomes nonresonant. The RMF is sufficiently large to fully penetrate to the center during the period and drive the current with a rigid rotor profile. The RMF is shown to play a major role in sustaining the plasma pressure.

  8. Quantify the energy and environmental benefits of implementing energy-efficiency measures in China’s iron and steel production

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ma, Ding; Chen, Wenying; Xu, Tengfang

    2015-08-21

    As one of the most energy-, emission- and pollution-intensive industries, iron and steel production is responsible for significant emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollutants. Although many energy-efficiency measures have been proposed by the Chinese government to mitigate GHG emissions and to improve air quality, lacking full understanding of the costs and benefits has created barriers against implementing these measures widely. This paper sets out to advance the understanding by addressing the knowledge gap in costs, benefits, and cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures in iron and steel production. Specifically, we build a new evaluation framework to quantify energy benefits andmore » environmental benefits (i.e., CO2 emission reduction, air-pollutants emission reduction and water savings) associated with 36 energy-efficiency measures. Results show that inclusion of benefits from CO2 and air-pollutants emission reduction affects the cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures significantly, while impacts from water-savings benefits are moderate but notable when compared to the effects by considering energy benefits alone. The new information resulted from this study should be used to augment future programs and efforts in reducing energy use and environmental impacts associated with steel production.« less

  9. Quantify the energy and environmental benefits of implementing energy-efficiency measures in China’s iron and steel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Ding; Chen, Wenying; Xu, Tengfang

    2015-08-21

    As one of the most energy-, emission- and pollution-intensive industries, iron and steel production is responsible for significant emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollutants. Although many energy-efficiency measures have been proposed by the Chinese government to mitigate GHG emissions and to improve air quality, lacking full understanding of the costs and benefits has created barriers against implementing these measures widely. This paper sets out to advance the understanding by addressing the knowledge gap in costs, benefits, and cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures in iron and steel production. Specifically, we build a new evaluation framework to quantify energy benefits and environmental benefits (i.e., CO2 emission reduction, air-pollutants emission reduction and water savings) associated with 36 energy-efficiency measures. Results show that inclusion of benefits from CO2 and air-pollutants emission reduction affects the cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures significantly, while impacts from water-savings benefits are moderate but notable when compared to the effects by considering energy benefits alone. The new information resulted from this study should be used to augment future programs and efforts in reducing energy use and environmental impacts associated with steel production.

  10. Performance of "WAMS East 1" in Providing Dynamic Information for the North East Blackout of August 14, 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauer, John F.; Bhatt, Navin B.; Shah, Kirit; Kolluri, Sharma

    2004-12-31

    The blackout that impacted the U.S. and Canada on August 14, 2003, was notable for its extent, complexity, and impact. It triggered a massive review of operating records to determine what happened, why it happened, and how to avoid it in future operations. Much of this work was done at NERC level, through the U.S.-Canada Power System Outage Task Force. Additional background information concerning the event was gathered together by a group of utilities that, collectively, have been developing a wide area measurement system (WAMS) for the eastern interconnection. Like its counterpart in the western interconnection, "WAMS East" has a primary backbone of synchronized phasor measurements that are continuously recorded at central locations. Operational data have been critical for understanding and responding to the August 14 Blackout. Records collected on WAMS East demonstrate the contributions that well synchronized data offer in such efforts, and the value of strategically located continuous recording systems to facilitate their integration. This paper examines overall performance of the WAMS East backbone, with a brief assessment of the technology involved.

  11. Comparison of the Kinetic Rate Law Parameters for the Dissolution of Natural and Synthetic Autunite in the Presence of Aqueous Bicarbonate Ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gudavalli, Ravi; Katsenovich, Yelena; Wellman, Dawn M.; Idarraga, Melina; Lagos, Leonel; Tansel, Berrin

    2013-08-02

    Bicarbonate is one of the most significant components within the uranium geochemical cycle. In aqueous solutions, bicarbonate forms strong complexes with uranium. As such, aqueous bicarbonate may significantly increase the rate of uranium release from uranium minerals. Quantifying the relationship of aqueous bicarbonate concentration to the rate of uranium release during dissolution is critical to understanding the long-term fate of uranium within the environment. Single-pass flow-through (SPTF) experiments were conducted to estimate the rate of uranium release from Na meta-autunite as a function of bicarbonate (0.0005-0.003 M) under the pH range of 6-11 and a temperature range of 5-60oC. Consistent with the results of previous investigation, the rate of uranium release exhibited minimal dependency on temperature; but were strongly dependent on pH. Increasing aqueous bicarbonate concentrations afforded comparable increases in the rate of release of uranium. Most notably under low pH conditions the aqueous bicarbonate resulted in up to 370 fold increases in the rate of uranium release in relative to the rate of uranium release in the absence of bicarbonate. However, the effect of aqueous bicarbonate on the release of uranium was significantly less under higher pH conditions. It is postulated that at high pH values, surface sites are saturated with carbonate, thus the addition of more bicarbonate would have less effect on uranium release.

  12. MAGNESIUM ISOTOPE RATIOS IN {omega} CENTAURI RED GIANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Da Costa, G. S.; Norris, John E.; Yong, David

    2013-05-20

    We have used the high-resolution observations obtained at the Anglo-Australian Telescope with Ultra-High Resolution Facility (R {approx} 100,000) and at Gemini-S with b-HROS (R {approx} 150,000) to determine magnesium isotope ratios for seven {omega} Cen red giants that cover a range in iron abundance from [Fe/H] = -1.78 to -0.78 dex, and for two red giants in M4 (NGC 6121). The {omega} Cen stars sample both the ''primordial'' (i.e., O-rich, Na- and Al-poor) and the ''extreme'' (O-depleted, Na- and Al-rich) populations in the cluster. The primordial population stars in both {omega} Cen and M4 show ({sup 25}Mg, {sup 26}Mg)/{sup 24}Mg isotopic ratios that are consistent with those found for the primordial population in other globular clusters with similar [Fe/H] values. The isotopic ratios for the {omega} Cen extreme stars are also consistent with those for extreme population stars in other clusters. The results for the extreme population stars studied indicate that the {sup 26}Mg/{sup 24}Mg ratio is highest at intermediate metallicities ([Fe/H] < -1.4 dex), and for the highest [Al/Fe] values. Further, the relative abundance of {sup 26}Mg in the extreme population stars is notably higher than that of {sup 25}Mg, in contrast to model predictions. The {sup 25}Mg/{sup 24}Mg isotopic ratio in fact does not show any obvious dependence on either [Fe/H] or [Al/Fe] nor, intriguingly, any obvious difference between the primordial and extreme population stars.

  13. A Study to Develop an Industrial-Scale, Computer-Controlled High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) System to Assist in Commercializing the Novel, Enabling HMFP Manufacturing Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz-; Chourey, Aashish

    2010-08-01

    As the original magnet designer and manufacturer of ORNL s 9T, 5-inch ID bore magnet, American Magnetics Inc. (AMI) has collaborated with ORNL s Materials Processing Group s and this partnership has been instrumental in the development of our unique thermo-magnetic facilities and expertise. Consequently, AMI and ORNL have realized that the commercial implementation of the High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) technology will require the evolution of robust, automated superconducting (SC) magnet systems that will be cost-effective and easy to operate in an industrial environment. The goal of this project and CRADA is to significantly expedite the timeline for implementing this revolutionary and pervasive cross-cutting technology for future US produced industrial components. The successful completion of this project is anticipated to significantly assist in the timely commercialization and licensing of our HMFP intellectual property for a broad spectrum of industries; and to open up a new market for AMI. One notable outcome of this project is that the ThermoMagnetic Processing Technology WON a prestigious 2009 R&D 100 Awards. This award acknowledges and recognizes our TMP Technology as one of the top 100 innovative US technologies in 2009. By successfully establishing the design requirements for a commercial scale magnetic processing system, this project effort has accomplished a key first step in facilitating the building and demonstration of a superconducting magnetic processing coil, enabling the transition of the High Magnetic Field Processing Technology beyond a laboratory novelty into a commercially viable and industrially scalable Manufacturing Technology.

  14. Superior thermoelectric performance in PbTe-PbS pseudo-binary. Extremely low thermal conductivity and modulated carrier concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, D.; Zhao, L. -D.; Tong, X.; Li, W.; Wu, L.; Tan, Q.; Pei, Y.; Huang, L.; Li, J. -F.; Zhu, Y.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; He, J.

    2015-05-19

    Lead chalcogenides have exhibited their irreplaceable role as thermoelectric materials at the medium temperature range, owing to highly degenerate electronic bands and intrinsically low thermal conductivities. PbTe-PbS pseudo-binary has been paid extensive attentions due to the even lower thermal conductivity which originates largely from the coexistence of both alloying and phase-separated precipitations. To investigate the competition between alloying and phase separation and its pronounced effect on the thermoelectric performance in PbTe-PbS, we systematically studied Spark Plasma Sintered (SPSed), 3 at% Na- doped (PbTe)1-x(PbS)x samples with x=10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations and theoretical calculations. Corresponding to the lowest lattice thermal conductivity as a result of the balance between point defect- and precipitates- scattering, the highest figure of merit ZT~2.3 was obtained at 923 K when PbS phase fraction x is at 20%. The consistently lower lattice thermal conductivities in SPSed samples compared with corresponding ingots, resulting from the powdering and follow-up consolidation processes, also contribute to the observed superior ZT. Notably, the onset of carrier concentration modulation ~600 K due to excessive Na’s diffusion and re-dissolution leads to the observed saturations of electrical transport properties, which is believed equally crucial to the outstanding thermoelectric performance of SPSed PbTe-PbS samples.

  15. Superior thermoelectric performance in PbTe-PbS pseudo-binary. Extremely low thermal conductivity and modulated carrier concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, D.; Zhao, L. -D.; Tong, X.; Li, W.; Wu, L.; Tan, Q.; Pei, Y.; Huang, L.; Li, J. -F.; Zhu, Y.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; He, J.

    2015-05-19

    Lead chalcogenides have exhibited their irreplaceable role as thermoelectric materials at the medium temperature range, owing to highly degenerate electronic bands and intrinsically low thermal conductivities. PbTe-PbS pseudo-binary has been paid extensive attentions due to the even lower thermal conductivity which originates largely from the coexistence of both alloying and phase-separated precipitations. To investigate the competition between alloying and phase separation and its pronounced effect on the thermoelectric performance in PbTe-PbS, we systematically studied Spark Plasma Sintered (SPSed), 3 at% Na- doped (PbTe)1-x(PbS)x samples with x=10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations and theoretical calculations. Corresponding to the lowest lattice thermal conductivity as a result of the balance between point defect- and precipitates- scattering, the highest figure of merit ZT~2.3 was obtained at 923 K when PbS phase fraction x is at 20%. The consistently lower lattice thermal conductivities in SPSed samples compared with corresponding ingots, resulting from the powdering and follow-up consolidation processes, also contribute to the observed superior ZT. Notably, the onset of carrier concentration modulation ~600 K due to excessive Nas diffusion and re-dissolution leads to the observed saturations of electrical transport properties, which is believed equally crucial to the outstanding thermoelectric performance of SPSed PbTe-PbS samples.

  16. Superior thermoelectric performance in PbTe-PbS pseudo-binary. Extremely low thermal conductivity and modulated carrier concentration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, D.; Zhao, L. -D.; Tong, X.; Li, W.; Wu, L.; Tan, Q.; Pei, Y.; Huang, L.; Li, J. -F.; Zhu, Y.; et al

    2015-05-19

    Lead chalcogenides have exhibited their irreplaceable role as thermoelectric materials at the medium temperature range, owing to highly degenerate electronic bands and intrinsically low thermal conductivities. PbTe-PbS pseudo-binary has been paid extensive attentions due to the even lower thermal conductivity which originates largely from the coexistence of both alloying and phase-separated precipitations. To investigate the competition between alloying and phase separation and its pronounced effect on the thermoelectric performance in PbTe-PbS, we systematically studied Spark Plasma Sintered (SPSed), 3 at% Na- doped (PbTe)1-x(PbS)x samples with x=10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observationsmore » and theoretical calculations. Corresponding to the lowest lattice thermal conductivity as a result of the balance between point defect- and precipitates- scattering, the highest figure of merit ZT~2.3 was obtained at 923 K when PbS phase fraction x is at 20%. The consistently lower lattice thermal conductivities in SPSed samples compared with corresponding ingots, resulting from the powdering and follow-up consolidation processes, also contribute to the observed superior ZT. Notably, the onset of carrier concentration modulation ~600 K due to excessive Na’s diffusion and re-dissolution leads to the observed saturations of electrical transport properties, which is believed equally crucial to the outstanding thermoelectric performance of SPSed PbTe-PbS samples.« less

  17. Distinct kinetics of human DNA ligases I, IIIalpha, IIIbeta, and IV reveal direct DNA sensing ability and differential physiological functions in DNA repair

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xi; Ballin, Jeff D.; Della-Maria, Julie; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; White, Elizabeth J.; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Wilson, Gerald M.

    2009-05-11

    The three human LIG genes encode polypeptides that catalyze phosphodiester bond formation during DNA replication, recombination and repair. While numerous studies have identified protein partners of the human DNA ligases (hLigs), there has been little characterization of the catalytic properties of these enzymes. In this study, we developed and optimized a fluorescence-based DNA ligation assay to characterize the activities of purified hLigs. Although hLigI joins DNA nicks, it has no detectable activity on linear duplex DNA substrates with short, cohesive single-strand ends. By contrast, hLigIII{beta} and the hLigIII{alpha}/XRCC1 and hLigIV/XRCC4 complexes are active on both nicked and linear duplex DNA substrates. Surprisingly, hLigIV/XRCC4, which is a key component of the major non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway, is significantly less active than hLigIII on a linear duplex DNA substrate. Notably, hLigIV/XRCC4 molecules only catalyze a single ligation event in the absence or presence of ATP. The failure to catalyze subsequent ligation events reflects a defect in the enzyme-adenylation step of the next ligation reaction and suggests that, unless there is an in vivo mechanism to reactivate DNA ligase IV/XRCC4 following phosphodiester bond formation, the cellular NHEJ capacity will be determined by the number of adenylated DNA ligaseIV/XRCC4 molecules.

  18. INPP4B-mediated tumor resistance is associated with modulation of glucose metabolism via hexokinase 2 regulation in laryngeal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Min, Joong Won; Kim, Kwang Il; Kim, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Eun-Kyu; Noh, Woo Chul; Jeon, Hong Bae; Cho, Dong-Hyung; Oh, Jeong Su; Park, In-Chul; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Kim, Jae-Sung

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: HIF-1?-regulated INPP4B enhances glycolysis. INPP4B regulates aerobic glycolysis by inducing HK2 via Akt-mTOR pathway. Blockage of INPP4B and HK2 sensitizes radioresistant laryngeal cancer cells to radiation and anticancer drug. INPP4B is associated with HK2 in human laryngeal cancer tissues. -- Abstract: Inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II (INPP4B) was recently identified as a tumor resistance factor in laryngeal cancer cells. Herein, we show that INPP4B-mediated resistance is associated with increased glycolytic phenotype. INPP4B expression was induced by hypoxia and irradiation. Intriguingly, overexpression of INPP4B enhanced aerobic glycolysis. Of the glycolysis-regulatory genes, hexokinase 2 (HK2) was mainly regulated by INPP4B and this regulation was mediated through the Akt-mTOR pathway. Notably, codepletion of INPP4B and HK2 markedly sensitized radioresistant laryngeal cancer cells to irradiation or anticancer drug. Moreover, INPP4B was significantly associated with HK2 in human laryngeal cancer tissues. Therefore, these results suggest that INPP4B modulates aerobic glycolysis via HK2 regulation in radioresistant laryngeal cancer cells.

  19. Disease Mutations in Rab7 Result in Unregulated Nucleotide Exchange and Inappropriate Activation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B McCray; E Skordalakes; J Taylor

    2011-12-31

    Rab GTPases are molecular switches that orchestrate vesicular trafficking, maturation and fusion by cycling between an active, GTP-bound form, and an inactive, GDP-bound form. The activity cycle is coupled to GTP hydrolysis and is tightly controlled by regulatory proteins. Missense mutations of the GTPase Rab7 cause a dominantly inherited axonal degeneration known as Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2B through an unknown mechanism. We present the 2.8 A crystal structure of GTP-bound L129F mutant Rab7 which reveals normal conformations of the effector binding regions and catalytic site, but an alteration to the nucleotide binding pocket that is predicted to alter GTP binding. Through extensive biochemical analysis, we demonstrate that disease-associated mutations in Rab7 do not lead to an intrinsic GTPase defect, but permit unregulated nucleotide exchange leading to both excessive activation and hydrolysis-independent inactivation. Consistent with augmented activity, mutant Rab7 shows significantly enhanced interaction with a subset of effector proteins. In addition, dynamic imaging demonstrates that mutant Rab7 is abnormally retained on target membranes. However, we show that the increased activation of mutant Rab7 is counterbalanced by unregulated, GTP hydrolysis-independent membrane cycling. Notably, disease mutations are able to rescue the membrane cycling of a GTPase-deficient mutant. Thus, we demonstrate that disease mutations uncouple Rab7 from the spatial and temporal control normally imposed by regulatory proteins and cause disease not by a gain of novel toxic function, but by misregulation of native Rab7 activity.

  20. Comment on Magnetic field mediated low-temperature resistivity upturn in electron-doped La{sub 1?x}Hf{sub x}MnO{sub 3} manganite oxides [J. Appl. Phys. 112, 123710 (2012)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rozenberg, E.

    2014-01-21

    In a recent paper, Guo et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 112, 123710 (2012)] reported on characteristic features of the temperature (T) and magnetic field (H) dependences of electrical resistivity (?) in polycrystalline La{sub 1?x}Hf{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (x?=?0.2 and 0.3) manganites. In particular, shallow minima were observed at some T{sub min} below 100?K on ?(T) curves. Application of an external H???5?T leads first to a decrease in the T{sub min} value, while this value increases notably at H?>?0.75?T. The authors attributed this complex behavior to competitive electron-electron interaction and Kondo-like spin dependent scattering of carriers. It is shown in the comment that such interpretation is very questionable due to the fundamental inapplicability of this approach for analysis of low-T conductivity in polycrystalline manganites. It seems that the most likely reason for the appearance of the low temperature minima on ?(T) curves and their evolution upon field application is the well known grain boundary effects in magnetically and structurally inhomogeneous samples.

  1. Effect of niobium addition on the martensitic transformation and magnetocaloric effect in low hysteresis NiCoMnSn magnetic shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emre, Baris; Bruno, Nickolaus M.; Yuce Emre, Suheyla; Karaman, Ibrahim

    2014-12-08

    The effect of Nb substitution for Ni in Ni{sub 45}Co{sub 5}Mn{sub 40}Sn{sub 10} magnetic shape memory alloys on their magnetic properties, martensitic transformation characteristics, transformation hysteresis, and magnetocaloric properties was studied using wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and the temperature and field dependence of the magnetization. Ni{sub 45}Co{sub 5}Mn{sub 40}Sn{sub 10} alloy has a very low transformation hysteresis; however, the martensitic transformation temperatures are notably above room temperature, which is not desirable for magnetic refrigeration applications. In this study, small quantities of Nb substitution were shown to drastically shift the transformation temperatures to lower temperatures, at a rate of 68 K/at. % Nb, which is needed for household refrigeration. The austenite Curie temperature also decreased with increasing Nb content. However, a decrease in the latent heat of the martensitic transition was observed, which negatively affects the magnetic field-induced adiabatic temperature change capability. Still, the relatively large transformation entropy and the low transformation hysteresis make the Nb-doped Ni{sub 45}Co{sub 5}Mn{sub 40}Sn{sub 10} alloys potential candidates for solid state refrigeration near room temperature.

  2. HIGH-RESOLUTION EXPANDED VERY LARGE ARRAY IMAGE OF DIMETHYL ETHER (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}O IN ORION-KL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Favre, C.; Wootten, H. A.; Remijan, A. J.; Brouillet, N.; Despois, D.; Baudry, A.; Wilson, T. L. E-mail: brouillet@obs.u-bordeaux1.fr E-mail: baudry@obs.u-bordeaux1.fr E-mail: aremijan@nrao.edu

    2011-09-20

    We report the first subarcsecond (0.''65 x 0.''51) image of the dimethyl ether molecule, (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}O, toward the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula. The observations were carried at 43.4 GHz with the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA). The distribution of the lower energy transition 6{sub 1,5}-6{sub 0,6}, EE (E {sub u} = 21 K) mapped in this study is in excellent agreement with the published dimethyl ether emission maps imaged with a lower resolution. The main emission peaks are observed toward the Compact Ridge and Hot Core southwest components, at the northern parts of the Compact Ridge and in an intermediate position between the Compact Ridge and the Hot Core. A notable result is that the distribution of dimethyl ether is very similar to that of another important larger O-bearing species, the methyl formate (HCOOCH{sub 3}), imaged at a lower resolution. Our study shows that higher spectral resolution (WIDAR correlator) and increased spectral coverage provided by the EVLA offer new possibilities for imaging complex molecular species. The sensitivity improvement and the other EVLA improvements make this instrument well suited for high sensitivity, high angular resolution, and molecular line imaging.

  3. Temperature dependence of structural parameters in oxide-ion-conducting Nd{sub 9.33}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2}: single crystal X-ray studies from 295 to 900K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okudera, Hiroki [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, DE-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)]. E-mail: h.okudera@fkf.mpg.de; Yoshiasa, Akira [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Masubuchi, Yuuji [Material Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Higuchi, Mikio [Material Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Kikkawa, Shinichi [Material Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan)

    2004-12-01

    Crystallographic space group, structural parameters and their thermal changes in oxide-ion-conducting Nd{sub 9.33}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2} were investigated using high-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments in the temperature range of 295=notable structural change occurred over the temperature range examined. Observed anisotropy in thermal motions of oxide ions which belong to SiO{sub 4} tetrahedron indicated high rigidity of the tetrahedron in the structure, indicating that they form sp3 hybrid orbitals and the ligand oxygens do not take part in oxide-ion conductivity. Virtually full occupation of the 6h Nd site and highly anisotropic displacements of oxide ion inside the hexagonal channel were maintained over the temperature range examined. This result confirms that oxide-ion transport inside the hexagonal channel is the dominant process of conduction in the title compound.

  4. Silica diagenesis in Santa Cruz mudstone, Late Miocene, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Sabbagh, D.

    1987-05-01

    The silica-rich upper Miocene Santa Cruz Mudstone is similar to the Miocene Monterey Formation. Previous studies have suggested the Santa Cruz Mudstone was not buried deeply nor had it undergone extensive diagenesis. Because opaline diagenesis is temperature dependent, the author examined the silica diagenesis of the Santa Cruz Mudstone using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction methods to study its burial history. In a series of samples from Santa Cruz to Davenport, California (over 16 km), opal-CT is the dominant silica phase present and clay minerals are notably absent. The d(101)-spacing values of opal-CT range from 4.11 A (Santa Cruz area) to 4.06 A (north of Santa Cruz), exhibiting the complete range of d(101)-spacing values found in opal-CT zones. Scanning electron micrographs of crystalline microtextures show rosettes of opal-CT (lepispheres) in cavities of samples with medium to high d(101)-spacing values. The morphology of lepisphere crystallites grades from bladed to spiny with decreasing d(101)-spacing values, reflecting an internal crystal ordering with increased diagenesis. Further diagenetic changes occurred in a sample with 4.06 A d(101)-spacing where incipient quartz crystals signal the initial conversion of opal-CT to microcrystalline quartz. Silica diagenesis demonstrates that burial temperatures surpassed the range of opal-A to opal-CT conversion and approached conversion temperatures (55/sup 0/C to 110/sup 0/C) of opal-CT to microcrystalline quartz. The conversion occurred when the Santa Cruz Mudstone was buried over 1900 m (depth calculated from a geohistory diagram). This burial temperature brings the Santa Cruz Mudstone within the oil generation window, and could account for the presence of hydrocarbons in the unit.

  5. Strong reduction of V{sup 4+} amount in vanadium oxide/hexadecylamine nanotubes by doping with Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} ions: Electron paramagnetic resonance and magnetic studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saleta, M. E.; Troiani, H. E.; Ribeiro Guevara, S.; Ruano, G.; Sanchez, R. D.; Malta, M.; Torresi, R. M.

    2011-05-01

    In this work we present a complete characterization and magnetic study of vanadium oxide/hexadecylamine nanotubes (VO{sub x}/Hexa NT's) doped with Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} ions. The morphology of the NT's has been characterized by transmission electron microscopy, while the metallic elements have been quantified by the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. The static and dynamic magnetic properties were studied by collecting data of magnetization as a function of magnetic field and temperature and by electron paramagnetic resonance. At difference of the majority reports in the literature, we do not observe magnetic dimers in vanadium oxide nanotubes. Also, we observed that the incorporation of metallic ions (Co{sup 2+}, S = 3/2 and Ni{sup 2+}, S = 1) decreases notably the amount of V{sup 4+} ions in the system, from 14-16% (nondoped case) to 2%-4%, with respect to the total vanadium atoms (fact corroborated by XPS experiments) anyway preserving the tubular nanostructure. The method to decrease the amount of V{sup 4+} in the nanotubes improves considerably their potential technological applications as Li-ion batteries cathodes.

  6. Newly identified helper bacteria stimulate ectomycorrhizal formation in Populus

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Labbe, Jessy L.; Weston, David J.; Dunkirk, Nora; Pelletier, Dale A.; Tuskan, Gerald A.

    2014-10-24

    Mycorrhiza helper bacteria (MHB) are known to increase host root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi but the molecular mechanisms and potential tripartite trophic interactions are poorly understood. Through an effort to study Populus microbiome, we isolated 21 Pseudomonas strains from native Populus deltoides roots. These bacterial isolates were characterized and screened for MHB effectiveness on the Populus-Laccaria system. Two other Pseudomonas strains (i.e., Pf-5 and BBc6R8) from existing collections were also included as reference in the screening process. We analyzed Laccaria bicolor S238N growth rate, mycelial architecture and transcriptional changes induced by the contrasting Pseudomonas strains (i.e., inhibitory, neutral and beneficial).more » We characterized 17 out of the 21 Pseudomonas strains from the Populus rhizosphere with positive effects on L. bicolor S238N growth, as well as on Populus root architecture and colonization by L. bicolor S238N across three Populus species. Four of seven reporter genes, Tra1, Tectonin2, Gcn5 and Cipc1, thought to be specific to the interaction with strain BBc6R8, were induced or repressed while interacting with six (i.e., GM17, GM33, GM41, GM48, Pf-5 and BBc6R8) of the tested Pseudomonas strains. GM41 promoted the highest roots colonization across three Populus species but most notably in P. deltoides, which is otherwise, poorly colonized by L. bicolor. Here we report novel MHB strains isolated from native Populus that improve roots colonization. This tripartite relationship could be exploited in nursery production for target Populus species/genotypes as a means of improving establishment and survival in marginal lands.« less

  7. Newly identified helper bacteria stimulate ectomycorrhizal formation in Populus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Labbe, Jessy L.; Weston, David J.; Dunkirk, Nora; Pelletier, Dale A.; Tuskan, Gerald A.

    2014-10-24

    Mycorrhiza helper bacteria (MHB) are known to increase host root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi but the molecular mechanisms and potential tripartite trophic interactions are poorly understood. Through an effort to study Populus microbiome, we isolated 21 Pseudomonas strains from native Populus deltoides roots. These bacterial isolates were characterized and screened for MHB effectiveness on the Populus-Laccaria system. Two other Pseudomonas strains (i.e., Pf-5 and BBc6R8) from existing collections were also included as reference in the screening process. We analyzed Laccaria bicolor S238N growth rate, mycelial architecture and transcriptional changes induced by the contrasting Pseudomonas strains (i.e., inhibitory, neutral and beneficial). We characterized 17 out of the 21 Pseudomonas strains from the Populus rhizosphere with positive effects on L. bicolor S238N growth, as well as on Populus root architecture and colonization by L. bicolor S238N across three Populus species. Four of seven reporter genes, Tra1, Tectonin2, Gcn5 and Cipc1, thought to be specific to the interaction with strain BBc6R8, were induced or repressed while interacting with six (i.e., GM17, GM33, GM41, GM48, Pf-5 and BBc6R8) of the tested Pseudomonas strains. GM41 promoted the highest roots colonization across three Populus species but most notably in P. deltoides, which is otherwise, poorly colonized by L. bicolor. Here we report novel MHB strains isolated from native Populus that improve roots colonization. This tripartite relationship could be exploited in nursery production for target Populus species/genotypes as a means of improving establishment and survival in marginal lands.

  8. Powder processing for the fabrication of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramics. 1: Influence of spray-dried granule strength on pore size distribution in green compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamiya, Hidehiro; Isomura, Kenji; Jimbo, Genji; Junichiro, Tsubaki

    1995-01-01

    The effect of spray-dried granule strength on the microstructure of green compacts obtained by isostatic pressing was quantitatively analyzed. The fracture strength of single granules of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder made with ultrafine Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders was measured directly by diametral compression. It was found that fracture strength increased notably with the increasing relative density of the granule and the decreasing size of agglomerates in suspension before spray-drying. Even when green bodies were prepared at an isostatic pressure of 200 MPa, intergranular pores, which negatively affected densification of the sintered bodies, occurred between unfractured granules. The volume and size of these pores in the green compacts increased with the increasing fracture strength of the granules. In the case of closely packed granules, an isostatic pressure of 800 MPa was required to completely collapse the intergranular pores. A simple equation was derived to calculate the isostatic pressure necessary for complete collapse of intergranular pores in the green compacts, and it was determined that granule strength must be kept as low as possible to obtain uniform green compacts.

  9. Under-detection of endospore-forming Firmicutes in metagenomic data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filippidou, Sevasti; Junier, Thomas; Wunderlin, Tina; Lo, Chien -Chi; Li, Po -E; Chain, Patrick S.; Junier, Pilar

    2015-04-25

    Microbial diversity studies based on metagenomic sequencing have greatly enhanced our knowledge of the microbial world. However, one caveat is the fact that not all microorganisms are equally well detected, questioning the universality of this approach. Firmicutes are known to be a dominant bacterial group. Several Firmicutes species are endospore formers and this property makes them hardy in potentially harsh conditions, and thus likely to be present in a wide variety of environments, even as residents and not functional players. While metagenomic libraries can be expected to contain endospore formers, endospores are known to be resilient to many traditional methods of DNA isolation and thus potentially undetectable. In this study we evaluated the representation of endospore-forming Firmicutes in 73 published metagenomic datasets using two molecular markers unique to this bacterial group (spo0A and gpr). Both markers were notably absent in well-known habitats of Firmicutes such as soil, with spo0A found only in three mammalian gut microbiomes. A tailored DNA extraction method resulted in the detection of a large diversity of endospore-formers in amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA and spo0A genes. However, shotgun classification was still poor with only a minor fraction of the community assigned to Firmicutes. Thus, removing a specific bias in a molecular workflow improves detection in amplicon sequencing, but it was insufficient to overcome the limitations for detecting endospore-forming Firmicutes in whole-genome metagenomics. In conclusion, this study highlights the importance of understanding the specific methodological biases that can contribute to improve the universality of metagenomic approaches.

  10. The FBXW7 {beta}-form is suppressed in human glioma cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Zhaodi; Inomata, Kenichi; Ishizawa, Kota; Horii, Akira . E-mail: horii@mail.tains.tohoku.ac.jp

    2007-03-23

    FBXW7 (F-box and WD40 domain protein 7) is an F-box protein with 7 tandem WDs (tryptophan-aspartic acid) that functions as a phosphoepitope-specific substrate recognition component of SCF (Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein) ubiquitin ligases and catalyzes the ubiquitination of proteins promoting cell proliferation, such as CCNE1, MYC, AURKA, NOTCH1, and JUN, which are frequently activated in a wide range of human cancers. FBXW7 is a candidate tumor suppressor, and mutations have been reported in some human tumors. In this study, we analyzed 84 human tumor cell lines in search for genetic alterations of FBXW7, as well as mRNA and protein expressional changes, and compared them with expression levels of the CCNE1, MYC, and AURKA proteins. We found a novel nonsense mutation in a colon cancer cell line SCC and confirmed the missense mutations in SKOV3, an ovarian cancer cell line, and LoVo, a colon cancer cell line. Moreover, suppressed expression of FBXW7 accompanied by activation of the target proteins were observed in ovarian, colon, endometrial, gastric, and prostate cancers. It is notable that highly suppressed mRNA expression of the FBXW7 {beta}-form was found in all the human glioma cell lines analyzed; enhanced expressions of CCNE1, MYC, and AURKA were observed in these cells. Our present results imply that FBXW7 plays a pivotal role in many tissues by controlling the amount of cell cycle promoter proteins and that dysfunction of this protein is one of the essential steps in carcinogenesis in multiple organs.

  11. Alternative materials to cadmium for neutron absorbers in safeguards applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, Corey R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Geist, William H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; West, James D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium is increasingly difficult to use in safeguards applications because of rising cost and increased safety regulations. This work examines the properties of two materials produced by Ceradyne, inc. that present alternatives to cadmium for neutron shielding. The first is an aluminum metal doped with boron and the second is a boron carbide powder, compressed into a ceramic. Both are enriched in the {sup 10}B isotope. Two sheets of boron doped aluminum (1.1 mm and 5.2mm thick) and one sheet of boron carbide (8.5mm thick) were provided by Ceradyne for testing. An experiment was designed to test the neutron absorption capabilities of these three sheets against two different thicknesses of cadmium (0.6mm and 1.6mm thick). The thinner piece of aluminum boron alloy (1.1mm) performed as well as the cadmium pieces at absorbing neutrons. The thicker aluminum-boron plate provided more shielding than the cadmium sheets and the boron carbide performed best by a relatively large margin. Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) transport code modeling of the experiment was performed to provide validaLed computational tools for predicting the behavior of systems in which these materials may be incorporated as alternatives to cadmium. MCNPX calculations predict that approximately 0.17mm of the boron carbide is equivalent to 0.6mm of cadmium. There are drawbacks to these materials that need to be noted when considering using them as replacements for cadmium. Notably, they may need to be thicker than cadmium, and are not malleable, requiring machining to fit any curved forms.

  12. WE-E-BRE-06: High-Dose Microbeam Radiation Induces Different Responses in Tumor Microenvironment Compared to Conventional Seamless Radiation in Window Chamber Tumor Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S; Zhang, J; Hadsell, M; Fontanella, A; Schroeder, T; Palmer, G; Dewhirst, M; Boss, M; Berman, K

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy and GRID therapy are different forms of Spatially-Fractioned Radiation Therapy (SFRT) that is fundamentally different from the conventional seamless and temporally fractionated radiation therapy. SFRT is characterized by a ultra-high dose (10s –100s Gy) dose single treatment with drastic inhomogeneity pattern of given spatial frequencies. Preclinical and limited clinical studies have shown that the SFRT treatments may offer significant improvements in reducing treatment toxicity, especially for those patients who have not benefited from the state-of-the-art radiation therapy approaches. This preliminary study aims to elucidate the underlying working mechanisms of SFRT, which currently remains poorly understood. Methods: A genetically engineered 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma cell line and nude mice skin fold window chamber were used. A nanotechnology-based 160kV x-ray irradiator delivered 50Gy (entrance dose) single treatments of microbeam or seamless radiation. Animals were in 3 groups: mock, seamless radiation, and 300μm microbeam radiation. The windows were imaged using a hyperspectral system to capture total hemoglobin/saturation, GFP fluorescence emission, RFP fluorescence emission, and vessel density at 9 time points up to 7 days post radiation. Results: We found unique physiologic changes in different tumor/normal tissue regions and differential effects between seamless and microbeam treatments. They include 1) compared to microbeam and mock radiation seamless radiation damaged more microvasculature in tumor-surrounding normal tissue, 2) a pronounced angiogenic effect was observed with vascular proliferation in the microbeam irradiated portion of the tumor days post treatment (no such effect observed in seamless and mock groups), and 3) a notable change in tumor vascular orientation was observed where vessels initially oriented parallel to the beam length were replaced by vessels running perpendicular to the irradiation portion of the tumor. Conclusion: Our preliminary study indicated that microbeam radiation modified tumor microenvironment in ways significantly different than of the conventional seamless radiation.

  13. Erlotinib Versus Radiation Therapy for Brain Metastases in Patients With EGFR-Mutant Lung Adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Naamit K.; Yamada, Yoshiya; Rimner, Andreas; Shi, Weiji; Riely, Gregory J.; Beal, Kathryn; Yu, Helena A.; Chan, Timothy A.; Zhang, Zhigang; Wu, Abraham J.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Radiation therapy (RT) is the principal modality in the treatment of patients with brain metastases (BM). However, given the activity of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the central nervous system, it is uncertain whether upfront brain RT is necessary for patients with EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma with BM. Methods and Materials: Patients with EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma and newly diagnosed BM were identified. Results: 222 patients were identified. Exclusion criteria included prior erlotinib use, presence of a de novo erlotinib resistance mutation, or incomplete data. Of the remaining 110 patients, 63 were treated with erlotinib, 32 with whole brain RT (WBRT), and 15 with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The median overall survival (OS) for the whole cohort was 33 months. There was no significant difference in OS between the WBRT and erlotinib groups (median, 35 vs 26 months; P=.62), whereas patients treated with SRS had a longer OS than did those in the erlotinib group (median, 64 months; P=.004). The median time to intracranial progression was 17 months. There was a longer time to intracranial progression in patients who received WBRT than in those who received erlotinib upfront (median, 24 vs 16 months, P=.04). Patients in the erlotinib or SRS group were more likely to experience intracranial failure as a component of first failure, whereas WBRT patients were more likely to experience failure outside the brain (P=.004). Conclusions: The survival of patients with EGFR-mutant adenocarcinoma with BM is notably long, whether they receive upfront erlotinib or brain RT. We observed longer intracranial control with WBRT, even though the WBRT patients had a higher burden of intracranial disease. Despite the equivalent survival between the WBRT and erlotinib group, this study underscores the role of WBRT in producing durable intracranial control in comparison with a targeted biologic agent with known central nervous system activity.

  14. Self- and zinc diffusion in gallium antimonide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicols, Samuel Piers

    2002-03-26

    The technological age has in large part been driven by the applications of semiconductors, and most notably by silicon. Our lives have been thoroughly changed by devices using the broad range of semiconductor technology developed over the past forty years. Much of the technological development has its foundation in research carried out on the different semiconductors whose properties can be exploited to make transistors, lasers, and many other devices. While the technological focus has largely been on silicon, many other semiconductor systems have applications in industry and offer formidable academic challenges. Diffusion studies belong to the most basic studies in semiconductors, important from both an application as well as research standpoint. Diffusion processes govern the junctions formed for device applications. As the device dimensions are decreased and the dopant concentrations increased, keeping pace with Moore's Law, a deeper understanding of diffusion is necessary to establish and maintain the sharp dopant profiles engineered for optimal device performance. From an academic viewpoint, diffusion in semiconductors allows for the study of point defects. Very few techniques exist which allow for the extraction of as much information of their properties. This study focuses on diffusion in the semiconductor gallium antimonide (GaSb). As will become clear, this compound semiconductor proves to be a powerful one for investigating both self- and foreign atom diffusion. While the results have direct applications for work on GaSb devices, the results should also be taken in the broader context of III-V semiconductors. Results here can be compared and contrasted to results in systems such as GaAs and even GaN, indicating trends within this common group of semiconductors. The results also have direct importance for ternary and quaternary semiconductor systems used in devices such as high speed InP/GaAsSb/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors (DHBT) [Dvorak, (2001)]. Many of the findings which will be reported here were previously published in three journal articles. Hartmut Bracht was the lead author on two articles on self-diffusion studies in GaSb [Bracht, (2001), (2000)], while this report's author was the lead author on Zn diffusion results [Nicols, (2001)]. Much of the information contained herein can be found in those articles, but a more detailed treatment is presented here.

  15. Fungal-specific transcription factor AbPf2 activates pathogenicity in Alternaria brassicicola

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Yangrae; Ohm, Robin A.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Srivastava, Akhil

    2012-12-03

    Alternaria brassicicola is a successful saprophyte and necrotrophic plant pathogen. To identify molecular determinants of pathogenicity, we created non-pathogenic mutants of a transcription factor-encoding gene, AbPf2. The frequency and timing of germination and appressorium formation on host plants were similar between the non-pathogenic abpf2 mutants and wild-type A. brassicicola. The mutants were also similar in vitro to wild-type A. brassicicola in terms of vegetative growth, conidium production, and responses to a phytoalexin, reactive oxygen species and osmolites. The hyphae of the mutants grew slowly but did not cause disease symptoms on the surface of host plants. Transcripts of the AbPf2 gene increased exponentially soon after wild-type conidia contacted their host plants . A small amount of AbPf2 protein, as monitored using GFP fusions, was present in young, mature conidia. The protein level decreased during saprophytic growth, but increased and was located primarily in fungal nuclei during pathogenesis. Levels of the proteins and transcripts sharply decreased following colonization of host tissues beyond the initial infection site. When expression of the transcription factor was induced in the wild-type during early pathogenesis, 106 fungal genes were also induced in the wild-type but not in the abpf2 mutants. Notably, 33 of the 106 genes encoded secreted proteins, including eight putative effector proteins. Plants inoculated with abpf2 mutants expressed higher levels of genes associated with photosynthesis, the pentose phosphate pathway and primary metabolism, but lower levels of defense-related genes. Our results suggest that AbPf2 is an important regulator of pathogenesis, but does not affect other cellular processes in A. brassicicola.

  16. Blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter prevents iron accumulation in a model of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Huiying; Hao, Shuangying; Sun, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Dingding; Gao, Xin; Yu, Zhuang; Li, Kuanyu; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2015-01-24

    Highlights: • Iron accumulation was involved in the acute phase following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could attenuate cellular iron accumulation following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could decrease ROS generation and improve cell energy supply following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could alleviate apoptosis and brain injury following SAH. - Abstract: Previous studies have shown that iron accumulation is involved in the pathogenesis of brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and chelation of iron reduced mortality and oxidative DNA damage. We previously reported that blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) provided benefit in the early brain injury after experimental SAH. This study was undertaken to identify whether blockage of MCU could ameliorate iron accumulation-associated brain injury following SAH. Therefore, we used two reagents ruthenium red (RR) and spermine (Sper) to inhibit MCU. Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups including sham, SAH, SAH + RR, and SAH + Sper. Biochemical analysis and histological assays were performed. The results confirmed the iron accumulation in temporal lobe after SAH. Interestingly, blockage of MCU dramatically reduced the iron accumulation in this area. The mechanism was revealed that inhibition of MCU reversed the down-regulation of iron regulatory protein (IRP) 1/2 and increase of ferritin. Iron–sulfur cluster dependent-aconitase activity was partially conserved when MCU was blocked. In consistence with this and previous report, ROS levels were notably reduced and ATP supply was rescued; levels of cleaved caspase-3 dropped; and integrity of neurons in temporal lobe was protected. Taken together, our results indicated that blockage of MCU could alleviate iron accumulation and the associated injury following SAH. These findings suggest that the alteration of calcium and iron homeostasis be coupled and MCU be considered to be a therapeutic target for patients suffering from SAH.

  17. Tumor exosomes induce tunneling nanotubes in lipid raft-enriched regions of human mesothelioma cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thayanithy, Venugopal; Babatunde, Victor; Dickson, Elizabeth L.; Wong, Phillip; Oh, Sanghoon; Ke, Xu; Barlas, Afsar; Fujisawa, Sho; Romin, Yevgeniy; Moreira, Andr L.; Downey, Robert J.; Steer, Clifford J.; Subramanian, Subbaya; Manova-Todorova, Katia; Moore, Malcolm A.S.; Lou, Emil

    2014-04-15

    Tunneling nanotubes (TnTs) are long, non-adherent, actin-based cellular extensions that act as conduits for transport of cellular cargo between connected cells. The mechanisms of nanotube formation and the effects of the tumor microenvironment and cellular signals on TnT formation are unknown. In the present study, we explored exosomes as potential mediators of TnT formation in mesothelioma and the potential relationship of lipid rafts to TnT formation. Mesothelioma cells co-cultured with exogenous mesothelioma-derived exosomes formed more TnTs than cells cultured without exosomes within 2448 h; and this effect was most prominent in media conditions (low-serum, hyperglycemic medium) that support TnT formation (1.31.9-fold difference). Fluorescence and electron microscopy confirmed the purity of isolated exosomes and revealed that they localized predominantly at the base of and within TnTs, in addition to the extracellular environment. Time-lapse microscopic imaging demonstrated uptake of tumor exosomes by TnTs, which facilitated intercellular transfer of these exosomes between connected cells. Mesothelioma cells connected via TnTs were also significantly enriched for lipid rafts at nearly a 2-fold higher number compared with cells not connected by TnTs. Our findings provide supportive evidence of exosomes as potential chemotactic stimuli for TnT formation, and also lipid raft formation as a potential biomarker for TnT-forming cells. - Highlights: Exosomes derived from malignant cells can stimulate an increased rate in the formation of tunneling nanotubes. Tunneling nanotubes can serve as conduits for intercellular transfer of these exosomes. Most notably, exosomes derived from benign mesothelial cells had no effect on nanotube formation. Cells forming nanotubes were enriched in lipid rafts at a greater number compared with cells not forming nanotubes. Our findings suggest causal and potentially synergistic association of exosomes and tunneling nanotubes in cancer.

  18. New Mexico's energy resources '81. Annual report of Bureau of Geology in the Mining and Minerals Division of New Mexico Energy and Minerals Department

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, E.C.; Hill, J.M.

    1981-09-03

    Although production of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ declined only slightly in 1980, New Mexico's share of domestic production has declined from 48% in 1976 to 35% in 1980. Production projections indicate a continued decline in 1981 and lower production until at least 1984. New Mexico has 41% of total domestic reserves producible in the $50-per-lb cost category. In keeping with the anticipated steady depletion of reserves, production of crude oil in New Mexico was 69.9 million bls, a 6.3% decline in production from 1979. Condensate production of 5.4 million bbls in 1980, however, represented an increase of 7% from 1979 production. Although natural gas production was the lowest since 1970 and declined by 2.6% from 1979 production, 1980 was the 15th year that production exceeded 1 trillion cu ft. Despite declines in production, the valuation of oil and gas production has increased significantly with oil sales doubling from the previous year and gas sales increasing by $409 million because of higher prices. Reserves have been estimated to be 959 million bbls of crude oil and 17.667 trillion cu ft of natural gas. Production of 19.5 million short tons of coal in 1980 represented a 33% increase over 1979 production and an increase of 157% since 1970. Coal resources in New Mexico are estimated to be 180.79 billion short tons, and production is projected to incease to 39.61 million tons in 1985 and 67.53 million tons in 1990. The most notable developments in geothermal energy have been in technical advances in drilling, testing, and applications, especially in the area of hot dry rock systems. The US Bureau of Land Management has issued 113 geothermal leases that remain active. Recent geothermal exploration activity has been detailed for 21 companies.

  19. Quantification of total mercury in liver and heart tissue of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) from Alaska USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marino, Kady B. [Department of Chemistry, Roger Williams University, Bristol, RI 02809 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Roger Williams University, Bristol, RI 02809 (United States); Hoover-Miller, Anne; Conlon, Suzanne; Prewitt, Jill [Alaska SeaLife Center, City of Seward, AK (United States)] [Alaska SeaLife Center, City of Seward, AK (United States); O'Shea, Stephen K., E-mail: soshea@rwu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Roger Williams University, Bristol, RI 02809 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    This study quantified the Hg levels in the liver (n=98) and heart (n=43) tissues of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) (n=102) harvested from Prince William Sound and Kodiak Island Alaska. Mercury tissue dry weight (dw) concentrations in the liver ranged from 1.7 to 393 ppm dw, and in the heart from 0.19 to 4.99 ppm dw. Results of this study indicate liver and heart tissues' Hg ppm dw concentrations significantly increase with age. Male Harbor Seals bioaccumulated Hg in both their liver and heart tissues at a significantly faster rate than females. The liver Hg bioaccumulation rates between the harvest locations Kodiak Island and Prince William Sound were not found to be significantly different. On adsorption Hg is transported throughout the Harbor Seal's body with the partition coefficient higher for the liver than the heart. No significant differences in the bio-distribution (liver:heart Hg ppm dw ratios (n=38)) values were found with respect to either age, sex or geographic harvest location. In this study the age at which Hg liver and heart bioaccumulation levels become significantly distinct in male and female Harbor Seals were identified through a Tukey's analysis. Of notably concern to human health was a male Harbor Seal's liver tissue harvested from Kodiak Island region. Mercury accumulation in this sample tissue was determined through a Q-test to be an outlier, having far higher Hg concentrarion (liver 392 Hg ppm dw) than the general population sampled. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury accumulation in the liver and heart of seals exceed food safety guidelines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accumulation rate is greater in males than females with age. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Liver mercury accumulation is greater than in the heart tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury determination by USA EPA Method 7473 using thermal decomposition.

  20. Recent Improvements in Interface Management for Hanford's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - 13263

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arm, Stuart T.; Van Meighem, Jeffery S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)] [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); Duncan, Garth M.; Pell, Michael J. [Bechtel National Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)] [Bechtel National Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); Harrington, Christopher C. [Department of Energy - Office of River Protection, 2440 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)] [Department of Energy - Office of River Protection, 2440 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for management and completion of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, which includes the Hanford Site tank farms operations and the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The RPP mission is to store, retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste; store and dispose of treated wastes; and close the tank farm waste management areas and treatment facilities by 2047. The WTP is currently being designed and constructed by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) for DOE-ORP. BNI relies on a number of technical services from other Hanford contractors for WTP's construction and commissioning. These same services will be required of the future WTP operations contractor. Partly in response to a DNFSB recommendation, the WTP interface management process managing these technical services has recently been improved through changes in organization and issue management. The changes are documented in an Interface Management Plan. The organizational improvement is embodied in the One System Integrated Project Team that was formed by integrating WTP and tank farms staff representing interfacing functional areas into a single organization. A number of improvements were made to the issue management process but most notable was the formal appointment of technical, regulatory and safety subject matter experts to ensure accurate identification of issues and open items. Ten of the thirteen active WTP Interface Control Documents have been revised in 2012 using the improved process with the remaining three in progress. The value of the process improvements is reflected by the ability to issue these documents on schedule and accurately identify technical, regulatory and safety issues and open items. (authors)

  1. Search for physics beyond the standard model in dilepton mass spectra in proton-proton collisions at ? = 8 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-04-07

    Dimuon and dielectron mass spectra, obtained from data resulting from proton-proton collisions at 8 TeV and recorded by the CMS experiment, are used to search for both narrow resonances and broad deviations from standard model predictions. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 20.6 (19.7) fb? for the dimuon (dielectron) channel. No evidence for non-standard-model physics is observed and 95% confidence level limits are set on parameters from a number of new physics models. The narrow resonance analyses exclude a Sequential Standard Model Z'SSM resonance lighter than 2.90 TeV, a superstring-inspired Z'? lighter than 2.57 TeV and Randall-SundrummoreKaluza-Klein gravitons with masses below 2.73, 2.35, and 1.27 TeV for couplings of 0.10, 0.05, and 0.01, respectively. A notable feature is that the limits have been calculated in a model-independent way to enable straightforward reinterpretation in any model predicting a resonance structure. The observed events are also interpreted within the framework of two non-resonant analyses: one based on a large extra dimensions model and one based on a quark and lepton compositeness model with a left-left isoscalar contact interaction. Lower limits are established on MS, the scale characterizing the onset of quantum gravity, which range from 4.9 to 3.3 TeV, where the number of additional spatial dimensions varies from 3 to 7. Similarly, lower limits on ?, the energy scale parameter for the contact interaction, are found to be 12.0 (15.2) TeV for destructive (constructive) interference in the dimuon channel and 13.5 (18.3) TeV in the dielectron channel.less

  2. Search for physics beyond the standard model in dilepton mass spectra in proton-proton collisions at ? = 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-04-07

    Dimuon and dielectron mass spectra, obtained from data resulting from proton-proton collisions at 8 TeV and recorded by the CMS experiment, are used to search for both narrow resonances and broad deviations from standard model predictions. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 20.6 (19.7) fb? for the dimuon (dielectron) channel. No evidence for non-standard-model physics is observed and 95% confidence level limits are set on parameters from a number of new physics models. The narrow resonance analyses exclude a Sequential Standard Model Z'SSM resonance lighter than 2.90 TeV, a superstring-inspired Z'? lighter than 2.57 TeV and Randall-Sundrum Kaluza-Klein gravitons with masses below 2.73, 2.35, and 1.27 TeV for couplings of 0.10, 0.05, and 0.01, respectively. A notable feature is that the limits have been calculated in a model-independent way to enable straightforward reinterpretation in any model predicting a resonance structure. The observed events are also interpreted within the framework of two non-resonant analyses: one based on a large extra dimensions model and one based on a quark and lepton compositeness model with a left-left isoscalar contact interaction. Lower limits are established on MS, the scale characterizing the onset of quantum gravity, which range from 4.9 to 3.3 TeV, where the number of additional spatial dimensions varies from 3 to 7. Similarly, lower limits on ?, the energy scale parameter for the contact interaction, are found to be 12.0 (15.2) TeV for destructive (constructive) interference in the dimuon channel and 13.5 (18.3) TeV in the dielectron channel.

  3. Search for physics beyond the standard model in dilepton mass spectra in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; et al

    2015-04-07

    Dimuon and dielectron mass spectra, obtained from data resulting from proton-proton collisions at 8 TeV and recorded by the CMS experiment, are used to search for both narrow resonances and broad deviations from standard model predictions. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 20.6 (19.7) fb–1 for the dimuon (dielectron) channel. No evidence for non-standard-model physics is observed and 95% confidence level limits are set on parameters from a number of new physics models. The narrow resonance analyses exclude a Sequential Standard Model Z SSM ' resonance lighter than 2.90 TeV, a superstring-inspired Z ψ ' lighter than 2.57more » TeV, and Randall-Sundrum Kaluza-Klein gravitons with masses below 2.73, 2.35, and 1.27 TeV for couplings of 0.10, 0.05, and 0.01, respectively. A notable feature is that the limits have been calculated in a model-independent way to enable straightforward reinterpretation in any model predicting a resonance structure. The observed events are also interpreted within the framework of two non-resonant analyses: one based on a large extra dimensions model and one based on a quark and lepton compositeness model with a left-left isoscalar contact interaction. Lower limits are established on MS, the scale characterizing the onset of quantum gravity, which range from 4.9 to 3.3 TeV, where the number of additional spatial dimensions varies from 3 to 7. Thus lower limits on Λ, the energy scale parameter for the contact interaction, are found to be 12.0 (15.2) TeV for destructive (constructive) interference in the dimuon channel and 13.5 (18.3) TeV in the dielectron channel.« less

  4. Search for physics beyond the standard model in dilepton mass spectra in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C. -E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Rougny, R.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D’Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dobur, D.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Léonard, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Zenoni, F.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Crucy, S.; Dildick, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva Diblen, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Dos Reis Martins, T.; Mora Herrera, C.; Pol, M. E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santaolalla, J.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Tao, J.; Wang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J. -L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J. -M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J. -C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A. -C.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Brochet, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Xiao, H.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Bontenackels, M.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Hindrichs, O.; Klein, K.; Ostapchuk, A.; Perieanu, A.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Reithler, H.; Schmitz, S. A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Weber, M.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Heister, A.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Perchalla, L.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behr, J.; Behrenhoff, W.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Bergholz, M.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Horton, D.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Krücker, D.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. -A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Novgorodova, O.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Roland, B.; Ron, E.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Saxena, P.; Schmidt, R.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Vargas Trevino, A. D. R.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. 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T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Vernieri, C.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; D’imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Grassi, M.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Soffi, L.; Traczyk, P.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Casasso, S.; Costa, M.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Ortona, G.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Potenza, A.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Tamponi, U.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; La Licata, C.; Marone, M.; Schizzi, A.; Umer, T.; Zanetti, A.; Chang, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Kong, D. J.; Lee, S.; Oh, Y. D.; Park, H.; Sakharov, A.; Son, D. C.; Kim, T. J.; Kim, J. Y.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, K. S.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Yoo, H. D.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Kwon, E.; Lee, J.; Seo, H.; Yu, I.; Juodagalvis, A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Ali, M. A. B. Md; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Reucroft, S.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khalid, S.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Cwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Wolszczak, W.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, C.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. 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V.; Vinogradov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Bunichev, V.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Perfilov, M.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Ekmedzic, M.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Battilana, C.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Navarro De Martino, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. 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I.; Wardle, N.; Wöhri, H. K.; Wollny, H.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marini, A. C.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meister, D.; Mohr, N.; Nägeli, C.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pauss, F.; Peruzzi, M.; Quittnat, M.; Rebane, L.; Rossini, M.; Starodumov, A.; Takahashi, M.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Amsler, C.; Canelli, M. F.; Chiochia, V.; De Cosa, A.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Millan Mejias, B.; Ngadiuba, J.; Robmann, P.; Ronga, F. J.; Taroni, S.; Verzetti, M.; Yang, Y.; Cardaci, M.; Chen, K. H.; Ferro, C.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. 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I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Lawson, P.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; John, J. St.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Berry, E.; Bhattacharya, S.; Christopher, G.; Cutts, D.; Demiragli, Z.; Dhingra, N.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Swanson, J.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Miceli, T.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Searle, M.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Rakness, G.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova Rikova, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Malberti, M.; Nguyen, H.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Shrinivas, A.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wimpenny, S.; Andrews, W.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D’Agnolo, R. T.; Evans, D.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Lebourgeois, M.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Sudano, E.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Barge, D.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Danielson, T.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Mccoll, N.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Rogan, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Timciuc, V.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wilkinson, R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Luiggi Lopez, E.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Skinnari, L.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gao, Y.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Kaadze, K.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Kwan, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Musienko, Y.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O’Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitbeck, A.; Whitmore, J.; Yang, F.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carver, M.; Cheng, T.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Furic, I. K.; Hugon, J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Rinkevicius, A.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Bazterra, V. E.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Kurt, P.; Moon, D. H.; O’Brien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Duru, F.; Haytmyradov, M.; Merlo, J. -P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Rahmat, R.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Swartz, M.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Kenny, R. P.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Sekaric, J.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Wood, J. S.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Saini, L. K.; Shrestha, S.; Skhirtladze, N.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Bauer, G.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Klute, M.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y. -J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zanetti, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malik, S.; Meier, F.; Snow, G. R.; Zvada, M.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R. -J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Smith, G.; Winer, B. L.; Wolfe, H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hebda, P.; Hunt, A.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Gutay, L.; Hu, Z.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Kress, M.; Leonardo, N.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Maroussov, V.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Kaplan, S.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Krutelyov, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Kunori, S.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Levine, A.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ross, I.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Verwilligen, P.; Vuosalo, C.; Woods, N.

    2015-04-07

    Dimuon and dielectron mass spectra, obtained from data resulting from proton-proton collisions at 8 TeV and recorded by the CMS experiment, are used to search for both narrow resonances and broad deviations from standard model predictions. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 20.6 (19.7) fb–1 for the dimuon (dielectron) channel. No evidence for non-standard-model physics is observed and 95% confidence level limits are set on parameters from a number of new physics models. The narrow resonance analyses exclude a Sequential Standard Model Z SSM ' resonance lighter than 2.90 TeV, a superstring-inspired Z ψ ' lighter than 2.57 TeV, and Randall-Sundrum Kaluza-Klein gravitons with masses below 2.73, 2.35, and 1.27 TeV for couplings of 0.10, 0.05, and 0.01, respectively. A notable feature is that the limits have been calculated in a model-independent way to enable straightforward reinterpretation in any model predicting a resonance structure. The observed events are also interpreted within the framework of two non-resonant analyses: one based on a large extra dimensions model and one based on a quark and lepton compositeness model with a left-left isoscalar contact interaction. Lower limits are established on MS, the scale characterizing the onset of quantum gravity, which range from 4.9 to 3.3 TeV, where the number of additional spatial dimensions varies from 3 to 7. Thus lower limits on Λ, the energy scale parameter for the contact interaction, are found to be 12.0 (15.2) TeV for destructive (constructive) interference in the dimuon channel and 13.5 (18.3) TeV in the dielectron channel.

  5. Performance Measures for Evaluating Public Participation Activities in the Office of Environmental Management (DOE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carnes, S.A.

    2001-02-15

    Public participation in Office of Environmental Management (EM) activities throughout the DOE complex is a critical component of the overall success of remediation and waste management efforts. The challenges facing EM and its stakeholders over the next decade or more are daunting (Nuclear Waste News 1996). Achieving a mission composed of such challenges will require innovation, dedication, and a significant degree of good will among all stakeholders. EM's efforts to date, including obtaining and using inputs offered by EM stakeholders, have been notable. Public participation specialists have accepted and met challenges and have consistently tried to improve their performance. They have reported their experiences both formally and informally (e.g., at professional conferences and EM Public Participation Network Workshops, other internal meetings of DOE and contractor public participation specialists, and one-on-one consultations) in order to advance the state of their practice. Our research, and our field research in particular (including our interactions with many representatives of numerous stakeholder groups at nine DOE sites with diverse EM problems), have shown that it, is possible to develop coherent results even in a problem domain as complex as that of EM. We conclude that performance-based evaluations of public participation appear possible, and we have recommended an approach, based on combined and integrated multi-stakeholder views on the attributes of successful public participation and associated performance indicators, that seems workable and should be acceptable to diverse stakeholders. Of course, as an untested recommendation, our approach needs the validation that can only be achieved by application (perhaps at a few DOE sites with ongoing EM activities). Such an application would serve to refine the proposed approach in terms of its clarity, its workability, and its potential for full-scale use by EM and, potentially, other government agencies and private sector concerns.

  6. The ends of uncertainty: Air quality science and planning in Central California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fine, James

    2003-09-01

    Air quality planning in Central California is complicated and controversial despite millions of dollars invested to improve scientific understanding. This research describes and critiques the use of photochemical air quality simulation modeling studies in planning to attain standards for ground-level ozone in the San Francisco Bay Area and the San Joaquin Valley during the 1990's. Data are gathered through documents and interviews with planners, modelers, and policy-makers at public agencies and with representatives from the regulated and environmental communities. Interactions amongst organizations are diagramed to identify significant nodes of interaction. Dominant policy coalitions are described through narratives distinguished by their uses of and responses to uncertainty, their exposures to risks, and their responses to the principles of conservatism, civil duty, and caution. Policy narratives are delineated using aggregated respondent statements to describe and understand advocacy coalitions. I found that models impacted the planning process significantly, but were used not purely for their scientific capabilities. Modeling results provided justification for decisions based on other constraints and political considerations. Uncertainties were utilized opportunistically by stakeholders instead of managed explicitly. Ultimately, the process supported the partisan views of those in control of the modeling. Based on these findings, as well as a review of model uncertainty analysis capabilities, I recommend modifying the planning process to allow for the development and incorporation of uncertainty information, while addressing the need for inclusive and meaningful public participation. By documenting an actual air quality planning process these findings provide insights about the potential for using new scientific information and understanding to achieve environmental goals, most notably the analysis of uncertainties in modeling applications. Concurrently, needed uncertainty information is identified and capabilities to produce it are assessed. Practices to facilitate incorporation of uncertainty information are suggested based on research findings, as well as theory from the literatures of the policy sciences, decision sciences, science and technology studies, consensus-based and communicative planning, and modeling.

  7. Osteoradionecrosis and Radiation Dose to the Mandible in Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, Chiaojung Jillian; Hofstede, Theresa M.; Sturgis, Erich M.; Garden, Adam S.; Lindberg, Mary E.; Wei Qingyi; Tucker, Susan L.; Dong Lei

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the association between radiation doses delivered to the mandible and the occurrence of osteoradionecrosis (ORN). Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 402 oropharyngeal cancer patients with stage T1 or T2 disease treated with definitive radiation between January 2000 and October 2008 for the occurrence of ORN. Demographic and treatment variables were compared between patients with ORN and those without. To examine the dosimetric relationship further, a nested case-control comparison was performed. One to 2 ORN-free patients were selected to match each ORN patient by age, sex, radiation type, treatment year, and cancer subsite. Detailed radiation treatment plans for the ORN cases and matched controls were reviewed. Mann-Whitney test and conditional logistic regression were used to compare relative volumes of the mandible exposed to doses ranging from 10 Gy-60 Gy in 10-Gy increments. Results: In 30 patients (7.5%), ORN developed during a median follow-up time of 31 months, including 6 patients with grade 4 ORN that required major surgery. The median time to develop ORN was 8 months (range, 0-71 months). Detailed radiation treatment plans were available for 25 of the 30 ORN patients and 40 matched ORN-free patients. In the matched case-control analysis, there was a statistically significant difference between the volumes of mandible in the 2 groups receiving doses between 50 Gy (V50) and 60 Gy (V60). The most notable difference was seen at V50, with a P value of .02 in the multivariate model after adjustment for the matching variables and dental status (dentate or with extraction). Conclusions: V50 and V60 saw the most significant differences between the ORN group and the comparison group. Minimizing the percent mandibular volume exposed to 50 Gy may reduce ORN risk.

  8. Trajectories of change in sagebrush steppe vegetation communities in relation to multiple wildfires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davies, G. M.; Bakker, J. D.; Dettweiler-Robinson, E.; Dunwiddie, Peter W.; Hall, S. A.; Downs, Janelle L.; Evans, J.

    2012-07-01

    Repeated perturbations, both biotic and abiotic, can lead to fundamental changes in the nature of ecosystems including changes in state. Sagebrush-steppe communities provide important habitat for wildlife and grazing for livestock. Fire is an integral part of these systems, but there is concern that increased ignition frequencies and invasive species are fundamentally altering these systems. Despite these issues, the majority of studies of fire effects in Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis-dominated systems have focused on the effects of single burns. The Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE), in south-central Washington (U.S.A.), was one of the largest areas of continuous shrub-steppe habitat in the state until large wildfires burnt the majority of it in 2000 and 2007. We analysed data from permanent vegetation transects established in 1996 and resampled in 2002 and 2009. Our objective was to describe how the fires, and subsequent post-fire restoration efforts, affected communities successional pathways. Plant communities differed in response to repeated fire and restoration; these differences could largely be ascribed to the functional traits of the dominant species. Low elevation communities, previously dominated by obligate seeders, moved farthest from their initial composition and were dominated by weedy, early successional species in 2009. Higher elevation sites with resprouting shrubs, native bunchgrasses and few invasive species were generally more resilient to the effects of repeated disturbances. Shrub cover has been almost entirely removed from ALE, though there is evidence of recovery where communities were dominated by re-sprouters. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) dominance was reduced by herbicide application in areas where it was previously abundant but increased significantly in untreated areas. Several re-sprouting species, notably Phlox longifolia and Poa secunda, expanded remarkably following competitive release from shrub canopies and/or abundant cheatgrass. Our results suggest that community dynamics can be understood through a state-and-transition model with two axes (shrub/grass and native/invasive abundance), though such models also need to account for differences in plant functional traits and disturbance regimes. We use our results to develop an illustrative model that will be expanded with further research.

  9. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause the adaptive change of glucocorticoid-IGF1 axis.

  10. Projected Changes in Mean and Interannual Variability of Surface Water over Continental China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leng, Guoyong; Tang, Qiuhong; Huang, Maoyi; Hong, Yang; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-05-01

    Five General Circulation Model (GCM) climate projections under the RCP8.5 emission scenario were used to drive the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model to investigate the impacts of climate change on hydrologic cycle over continental China in the 21st century. The bias-corrected climatic variables were generated for the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR5) by the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP). Results showed much larger fractional changes of annual mean Evaportranspiration (ET) per unit warming than the corresponding fractional changes of Precipitation (P) per unit warming across the country especially for South China, which led to notable decrease of surface water variability (P-E). Specifically, negative trends for annual mean runoff up to -0.33%/decade and soil moisture trends varying between -0.02 to -0.13%/decade were found for most river basins across China. Coincidentally, interannual variability for both runoff and soil moisture exhibited significant positive trends for almost all river basins across China, implying an increase in extremes relative to the mean conditions. Noticeably, the largest positive trends for runoff variability and soil moisture variability, which were up to 38 0.41%/decade and 0.90%/decade, both occurred in Southwest China. In addition to the regional contrast, intra-seasonal variation was also large for the runoff mean and runoff variability changes, but small for the soil moisture mean and variability changes. Our results suggest that future climate change could further exacerbate existing water-related risks (e.g. floods and droughts) across China as indicated by the marked decrease of surface water amounts combined with steady increase of interannual variability throughout the 21st century. This study highlights the regional contrast and intra-seasonal variations for the projected hydrologic changes and could provide muti-scale guidance for assessing effective adaptation strategies for the country on a river basin, regional, or as whole.

  11. Acrolein cytotoxicity in hepatocytes involves endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammad, Mohammad K.; Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville ; Avila, Diana; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville; Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville ; Zhang, Jingwen; Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville ; Barve, Shirish; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville; Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville ; Arteel, Gavin; Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville ; McClain, Craig; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville; Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville; Robley Rex VAMC, Louisville, KY ; Joshi-Barve, Swati; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville; Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville

    2012-11-15

    Acrolein is a common environmental, food and water pollutant and a major component of cigarette smoke. Also, it is produced endogenously via lipid peroxidation and cellular metabolism of certain amino acids and drugs. Acrolein is cytotoxic to many cell types including hepatocytes; however the mechanisms are not fully understood. We examined the molecular mechanisms underlying acrolein hepatotoxicity in primary human hepatocytes and hepatoma cells. Acrolein, at pathophysiological concentrations, caused a dose-dependent loss of viability of hepatocytes. The death was apoptotic at moderate and necrotic at high concentrations of acrolein. Acrolein exposure rapidly and dramatically decreased intracellular glutathione and overall antioxidant capacity, and activated the stress-signaling MAP-kinases JNK, p42/44 and p38. Our data demonstrate for the first time in human hepatocytes, that acrolein triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activated eIF2?, ATF-3 and -4, and Gadd153/CHOP, resulting in cell death. Notably, the protective/adaptive component of ER stress was not activated, and acrolein failed to up-regulate the protective ER-chaperones, GRP78 and GRP94. Additionally, exposure to acrolein disrupted mitochondrial integrity/function, and led to the release of pro-apoptotic proteins and ATP depletion. Acrolein-induced cell death was attenuated by N-acetyl cysteine, phenyl-butyric acid, and caspase and JNK inhibitors. Our data demonstrate that exposure to acrolein induces a variety of stress responses in hepatocytes, including GSH depletion, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress (without ER-protective responses) which together contribute to acrolein toxicity. Our study defines basic mechanisms underlying liver injury caused by reactive aldehyde pollutants such as acrolein. -- Highlights: ? Human primary hepatocytes and cultured cell lines are used. ? Multiple cell death signaling pathways are activated by acrolein. ? Novel finding of acrolein-induced ER stress ? Acrolein fails to activate ER stress-induced protective responses. ? Combinatorial therapies may be needed for preventing acrolein hepatotoxicity.

  12. New 2MASS near-infrared photometry for globular clusters in M31

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Song; Ma, Jun; Wu, Zhenyu; Zhou, Xu

    2014-07-01

    We present Two Micron All Sky Survey JHK {sub s} photometry for 913 star clusters and candidates in the field of M31, which are selected from the latest Revised Bologna Catalog of M31 globular clusters (GCs) and candidates. The photometric measurements in this paper supplement this catalog, and provide the most comprehensive and homogeneous photometric catalog for M31 GCs in the JHK {sub s} bandpasses. In general, our photometry is consistent with previous measurements. The globular cluster luminosity function (GCLF) peaks for the confirmed GCs derived by fitting a t {sub 5} distribution using the maximum likelihood method are J{sub 0}=15.348{sub ?0.208}{sup +0.206}, H{sub 0}=14.703{sub ?0.180}{sup +0.176}, and K{sub s0}=14.534{sub ?0.146}{sup +0.142}, all of which agree well with previous studies. The GCLFs are different between metal-rich (MR) and metal-poor (MP), and between inner and outer subpopulations, as MP clusters are fainter than their MR counterparts and the inner clusters are brighter than the outer ones, which confirm previous results. The NIR colors of the GC candidates are on average redder than those of the confirmed GCs, which leads to an obscure bimodal distribution of color indices. The relation of (V K {sub s}){sub 0} and metallicity shows a notable departure from linearity, with a shallower slope toward the redder end. The color-magnitude diagram (CMD) and color-color diagram show that many GC candidates are located out of the evolutionary tracks, suggesting that some of them may be false M31 GC candidates. The CMD also shows that the initial mass function of M31 GCs covers a large range, and the majority of the clusters have initial masses between 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 6} M {sub ?}.

  13. Reconstitution of the cellular response to DNA damage in vitro using damage-activated extracts from mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roper, Katherine; Coverley, Dawn

    2012-03-10

    In proliferating mammalian cells, DNA damage is detected by sensors that elicit a cellular response which arrests the cell cycle and repairs the damage. As part of the DNA damage response, DNA replication is inhibited and, within seconds, histone H2AX is phosphorylated. Here we describe a cell-free system that reconstitutes the cellular response to DNA double strand breaks using damage-activated cell extracts and naieve nuclei. Using this system the effect of damage signalling on nuclei that do not contain DNA lesions can be studied, thereby uncoupling signalling and repair. Soluble extracts from G1/S phase cells that were treated with etoposide before isolation, or pre-incubated with nuclei from etoposide-treated cells during an in vitro activation reaction, restrain both initiation and elongation of DNA replication in naieve nuclei. At the same time, H2AX is phosphorylated in naieve nuclei in a manner that is dependent upon the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-like protein kinases. Notably, phosphorylated H2AX is not focal in naieve nuclei, but is evident throughout the nucleus suggesting that in the absence of DNA lesions the signal is not amplified such that discrete foci can be detected. This system offers a novel screening approach for inhibitors of DNA damage response kinases, which we demonstrate using the inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A cell free system that reconstitutes the response to DNA damage in the absence of DNA lesions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Damage-activated extracts impose the cellular response to DNA damage on naieve nuclei. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PIKK-dependent response impacts positively and negatively on two separate fluorescent outputs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Can be used to screen for inhibitors that impact on the response to damage but not on DNA repair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LY294002 and wortmannin demonstrate the system's potential as a pathway focused screening approach.

  14. AUTOMATICALLY DETECTING AND TRACKING CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS. I. SEPARATION OF DYNAMIC AND QUIESCENT COMPONENTS IN CORONAGRAPH IMAGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, Huw; Byrne, Jason P.; Habbal, Shadia Rifai

    2012-06-20

    Automated techniques for detecting and tracking coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in coronagraph data are of ever increasing importance for space weather monitoring and forecasting. They serve to remove the biases and tedium of human interpretation, and provide the robust analysis necessary for statistical studies across large numbers of observations. An important requirement in their operation is that they satisfactorily distinguish the CME structure from the background quiescent coronal structure (streamers, coronal holes). Many studies resort to some form of time differencing to achieve this, despite the errors inherent in such an approach-notably spatiotemporal crosstalk. This article describes a new deconvolution technique that separates coronagraph images into quiescent and dynamic components. A set of synthetic observations made from a sophisticated model corona and CME demonstrates the validity and effectiveness of the technique in isolating the CME signal. Applied to observations by the LASCO C2 and C3 coronagraphs, the structure of a faint CME is revealed in detail despite the presence of background streamers that are several times brighter than the CME. The technique is also demonstrated to work on SECCHI/COR2 data, and new possibilities for estimating the three-dimensional structure of CMEs using the multiple viewing angles are discussed. Although quiescent coronal structures and CMEs are intrinsically linked, and although their interaction is an unavoidable source of error in any separation process, we show in a companion paper that the deconvolution approach outlined here is a robust and accurate method for rigorous CME analysis. Such an approach is a prerequisite to the higher-level detection and classification of CME structure and kinematics.

  15. CATALOG OF OBSERVED TANGENTS TO THE SPIRAL ARMS IN THE MILKY WAY GALAXY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valle, Jacques P., E-mail: jacques.vallee@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Herzberg Astrophysics, National Research Council Canada, National Science Infrastructure portfolio, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    From the Sun's location in the Galactic disk, one can use different arm tracers (CO, H I, thermal or ionized or relativistic electrons, masers, cold and hot dust, etc.) to locate a tangent to each spiral arm in the disk of the Milky Way. We present a master catalog of the astronomically observed tangents to the Galaxy's spiral arms, using different arm tracers from the literature. Some arm tracers can have slightly divergent results from several papers, so a mean value is takensee the Appendix for CO, H II, and masers. The catalog of means currently consists of 63 mean tracer entries, spread over many arms (Carina, Crux-Centaurus, Norma, Perseus origin, near 3 kpc, Scutum, Sagittarius), stemming from 107 original arm tracer entries. Additionally, we updated and revised a previous statistical analysis of the angular offset and linear separation from the mid-arm for each different mean arm tracer. Given enough arm tracers, and summing and averaging over all four spiral arms, one could determine if arm tracers have separate and parallel lanes in the Milky Way. This statistical analysis allows a cross-cut of a Galactic spiral arm to be made, confirming a recent discovery of a linear separation between arm tracers. Here, from the mid-arm's CO to the inner edge's hot dust, the arm halfwidth is about 340 pc; doubling would yield a full arm width of 680 pc. We briefly compare these observations with the predictions of many spiral arm theories, notably the density wave theory.

  16. Examining the Fermi-LAT third source catalog in search of dark matter subhalos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertoni, Bridget; Hooper, Dan; Linden, Tim

    2015-12-17

    Dark matter annihilations taking place in nearby subhalos could appear as gamma-ray sources without detectable counterparts at other wavelengths. In this study, we consider the collection of unassociated gamma-ray sources reported by the Fermi Collaboration in an effort to identify the most promising dark matter subhalo candidates. While we identify 24 bright, high-latitude, non-variable sources with spectra that are consistent with being generated by the annihilations of ~ 20–70 GeV dark matter particles (assuming annihilations to bbar b), it is not possible at this time to distinguish these sources from radio-faint gamma-ray pulsars. Deeper multi-wavelength observations will be essential to clarify the nature of these sources. It is notable that we do not find any such sources that are well fit by dark matter particles heavier than ~100 GeV. We also study the angular distribution of the gamma-rays from this set of subhalo candidates, and find that the source 3FGL J2212.5+0703 prefers a spatially extended profile (of width ~ 0.15°) over that of a point source, with a significance of 4.2σ (3.6σ after trials factor). Although not yet definitive, this bright and high-latitude gamma-ray source is well fit as a nearby subhalo of mχ ≃ 20–50 GeV dark matter particles (annihilating to bb¯) and merits further multi-wavelength investigation. As a result, based on the subhalo distribution predicted by numerical simulations, we derive constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section that are competitive to those resulting from gamma-ray observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies, the Galactic Center, and the extragalactic gamma-ray background.

  17. Examining the Fermi-LAT third source catalog in search of dark matter subhalos

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bertoni, Bridget; Hooper, Dan; Linden, Tim

    2015-12-17

    Dark matter annihilations taking place in nearby subhalos could appear as gamma-ray sources without detectable counterparts at other wavelengths. In this study, we consider the collection of unassociated gamma-ray sources reported by the Fermi Collaboration in an effort to identify the most promising dark matter subhalo candidates. While we identify 24 bright, high-latitude, non-variable sources with spectra that are consistent with being generated by the annihilations of ~ 20–70 GeV dark matter particles (assuming annihilations to bbar b), it is not possible at this time to distinguish these sources from radio-faint gamma-ray pulsars. Deeper multi-wavelength observations will be essential tomore » clarify the nature of these sources. It is notable that we do not find any such sources that are well fit by dark matter particles heavier than ~100 GeV. We also study the angular distribution of the gamma-rays from this set of subhalo candidates, and find that the source 3FGL J2212.5+0703 prefers a spatially extended profile (of width ~ 0.15°) over that of a point source, with a significance of 4.2σ (3.6σ after trials factor). Although not yet definitive, this bright and high-latitude gamma-ray source is well fit as a nearby subhalo of mχ ≃ 20–50 GeV dark matter particles (annihilating to bb¯) and merits further multi-wavelength investigation. As a result, based on the subhalo distribution predicted by numerical simulations, we derive constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section that are competitive to those resulting from gamma-ray observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies, the Galactic Center, and the extragalactic gamma-ray background.« less

  18. Trends in robotics: A summary of the Department of Energy`s critical technology roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eicker, P.J.

    1998-08-10

    Technology roadmaps serve as pathways to the future. They call attention to future needs for research and development; provide a structure for organizing technology forecasts and programs; and help communicate technological needs and expectations among end users and the research and development (R and D) community. Critical Technology roadmaps, of which the Robotics and Intelligent Machines (RIM) Roadmap is one example, focus on enabling or cross-cutting technologies that address the needs of multiple US Department of Energy (DOE) offices. Critical Technology roadmaps must be responsive to mission needs of the offices; must clearly indicate how the science and technology can improve DOE capabilities; and must describe an aggressive vision for the future of the technology itself. The RIM Roadmap defines a DOE research and development path for the period beginning today, and continuing through the year 2020. Its purpose is to identify, select and develop objectives that will satisfy near- and long-term challenges posed by DOE`s mission objectives. If implemented, this roadmap will support DOE`s mission needs while simultaneously advancing the state-of-the-art of RIM. For the purposes of this document, RIM refers to systems composed of machines, sensors, computers and software that deliver processes to DOE operations. The RIM Roadmap describes how such systems will revolutionize DOE processes, most notably manufacturing, hazardous and remote operations, and monitoring and surveillance. The advances in DOE operations and RIM discussed in this document will be possible due to the developments in many other areas of science and technology, including computing, communication, electronics and micro-engineering. Modern software engineering techniques will permit the implementation of inherently safe RIM systems that will depend heavily on software.

  19. THE CHEMICAL SIGNATURE OF A RELIC STAR CLUSTER IN THE SEXTANS DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY-IMPLICATIONS FOR NEAR-FIELD COSMOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karlsson, Torgny; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Freeman, Ken C.; Silk, Joe

    2012-11-10

    We present tentative evidence for the existence of a dissolved star cluster at [Fe/H] = -2.7 in the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy. We use the technique of chemical tagging to identify stars that are highly clustered in a multi-dimensional chemical abundance space (C-space). In a sample of six stars, three, possibly four, stars are identified as potential cluster stars. The initial stellar mass of the parent cluster is estimated from two independent observations to be M{sub *,init}=1.9{sup +1.5}{sub -0.9}(1.6{sup +1.2}{sub -0.8}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub sun}, assuming a Salpeter (Kroupa) initial mass function. If corroborated by follow-up spectroscopy, this star cluster is the most metal-poor system identified to date. Chemical signatures of remnant clusters in dwarf galaxies like Sextans provide us with a very powerful probe to the high-redshift universe. From available observational data, we argue that the average star cluster mass in the majority of the newly discovered ultra-faint dwarf galaxies was notably lower than it is in the Galaxy today and possibly lower than in the more luminous, classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Furthermore, the mean cumulative metallicity function of the dwarf spheroidals falls below that of the ultra-faints, which increases with increasing metallicity as predicted from our stochastic chemical evolution model. These two findings, together with a possible difference in the ([Mg/Fe]) ratio suggest that the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy population, or a significant fraction thereof, and the dwarf spheroidal population were formed in different environments and would thus be distinct in origin.

  20. Path to a commercial fast reactor option in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, P.; McCullum, R.; Nesbit, S.; Sowder, A.; Stout, D.

    2012-07-01

    Fast reactors represent one technology with the potential to transform the energy sector through increased resource utilization and unique waste management opportunities that are not available through the established light water reactor (LWR) technology. The technology is 'old' by 21 st century standards, as the United States and other nations have funded fast reactor research and development efforts from the birth of nuclear power that have led to deployment at all scales from experimental to commercial. Yet, in spite of great promise, the experience with fast reactors can be characterized as mixed, with both notable successes and failures. Why then, after 50 years of development, is there no commercial fast reactor operating in the United States? Is commercialization of the technology possible? If so, what business case is needed for a commercial utility to operate a fast reactor? This paper will attempt to sketch a possible path for the development and demonstration of technology needed to make fast reactors a real option for commercial operation by mid-century. This path starts with today's proven LWR technology and uranium oxide fuels and takes an evolutionary route to a first commercial fast reactor that complements and supports the existing reliable LWR fleet. This paper is not intended to promote any one technology or approach, but instead seeks to illustrate the value of national level support for an energy technology program oriented toward demonstration and seeks eventual deployment of transformational energy systems on the scale and time-frame that matters. The observations and conclusions presented are derived primarily from the collective experience and expertise of the authors who represent a broad range of commercial perspectives from the utility, vendor, research and development, and regulatory policy communities. (authors)

  1. Analysis of the Salmonella regulatory network suggests involvement of SsrB and H-NS in σE-regulated SPI-2 gene expression

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Jie; Overall, Christopher C.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Jones, Marcus B.; Johnson, Rudd; Nguyen, Nhu T.; McDermott, Jason E.; Ansong, Charles; Heffron, Fred; et al

    2015-02-10

    The extracytoplasmic functioning sigma factor σE is known to play an essential role for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to survive and proliferate in macrophages and mice. However, its regulatory network is not well characterized, especially during infection. Here we used microarray to identify genes regulated by σE in Salmonella grown in three conditions: a nutrient-rich condition and two others that mimic early and late intracellular infection. We found that in each condition σE regulated different sets of genes, and notably, several global regulators. When comparing nutrient-rich and infection-like conditions, large changes were observed in the expression of genes involved inmore » Salmonella pathogenesis island (SPI)-1 type-three secretion system (TTSS), SPI-2 TTSS, protein synthesis, and stress responses. In total, the expression of 58% of Salmonella genes was affected by σE in at least one of the three conditions. An important finding is that σE up-regulates SPI-2 genes, which are essential for Salmonella intracellular survival, by up-regulating SPI-2 activator ssrB expression at the early stage of infection and down-regulating SPI-2 repressor hns expression at a later stage. Moreover, σE is capable of countering the silencing of H-NS, releasing the expression of SPI-2 genes. This connection between σE and SPI-2 genes, combined with the global regulatory effect of σE, may account for the lethality of rpoE-deficient Salmonella in murine infection.« less

  2. Analysis of Cloud-resolving Simulations of a Tropical Mesoscale Convective System Observed during TWP-ICE: Vertical Fluxes and Draft Properties in Convective and Stratiform Regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrowiec, Agnieszka A.; Rio, Catherine; Fridlind, Ann; Ackerman, Andrew; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Pauluis, Olivier; Varble, Adam; Fan, Jiwen

    2012-10-02

    We analyze three cloud-resolving model simulations of a strong convective event observed during the TWP-ICE campaign, differing in dynamical core, microphysical scheme or both. Based on simulated and observed radar reflectivity, simulations roughly reproduce observed convective and stratiform precipitating areas. To identify the characteristics of convective and stratiform drafts that are difficult to observe but relevant to climate model parameterization, independent vertical wind speed thresholds are calculated to capture 90% of total convective and stratiform updraft and downdraft mass fluxes. Convective updrafts are fairly consistent across simulations (likely owing to fixed large-scale forcings and surface conditions), except that hydrometeor loadings differ substantially. Convective downdraft and stratiform updraft and downdraft mass fluxes vary notably below the melting level, but share similar vertically uniform draft velocities despite differing hydrometeor loadings. All identified convective and stratiform downdrafts contain precipitation below ~10 km and nearly all updrafts are cloudy above the melting level. Cold pool properties diverge substantially in a manner that is consistent with convective downdraft mass flux differences below the melting level. Despite differences in hydrometeor loadings and cold pool properties, convective updraft and downdraft mass fluxes are linearly correlated with convective area, the ratio of ice in downdrafts to that in updrafts is ~0.5 independent of species, and the ratio of downdraft to updraft mass flux is ~0.5-0.6, which may represent a minimum evaporation efficiency under moist conditions. Hydrometeor loading in stratiform regions is found to be a fraction of hydrometeor loading in convective regions that ranges from ~10% (graupel) to ~90% (cloud ice). These findings may lead to improved convection parameterizations.

  3. Surface-structure sensitivity of CeO2 nanocrystals in photocatalysis and enhancing the reactivity with nanogold

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lei, Wanying; Zhang, Tingting; Gu, Lin; Liu, Ping; Rodriguez, José A.; Liu, Gang; Liu, Minghua

    2015-06-19

    Structure–function correlations are a central theme in heterogeneous (photo)catalysis. In this research, using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), the atomic surface structures of well-defined one-dimensional (1D) CeO2 nanorods (NRs) and 3D nanocubes (NCs) are directly visualized at subangstrom resolution. CeO2 NCs predominantly expose the {100} facet, with {110} and {111} as minor cutoff facets at the respective edges and corners. Notably, the outermost surface layer of the {100} facet is nearly O-terminated. Neither surface relaxations nor reconstructions on {100} are observed, indicating unusual polarity compensation, which is primarily mediated by near-surface oxygen vacancies. The surface of CeO2 NRs ismore » highly stepped, with the enclosed {110} facet exposing Ce cations and O anions on terraces. On the basis of STEM profile-view imaging and electronic structure analysis, the photoreactivity of CeO2 nanocrystals toward aqueous methyl orange degradation under UV is revealed to be surface-structure-sensitive, following the order: {110} >> {100}. The underlying surface-structure sensitivity can be attributed to the variation in low-coordinate surface cerium cations between {110} and {100} facets. To further enhance light absorption, Au nanoparticles (NPs) are deposited on CeO2 NRs to form Au/CeO2 plasmonic nanocomposites, which dramatically promotes the photoreactivity that is Au particle size- and excitation light wavelength-dependent. The mechanisms responsible for the enhancement of photocatalytic activity are discussed, highlighting the crucial role of photoexcited charge carrier transfer.« less

  4. Surface-structure sensitivity of CeO2 nanocrystals in photocatalysis and enhancing the reactivity with nanogold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei, Wanying; Zhang, Tingting; Gu, Lin; Liu, Ping; Rodriguez, José A.; Liu, Gang; Liu, Minghua

    2015-06-19

    Structure–function correlations are a central theme in heterogeneous (photo)catalysis. In this research, using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), the atomic surface structures of well-defined one-dimensional (1D) CeO2 nanorods (NRs) and 3D nanocubes (NCs) are directly visualized at subangstrom resolution. CeO2 NCs predominantly expose the {100} facet, with {110} and {111} as minor cutoff facets at the respective edges and corners. Notably, the outermost surface layer of the {100} facet is nearly O-terminated. Neither surface relaxations nor reconstructions on {100} are observed, indicating unusual polarity compensation, which is primarily mediated by near-surface oxygen vacancies. The surface of CeO2 NRs is highly stepped, with the enclosed {110} facet exposing Ce cations and O anions on terraces. On the basis of STEM profile-view imaging and electronic structure analysis, the photoreactivity of CeO2 nanocrystals toward aqueous methyl orange degradation under UV is revealed to be surface-structure-sensitive, following the order: {110} >> {100}. The underlying surface-structure sensitivity can be attributed to the variation in low-coordinate surface cerium cations between {110} and {100} facets. To further enhance light absorption, Au nanoparticles (NPs) are deposited on CeO2 NRs to form Au/CeO2 plasmonic nanocomposites, which dramatically promotes the photoreactivity that is Au particle size- and excitation light wavelength-dependent. The mechanisms responsible for the enhancement of photocatalytic activity are discussed, highlighting the crucial role of photoexcited charge carrier transfer.

  5. Role of SrMoO{sub 4} in Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasala, S.; Yamauchi, H.; Karppinen, M.

    2011-05-15

    Here we investigate the elemental and phase compositions during the solid-state synthesis of the promising SOFC-anode material, Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6}, and demonstrate that molybdenum does not notably evaporate under the normal synthesis conditions with temperatures up to 1200 {sup o}C due to the formation of SrMoO{sub 4} as an intermediate product at low temperatures, below 600 {sup o}C. However, partial decomposition of the Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} phase becomes evident at the higher temperatures ({approx}1500 {sup o}C). The effect of SrMoO{sub 4} on the electrical conductivity of Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} is evaluated by preparing a series of Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} samples with different amounts of additional SrMoO{sub 4}. Under the reducing operation conditions of an SOFC anode the insulating SrMoO{sub 4} phase is apparently reduced to the highly conductive SrMoO{sub 3} phase. Percolation takes place with 20-30 wt% of SrMoO{sub 4} in a Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} matrix, with a notable increase in electrical conductivity after reduction. Conductivity values of 14, 60 and 160 S/cm are determined at 800 {sup o}C in 5% H{sub 2}/Ar for the Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} samples with 30, 40 and 50 wt% of added SrMoO{sub 4}, respectively. -- Graphical abstract: SrMoO{sub 4} is formed at low temperatures during the synthesis of Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6}, which prevents the volatilization of Mo from typical precursor mixtures of this promising SOFC anode material. SrMoO{sub 4} is insulating and it is often found as an impurity in Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} samples. It is however readily reduced to highly conducting SrMoO{sub 3}. Composites of Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} and SrMoO{sub 3} show increased electrical conductivities compared to pure Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} under the reductive operation conditions of an SOFC anode. Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} is a promising SOFC anode material. {yields} During the Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} synthesis SrMoO{sub 4} is formed at low temperatures. {yields} Formation of SrMoO{sub 4} effectively prevents volatilization of Mo at high temperatures. {yields} Insulating SrMoO{sub 4} reduces to highly conductive SrMoO{sub 3} under SOFC-anode conditions. {yields} Composites of Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} and SrMoO{sub 3} show high electrical conductivities.

  6. Environmental Regulation of the Nuclear Industry in England and Wales in an era of Restructuring and Accelerated Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, I.W.; Weedon, C. J.

    2006-07-01

    In 2005 a large part of the UK Nuclear Industry was restructured with a new national body, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), being responsible for all the assets and liabilities of the nationally owned reactors and fuel cycle facilities. The former owners are now operating and in many cases decommissioning the facilities under contract to the NDA. As the body responsible for enforcing most environmental legislation in England and Wales, the Environment Agency has reviewed its regulatory approach to the Industry. This is to ensure that our responsibility to protect and enhance the environment is met whilst considering appropriately other key drivers impacting on all sectors of environmental regulation. Factors influencing this review include: - Greater public interest and concern over nuclear issues; - Greater transparency of strategies, plans and decisions in the nuclear industry; - The need to ensure that sustainable protection of the environment remains a constant feature of environmental regulation; - The need for a proportionate approach to regulation in the non-prescriptive UK legislative system; - Being effective and efficient in a period when all types of regulation are under Government and public scrutiny; - The aim of the NDA to achieve safe, secure, cost-effective, accelerated and environmentally responsible decommissioning and clean up in part by competing the management of the facilities. This has involved - Constructive liaison with the NDA both before and after its commencement to ensure we are both aware of each other's concerns; - Taking a strong influencing role at strategic and operational levels; - Putting in position arrangements for our involvement in the competitive process; - Liaison at an early stage with the industry's plans for future work; - Establishing greater clarity in our strategy and plans, notably with re-examination of the requirements of our authorisations and permits; - Establishing a new assessment resource (the Nuclear Waste Assessment Team, NWAT) to enable us to examine proposals for waste management while awaiting the establishment of a national strategy; - Seeking the modernising of legislation and exerting pressure on UK government for relevant legislative/policy changes; - Improved links to safety and security regulators; - Developing our own Environmental Assessment Principles to assist regulators and the industry on the issues to be addressed; - Speeding up, where possible, our processes for determination of applications and transfers of authorisations, to allow industry restructuring. The position is dynamic and we continue to work with Industry, the NDA and other regulators to ensure we meet our respective goals. (authors)

  7. A Study to Develop an Industrial-Scale, Computer-Controlled High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) System to Assist in Commercializing the Novel, Enabling HMFP Manufacturing Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutdka, G. M.; Chourey, A.

    2010-05-12

    As the original magnet designer and manufacturer of ORNLs 9T, 5-inch ID bore magnet, American Magnetics Inc. (AMI) has collaborated with ORNLs Materials Processing Groups and this partnership has been instrumental in the development of our unique thermo-magnetic facilities and expertise. Consequently, AMI and ORNL have realized that the commercial implementation of the High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) technology will require the evolution of robust, automated superconducting (SC) magnet systems that will be cost-effective and easy to operate in an industrial environment. The goal of this project and CRADA is to significantly expedite the timeline for implementing this revolutionary and pervasive cross-cutting technology for future US produced industrial components. The successful completion of this project is anticipated to significantly assist in the timely commercialization and licensing of our HMFP intellectual property for a broad spectrum of industries; and to open up a new market for AMI. One notable outcome of this project is that the ThermoMagnetic Processing Technology WON a prestigious 2009 R&D 100 Awards. This award acknowledges and recognizes our TMP Technology as one of the top 100 innovative US technologies in 2009. By successfully establishing the design requirements for a commercial scale magnetic processing system, this project effort has accomplished a key first step in facilitating the building and demonstration of a superconducting magnetic processing coil, enabling the transition of the High Magnetic Field Processing Technology beyond a laboratory novelty into a commercially viable and industrially scalable Manufacturing Technology.

  8. Persistence of gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in proliferating and nonproliferating human mammary epithelial cells after exposure to gamma-rays or iron ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groesser, Torsten; Chang, Hang; Fontenay, Gerald; Chen, James; Costes, Sylvain V.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Parvin, Bahram; Rydberg, Bjorn

    2010-12-22

    To investigate {gamma}-H2AX (phosphorylated histone H2AX) and 53BP1 (tumour protein 53 binding protein No. 1) foci formation and removal in proliferating and non-proliferating human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) after exposure to sparsely and densely ionizing radiation under different cell culture conditions. HMEC cells were grown either as monolayers (2D) or in extracellular matrix to allow the formation of acinar structures in vitro (3D). Foci numbers were quantified by image analysis at various time points after exposure. Our results reveal that in non-proliferating cells under 2D and 3D cell culture conditions, iron-ion induced {gamma}-H2AX foci were still present at 72 h after exposure, although 53BP1 foci returned to control levels at 48 h. In contrast in proliferating HMEC, both {gamma}-H2AX and 53BP1 foci decreased to control levels during the 24-48 h time interval after irradiation under 2D conditions. Foci numbers decreased faster after {gamma}-ray irradiation and returned to control levels by 12 h regardless of marker, cell proliferation status, and cell culture condition. Conclusions: The disappearance of radiation induced {gamma}-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in HMEC have different dynamics that depend on radiation quality and proliferation status. Notably, the general patterns do not depend on the cell culture condition (2D versus 3D). We speculate that the persistent {gamma}-H2AX foci in iron-ion irradiated non-proliferating cells could be due to limited availability of double strand break (DSB) repair pathways in G0/G1-phase, or that repair of complex DSB requires replication or chromatin remodeling.

  9. THE ARIZONA RADIO OBSERVATORY CO MAPPING SURVEY OF GALACTIC MOLECULAR CLOUDS. IV. THE NGC 1333 CLOUD IN PERSEUS IN CO J = 2-1 AND {sup 13}CO J = 2-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieging, John H.; Revelle, Melissa; Peters, William L.

    2014-09-01

    We mapped the NGC 1333 section of the Perseus Molecular Cloud in the J = 2-1 emission lines of {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO over a 50' 60' region (3.4 4.1 pc at the cloud distance of 235 pc), using the Arizona Radio Observatory Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope. The angular resolution is 38'' (0.04 pc) and velocity resolution is 0.3 km s{sup 1}. We compare our velocity moment maps with known positions of young stellar objects (YSOs) and (sub)millimeter dust continuum emission. The CO emission is brightest at the center of the cluster of YSOs, but is detected over the full extent of the mapped region at ?10 rms. The morphology of the CO channel maps shows a kinematically complex structure, with many elongated features extending from the YSO cluster outward by ?1 pc. One notable feature appears as a narrow serpentine structure that curves and doubles back, with a total length of ?3 pc. The {sup 13}CO velocity channel maps show evidence for many low-density cavities surrounded by partial shell-like structures, consistent with previous studies. Maps of the velocity moments show localized effects of bipolar outflows from embedded YSOs, as well as a large-scale velocity gradient around the central core of YSOs, suggestive of large-scale turbulent cloud motions determining the location of current star formation. The CO/{sup 13}CO intensity ratios show the distribution of the CO opacity, which exhibits a complex kinematic structure. Identified YSOs are located mainly at the positions of greatest CO opacity. The maps are available for download as FITS files.

  10. SPINE: SParse eIgengene NEtwork linking gene expression clusters in Dehalococcoides mccartyi to perturbations in experimental conditions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mansfeldt, Cresten B.; Logsdon, Benjamin A.; Debs, Garrett E.; Richardson, Ruth E.; Mande, Shekhar C.

    2015-02-25

    We present a statistical model designed to identify the effect of experimental perturbations on the aggregate behavior of the transcriptome expressed by the bacterium Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain 195. Strains of Dehalococcoides are used in sub-surface bioremediation applications because they organohalorespire tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene (common chlorinated solvents that contaminate the environment) to non-toxic ethene. However, the biochemical mechanism of this process remains incompletely described. Additionally, the response of Dehalococcoides to stress-inducing conditions that may be encountered at field-sites is not well understood. The constructed statistical model captured the aggregate behavior of gene expression phenotypes by modeling the distinct eigengenes of 100more » transcript clusters, determining stable relationships among these clusters of gene transcripts with a sparse network-inference algorithm, and directly modeling the effect of changes in experimental conditions by constructing networks conditioned on the experimental state. Based on the model predictions, we discovered new response mechanisms for DMC, notably when the bacterium is exposed to solvent toxicity. The network identified a cluster containing thirteen gene transcripts directly connected to the solvent toxicity condition. Transcripts in this cluster include an iron-dependent regulator (DET0096-97) and a methylglyoxal synthase (DET0137). To validate these predictions, additional experiments were performed. Continuously fed cultures were exposed to saturating levels of tetrachloethene, thereby causing solvent toxicity, and transcripts that were predicted to be linked to solvent toxicity were monitored by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Twelve hours after being shocked with saturating levels of tetrachloroethene, the control transcripts (encoding for a key hydrogenase and the 16S rRNA) did not significantly change. By contrast, transcripts for DET0137 and DET0097 displayed a 46.8±11.5 and 14.6±9.3 fold up-regulation, respectively, supporting the model. This is the first study to identify transcripts in Dehalococcoides that potentially respond to tetrachloroethene solvent-toxicity conditions that may be encountered near contamination source zones in sub-surface environments.« less

  11. Mechanisms of Selective Cleavage of C-O Bonds in Di-aryl Ethers in Aqueous Phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Jiayue; Zhao, Chen; Mei, Donghai; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2014-01-02

    A novel route for cleaving the C-O aryl ether bonds of p-substituted H-, CH3-, and OH- diphenyl ethers has been explored over Ni/SiO2 catalysts at very mild conditions. The C-O bond of diphenyl ether is cleaved by parallel hydrogenolysis and hydrolysis (hydrogenolysis combined with HO* addition) on Ni. The rates as a function of H2 pressure from 0 to 10 MPa indicate that the rate-determining step is the C-O bond cleavage on Ni. H* atoms compete with the organic reactant for adsorption leading to a maximum in the rate with increasing H2 pressure. In contrast to diphenyl ether, hydrogenolysis is the exclusive route for cleaving an ether C-O bond of di-p-tolyl ether to form p-cresol and toluene. 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl ether undergoes sequential surface hydrogenolysis, first to phenol and HOC6H4O* (adsorbed), which is then cleaved to phenol (C6H5O* with added H*) and H2O (O* with two added H*) in a second step. Density function theory supports the operation of this pathway. Notably, addition of H* to HOC6H4O* is less favorable than a further hydrogenolytic C-O bond cleavage. The TOFs of three aryl ethers with Ni/SiO2 in water followed the order 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl ether (69 h-1) > diphenyl ether (26 h-1) > di-p-tolyl ether (1.3 h-1), in line with the increasing apparent activation energies, ranging from 93 kJ∙mol-1 (4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl ether) < diphenyl ether (98 kJ∙mol-1) to di-p-tolyl ether (105 kJ∙mol-1). D.M. thanks the support from the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. Computing time was granted by the grand challenge of computational catalysis of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) and by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC). EMSL is a national scientific user facility located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and sponsored by DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

  12. Commercial potential of natural gas storage in lined rock caverns (LRC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-11-01

    The geologic conditions in many regions of the United States will not permit the development of economical high-deliverability gas storage in salt caverns. These regions include the entire Eastern Seaboard; several northern states, notably Minnesota and Wisconsin; many of the Rocky Mountain States; and most of the Pacific Northwest. In late 1997, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Federal Energy Technology Center engaged Sofregaz US to investigate the commercialization potential of natural gas storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC). Sofregaz US teamed with Gaz de France and Sydkraft, who had formed a consortium, called LRC, to perform the study for the USDOE. Underground storage of natural gas is generally achieved in depleted oil and gas fields, aquifers, and solution-mined salt caverns. These storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Unlined rock caverns have been used for decades to store hydrocarbons - mostly liquids such as crude oil, butane, and propane. The maximum operating pressure in unlined rock caverns is limited, since the host rock is never entirely impervious. The LRC technology allows a significant increase in the maximum operating pressure over the unlined storage cavern concept, since the gas in storage is completely contained with an impervious liner. The LRC technology has been under development in Sweden by Sydkraft since 1987. The development process has included extensive technical studies, laboratory testing, field tests, and most recently includes a storage facility being constructed in southern Sweden (Skallen). The LRC development effort has shown that the concept is technically and economically viable. The Skallen storage facility will have a rock cover of 115 meters (375 feet), a storage volume of 40,000 cubic meters (250,000 petroleum barrels), and a maximum operating pressure of 20 MPa (2,900 psi). There is a potential for commercialization of the LRC technology in the United States. Two regions were studied in some detail - the Northeast and the Southeast. The investment cost for an LRC facility in the Northeast is approximately $182 million and $343 million for a 2.6-billion cubic foot (bcf) working gas facility and a 5.2-bcf working gas storage facility, respectively. The relatively high investment cost is a strong function of the cost of labor in the Northeast. The labor union-related rules and requirements in the Northeast result in much higher underground construction costs than might result in Sweden, for example. The LRC technology gas storage service is compared to other alternative technologies. The LRC technology gas storage service was found to be competitive with other alternative technologies for a variety of market scenarios.

  13. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Coffey, Brian; Aki, Hirohisa

    2009-03-10

    Berkeley Lab has for several years been developing methods for selection of optimal microgrid systems, especially for commercial building applications, and applying these methods in the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). This project began with 3 major goals: (1) to conduct detailed analysis to find the optimal equipment combination for microgrids at a few promising commercial building hosts in the two favorable markets of California and New York, (2) to extend the analysis capability of DER-CAM to include both heat and electricity storage, and (3) to make an initial effort towards adding consideration of power quality and reliability (PQR) to the capabilities of DER-CAM. All of these objectives have been pursued via analysis of the attractiveness of a Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Microgrid consisting of multiple nameplate 100 kW Tecogen Premium Power Modules (CM-100). This unit consists of an asynchronous inverter-based variable speed internal combustion engine genset with combined heat and power (CHP) and power surge capability. The essence of CERTS Microgrid technology is that smarts added to the on-board power electronics of any microgrid device enables stable and safe islanded operation without the need for complex fast supervisory controls. This approach allows plug and play development of a microgrid that can potentially provide high PQR with a minimum of specialized site-specific engineering. A notable feature of the CM-100 is its time-limited surge rating of 125 kW, and DER-CAM capability to model this feature was also a necessary model enhancement.

  14. SKLB70326, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of cell-cycle progression, induces G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase arrest and apoptosis in human hepatic carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Yuanyuan; He, Haiyun; Peng, Feng; Liu, Jiyan; Dai, Xiaoyun; Lin, Hongjun; Xu, Youzhi; Zhou, Tian; Mao, Yongqiu; Xie, Gang; Yang, Shengyong; Yu, Luoting; Yang, Li; Zhao, Yinglan

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SKLB70326 is a novel compound and has activity of anti-HCC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SKLB70326 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SKLB70326 induces G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase arrest via inhibiting the activity of CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SKLB70326 induces apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway. -- Abstract: We previously reported the potential of a novel small molecule 3-amino-6-(3-methoxyphenyl)thieno[2.3-b]pyridine-2-carboxamide (SKLB70326) as an anticancer agent. In the present study, we investigated the anticancer effects and possible mechanisms of SKLB70326 in vitro. We found that SKLB70326 treatment significantly inhibited human hepatic carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro, and the HepG2 cell line was the most sensitive to its treatment. The inhibition of cell proliferation correlated with G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase arrest, which was followed by apoptotic cell death. The SKLB70326-mediated cell-cycle arrest was associated with the downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2, CDK4 and CDK6 but not cyclin D1 or cyclin E. The phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) was also observed. SKLB70326 treatment induced apoptotic cell death via the activation of PARP, caspase-3, caspase-9 and Bax as well as the downregulation of Bcl-2. The expression levels of p53 and p21 were also induced by SKLB70326 treatment. Moreover, SKLB70326 treatment was well tolerated. In conclusion, SKLB70326, a novel cell-cycle inhibitor, notably inhibits HepG2 cell proliferation through the induction of G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase arrest and subsequent apoptosis. Its potential as a candidate anticancer agent warrants further investigation.

  15. New insights to the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in bone phenotype and in dioxin-induced modulation of bone microarchitecture and material properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herlin, Maria; Finnil, Mikko A.J.; Zioupos, Peter; Aula, Antti; Risteli, Juha; Miettinen, Hanna M.; Jms, Timo; Tuukkanen, Juha; Korkalainen, Merja; Hkansson, Helen; Viluksela, Matti

    2013-11-15

    Bone is a target for high affinity aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligands, such as dioxins. Although bone morphology, mineral density and strength are sensitive endpoints of dioxin toxicity, less is known about effects on bone microarchitecture and material properties. This study characterizes TCDD-induced modulations of bone tissue, and the role of AHR in dioxin-induced bone toxicity and for normal bone phenotype. Six AHR-knockout (Ahr{sup ?/?}) and wild-type (Ahr{sup +/+}) mice of both genders were exposed to TCDD weekly for 10 weeks, at a total dose of 200 ?g/kg bw. Bones were examined with micro-computed tomography, nanoindentation and biomechanical testing. Serum levels of bone remodeling markers were analyzed, and the expression of genes related to osteogenic differentiation was profiled using PCR array. In Ahr{sup +/+} mice, TCDD-exposure resulted in harder bone matrix, thinner and more porous cortical bone, and a more compact trabecular bone compartment. Bone remodeling markers and altered expression of a number of osteogenesis related genes indicated imbalanced bone remodeling. Untreated Ahr{sup ?/?} mice displayed a slightly modified bone phenotype as compared with untreated Ahr{sup +/+} mice, while TCDD exposure caused only a few changes in bones of Ahr{sup ?/?} mice. Part of the effects of both TCDD-exposure and AHR-deficiency were gender dependent. In conclusion, exposure of adult mice to TCDD resulted in harder bone matrix, thinner cortical bone, mechanically weaker bones and most notably, increased trabecular bone volume fraction in Ahr{sup +/+} mice. AHR is involved in bone development of a normal bone phenotype, and is crucial for manifestation of TCDD-induced bone alterations. - Highlights: TCDD disrupts bone remodeling resulting in altered cortical and trabecular bone. In trabecular bone an anabolic effect is observed. Cortical bone is thinner, more porous, harder, stiffer and mechanically weaker. AHR ablation results in increased trabecular bone and softer cortical bone. TCDD does not affect the bones of Ahr{sup /} mice.

  16. SISGR - Hydrogen Caged in Carbon-Exploration of Novel Carbon-Hydrogen Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lueking, Angela; Badding, John; Crespi, Vinent

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen trapped in a carbon cage, captured through repulsive interactions, is a novel concept in hydrogen storage. Trapping hydrogen via repulsive interactions borrows an idea from macroscale hydrogen storage (i.e. compressed gas storage tanks) and reapplies these concepts on the nanoscale in specially designed molecular containers. Under extreme conditions of pressure, hydrogen solubility in carbon materials is expected to increase and carbon is expected to restructure to minimize volume via a mixed sp2/sp3 hydrogenated state. Thermodynamics dictate that pre-formed C-H structures will rearrange with increased pressure, yet the final carbon-hydrogen interactions may be dependent upon the mechanism by which hydrogen is introduced. Gas “trapping” is meant to denote gas present in a solid in a high density, adsorbed-like state, when the external pressure is much less than that necessary to provide a comparable fluid density. Trapping thus denotes a kinetically metastable state rather than thermodynamic equilibrium. This project probed mechanochemical means to polymerize select hydrocarbons in the presence of gases, in an attempt to form localized carbon cages that trap gases via repulsive interactions. Aromatic, polyaromatic, and hydroaromatic molecules expected to undergo cyclo-addition reactions were polymerized at high (~GPa) pressures to form extended hydrogenated amorphous carbon networks. Notably, aromatics with a pre-existing internal free volume (such as Triptycene) appeared to retain an internal porosity upon application of pressure. However, a high photoluminescence background after polymerization precluded in situ identification of trapped gases. No spectroscopic evidence was found after depressurization that would be indicative of pockets of trapped gases in a localized high-pressure environment. Control studies suggested this measurement may be insensitive to gases at low pressure. Similarly, no spectral fingerprint was found for gas-imbued spherical carbon nanoshells, even after chemical “capping” of the gas-imbued nanoshells to limit gas diffusivity. Subsequently, spectral probes of gas vibrational modes adsorbed in various carbon nanostructures (including activated carbons, single-wall carbon nanotubes, polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs), and UV-irradiated PIMs with decreased pore size) were found only at high pressure. The vibrational mode of the adsorbed film became perturbed in high density films, and the perturbation was sensitive to surface functional groups, pore size, and pore dimension. Experimental results were corroborated with first-principle modeling using density functional theory. Development of semi-empirical correlations that relate the spectral features to pore dimension, geometry, and chemical potential of the adsorbed film are on-going.

  17. Patterns in wetland microbial community composition and functional gene repertoire associated with methane emissions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, Shaomei; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; McFarland, Jack W.; Anderson, Frank E.; Pati, Amrita; Huntemann, Marcel; Tremblay, Julien; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Waldrop, Mark P.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; et al

    2015-05-19

    Wetland restoration on peat islands previously drained for agriculture has potential to reverse land subsidence and sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide as peat accretes. However, the emission of methane could potentially offset the greenhouse gas benefits of captured carbon. As microbial communities play a key role in governing wetland greenhouse gas fluxes, we are interested in how microbial community composition and functions are associated with wetland hydrology, biogeochemistry, and methane emission, which is critical to modeling the microbial component in wetland methane fluxes and to managing restoration projects for maximal carbon sequestration. Here, we couple sequence-based methods with biogeochemical and greenhousemore » gas measurements to interrogate microbial communities from a pilot-scale restored wetland in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California, revealing considerable spatial heterogeneity even within this relatively small site. A number of microbial populations and functions showed strong correlations with electron acceptor availability and methane production; some also showed a preference for association with plant roots. Marker gene phylogenies revealed a diversity of major methane-producing and -consuming populations and suggested novel diversity within methanotrophs. Methanogenic archaea were observed in all samples, as were nitrate-, sulfate-, and metal-reducing bacteria, indicating that no single terminal electron acceptor was preferred despite differences in energetic favorability and suggesting spatial microheterogeneity and microniches. Notably, methanogens were negatively correlated with nitrate-, sulfate-, and metal-reducing bacteria and were most abundant at sampling sites with high peat accretion and low electron acceptor availability, where methane production was highest. Wetlands are the largest nonanthropogenic source of atmospheric methane but also a key global carbon reservoir. Characterizing belowground microbial communities that mediate carbon cycling in wetlands is critical to accurately predicting their responses to changes in land management and climate. Here, we studied a restored wetland and revealed substantial spatial heterogeneity in biogeochemistry, methane production, and microbial communities, largely associated with the wetland hydraulic design. We observed patterns in microbial community composition and functions correlated with biogeochemistry and methane production, including diverse microorganisms involved in methane production and consumption. We found that methanogenesis gene abundance is inversely correlated with genes from pathways exploiting other electron acceptors, yet the ubiquitous presence of genes from all these pathways suggests that diverse electron acceptors contribute to the energetic balance of the ecosystem. These investigations represent an important step toward effective management of wetlands to reduce methane flux to the atmosphere and enhance belowground carbon storage.« less

  18. Patterns in wetland microbial community composition and functional gene repertoire associated with methane emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Shaomei; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; McFarland, Jack W.; Anderson, Frank E.; Pati, Amrita; Huntemann, Marcel; Tremblay, Julien; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Waldrop, Mark P.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Tringe, Susannah G.

    2015-05-19

    Wetland restoration on peat islands previously drained for agriculture has potential to reverse land subsidence and sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide as peat accretes. However, the emission of methane could potentially offset the greenhouse gas benefits of captured carbon. As microbial communities play a key role in governing wetland greenhouse gas fluxes, we are interested in how microbial community composition and functions are associated with wetland hydrology, biogeochemistry, and methane emission, which is critical to modeling the microbial component in wetland methane fluxes and to managing restoration projects for maximal carbon sequestration. Here, we couple sequence-based methods with biogeochemical and greenhouse gas measurements to interrogate microbial communities from a pilot-scale restored wetland in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California, revealing considerable spatial heterogeneity even within this relatively small site. A number of microbial populations and functions showed strong correlations with electron acceptor availability and methane production; some also showed a preference for association with plant roots. Marker gene phylogenies revealed a diversity of major methane-producing and -consuming populations and suggested novel diversity within methanotrophs. Methanogenic archaea were observed in all samples, as were nitrate-, sulfate-, and metal-reducing bacteria, indicating that no single terminal electron acceptor was preferred despite differences in energetic favorability and suggesting spatial microheterogeneity and microniches. Notably, methanogens were negatively correlated with nitrate-, sulfate-, and metal-reducing bacteria and were most abundant at sampling sites with high peat accretion and low electron acceptor availability, where methane production was highest. Wetlands are the largest nonanthropogenic source of atmospheric methane but also a key global carbon reservoir. Characterizing belowground microbial communities that mediate carbon cycling in wetlands is critical to accurately predicting their responses to changes in land management and climate. Here, we studied a restored wetland and revealed substantial spatial heterogeneity in biogeochemistry, methane production, and microbial communities, largely associated with the wetland hydraulic design. We observed patterns in microbial community composition and functions correlated with biogeochemistry and methane production, including diverse microorganisms involved in methane production and consumption. We found that methanogenesis gene abundance is inversely correlated with genes from pathways exploiting other electron acceptors, yet the ubiquitous presence of genes from all these pathways suggests that diverse electron acceptors contribute to the energetic balance of the ecosystem. These investigations represent an important step toward effective management of wetlands to reduce methane flux to the atmosphere and enhance belowground carbon storage.

  19. 3D Reconstruction of Biological Organization and Mineralization in Sediment Attached Biofilms During Uranium Bioremediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banfield, Jillian; Comolli, Luis R.; Singer, Steve

    2014-11-17

    Of central interest in this study were microbial communities attached to sediment particles and in associated groundwater. Are the communities similar? What do the organisms look like and how do they associated with each other? Research was conducted on samples collected from the Department of Energy's (DOE) Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Rifle, Colorado, USA. This site served first as a test case for in situ bioremediation via biostimulation, and more recently as a location for studying the role of microbial communities in the carbon and other linked biogeochemical cycles. We addressed the question of the nature of planktonic to sediment-attached microbial communities using field and laboratory experimental studies with a range of methods that provide 2- and 3-dimensional topological information coupled to information about chemical speciation, organism type, and activity levels. The research leveraged data from metagenomics and proteomics analyses that obtained through parallel work at the Rifle site in the context of the IFRC. In this project we integrated characterization methods with extensive genomic sequence information and associated environmental data to better understand the processes that occur within groundwater and sediment-attached communities. Notable is the range of characterization methods, including scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM), micro-EXAFS/XANES and microdiffraction and 2D and 3D cryo-electron tomographic analysis, and high-resolutino transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) analysis to characterize these natural microbial communities. A cryo-TEM work was unique because samples for electron microscopic characterization were cryo-plunged directly on site immediately after sampling. This step minimizes post-collection alterations, including cell damages and change of redox state. Among many achievements documented in publications listed at the end of this report, we highlight the following: 1) The development of a platform for routine correlative cryogenic microscopy and spectroscopy with samples prepared on-site. 2) The determination of which organisms dominate planktonic and biofilm communities in the subsurface. 3) Identification of microorganism-mineral associations and discovery of a novel mechanism that sustains activity of iron-reducing bacteria. 4) The detection of bacteria from the OP11-OD1-WWE3 (etc.) radiation and elucidation of their remarkable structural organization by cryog-TEM cryo-electron tomograhpy (cryo-ET). 5) Extensive analysis of biofilms and documentation of the association of cells and Se minerals. 6) The comparison of expressed c-type cytochromes between pure cultures of G. bemidjiensis and related field populations, provided insight into possible molecular mechanisms for U(VI) reduction in the aquifer. At least sixteen publications will result from this project (partial support), which provide both graduate student and post doctoral training.

  20. Distinguishing tautomerism in the crystal structure of (Z)-N-(5-ethyl-2,3-di-hydro-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-ylidene) -4-methylbenzenesulfonamide using DFT-D calculations and {sup 13}C solid-state NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiaozhou; Bond, Andrew D.; Johansson, Kristoffer E.; Van de Streek, Jacco

    2014-08-01

    The crystal structure of (Z)-N-(5-ethyl-2,3-di-hydro-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-ylidene) -4-methylbenzenesulfonamide contains an imine tautomer, rather than the previously reported amine tautomer. The tautomers can be distinguished using dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations and by comparison of calculated and measured {sup 13}C solid-state NMR spectra. The crystal structure of the title compound, C{sub 11}H{sub 13}N{sub 3}O{sub 2}S{sub 2}, has been determined previously on the basis of refinement against laboratory powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) data, supported by comparison of measured and calculated {sup 13}C solid-state NMR spectra [Hangan et al. (2010 ▶). Acta Cryst. B66, 615–621]. The mol@@ecule is tautomeric, and was reported as an amine tautomer [systematic name: N-(5-ethyl-1,3,4-thia@@diazol-2-yl)-p-toluene@@sulfonamide], rather than the correct imine tautomer. The protonation site on the mol@@ecule’s 1,3,4-thia@@diazole ring is indicated by the inter@@molecular contacts in the crystal structure: N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are established at the correct site, while the alternative protonation site does not establish any notable inter molecular inter@@actions. The two tautomers provide essentially identical Rietveld fits to laboratory PXRD data, and therefore they cannot be directly distinguished in this way. However, the correct tautomer can be distinguished from the incorrect one by previously reported qu@@anti@@tative criteria based on the extent of structural distortion on optimization of the crystal structure using dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) calculations. Calculation of the {sup 13}C SS-NMR spectrum based on the correct imine tautomer also provides considerably better agreement with the measured {sup 13}C SS-NMR spectrum.

  1. Targeting CD9 produces stimulus-independent antiangiogenic effects predominantly in activated endothelial cells during angiogenesis: A novel antiangiogenic therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamisasanuki, Taro; Department of Ophthalmology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 ; Tokushige, Saori; Terasaki, Hiroto; Department of Ophthalmology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 ; Khai, Ngin Cin; Wang, Yuqing; Sakamoto, Taiji; Kosai, Ken-ichiro

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} CD9 plays stimulus-independent roles in angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. {yields} Targeting CD9 expression is effective in an angiogenic disease model. {yields} Targeting CD9 expression predominantly affects activated endothelial cells. {yields} CD9 is involved in endothelial cell proliferation, but not survival. {yields} CD9 is part of angiogenic machinery in endothelial cells during angiogenesis. -- Abstract: The precise roles of tetraspanin CD9 are unclear. Here we show that CD9 plays a stimulus-independent role in angiogenesis and that inhibiting CD9 expression or function is a potential antiangiogenic therapy. Knocking down CD9 expression significantly inhibited in vitro endothelial cell migration and invasion induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Injecting CD9-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA-CD9) markedly inhibited HGF- or VEGF-induced subconjunctival angiogenesis in vivo. Both results revealed potent and stimulus-independent antiangiogenic effects of targeting CD9. Furthermore, intravitreous injections of siRNA-CD9 or anti-CD9 antibodies were therapeutically effective for laser-induced retinal and choroidal neovascularization in mice, a representative ocular angiogenic disease model. In terms of the mechanism, growth factor receptor and downstream signaling activation were not affected, whereas abnormal localization of integrins and membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase was observed during angiogenesis, by knocking down CD9 expression. Notably, knocking down CD9 expression did not induce death and mildly inhibited proliferation of quiescent endothelial cells under conditions without an angiogenic stimulus. Thus, CD9 does not directly affect growth factor-induced signal transduction, which is required in angiogenesis and normal vasculature, but is part of the angiogenesis machinery in endothelial cells during angiogenesis. In conclusion, targeting CD9 produced stimulus-independent antiangiogenic effects predominantly in activated endothelial cells during angiogenesis, and appears to be an effective and safe antiangiogenic approach. These results shed light on the biological roles of CD9 and may lead to novel antiangiogenic therapies.

  2. Impact of sedimentary provenance and weathering on arsenic distribution in aquifers of the Datong basin, China: Constraints from elemental geochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Xianjun; Wang, Yanxin; Ellis, Andre; Liu, Chongxuan; Duan, Mengyu; Li, Junxia

    2014-11-01

    Arsenic (As)-contaminated aquifer sediments from Datong basin, China have been analyzed to infer the provenance and depositional environment related to As distribution in the aquifer sediments. The As content in the sediments ranged from 2.45 to 27.38 mg/kg with an average value of 9.54 mg/kg, which is comparable to the average value in modern unconsolidated sediments. However, minor variation in As concentration with depth has been observed in the core. There was a significant correlation between Fe, and Al and As, which was attributed to the adsorption or co-precipitation of As onto/with Fe oxides/hydroxides and/or Fe-coated clay minerals. Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS)-normalized REEs patterns of sediment samples along the borehole were constant, and the sediments had a notably restricted range of La-N/Yb-N ratios from 0.7 to 1.0. These results suggested that the provenance of the Datong basin remained similar throughout the whole depositional period. The analysis of major geochemical compositions confirmed that all core sediments were from the same sedimentary source and experienced significant sedimentary recycling. The co-variation of As, V/Al, Ni/Al and chemical index of alteration (CIA) values in the sediments along the borehole suggested that As distribution in the sediments was primarily controlled by weathering processes. The calculated CIA values of the sediments along the borehole indicate that a relative strong chemical weathering occurred during the deposition of sediments at depths of similar to 35 to 88 m, which was corresponding to the depth at which high As groundwater was observed at the site. Strong chemical weathering favored the deposition of Fe-bearing minerals including poorly crystalline and crystalline Fe oxide mineral phases and concomitant co-precipitation of As with these minerals in the sediments. Subsequent reductive dissolution of As-bearing poorly crystalline and crystalline Fe oxides would result in the enrichment of As in groundwater. In general, the chemical weathering during the deposition of the sediments governed the co-accumulation of Fe oxides and As in the aquifer sediments. And then, the reductive dissolution of Fe oxides/hydroxides is the mechanism of As enrichment in the groundwater in the Datong basin

  3. SPINE: SParse eIgengene NEtwork linking gene expression clusters in Dehalococcoides mccartyi to perturbations in experimental conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansfeldt, Cresten B.; Logsdon, Benjamin A.; Debs, Garrett E.; Richardson, Ruth E.; Mande, Shekhar C.

    2015-02-25

    We present a statistical model designed to identify the effect of experimental perturbations on the aggregate behavior of the transcriptome expressed by the bacterium Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain 195. Strains of Dehalococcoides are used in sub-surface bioremediation applications because they organohalorespire tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene (common chlorinated solvents that contaminate the environment) to non-toxic ethene. However, the biochemical mechanism of this process remains incompletely described. Additionally, the response of Dehalococcoides to stress-inducing conditions that may be encountered at field-sites is not well understood. The constructed statistical model captured the aggregate behavior of gene expression phenotypes by modeling the distinct eigengenes of 100 transcript clusters, determining stable relationships among these clusters of gene transcripts with a sparse network-inference algorithm, and directly modeling the effect of changes in experimental conditions by constructing networks conditioned on the experimental state. Based on the model predictions, we discovered new response mechanisms for DMC, notably when the bacterium is exposed to solvent toxicity. The network identified a cluster containing thirteen gene transcripts directly connected to the solvent toxicity condition. Transcripts in this cluster include an iron-dependent regulator (DET0096-97) and a methylglyoxal synthase (DET0137). To validate these predictions, additional experiments were performed. Continuously fed cultures were exposed to saturating levels of tetrachloethene, thereby causing solvent toxicity, and transcripts that were predicted to be linked to solvent toxicity were monitored by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Twelve hours after being shocked with saturating levels of tetrachloroethene, the control transcripts (encoding for a key hydrogenase and the 16S rRNA) did not significantly change. By contrast, transcripts for DET0137 and DET0097 displayed a 46.8±11.5 and 14.6±9.3 fold up-regulation, respectively, supporting the model. This is the first study to identify transcripts in Dehalococcoides that potentially respond to tetrachloroethene solvent-toxicity conditions that may be encountered near contamination source zones in sub-surface environments.

  4. Passive Acoustic Detection of Wind Turbine In-Flow Conditions for Active Control and Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, Nathan E.

    2012-03-12

    Wind is a significant source of energy; however, the human capability to produce electrical energy still has many hurdles to overcome. One of these is the unpredictability of the winds in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The ABL is highly turbulent in both stable and unstable conditions (based on the vertical temperature profile) and the resulting fluctuations can have a dramatic impact on wind turbine operation. Any method by which these fluctuations could be observed, estimated, or predicted could provide a benefit to the wind energy industry as a whole. Based on the fundamental coupling of velocity fluctuations to pressure fluctuations in the nearly incompressible flow in the ABL, This work hypothesizes that a ground-based array of infrasonic pressure transducers could be employed to estimate the vertical wind profile over a height relevant for wind turbines. To analyze this hypothesis, experiments and field deployments were conducted. Wind tunnel experiments were performed for a thick turbulent boundary layer over a neutral or heated surface. Surface pressure and velocity probe measurements were acquired simultaneously. Two field deployments yielded surface pressure data from a 49 element array. The second deployment at the Reese Technology Center in Lubbock, TX, also included data from a smaller aperture, 96-element array and a 200-meter tall meteorological tower. Analysis of the data successfully demonstrated the ability to estimate the vertical velocity profile using coherence data from the pressure array. Also, dynamical systems analysis methods were successful in identifying and tracking a gust type event. In addition to the passive acoustic profiling method, this program also investigated a rapid response Doppler SODAR system, the optimization of wind turbine blades for enhanced power with reduced aeroacoustic noise production, and the implementation of a wireless health monitoring system for the wind turbine blades. Each of these other objectives was met successfully. The use of phase unwrapping applied to SODAR data was found to yield reasonable results for per-pulse measurements. A health monitoring system design analysis was able to demonstrate the ability to use a very small number of sensors to monitor blade health based on the blade's overall structural modes. Most notable was the development of a multi-objective optimization methodology that successfully yielded an aerodynamic blade design that produces greater power output with reduced aerodynamic loading noise. This optimization method could be significant for future design work.

  5. CSI 2264: simultaneous optical and infrared light curves of young disk-bearing stars in NGC 2264 with CoRoT and Spitzerevidence for multiple origins of variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cody, Ann Marie; Stauffer, John; Rebull, Luisa M.; Carey, Sean; Baglin, Annie; Micela, Giuseppina; Flaccomio, Ettore; Morales-Caldern, Mara; Aigrain, Suzanne; Bouvier, Jrme; Gutermuth, Robert; Song, Inseok; Turner, Neal; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; Zwintz, Konstanze; Plavchan, Peter; Terebey, Susan; and others

    2014-04-01

    We present the Coordinated Synoptic Investigation of NGC 2264, a continuous 30 day multi-wavelength photometric monitoring campaign on more than 1000 young cluster members using 16 telescopes. The unprecedented combination of multi-wavelength, high-precision, high-cadence, and long-duration data opens a new window into the time domain behavior of young stellar objects. Here we provide an overview of the observations, focusing on results from Spitzer and CoRoT. The highlight of this work is detailed analysis of 162 classical T Tauri stars for which we can probe optical and mid-infrared flux variations to 1% amplitudes and sub-hour timescales. We present a morphological variability census and then use metrics of periodicity, stochasticity, and symmetry to statistically separate the light curves into seven distinct classes, which we suggest represent different physical processes and geometric effects. We provide distributions of the characteristic timescales and amplitudes and assess the fractional representation within each class. The largest category (>20%) are optical 'dippers' with discrete fading events lasting ?1-5 days. The degree of correlation between the optical and infrared light curves is positive but weak; notably, the independently assigned optical and infrared morphology classes tend to be different for the same object. Assessment of flux variation behavior with respect to (circum)stellar properties reveals correlations of variability parameters with H? emission and with effective temperature. Overall, our results point to multiple origins of young star variability, including circumstellar obscuration events, hot spots on the star and/or disk, accretion bursts, and rapid structural changes in the inner disk.

  6. Couples Magnetic and Structural Transitions in High-Purity Dy and Gd5SbxGe4-x

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander S. Chernyshov

    2006-08-09

    Magnetic materials exhibiting magnetic phase transitions simultaneously with structural rearrangements of their crystal lattices hold a promise for numerous applications including magnetic refrigeration, magnetomechanical devices and sensors. We undertook a detailed study of a single crystal of dysprosium metal, which is a classical example of a system where magnetic and crystallographic sublattices can be either coupled or decoupled from one another. Magnetocaloric effect, magnetization, ac magnetic susceptibility, and heat capacity of high purity single crystals of dysprosium have been investigated over broad temperature and magnetic field intervals with the magnetic field vector parallel to either the a- or c-axes of the crystal. Notable differences in the behavior of the physical properties when compared to Dy samples studied in the past have been observed between 110 K and 125 K, and between 178 K and {approx}210 K. A plausible mechanism based on the formation of antiferromagnetic clusters in the impure Dy has been suggested in order to explain the reduction of the magnetocaloric effect in the vicinity of the Neel point. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the influence of commensurability effects on the magnetic phase diagram and the value of the magnetocaloric effect have been conducted. The presence of newly found anomalies in the physical properties has been considered as evidence of previously unreported states of Dy. The refined magnetic phase diagram of dysprosium with the magnetic field vector parallel to the a-axis of a crystal has been constructed and discussed. The magnetic and crystallographic properties of Gd{sub 5}Sb{sub x}Ge{sub 4-x} pseudo-binary system were studied by x-ray diffraction (at room temperature), heat capacity, ac-magnetic susceptibility, and magnetization in the temperature interval 5-320 K in magnetic fields up to 100 kOe. The magnetic properties of three composition (x = 0.5, 1,2) were examined in detail. The Gd{sub 5}Sb{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} compound that adopts Tm{sub 5}Sb{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type of structure (space group is Cmca), shows a second order FM-PM transition at 200 K, whereas Gd{sub 5}Sb{sub x}Ge{sub 4-x} compounds for x = 0.5 and x = 1 (Sm{sub 5}Ge{sub 4}-type of structure, space group is Pnma) exhibit first order phase transformations at 45 K and 37 K, respectively.

  7. Evaluating iterative reconstruction performance in computed tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Baiyu Solomon, Justin; Ramirez Giraldo, Juan Carlos; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: Iterative reconstruction (IR) offers notable advantages in computed tomography (CT). However, its performance characterization is complicated by its potentially nonlinear behavior, impacting performance in terms of specific tasks. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of IR with both task-specific and task-generic strategies. Methods: The performance of IR in CT was mathematically assessed with an observer model that predicted the detection accuracy in terms of the detectability index (d′). d′ was calculated based on the properties of the image noise and resolution, the observer, and the detection task. The characterizations of image noise and resolution were extended to accommodate the nonlinearity of IR. A library of tasks was mathematically modeled at a range of sizes (radius 1–4 mm), contrast levels (10–100 HU), and edge profiles (sharp and soft). Unique d′ values were calculated for each task with respect to five radiation exposure levels (volume CT dose index, CTDI{sub vol}: 3.4–64.8 mGy) and four reconstruction algorithms (filtered backprojection reconstruction, FBP; iterative reconstruction in imaging space, IRIS; and sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction with strengths of 3 and 5, SAFIRE3 and SAFIRE5; all provided by Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany). The d′ values were translated into the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) to represent human observer performance. For each task and reconstruction algorithm, a threshold dose was derived as the minimum dose required to achieve a threshold AUC of 0.9. A task-specific dose reduction potential of IR was calculated as the difference between the threshold doses for IR and FBP. A task-generic comparison was further made between IR and FBP in terms of the percent of all tasks yielding an AUC higher than the threshold. Results: IR required less dose than FBP to achieve the threshold AUC. In general, SAFIRE5 showed the most significant dose reduction potentials (11–54 mGy, 77%–84%), followed by SAFIRE3 (7–36 mGy, 50%–61%) and IRIS (6–26 mGy, 37%–50%). The dose reduction potentials highly depended on task size and task contrast, with tasks of lower contrasts and smaller sizes, i.e., more challenging tasks, indicating higher dose reductions. Softer edge profile showed higher dose reduction potentials with SAFIRE3 and SAFIRE5, but not with IRIS. The task-generic comparison between IR and FBP demonstrated the overall superiority of IR performance, as IR allowed a larger percent of tasks to exceed the threshold AUC: IRIS, 8%–12%; SAFIRE3, 10%–16%; and SAFIRE5, 20%–33%. The improvement with IR was generally more pronounced at lower dose levels. Conclusions: Expanding beyond traditional contrast and noise based assessments of IR, we performed both task-specific and task-generic evaluations of IR performance. The task-specific evaluation demonstrated the dependency of IR’s dose reduction potential on task attributes, which can be employed to optimize IR for clinical indications with specific range of size and contrast. The task-generic evaluation demonstrated IR’s overall superiority over FBP in terms of the range of tasks exceeding a threshold performance level, which can be employed for general comparisons between algorithms.

  8. Reduction of Carbon Footprint and Energy Efficiency Improvement in Aluminum Production by Use of Novel Wireless Instrumentation Integrated with Mathematical Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James W. Evans

    2012-04-11

    The work addressed the greenhouse gas emission and electrical energy consumption of the aluminum industry. The objective was to provide a means for reducing both through the application of wireless instrumentation, coupled to mathematical modeling. Worldwide the aluminum industry consumes more electrical energy than all activities in many major countries (e.g. the UK) and emits more greenhouse gasses (e.g. than France). Most of these excesses are in the 'primary production' of aluminum; that is the conversion of aluminum oxide to metal in large electrolytic cells operating at hundreds of thousands of amps. An industry-specific GHG emission has been the focus of the work. The electrolytic cells periodically, but at irregular intervals, experience an upset condition known as an 'anode effect'. During such anode effects the cells emit fluorinated hydrocarbons (PFCs, which have a high global warming potential) at a rate far greater than in normal operation. Therefore curbing anode effects will reduce GHG emissions. Prior work had indicated that the distribution of electrical current within the cell experiences significant shifts in the minutes before an anode effect. The thrust of the present work was to develop technology that could detect and report this early warning of an anode effect so that the control computer could minimize GHG emissions. A system was developed to achieve this goal and, in collaboration with Alcoa, was tested on two cells at an Alcoa plant in Malaga, Washington. The project has also pointed to the possibility of additional improvements that could result from the work. Notable among these is an improvement in efficiency that could result in an increase in cell output at little extra operating cost. Prospects for commercialization have emerged in the form of purchase orders for further installations. The work has demonstrated that a system for monitoring the current of individual anodes in an aluminum cell is practical. Furthermore the system has been installed twice on a smelter in the US without exposing workers to hazards usually associated with running signal wires in aluminum plants. The results display the early warning of an anode effect that potentially can be used to minimize such anode effects with their excessive GHG emissions. They also point to a possible, but substantial, economic benefit that could result in improved current efficiency by anode adjustment based on individual anode current measurements.

  9. Moving to Sustainable Metals. Multifunctional Ligands in Catalytic, Outer Sphere C-H, N-H and O-H Activation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crabtree, Robert

    2015-03-03

    Much of our work during this grant period has emphasized green chemistry and sustainability. For example, we were able to convert glycerine, a waste byproduct of biodiesel production, into lactic acid, a compound with numerous applications, notably in the food and cosmetics industry, as well as being a source material for a biodegradable plastic. This work required a catalyst, that ceases to work after a certain lapse of time. We were able to identify the way in which this deactivation occurs by identifying some of the metal catalyst deactivation products. These proved to be multimetallic clusters containing up to six metals and up to 14 hydrogen atoms. Both the catalytic reaction itself and the deactivation structures are novel and unexpected. We have previously proposed that nitrogen heterocycles could be good energy carriers in a low CO2 future world. In another part of our study, we found catalysts for introduction of hydrogen, an energy carrier that is hard to store, into nitrogen heterocycles. The mechanism of this process proved to be unusual in that the catalyst transfers the H2 to the heterocycle in the form of H+ and H-, first transferring the H+ and only then the H-. In a third area of study, some of our compounds, originally prepared for DOE catalysis purposes, also proved useful in hydrocarbon oxidation and in water oxidation. The latter is important in solar-to-fuel work, because, by analogy with natural photosynthesis, the goal of the Yale Solar Group of four PIs is to convert sunlight to hydrogen and oxygen, which requires water splitting catalysts. The catalysts that proved useful mediate the latter reaction: water oxidation to oxygen. In a more technical study, we developed methods for distinguishing the case where catalysis is mediated by a soluble catalyst from cases where catalysis arises from a deposit of finely divided solid. One particular application involved electrocatalysis, where catalysis is driven by application of a voltage to electrodes dipped in the reactant mixture. We measured the mass increase of an electrode as material is deposited, and were able to see how this process is affected by the voltage supplied to the electrode. Our work continues to be well cited and we often receive requests for information or samples from fellow researchers.

  10. Isoliquiritigenin induces growth inhibition and apoptosis through downregulating arachidonic acid metabolic network and the deactivation of PI3K/Akt in human breast cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ying; Zhao, Haixia; Wang, Yuzhong; Zheng, Hao; Yu, Wei; Chai, Hongyan; Zhang, Jing; Falck, John R.; Guo, Austin M.; Yue, Jiang; Peng, Renxiu; Yang, Jing

    2013-10-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA)-derived eicosanoids and its downstream pathways have been demonstrated to play crucial roles in growth control of breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate that isoliquiritigenin, a flavonoid phytoestrogen from licorice, induces growth inhibition and apoptosis through downregulating multiple key enzymes in AA metabolic network and the deactivation of PI3K/Akt in human breast cancer. Isoliquiritigenin diminished cell viability, 5-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, and clonogenic ability in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231cells, and induced apoptosis as evidenced by an analysis of cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation, flow cytometry and hoechst staining. Furthermore, isoliquiritigenin inhibited mRNA expression of multiple forms of AA-metabolizing enzymes, including phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenases (COX)-2 and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A, and decreased secretion of their products, including prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), without affecting COX-1, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP), and leukotriene B{sub 4} (LTB{sub 4}). In addition, it downregulated the levels of phospho-PI3K, phospho-PDK (Ser{sup 241}), phospho-Akt (Thr{sup 308}), phospho-Bad (Ser{sup 136}), and Bcl-x{sub L} expression, thereby activating caspase cascades and eventually cleaving poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Conversely, the addition of exogenous eicosanoids, including PGE{sub 2}, LTB{sub 4} and a 20-HETE analog (WIT003), and caspase inhibitors, or overexpression of constitutively active Akt reversed isoliquiritigenin-induced apoptosis. Notably, isoliquiritigenin induced growth inhibition and apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts in nude mice, together with decreased intratumoral levels of eicosanoids and phospho-Akt (Thr{sup 308}). Collectively, these data suggest that isoliquiritigenin induces growth inhibition and apoptosis through downregulating AA metabolic network and the deactivation of PI3K/Akt in human breast cancer. - Highlights: Isoliquiritigenin induces growth inhibition and apoptosis in human breast cancer. The proapoptotic action of isoliquiritigenin has been studied in vitro and in vivo. Arachidonic acid metabolic network mediates isoliquiritigenin-induced apoptosis. PI3K/Akt deactivation is asssociated with isoliquiritigenin-induced apoptosis. Isoliquiritigenin may be a multi-target drug in the treatment of breast cancer.

  11. DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

    2009-03-31

    Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a result of the WAO reaction. (4) Off-gas composition was measured in the resulting gas phase from the reaction. Benzene and hydrogen were formed during the reaction, but they were reasonably low in the off-gas at 0.096 and 0.0063 vol% respectively. Considering the consistency in replicating similar test results with simulated waste and Tank 48H waste under similar test conditions, the results confirm the validity of the simulant for other WAO test conditions.

  12. Accuracy of the electron transport in mcnp5 and its suitability for ionization chamber response simulations: A comparison with the egsnrc and penelope codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koivunoro, Hanna; Siiskonen, Teemu; Kotiluoto, Petri; Auterinen, Iiro; Hippelaeinen, Eero; Savolainen, Sauli

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: In this work, accuracy of the mcnp5 code in the electron transport calculations and its suitability for ionization chamber (IC) response simulations in photon beams are studied in comparison to egsnrc and penelope codes. Methods: The electron transport is studied by comparing the depth dose distributions in a water phantom subdivided into thin layers using incident energies (0.05, 0.1, 1, and 10 MeV) for the broad parallel electron beams. The IC response simulations are studied in water phantom in three dosimetric gas materials (air, argon, and methane based tissue equivalent gas) for photon beams ({sup 60}Co source, 6 MV linear medical accelerator, and mono-energetic 2 MeV photon source). Two optional electron transport models of mcnp5 are evaluated: the ITS-based electron energy indexing (mcnp5{sub ITS}) and the new detailed electron energy-loss straggling logic (mcnp5{sub new}). The electron substep length (ESTEP parameter) dependency in mcnp5 is investigated as well. Results: For the electron beam studies, large discrepancies (>3%) are observed between the mcnp5 dose distributions and the reference codes at 1 MeV and lower energies. The discrepancy is especially notable for 0.1 and 0.05 MeV electron beams. The boundary crossing artifacts, which are well known for the mcnp5{sub ITS}, are observed for the mcnp5{sub new} only at 0.1 and 0.05 MeV beam energies. If the excessive boundary crossing is eliminated by using single scoring cells, the mcnp5{sub ITS} provides dose distributions that agree better with the reference codes than mcnp5{sub new}. The mcnp5 dose estimates for the gas cavity agree within 1% with the reference codes, if the mcnp5{sub ITS} is applied or electron substep length is set adequately for the gas in the cavity using the mcnp5{sub new}. The mcnp5{sub new} results are found highly dependent on the chosen electron substep length and might lead up to 15% underestimation of the absorbed dose. Conclusions: Since the mcnp5 electron transport calculations are not accurate at all energies and in every medium by general clinical standards, caution is needed, if mcnp5 is used with the current electron transport models for dosimetric applications.

  13. Annual report of groundwater monitoring at Everest, Kansas in 2011.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2011-12-19

    Everest, Kansas, is a small rural community (population approximately 300) located in the southeast corner of Brown County, in the northeastern corner of Kansas. Carbon tetrachloride and chloroform contamination in groundwater at Everest was initially identified in 1997 as a result of testing performed under the Commodity Credit Corporation/U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) private well sampling program conducted by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The KDHE collected samples from seven private wells in and near Everest. Carbon tetrachloride and chloroform were found in only one of the wells, the Donnie Nigh domestic well (owned at that time by Tim Gale), approximately 3/8 mi northwest of the former Everest CCC/USDA facility. Carbon tetrachloride and chloroform were detected at 121 {mu}g/L and 4 {mu}g/L, respectively. Nitrate was found at 12.62 mg/L. The USDA subsequently connected the Nigh residence to the Everest public water supply system. The findings of the 2011 monitoring at Everest support the following conclusions: (1) Measurements of groundwater levels obtained manually during annual monitoring in 2009-2011 (and through the use of automatic recorders in 2002-2010) have consistently indicated an initial direction of groundwater flow from the former CCC/USDA facility to the north-northwest and toward the Nigh property, then west-southwest from the Nigh property toward the intermittent creek that lies west of the former CCC/USDA facility and the Nigh property. (2) At most of the monitored locations, carbon tetrachloride concentrations decreased in April 2011 relative to 2010 results. Noteworthy decreases of > 50% occurred at locations MW4, MW60, and MW88, in the most concentrated part of the plume. (3) Comparison of accumulated data demonstrates that the area of the carbon tetrachloride plume with concentrations > 200 {mu}g/L has decreased markedly over time and suggests a generally decreasing trend in contaminant levels. (4) The trace increases in carbon tetrachloride concentrations observed in 2010 at locations SB63 and SB64 were notable because of the locations proximity to the downgradient intermittent creek. However, these increases were not confirmed in sampling in 2011. (5) The results of the April 2011 monitoring event continue to support the interpretation, made during the 9-yr observation period from 2001 to 2010, that the migration rate for contamination in groundwater toward the intermittent creek is very slow. (6) No carbon tetrachloride was detected in five samples of surface water collected from the intermittent creek west of the former CCC/USDA facility and the Nigh property, or in tree branch tissue samples collected at locations along the banks of the creek. These observations indicate that the carbon tetrachloride contamination identified at Everest has, to date, not impacted the surface waters of the intermittent creek.

  14. Systems Biology Model of Interactions Between Tissue Growth Factors and DNA Damage Pathways: Low Dose Response and Cross-Talk in TGFbeta and ATM Signaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Neill, Peter; Anderson, Jennifer

    2014-10-02

    The etiology of radiation carcinogenesis has been described in terms of aberrant changes that span several levels of biological organization. Growth factors regulate many important cellular and tissue functions including apoptosis, differentiation and proliferation. A variety of genetic and epigenetic changes of growth factors have been shown to contribute to cancer initiation and progression. It is known that cellular and tissue damage to ionizing radiation is in part initiated by the production of reactive oxygen species, which can activate cytokine signaling, and the DNA damage response pathways, most notably the ATM signaling pathway. Recently the transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) pathway has been shown to regulate or directly interact with the ATM pathway in the response to radiation. The relevance of this interaction with the ATM pathway is not known although p53 becomes phosphorylated and DNA damage responses are involved. However, growth factor interactions with DNA damage responses have not been elucidated particularly at low doses and further characterization of their relationship to cancer processes is warranted. Our goal will be to use a systems biology approach to mathematically and experimentally describe the low dose responses and cross-talk between the ATM and TGF? pathways initiated by low and high LET radiation. We will characterize ATM and TGF? signaling in epithelial and fibroblast cells using 2D models and ultimately extending to 3D organotypic cell culture models to begin to elucidate possible differences that may occur for different cell types and/or inter-cellular communication. We will investigate the roles of the Smad and Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) proteins as the potential major contributors to cross- talk between the TGF? and ATM pathways, and links to cell cycle control and/or the DNA damage response, and potential differences in their responses at low and high doses. We have developed various experimental approaches to apply to these problems using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry to detail changes at low dose/dose-rate in order to understand individual cell responses, and will establish our mathematical models based on the experimental findings resulting from changes in DNA repair, apoptosis and proliferation.

  15. Comparative Study on the Sulfur Tolerance and Carbon Resistance of Supported Noble Metal Catalysts in Steam Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Chao; Chen, Yongsheng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Song, Chunshan

    2012-04-18

    This work was conducted to clarify the influence of the type of metal and support on the sulfur tolerance and carbon resistance of supported noble metal catalysts in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbons. Al2O3-supported noble metal catalysts (Rh, Ru, Pt, and Pd), Rh catalysts on different supports (Al2O3, CeO2, SiO2, and MgO), and Pt catalyst supported on CeO2 and Al2O3, were examined for steam reforming of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel (Norpar13 from Exxon Mobil) at 800 C for 55 h. The results indicate that (1) Rh/Al2O3 shows higher sulfur tolerance than the Ru, Pt, and Pd catalysts on the same support; (2) both Al2O3 and CeO2 are promising supports for Rh catalyst to process sulfur-containing hydrocarbons; and (3) Pt/CeO2 exhibits better catalytic performance than Pt/Al2O3 in the reaction with sulfur. TEM results demonstrate that the metal particles in Rh/Al2O3 were better dispersed (mostly in 1-3 nm) compared with the other catalysts after reforming the sulfur-containing feed. As revealed by XPS, the binding energy of Rh 3d for Rh/Al2O3 is notably higher than that for Rh/CeO2, implying the formation of electron-deficient Rh particles in the former. The strong sulfur tolerance of Rh/Al2O3 may be related to the formation of well-dispersed electron-deficient Rh particles on the Al2O3 support. Sulfur K-edge XANES illustrates the preferential formation of sulfonate and sulfate on Rh/Al2O3, which is believed to be beneficial for improving its sulfur tolerance as their oxygen-shielded sulfur structure may hinder direct Rh-S interaction. Due to its strong sulfur tolerance, the carbon deposition on Rh/Al2O3 was significantly lower than that on the Al2O3-supported Ru, Pt, and Pd catalysts after the reaction with sulfur. The superior catalytic performance of CeO2-supported Rh and Pt catalysts in the presence of sulfur can be ascribed mainly to the promotion effect of CeO2 on carbon gasification, leading to much lower carbon deposition compared with the Rh/Al2O3, Rh/MgO, Rh/SiO2 and Pt/Al2O3 catalysts.

  16. Characterization of scatter in digital mammography from physical measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leon, Stephanie M. Wagner, Louis K.; Brateman, Libby F.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: That scattered radiation negatively impacts the quality of medical radiographic imaging is well known. In mammography, even slight amounts of scatter reduce the high contrast required for subtle soft-tissue imaging. In current clinical mammography, image contrast is partially improved by use of an antiscatter grid. This form of scatter rejection comes with a sizeable dose penalty related to the concomitant elimination of valuable primary radiation. Digital mammography allows the use of image processing as a method of scatter correction that might avoid effects that negatively impact primary radiation, while potentially providing more contrast improvement than is currently possible with a grid. For this approach to be feasible, a detailed characterization of the scatter is needed. Previous research has modeled scatter as a constant background that serves as a DC bias across the imaging surface. The goal of this study was to provide a more substantive data set for characterizing the spatially-variant features of scatter radiation at the image detector of modern mammography units. Methods: This data set was acquired from a model of the radiation beam as a matrix of very narrow rays or pencil beams. As each pencil beam penetrates tissue, the pencil widens in a predictable manner due to the production of scatter. The resultant spreading of the pencil beam at the detector surface can be characterized by two parameters: mean radial extent (MRE) and scatter fraction (SF). The SF and MRE were calculated from measurements obtained using the beam stop method. Two digital mammography units were utilized, and the SF and MRE were found as functions of target, filter, tube potential, phantom thickness, and presence or absence of a grid. These values were then used to generate general equations allowing the SF and MRE to be calculated for any combination of the above parameters. Results: With a grid, the SF ranged from a minimum of about 0.05 to a maximum of about 0.16, and the MRE ranged from about 3 to 13 mm. Without a grid, the SF ranged from a minimum of 0.25 to a maximum of 0.52, and the MRE ranged from about 20 to 45 mm. The SF with a grid demonstrated a mild dependence on target/filter combination and kV, whereas the SF without a grid was independent of these factors. The MRE demonstrated a complex relationship as a function of kV, with notable difference among target/filter combinations. The primary source of change in both the SF and MRE was phantom thickness. Conclusions: Because breast tissue varies spatially in physical density and elemental content, the effective thickness of breast tissue varies spatially across the imaging field, resulting in a spatially-variant scatter distribution in the imaging field. The data generated in this study can be used to characterize the scatter contribution on a point-by-point basis, for a variety of different techniques.

  17. The Potential For Energy Efficiency In The State of Iowa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, SW

    2001-12-05

    The purpose of this study was to do an initial estimate of the potential for energy savings in the state of Iowa. Several methods for determining savings were examined, including existing programs, surveys, savings calculators, and economic simulation. Each method has advantages and disadvantages, trading off between detail of information, accuracy of results, and scope. This paper concentrated on using economic simulation (the NEMS model (EIA 2000a)) to determine market potential for energy savings for the residential and commercial sectors. The results of surveys were used to calculate the economic potential for savings in the industrial sector. The NEMS model is used by the Energy Information Administration to calculate twenty-year projections of energy use for every region of the country. The results of the Annual Energy Outlook 2000 were used as the Base case (EIA 1999a). Two alternative cases were created to simulate energy savings policies. Voluntary, market-related programs were simulated by lowering the effective discount rates that end-users use when making decisions on equipment purchases. Standards programs in the residential sector were simulated by eliminating the availability of low efficiency equipment in future years. The parameters for these programs were based on the Moderate scenario from the DOE Clean Energy Futures study (Interlaboratory Working Group 2000), which assumed increased concern by society on energy efficiency but not to the point of fiscal policies such as taxes or direct subsidies. The study only considered a subset of the various programs, policies, and technologies that could reduce energy use. The major end-uses in the residential sector affected by the policies were space cooling (20% savings by 2020) and water heating (14% savings by 2020.) Figure S-1 shows the space cooling savings when voluntary programs and minimum efficiency standards were implemented. Refrigerators, freezers, and clothes dryers saw slight improvements. The study did not involve changes to the building shell (e.g., increased insulation) or residential lighting improvements. Nevertheless, the residential sector's market potential for electrical energy savings was calculated to be 5.3% of expected electrical use, representing 850 GWh by 2020. Natural gas savings could be 2.4% of expected gas use, representing 2.1 trillion Btus. Using expected prices for energy in that year, these represent savings of $47 million and $12 million per year. In the commercial sector, the study only considered voluntary market-based policies for some of the technologies. The most notable savings were in ventilation (12% savings by 2020), lighting (12% savings), refrigeration (7% savings), water heating (6% savings), and space heating (5% savings by 2020). The commercial sector's market potential for electrical energy savings based on the programs modeled was calculated to be 5.1% of its total expected electrical use, representing 605 GWh of power by 2020. Natural gas savings were 2.3 trillion Btu, 3.7% of use. Using the same prices as the residential sector (5.5{cents}/kWh and $5.74/MBtu), the savings represent $33 million and $13 million per year, respectively.

  18. Community wind power ownership schemes in Europe and their relevance to the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark

    2001-05-15

    With varying success, the United States and Europe have followed a more or less parallel path of policies to support wind development over the past twenty years. Feed-in laws and tax incentives first popularized in California in the early 1980s and greatly expanded upon in Europe during the 1990s are gradually giving way to market-based support mechanisms such as renewable portfolio standards, which are being implemented in one form or another in ten US states and at least three European nations. At the same time, electricity markets are being liberalized in both the US and Europe, and many electricity consumers are being given the choice to support the development of renewable energy through higher tariffs, both in traditionally regulated and newly competitive markets. One notable area in which wind development in Europe and United States has not evolved in common, however, is with respect to the level of community ownership of wind turbines or clusters. While community ownership of wind projects is unheard of in the United States, in Europe, local wind cooperatives or other participatory business schemes have been responsible for a large share of total wind development. In Denmark, for example, approximately 80% of all wind turbines are either individually or cooperatively owned, and a similar pattern holds in Germany, the world leader in installed wind capacity. Sweden also has a strong wind cooperative base, and the UK has recently made forays into community wind ownership. Why is it that wind development has evolved this way in Europe, but not in the United States? What incremental effect have community-owned wind schemes had on European wind development? Have community-owned wind schemes driven development in Europe, or are they merely a vehicle through which the fundamental driving institutions have been channeled? Is there value to having community wind ownership in the US? Is there reason to believe that such schemes would succeed in the US? If so, which model seems most appropriate, and what barriers--legal, regulatory, tax, market, or investment--stand in the way of implementing such a scheme? These are the questions this report seeks to address. The report begins with a discussion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of community wind ownership, as opposed to the large commercially-owned projects that have so far dominated US wind development. Next, four detailed case studies relate community-owned wind experience in Denmark, Sweden, the UK, Germany, focusing primarily on the different participatory models employed in each country. The report then categorizes the various models into three main groupings--community-led, developer-led, and investment funds--and draws general conclusions about the success of each category in Europe, and the conditions that dictate the effective use of one approach over another. Finally, the focus shifts to the US, where the report discusses the domestic barriers facing each model category, and identifies the category offering the most value with the fewest barriers to implementation. The report concludes with a high-level introduction to potential applications for community wind ownership within the United States.

  19. Assessing the Efficacy of the Aerobic Methanotrophic Biofilter in Methane Hydrate Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentine, David

    2012-09-30

    In October 2008 the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) initiated investigations of water column methane oxidation in methane hydrate environments, through a project funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) entitled: assessing the efficacy of the aerobic methanotrophic biofilter in methane hydrate environments. This Final Report describes the scientific advances and discoveries made under this award as well as the importance of these discoveries in the broader context of the research area. Benthic microbial mats inhabit the sea floor in areas where reduced chemicals such as sulfide reach the more oxidizing water that overlies the sediment. We set out to investigate the role that methanotrophs play in such mats at locations where methane reaches the sea floor along with sulfide. Mats were sampled from several seep environments and multiple sets were grown in-situ at a hydrocarbon seep in the Santa Barbara Basin. Mats grown in-situ were returned to the laboratory and used to perform stable isotope probing experiments in which they were treated with 13C-enriched methane. The microbial community was analyzed, demonstrating that three or more microbial groups became enriched in methane?s carbon: methanotrophs that presumably utilize methane directly, methylotrophs that presumably consume methanol excreted by the methanotrophs, and sulfide oxidizers that presumably consume carbon dioxide released by the methanotrophs and methylotrophs. Methanotrophs reached high relative abundance in mats grown on methane, but other bacterial processes include sulfide oxidation appeared to dominate mats, indicating that methanotrophy is not a dominant process in sustaining these benthic mats, but rather a secondary function modulated by methane availability. Methane that escapes the sediment in the deep ocean typically dissolved into the overlying water where it is available to methanotrophic bacteria. We set out to better understand the efficacy of this process as a biofilter by studying the distribution of methane oxidation and disposition of methanotrophic populations in the Pacific Ocean. We investigated several environments including the basins offshore California, the continental margin off Central America, and the shallow waters around gas seeps. We succeeded in identifying the distributions of activity in these environments, identified potential physical and chemical controls on methanotrophic activity, we further revealed details about the methanotrophic communities active in these settings, and we developed new approaches to study methanotrophic communities. These findings should improve our capacity to predict the methanotrophic response in ocean waters, and further our ability to generate specific hypotheses as to the ecology and efficacy of pelagic methanotrophic communites. The discharge of methane and other hydrocarbons to Gulf of Mexico that followed the sinking of the Deepwater Horizon provided a unique opportunity to study the methanotorphic biofilter in the deep ocean environment. We set out to understand the consumption of methane and the bloom of methanotrophs resulting from this event, as a window into the regional scale release of gas hydrate under rapid warming scenarios. We found that other hydrocarbon gases, notably propane and ethane, were preferred for consumption over methane, but that methane consumption accelerated rapidly and drove the depletion of methane within a matter of months after initial release. These results revealed the identity of the responsible community, and point to the importance of the seed population in determining the rate at which a methanotrophic community is able to respond to an input of methane. Collectively, these results provide a significant advance in our understanding of the marine methanotrohic biofilter, and further provide direction and context for future investigations of this important phenomenon. This project has resulted in fourteen publications to date, with five more circulating in draft form, and several others planned.

  20. Radiation-induced refraction artifacts in the optical CT readout of polymer gel dosimeters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Warren G.; Jirasek, Andrew; Wells, Derek M.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to demonstrate imaging artifacts that can occur during the optical computed tomography (CT) scanning of polymer gel dosimeters due to radiation-induced refractive index (RI) changes in polyacrylamide gels. Methods: A 1 L cylindrical polyacrylamide gel dosimeter was irradiated with 3 3 cm{sup 2} square beams of 6 MV photons. A prototype fan-beam optical CT scanner was used to image the dosimeter. Investigative optical CT scans were performed to examine two types of rayline bending: (i) bending within the plane of the fan-beam and (ii) bending out the plane of the fan-beam. To address structured errors, an iterative SavitzkyGolay (ISG) filtering routine was designed to filter 2D projections in sinogram space. For comparison, 2D projections were alternatively filtered using an adaptive-mean (AM) filter. Results: In-plane rayline bending was most notably observed in optical CT projections where rays of the fan-beam confronted a sustained dose gradient that was perpendicular to their trajectory but within the fan-beam plane. These errors caused distinct streaking artifacts in image reconstructions due to the refraction of higher intensity rays toward more opaque regions of the dosimeter. Out-of-plane rayline bending was observed in slices of the dosimeter that featured dose gradients perpendicular to the plane of the fan-beam. These errors caused widespread, severe overestimations of dose in image reconstructions due to the higher-than-actual opacity that is perceived by the scanner when light is bent off of the detector array. The ISG filtering routine outperformed AM filtering for both in-plane and out-of-plane rayline errors caused by radiation-induced RI changes. For in-plane rayline errors, streaks in an irradiated region (>7 Gy) were as high as 49% for unfiltered data, 14% for AM, and 6% for ISG. For out-of-plane rayline errors, overestimations of dose in a low-dose region (?50 cGy) were as high as 13 Gy for unfiltered data, 10 Gy for AM, and 3.1 Gy for ISG. The ISG routine also addressed unrelated artifacts that previously needed to be manually removed in sinogram space. However, the ISG routine blurred reconstructions, causing losses in spatial resolution of ?5 mm in the plane of the fan-beam and ?8 mm perpendicular to the fan-beam. Conclusions: This paper reveals a new category of imaging artifacts that can affect the optical CT readout of polyacrylamide gel dosimeters. Investigative scans show that radiation-induced RI changes can cause significant rayline errors when rays confront a prolonged dose gradient that runs perpendicular to their trajectory. In fan-beam optical CT, these errors manifested in two ways: (1) distinct streaking artifacts caused by in-plane rayline bending and (2) severe overestimations of opacity caused by rays bending out of the fan-beam plane and missing the detector array. Although the ISG filtering routine mitigated these errors better than an adaptive-mean filtering routine, it caused unacceptable losses in spatial resolution.

  1. Transuranic Contamination in Sediment and Groundwater at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2009-08-20

    A review of transuranic radionuclide contamination in sediments and groundwater at the DOE’s Hanford Site was conducted. The review focused primarily on plutonium-239/240 and americium-241; however, other transuranic nuclides were discussed as well, including neptunium-237, plutonium-238, and plutonium-241. The scope of the review included liquid process wastes intentionally disposed to constructed waste disposal facilities such as trenches and cribs, burial grounds, and unplanned releases to the ground surface. The review did not include liquid wastes disposed to tanks or solid wastes disposed to burial grounds. It is estimated that over 11,800 Ci of plutonium-239, 28,700 Ci of americium-241, and 55 Ci of neptunium-237 have been disposed as liquid waste to the near surface environment at the Hanford Site. Despite the very large quantities of transuranic contaminants disposed to the vadose zone at Hanford, only minuscule amounts have entered the groundwater. Currently, no wells onsite exceed the DOE derived concentration guide for plutonium-239/240 (30 pCi/L) or any other transuranic contaminant in filtered samples. The DOE derived concentration guide was exceeded by a small fraction in unfiltered samples from one well (299-E28-23) in recent years (35.4 and 40.4 pCi/L in FY 2006). The primary reason that disposal of these large quantities of transuranic radionuclides directly to the vadose zone at the Hanford Site has not resulted in widespread groundwater contamination is that under the typical oxidizing and neutral to slightly alkaline pH conditions of the Hanford vadose zone, transuranic radionuclides (plutonium and americium in particular) have a very low solubility and high affinity for surface adsorption to mineral surfaces common within the Hanford vadose zone. Other important factors are the fact that the vadose zone is typically very thick (hundreds of feet) and the net infiltration rate is very low due to the desert climate. In some cases where transuranic radionuclides have been co-disposed with acidic liquid waste, transport through the vadose zone for considerable distances has occurred. For example, at the 216-Z-9 Crib, plutonium-239 and americium-241 have moved to depths in excess of 36 m (118 ft) bgs. Acidic conditions increase the solubility of these contaminants and reduce adsorption to mineral surfaces. Subsequent neutralization of the acidity by naturally occurring calcite in the vadose zone (particularly in the Cold Creek unit) appears to have effectively stopped further migration. The vast majority of transuranic contaminants disposed to the vadose zone on the Hanford Site (10,200 Ci [86%] of plutonium-239; 27,900 Ci [97%] of americium-241; and 41.8 Ci [78%] of neptunium-237) were disposed in sites within the PFP Closure Zone. This closure zone is located within the 200 West Area (see Figures 1.1 and 3.1). Other closure zones with notably high quantities of transuranic contaminant disposal include the T Farm Zone with 408 Ci (3.5%) plutonium-239, the PUREX Zone with 330 Ci (2.8%) plutonium-239, 200-W Ponds Zone with 324 Ci (2.8%) plutonium-239, B Farm Zone with 183 Ci (1.6%) plutonium-239, and the REDOX Zone with 164 Ci (1.4%) plutonium 239. Characterization studies for most of the sites reviewed in the document are generally limited. The most prevalent characterization methods used were geophysical logging methods. Characterization of a number of sites included laboratory analysis of borehole sediment samples specifically for radionuclides and other contaminants, and geologic and hydrologic properties. In some instances, more detailed research level studies were conducted. Results of these studies were summarized in the document.

  2. MitoNEET is a Uniquely Folded Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Protein

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stabilized by Diabetes Drugs MitoNEET is a Uniquely Folded Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Protein Stabilized by Diabetes Drugs The rise in obesity in the United States parallels a dramatic increase in obesity-associated diseases, most notably type-2 diabetes. This disease is predicted to reach epidemic proportions in the next several decades (Zimmet et al 2001, Urek et al 2007). Thus, understanding the biochemical processes underlying type-2 diabetes and identifying new targets for therapeutic

  3. FY 2013 DOE Agency Financial Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agency Financial Reports » FY 2013 DOE Agency Financial Report FY 2013 DOE Agency Financial Report Notable accomplishments in FY 2013: Investments in energy transformation have resulted in testing of greenhouse gas storage, the first grid-connected offshore wind prototype, cost competitive advances in cellulosic ethanol, the first commercial geothermal system to deliver power to the electric grid, improved efficiency and cyber security for the electric grid, new appliance efficiency standards,

  4. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Fourteen accomplishments worth celebrating in 2014 Fourteen accomplishments worth celebrating in 2014 For the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2014 was truly a year of notable accomplishments. Here, in no particular order, are 14 EIA highlights from 2014. Expanded State Heating Oil and Propane Program/Winter heating fuels webpage In 2014, EIA expanded the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP), a joint effort between EIA and 24 participating states to collect weekly

  5. Influences of emission sources and meteorology on aerosol chemistry in a polluted urban environment: results from DISCOVER-AQ California

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Young, D. E.; Kim, H.; Parworth, C.; Zhou, S.; Zhang, X.; Cappa, C. D.; Seco, R.; Kim, S.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-12-15

    The San Joaquin Valley (SJV) in California experiences persistent air quality problems associated with elevated particulate matter (PM) concentrations due to anthropogenic emissions, topography, and meteorological conditions. Thus it is important to unravel the various sources and processes that affect the physico-chemical properties of PM in order to better inform pollution abatement strategies and improve parameterizations in air quality models. moreAerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and an Ionicon Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) as part of the NASA Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) campaign. The average submicron aerosol (PM1) concentration was 31.0 ?g m?3 and the total mass was dominated by organic aerosols (OA, 55 %), followed by ammonium nitrate (35 %). High PM pollution events were commonly associated with elevated OA concentrations, mostly from primary sources. Organic aerosols had average atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O / C), hydrogen-to-carbon (H / C), and nitrogen-to-carbon (N / C) ratios of 0.42, 1.70, and 0.017, respectively. Six distinct sources of organic aerosol were identified from positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the AMS data: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA; 9 % of total OA; O / C = 0.09) associated with local traffic, cooking OA (COA; 28 % of total OA; O / C = 0.19) associated with food cooking activities, two biomass burning OAs (BBOA1; 13 % of total OA; O / C = 0.33 and BBOA2; 20 % of total OA; O / C = 0.60) most likely associated with residential space heating from wood combustion, and semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA; 16 % of total OA; O / C = 0.63) and low volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA; 24 % of total OA; O / C = 0.90) formed via chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Large differences in aerosol chemistry at Fresno were observed between the current campaign (winter 2013) and a~previous wintertime campaign (winter 2010), most notably that PM1 concentrations were nearly three times higher in 2013 than in 2010. These variations were attributed to differences in the meteorological conditions, which influenced primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation. In particular, COA and BBOA concentrations were greater in 2013 than 2010, where colder temperatures in 2013 likely resulted in increased biomass burning activities. The influence from a nighttime formed residual layer that mixed down in the morning was found to be much more intense in 2013 than 2010, leading to sharp increases in ground-level concentrations of secondary aerosol species including nitrate, sulfate, and OOA, in the morning between 08:00 to 12:00 PST. This is an indication that nighttime chemistry might also be higher in 2013. As solar radiation was stronger in 2013 the higher nitrate and OOA concentrations in 2013 could also be partly due to greater photochemical production of secondary aerosol species. The greater solar radiation and larger range in temperature in 2013 also likely led to both SV-OOA and LV-OOA being observed in 2013 whereas only a single OOA factor was identified in 2010.less

  6. U.S. Department of Energy Workshop Report: Solar Resources and Forecasting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, T.

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes the technical presentations, outlines the core research recommendations, and augments the information of the Solar Resources and Forecasting Workshop held June 20-22, 2011, in Golden, Colorado. The workshop brought together notable specialists in atmospheric science, solar resource assessment, solar energy conversion, and various stakeholders from industry and academia to review recent developments and provide input for planning future research in solar resource characterization, including measurement, modeling, and forecasting.

  7. FY 2012 DOE Agency Financial Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agency Financial Reports » FY 2012 DOE Agency Financial Report FY 2012 DOE Agency Financial Report Notable accomplishments in FY 2012 include: the first electric grid-connected tidal energy project off the coast of Maine a new approach to sea water desalination that could lower the costs of water purification new insights into the molecular structure of a hydrogen fuel cell that could aid in achieving the goal of producing electricity for transportation new advances in engineering inedible

  8. Photovoltaics: The next generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, A.

    1986-08-01

    The development of photovoltaics in the United States, with a few notable exceptions, has been carried out by the oil industry. Companies such as Arco, Exxon, Mobil and Sohio have played a tremendously important role in bringing photovoltaic technology to its current state of development. Many of these companies are continuing very active programs in pv, including the investigation of new and potentially far-reaching technologies.

  9. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Fifteen accomplishments worth celebrating in 2015 Fifteen accomplishments worth celebrating in 2015 For the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2015 was a year of notable accomplishments. Here, in no particular order, are 15 EIA highlights from 2015. State-level estimates of small scale solar PV capacity and generation With the release of December's Electric Power Monthly, EIA began reporting monthly estimates of small-scale distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation

  10. ARM - Events Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Workshop on Patagonian Dust and Its Climate Implications Scheduled for October Bookmark and Share There will be a workshop on Patagonian dust and its climate implications on October 3-5, in Puerto Madryn, Argentina. The objective of this meeting is to share information and promote collaborations among groups from different disciplines to improve understanding of southern South America (notably Patagonia) and its role in influencing the past/present climate and marine biogeochemistry in the

  11. An assessment of performance of materials for FBC (fluidized-bed combustion) air heater applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Miller, S.A.; Podolski, W.F.

    1986-10-01

    The major materials issue in the commercialization of fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) systems for utility cogeneration applications is the corrosion/erosion degradation of in-bed components. To examine this issue, pertinent materials information was collected from 13 sources that included 16 different experimental fluidized-bed combustors (four pressurized, the other atmospheric), and a detailed analysis of the data was performed. The data analysis confirmed that austenitic stainless steels (notably Types 304 and 310) and cobalt-base alloys (notably Haynes 188) are superior to nickel-base alloys. Type 347 stainless steel and Incoloy 800H are questionable from the point of view of metal wastage. Very limited data are available for claddings and coatings. The correlations of the corrosion rate data presented in this paper for several of the more promising alloy candidates for air heater application provide guidelines for the selection of materials with reasonably assured performance in a corrosive environment.

  12. Characterization of a commercial hybrid iterative and model-based reconstruction algorithm in radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Ryan G.; Vance, Sean; Cattaneo, Richard; Elshaikh, Mohamed A.; Chetty, Indrin J.; Glide-Hurst, Carri K.; Schultz, Lonni

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Iterative reconstruction (IR) reduces noise, thereby allowing dose reduction in computed tomography (CT) while maintaining comparable image quality to filtered back-projection (FBP). This study sought to characterize image quality metrics, delineation, dosimetric assessment, and other aspects necessary to integrate IR into treatment planning. Methods: CT images (Brilliance Big Bore v3.6, Philips Healthcare) were acquired of several phantoms using 120 kVp and 25800 mAs. IR was applied at levels corresponding to noise reduction of 0.890.55 with respect to FBP. Noise power spectrum (NPS) analysis was used to characterize noise magnitude and texture. CT to electron density (CT-ED) curves were generated over all IR levels. Uniformity as well as spatial and low contrast resolution were quantified using a CATPHAN phantom. Task specific modulation transfer functions (MTF{sub task}) were developed to characterize spatial frequency across objects of varied contrast. A prospective dose reduction study was conducted for 14 patients undergoing interfraction CT scans for high-dose rate brachytherapy. Three physicians performed image quality assessment using a six-point grading scale between the normal-dose FBP (reference), low-dose FBP, and low-dose IR scans for the following metrics: image noise, detectability of the vaginal cuff/bladder interface, spatial resolution, texture, segmentation confidence, and overall image quality. Contouring differences between FBP and IR were quantified for the bladder and rectum via overlap indices (OI) and Dice similarity coefficients (DSC). Line profile and region of interest analyses quantified noise and boundary changes. For two subjects, the impact of IR on external beam dose calculation was assessed via gamma analysis and changes in digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were quantified. Results: NPS showed large reduction in noise magnitude (50%), and a slight spatial frequency shift (?0.1 mm{sup ?1}) with application of IR at L6. No appreciable changes were observed for CT-ED curves between FBP and IR levels [maximum difference ?13 HU for bone (?1% difference)]. For uniformity, differences were ?1 HU between FBP and IR. Spatial resolution was well conserved; the largest MTF{sub task} decrease between FBP and IR levels was 0.08 A.U. No notable changes in low-contrast detectability were observed and CNR increased substantially with IR. For the patient study, qualitative image grading showed low-dose IR was equivalent to or slightly worse than normal dose FBP, and is superior to low-dose FBP (p < 0.001 for noise), although these did not translate to differences in CT number, contouring ability, or dose calculation. The largest CT number discrepancy from FBP occurred at a bone/tissue interface using the most aggressive IR level [?1.2 4.9 HU (range: ?17.612.5 HU)]. No clinically significant contour differences were found between IR and FBP, with OIs and DSCs ranging from 0.85 to 0.95. Negligible changes in dose calculation were observed. DRRs preserved anatomical detail with <2% difference in intensity from FBP combined with aggressive IRL6. Conclusions: These results support integrating IR into treatment planning. While slight degradation in edges and shift in texture were observed in phantom, patient results show qualitative image grading, contouring ability, and dosimetric parameters were not adversely affected.

  13. Underground Energy Storage Program: 1981 annual report. Volume I. Progress summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kannberg, L.D.

    1982-06-01

    This is the 1981 annual report for the Underground Energy Storage Program administered by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The two-volume document describes all of the major research funded under this program during the period March 1981 to March 1982. Volume I summarizes the activities and notable progress toward program objectives in both Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) and Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES). Major changes in program emphasis and structure are also documented.

  14. MANAGEMENT ALERT: DOE/IG-0891 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MANAGEMENT ALERT: DOE/IG-0891 MANAGEMENT ALERT: DOE/IG-0891 July 16, 2013 Allegations Regarding Prohibited Personnel Practices at the Bonneville Power Administration In June 2012, the Office of Inspector General received an anonymous complaint alleging prohibited personnel practices at Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville). Based on our work to date, we have reached a preliminary conclusion that Bonneville engaged in a number of prohibited personnel practices. Notably, Bonneville's hiring

  15. Research Highlights Sorted by Submission Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HighlightsSort Form Submit a New Research Highlight Sort Highlights Submitter Title Research Area Working Group Submission Date DOE Progress Reports Notable Research Findings for 2001-2006 Office of Science Abstracts Database Research Highlights Summaries Research Highlights sorted by Submission Data "Invisible" Giants in the Sky ARM ASR Kassianov, E. "Radiance Assimilation" Correction Method Improves Water Vapor Radiosonde Observations in the Upper Troposphere ARM Soden, B.

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report 2007 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2007 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2007 This annual report describes the purpose and structure of the program, and presents key accomplishments in 2007. Notable achievements include: * Successful review of the ACRF as a user facility by the DOE Biological and

  17. MEMO TO HCAs.pdf

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    MANAGEMENT ALERT: DOE/IG-0891 MANAGEMENT ALERT: DOE/IG-0891 July 16, 2013 Allegations Regarding Prohibited Personnel Practices at the Bonneville Power Administration In June 2012, the Office of Inspector General received an anonymous complaint alleging prohibited personnel practices at Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville). Based on our work to date, we have reached a preliminary conclusion that Bonneville engaged in a number of prohibited personnel practices. Notably, Bonneville's hiring

  18. Thermochemical Conversion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conversion Thermochemical Conversion The Bioenergy Technologies Office conducts research on heat-, pressure-, and catalyst-based conversion of various biomass feedstocks to biofuels, chemicals, and power. These conversion processes, most notably fast pyrolysis (as well as other forms of direct liquefaction) and gasification, are described in detail in the links on the left. The Thermochemical Platform aims to efficiently produce biobased fuels and co-products via liquefaction and pyrolysis,

  19. Lensless MAD Imaging of Nonperiodic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless MAD Imaging of Nonperiodic Nanostructures figure 1 Figure 1: MAD imaging setup: The sample (SEM image) is illuminated with a monochromatized and spatially coherent source (red). MAD phasing exploits the energy-dependent interference of the resonant exit wave (red) with the nonresonant exit wave (blue). The interference patterns recorded with a CCD detector reveal notable changes in vicinity of the carbon K edge. The exposure times were in the range of 700-1000 seconds with a coherent

  20. Conversion of Biomass Sugars via Fermentation - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conversion of Biomass Sugars via Fermentation Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Microorganisms like yeast and Escherichia coli are cultured in labs for many purposes, notably the production of useful chemicals (such as ethanol) via fermentation. The growth media used in these processes are relatively expensive. Cheaper media derived from renewable resources would be a boon to researchers and industries that rely on

  1. ARM - Events Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1, 2007 [Events] Workshop on Patagonian Dust and Its Climate Implications Scheduled for October Bookmark and Share There will be a workshop on Patagonian dust and its climate implications on October 3-5, in Puerto Madryn, Argentina. The objective of this meeting is to share information and promote collaborations among groups from different disciplines to improve understanding of southern South America (notably Patagonia) and its role in influencing the past/present climate and marine

  2. Preliminary Evaluation of the Impact of the Section 1603 Treasury Grant Program on Renewable Energy Deployment in 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Darghouth, Naim

    2010-03-31

    Federal support for renewable energy deployment in the United States has traditionally been delivered primarily through tax benefits, including the production tax credit ('PTC') in Section 45 of the U.S. tax code, investment tax credits ('ITC') in Sections 25D and 48, and accelerated tax depreciation in Section 168. Many renewable power project developers are unable to use the majority of these tax benefits directly or immediately, however, and have therefore often relied on third-party 'tax equity' investors for the necessary investment capital in order to monetize the available tax benefits. As has been well-publicized, most of these tax equity investors were hit hard by the global financial crisis that unfolded in the last months of 2008 and, as a result, most either withdrew from the renewable power market at that time or reduced their available investment capital. This left a significant financing gap beginning in late 2008, and placed at some risk the continued near-term growth of renewable energy supply in the U.S. In recognition of these developments, the U.S. Congress passed two stimulus bills - The Energy Improvement and Extension Act ('the Extension Act') in October 2008 and The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act ('the Recovery Act') in February 2009 - parts of which were intended to address the growing shortage of finance for renewable power projects. Most notably, Section 1603 of the Recovery Act enables qualifying commercial renewable energy projects to choose between the Section 45 PTC, the Section 48 ITC, or a cash grant of equal value to the Section 48 ITC (i.e., 30% of the project's eligible basis in most cases). By giving developers the option to receive a 30% cash grant (administered by the U.S. Department of the Treasury) in lieu of either the ITC or the PTC, Congress hoped to 'temporarily fill the gap created by the diminished investor demand for tax credits,' and thereby achieve 'the near term goal of creating and retaining jobs - as well as the long-term benefit of expanding the use of clean and renewable energy and decreasing our dependency on non-renewable energy sources' (U.S. Department of the Treasury 2009). More than a year has now passed since the Recovery Act became law. Although the Section 1603 program has been operational for only part of that time - roughly eight months - the program faces a looming milestone in just another nine months. Specifically, in order to qualify for the Section 1603 grant, eligible projects must have commenced construction by the end of 2010. With this deadline approaching, the Committee on Ways and Means of the U.S. House of Representatives requested that Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory evaluate the effectiveness of the Section 1603 grant program to date (see Attachment 1), focusing on specific elements of the program that were subsequently agreed upon by Committee staff, the U.S. Department of Energy, and Berkeley Lab. This report responds to the Committee's request. The evaluation focuses primarily on the commercial wind power sector, for two reasons: (1) commercial wind power projects had received nearly 86% of all grant money awarded as of March 1, 2010; and (2) there is substantially more market-related information available for the commercial wind power sector than there is for other renewable power sectors, thereby facilitating analysis. Despite the focus on wind power, this initial analysis does endeavor to provide relevant information on other technologies, and in particular geothermal (the second-largest recipient of grant money), where possible.

  3. Reviving Abandoned Reservoirs with High-Pressure Air Injection: Application in a Fractured and Karsted Dolomite Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel; Dembla Dhiraj; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jeff Kane; Jon Olson; John A. Jackson; Katherine G. Jackson

    2006-09-30

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the United States contain vast volumes of remaining oil that is not being effectively recovered. This oil resource constitutes a huge target for the development and application of modern, cost-effective technologies for producing oil. Chief among the barriers to the recovery of this oil are the high costs of designing and implementing conventional advanced recovery technologies in these mature, in many cases pressure-depleted, reservoirs. An additional, increasingly significant barrier is the lack of vital technical expertise necessary for the application of these technologies. This lack of expertise is especially notable among the small operators and independents that operate many of these mature, yet oil-rich, reservoirs. We addressed these barriers to more effective oil recovery by developing, testing, applying, and documenting an innovative technology that can be used by even the smallest operator to significantly increase the flow of oil from mature U.S. reservoirs. The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The Permian Basin, the largest oil-bearing basin in North America, contains more than 70 billion barrels of remaining oil in place and is an ideal venue to validate this technology. We have demonstrated the potential of HPAI for oil-recovery improvement in preliminary laboratory tests and a reservoir pilot project. To more completely test the technology, this project emphasized detailed characterization of reservoir properties, which were integrated to access the effectiveness and economics of HPAI. The characterization phase of the project utilized geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. The successful development of HPAI technology has tremendous potential for increasing the flow of oil from deep carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin, a target resource that can be conservatively estimated at more than 1.5 billion barrels. Successful implementation in the field chosen for demonstration, for example, could result in the recovery of more than 34 million barrels of oil that will not otherwise be produced. Geological and petrophysical analysis of available data at Barnhart field reveals the following important observations: (1) the Barnhart Ellenburger reservoir is similar to most other Ellenburger reservoirs in terms of depositional facies, diagenesis, and petrophysical attributes; (2) the reservoir is characterized by low to moderate matrix porosity much like most other Ellenburger reservoirs in the Permian Basin; (3) karst processes (cave formation, infill, and collapse) have substantially altered stratigraphic architecture and reservoir properties; (4) porosity and permeability increase with depth and may be associated with the degree of karst-related diagenesis; (5) tectonic fractures overprint the reservoir, improving overall connectivity; (6) oil-saturation profiles show that the oil-water contact (OWC) is as much as 125 ft lower than previous estimations; (7) production history and trends suggest that this reservoir is very similar to other solution-gas-drive reservoirs in the Permian Basin; and (8) reservoir simulation study showed that the Barnhart reservoir is a good candidate for HPAI and that application of horizontal-well technology can improve ultimate resource recovery from the reservoir.

  4. Molecular Foundry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    See the Foundry's full equipment list NCEM Capabilities & Tools NCEM operates an array of state-of-the art electron microscopes, offering a wide range of capabilities for materials characterization at high resolution. Several of these instruments, most notably the TEAM suite of microscopes, are unique and of world class. Others are at the state of the art, or offer forefront capabilities and techniques such as in-situ nanoindentation, spin-polarized low-energy microscopy, or tomography.

  5. IMPORTANCE OF FULL COULOMB INTERACTIONS FOR UNDERSTANDING THE ELECTRONIC

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    STRUCTURE OF DELTA-Pu (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: IMPORTANCE OF FULL COULOMB INTERACTIONS FOR UNDERSTANDING THE ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF DELTA-Pu Citation Details In-Document Search Title: IMPORTANCE OF FULL COULOMB INTERACTIONS FOR UNDERSTANDING THE ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF DELTA-Pu The solid-state properties of most elements are now well understood on the basis of quantum physics - with few exceptions, notably the element number 94, plutonium. Plutonium has six

  6. Development of the C{sup 6+} laser ablation ion source for the KEK digital accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munemoto, Naoya; High Energy Accelerator Research Organization , 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 ; Takayama, Ken; High Energy Accelerator Research Organization , 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801; Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Miura, Kanagawa 240-8550 ; Takano, Susumu; Okamura, Masahiro; RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 ; Kumaki, Masahumi; Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-0072

    2014-02-15

    A laser ion source that provides a fully ionized carbon ion beam is under joint development at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Long-pulse (6 ns) and short-pulse (500 ps) laser systems were tested by using them to irradiate a graphite target. Notable differences between the systems were observed in these experiments. Preliminary experimental results, such as the charge-state spectrum, beam intensity, and stability, are discussed.

  7. Research Highlights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Highlights Form Submit a New Research Highlight Sort Highlights Submitter Title Research Area Working Group Submission Date DOE Progress Reports Notable Research Findings for 2001-2006 Office of Science Abstracts Database Research Highlights Summaries Research Highlights Members of ARM's science team are major contributors to radiation and cloud research. ARM investigators publish about 150 refereed journal articles per year, and ARM data are used in many studies published by other scientific

  8. Department Of Energy Public Engagement | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department Of Energy Public Engagement Department Of Energy Public Engagement In addition to the public engagement efforts by DOE Headquarters, the Program and Staff Offices also provide public engagement mechanisms. As examples, two of the most notable data centers, Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)/Open Energy Information (OpenEI) are discussed below, as well as the DOE agency website. Summary Table of DOE Public Engagement

  9. Hoagland selected as a new Materials Research Society Fellow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hoagland selected as Materials Research Society Fellow Hoagland selected as a new Materials Research Society Fellow Hoagland has made notable contributions in both experimental and computational materials research. July 9, 2013 Richard G. Hoagland Richard G. Hoagland The Materials Research Society (MRS) is an organization of materials researchers that promotes the advancement of interdisciplinary materials research to improve the quality of life. Richard G. Hoagland of the Laboratory's Materials

  10. Grad Assistants Make Their Mark | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grad Assistants Make Their ... Grad Assistants Make Their Mark Posted: July 22, 2013 - 3:16pm | Y-12 Report | Volume 10, Issue 1 | 2013 Grad students at Y-12 are a dynamic driving force that directly affects Y-12's mission success. Professionally, it's the ultimate test drive. Thirty University of Tennessee graduate students, in engineering, law, communications, science and business, have each taken a driver's seat at Y-12 and are making notable contributions to core missions. "The grad

  11. radiation.p65

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    5 United States Department of Energy This fact sheet explains the potential health hazards associated with the radioactive decay of uranium and other radioactive elements found in ore and mill tailings. Potential Health Hazards of Radiation Man-made sources of radiation, most notably from medical uses and consumer products, contribute to the remaining radiation dose that individuals receive. A few household products, including smoke detectors, micro- wave ovens, and color televisions, emit small

  12. ARM - Events Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    May 26, 2009 [Events] Call for Abstracts: Milankovitch Anniversary Symposium Bookmark and Share The Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts (SASA) is hosting an international symposium to celebrate the 130th anniversary of the birth of Milutin Milankovitch. The symposium, "Climate Change at the Eve of the Second Decade of the Century," will be held in Belgrade, Serbia, September 22-25, 2009. Notable sponsors of this event include the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural

  13. Ultracoatings: Enabling Energy and Power Solutions in High Contact Stress Environments through next-generation Nanocoatings Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifton B. Higdon III

    2012-03-20

    A review of current commercially available, industrial-grade, low friction coatings will show that interfacial contact pressures nearing 1GPa ({approx}150ksi) inherently limit surface engineering solutions like WC, TiN, TiAlN, and so forth. Extremely hard coatings, then, are often pursued as the principle path, although they too are not without significant limitations. A majority of these compounds are inherently brittle in nature or may not pair well with their mating substrate. In either case, their durability in high contact stress environments is compromised. In parallel to thin film coatings, many conventional surface treatments do not yield an interface hard enough to withstand extreme stresses under load. New research into advanced, nanocomposite materials like (Ti, Zr)B2 shows great promise. Bulk compacts of this compound have demonstrated an order of magnitude better wear resistance than current offerings, notably materials like tungsten carbide. At a laboratory level, the (Ti,Zr)B2 nanocomposite material exhibited abrasive and erosive wear resistance nearly ten times better than existing mixed-phase boride systems. In ASTM abrasion and erosion testing, these new compositions exhibit wear resistance superior to other known advanced materials such as RocTec 500 and 'Borazon' cubic boron nitride. Many significant challenges exist for mass production of (Ti, Zr)B2, one of which is the necessary processing technology that is capable of minimizing deleterious impurity phases. Secondly, this material's performance is derived from a synergistic effect of the two materials existing as a single phase structure. While the individual constituents of TiB2 and ZrB2 do yield improvements to wear resistance, their singular effects are not as significant. Lastly, deposition of this material on a commercial level requires thorough knowledge of nanocomposite boride solids; the benefits associated with these innovative new materials are just being realized. Advancing this technology, called Ultracoatings, through initial development, scale up, and commercialization to a variety of markets would represent a transformative leap to surface engineering. Several application spaces were considered for immediate implementation of the Ultracoatings technology, including, but not limited to, a drive shaft for an aerospace fuel pump, engine timing components, and dry solids pump hardware for an innovative coal gasifier. The primary focus of the program was to evaluate and screen the performance of the selected (Ti, Zr)B2 Ultracoatings composition for future development. This process included synthesis of the material for physical vapor deposition, sputtering trials and coating characterization, friction and wear testing on sample coupons, and functional hardware testing. The main project deliverables used to gage the project's adherence to its original objective were: Development of a coating/substrate pairing that exhibits wear rate of 0.1 mg/hour or lower at a 1GPa contact pressure, while achieving a maximum coating cost of $0.10/cm2. Demonstrate the aforementioned wear rate in both lubricated and starved lubrication conditions. Although the (Ti, Zr) B2 coating was not tailored for low friction performance, friction and wear evaluations of the material demonstrated a coefficient of sliding friction as low as 0.09. This suggests that varying the percentage of TiB2 present in the composite could enhance the materials performance in water-based lubricants. In the aerospace drive shaft application, functional hardware coated with (Ti, Zr)B2 survived a variety of abuse and long-range durability tests, with contact pressures exceeding 2 GPa. For engine timing components, further work is planned to evaluate the Ultracoatings technology in direct injection and diesel engine conditions. In the final identified application space the dry solids pump hardware, discussions continue on the application of the Ultracoatings technology for those specific components. Full implementation of the technology into the targeted markets equates to a U.S.-based en

  14. Microsoft Word - DOE_PPPL_M210_Appendix B.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Notable Outcomes J-B-12 1.0 Provide for Efficient and Effective Mission Accomplishment ... Notable Outcomes J-B-18 2.0 Provide for Efficient and Effective Design, Fabrication, ...

  15. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study RRL3.2 Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Tucker, Joseph C.

    2014-12-01

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen) was monitored in the automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA) for more than 7,500 hours. Ten samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at an ambient temperature of 45°C (-1°C). Importantly, the steady-state test conditions were not optimized for inducing catastrophic failure for any of the lamp technologies—to which thermal cycling is a strong contributor— and are not typical of normal use patterns—which usually include off periods where the lamp cools down. Further, the test conditions differ from those used in standardized long-term test methods (i.e., IES LM-80, IES LM-84), so the results should not be directly compared. On the other hand, the test conditions are similar to those used by ENERGY STAR (when elevated temperature testing is called for). Likewise, the conditions and assumptions used by manufacturers to generated lifetime claims may vary; the CALiPER long-term data is informative, but cannot necessarily be used to discredit manufacturer claims. The test method used for this investigation should be interpreted as one more focused on the long-term effects of elevated temperature operation, at an ambient temperature that is not uncommon in luminaires. On average, the lumen maintenance of the LED lamps monitored in the ALTA was better than benchmark lamps, but there was considerable variation from lamp model to lamp model. While three lamp models had average lumen maintenance above 99% at the end of the study period, two products had average lumen maintenance below 65%, constituting a parametric failure. These two products, along with a third, also exhibited substantial color shift, another form of parametric failure. While none of the LED lamps exhibited catastrophic failure—and all of the benchmarks did—the early degradation of performance is concerning, especially with a new technology trying to build a reputation with consumers. Beyond the observed parametric failures nearly half of the products failed to meet early-life thresholds for lumen maintenance, which were borrowed from ENERGY STAR specifications. That is, the lumen maintenance was sufficiently low at 6,000 hours that seven of the products are unlikely to have lumen maintenance above 70% at their rated lifetime (which was usually 25,000 hours). Given the methods used for this investigation—most notably continuous operation—the results should not be interpreted as indicative of a lamp’s performance in a typical environment. Likewise, these results are not directly relatable to manufacturer lifetime claims. This report is best used to understand the variation in LED product performance, compare the robustness of LED lamps and benchmark conventional lamps, and understand the characteristics of lumen and chromaticity change. A key takeaway is that the long-term performance of LED lamps can vary greatly from model to model (i.e., the technology is not homogenous), although the lamp-to-lamp consistency within a given model is relatively good. Further, operation of LED lamps in an enclosed luminaire (or otherwise in high ambient temperatures), can induce parametric failure of LEDs much earlier than their rated lifetime; manufacturer warnings about such conditions should be followed if performance degradation is unacceptable.

  16. The code of codes: Scientific and social issues in the human genome project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevles, D.J.; Hood, L.

    1992-01-01

    The US Human Genome Project (HGP) may be the first coordinated scientific endeavor to formally address the social consequences of its scientific research program. From its beginning, the HGP has reserved approximately 3%-5% of the overall scientific budget for study of the ethical, social, and legal implications of the use of the information that the project's research will generate. This book reflects the interdisciplinary approach of the HGP, presenting both scientific perspectives and commentary on social and ethical issues. It is notable that the content of this book is more heavily weighted toward consideration of the latter than is the HGP itself; fully two-thirds of the book consists of essays with historical and ethical themes. This diverse collection affords an opportunity to compare and contrast the thoughts of individuals who are considering the implications of this genetic research from very different disciplines and perspectives.

  17. Radiative Penguin Decays at the B Factories (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiative Penguin Decays at the B Factories Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Radiative Penguin Decays at the B Factories In this article, I review the most recent results in radiative penguin decays from the B factories Belle and BABAR. Most notably, I will talk about the recent new observations in the decays B {yields} ({rho}/{omega}) {gamma}, a new analysis technique in b {yields} s{gamma}, and first measurements of radiative penguin decays in the B{sup 0}{sub s} meson system.

  18. Standby Rates for Combined Heat and Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sedano, Richard; Selecky, James; Iverson, Kathryn; Al-Jabir, Ali

    2014-02-01

    Improvements in technology, low natural gas prices, and more flexible and positive attitudes in government and utilities are making distributed generation more viable. With more distributed generation, notably combined heat and power, comes an increase in the importance of standby rates, the cost of services utilities provide when customer generation is not operating or is insufficient to meet full load. This work looks at existing utility standby tariffs in five states. It uses these existing rates and terms to showcase practices that demonstrate a sound application of regulatory principles and ones that do not. The paper also addresses areas for improvement in standby rates.

  19. Roles of nanoclusters in shear banding and plastic deformation of bulk metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nieh, T.G.

    2012-07-31

    During the course of this research we published 33 papers in various physics/material journals. We select four representing papers in this report and their results are summarized as follows. I. To study shear banding process, it is pertinent to know the intrinsic shear strain rate within a propagating shear band. To this aim, we used nanoindentation technique to probe the mechanical response of a Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 bulk metallic glass in locality and found notable pop-in events associated with shear band emission. Using a free volume model and under the situation when temperature and stress/hardness are fixed result in an equation, which predicts that hardness serration caused by pop-in decreases exponentially with the strain rate. Our data are in good agreement with the prediction. The result also predicts that, when strain rate is higher than a critical strain rate of 1700 s^-1, there will be no hardness serration, thereby no pop-in. In other words, multiple shear bandings will take place and material will flow homogeneously. The critical strain rate of 1700 s^-1 can be treated as the intrinsic strain rate within a shear band. We subsequently carried out a simulation study and showed that, if the imposed strain rate was over , the shear band spacing would become so small that the entire sample would virtually behave like one major shear band. Using the datum strain rate =1700 s^-1 and based on a shear band nucleation model proposed by us, the size of a shear-band nucleus in Au-BMG was estimated to be 3 ???? 10^6 atoms, or a sphere of ~30 nm in diameter. II. Inspired by the peculiar result published in a Science article ?¢????Super Plastic Bulk Metallic Glasses at Room Temperature?¢???, we synthesized the Zr-based bulk metallic glass with a composition identical to that in the paper (Zr64.13Cu15.75Ni10.12Al10) and, subsequently, tested in compression at the same slow strain rate (~10^-4 s^-1). We found that the dominant deformation mode is always single shear. The stress-strain curve exhibited serrated pattern in the plastic region, which conventionally has been attributed to individual shear band propagation. The scanning electron micrographs taken from the deformed sample surface revealed regularly spaced striations. Analysis indicates that the observed stress-strain serrations are intimately related to the striations on the shear surface, suggesting the serrations were actually caused slip-and-stick shear along the principal shear plane. We further use video camera to conduct in situ compression experiments to unambiguously confirm the one-to-one temporal and spatial correspondence between the intermittent sliding and flow serration. This preferential shear band formation along the principal shear plane is, in fact, a natural consequence of Mode II crack, independent of strain softening or hardening, usually claimed in the literature. III. Flow serration in compression of metallic glasses is caused by the formation and propagation of localized shear bands. These shear bands propagate at an extremely high speed, so high that a load cell and load frame were unable to capture the details of the dynamic event. To subdue this problem, we conducted uniaxial compression on Zr64.13Cu15.75Ni10.12Al10 bulk metallic glass using a high-speed camera to capture the sample image and also high-sensitivity strain gauges attached to the test samples to directly measure the strain. The displacement-time curves obtained from the test and a magnified version of the displacement burst reveals clearly a three-step (acceleration, steady-state, and deceleration) process during shear band propagation. The fastest propagating speed occurring at the steady state is calculated as 8????10^2 ???µm/s. This speed is about 1,000 times faster than the crosshead speed. This explains the gradual disappearance of flow serration at higher strain rates previously reported during compression of

  20. Asia-Pacific focus of coming LNG trade boom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-16

    This paper reports that the Asia-Pacific region remains the centerpiece of a booming world trade in liquefied natural gas. Biggest growth in LNG demand is expected from some of the region's strongest economies such as Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, Key LNG exporters such as Brunei, Malaysia, and Indonesia are scrambling to implement projects to meet that expected demand growth. Uncertainties cloud the outlook for Far East LNG trade, Australia, for one, is more cautious in pressing expansion of its LNG export capacity as more competing LNG expansions spring up around the world, notably in the Middle East and Africa.

  1. An overview of Booster and AGS polarized proton operation during Run 15

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeno, K.

    2015-10-20

    This note is an overview of the Booster and AGS for the 2015 Polarized Proton RHIC run from an operations perspective. There are some notable differences between this and previous runs. In particular, the polarized source intensity was expected to be, and was, higher this year than in previous RHIC runs. The hope was to make use of this higher input intensity by allowing the beam to be scraped down more in the Booster to provide a brighter and smaller beam for the AGS and RHIC. The RHIC intensity requirements were also higher this run than in previous runs, which caused additional challenges because the AGS polarization and emittance are normally intensity dependent.

  2. Plasma analogy and non-Abelian statistics for Ising-type quantum Hall

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    states (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Plasma analogy and non-Abelian statistics for Ising-type quantum Hall states Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Plasma analogy and non-Abelian statistics for Ising-type quantum Hall states We study the non-Abelian statistics of quasiparticles in the Ising-type quantum Hall states which are likely candidates to explain the observed Hall conductivity plateaus in the second Landau level, most notably the one at filling fraction {nu}=5/2. We

  3. Synthesis of high porosity, monolithic alumina aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poco, J F; Satcher, J H; Hrubesh, L W

    2000-09-20

    Many non-silica aerogels are notably weak and fragile in monolithic form. Particularly, few monolithic aerogels with densities less than 50kg/m3 have any significant strength. It is especially difficult to prepare uncracked monoliths of pure alumina aerogels that are robust and moisture stable. In this paper, we discuss the synthesis of strong, stable, monolithic, high porosity (>98% porous) alumina aerogels, using a two-step sol-gel process. The alumina aerogels have a polycrystalline morphology that results in enhanced physical properties. Most of the measured physical properties of the alumina aerogels are superior to those for silica aerogels for equivalent densities.

  4. First Pass | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Pass First Pass February 25, 2014 The 12 GeV Upgrade Project at Jefferson Lab has many facets, and it is designed in such a way that some parts are completed and working while others are still in preparation. Recently, we have achieved a notable milestone. The accelerator commissioning was able to demonstrate 2.2 GeV of acceleration in a single pass around the upgraded accelerator. We have seen the completion of the bulk of civil construction work with the Central Helium Liquefier (CHL)

  5. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    April 7, 2011 [Facility News] Review Panel States ARM Facility "Without Peer" Bookmark and Share Every three years, DOE Office of Science user facilities undergo a review to evaluate their effectiveness in contributing to their respective science areas. The latest ARM Facility review was conducted in mid-February by a six-member review panel led by Minghua Zhang of Stony Brook University. Notably, in a debriefing following the review, the panel stated that ARM was a "world class

  6. Mechanical characterization of filler sandcretes with rice husk ash additions. Study applied to Senegal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cisse, I.K.; Laquerbe, M.

    2000-01-01

    To capitalize on the local materials of Senegal (agricultural and industrial wastes, residual fines from crushing process, sands from dunes, etc.), rise husk ash and residues of industrial and agricultural wastes have been used as additions in sandcretes. The mechanical resistance of sandcrete blocks obtained when unground ash (and notably the ground ash) is added reveals that there is an increase in performance over the classic mortar blocks. In addition, the use of unground rice husk ash enables production of a lightweight sandcrete with insulating properties, at a reduced cost. The ash pozzolanic reactivity explains the high strengths obtained.

  7. NERSC Supports Top Breakthroughs of 2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supports 2013's Top Breakthroughs NERSC Supports Top Breakthroughs of 2013 December 20, 2013 Linda Vu, +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov Research supported by NERSC is being honored by end-of-year reviews in two leading magazines: Physics World and WIRED. The IceCube South Pole Neutrino Observatory was notably named to both lists, being honored as the most important discovery by Physics World. Three of Physics World's top 10 breakthroughs of 2013 went to discoveries that used NERSC resources. In

  8. Extending Fuzzy System Concepts for Control of a Vitrification Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehouse, J.C.; Sorgel, W.; Garrison, A.; Schalkoff, R.J.

    1995-08-16

    Fuzzy systems provide a mathematical framework to capture uncertainty. The complete description of real, complex systems or situations often requires far more detail and information than could ever be obtained (or understood). Fuzzy approaches are an alternative technology for both system control and information processing and management. In this paper, we present the design of a fuzzy control system for a melter used in the vitrification of hazardous waste. Design issues, especially those related to melter shutdown and obtaining smooth control surfaces, are addressed. Several extensions to commonly-applied fuzzy techniques, notably adaptive defuzzification and modified rule structures are developed.

  9. 2009 SPR Report to Congress | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    SPR Report to Congress 2009 SPR Report to Congress Highlights from the report include: Notable Achievements The Strategic Petroleum Reserve completed fill during 2009. The last cargo of crude oil (off-loaded December 25-27, 2009) topped off a fill program that began in 1977. Oil Acquisitions and Receipts The Strategic Petroleum Reserve received 24.8 million barrels of crude oil during 2009 through a combination of receipts from the Royalty-In-Kind (RIK) fill program with the Department of the

  10. A New Overview of The Trilinos Project

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Heroux, Michael A.; Willenbring, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Since An Overview of the Trilinos Project [ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 31(3) (2005), 397–423] was published in 2005, Trilinos has grown significantly. It now supports the development of a broad collection of libraries for scalable computational science and engineering applications, and a full-featured software infrastructure for rigorous lean/agile software engineering. This growth has created significant opportunities and challenges. This paper focuses on some of the most notable changes to the Trilinos project in the last few years. At the time of the writing of this article, the current release version of Trilinos was 10.12.2.

  11. Synthesis and Optimization of the Sintering Kinetics of Actinide Nitrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drryl P. Butt; Brian Jaques

    2009-03-31

    Research conducted for this NERI project has advanced the understanding and feasibility of nitride nuclear fuel processing. In order to perform this research, necessary laboratory infrastructure was developed; including basic facilities and experimental equipment. Notable accomplishments from this project include: the synthesis of uranium, dysprosium, and cerium nitrides using a novel, low-cost mechanical method at room temperature; the synthesis of phase pure UN, DyN, and CeN using thermal methods; and the sintering of UN and (Ux, Dy1-x)N (0.7 ≤ X ≤ 1) pellets from phase pure powder that was synthesized in the Advanced Materials Laboratory at Boise State University.

  12. Performance expectation plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, P.E.

    1998-09-04

    This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

  13. A bacterium that can grow by using arsenic instead of phosphorus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe-Simon, F; Blum, J S; Kulp, T R; Gordon, G W; Hoeft, S E; Pett-Ridge, J; Stolz, J F; Webb, S M; Weber, P K; Davies, P W; Anbar, A D; Oremland, R S

    2010-11-01

    Life is mostly composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur and phosphorus. Although these six elements make up nucleic acids, proteins and lipids and thus the bulk of living matter, it is theoretically possible that some other elements in the periodic table could serve the same functions. Here we describe a bacterium, strain GFAJ-1 of the Halomonadaceae, isolated from Mono Lake, CA, which substitutes arsenic for phosphorus to sustain its growth. Our data show evidence for arsenate in macromolecules that normally contain phosphate, most notably nucleic acids and proteins. Exchange of one of the major bio-elements may have profound evolutionary and geochemical significance.

  14. Tevatron instrumentation: boosting collider performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir; Jansson, Andreas; Moore, Ronald; /Fermilab

    2006-05-01

    The Tevatron in Collider Run II (2001-present) is operating with six times more bunches, many times higher beam intensities and luminosities than in Run I (1992-1995). Beam diagnostics were crucial for the machine start-up and the never-ending luminosity upgrade campaign. We present the overall picture of the Tevatron diagnostics development for Run II, outline machine needs for new instrumentation, present several notable examples that led to Tevatron performance improvements, and discuss the lessons for the next big machines--LHC and ILC.

  15. Rapid quantification and taxonomic classification of environmentalDNA from both prokaryotic and eukaryotic origins using a microarray

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSantis, Todd Z.; Stone, Carol E.; Murray, Sonya R.; Moberg,Jordan P.; Andersen, Gary L.

    2005-02-22

    A microarray has been designed using 62,358 probes matched to both prokaryotic and eukaryotic small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes. The array categorized environmental DNA to specific phylogenetic clusters in under 9 h. To a background of DNA generated from natural outdoor aerosols, known quantities of rRNA gene copies from distinct organisms were added producing corresponding hybridization intensity scores that correlated well with their concentrations (r=0.917). Reproducible differences in microbial community composition were observed by altering the genomic DNA extraction method. Notably, gentle extractions produced peak intensities for Mycoplasmatales and Burkholderiales, whereas a vigorous disruption produced peak intensities for Vibrionales,Clostridiales, and Bacillales.

  16. Beam instrumentation for the Tevatron Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Ronald S.; Jansson, Andreas; Shiltsev, Vladimir; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    The Tevatron in Collider Run II (2001-present) is operating with six times more bunches and many times higher beam intensities and luminosities than in Run I (1992-1995). Beam diagnostics were crucial for the machine start-up and the never-ending luminosity upgrade campaign. We present the overall picture of the Tevatron diagnostics development for Run II, outline machine needs for new instrumentation, present several notable examples that led to Tevatron performance improvements, and discuss the lessons for future colliders.

  17. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Fiscal Year 1994 annual report to Congress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    The events of Fiscal Year 1994 made it a notable year in OCRWN`s history. Highlights include formulation of a new program approach; intensive consultation with other parties to build confidence in that approach; the delivery, assembly, and initial testing of the tunnel boring machine that is now digging into Yucca Mountain; steps toward acquisition of a standardized multipurpose canister system and planning for the accompanying environmental impact statement; and solicitation, through a Federal Register notice, of utilities` and other interested parties` recommendations toward resolving key waste-acceptance issues.

  18. Catalyst for selective conversion of synthesis gas and method of making the catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, Paul N.; Pierantozzi, Ronald

    1986-01-01

    A Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalyst, a method of making the catalyst and an F-T process utilizing the catalyst by which synthesis gas, particularly carbon-monoxide rich synthesis gas is selectively converted to higher hydrocarbons of relatively narrow carbon number range. In general, the selective and notably stable catalyst, consists of an inert carrier first treated with a Group IV B metal compound (such as zirconium or titanium), preferably an alkoxide compound, and subsequently treated with an organic compound of an F-T metal catalyst, such as cobalt, iron or ruthenium carbonyl. Reactions with air and water and calcination are specifically avoided in the catalyst preparation procedure.

  19. Apodized RFI filtering of synthetic aperture radar images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    Fine resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems necessarily require wide bandwidths that often overlap spectrum utilized by other wireless services. These other emitters pose a source of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) to the SAR echo signals that degrades SAR image quality. Filtering, or excising, the offending spectral contaminants will mitigate the interference, but at a cost of often degrading the SAR image in other ways, notably by raising offensive sidelobe levels. This report proposes borrowing an idea from nonlinear sidelobe apodization techniques to suppress interference without the attendant increase in sidelobe levels. The simple post-processing technique is termed Apodized RFI Filtering (ARF).

  20. Fischer-Tropsch process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, Paul N.; Pierantozzi, Ronald; Withers, Howard P.

    1987-01-01

    A Fischer-Tropsch process utilizing a product selective and stable catalyst by which synthesis gas, particularly carbon-monoxide rich synthesis gas is selectively converted to higher hydrocarbons of relatively narrow carbon number range is disclosed. In general, the selective and notably stable catalyst, consist of an inert carrier first treated with a Group IV B metal compound (such as zirconium or titanium), preferably an alkoxide compound, and subsequently treated with an organic compound of a Fischer-Tropsch metal catalyst, such as cobalt, iron or ruthenium carbonyl. Reactions with air and water and calcination are specifically avoided in the catalyst preparation procedure.

  1. Supported fischer-tropsch catalyst and method of making the catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, Paul N.; Pierantozzi, Ronald; Withers, Howard P.

    1987-01-01

    A Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and a method of making the catalyst for a Fischer-Tropsch process utilizing the catalyst by which synthesis gas, particularly carbon-monoxide rich synthesis gas, is selectively converted to higher hydrocarbons of relatively narrow carbon number range is disclosed. In general, the selective and notably stable catalyst, consist of an inert carrier first treated with a Group IV B metal compound (such as zirconium or titanium), preferably an alkoxide compound, and subsequently treated with an organic compound of a Fischer-Tropsch metal catalyst, such as cobalt, iron or ruthenium carbonyl. Reactions with air and water and calcination are specifically avoided in the catalyst preparation procedure.

  2. CRC materials science and engineering handbook. Third edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shackelford, J.F.; Alexander, W.

    1999-01-01

    This definitive reference is organized in an easy-to-follow format based on materials properties. It features new and existing data verified through major professional societies in the materials fields, such as ASM International and the American Ceramic Society. The third edition has been significantly expanded, most notably by the addition of new tabular material for a wide range of nonferrous alloys and various materials. The contents include: Structure of materials; Composition of materials; Phase diagram sources; Thermodynamic and kinetic data; Thermal properties of materials; Mechanical properties of materials; Electrical properties of materials; Optical properties of materials; Chemical properties of materials.

  3. SR0704

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    April 13, 2007 Media Contact: Julie Petersen (803) 952-7697 julie.petersen@srs.gov Savannah River Site Employees Honored with President’s Volunteer Service Award AIKEN, S.C., – The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has honored several Savannah River Site (SRS) employees with the President’s Volunteer Service Award (PVSA) for their notable volunteerism and civic participation. “It is an honor to be part of a work family whose members give so selflessly to help make a positive difference in

  4. This Month on Energy Savers: June 2011 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This Month on Energy Savers: June 2011 This Month on Energy Savers: June 2011 June 30, 2011 - 6:30pm Addthis Allison Casey Senior Communicator, NREL Can you believe it's already almost the Fourth of July? It feels like summer is just getting started! Before you take off for a weekend of sun, fun, fireworks, and barbecue, check out what happened in June on Energy Savers. New or Notable on Energy Savers You can light your home using the same amount of light for less money. Check out the lighting

  5. This Month on Energy Savers: August 2011 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    August 2011 This Month on Energy Savers: August 2011 September 1, 2011 - 3:08pm Addthis Andrea Spikes Former Communicator at DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory August was the hottest month on record for some of us, while others braced ourselves for the likes of hurricane Irene and earthquakes! Unfortunate power outages aside, saving energy is always a hot topic during the dog days of summer. See what we've been talking about in August: New or Notable on Energy Savers Energy Savers has

  6. This Month on Energy Savers: September 2011 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    September 2011 This Month on Energy Savers: September 2011 September 30, 2011 - 7:16am Addthis September is a month full of changes: it marks the switch from summer to fall, and from vacation to school. But it also means something really exciting - the DOE Solar Decathlon! We've been tracking the event and showing you what's going on over the past couple of weeks. See what's been happening on the blog: New or Notable on Energy Savers Solar Decathlon 2011: The event runs Sept. 23 - Oct 2 in West

  7. SREL Reprint #3335

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 Consequences of maternal effects on offspring size, growth and survival in the desert tortoise M. G. Nafus1,2, B. D. Todd1, K. A. Buhlmann3, and T. D. Tuberville3 1Department of Wildlife, Fish and Conservation Biology, University of California, Davis, CA, USA 2San Diego Zoological Global, San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research, Escondido, CA, USA 3University of Georgia’s Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Aiken, SC, USA Abstract: Maternal body size can have notable consequences on

  8. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Records Set Again; New Process Enhances Reporting of User Facility Statistics Bookmark and Share The 2006 year-end ARM statistics included a spatial distribution of global (shown here; click map for larger image) and U.S. users, and whether they were funded by the ARM Program. A second straight record high number of users (1092) and a new record for visitor days (2083) were reported by ARM for the third quarter of fiscal year 2007. The statistics also indicated a notable increase in non-ARM

  9. BL 11

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BL 11-2 Status and Scheduling Information Third Run 2001 BL 11-2 user commissioning is in full swing. March and April activities have centered around debugging and characterizing major electromechanical and optical systems of the beam line (motors, mirrors, and the 11-2 LN-cooled monochromator). We are now preparing for the upcoming run, of which 5 1/2 weeks are scheduled for user beam. Further commissioning work and new system testing will be interspersed between user beam periods. Notably,

  10. Purification of CdZnTe by Electromigration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, K.; Kim, Sangsu; Hong, Jinki; Lee, Jinseo; Hong, Taekwon; Bolotnikov, A. E.; Camarda, G. S.; James, R. B.

    2015-04-14

    Electro-migration of ionized/electrically active impurities in CdZnTe (CZT) was successfully demonstrated at elevated temperature with an electric field of 20 V/mm. Copper, which exists in positively charged states, electro-migrated at a speed of 15 lm/h in an electric field of 20 V/mm. A notable variation in impurity concentration along the growth direction with the segregation tendency of the impurities was observed in an electro-migrated CZT boule. Notably, both Ga and Fe, which exist in positively charged states, exhibited the opposite distribution to that of their segregation tendency in Cd(Zn)Te. Furthermore, a CZT detector fabricated from the middle portion of themore » electromigrated CZT boule showed an improved mobility-lifetime product of 0.91 10-2 cm2 /V, compared to that of 1.4 10-3 cm2 /V, observed in an as-grown (non-electro-migrated) CZT detector. The optimum radiation detector material would have minimum concentration of deep traps required for compensation.« less

  11. Statistical assessment of fish behavior from split-beam hydro-acoustic sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinstry, Craig A.; Simmons, Mary Ann; Simmons, Carver S.; Johnson, Robert L.

    2005-04-01

    Statistical methods are presented for using echo-traces from split-beam hydro-acoustic sampling to assess fish behavior in response to a stimulus. The data presented are from a study designed to assess the response of free-ranging, lake-resident fish, primarily kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to high intensity strobe lights, and was conducted at Grand Coulee Dam on the Columbia River in Northern Washington State. The lights were deployed immediately upstream from the turbine intakes, in a region exposed to daily alternating periods of high and low flows. The study design included five down-looking split-beam transducers positioned in a line at incremental distances upstream from the strobe lights, and treatments applied in randomized pseudo-replicate blocks. Statistical methods included the use of odds-ratios from fitted loglinear models. Fish-track velocity vectors were modeled using circular probability distributions. Both analyses are depicted graphically. Study results suggest large increases of fish activity in the presence of the strobe lights, most notably at night and during periods of low flow. The lights also induced notable bimodality in the angular distributions of the fish track velocity vectors. Statistical summaries are presented along with interpretations on fish behavior.

  12. A clumpy stellar wind and luminosity-dependent cyclotron line revealed by the first Suzaku observation of the high-mass X-ray binary 4U 1538522

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemphill, Paul B.; Rothschild, Richard E.; Markowitz, Alex; Frst, Felix; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wilms, Jrn

    2014-09-01

    We present results from the first Suzaku observation of the high-mass X-ray binary 4U 1538522. The broadband spectral coverage of Suzaku allows for a detailed spectral analysis, characterizing the cyclotron resonance scattering feature at 23.0 0.4 keV and the iron K? line at 6.426 0.008 keV, as well as placing limits on the strengths of the iron K? line and the iron K edge. We track the evolution of the spectral parameters both in time and in luminosity, notably finding a significant positive correlation between cyclotron line energy and luminosity. A dip and spike in the light curve is shown to be associated with an order-of-magnitude increase in column density along the line of sight, as well as significant variation in the underlying continuum, implying the accretion of a overdense region of a clumpy stellar wind. We also present a phase-resolved analysis, with most spectral parameters of interest showing significant variation with phase. Notably, both the cyclotron line energy and the iron K? line intensity vary significantly with phase, with the iron line intensity significantly out of phase with the pulse profile. We discuss the implications of these findings in the context of recent work in the areas of accretion column physics and cyclotron resonance scattering feature formation.

  13. Meet the National Labs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... NOTABLE ACHIEVEMENTS: The modern clean room, decontamination foam, solar glitter, Columbia ... The machine is used for physics research, providing data that can be used for computer ...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Grants Notably, the 2014 Farm Bill removed authority for the USDA to fund REAP feasibility studies with REAP grants. Eligibility: Commercial, Local Government, Schools, State...

  15. Better Buildings, Better Plants Overview and Look Ahead

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Better Buildings, Better Plants Program will host a webinar presentation on some exciting new initiatives and notable energy-saving accomplishments.

  16. Natural Gas and U.S. Industrial Production: A Closer Look at...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... price shocks and economic activity see Hamilton (1996) and Hooker (1996) for notable ... Evidence for Some European Countries," Energy Economics, 2003, 25, 137-154. Hamilton, ...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Yes; specific technologies not identified City of Dallas- Residential and Commercial Green Building Requirements Notably, Dallas became the first U.S. city to adopt the 2012...

  18. OpenEI International Sponsors and Partners | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with OpenEI. Below is a list of OpenEI sponsor organizations, partnerships and notable data consumers. Sponsors Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory Reegle...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Green Building Requirements Notably, Dallas became the first U.S. city to adopt the 2012 International Green Construction Code (with amendments, hereafter Dallas Green...

  20. Sandia Energy - Video Available of MEPV Talk at September 6th...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Energy Technology Dept.) shared his team's notable Microsystems-Enabled Photovoltaics (MEPV) Grand Challenge work before a packed house at UNM's Popejoy hall. (View the...

  1. Research Input Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HighlightsSubmit Form Submit a New Research Highlight Sort Highlights Submitter Title Research Area Working Group Submission Date DOE Progress Reports Notable Research Findings for...

  2. Kinetic Energy Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    tidal generators. Has notably patented the KESC Tidal Generator which is based on free flow hydrodynamics. Coordinates: 29.187525, -82.140394 Show Map Loading map......

  3. Posters Diagnostic Analysis of Cloud Radiative Properties R.C...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are extremely sensitive to parameterizations of certain poorly understood physical processes, most notably cloud-radiation interactions. As a result, models with different...

  4. Berkeley Lab Strategic Planning

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Lab Plan Notable Outcomes Division-Level Strategic Planning Related Links labview Strategic Planning Office The Strategic Planning Office coordinates institutional...

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels USDA- Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Grants Notably, the 2014 Farm Bill removed authority for...

  6. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    which provide independent constraints on the redshift of each galaxy. The combined forest estimates have intriguing statistical properties, notable among which are Gaussian...

  7. The Laboratory Performance Appraisal Process and Performance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    efforts are counter-productive to the interests of the Department. Notable Outcomes PSO: Effectively implement DOE Order 422.1, Conduct of Operations. This implementation...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (Small), Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels USDA- Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Grants Notably, the 2014 Farm Bill removed authority for the USDA to...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies USDA- Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Grants Notably, the 2014 Farm Bill removed authority for the USDA to...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydroelectric (Small), Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels USDA- Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Loan Guarantees Notably, the 2014 Farm Bill removed authority for the...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    USDA- Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Grants Notably, the 2014 Farm Bill removed authority for the USDA to fund REAP feasibility studies with REAP grants. Eligibility:...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Microturbines USDA- Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Grants Notably, the 2014 Farm Bill removed authority for the USDA to...

  13. Designer synthetic media for studying microbial-catalyzed biofuel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    products during Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST) fermentation. Results: The ACH contained high levels of nitrogenous compounds, notably amides, pyrazines, and imidazoles. ...

  14. Search for: All records | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... products during Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST) fermentation. Results: The ACH contained high levels of nitrogenous compounds, notably amides, pyrazines, and imidazoles. ...

  15. 2003 CBECS Sample Design

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    during the field period. The rate of nonresponse cases where the respondent spoke a language other than English was notably higher for establishments than for buildings (9...

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Notably, the 2014 Farm Bill removed authority for the USDA to fund REAP feasibility studies with REAP grants. Eligibility: Commercial, Local Government, Schools, State...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Notably, the 2014 Farm Bill removed authority for the USDA to fund REAP feasibility studies with REAP grants. Eligibility: Commercial, Agricultural Savings Category: Solar...

  18. Intivation BV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Product: Netherlands-based manufacturer of solar-powered consumer products for electronics, notably solar handsets and chargers. Coordinates: 52.37312, 4.893195 Show Map...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuels Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings USDA- Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Loan Guarantees Notably, the 2014 Farm Bill removed...

  20. EM Celebrates Milestone with Removal of Last Waste Tank at Separations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tank at Separations Process Research Unit EM Celebrates Milestone with Removal of Last ... NISKAYUNA, N.Y. - EM recently marked a notable milestone at the Separations Process ...

  1. WINDExchange

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    wind.energy.govwindexchange These news items are notable additions to the WINDExchange website. The WINDExchange website reports recent national and state wind market changes by...

  2. Jeff Chamberlain, External Integration Officer | JCESR

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chamberlain conducted industrial research at several companies, notably Cabot Microelectronics, Nalco Company and Angus Chemical (owned by The Dow Chemical Company). He...

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies USDA- Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) Grants Notably, the 2014 Farm Bill...

  4. Fluid bed gasification Plasma converter process generating energy from solid waste: Experimental assessment of sulphur species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrin, Shane, E-mail: shane.morrin@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Advanced Plasma Power, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Lettieri, Paola, E-mail: p.lettieri@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Chapman, Chris, E-mail: chris.chapman@app-uk.com [Advanced Plasma Power, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Taylor, Richard, E-mail: richard.taylor@app-uk.com [Advanced Plasma Power, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: We investigate gaseous sulphur species whilst gasifying sulphur-enriched wood pellets. Experiments performed using a two stage fluid bed gasifier plasma converter process. Notable SO{sub 2} and relatively low COS levels were identified. Oxygen-rich regions of the bed are believed to facilitate SO{sub 2}, with a delayed release. Gas phase reducing regions above the bed would facilitate more prompt COS generation. - Abstract: Often perceived as a Cinderella material, there is growing appreciation for solid waste as a renewable content thermal process feed. Nonetheless, research on solid waste gasification and sulphur mechanisms in particular is lacking. This paper presents results from two related experiments on a novel two stage gasification process, at demonstration scale, using a sulphur-enriched wood pellet feed. Notable SO{sub 2} and relatively low COS levels (before gas cleaning) were interesting features of the trials, and not normally expected under reducing gasification conditions. Analysis suggests that localised oxygen rich regions within the fluid bed played a role in SO{sub 2}s generation. The response of COS to sulphur in the feed was quite prompt, whereas SO{sub 2} was more delayed. It is proposed that the bed material sequestered sulphur from the feed, later aiding SO{sub 2} generation. The more reducing gas phase regions above the bed would have facilitated COS hence its faster response. These results provide a useful insight, with further analysis on a suite of performed experiments underway, along with thermodynamic modelling.

  5. Development of low-cost technology for the next generation of high efficiency solar cells composed of earth abundant elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2014-09-28

    The development of renewable, affordable, and environmentally conscious means of generating energy on a global scale represents a grand challenge of our time. Due to the “permanence” of radiation from the sun, solar energy promises to remain a viable and sustainable power source far into the future. Established single-junction photovoltaic technologies achieve high power conversion efficiencies (pce) near 20% but require complicated manufacturing processes that prohibit the marriage of large-scale throughput (e.g. on the GW scale), profitability, and quality control. Our approach to this problem begins with the synthesis of nanocrystals of semiconductor materials comprising earth abundant elements and characterized by material and optoelectronic properties ideal for photovoltaic applications, namely Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe). Once synthesized, such nanocrystals are formulated into an ink, coated onto substrates, and processed into completed solar cells in such a way that enables scale-up to high throughput, roll-to-roll manufacturing processes. This project aimed to address the major limitation to CZTSSe solar cell pce’s – the low open-circuit voltage (Voc) reported throughout literature for devices comprised of this material. Throughout the project significant advancements have been made in fundamental understanding of the CZTSSe material and device limitations associated with this material system. Additionally, notable improvements have been made to our nanocrystal based processing technique to alleviate performance limitations due to the identified device limitations. Notably, (1) significant improvements have been made in reducing intra- and inter-nanoparticle heterogeneity, (2) improvements in device performance have been realized with novel cation substitution in Ge-alloyed CZTGeSSe absorbers, (3) systematic analysis of absorber sintering has been conducted to optimize the selenization process for large grain CZTSSe absorbers, (4) novel electrical characterization analysis techniques have been developed to identify significant limitations to traditional electrical characterization of CZTSSe devices, and (5) the developed electrical analysis techniques have been used to identify the role that band gap and electrostatic potential fluctuations have in limiting device performance for this material system. The device modeling and characterization of CZTSSe undertaken with this project have significant implications for the CZTSSe research community, as the identified limitations due to potential fluctuations are expected to be a performance limitation to high-efficiency CZTSSe devices fabricated from all current processing techniques. Additionally, improvements realized through enhanced absorber processing conditions to minimize nanoparticle and large-grain absorber heterogeneity are suggested to be beneficial processing improvements which should be applied to CZTSSe devices fabricated from all processing techniques. Ultimately, our research has indicated that improved performance for CZTSSe will be achieved through novel absorber processing which minimizes defect formation, elemental losses, secondary phase formation, and compositional uniformity in CZTSSe absorbers; we believe this novel absorber processing can be achieved through nanocrystal based processing of CZTSSe which is an active area of research at the conclusion of this award. While significant fundamental understanding of CZTSSe and the performance limitations associated with this material system, as well as notable improvements in the processing of nanocrystal based CZTSSe absorbers, have been achieved under this project, the limitation of two years of research funding towards our goals prevents further significant advancements directly identified through pce. improvements relative to those reported herein. As the characterization and modeling subtask of this project has been the main driving force for understanding device limitations, the conclusions of this analysis have just recently been applied to the processing of nanocrystal based CZTSSe absorbers -- with notable success. We expect the notable fundamental understanding of device limitations and absorber sintering achieved under this project will lead to significant improvements in device performance for CZTSSe devices in the near future for devices fabricated from a variety of processing techniques

  6. Assessment of Molecular Modeling & Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-01-03

    This report reviews the development and applications of molecular and materials modeling in Europe and Japan in comparison to those in the United States. Topics covered include computational quantum chemistry, molecular simulations by molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods, mesoscale modeling of material domains, molecular-structure/macroscale property correlations like QSARs and QSPRs, and related information technologies like informatics and special-purpose molecular-modeling computers. The panel's findings include the following: The United States leads this field in many scientific areas. However, Canada has particular strengths in DFT methods and homogeneous catalysis; Europe in heterogeneous catalysis, mesoscale, and materials modeling; and Japan in materials modeling and special-purpose computing. Major government-industry initiatives are underway in Europe and Japan, notably in multi-scale materials modeling and in development of chemistry-capable ab-initio molecular dynamics codes.

  7. The Effects Of Finite Electron Temperature And Diffraction On Lowere Hybrid Wave Propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, J. C.; Bertelli, M.

    2014-02-24

    In this paper we show that the commonly used cold plasma dispersion relation for plasma waves in the lower hybrid range of frequencies (LHRF) produces a wave trajectory that is notably different than when thermal corrections to the Hermitian part of the dielectric tensor are retained. This is in contrast to the common implementation in LH simulation codes in which thermal effects are retained only for the anti-Hermitian part of the dielectric tensor used for damping calculations. We show which term is the critical one to retain in the dielectric tensor and discuss implications for modeling of LHRF waves in present day and future devices. We conclude with some observations on the effects of diffraction that may be isolated once thermal effects are retained in both ray tracing and full-wave approaches.

  8. Coal-by-Rail Business-as-Usual Reference Case

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As proposed carbon emission standards reduce domestic coal use, the role of coal in the U.S. energy mix may be expected to decline. If such a decline were to occur, how would it affect rail traffic? Today, coal represents a major share of rail tonnage and gross revenue. While growth in other traffic―most notably, crude oil―may offset some of any potential decline in coal shipments, would it be sufficient? This paper explores trends in coal production volumes and use, rail tonnage and revenue, and the distribution of traffic origins and destinations in order to consider the impact of potential changes in future coal traffic. Rather than modeling discrete flows, it draws on historical data and forecasts maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Information Administration (EIA), industry studies and analyses, and background knowledge of the rail industry, specific routes and service territories, and commodity-level traffic volumes.

  9. Supramolecular cobaloxime assemblies for H{sub 2} photocatalysis: an initial solution state structure-function analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulfort, K. L.; Tiede, D. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this report, we have investigated the correlations between structure and light-induced electron transfer of one known and three new axially coordinated cobaloxime-based supramolecular photocatalysts for the reduction of protons to hydrogen. Solution-phase X-ray scattering and ultrafast transient optical spectroscopy analyses were used in tandem to correlate the self-assembled photocatalysts structural integrity in solution with electron transfer and charge separation between the photosensitizer and catalyst fragments. Biphasic excited state decay kinetics were observed for several of the assemblies, suggesting that configurational dispersion plays a role in limiting photoinduced electron transfer. Notably, an assembly featuring a 'push-pull' donor-photosensitizer-acceptor triad motif exhibits considerable ultrafast excited state quenching and, of the assemblies examined, presents the strongest opportunity for efficient solar energy conversion. These results will assist in the design and development of next-generation supramolecular photocatalyst architectures.

  10. CLOVERLEAF CYCLOTRON

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McMillan, E.M.; Judd, D.L.

    1959-02-01

    A cyclotron is presented embodying a unique magnetic field configuration, which configuration increases in intensity with radius and therefore compensates for the reltivistic mass effect, the field having further convolutions productive of axial stability in the particle beam. By reconciling the seemingly opposed requirements of mass increase compensation on one hand and anial stability on the other, the production of extremely high current particle beams in the relativistie energy range is made feasible. Certain further advantages inhere in the invention, notably an increase in the usable magnet gap, simplified and more efficient extraction of the beam from the accelerator, and ready adaptation to the use of multiply phased excitation as contrasted with the single phased systems herstofore utilized. General

  11. Method of growing GaN films with a low density of structural defects using an interlayer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D.

    2003-01-01

    A dramatic reduction of the dislocation density in GaN was obtained by insertion of a single thin interlayer grown at an intermediate temperature (IT-IL) after the growth of an initial grown at high temperature. A description of the growth process is presented with characterization results aimed at understanding the mechanisms of reduction in dislocation density. A large percentage of the threading dislocations present in the first GaN epilayer are found to bend near the interlayer and do not propagate into the top layer which grows at higher temperature in a lateral growth mode. TEM studies show that the mechanisms of dislocation reduction are similar to those described for the epitaxial lateral overgrowth process, however a notable difference is the absence of coalescence boundaries.

  12. Vulnerability reduction study. Coal and synthetics (Section III a). Technical Appendix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    This Appendix supports and explains key statements made in the chapter on Coal and Synthetics. The reader will find information and documentation on points that lend themselves to quantification. Evidence is presented that coal supply will not be constrained by production or transportation factors through the 1980s. Any program to increase the direct use of coal in the industrial sector must take into account a number of identifiable difficulties. A deployment schedule for 10 oil shale projects has been developed by the Office of Technology Assessment. This schedule, if adhered to, would result in an initial deployment of an oil shale industry of 400,000 bpd oil equivalent by 1990. In addition, the Appendix provides descriptions of those major elements of Federal legislation that bear directly on coal, notably portions of the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978, the Energy Tax Act of 1978, the Energy Security Act of 1980, and the Clean Air Act.

  13. Not Your Normal Power Box

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okman, Oya; Baginska, Marta; Jones, Elizabeth MC; Pety, Stephen J; Lim, Tae Wook; Kaitz, Joshua A; Dong, Hefei; Vissers, Daniel R; Sottos, Nancy R; White, Scott R; Moore, Jeffrey S; Thackery, Michael M; Fenter, Paul A; Trahey, Lynn; Sandler, Sana; Hersam, Mark C; Kapper, Aaron J

    2013-07-18

    Representing the Center for Electrical Energy Storage (CEES), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge and was awarded "Best Science Lesson." As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE: energy. The mission of the CEES is to acquire a fundamental understanding of interfacial phenomena controlling electrochemical processes that will enable dramatic improvements in the properties and performance of energy storage devices, notably Li ion batteries.

  14. NYSERDA's Green Jobs-Green New York Program: Extending Energy Efficiency Financing To Underserved Households

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimring, Mark; Fuller, Merrian

    2011-01-24

    The New York legislature passed the Green Jobs-Green New York (GJGNY) Act in 2009. Administered by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), GJGNY programs provide New Yorkers with access to free or low-cost energy assessments,1 energy upgrade services,2 low-cost financing, and training for various 'green-collar' careers. Launched in November 2010, GJGNY's residential initiative is notable for its use of novel underwriting criteria to expand access to energy efficiency financing for households seeking to participate in New York's Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program.3 The GJGNY financing program is a valuable test of whether alternatives to credit scores can be used to responsibly expand credit opportunities for households that do not qualify for traditional lending products and, in doing so, enable more households to make energy efficiency upgrades.

  15. Present Status of Vanadium Alloys for Fusion Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muroga, Takeo; Chen, J. M.; Chernov, V. M.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Le Flem, M.

    2014-12-01

    Vanadium alloys are advanced options for low activation structural materials. After more than two decades of research, V-4Cr-4Ti has been emerged as the leading candidate, and technological progress has been made in reducing the number of critical issues for application of vanadium alloys to fusion reactors. Notable progress has been made in fabricating alloy products and weld joints without degradation of properties. Various efforts are also being made to improve high temperature strength and creep-rupture resistance, low temperature ductility after irradiation, and corrosion resistance in blanket conditions. Future research should focus on clarifying remaining uncertainty in the operating temperature window of V-4Cr-4Ti for application to near to middle term fusion blanket systems, and on further exploration of advanced materials for improved performance for longer-term fusion reactor systems.

  16. Pinkbar is an epithelial-specific BAR domain protein that generates planar membrane structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pyklinen, Anette; Boczkowska, Malgorzata; Zhao, Hongxia; Saarikangas, Juha; Rebowski, Grzegorz; Jansen, Maurice; Hakanen, Janne; Koskela, Essi V.; Pernen, Johan; Vihinen, Helena; Jokitalo, Eija; Salminen, Marjo; Ikonen, Elina; Dominguez, Roberto; Lappalainen, Pekka

    2013-05-29

    Bin/amphipysin/Rvs (BAR)-domain proteins sculpt cellular membranes and have key roles in processes such as endocytosis, cell motility and morphogenesis. BAR domains are divided into three subfamilies: BAR- and F-BAR-domain proteins generate positive membrane curvature and stabilize cellular invaginations, whereas I-BAR-domain proteins induce negative curvature and stabilize protrusions. We show that a previously uncharacterized member of the I-BAR subfamily, Pinkbar, is specifically expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, where it localizes to Rab13-positive vesicles and to the plasma membrane at intercellular junctions. Notably, the BAR domain of Pinkbar does not induce membrane tubulation but promotes the formation of planar membrane sheets. Structural and mutagenesis analyses reveal that the BAR domain of Pinkbar has a relatively flat lipid-binding interface and that it assembles into sheet-like oligomers in crystals and in solution, which may explain its unique membrane-deforming activity.

  17. HANFORD RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT ENHANCED MISSION PLANNING THROUGH INNOVATIVE TOOLS LIFECYCLE COST MODELING AND AQUEOUS THERMODYNAMIC MODELING - 12134

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PIERSON KL; MEINERT FL

    2012-01-26

    Two notable modeling efforts within the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) are currently underway to (1) increase the robustness of the underlying chemistry approximations through the development and implementation of an aqueous thermodynamic model, and (2) add enhanced planning capabilities to the HTWOS model through development and incorporation of the lifecycle cost model (LCM). Since even seemingly small changes in apparent waste composition or treatment parameters can result in large changes in quantities of high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) glass, mission duration or lifecycle cost, a solubility model that more accurately depicts the phases and concentrations of constituents in tank waste is required. The LCM enables evaluation of the interactions of proposed changes on lifecycle mission costs, which is critical for decision makers.

  18. Enrico Fermi Awards Ceremony for Dr. Mildred S. Dresselhaus and Dr. Burton Richter, May 2012 (Presentations, including remarks by Energy Secretary, Dr. Steven Chu)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Chu, Steven (U.S. Energy Secretary)

    2012-06-28

    The Fermi Award is a Presidential award and is one of the oldest and most prestigious science and technology honors bestowed by the U.S. Government. On May 7, 2012 it was conferred upon two exceptional scientists: Dr. Mildred Dresselhaus, 'for her scientific leadership, her major contributions to science and energy policy, her selfless work in science education and the advancement of diversity in the scientific workplace, and her highly original and impactful research,' and Dr. Burton Richter, 'for the breadth of his influence in the multiple disciplines of accelerator physics and particle physics, his profound scientific discoveries, his visionary leadership as SLAC Director, his leadership of science, and his notable contributions in energy and public policy.' Dr. John Holder, Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, opened the ceremony, and Dr. Bill Brinkman, Director of DOE's Office of Science introduced the main speaker, Dr. Steven Chu, U.S. Energy Secretary.

  19. Iron-stabilized nanocrystalline ZrO{sub 2} solid solutions: Synthesis by combustion and thermal stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Legorreta Garcia, Felipe; Resende, Valdirene Gonzaga de; De Grave, Eddy; Peigney, Alain; Barnabe, Antoine; Laurent, Christophe

    2009-06-03

    The synthesis of Fe{sup 3+}-stabilized zirconia by the nitrate/urea combustion route was investigated. Using several characterization techniques, including X-ray diffraction, field-emission-gun scanning electron microscopy and notably Moessbauer spectroscopy, it was possible to determine the appropriate amount of urea that allows to obtain a totally stabilized Zr{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95} solid solution. The nanocrystalline zirconia solid solution is mostly tetragonal, but the presence of the cubic phase could not be ruled out. An in-depth study of the thermal stability in air showed that the Fe{sup 3+} solubility in the stabilized solid solution starts to decrease at about 875 deg. C which results in the formation of hematite (possibly containing some Zr{sup 4+}) at the surface of the zirconia grains and further provokes the progressive transformation into the monoclinic zirconia phase.

  20. Iodine Pathways and Off-Gas Stream Characteristics for Aqueous Reprocessing Plants A Literature Survey and Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. T. Jubin; D. M. Strachan; N. R. Soelberg

    2013-09-01

    Used nuclear fuel is currently being reprocessed in only a few countries, notably France, England, Japan, and Russia. The need to control emissions of the gaseous radionuclides to the air during nuclear fuel reprocessing has already been reported for the entire plant. But since the gaseous radionuclides can partition to various different reprocessing off-gas streams, for example, from the head end, dissolver, vessel, cell, and melter, an understanding of each of these streams is critical. These off-gas streams have different flow rates and compositions and could have different gaseous radionuclide control requirements, depending on how the gaseous radionuclides partition. This report reviews the available literature to summarize specific engineering data on the flow rates, forms of the volatile radionuclides in off-gas streams, distributions of these radionuclides in these streams, and temperatures of these streams. This document contains an extensive bibliography of the information contained in the open literature.

  1. Selling an Energy Efficiency Loan Portfolio in Oregon: Resale of the Craft3 loan portfolio to Self-Help Credit Union

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Peter; Borgeson, Merrian; Kramer, Chris; Zimring, Mark; Goldman, Charles

    2014-05-30

    Under the Clean Energy Works (CEW) program, Craft3 developed a loan product that widened access to financing for homeowners, offered long term funding, and collected repayments through the customer?s utility bill. The program?s success led Craft3 to pursue the sale of the loan portfolio to both mitigate its own risks and replenish funds for lending. This sale breaks new ground for energy efficiency finance and is notable as it was completed even with many novel program design elements. It replenished Craft3?s program capital and uncovered some valuable lessons that may facilitate future transactions. However, the lack of data history and the unproven nature of the loan portfolio meant that Craft3 had to limit the risk of losses to Self-Help, the purchaser of the portfolio. It remains to be seen whether this experience will pave the way for more sales of on-bill energy efficiency loan portfolios. This case study illustrates how certain program design decisions can sometimes both facilitate programmatic objectives and possibly present challenges for the sale of a portfolio of energy efficiency loans.

  2. Regulation and Function of Adult Neurogenesis. From Genes to Cognition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aimone, J. B.; Li, Y.; Lee, S. W.; Clemenson, G. D.; Deng, W.; Gage, F. H.

    2014-10-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is a notable process due not only to its uniqueness and potential impact on cognition but also to its localized vertical integration of different scales of neuroscience, ranging from molecular and cellular biology to behavior. Our review summarizes the recent research regarding the process of adult neurogenesis from these different perspectives, with particular emphasis on the differentiation and development of new neurons, the regulation of the process by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, and their ultimate function in the hippocampus circuit. Arising from a local neural stem cell population, new neurons progress through several stages of maturation, ultimately integrating into the adult dentate gyrus network. Furthermore, the increased appreciation of the full neurogenesis process, from genes and cells to behavior and cognition, makes neurogenesis both a unique case study for how scales in neuroscience can link together and suggests neurogenesis as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for a number of disorders.

  3. Precision Electroweak Measurements and Constraints on the Standard Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-11-11

    This note presents constraints on Standard Model parameters using published and preliminary precision electroweak results measured at the electron-positron colliders LEP and SLC. The results are compared with precise electroweak measurements from other experiments, notably CDF and D0 at the Tevatron. Constraints on the input parameters of the Standard Model are derived from the results obtained in high-Q{sup 2} interactions, and used to predict results in low-Q{sup 2} experiments, such as atomic parity violation, Moller scattering, and neutrino-nucleon scattering. The main changes with respect to the experimental results presented in 2007 are new combinations of results on the W-boson mass and width and the mass of the top quark.

  4. Precision Electroweak Measurements and Constraints on the Standard Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collaboration, ALEPH; Collaboration, CDF; Collaboration, D0; Collaboration, DELPHI; Collaboration, L3; Collaboration, OPAL; Collaboration, SLD; Group, LEP Electroweak Working; Group, Tevatron Electroweak Working; groups, SLD electroweak heavy flavour

    2009-11-01

    This note presents constraints on Standard Model parameters using published and preliminary precision electroweak results measured at the electron-positron colliders LEP and SLC. The results are compared with precise electroweak measurements from other experiments, notably CDF and D0 at the Tevatron. Constraints on the input parameters of the Standard Model are derived from the combined set of results obtained in high-Q{sup 2} interactions, and used to predict results in low-Q{sup 2} experiments, such as atomic parity violation, Moeller scattering, and neutrino-nucleon scattering. The main changes with respect to the experimental results presented in 2008 are new combinations of results on the W-boson mass and the mass of the top quark.

  5. Regulation and Function of Adult Neurogenesis. From Genes to Cognition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aimone, J. B.; Li, Y.; Lee, S. W.; Clemenson, G. D.; Deng, W.; Gage, F. H.

    2014-10-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is a notable process due not only to its uniqueness and potential impact on cognition but also to its localized vertical integration of different scales of neuroscience, ranging from molecular and cellular biology to behavior. Our review summarizes the recent research regarding the process of adult neurogenesis from these different perspectives, with particular emphasis on the differentiation and development of new neurons, the regulation of the process by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, and their ultimate function in the hippocampus circuit. Arising from a local neural stem cell population, new neurons progress through several stages ofmore » maturation, ultimately integrating into the adult dentate gyrus network. Furthermore, the increased appreciation of the full neurogenesis process, from genes and cells to behavior and cognition, makes neurogenesis both a unique case study for how scales in neuroscience can link together and suggests neurogenesis as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for a number of disorders.« less

  6. The Amphimedon queenslandica genome and the evolution of animal complexity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, Mansi; Simakov, Oleg; Chapman, Jarrod; Fahey, Bryony; Gauthier, Marie E.A.; Mitros, Therese; Richards, Gemma S.; Conaco, Cecilia; Dacre, Michael; Hellsten, Uffe; Larroux, Claire; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Stanke, Mario; Adamska, Maja; Darling, Aaron; Degnan, Sandie M.; Oakley, Todd H.; Plachetzki, David C.; Zhai, Yufeng; Adamski, Marcin; Calcino, Andrew; Cummins, Scott F.; Goodstein, David M.; Harris, Christina; Jackson, Daniel J.; Leys, Sally P.; Shu, Shengqiang; Woodcroft, Ben J.; Vervoort, Michel; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Manning, Gerard; Degnan, Bernard M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2010-07-01

    Sponges are an ancient group of animals that diverged from other metazoans over 600 million years ago. Here we present the draft genome sequence of Amphimedon queenslandica, a demosponge from the Great Barrier Reef, and show that it is remarkably similar to other animal genomes in content, structure and organization. Comparative analysis enabled by the sponge sequence reveals genomic events linked to the origin and early evolution of animals, including the appearance, expansion, and diversification of pan-metazoan transcription factor, signaling pathway, and structural genes. This diverse 'toolkit' of genes correlates with critical aspects of all metazoan body plans, and comprises cell cycle control and growth, development, somatic and germ cell specification, cell adhesion, innate immunity, and allorecognition. Notably, many of the genes associated with the emergence of animals are also implicated in cancer, which arises from defects in basic processes associated with metazoan multicellularity.

  7. FETC/EPRI BIOMASS COFIRING COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. TILLMAN; E. HUGHES

    1998-08-01

    This quarter much progress was made in promoting cofiring through the many FETC/EPRI backed projects. During January 1, 1998 to March 31st, 1998 significant contractual agreements were arranged for future testing and analyses of previous testing were conducted. Most notable was the analysis done on the testing run at the Tennessee Valley Authority�s Colbert Fossil Plant that showed no significant impacts to the plant boiler due to cofiring. Northern Indiana Public Service Company also identified Bailly #7 as the site of the next series of tests using their plants. Other work done on these projects primarily focused on continued cofiring development. This report summarizes the activities during the first quarter in 1998 of the FETC/EPRI Biomass Cofiring Cooperative Agreement. It focuses upon reporting the results of testing in order to highlight the progress at utilities.

  8. Rotational Augmentation on a 2.3 MW Rotor Blade with Thick Flatback Airfoil Cross-Sections: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreck, S.; Fingersh, L.; Siegel, K.; Singh, M.; Medina, P.

    2013-01-01

    Rotational augmentation was analyzed for a 2.3 MW wind turbine, which was equipped with thick flatback airfoils at inboard radial locations and extensively instrumented for acquisition of time varying surface pressures. Mean aerodynamic force and surface pressure data were extracted from an extensive field test database, subject to stringent criteria for wind inflow and turbine operating conditions. Analyses of these data showed pronounced amplification of aerodynamic forces and significant enhancements to surface pressures in response to rotational influences, relative to two-dimensional, stationary conditions. Rotational augmentation occurrence and intensity in the current effort was found to be consistent with that observed in previous research. Notably, elevated airfoil thickness and flatback design did not impede rotational augmentation.

  9. Toward the excited isoscalar meson spectrum from lattice QCD

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dudek, Jozef J.; Edwards, Robert G.; Guo, Peng; Thomas, Christopher E.

    2013-11-18

    We report on the extraction of an excited spectrum of isoscalar mesons using lattice QCD. Calculations on several lattice volumes are performed with a range of light quark masses corresponding to pion masses down to about ~400 MeV. The distillation method enables us to evaluate the required disconnected contributions with high statistical precision for a large number of meson interpolating fields. We find relatively little mixing between light and strange in most JPC channels; one notable exception is the pseudoscalar sector where the approximate SU(3)F octet, singlet structure of the η, η' is reproduced. We extract exotic JPC states, identifiedmore » as hybrid mesons in which an excited gluonic field is coupled to a color-octet qqbar pair, along with non-exotic hybrid mesons embedded in a qq¯-like spectrum.« less

  10. Analysis and Annotation of Nucleic Acid Sequence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    States, David J.

    2004-07-28

    The aims of this project were to develop improved methods for computational genome annotation and to apply these methods to improve the annotation of genomic sequence data with a specific focus on human genome sequencing. The project resulted in a substantial body of published work. Notable contributions of this project were the identification of basecalling and lane tracking as error processes in genome sequencing and contributions to improved methods for these steps in genome sequencing. This technology improved the accuracy and throughput of genome sequence analysis. Probabilistic methods for physical map construction were developed. Improved methods for sequence alignment, alternative splicing analysis, promoter identification and NF kappa B response gene prediction were also developed.

  11. DDE-MITR Status Report of Conceptual Design Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; R.B. Nielson; J.D. Wiest; J.W. Nielsen; G.A. Roth; S.D. Snow

    2012-09-01

    The Design Demonstration Experiment for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (DDE-MITR) is intended to facilitate Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) conversion of the MITR by demonstrating the performance and fabrication of the LEU fuel element design through an irradiation test in the Advanced Test Reactor center flux trap. At the time this report was prepared the resources for furthering DDE design work were expected to be postponed. As such, the conceptual design effort to date is summarized herein in order to provide the status of key objectives, notable results, and provisions for future design work. These demonstrate that the DDE-MITR design effort is well on the path to producing a suitable irradiation experiment, but also exhibits several challenges for which timely resolution is recommend in order to facilitate success of the irradiation campaign and ultimate conversion of the MITR.

  12. DDE-NBSR Status Report of Conceptual Design Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; R.B. Nielson; B.P. Durtschi; C.R. Glass; G.A. Roth; D.T. Clark

    2012-09-01

    The Design Demonstration Experiment for the National Bureau of Standard Reactor (DDE-NBSR) is intended to facilitate Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) conversion of the NBSR by demonstrating the performance and fabrication of the LEU fuel element design through an irradiation test in the Advanced Test Reactor center flux trap. At the time this report was prepared the resources for furthering DDE design work were expected to be postponed. As such, the conceptual design effort to date is summarized herein in order to provide the status of key objectives, notable results, and provisions for future design work. These demonstrate that the DDE-NBSR design effort is well on the path to producing a suitable irradiation experiment, but also exhibits several challenges for which timely resolution is recommend in order to facilitate success of the irradiation campaign and ultimate conversion of the NBSR.

  13. DDE-MURR Status Report of Conceptual Design Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; R.B. Nielson; M.H. Sprenger; G.K. Housley

    2012-09-01

    The Design Demonstration Experiment for the University of Missouri Research Reactor (DDE-MURR) is intended to facilitate Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) conversion of the MURR by demonstrating the performance and fabrication of the LEU fuel element design through an irradiation test in a 200mm channel at the Belgium Reactor 2. At the time this report was prepared the resources for furthering DDE design work were expected to be postponed. As such, the conceptual design effort to date is summarized herein in order to provide the status of key objectives, notable results, and provisions for future design work. These demonstrate that the DDE-MURR design effort is well on the path to producing a suitable irradiation experiment, but also exhibits several challenges for which timely resolution is recommend in order to facilitate success of the irradiation campaign and ultimate conversion of the MURR.

  14. Influence of hydrogen and hydrogen/methane plasmas on AlN thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pobedinskas, P. Hardy, A.; Van Bael, M. K.; Haenen, K.; Degutis, G.; Dexters, W.

    2014-02-24

    Polycrystalline aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films are exposed to hydrogen and hydrogen/methane plasmas at different conditions. The latter plays an indispensable role in the subsequent deposition of nanocrystalline diamond thin films on AlN. The changes of AlN properties are investigated by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopies as well as atomic force microscopy. The E{sub 1}(TO) and E{sub 2}{sup 2} phonon mode frequencies blue-shift after the exposure to plasmas. The damping constant of E{sub 1}(TO) phonon, calculated from FTIR transmission spectra using the factorized model of a damped oscillator, and the width of E{sub 2}{sup 2} peak in Raman spectra decrease with increasing substrate temperature till the decomposition of AlN thin film becomes notable. It is proven that these changes are driven by the plasmas as annealing in vacuum does not induce them.

  15. Nonlinear Global Optimization Using Curdling Algorithm

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    An algorithm for performing curdling optimization which is a derivative-free, grid-refinement approach to nonlinear optimization was developed and implemented in software. This approach overcomes a number of deficiencies in existing approaches. Most notably, it finds extremal regions rather than only single external extremal points. The program is interactive and collects information on control parameters and constraints using menus. For up to four dimensions, function convergence is displayed graphically. Because the algorithm does not compute derivatives,more » gradients or vectors, it is numerically stable. It can find all the roots of a polynomial in one pass. It is an inherently parallel algorithm. Constraints are handled as being initially fuzzy, but become tighter with each iteration.« less

  16. THE RICH CIRCUMSTELLAR CHEMISTRY OF SMP LMC 11

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malek, S. E.; Cami, J.; Bernard-Salas, J. E-mail: jcami@uwo.ca

    2012-01-01

    Carbon-rich evolved stars from the asymptotic giant branch to the planetary nebula phase are characterized by a rich and complex carbon chemistry in their circumstellar envelopes. A peculiar object is the preplanetary nebula SMP LMC 11, whose Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectrum shows remarkable and diverse molecular absorption bands. To study how the molecular composition in this object compares to our current understanding of circumstellar carbon chemistry, we modeled this molecular absorption. We find high abundances for a number of molecules, perhaps most notably benzene. We also confirm the presence of propyne (CH{sub 3}C{sub 2}H) in this spectrum. Of all the cyanopolyynes, only HC{sub 3}N is evident; we can detect at best a marginal presence of HCN. From comparisons to various chemical models, we can conclude that SMP LMC 11 must have an unusual circumstellar environment (a torus rather than an outflow).

  17. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory annual report, October 1, 1993-- September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) project is well into the experimental phase of its deuterium-tritium (D-T) program, with the objective to derive the maximum amount of experimental data on the behavior of tokamak plasmas containing a significant population of energetic alpha particles. Since the initial D-T experiments in December 1993, the operational performance of the TFTR, as well as the required tritium-handling and machine maintenance procedures in an activated environment, have improved markedly, so that D-T operation has now become essentially routine, while fully conforming with all of the safety and environmental requirements. During the D-T phase, the machine and auxiliary-systems parameters have also been increased, most notably the toroidal field (to 5.6 T) and the neutral-beam power (to 40 MW). The radio-frequency power in the ion-cyclotron-range of frequencies (ICRF) has been increased to 11 MW.

  18. EXPERT ELICITATION OF ACROSS-TECHNOLOGY CORRELATIONS FOR REACTOR CAPITAL COSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brent Dixon; Various

    2014-06-01

    Calculations of the uncertainty in the Levelized Cost at Equilibrium (LCAE) of generating nuclear electricity typically assume that the costs of the system component, notably reactors, are uncorrelated. Partial cancellation of independent errors thus gives rise to unrealistically small cost uncertainties for fuel cycles that incorporate multiple reactor technologies. This summary describes an expert elicitation of correlations between overnight reactor construction costs. It also defines a method for combining the elicitations into a single, consistent correlation matrix suitable for use in Monte Carlo LCAE calculations. Both the elicitation and uncertainty propagation methods are demonstrated through a pilot study where cost correlations between eight reactor technologies were elicited from experts in the US DOE Fuel Cycle Research

  19. Toward the excited isoscalar meson spectrum from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudek, Jozef J.; Edwards, Robert G.; Guo, Peng; Thomas, Christopher E.

    2013-11-18

    We report on the extraction of an excited spectrum of isoscalar mesons using lattice QCD. Calculations on several lattice volumes are performed with a range of light quark masses corresponding to pion masses down to about ~400 MeV. The distillation method enables us to evaluate the required disconnected contributions with high statistical precision for a large number of meson interpolating fields. We find relatively little mixing between light and strange in most JPC channels; one notable exception is the pseudoscalar sector where the approximate SU(3)F octet, singlet structure of the η, η' is reproduced. We extract exotic JPC states, identified as hybrid mesons in which an excited gluonic field is coupled to a color-octet qqbar pair, along with non-exotic hybrid mesons embedded in a qq¯-like spectrum.

  20. Ground motion analyses: OSSY (a high explosive experiment) and MERLIN (a nuclear event)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, R.P.

    1991-10-01

    We have analyzed recorded data and conducted numerical simulations of the seismic-calibration high explosive experiment OSSY and of the underground nuclear event MERLIN to determine if there is any physical correlation in their ground motion response. Waveforms recorded on OSSY and MERLIN show a distinct similarity in the form of a dual-pulse structure, with the second pulse as large or larger than the first pulse. Results with 1D and 2D simulations show that there is no correlation. The dual-pulse structure for OSSY can best be accounted for by a dilatancy feature resulting from pore recovery during unloading. There is also a notable influence on the pulse shape caused by the large length-to-diameter ratio of the high explosive charge. The dual-pulse structure recorded in MERLIN is most likely due to refraction from a higher-impedance layer about 60 m below the workout. 15 refs., 26 figs.

  1. Molecular Chemistry to the Fore: New Insights into the Fascinating World of Photoactive Colloidal Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vela-Becerra, Javier

    2013-02-01

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals possess unique properties that are unmatched by other chromophores such as organic dyes or transition-metal complexes. These versatile building blocks have generated much scientific interest and found applications in bioimaging, tracking, lighting, lasing, photovoltaics, photocatalysis, thermoelectrics, and spintronics. Despite these advances, important challenges remain, notably how to produce semiconductor nanostructures with predetermined architecture, how to produce metastable semiconductor nanostructures that are hard to isolate by conventional syntheses, and how to control the degree of surface loading or valence per nanocrystal. Molecular chemists are very familiar with these issues and can use their expertise to help solve these challenges. In this Perspective, we present our group’s recent work on bottom-up molecular control of nanoscale composition and morphology, low-temperature photochemical routes to semiconductor heterostructures and metastable phases, solar-to-chemical energy conversion with semiconductor-based photocatalysts, and controlled surface modification of colloidal semiconductors that bypasses ligand exchange.

  2. SHOCK INITIATION EXPERIMENTS ON THE TATB BASED EXPLOSIVE RX-03-GO WITH IGNITION AND GROWTH MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandersall, K S; Garcia, F; Tarver, C M

    2009-06-23

    Shock initiation experiments on the TATB based explosive RX-03-GO (92.5% TATB, 7.5% Cytop A by weight) were performed to obtain in-situ pressure gauge data, characterize the run-distance-to-detonation behavior, and calculate Ignition and Growth modeling parameters. A 101 mm diameter propellant driven gas gun was utilized to initiate the explosive sample with manganin piezoresistive pressure gauge packages placed between sample slices. The RX-03-GO formulation utilized is similar to that of LX-17 (92.5% TATB, 7.5% Kel-f by weight) with the notable differences of a new binder material and TATB that has been dissolved and recrystallized in order to improve the purity and morphology. The shock sensitivity will be compared with that of prior data on LX-17 and other TATB formulations. Ignition and Growth modeling parameters were obtained with a reasonable fit to the experimental data.

  3. Emittance preservation during bunch compression with a magnetized beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stratakis, Diktys

    2015-09-02

    The deleterious effects of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on the phase-space and energy spread of high-energy beams in accelerator light sources can significantly constrain the machine design and performance. In this paper, we present a simple method to preserve the beam emittance by means of using magnetized beams that exhibit a large aspect ratio on their transverse dimensions. The concept is based on combining a finite solenoid field where the beam is generated together with a special optics adapter. Numerical simulations of this new type of beam source show that the induced phase-space density growth can be notably suppressed to less than 1% for any bunch charge. This work elucidates the key parameters that are needed for emittance preservation, such as the required field and aspect ratio for a given bunch charge.

  4. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  5. Barrier-free subsurface incorporation of 3d metal atoms into Bi(111) films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Klein, C.; Vollmers, N. J.; Gerstmann, U.; Zahl, P.; Lukermann, D.; Jnawali, G.; Pfnur, H.; Sutter, P.; Tegenkamp, C.; Schmidt, W. G.; et al

    2015-05-27

    By combining scanning tunneling microscopy with density functional theory it is shown that the Bi(111) surface provides a well-defined incorporation site in the first bilayer that traps highly coordinating atoms such as transition metals (TMs) or noble metals. All deposited atoms assume exactly the same specific sevenfold coordinated subsurface interstitial site while the surface topography remains nearly unchanged. Notably, 3d TMs show a barrier-free incorporation. The observed surface modification by barrier-free subsorption helps to suppress aggregation in clusters. Thus, it allows a tuning of the electronic properties not only for the pure Bi(111) surface, but may also be observed formore » topological insulators formed by substrate-stabilized Bi bilayers.« less

  6. Alternating magnetic anisotropy of Li 2 ( Li 1 - x T x ) N ( T = Mn , Fe , Co , and Ni )

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jesche, A.; Ke, L.; Jacobs, J. L.; Harmon, B.; Houk, R. S.; Canfield, P. C.

    2015-05-01

    Substantial amounts of the transition metals Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni can be substituted for Li in single crystalline Li?(Li1-xTx)N. Isothermal and temperature-dependent magnetization measurements reveal local magnetic moments with magnitudes significantly exceeding the spin-only value. The additional contributions stem from unquenched orbital moments that lead to rare-earth-like behavior of the magnetic properties. Accordingly, extremely large magnetic anisotropies have been found. Most notably, the magnetic anisotropy alternates as easy plane?easy axis?easy plane?easy axis when progressing from T = Mn ? Fe ? Co ? Ni. This behavior can be understood based on a perturbation approach in an analytical, single-ion model.moreThe calculated magnetic anisotropies show surprisingly good agreement with the experiment and capture the basic features observed for the different transition metals.less

  7. Alternating magnetic anisotropy of Li2(Li1xTx)N(T=Mn,Fe,Co,andNi)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jesche, A.; Ke, L.; Jacobs, J. L.; Harmon, B.; Houk, R. S.; Canfield, P. C.

    2015-05-11

    Substantial amounts of the transition metals Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni can be substituted for Li in single crystalline Li2(Li1xTx)N. Isothermal and temperature-dependent magnetization measurements reveal local magnetic moments with magnitudes significantly exceeding the spin-only value. The additional contributions stem from unquenched orbital moments that lead to rare-earth-like behavior of the magnetic properties. Accordingly, extremely large magnetic anisotropies have been found. Most notably, the magnetic anisotropy alternates as easy plane?easy axis?easy plane?easy axis when progressing from T = Mn ? Fe ? Co ? Ni. This behavior can be understood based on a perturbation approach in an analytical, single-ion model.moreAs a result, the calculated magnetic anisotropies show surprisingly good agreement with the experiment and capture the basic features observed for the different transition metals.less

  8. Barrier-free subsurface incorporation of 3d metal atoms into Bi(111) films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, C.; Vollmers, N. J.; Gerstmann, U.; Zahl, P.; Lukermann, D.; Jnawali, G.; Pfnur, H.; Sutter, P.; Tegenkamp, C.; Schmidt, W. G.; Horn-von Hoegen, M.

    2015-05-27

    By combining scanning tunneling microscopy with density functional theory it is shown that the Bi(111) surface provides a well-defined incorporation site in the first bilayer that traps highly coordinating atoms such as transition metals (TMs) or noble metals. All deposited atoms assume exactly the same specific sevenfold coordinated subsurface interstitial site while the surface topography remains nearly unchanged. Notably, 3d TMs show a barrier-free incorporation. The observed surface modification by barrier-free subsorption helps to suppress aggregation in clusters. Thus, it allows a tuning of the electronic properties not only for the pure Bi(111) surface, but may also be observed for topological insulators formed by substrate-stabilized Bi bilayers.

  9. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-18

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  10. Land-use transition for bioenergy and climate stabilization: model comparison of drivers, impacts and interactions with other land use based mitigation options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popp, Alexander; Rose, Steven K.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Dietrich, Jan P.; Wise, Marshall A.; Stehfest, Eike; Humpenoder, Florian; Kyle, G. Page; Van Vliet, Jasper; Bauer, Nico; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Klein, David; Kriegler, Elmar

    2014-04-01

    This study is a model comparison assessing the drivers and impacts of bioenergy production on the global land system and the interaction with other land use based mitigation options in the context of the EMF 27 project. We compare and evaluate results from three integrated assessment models (GCAM, IMAGE, and ReMIND/MAgPIE). All three models project that dedicated bioenergy crops and biomass residues are a potentially important and cost-effective component of the energy system. But bioenergy deployment levels and feedstock composition vary notably across models as do the implications for land-use and greenhouse gas emissions and the interaction with other land use based mitigation measures. Despite numerous model differences, we identify a few that are likely contributing to differences in land-use and emissions attributable to energy crop deployment.

  11. The structural basis for receptor recognition of human interleukin-18

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tsutsumi, Naotaka; Kimura, Takeshi; Arita, Kyohei; Ariyoshi, Mariko; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Zuo, Xiaobing; Maenaka, Katsumi; Park, Enoch Y.; Kondo, Naomi; et al

    2014-12-15

    Interleukin (IL)-18 is a proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the IL-1 family and plays an important role in inflammation. The uncontrolled release of this cytokine is associated with severe chronic inflammatory disease. IL-18 forms a signalling complex with the IL-18 receptor α (Rα) and β (Rβ) chains at the plasma membrane, which induces multiple inflammatory cytokines. Here, we present a crystal structure of human IL-18 bound to the two receptor extracellular domains. Generally, the receptors’ recognition mode for IL-18 is similar to IL-1β; however, certain notable differences were observed. The architecture of the IL-18 receptor second domain (D2) is uniquemore » among the other IL-1R family members, which presumably distinguishes them from the IL-1 receptors that exhibit a more promiscuous ligand recognition mode. The structures and associated biochemical and cellular data should aid in developing novel drugs to neutralize IL-8 activity.« less

  12. Resonant tunneling of fluctuation Cooper pairs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Galda, Alexey; Mel'nikov, A. S.; Vinokur, V. M.

    2015-02-09

    Superconducting fluctuations have proved to be an irreplaceable source of information about microscopic and macroscopic material parameters that could be inferred from the experiment. According to common wisdom, the effect of thermodynamic fluctuations in the vicinity of the superconducting transition temperature, Tc, is to round off all of the sharp corners and discontinuities, which otherwise would have been expected to occur at Tc. Here we report the current spikes due to radiation-induced resonant tunneling of fluctuation Cooper pairs between two superconductors which grow even sharper and more pronounced upon approach to Tc. This striking effect offers an unprecedented tool formore » direct measurements of fluctuation Cooper pair lifetime, which is key to our understanding of the fluctuation regime, most notably to nature of the pseudogap state in high-temperature superconductors. Our finding marks a radical departure from the conventional view of superconducting fluctuations as a blurring and rounding phenomenon.« less

  13. Alternating magnetic anisotropy of Li2(Li1xTx)N (T = Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jesche, A.; Ke, L.; Jacobs, J. L.; Harmon, B.; Houk, R. S.; Canfield, P. C.

    2015-05-11

    Substantial amounts of the transition metals Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni can be substituted for Li in single crystalline Li2(Li1xTx)N. Isothermal and temperature-dependent magnetization measurements reveal local magnetic moments with magnitudes significantly exceeding the spin-only value. The additional contributions stem from unquenched orbital moments that lead to rare-earth-like behavior of the magnetic properties. Accordingly, extremely large magnetic anisotropies have been found. Most notably, the magnetic anisotropy alternates as easy plane?easy axis?easy plane?easy axis when progressing from T = Mn ? Fe ? Co ? Ni. This behavior can be understood based on a perturbation approach in an analytical, single-ion model. As a result, the calculated magnetic anisotropies show surprisingly good agreement with the experiment and capture the basic features observed for the different transition metals.

  14. Resonant tunneling of fluctuation Cooper pairs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galda, Alexey; Mel'nikov, A. S.; Vinokur, V. M.

    2015-02-09

    Superconducting fluctuations have proved to be an irreplaceable source of information about microscopic and macroscopic material parameters that could be inferred from the experiment. According to common wisdom, the effect of thermodynamic fluctuations in the vicinity of the superconducting transition temperature, Tc, is to round off all of the sharp corners and discontinuities, which otherwise would have been expected to occur at Tc. Here we report the current spikes due to radiation-induced resonant tunneling of fluctuation Cooper pairs between two superconductors which grow even sharper and more pronounced upon approach to Tc. This striking effect offers an unprecedented tool for direct measurements of fluctuation Cooper pair lifetime, which is key to our understanding of the fluctuation regime, most notably to nature of the pseudogap state in high-temperature superconductors. Our finding marks a radical departure from the conventional view of superconducting fluctuations as a blurring and rounding phenomenon.

  15. Alternating magnetic anisotropy of Li2(Li1–xTx)N (T = Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jesche, A.; Ke, L.; Jacobs, J. L.; Harmon, B.; Houk, R. S.; Canfield, P. C.

    2015-05-11

    Substantial amounts of the transition metals Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni can be substituted for Li in single crystalline Li2(Li1–xTx)N. Isothermal and temperature-dependent magnetization measurements reveal local magnetic moments with magnitudes significantly exceeding the spin-only value. The additional contributions stem from unquenched orbital moments that lead to rare-earth-like behavior of the magnetic properties. Accordingly, extremely large magnetic anisotropies have been found. Most notably, the magnetic anisotropy alternates as easy plane→easy axis→easy plane→easy axis when progressing from T = Mn → Fe → Co → Ni. This behavior can be understood based on a perturbation approach in an analytical, single-ion model.more » As a result, the calculated magnetic anisotropies show surprisingly good agreement with the experiment and capture the basic features observed for the different transition metals.« less

  16. Extraction of actinides by multi-dentate diamides and their evaluation with computational molecular modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasaki, Y.; Kitatsuji, Y.; Hirata, M.; Kimura, T.; Yoshizuka, K.

    2008-07-01

    Multi-dentate diamides have been synthesized and examined for actinide (An) extractions. Bi- and tridentate extractants are the focus in this work. The extraction of actinides was performed from 0.1-6 M HNO{sub 3} to organic solvents. It was obvious that N,N,N',N'-tetra-alkyl-diglycolamide (DGA) derivatives, 2,2'-(methylimino)bis(N,N-dioctyl-acetamide) (MIDOA), and N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-dioctyl-2-(3-oxa-pentadecane)-malonamide (DMDOOPDMA) have relatively high D values (D(Pu) > 70). The following notable results using DGA extractants were obtained: (1) DGAs with short alkyl chains give higher D values than those with long alkyl chain, (2) DGAs with long alkyl chain have high solubility in n-dodecane. Computational molecular modeling was also used to elucidate the effects of structural and electronic properties of the reagents on their different extractabilities. (authors)

  17. The structural basis for receptor recognition of human interleukin-18

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsutsumi, Naotaka; Kimura, Takeshi; Arita, Kyohei; Ariyoshi, Mariko; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Zuo, Xiaobing; Maenaka, Katsumi; Park, Enoch Y.; Kondo, Naomi; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Tochio, Hidehito; Kato, Zenichiro

    2014-12-15

    Interleukin (IL)-18 is a proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the IL-1 family and plays an important role in inflammation. The uncontrolled release of this cytokine is associated with severe chronic inflammatory disease. IL-18 forms a signalling complex with the IL-18 receptor α (Rα) and β (Rβ) chains at the plasma membrane, which induces multiple inflammatory cytokines. Here, we present a crystal structure of human IL-18 bound to the two receptor extracellular domains. Generally, the receptors’ recognition mode for IL-18 is similar to IL-1β; however, certain notable differences were observed. The architecture of the IL-18 receptor second domain (D2) is unique among the other IL-1R family members, which presumably distinguishes them from the IL-1 receptors that exhibit a more promiscuous ligand recognition mode. The structures and associated biochemical and cellular data should aid in developing novel drugs to neutralize IL-8 activity.

  18. Are IceCube neutrinos unveiling PeV-scale decaying dark matter?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esmaili, Arman; Serpico, Pasquale Dario E-mail: serpico@lapth.cnrs.fr

    2013-11-01

    Recent observations by IceCube, notably two PeV cascades accompanied by events at energies ? (30400) TeV, are clearly in excess over atmospheric background fluxes and beg for an astroparticle physics explanation. Although some models of astrophysical accelerators can account for the observations within current statistics, intriguing features in the energy and possibly angular distributions of the events make worth exploring alternatives. Here, we entertain the possibility of interpreting the data with a few PeV mass scale decaying dark matter, with lifetime of the order of 10{sup 27}s. We discuss generic signatures of this scenario, including its unique energy spectrum distortion with respect to the benchmark E{sub ?}{sup ?2} expectation for astrophysical sources, as well as peculiar anisotropies. A direct comparison with the data show a good match with the above-mentioned features. We further discuss possible future checks of this scenario.

  19. Effects of biradical deuteration on the performance of DNP: Towards better performing polarizing agents

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Perras, Frédéric A.; Reinig, Regina R.; Slowing, Igor I.; Sadow, Aaron D.; Pruski, Marek

    2015-11-20

    We study the effects of the deuteration of biradical polarizing agents on the efficiency of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) via the cross-effect. To this end, we synthesized a series of bTbK and TOTAPol biradicals with systematically increased deuterium substitution. The deuteration increases the radicals' relaxation time, thus contributing to a higher saturation factor and larger DNP enhancement, and reduces the pool of protons within the so-called spin diffusion barrier. Notably, we report that full or partial deuteration leads to improved DNP enhancement factors in standard samples, but also slows down the build-up of hyperpolarization. Improvements in DNP enhancements factors ofmore » up to 70% and time savings of up to 38% are obtained upon full deuteration. As a result, it is foreseen that this approach may be applied to other DNP polarizing agents thus enabling further sensitivity improvements.« less

  20. In Memoriam

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In Memoriam In Memoriam Honoring Los Alamos National Laboratory Fellows and their contributions to the institution. Llewellyn (Lew) Jones (Pioneer in Vibrational Spectroscopy Field) Llewellyn (Lew) Jones, died June 7, 2014, at his home in Albuquerque. He was 94. A Laboratory Fellow and U.S. Army veteran, Jones was a postdoc at the University of Rochester before joining the Laboratory in 1951 in the former Chemistry-Metallurgy Fowler Division. He retired in 1986 from the former Isotope and

  1. Method to analyze remotely sensed spectral data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stork, Christopher L.; Van Benthem, Mark H.

    2009-02-17

    A fast and rigorous multivariate curve resolution (MCR) algorithm is applied to remotely sensed spectral data. The algorithm is applicable in the solar-reflective spectral region, comprising the visible to the shortwave infrared (ranging from approximately 0.4 to 2.5 .mu.m), midwave infrared, and thermal emission spectral region, comprising the thermal infrared (ranging from approximately 8 to 15 .mu.m). For example, employing minimal a priori knowledge, notably non-negativity constraints on the extracted endmember profiles and a constant abundance constraint for the atmospheric upwelling component, MCR can be used to successfully compensate thermal infrared hyperspectral images for atmospheric upwelling and, thereby, transmittance effects. Further, MCR can accurately estimate the relative spectral absorption coefficients and thermal contrast distribution of a gas plume component near the minimum detectable quantity.

  2. IP address management : augmenting Sandia's capabilities through open source tools.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nayar, R. Daniel

    2005-08-01

    Internet Protocol (IP) address management is an increasingly growing concern at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the networking community as a whole. The current state of the available IP addresses indicates that they are nearly exhausted. Currently SNL doesn't have the justification to obtain more IP address space from Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). There must exist a local entity to manage and allocate IP assignments efficiently. Ongoing efforts at Sandia have been in the form of a multifunctional database application notably known as Network Information System (NWIS). NWIS is a database responsible for a multitude of network administrative services including IP address management. This study will explore the feasibility of augmenting NWIS's IP management capabilities utilizing open source tools. Modifications of existing capabilities to better allocate available IP address space are studied.

  3. Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report, January--December 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cirrincione, D.A.; Costain, D.B.

    1990-12-31

    This report provides information to the public about the impact of the Rocky Flats Plant on the environment and public health. The report contains a compliance summary, a description of environmental monitoring programs, and radiation dose estimates for the surrounding population for the period January 1 through December 31, 1990. An environmental surveillance program has been ongoing at the Rocky Flats Plant since the 1950s. Early programs focused on radiological impacts to the environment. The current program examines potential impacts to air, surface water, groundwater, and soils from radiological and nonradiological sources. Environmental operations at Rocky Flats Plant are under the jurisdiction of several local, state, and federal agencies, most notably the Colorado Department of Health, Environmental Protection Agency, and Department of Energy. A variety of reports are prepared at different intervals for these and other agencies in addition to the annual environmental report.

  4. Flexible semi-transparent organic spin valve based on bathocuproine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiangnan; Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Llopis, Roger; Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E.

    2014-08-25

    Organic semiconductors are attractive materials for advanced spintronic applications due to their long spin lifetimes and, simultaneously, their mechanical flexibility. With the aim of combining these advantages in a single device, we report on the fabrication and properties of a mechanically flexible bathocuproine-based spin valve. This organic spin device shows great stability on both electrical and magneto-transport properties upon mechanical bending at different radius (up to r = 5 mm), while featuring long-lasting endurance (on bending over 50 times). The room-temperature magnetoresistance ratio reaches up to 3.5%, and is notably preserved under air atmosphere. The observation of spin transport at room-temperature, combined with the outstanding mechanical properties and air stability, highlights the potential of bathocuproine-based spin devices towards applications.

  5. Vector field models of modified gravity and the dark sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuntz, J.; Ferreira, P. G.; Zlosnik, T. G; Bourliot, F.; Starkman, G. D.

    2010-05-15

    We present a comprehensive investigation of cosmological constraints on the class of vector field formulations of modified gravity called generalized Einstein-aether models. Using linear perturbation theory we generate cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure spectra for general parameters of the theory, and then constrain them in various ways. We investigate two parameter regimes: a dark matter candidate where the vector field sources structure formation, and a dark energy candidate where it causes late-time acceleration. We find that the dark matter candidate does not fit the data, and identify five physical problems that can restrict this and other theories of dark matter. The dark energy candidate does fit the data, and we constrain its fundamental parameters; most notably we find that the theory's kinetic index parameter n{sub ae} can differ significantly from its {Lambda}CDM value.

  6. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis: State, Utility, and Municipal Loan Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.

    2010-05-01

    High initial costs can impede the deployment of clean energy technologies. Financing can reduce these costs. And, state, municipal, and utility-sponsored loan programs have emerged to fill the gap between clean energy technology financing needs and private sector lending. In general, public loan programs are more favorable to clean energy technologies than are those offered by traditional lending institutions; however, public loan programs address only the high up-front costs of clean energy systems, and the technology installed under these loan programs rarely supports clean energy production at levels that have a notable impact on the broader energy sector. This report discusses ways to increase the impact of these loan programs and suggests related policy design considerations.

  7. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  8. Idaho National Laboratory Research & Development Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stricker, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Technological advances that drive economic growth require both public and private investment. The U.S. Department of Energy’s national laboratories play a crucial role by conducting the type of research, testing and evaluation that is beyond the scope of regulators, academia or industry. Examples of such work from the past year can be found in these pages. Idaho National Laboratory’s engineering and applied science expertise helps deploy new technologies for nuclear energy, national security and new energy resources. Unique infrastructure, nuclear material inventory and vast expertise converge at INL, the nation’s nuclear energy laboratory. Productive partnerships with academia, industry and government agencies deliver high-impact outcomes. This edition of INL’s Impacts magazine highlights national and regional leadership efforts, growing capabilities, notable collaborations, and technology innovations. Please take a few minutes to learn more about the critical resources and transformative research at one of the nation’s premier applied science laboratories.

  9. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holland, R.C.

    1993-07-01

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to fulfill the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 and DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide DOE/EH 0173T. This Plan documents the background, organizational structure, and methods used for effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance at Sandia National Laboratories/California. The design, rationale, and historical results of the environmental monitoring system are discussed in detail. Throughout the Plan, recommendations for improvements to the monitoring system are made. This revision to the Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to document the changes made to the Monitoring Program during 1992. Some of the data (most notably the statistical analyses of past monitoring data) has not been changed.

  10. DISCOVERIES IN

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DISCOVERIES IN ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT 1 The 1,000 scientists, engineers, and professional staff in the Energy and Environment Directorate at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are intent in our pursuit of answers to the nation's most challenging problems. Our mission is unique in its diversity, from discovering efficient sources of renewable energy to providing scientifically defensible solutions for legacy nuclear waste at the Hanford Site. Success for us means working with partners to

  11. GENERAL CONDITIONS FOR ITER ORGANIZATION SERVICE CONTRACTS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    all legal obligations incumbent on him, notably those resulting from employment, tax and social legislation. Page 4 of 21 4.3 The Contractor shall have sole responsibility for...

  12. ARM - Field Campaign - Spring Cloud IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... On a few flights, notably Mar12b, very high water contents led to saturation and hysteresis problems with CVIcwc. On Mar18b, heavy icing degraded data quality. Data from all other ...

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Codes, Standards, and...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    ... Depending on the standard, UL allows listing for B20 andor B100. Notably, test standards for fiberglass underground tanks and piping do not have the ability to list for biodiesel ...

  14. Inhibiting Individual Notch Receptors Improves Treatment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    notably with immune-based diseases and regenerative medicine. Research conducted by C. Cain-Hom, C.A. Callahan, Y. Chen, L. Choy, G.J. Dow, D. Finkle, T.J. Hagenbeek, S.G....

  15. City of Dallas- Residential and Commercial Green Building Requirements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Notably, Dallas became the first U.S. city to adopt the 2012 International Green Construction Code (with amendments, hereafter Dallas Green Construction Code) as mandatory for new commercial cons...

  16. Dr Linda Horton | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Notably, she served as co-chair of the 2002 BESAC workshop Basic Research Needs to Assure a Secure Energy Future, the first of the BES "Basic Research Needs" workshops. Last ...

  17. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a half-kilometer route that tell a complex story about the gradual desiccation of the Red Planet. Perhaps most notable among findings from the ChemCam team is that all of the...

  18. Renewables Portfolio Standard

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: SB 350, signed on October 7, 2015, made a number of changes to California's Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS). Most notably, SB 350 extended the timeline and requirements under the RPS to...

  19. Victor Kunin, Rotem Sorek and Philip Hugenholtz

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Notably, most repeat clusters have a conserved 3' terminus of GAAA(CG) possibly acting as a binding site for one of the conserved CAS proteins. Some clusters, such as 2, 3 and ...

  20. Section 57

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0.9, with the extreme point. A CI of zero can be interpreted as clear sky or clouds percentiles very close to 0.0 and 1.0. There were notable having zero net effect on the average...

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - International Pyrgeometer Intercomparison

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ably aided by Jim Teske's staff at the SGP site most notably, Dan Nelson, Craig Webb, Chad Bahrman, Rod Soper, Tim Grove, and Cindy Kugel. For data sets, see below. Summary The...

  2. Director at Sandia National Laboratories | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration at Sandia National Laboratories Sidney Gutierrez Sidney Gutierrez June 2010 Notable New Mexican Sidney Gutierrez, former NASA astronaut, retired U.S. Air Force colonel and a director at Sandia National Laboratories, has been named the 2010 Notable New Mexican by the Albuquerque Museum Foundation. He will be honored June 2 at the 10th annual award ceremony, where award-winning santero artist Arthur López will unveil a bulto depicting Gutierrez and the story of his life.

  3. OPPORTUNITIES IN

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OPPORTUNITIES IN or more than 50 years Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed, built, and analyzed data from instrumentation for space missions both near and far: * satellites circling Earth to help ensure our nation's security; * discovering the processes that govern the space environments of the Sun, Earth, and planets * discovering the composition of the Moon, Mars, and asteroids * capturing the most distant, most powerful cosmic explosions. Los Alamos space payloads and ground-based

  4. Electronic and optical properties of TiCoSb under different pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Bin; Zhang Jing; Liang Jianchu; Gao Guoying; Yi Lin

    2012-08-15

    The electronic structure and optical properties of TiCoSb are studied by the first-principles calculation. It is found that the band gaps increase with the pressure increasing. It is noted that the increase of the band gap is due to the electrons of Ti 3d and Co 3d of the valence band (VB) shifting away from the Fermi level. Our calculation indicates that TiCoSb has the large density of state near the Fermi level; moreover, the changes of the density of states near the Fermi level mainly are caused by Ti 3d and Co 3d under the different pressures. It is noted that the absorption edge increases with an increase of pressure. As pressure increases, the static dielectric constants {epsilon}{sub 1}(0) decrease. All peaks of the imaginary part of the dielectric function {epsilon}{sub 2}({omega}) move towards higher energies within increasing pressure. - Graphical abstract: The first peak positions of the absorption spectrum increase and shift the high energy with an increase of pressure. The buleshift of the absorption edge could be observed. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is noted that the increase of the band gap is due to the electrons of Ti 3d and Co 3d of VB moving away from the Fermi level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is noted that the absorption edge increases with an increase of pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As pressure increases, the static dielectric constant {epsilon}{sub 1}(0) decreases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All peaks of the imaginary part of the dielectric function {epsilon}{sub 2}({omega}) move to wards higher energies within creasing pressure.

  5. Orai1 and STIM1 are critical for cell migration and proliferation of clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Ji-Hee; Lkhagvadorj, Sayamaa; Lee, Mi-Ra; Hwang, Kyu-Hee; Chung, Hyun Chul; Jung, Jae Hung; Cha, Seung-Kuy; Eom, Minseob

    2014-05-23

    Highlights: Orai1 channel is highly expressed in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) tissues. Orai1 and STIM1 constitute a native store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry in ccRCC cells. Orai1 and STIM1 promote cell migration and proliferation of ccRCC cells. - Abstract: The intracellular Ca{sup 2+} regulation has been implicated in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Notably, store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry (SOCE) is a major Ca{sup 2+} entry mechanism in non-excitable cells, being involved in cell proliferation and migration in several types of cancer. However, the expression and biological role of SOCE have not been investigated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Here, we demonstrate that Orai1 and STIM1, not Orai3, are crucial components of SOCE in the progression of ccRCC. The expression levels of Orai1 in tumor tissues were significantly higher than those in the adjacent normal parenchymal tissues. In addition, native SOCE was blunted by inhibiting SOCE or by silencing Orai1 and STIM1. Pharmacological blockade or knockdown of Orai1 or STIM1 also significantly inhibited RCC cell migration and proliferative capability. Taken together, Orai1 is highly expressed in ccRCC tissues illuminating that Orai1-mediated SOCE may play an important role in ccRCC development. Indeed, Orai1 and STIM1 constitute a native SOCE pathway in ccRCC by promoting cell proliferation and migration.

  6. Policy implications of technologies for cognitive enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarewitz, Daniel R. (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Karas, Thomas H.

    2007-02-01

    The Advanced Concepts Group at Sandia National Laboratory and the Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes at Arizona State University convened a workshop in May 2006 to explore the potential policy implications of technologies that might enhance human cognitive abilities. The group's deliberations sought to identify core values and concerns raised by the prospect of cognitive enhancement. The workshop focused on the policy implications of various prospective cognitive enhancements and on the technologies/nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science--that enable them. The prospect of rapidly emerging technological capabilities to enhance human cognition makes urgent a daunting array of questions, tensions, ambitions, and concerns. The workshop elicited dilemmas and concerns in ten overlapping areas: science and democracy; equity and justice; freedom and control; intergenerational issues; ethics and competition; individual and community rights; speed and deliberations; ethical uncertainty; humanness; and sociocultural risk. We identified four different perspectives to encompass the diverse issues related to emergence of cognitive enhancement technologies: (1) Laissez-faire--emphasizes freedom of individuals to seek and employ enhancement technologies based on their own judgment; (2) Managed technological optimism--believes that while these technologies promise great benefits, such benefits cannot emerge without an active government role; (3) Managed technological skepticism--views that the quality of life arises more out of society's institutions than its technologies; and (4) Human Essentialism--starts with the notion of a human essence (whether God-given or evolutionary in origin) that should not be modified. While the perspectives differ significantly about both human nature and the role of government, each encompasses a belief in the value of transparency and reliable information that can allow public discussion and decisions about cognitive enhancement. The practical question is how to foster productive discussions in a society whose attention is notably fragmented and priorities notably diverse. The question of what to talk about remains central, as each of the four perspectives is concerned about different things. Perhaps the key issue for initial clarification as a condition for productive democratic discussion has to do with the intended goals of cognitive enhancement, and the mechanisms for allowing productive deliberation about these goals.

  7. Geothermal Prospects in Colorado

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Geothermal Prospects in Colorado presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  8. H-Area seepage basins groundwater monitoring report. Volume 1, First and second quarters 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    Groundwater at the H-Area Seepage Basins (HASB) is monitored in compliance with the September 30, 1992, modification of South Carolina Hazardous Waste Permit SCl-890-008-989. The monitoring wells network is composed of 130 HSB wells that monitor the three separate hydrostratigraphic units that make up the uppermost aquifer beneath the HASB. A detailed description of the uppermost aquifer is included in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B post-closure care permit application for the H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) in December 1990. Data from 16 HSL wells are included in this report only to provide additional information for the HASB. Monitoring results are compared to the SCDHEC Groundwater Protection Standard (GWPS), established in Appendix IIID-A of the permit. Historically as well as currently, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and tritium have been among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Other radionuclides and hazardous constituents also exceeded the GWPS in the groundwater at the HASB (notably aluminum, iodine-129, strontium-90, and zinc) during the first half of 1995. Elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB and in the upper portion of Aquifer Zone IIB. However, constituents exceeding standards also occurred in several wells screened in the lower portion of Aquifer Zone IIB, and Aquifer Unit IIA.

  9. Effect of Lignin Removal by Alkaline Peroxide Pretreatment on the Susceptibility of Corn Stover to Purified Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Enzymes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selig, M. J.; Vinzant, T. B.; Himmel, M. E.; Decker, S. R.

    2009-01-01

    Pretreatment of corn stover with alkaline peroxide (AP) at pH 11.5 resulted in reduction of lignin content in the residual solids as a function of increasing batch temperature. Scanning electron microscopy of these materials revealed notably more textured surfaces on the plant cell walls as a result of the delignifying pretreatment. As expected, digestion of the delignified samples with commercial cellulase preparations showed an inverse relationship between the content of lignin present in the residual solids after pretreatment and the extent of both glucan and xylan conversion achievable. Digestions with purified enzymes revealed that decreased lignin content in the pretreated solids did not significantly impact the extent of glucan conversion achievable by cellulases alone. Not until purified xylanolytic activities were included with the cellulases were significant improvements in glucan conversion realized. In addition, an inverse relationship was observed between lignin content after pretreatment and the extent of xylan conversion achievable in a 24-h period with the xylanolytic enzymes in the absence of the cellulases. This observation, coupled with the direct relationship between enzymatic xylan and glucan conversion observed in a number of cases, suggests that the presence of lignins may not directly occlude cellulose present in lignocelluloses but rather impact cellulase action indirectly by its association with xylan.

  10. Performance-based ratemaking for electric utilities: Review of plans and analysis of economic and resource-planning issues. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comnes, G.A.; Stoft, S.; Greene, N.; Hill, L.J. |

    1995-11-01

    Performance-Based Ratemaking (PBR) is a form of utility regulation that strengthens the financial incentives to lower rates, lower costs, or improve nonprice performance relative traditional regulation, which the authors call cost-of-service, rate-of-return (COS/ROR) regulation. Although the electric utility industry has considerable experience with incentive mechanisms that target specific areas of performance, implementation of mechanisms that cover a comprehensive set of utility costs or services is relatively rare. In recent years, interest in PBR has increased as a result of growing dissatisfaction with COS/ROR and as a result of economic and technological trends that are leading to more competition in certain segments of the electricity industry. In addition, incentive regulation has been used with some success in other public utility industries, most notably telecommunications in the US and telecommunications, energy, and water in the United Kingdom. In this report, the authors analyze comprehensive PBR mechanisms for electric utilities in four ways: (1) they describe different types of PBR mechanisms, (2) they review a sample of actual PBR plans, (3) they consider the interaction of PBR and utility-funded energy efficiency programs, and (4) they examine how PBR interacts with electric utility resource planning and industry restructuring. The report should be of interest to technical staff of utilities and regulatory commissions that are actively considering or designing PBR mechanisms. 16 figs., 17 tabs.

  11. Boosted dark matter signals uplifted with self-interaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kong, Kyoungchul; Mohlabeng, Gopolang; Park, Jong -Chul

    2015-04-01

    We explore detection prospects of a non-standard dark sector in the context of boosted dark matter. We focus on a scenario with two dark matter particles of a large mass difference, where the heavier candidate is secluded and interacts with the standard model particles only at loops, escaping existing direct and indirect detection bounds. Yet its pair annihilation in the galactic center or in the Sun may produce boosted stable particles, which could be detected as visible Cherenkov light in large volume neutrino detectors. In such models with multiple candidates, self-interaction of dark matter particles is naturally utilized in themoreassisted freeze-out mechanism and is corroborated by various cosmological studies such as N-body simulations of structure formation, observations of dwarf galaxies, and the small scale problem. We show that self-interaction of the secluded (heavier) dark matter greatly enhances the capture rate in the Sun and results in promising signals at current and future experiments. We perform a detailed analysis of the boosted dark matter events for Super-Kamiokande, Hyper-Kamiokande and PINGU, including notable effects such as evaporation due to self-interaction and energy loss in the Sun.less

  12. HESFIRE: a global fire model to explore the role of anthropogenic and weather drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Page, Yannick LB; Morton, Douglas; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Pereira, Jose M.; Hurtt, George C.

    2015-02-13

    Vegetation fires are a major driver of ecosystem dynamics and greenhouse gas emissions. Anticipating potential changes in fire activity and their impacts relies first on a realistic model of fire activity (e.g., fire incidence and interannual variability) and second on a model accounting for fire impacts (e.g., mortality and emissions). In this paper, we focus on our understanding of fire activity and describe a new fire model, HESFIRE (HumanEarth System FIRE), which integrates the influence of weather, vegetation characteristics, and human activities on fires in a stand-alone framework. It was developed with a particular emphasis on allowing fires to spread over consecutive days given their major contribution to burned areas in many ecosystems. A subset of the model parameters was calibrated through an optimization procedure using observation data to enhance our knowledge of regional drivers of fire activity and improve the performance of the model on a global scale. Modeled fire activity showed reasonable agreement with observations of burned area, fire seasonality, and interannual variability in many regions, including for spatial and temporal domains not included in the optimization procedure. Significant discrepancies are investigated, most notably regarding fires in boreal regions and in xeric ecosystems and also fire size distribution. The sensitivity of fire activity to model parameters is analyzed to explore the dominance of specific drivers across regions and ecosystems. The characteristics of HESFIRE and the outcome of its evaluation provide insights into the influence of anthropogenic activities and weather, and their interactions, on fire activity.

  13. H-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report. Volume 1, First and second quarters 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    During the first half of 1993, the groundwater at the H-Area Seepage Basins (HASB) was monitored in compliance with the September 30, 1992, modification of South Carolina Hazardous Waste Permit. Samples were collected from 130 wells that monitor the three separate hydrostratigraphic units that make up the uppermost aquifer beneath the HASB. A detailed description of the uppermost aquifer is included in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Post-Closure Care Permit Application for the H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) in December 1990. HASB`s Groundwater Protection Standard is the standard for comparison. Historically, as well as currently, gross alpha, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and tritium have been among the primary constituents to exceed standards. Other radionuclides and hazardous constituents also exceeded the GWPS in the groundwater at the HASB, notably aluminum, iodine-129, mercury, nickel-63, strontium-89, strontium-90, technetium-99, and zinc during the first half of 1993. Elevated constituents are found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Water Table) and in the upper portion of Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 1}. However, constituents exceeding standards also occur in several wells screened in the lower portion of Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 1} and Aquifer Unit IIA.

  14. Toxicity of Select Organic Acids to the Slightly Thermophilic Acidophile Acidithiobaccillus Caldus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John E Aston; William A Apel; Brady D Lee; Brent M Peyton

    2009-02-01

    Acidithiobacillus caldus is a thermophilic acidophile found in commercial biomining, acid mine drainage systems, and natural environments. Previous work has characterized A. caldus as a chemolithotrophic autotroph capable of utilizing reduced sulfur compounds under aerobic conditions. Organic acids are especially toxic to chemolithotrophs in low-pH environments, where they diffuse more readily into the cell and deprotonate within the cytoplasm. In the present study, the toxic effects of oxaloacetate, pyruvate, 2-ketoglutarate, acetate, malate, succinate, and fumarate on A. caldus strain BC13 were examined under batch conditions. All tested organic acids exhibited some inhibitory effect. Oxaloacetate was observed to inhibit growth completely at a concentration of 250 M, whereas other organic acids were completely inhibitory at concentrations of between 1,000 and 5,000 M. In these experiments, the measured concentrations of organic acids decreased with time, indicating uptake or assimilation by the cells. Phospholipid fatty acid analyses indicated an effect of organic acids on the cellular envelope. Notable differences included an increase in cyclic fatty acids in the presence of organic acids, indicating possible instability of the cellular envelope. This was supported by field emission scanning-electron micrographs showing blebbing and sluffing in cells grown in the presence of organic acids.

  15. Reanalysis of the gas-cooled fast reactor experiments at the zero power facility proteus - Spectral indices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perret, G.; Pattupara, R. M.; Girardin, G.; Chawla, R.

    2012-07-01

    The gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) concept was investigated experimentally in the PROTEUS zero power facility at the Paul Scherrer Inst. during the 1970's. The experimental program was aimed at neutronics studies specific to the GCFR and at the validation of nuclear data in fast spectra. A significant part of the program used thorium oxide and thorium metal fuel either distributed quasi-homogeneously in the reference PuO{sub 2}/UO{sub 2} lattice or introduced in the form of radial and axial blanket zones. Experimental results obtained at the time are still of high relevance in view of the current consideration of the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) as a Generation-IV nuclear system, as also of the renewed interest in the thorium cycle. In this context, some of the experiments have been modeled with modern Monte Carlo codes to better account for the complex PROTEUS whole-reactor geometry and to allow validating recent continuous neutron cross-section libraries. As a first step, the MCNPX model was used to test the JEFF-3.1, JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-3.3 libraries against spectral indices, notably involving fission and capture of {sup 232}Th and {sup 237}Np, measured in GFR-like lattices. (authors)

  16. 2012 MUTAGENESIS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, AUGUST 19-23, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demple, Bruce

    2012-08-23

    The delicate balance among cellular pathways that control mutagenic changes in DNA will be the focus of the 2012 Mutagenesis Gordon Research Conference. Mutagenesis is essential for evolution, while genetic stability maintains cellular functions in all organisms from microbes to metazoans. Different systems handle DNA lesions at various times of the cell cycle and in different places within the nucleus, and inappropriate actions can lead to mutations. While mutation in humans is closely linked to disease, notably cancers, mutational systems can also be beneficial. The conference will highlight topics of beneficial mutagenesis, including full establishment of the immune system, cell survival mechanisms, and evolution and adaptation in microbial systems. Equal prominence will be given to detrimental mutation processes, especially those involved in driving cancer, neurological diseases, premature aging, and other threats to human health. Provisional session titles include Branching Pathways in Mutagenesis; Oxidative Stress and Endogenous DNA Damage; DNA Maintenance Pathways; Recombination, Good and Bad; Problematic DNA Structures; Localized Mutagenesis; Hypermutation in the Microbial World; and Mutation and Disease.

  17. Understanding and controlling low-temperature aging of nanocrystalline materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Boyce, Brad Lee; Brons, Justin G.; Foiles, Stephen Martin; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Holm, Elizabeth Ann; Padilla, Henry A.,; Sharon, John Anthony; Thompson, Gregory B.

    2013-10-01

    Nanocrystalline copper lms were created by both repetitive high-energy pulsed power, to produce material without internal nanotwins; and pulsed laser deposition, to produce nan- otwins. Samples of these lms were indented at ambient (298K) and cryogenic temperatures by immersion in liquid nitrogen (77K) and helium (4K). The indented samples were sectioned through the indented regions and imaged in a scanning electron microscope. Extensive grain growth was observed in the lms that contained nanotwins and were indented cryogenically. The lms that either lacked twins, or were indented under ambient conditions, were found to exhibit no substantial grain growth by visual inspection. Precession transmission elec- tron microscopy was used to con rm these ndings quantitatively, and show that 3 and 7 boundaries proliferate during grain growth, implying that these interface types play a key role in governing the extensive grain growth observed here. Molecular dynamics sim- ulations of the motion of individual grain boundaries demonstrate that speci c classes of boundaries - notably 3 and 7 - exhibit anti- or a-thermal migration, meaning that their mobilities either increase or do not change signi cantly with decreasing temperature. An in-situ cryogenic indentation capability was developed and implemented in a transmission electron microscope. Preliminary results do not show extensive cryogenic grain growth in indented copper lms. This discrepancy could arise from the signi cant di erences in con g- uration and loading of the specimen between the two approaches, and further research and development of this capability is needed.

  18. Understanding pop-ins in spherical nanoindentation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pathak, Siddhartha; Riesterer, Jessica L.; Kalidindi, Surya R.; Michler, Johann

    2014-10-24

    In this study, pop-ins, or sudden displacement-bursts at constant load in a nanoindentation test, are typically attributed to the difficulty of setting up potent dislocation sources in the very small indentation zones in these experiments. Such displacement (and strain) bursts would intuitively indicate a sharp drop in stress during the pop-in event itself. However, spherical indentation stress-strain curves routinely exhibit a high and stable indentation stress value during the pop-in, and the indentation stresses decrease only after a further finite amount of additional indentation displacement has been applied. In order to understand this discrepancy, we utilize a combination of interruptedmore » spherical indentation tests along with depth profiling of the residual indentation surfaces using in-situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study pop-ins. The AFM surface profile maps show that there is an asymmetric profile change over a limited region around the indentation contact area for a single pop-in; the asymmetry disappears upon further loading beyond the pop-in. A plausible sequence of physical processes (related to metal plasticity) occurring underneath the indenter during and immediately after the occurrence of the pop-in is proposed to explain these observations.« less

  19. Swords into plowshares: Military geology and national security projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal, J.T.

    1994-12-31

    Military geology and national security projects are often comparable, achieving their rai-son d`etre in support of national goals, military operations, and/or systems-all for vital national interests. The application of Geoscience to these ends, especially engineering geology, has occurred from pole to pole and included every conceivable environment and natural condition. In the conduct of such projects, the Geosciences have advanced, and vice versa. Desert trafficability, most notably regarding playa surfaces, is both temporary and variable and not a persistent condition as some early authors believed. Playas in Australia, Iran, and the US show that saline efflorescence is removed following surface water dissolution and subsequent deflation, resulting in very hard crusts. Magadiite, a hydrous sodium silicate and possible precursor of bedded chert, was first discovered in North America at Alkali Lake, OR, during a military project. Pleistocene Lake Trinity, a small and mostly buried evaporate basin in the northern Jornada del Muerto, NM, was discovered during exploratory drilling in support of a military test program.

  20. Global Distribution and Climate Forcing of Marine Organic Aerosol - Part 2: Effects on Cloud Properties and Radiative Forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gantt, Brett; Xu, Jun; Meskhidze, N.; Zhang, Yang; Nenes, Athanasios; Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Xiaohong; Easter, Richard C.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2012-07-25

    A series of simulations with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a 7-mode Modal Aerosol Model were conducted to assess the changes in cloud microphysical properties and radiative forcing resulting from marine organic aerosols. Model simulations show that the anthropogenic aerosol indirect forcing (AIF) predicted by CAM5 is decreased in absolute magnitude by up to 0.09 Wm{sup -2} (7 %) when marine organic aerosols are included. Changes in the AIF from marine organic aerosols are associated with small global increases in low-level incloud droplet number concentration and liquid water path of 1.3 cm{sup -3} (1.5 %) and 0.22 gm{sup -2} (0.5 %), respectively. Areas especially sensitive to changes in cloud properties due to marine organic aerosol include the Southern Ocean, North Pacific Ocean, and North Atlantic Ocean, all of which are characterized by high marine organic emission rates. As climate models are particularly sensitive to the background aerosol concentration, this small but non-negligible change in the AIF due to marine organic aerosols provides a notable link for ocean-ecosystem marine low-level cloud interactions and may be a candidate for consideration in future earth system models.

  1. Detection of Weakly Conserved Ancestral Mammalian RegulatorySequences by Primate Comparisons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qian-fei; Prabhakar, Shyam; Chanan, Sumita; Cheng,Jan-Fang; Rubin, Edward M.; Boffelli, Dario

    2006-06-01

    Genomic comparisons between human and distant, non-primatemammals are commonly used to identify cis-regulatory elements based onconstrained sequence evolution. However, these methods fail to detectcryptic functional elements, which are too weakly conserved among mammalsto distinguish from nonfunctional DNA. To address this problem, weexplored the potential of deep intra-primate sequence comparisons. Wesequenced the orthologs of 558 kb of human genomic sequence, coveringmultiple loci involved in cholesterol homeostasis, in 6 nonhumanprimates. Our analysis identified 6 noncoding DNA elements displayingsignificant conservation among primates, but undetectable in more distantcomparisons. In vitro and in vivo tests revealed that at least three ofthese 6 elements have regulatory function. Notably, the mouse orthologsof these three functional human sequences had regulatory activity despitetheir lack of significant sequence conservation, indicating that they arecryptic ancestral cis-regulatory elements. These regulatory elementscould still be detected in a smaller set of three primate speciesincluding human, rhesus and marmoset. Since the human and rhesus genomesequences are already available, and the marmoset genome is activelybeing sequenced, the primate-specific conservation analysis describedhere can be applied in the near future on a whole-genome scale, tocomplement the annotation provided by more distant speciescomparisons.

  2. Genome Sequence of the Mesophilic Thermotogales Bacterium Mesotoga prima MesG1.Ag.4.2 Reveals the Largest Thermotogales Genome To Date

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhaxybayeva, Olga; Swithers, Kristen S; Foght, Julia; Green, Anna G.; Bruce, David; Detter, J. Chris; Han, Cliff; Teshima, Hazuki; Han, James; Woyke, Tanja; Pitluck, Sam; Nolan, Matt; Ivanova, N; Pati, Amrita; Land, Miriam L; Dlutek, Marlena; Doolittle, W. Ford; Noll, Kenneth M; Nesbo, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    Here we describe the genome of Mesotoga prima MesG1.Ag4.2, the first genome of a mesophilic Thermotogales bacterium. Mesotoga prima was isolated from a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-dechlorinating enrichment culture from Baltimore Harbor sediments. Its 2.97 Mb genome is considerably larger than any previously sequenced Thermotogales genomes, which range between 1.86 and 2.30 Mb. This larger size is due to both higher numbers of protein-coding genes and larger intergenic regions. In particular, the M. prima genome contains more genes for proteins involved in regulatory functions, for instance those involved in regulation of transcription. Together with its closest relative, Kosmotoga olearia, it also encodes different types of proteins involved in environmental and cell-cell interactions as compared with other Thermotogales bacteria. Amino acid composition analysis of M. prima proteins implies that this lineage has inhabited low-temperature environments for a long time. A large fraction of the M. prima genome has been acquired by lateral gene transfer (LGT): a DarkHorse analysis suggests that 766 (32%) of predicted protein-coding genes have been involved in LGT after Mesotoga diverged from the other Thermotogales lineages. A notable example of a lineage-specific LGT event is a reductive dehalogenase gene - a key enzyme in dehalorespiration, indicating M. prima may have a more active role in PCB dechlorination than was previously assumed.

  3. Comparison of Vaisala radiosondes RS41 and RS92 at the ARM Southern Great Plains Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, M. P.; Holdridge, D.; Survo, P.; Lehtinen, R.; Baxter, S.; Toto, T.; Johnson, K. L.

    2015-11-02

    In the fall of 2013, the Vaisala RS41-SG (4th generation) radiosonde was introduced as a replacement for the RS92-SGP radiosonde with improvements in measurement accuracy of profiles of atmospheric temperature, humidity and pressure. Thus, in order to help characterize these improvements, an intercomparison campaign was undertaken at the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Facility site in north Central Oklahoma USA. During 3–8 June 2014, a total of 20 twin-radiosonde flights were performed in a variety of atmospheric conditions representing typical midlatitude continental summertime conditions. The results suggest that the RS92 and RS41 measurements generally agree within manufacturer specified tolerances with notable exceptions when exiting liquid cloud layers where the "wet bulbing" effect is mitigated in the RS41 observations. The RS41 measurements also appear to show a smaller impact from solar heating. These results suggest that the RS41 does provide important improvements, particularly in cloudy conditions, but under most observational conditions the RS41 and RS92 measurements agree within the manufacturer specified limits and so a switch to RS41 radiosondes will have little impact on long-term observational records.

  4. Tank 241-AY-102 Secondary Liner Corrosion Evaluation - 14191

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boomer, Kayle D.; Washenfelder, Dennis J.; Johnson, Jeremy M.

    2014-01-07

    In October 2012, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) determined that the primary tank of 241-AY-102 (AY-102) was leaking. A number of evaluations were performed after discovery of the leak which identified corrosion from storage of waste at the high waste temperatures as one of the major contributing factors in the failure of the tank. The propensity for corrosion of the waste on the annulus floor will be investigated to determine if it is corrosive and must be promptly removed or if it is benign and may remain in the annulus. The chemical composition of waste, the temperature and the character of the steel are important factors in assessing the propensity for corrosion. Unfortunately, the temperatures of the wastes in contact with the secondary steel liner are not known; they are estimated to range from 45 deg C to 60 deg C. It is also notable that most corrosion tests have been carried out with un-welded, stress-relieved steels, but the secondary liner in tank AY-102 was not stress-relieved. In addition, the cold weather fabrication and welding led to many problems, which required repeated softening of the metal to flatten secondary bottom during its construction. This flame treatment may have altered the microstructure of the steel.

  5. Comparison of Vaisala radiosondes RS41 and RS92 at the ARM Southern Great Plains Site

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jensen, M. P.; Holdridge, D.; Survo, P.; Lehtinen, R.; Baxter, S.; Toto, T.; Johnson, K. L.

    2015-11-02

    In the fall of 2013, the Vaisala RS41-SG (4th generation) radiosonde was introduced as a replacement for the RS92-SGP radiosonde with improvements in measurement accuracy of profiles of atmospheric temperature, humidity and pressure. Thus, in order to help characterize these improvements, an intercomparison campaign was undertaken at the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Facility site in north Central Oklahoma USA. During 3–8 June 2014, a total of 20 twin-radiosonde flights were performed in a variety of atmospheric conditions representing typical midlatitude continental summertime conditions. The results suggest that the RS92 and RS41 measurements generally agree within manufacturermore » specified tolerances with notable exceptions when exiting liquid cloud layers where the "wet bulbing" effect is mitigated in the RS41 observations. The RS41 measurements also appear to show a smaller impact from solar heating. These results suggest that the RS41 does provide important improvements, particularly in cloudy conditions, but under most observational conditions the RS41 and RS92 measurements agree within the manufacturer specified limits and so a switch to RS41 radiosondes will have little impact on long-term observational records.« less

  6. Disturbed subsurface microbial communities follow equivalent trajectories despite different structural starting points

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Handley, Kim M.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Miller, Christopher S.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Kantor, Rose S.; Thomas, Brian C.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Long, Philip E.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-03-01

    We explored the impact of the starting community composition and structure on ecosystem response to perturbations using organic carbon amendment experiments. Subsurface sediment was partitioned into flow-through columns, and the microbial communities were initially stimulated in situ by addition of acetate as a carbon and electron donor source. This drove community richness and evenness down, and pushed the system into a new biogeochemical state characterized by iron reduction. Reconstructed near-full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated a concomitant enrichment of Desulfuromonadales, Comamonadaceae and Bacteroidetes lineages. After 10 to 12 days, acetate was exchange for lactate in a subset of columns. Following the clear onset of sulfate reduction (35 days after acetate-amendment), acetate was substituted for lactate in additional columns. Acetatestimulated communities differed markedly during each biogeochemical regime and at each lactate-switch. Regardless, however, of when communities were switched to lactate, they followed comparable trajectories with respect to composition and structure, with convergence evident one week after each switch, and marked after one month of lactate amendment. During sulfate reduction all treatments were enriched in Firmicutes and a number of species likely involved in sulfate reduction (notably Desulfobulbus, Desulfosporosinus, Desulfitobacterium and Desulfotomaculum). Lactate treatments were distinguished by substantially lower relative abundances of Desulfotomaculum and Bacteroidetes, and enrichments of Psychrosinus and Clostridiales species. Results imply that the structure of the starting community was not significant in controlling organism selection in community succession.

  7. Multi angle laser light scattering evaluation of field exposed thermoplastic photovoltaic encapsulant materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kempe, Michael D.; Miller, David C.; Wohlgemuth, John H.; Kurtz, Sarah R.; Moseley, John M.; Nobles, Dylan L.; Stika, Katherine M.; Brun, Yefim; Samuels, Sam L.; Shah, Qurat Annie; et al

    2016-01-08

    As creep of polymeric materials is potentially a safety concern for photovoltaic modules, the potential for module creep has become a significant topic of discussion in the development of IEC 61730 and IEC 61215. To investigate the possibility of creep, modules were constructed, using several thermoplastic encapsulant materials, into thin-film mock modules and deployed in Mesa, Arizona. The materials examined included poly(ethylene)-co-vinyl acetate (EVA, including formulations both cross-linked and with no curing agent), polyethylene/polyoctene copolymer (PO), poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), polyvinyl butyral (PVB), and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). The absence of creep in this experiment is attributable to several factors of which themore » most notable one was the unexpected cross-linking of an EVA formulation without a cross-linking agent. It was also found that some materials experienced both chain scission and cross-linking reactions, sometimes with a significant dependence on location within a module. The TPU and EVA samples were found to degrade with cross-linking reactions dominating over chain scission. In contrast, the PO materials degraded with chain scission dominating over cross-linking reactions. Furthermore, we found no significant indications that viscous creep is likely to occur in fielded modules capable of passing the qualification tests, we note that one should consider how a polymer degrades, chain scission or cross-linking, in assessing the suitability of a thermoplastic polymer in terrestrial photovoltaic applications.« less

  8. Associations between bacterial communities of house dust and infant gut

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konya, T.; Koster, B.; Maughan, H.; Escobar, M.; Azad, M.B.; Guttman, D.S.; Sears, M.R.; Becker, A.B.; Brook, J.R.; Takaro, T.K.; Kozyrskyj, A.L.; Scott, J.A.

    2014-05-01

    The human gut is host to a diverse and abundant community of bacteria that influence health and disease susceptibility. This community develops in infancy, and its composition is strongly influenced by environmental factors, notably perinatal anthropogenic exposures such as delivery mode (Cesarean vs. vaginal) and feeding method (breast vs. formula); however, the built environment as a possible source of exposure has not been considered. Here we report on a preliminary investigation of the associations between bacteria in house dust and the nascent fecal microbiota from 20 subjects from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study using high-throughput sequence analysis of portions of the 16S rRNA gene. Despite significant differences between the dust and fecal microbiota revealed by Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) analysis, permutation analysis confirmed that 14 bacterial OTUs representing the classes Actinobacteria (3), Bacilli (3), Clostridia (6) and Gammaproteobacteria (2) co-occurred at a significantly higher frequency in matched duststool pairs than in randomly permuted pairs, indicating an association between these dust and stool communities. These associations could indicate a role for the indoor environment in shaping the nascent gut microbiota, but future studies will be needed to confirm that our findings do not solely reflect a reverse pathway. Although pet ownership was strongly associated with the presence of certain genera in the dust for dogs (Agrococcus, Carnobacterium, Exiguobacterium, Herbaspirillum, Leifsonia and Neisseria) and cats (Escherichia), no clear patterns were observed in the NMDS-resolved stool community profiles as a function of pet ownership.

  9. The differing magnitude distributions of the two Jupiter Trojan color populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Ian; Brown, Michael E.; Emery, Joshua P.

    2014-12-01

    The Jupiter Trojans are a significant population of minor bodies in the middle solar system that have garnered substantial interest in recent years. Several spectroscopic studies of these objects have revealed notable bimodalities with respect to near-infrared spectra, infrared albedo, and color, which suggest the existence of two distinct groups among the Trojan population. In this paper, we analyze the magnitude distributions of these two groups, which we refer to as the red and less red color populations. By compiling spectral and photometric data from several previous works, we show that the observed bimodalities are self-consistent and categorize 221 of the 842 Trojans with absolute magnitudes in the range H<12.3 into the two color populations. We demonstrate that the magnitude distributions of the two color populations are distinct to a high confidence level (>95%) and fit them individually to a broken power law, with special attention given to evaluating and correcting for incompleteness in the Trojan catalog as well as incompleteness in our categorization of objects. A comparison of the best-fit curves shows that the faint-end power-law slopes are markedly different for the two color populations, which indicates that the red and less red Trojans likely formed in different locations. We propose a few hypotheses for the origin and evolution of the Trojan population based on the analyzed data.

  10. Compensated individually addressable array technology for human breast imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, D. Kent

    2003-01-01

    A method of forming broad bandwidth acoustic or microwave beams which encompass array design, array excitation, source signal preprocessing, and received signal postprocessing. This technique uses several different methods to achieve improvement over conventional array systems. These methods are: 1) individually addressable array elements; 2) digital-to-analog converters for the source signals; 3) inverse filtering from source precompensation; and 4) spectral extrapolation to expand the bandwidth of the received signals. The components of the system will be used as follows: 1) The individually addressable array allows scanning around and over an object, such as a human breast, without any moving parts. The elements of the array are broad bandwidth elements and efficient radiators, as well as detectors. 2) Digital-to-analog converters as the source signal generators allow virtually any radiated field to be created in the half-space in front of the array. 3) Preprocessing allows for corrections in the system, most notably in the response of the individual elements and in the ability to increase contrast and resolution of signal propagating through the medium under investigation. 4) Postprocessing allows the received broad bandwidth signals to be expanded in a process similar to analytic continuation. Used together, the system allows for compensation to create beams of any desired shape, control the wave fields generated to correct for medium differences, and improve contract and resolution in and through the medium.

  11. Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging LIDAR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B.; Rohde, C. A.; Tellier, L. L.; Ho, Cheng,

    2002-01-01

    At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data oti various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

  12. Active probing of cloud thickness and optical depth using wide-angle imaging LIDAR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B.; Rohde, C. A.; Tellier, L. L.; Ho, Cheng,

    2002-01-01

    At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60{sup o} full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Section 2 covers the up-to-date evolution of the nighttime WAIL instrument at LANL. Section 3 reports our progress towards daytime capability for WAIL, an important extension to full diurnal cycle monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter. Section 4 describes briefly how the important cloud properties can be inferred from WAIL signals.

  13. Developments in oil shale in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knutson, C.F.; Dana, G.F.; Solti, G.; Qian, J.L.; Ball, F.D.; Hutton, A.C.; Hanna, J.; Russell, P.L.; Piper, E.M.

    1988-10-01

    Oil shale development continued at a slow pace in 1987. The continuing interest in this commodity is demonstrated by the 342 oil shale citations added to the US Department of Energy Energy Database during 1987. The Unocal project in Parachute, Colorado, produced 600,000 bbl of synfuel in 1987. An appreciable amount of 1987's activity was associated with the nonsynfuel uses of oil shale. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Fire In The Ice

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fire in the Ice The methane hydrate newsletter, Fire in the Ice, is a quarterly publication highlighting the latest developments in international gas hydrates R&D. Fire in the Ice promotes the exchange of information amoung those involved in gas hydrates research and development, and also recognizes the efforts of a hydrate researcher in each issue. The newsletter now reaches nearly 1300 scientists and other interested individuals in sixteen countries. To subscribe electronically to Fire in

  15. Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    A review of the market implications resulting from the rapid change from methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to ethanol-blended reformulated gasoline (RFG) on the East Coast and in Texas. Strains in ethanol supply and distribution will increase the potential for price volatility in these regions this summer.

  16. MSFR TRU-burning potential and comparison with an SFR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiorina, C.; Cammi, A.; Franceschini, F.; Krepel, J.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) potential benefits in terms of transuranics (TRU) burning through a comparative analysis with a sodium-cooled FR. The comparison is based on TRU- and MA-burning rates, as well as on the in-core evolution of radiotoxicity and decay heat. Solubility issues limit the TRU-burning rate to 1/3 that achievable in traditional low-CR FRs (low-Conversion-Ratio Fast Reactors). The softer spectrum also determines notable radiotoxicity and decay heat of the equilibrium actinide inventory. On the other hand, the liquid fuel suggests the possibility of using a Pu-free feed composed only of Th and MA (Minor Actinides), thus maximizing the MA burning rate. This is generally not possible in traditional low-CR FRs due to safety deterioration and decay heat of reprocessed fuel. In addition, the high specific power and the lack of out-of-core cooling times foster a quick transition toward equilibrium, which improves the MSFR capability to burn an initial fissile loading, and makes the MSFR a promising system for a quick (i.e., in a reactor lifetime) transition from the current U-based fuel cycle to a novel closed Th cycle. (authors)

  17. The Use of Water Vapor as a Refrigerant: Impact of Cycle Modifications on Commercial Viability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon F. Lachner, Jr.; Gregory F. Nellis; Douglas T. Reindl

    2004-08-30

    This project investigated the economic viability of using water as the refrigerant in a 1000-ton chiller application. The most attractive water cycle configuration was found to be a flash-intercooled, two-stage cycle using centrifugal compressors and direct contact heat exchangers. Component level models were developed that could be used to predict the size and performance of the compressors and heat exchangers in this cycle as well as in a baseline, R-134a refrigeration cycle consistent with chillers in use today. A survey of several chiller manufacturers provided information that was used to validate and refine these component models. The component models were integrated into cycle models that were subsequently used to investigate the life-cycle costs of both an R-134a and water refrigeration cycle. It was found that the first cost associated with the water as a refrigerant cycle greatly exceeded the savings in operating costs associated with its somewhat higher COP. Therefore, the water refrigeration cycle is not an economically attractive option to today's R-134a refrigeration system. There are a number of other issues, most notably the requirements associated with purging non-condensable gases that accumulate in a direct contact heat exchanger, which will further reduce the economic viability of the water cycle.

  18. DETECTION OF WIDESPREAD HYDRATED MATERIALS ON VESTA BY THE VIR IMAGING SPECTROMETER ON BOARD THE DAWN MISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Sanctis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; Palomba, E.; Longobardo, A.; Capaccioni, F.; Capria, M. T.; Tosi, F.; Zambon, F.; Carraro, F.; Fonte, S.; Frigeri, A.; Magni, G.; Combe, J.-Ph.; McCord, T. B.; Marchi, S.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Pieters, C. M.; Sunshine, J.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.; and others

    2012-10-20

    Water plays a key role in the evolution of terrestrial planets, and notably in the occurrence of Earth's oceans. However, the mechanism by which water has been incorporated into these bodies-including Earth-is still extensively debated. Here we report the detection of widespread 2.8 {mu}m OH absorption bands on the surface of the asteroid Vesta by the VIR imaging spectrometer on board Dawn. These observations are surprising as Vesta is fully differentiated with a basaltic surface. The 2.8 {mu}m OH absorption is distributed across Vesta's surface and shows areas enriched and depleted in hydrated materials. The uneven distribution of hydrated mineral phases is unexpected and indicates ancient processes that differ from those believed to be responsible for OH on other airless bodies, like the Moon. The origin of Vestan OH provides new insight into the delivery of hydrous materials in the main belt and may offer new scenarios on the delivery of hydrous minerals in the inner solar system, suggesting processes that may have played a role in the formation of terrestrial planets.

  19. Abrupt Climate Change and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation: sensitivity and non-linear response to Arctic/sub-Arctic freshwater pulses. Collaborative research. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, Christopher

    2015-06-15

    This project investigated possible mechanisms by which melt-water pulses can induce abrupt change in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) magnitude. AMOC magnitude is an important ingredient in present day climate. Previous studies have hypothesized abrupt reduction in AMOC magnitude in response to influxes of glacial melt water into the North Atlantic. Notable fresh-water influxes are associated with the terminus of the last ice age. During this period large volumes of melt water accumulated behind retreating ice sheets and subsequently drained rapidly when the ice weakened sufficiently. Rapid draining of glacial lakes into the North Atlantic is a possible origin of a number of paleo-record abrupt climate shifts. These include the Younger-Dryas cooling event and the 8,200 year cooling event. The studies undertaken focused on whether the mechanistic sequence by which glacial melt-water impacts AMOC, which then impacts Northern Hemisphere global mean surface temperature, is dynamically plausible. The work has implications for better understanding past climate stability. The work also has relevance for today’s environment, in which high-latitude ice melting in Greenland appears to be driving fresh water outflows at an accelerating pace.

  20. Deep Spatiotemporal Feature Learning with Application to Image Classification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karnowski, Thomas Paul; Arel, Itamar; Rose, Derek C

    2010-01-01

    Deep machine learning is an emerging framework for dealing with complex high-dimensionality data in a hierarchical fashion which draws some inspiration from biological sources. Despite the notable progress made in the field, there remains a need for an architecture that can represent temporal information with the same ease that spatial information is discovered. In this work, we present new results using a recently introduced deep learning architecture called Deep Spatio-Temporal Inference Network (DeSTIN). DeSTIN is a discriminative deep learning architecture that combines concepts from unsupervised learning for dynamic pattern representation together with Bayesian inference. In DeSTIN the spatiotemporal dependencies that exist within the observations are modeled inherently in an unguided manner. Each node models the inputs by means of clustering and simple dynamics modeling while it constructs a belief state over the distribution of sequences using Bayesian inference. We demonstrate that information from the different layers of this hierarchical system can be extracted and utilized for the purpose of pattern classification. Earlier simulation results indicated that the framework is highly promising, consequently in this work we expand DeSTIN to a popular problem, the MNIST data set of handwritten digits. The system as a preprocessor to a neural network achieves a recognition accuracy of 97.98% on this data set. We further show related experimental results pertaining to automatic cluster adaptation and termination.

  1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Hydropower Reservoirs: FY2011 Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Arthur J; Mosher, Jennifer J; Mulholland, Patrick J; Fortner, Allison M; Phillips, Jana Randolph; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2012-05-01

    The primary objective of this study is to quantify the net emissions of key greenhouse gases (GHG) - notably, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} - from hydropower reservoirs in moist temperate areas within the U.S. The rationale for this objective is straightforward: if net emissions of GHG can be determined, it would be possible to directly compare hydropower to other power-producing methods on a carbon-emissions basis. Studies of GHG emissions from hydropower reservoirs elsewhere suggest that net emissions can be moderately high in tropical areas. In such areas, warm temperatures and relatively high supply rates of labile organic matter can encourage high rates of decomposition, which (depending upon local conditions) can result in elevated releases of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} emissions also tend to be higher for younger reservoirs than for older reservoirs, because vegetation and labile soil organic matter that is inundated when a reservoir is created can continue to decompose for several years (Galy-Lacaux et al. 1997, Barros et al. 2011). Water bodies located in climatically cooler areas, such as in boreal forests, could be expected to have lower net emissions of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} because their organic carbon supplies tend to be relatively recalcitrant to microbial action and because cooler water temperatures are less conducive to decomposition.

  2. British nuclear policymaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowie, C.J.; Platt, A.

    1984-01-01

    This study analyzes the domestic political, economic, and bureaucratic factors that affect the nuclear policymaking process in Great Britain. Its major conclusion is that, although there have been changes in that process in recent years (notably the current involvement of a segment of the British public in the debate about the deployment of intermediate-range nuclear forces), future British nuclear policymaking will remain much what it has been in the past. Three ideas are central to understanding British thinking on the subject: (1) Britain's long-standing resolve to have her own national nuclear force is largely traceable to her desire to maintain first-rank standing among the nations of the world in spite of loss of empire. (2) Financial considerations have always been important--so much so that they have usually dominated issues of nuclear policy. (3) The executive branch of government dominates the nuclear policymaking process but does not always present a united front. The United States heavily influences British nuclear policy through having supplied Britain since the late 1950s with nuclear data and components of nuclear weapon systems such as Polaris and Trident. The relationship works both ways since the U.S. depends on Britain as a base for deployment of both conventional and nuclear systems.

  3. EPA programs to reduce NO{sub x} and particulate matter emissions from electric utility sources and the possible impact of deregulation on those EPA programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, A.B.

    1997-12-31

    At the same time that the electric utility industry is in the midst of deregulation, it could be hit with numerous additional regulatory burdens. For example, EPA now plans to decide by July 1997 whether to make major changes to the current ozone and particulate matter ambient standards -- changes which could force utilities to reduce significantly both their nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions. Even if EPA does not adopt new ambient standards, though, many electric utilities still face the prospect of making additional NO{sub x} reductions if they are found to be contributing to ozone levels in areas that are not meeting the current ozone ambient standards. Several multi-state groups -- notably the Ozone Transport Assessment Group (OTAG) and the Northeast Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) -- are evaluating programs that could lead to calls for additional NO{sub x} reductions from power plants in ozone nonattainment areas and from plants located outside the nonattainment areas but found to be contributing to ozone levels in those areas. And these multi-state groups are motivated not only by pollution levels they see now, but also by what they fear will be increased pollution levels as a result of deregulation. This paper examines the status of the major rulemakings now underway that could force substantial additional reductions in electric utility NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions. It also discusses the impacts that deregulation could have in those rulemakings.

  4. Alternative disposal options for alpha-mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loomis, G.G.; Sherick, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents several disposal options for the Department of Energy alpha-mixed low-level waste. The mixed nature of the waste favors thermally treating the waste to either an iron-enriched basalt or glass waste form, at which point a multitude of reasonable disposal options, including in-state disposal, are a possibility. Most notably, these waste forms will meet the land-ban restrictions. However, the thermal treatment of this waste involves considerable waste handling and complicated/expensive offgas systems with secondary waste management problems. In the United States, public perception of offgas systems in the radioactive incinerator area is unfavorable. The alternatives presented here are nonthermal in nature and involve homogenizing the waste with cryogenic techniques followed by complete encapsulation with a variety of chemical/grouting agents into retrievable waste forms. Once encapsulated, the waste forms are suitable for transport out of the state or for actual in-state disposal. This paper investigates variances that would have to be obtained and contrasts the alternative encapsulation idea with the thermal treatment option.

  5. Investigation of solution-processed bismuth-niobium-oxide films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inoue, Satoshi; Ariga, Tomoki; Matsumoto, Shin; Onoue, Masatoshi; Miyasako, Takaaki; Tokumitsu, Eisuke; Shimoda, Tatsuya; Chinone, Norimichi; Cho, Yasuo

    2014-10-21

    The characteristics of bismuth-niobium-oxide (BNO) films prepared using a solution process were investigated. The BNO film annealed at 550C involving three phases: an amorphous phase, Bi?NbO? fluorite microcrystals, and Nb-rich cubic pyrochlore microcrystals. The cubic pyrochlore structure, which was the main phase in this film, has not previously been reported in BNO films. The relative dielectric constant of the BNO film was approximately 140, which is much higher than that of a corresponding film prepared using a conventional vacuum sputtering process. Notably, the cubic pyrochlore microcrystals disappeared with increasing annealing temperature and were replaced with triclinic ?-BiNbO? crystals at 590C. The relative dielectric constant also decreased with increasing annealing temperature. Therefore, the high relative dielectric constant of the BNO film annealed at 550C is thought to result from the BNO cubic pyrochlore structure. In addition, the BNO films annealed at 500C contained approximately 6.5 atm.% carbon, which was lost at approximately 550C. This result suggests that the carbon in the BNO film played an important role in the formation of the cubic pyrochlore structure.

  6. Structural Studies of Bacterial Enzymes and their Relation to Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms - Final Paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maltz, Lauren

    2015-08-27

    By using protein crystallography and X-ray diffraction, structures of bacterial enzymes were solved to gain a better understanding of how enzymatic modification acts as an antibacterial resistance mechanism. Aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs) are one of three aminoglycoside modifying enzymes that confer resistance to the aminoglycoside antibiotics via enzymatic modification, rendering many drugs obsolete. Specifically, the APH(2) family vary in their substrate specificities and also in their preference for the phosphate donor (ADP versus GDP). By solving the structures of members of the APH(2) family of enzymes, we can see how domain movements are important to their substrate specificity. Our structure of the ternary complex of APH(2)-IIIa with GDP and kanamycin, when compared to the known structures of APH(2)-IVa, reveals that there are real physical differences between these two enzymes, a structural finding that explains why the two enzymes differ in their preferences for certain aminoglycosides. Another important group of bacterial resistance enzymes are the Class D ?- lactamases. Oxacillinase carbapenemases (OXAs) are part of this enzyme class and have begun to confer resistance to last resort drugs, most notably carbapenems. Our structure of OXA-143 shows that the conformational flexibility of a conserved hydrophobic residue in the active site (Val130) serves to control the entry of a transient water molecule responsible for a key step in the enzymes mechanism. Our results provide insight into the structural mechanisms of these two different enzymes

  7. Bacterial Enzymes and Antibiotic Resistance- Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maltz, Lauren

    2015-08-25

    By using protein crystallography and X-ray diffraction, structures of bacterial enzymes were solved to gain a better understanding of how enzymatic modification acts as an antibacterial resistance mechanism. Aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs) are one of three aminoglycoside modifying enzymes that confer resistance to the aminoglycoside antibiotics via enzymatic modification, rendering many drugs obsolete. Specifically, the APH(2) family vary in their substrate specificities and also in their preference for the phosphate donor (ADP versus GDP). By solving the structures of members of the APH(2) family of enzymes, we can see how domain movements are important to their substrate specificity. Our structure of the ternary complex of APH(2)-IIIa with GDP and kanamycin, when compared to the known structures of APH(2)-IVa, reveals that there are real physical differences between these two enzymes, a structural finding that explains why the two enzymes differ in their preferences for certain aminoglycosides. Another important group of bacterial resistance enzymes are the Class D ?-lactamases. Oxacillinase carbapenemases (OXAs) are part of this enzyme class and have begun to confer resistance to last resort drugs, most notably carbapenems. Our structure of OXA-143 shows that the conformational flexibility of a conserved hydrophobic residue in the active site (Val130) serves to control the entry of a transient water molecule responsible for a key step in the enzymes mechanism. Our results provide insight into the structural mechanisms of these two different enzymes.

  8. A HYBRID SCENARIO FOR THE FORMATION OF BROWN DWARFS AND VERY LOW MASS STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, Shantanu; Vorobyov, Eduard I. E-mail: eduard.vorobiev@univie.ac.at

    2012-05-01

    We present a calculation of protostellar disk formation and evolution in which gaseous clumps (essentially, the first Larson cores formed via disk fragmentation) are ejected from the disk during the early stage of evolution. This is a universal process related to the phenomenon of ejection in multiple systems of point masses. However, it occurs in our model entirely due to the interaction of compact, gravitationally bound gaseous clumps and is free from the smoothing-length uncertainty that is characteristic of models using sink particles. Clumps that survive ejection span a mass range of 0.08-0.35 M{sub Sun }, and have ejection velocities 0.8 {+-} 0.35 km s{sup -1}, which are several times greater than the escape speed. We suggest that, upon contraction, these clumps can form substellar or low-mass stellar objects with notable disks, or even close-separation very low mass binaries. In this hybrid scenario, allowing for ejection of clumps rather than finished protostars/proto-brown-dwarfs, disk formation and the low velocity dispersion of low-mass objects are naturally explained, while it is also consistent with the observation of isolated low-mass clumps that are ejection products. We conclude that clump ejection and the formation of isolated low-mass stellar and substellar objects is a common occurrence, with important implications for understanding the initial mass function, the brown dwarf desert, and the formation of stars in all environments and epochs.

  9. Midwest superconductivity consortium. 1993 Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The Midwest Superconductivity Consortium, MISCON, in the fourth year of operations further strengthened its mission to advance the science and understanding of high T{sub c} superconductivity. The goals of the organization and the individual projects continue to reflect the current needs for new knowledge in the field and the unique capabilities of the institutions involved. Group efforts and cooperative laboratory interactions to achieve the greatest possible synergy under the Consortium continue to be emphasized. Industrial affiliations coupled with technology transfer initiatives were expanded. Activities of the participants during the past year achieved an interactive and high level of performance. The number of notable achievements in the field contributed by Consortium investigators increased. The programmatic research continues to focus upon key materials-related problems in two areas. The first area has a focus upon {open_quotes}Synthesis and Processing{close_quotes} while the second is centered around {open_quotes}Limiting Features in Transport Properties of High T{sub c} Materials{close_quotes}.

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Clustered DNA Damages Induced by Silicon Beams of Different Kinetic Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keszenman D. J.; Keszenman, D.J.; Bennett, P.V.; Sutherland, B.M.; Wilson, P.F.

    2013-05-14

    Humans may b exposed to highly energetic charged particle radiation as a result of medical treatments, occupational activitie or accidental events. In recent years, our increasing presence and burgeoning interest in space exploration beyond low Earth orbit has led to a large increase in the research of the biological effects ofcharged particle radiation typical of that encountered in the space radiation environment. The study of the effects of these types of radiation qualities in terms ofDNA damage induction and repair is fundamental to understand mechanisms both underlying their greater biological effectiveness as we)) as the short and long term risks of health effects such as carcinogenesis, degen rative diseases and premature aging. Charged particle radiation induces a variety of DNA alterations, notably bistranded clustered damages, defined as two or more closely-opposed strand break , oxidized bases or abasic sites within a few helical turns. The induction of such highly complex DNA damage enhances the probability of incorrect or incomplete repair and thus constitutes greater potential for genomic instability, cell death and transformation.

  11. Transmission integral analysis of Mssbauer spectra displaying hyperfine parameter distributions with arbitrary profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klencsr, Zoltn

    2014-10-27

    Accurate quantitative analysis of Mssbauer spectra displaying thickness effects requires the consideration of the so-called transmission integral when modeling the spectral shape. Whereas this is straightforward when the correct model for the decomposition of the absorber's nuclear resonance absorption cross-section into individual components is a priori known, in the absence of such knowledge and notably in the presence of hyperfine parameter distributions with an unknown profile, the so-called model-independent evaluation methods could be used to fit the spectra. However, the methods available for this purpose were developed for the analysis of spectra for which the thin absorber approximation is valid, and thus they do not take the sample thickness and related effects into account. Consequently, in order to use them for spectra displaying thickness effects, their usage needs to be generalized by combining them with transmission integral fitting. A new algorithm realizing such a generalized version of the Hesse-Rbartsch model-independent evaluation method was developed recently as an integral part of the MossWinn program. In the present work, the working principle of the newly developed algorithm is described in details along with examples illustrating the capabilities of the method for the case of {sup 57}Fe Mssbauer spectroscopy.

  12. Early-lanthanide(III) acetonitrile–solvento adducts with iodide and noncoordinating anions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Jessie L.; Davis, Benjamin L.; Scott, Brian L.; Gaunt, Andrew J.

    2015-12-25

    Dissolution of LnI3 (Ln = La, Ce) in acetonitrile (MeCN) results in the highly soluble solvates LnI3(MeCN)5 [Ln = La (1), Ce (2)] in good yield. The ionic complex [La(MeCN)9][LaI6] (4), containing a rare homoleptic La3+ cation and anion, was also isolated as a minor product. Extending this chemistry to NdI3 results in the consistent formation of the complex ionic structure [Nd(MeCN)9]2[NdI5(MeCN)][NdI6][I] (3), which contains an unprecedented pentaiodide lanthanoid anion. Also described is the synthesis, isolation, and structural characterization of several homoleptic early-lanthanide MeCN solvates with noncoordinating anions, namely, [Ln(MeCN)9][AlCl4]3 [Ln = La (5), Ce (6), Nd (7)]. Notably, complex 6 is the first homoleptic cerium MeCN solvate reported to date. All reported complexes were structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography, as well as by IR spectroscopy and CHN elemental analysis. Furthermore, complexes 1–3 were also characterized by thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry to further elucidate their bulk composition in the solid-state.

  13. DDE-MURR Status Report of Conceptual Design Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; R.B. Nielson; M.H. Sprenger; G.K. Housley

    2013-09-01

    The Design Demonstration Experiment for the University of Missouri Research Reactor (DDE-MURR) is intended to facilitate Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) conversion of the MURR by demonstrating the performance and fabrication of the LEU fuel element design through an irradiation test in a 200mm channel at the Belgium Reactor 2 (BR2). Revision 0 of this report was prepared at the end of government fiscal year 2012 when most of the resources for furthering DDE design work were expected to be postponed. Hence, the conceptual design efforts were summarized to provide the status of key objectives, notable results, and provisions for future design work. Revision 1 of this report was prepared at the end of fiscal year 2013 in order to include results from a neutronic study performed by BR2, to incorporate further details that had been achieved in the engineering sketches of the irradiation devices, and to provide an update of the DDE-MURR campaign in relation to program objectives and opportunities for its eventual irradiation. These updates were purposed to bring the DDE-MURR conceptual design to level of maturity similar to that of the other two DDE efforts (DDE-MITR and DDE-NBSR). This report demonstrates that the DDE-MURR design effort is well on the path to producing a suitable irradiation experiment, but also puts forth several recommendations in order to facilitate success of the irradiation campaign.

  14. Early-lanthanide(III) acetonitrile–solvento adducts with iodide and noncoordinating anions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brown, Jessie L.; Davis, Benjamin L.; Scott, Brian L.; Gaunt, Andrew J.

    2015-12-25

    Dissolution of LnI3 (Ln = La, Ce) in acetonitrile (MeCN) results in the highly soluble solvates LnI3(MeCN)5 [Ln = La (1), Ce (2)] in good yield. The ionic complex [La(MeCN)9][LaI6] (4), containing a rare homoleptic La3+ cation and anion, was also isolated as a minor product. Extending this chemistry to NdI3 results in the consistent formation of the complex ionic structure [Nd(MeCN)9]2[NdI5(MeCN)][NdI6][I] (3), which contains an unprecedented pentaiodide lanthanoid anion. Also described is the synthesis, isolation, and structural characterization of several homoleptic early-lanthanide MeCN solvates with noncoordinating anions, namely, [Ln(MeCN)9][AlCl4]3 [Ln = La (5), Ce (6), Nd (7)]. Notably, complexmore » 6 is the first homoleptic cerium MeCN solvate reported to date. All reported complexes were structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography, as well as by IR spectroscopy and CHN elemental analysis. Furthermore, complexes 1–3 were also characterized by thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry to further elucidate their bulk composition in the solid-state.« less

  15. Stability of the solid electrolyte Li{sub 3}OBr to common battery solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, D.J.; Hubaud, A.A.; Vaughey, J.T.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The stability of the anti-perovskite phase Li{sub 3}OBr has been assessed in a variety of battery solvents. - Highlights: Lithium stable solid electrolyte Li{sub 3}OBr unstable to polar organic solvents. Solvation with no dissolution destroys long-range structure. Ion exchange with protons observed. - Abstract: Recently a new class of solid lithium ion conductors was reported based on the anti-perovskite structure, notably Li{sub 3}OCl and Li{sub 3}OBr. For many beyond lithium-ion battery uses, the solid electrolyte is envisioned to be in direct contact with liquid electrolytes and lithium metal. In this study we evaluated the stability of the Li{sub 3}OBr phase against common battery solvents electrolytes, including diethylcarbonate (DEC) and dimethylcarbonate (DMC), as well as a LiPF{sub 6} containing commercial electrolyte. In contact with battery-grade organic solvents, Li{sub 3}OBr was typically found to be insoluble but lost its crystallinity and reacted with available protons and in some cases with the solvent. A low temperature heat treatment was able to restore crystallinity of the samples; however evidence of proton ion exchange was conserved.

  16. Modeling Deep Burn TRISO Particle Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Samolyuk, German D [ORNL; Schuck, Paul C [ORNL; Rudin, Sven [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wills, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wirth, Brian D. [University of California, Berkeley; Kim, Sungtae [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Morgan, Dane [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Szlufarska, Izabela [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2012-01-01

    Under the DOE Deep Burn program TRISO fuel is being investigated as a fuel form for consuming plutonium and minor actinides, and for greater efficiency in uranium utilization. The result will thus be to drive TRISO particulate fuel to very high burn-ups. In the current effort the various phenomena in the TRISO particle are being modeled using a variety of techniques. The chemical behavior is being treated utilizing thermochemical analysis to identify phase formation/transformation and chemical activities in the particle, including kernel migration. First principles calculations are being used to investigate the critical issue of fission product palladium attack on the SiC coating layer. Density functional theory is being used to understand fission product diffusion within the plutonia oxide kernel. Kinetic Monte Carlo techniques are shedding light on transport of fission products, most notably silver, through the carbon and SiC coating layers. The diffusion of fission products through an alternative coating layer, ZrC, is being assessed via DFT methods. Finally, a multiscale approach is being used to understand thermal transport, including the effect of radiation damage induced defects, in a model SiC material.

  17. Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman

    2003-01-01

    Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

  18. Varying fine structure 'constant' and charged black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bekenstein, Jacob D.; Schiffer, Marcelo

    2009-12-15

    Speculation that the fine-structure constant {alpha} varies in spacetime has a long history. We derive, in 4-D general relativity and in isotropic coordinates, the solution for a charged spherical black hole according to the framework for dynamical {alpha} J. D. Bekenstein, Phys. Rev. D 25, 1527 (1982).. This solution coincides with a previously known one-parameter extension of the dilatonic black hole family. Among the notable properties of varying-{alpha} charged black holes are adherence to a 'no hair' principle, the absence of the inner (Cauchy) horizon of the Reissner-Nordstroem black holes, the nonexistence of precisely extremal black holes, and the appearance of naked singularities in an analytic extension of the relevant metric. The exteriors of almost extremal electrically (magnetically) charged black holes have simple structures which makes their influence on applied magnetic (electric) fields transparent. We rederive the thermodynamic functions of the modified black holes; the otherwise difficult calculation of the electric potential is done by a shortcut. We confirm that variability of {alpha} in the wake of expansion of the universe does not threaten the generalized second law.

  19. Magnetic Reconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masaaki Yamada, Russell Kulsrud and Hantao Ji

    2009-09-17

    We review the fundamental physics of magnetic reconnection in laboratory and space plasmas, by discussing results from theory, numerical simulations, observations from space satellites, and the recent results from laboratory plasma experiments. After a brief review of the well-known early work, we discuss representative recent experimental and theoretical work and attempt to interpret the essence of significant modern findings. In the area of local reconnection physics, many significant findings have been made with regard to two- uid physics and are related to the cause of fast reconnection. Profiles of the neutral sheet, Hall currents, and the effects of guide field, collisions, and micro-turbulence are discussed to understand the fundamental processes in a local reconnection layer both in space and laboratory plasmas. While the understanding of the global reconnection dynamics is less developed, notable findings have been made on this issue through detailed documentation of magnetic self-organization phenomena in fusion plasmas. Application of magnetic reconnection physics to astrophysical plasmas is also brie y discussed.

  20. Metal affinity enrichment increases the range and depth of proteome identification for extracellular microbial proteins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeler, Korin; Erickson, Brian K; Mueller, Ryan; Singer, Steven; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Hwang, Mona; Thelen, Michael P.; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L

    2012-01-01

    Many key proteins, such as those involved in cellular signaling or transcription, are difficult to measure in microbial proteomic experiments due to the interfering presence of more abundant, dominant proteins. In an effort to enhance the identification of previously undetected proteins, as well as provide a methodology for selective enrichment, we evaluated and optimized immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) coupled with mass spectrometric characterization of extracellular proteins from an extremophilic microbial community. Seven different metals were tested for IMAC enrichment. The combined results added 20% greater proteomic depth to the extracellular proteome. Although this IMAC enrichment could not be conducted at the physiological pH of the environmental system, this approach did yield a reproducible and specific enrichment of groups of proteins with functions potentially vital to the community, thereby providing a more extensive biochemical characterization. Notably, 40 unknown proteins previously annotated as hypothetical were enriched and identified for the first time. Examples of identified proteins includes a predicted TonB signal sensing protein homologous to other known TonB proteins and a protein with a COXG domain previously identified in many chemolithoautotrophic microbes as having a function in the oxidation of CO.

  1. Nanostructures for enzyme stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jungbae; Grate, Jay W.; Wang, Ping

    2006-02-02

    The last decade has witnessed notable breakthroughs in nanotechnology with development of various nanostructured materials such as mesoporous materials and nanoparticles. These nanostructures have been used as a host for enzyme immobilization via various approaches, such as enzyme adsorption, covalent attachment, enzyme encapsulation, and sophisticated combinations of methods. This review discusses the stabilization mechanisms behind these diverse approaches; such as confinement, pore size and volume, charge interaction, hydrophobic interaction, and multipoint attachment. In addition, we will introduce recent rigorous approaches to improve the enzyme stability in these nanostructures or develop new nanostructures for the enzyme stabilization. Especially, we will introduce our recent invention of a nanostructure, called single enzyme nanoparticles (SENs). In the form of SENs, each enzyme molecule is surrounded with a nanometer scale network, resulting in stabilization of enzyme activity without any serious limitation for the substrate transfer from solution to the active site. SENs can be further immobilized into mesoporous silica with a large surface area, providing a hierarchical approach for stable, immobilized enzyme systems for various applications, such as bioconversion, bioremediation, and biosensors.

  2. Establishment and growth of experimental grass species mixtures on coal mine sites reclaimed with municipal biosolids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halofsky, J.E.; McCormick, L.H.

    2005-05-01

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 requires that coal mine sites in the United States be reclaimed to establish vegetative cover that is diverse, native, and capable of plant succession. However, there is a question as to whether vegetation established on coal mine sites reclaimed with biosolids is diverse and capable of plant succession. The influx of nutrients with the addition of biosolids leads to long-term dominance by early-successional species, most notably grasses, and consequently, a low establishment of woody and volunteer species. Additionally, many grass species commonly planted in reclamation have aggressive growth habits that lead to their dominance in coal mine plant communities. The establishment and growth of selected grass mixes was evaluated to determine whether alternative grass mixes would be less competitive with woody and volunteer species as compared to commonly used grass mixes. Percent vegetative cover, species richness, and the survival of direct-seeded woody species were assessed for each treatment grass mixture. It was found that Poa compress and a mixture of P. compress, Panicum virgatum, and Trifolium repens provided adequate coverage while still allowing the highest species richness and survival of woody species. Use of these species mixtures in coal mine reclamation with biosolids in the eastern United States would likely lead to establishment of a more species-rich plant community with a greater woody species component while still providing erosion control and site protection.

  3. Model Evaluation Report for Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruskauff, Greg; Marutzky, Sam

    2014-09-01

    Model evaluation focused solely on the PIN STRIPE and MILK SHAKE underground nuclear tests contaminant boundaries (CBs) because they had the largest extent, uncertainty, and potential consequences. The CAMBRIC radionuclide migration experiment also had a relatively large CB, but because it was constrained by transport data (notably Well UE-5n), there was little uncertainty, and radioactive decay reduced concentrations before much migration could occur. Each evaluation target and the associated data-collection activity were assessed in turn to determine whether the new data support, or demonstrate conservatism of, the CB forecasts. The modeling teamin this case, the same team that developed the Frenchman Flat geologic, source term, and groundwater flow and transport modelsanalyzed the new data and presented the results to a PER committee. Existing site understanding and its representation in numerical groundwater flow and transport models was evaluated in light of the new data and the ability to proceed to the CR stage of long-term monitoring and institutional control.

  4. GEO-SEQ Subtask 2.3.4: Microseismic Monitoring and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daley, T.; Peterson, J.; Korneev, V.

    2011-03-01

    LBNL's recent analysis of the microseismic data being acquired at well KB-601 has produced a new result of significantly more microseismic activity than previously estimated. During 2009-2010, there was background activity of 1 or 2 events per day with a notable increase during the spring-summer months of up to 20 or more events in a signal day (Figure 1). This level of activity warrants increased effort to obtain quantitative information, and supports plans for expansion of the microseismic monitoring. Quantitative interpretation of these events, including locations, is still hampered by physically unrealistic data from some sensors and uncertainty in which sensors are being recorded and their depth. We now believe that some quantitative analysis will be possible, building upon LBNL's earlier work and analysis conducted by Pinnacle, and utilizing the sledge-hammer tests conducted in the fall of 2010 by the JIP. Current acquisition problems include electrical noise, lack of GPS clock timing, and the sensor uncertainty. To address the acquisition problems, we continue to recommend an active-source recording test with full 144 channel capability (or at least 48 channel). We also recommend a site visit for debugging and repair by a technician knowledgeable in the REF TEK recording system and microseismic acquisition.

  5. A hybrid approach for generating ultra-short bunches for advanced accelerator applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stratakis, Diktys

    2015-09-01

    Generation of electron beams with high phase-space density, short bunch length and high peak current is an essential requirement for future linear colliders and bright electron beam sources. Unfortunately, such bunches cannot be produced directly from the source since forces from the mutual repulsion of electrons would destroy the brilliance of the beam within a short distance. Here, we detail a beam dynamics study of an innovative two-stage compression scheme that can generate ultra-short bunches without degrading the beam quality. In the first stage, the beam is compressed with an advanced velocity bunching technique in which the longitudinal phase space is rotated so that electrons on the bunch tail become faster than electrons in the bunch head. In the second stage, the beam is further compressed with a conventional magnetic chicane. With the aid of numerical simulations we show that our two-staged scheme is capable to increase the current of a 50 pC bunch to a notable factor of 100 while the emittance growth can be suppressed to 1% with appropriate tailoring of the initial beam distribution.

  6. Insight into the molecular switch mechanism of human Rab5a from molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jing-Fang; Shanghai Center for Bioinformation Technology, 100 Qinzhou Road, Shanghai 200235; Gordon Life Science Institute, 13784 Torrey Del Mar Drive, San Diego, CA 92130 ; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2009-12-18

    Rab5a is currently a most interesting target because it is responsible for regulating the early endosome fusion in endocytosis and possibly the budding process. We utilized longtime-scale molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the internal motion of the wild-type Rab5a and its A30P mutant. It was observed that, after binding with GTP, the global flexibility of the two proteins is increasing, while the local flexibility in their sensitive sites (P-loop, switch I and II regions) is decreasing. Also, the mutation of Ala30 to Pro30 can cause notable flexibility variations in the sensitive sites. However, this kind of variations is dramatically reduced after binding with GTP. Such a remarkable feature is mainly caused by the water network rearrangements in the sensitive sites. These findings might be of use for revealing the profound mechanism of the displacements of Rab5a switch regions, as well as the mechanism of the GDP dissociation and GTP association.

  7. PyMPI Dynamic Benchmark

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-02-16

    Pynamic is a benchmark designed to test a system's ability to handle the Dynamic Linking and Loading (DLL) requirements of Python-based scientific applications. This benchmark is developed to add a workload to our testing environment, a workload that represents a newly emerging class of DLL behaviors. Pynamic buildins on pyMPI, and MPI extension to Python C-extension dummy codes and a glue layer that facilitates linking and loading of the generated dynamic modules into the resultingmore » pyMPI. Pynamic is configurable, enabling modeling the static properties of a specific code as described in section 5. It does not, however, model any significant computationss of the target and hence, it is not subjected to the same level of control as the target code. In fact, HPC computer vendors and tool developers will be encouraged to add it to their tesitn suite once the code release is completed. an ability to produce and run this benchmark is an effective test for valifating the capability of a compiler and linker/loader as well as an OS kernel and other runtime system of HPC computer vendors. In addition, the benchmark is designed as a test case for stressing code development tools. Though Python has recently gained popularity in the HPC community, it heavy DLL operations have hindered certain HPC code development tools, notably parallel debuggers, from performing optimally.« less

  8. Polydimethylsiloxane as a Macromolecular Additive for Enhanced Performance of Molecular Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, Kenneth R.; Mei, Jianguo; Stalder, Romain; Shim, Jae Won; Cheun, Hyeunseok; Steffy, Fred; So, Franky; Kippelen, Bernard; Reynolds, John R.

    2011-03-15

    The effect of the macromolecular additive, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), on the performance of solution processed molecular bulk heterojunction solar cells is investigated, and the addition of PDMS is shown to improve device power conversion efficiency by ~70% and significantly reduce cell-to-cell variation, from a power conversion efficiency of 1.25 0.37% with no PDMS to 2.16 0.09% upon the addition of 0.1 mg/mL PDMS to the casting solution. The cells are based on a thiophene and isoindigo containing oligomer as the electron donor and [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) as the electron acceptor. PDMS is shown to have a strong influence on film morphology, with a significant decrease in film roughness and feature size observed. The morphology change leads to improved performance parameters, most notably an increase in the short circuit current density from 4.3 to 6.8 mA/cm2 upon addition of 0.1 mg/mL PDMS. The use of PDMS is of particular interest, as this additive appears frequently as a lubricant in plastic syringes commonly used in device fabrication; therefore, PDMS may unintentionally be incorporated into device active layers.

  9. Radionuclide scintigraphy of bacterial nephritis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.; Shkolnik, A.; Yogev, R.; Firlit, C.; Traisman, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    Pyelonephritis is a leading cause of renal failure and is expected to cost as much as three billion dollars in 1984. The diagnosis of urinary tract infection is usually not difficult. However, localization of the infection within the renal parenchyma as opposed to the collecting system is much more difficult. Flank pain, fever, bacteiuria and evidence of parenchymal involvement by intravenous urography may be absent or unrecognized particularly in the infant. Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine are advocated as better methods to define parenchymal involvement. Such definition is important in the consideration of treatment since parenchymal involvement of the kidney carries a much more ominous potential outcome than infection restricted to within the collecting system. 38 children with a clinical diagnosis of urinary tract infection were studied. 26 of the patients demonstrated abnormal renal parenchymal findings with Gallium-67 Citrate or Tc-99m Glucoheptonate scintigraphy. Intravenous urography was notably ineffective with only 5 of the 20 interpreted as abnormal due to parenchymal disease or decreased function. 11 were entirely normal while only 5 demonstrated scars or hydronephrosis. Only 10 of 17 patients demonstrated intranvesicoureteral reflux on x-ray or nuclear cystography. Ultrasound depicted 6 of 20 patients as having parenchymal abnormalities. Seven were normal. Nonspecific findings such as dilitation of the renal pelvis or renal enlargement was noted in 11 of the 20 patients. Radionuclide Scintigraphy is the most efficacious modality to detect since acute bacterial nephritis.

  10. Replacement of petroleum based hydraulic fluids with a soybean-based alternative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, B.; Rivera, P.

    1998-05-01

    Despite the best preventative measures, ruptured hoses, spills and leaks occur with use of all hydraulic equipment. Although these releases do not usually produce a RCRA regulated waste, they are often a reportable occurrence. Clean-up and subsequent administrative procedure involves additional costs, labor and work delays. Concerns over these releases, especially related to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) vehicles hauling waste on public roads prompted Fleet Services (FS) to seek an alternative to the standard petroleum based hydraulic fluid. Since 1996 SNL has participated in a pilot program with the University of Iowa (UNI) and selected vehicle manufacturers, notably John Deere, to field test hydraulic fluid produced from soybean oil in twenty of its vehicles. The vehicles included loaders, graders, sweepers, forklifts and garbage trucks. Research was conducted for several years at UNI to modify and market soybean oils for industrial uses. Soybean oil ranks first in worldwide production of vegetable oils (29%), and represents a tremendous renewable resource. Initial tests with soybean oil showed excellent lubrication and wear protection properties. Lack of oxidative stability and polymerization of the oil were concerns. These concerns were being addressed through genetic alteration, chemical modification and use of various additives, and the improved lubricant is in the field testing stage.

  11. Autonomic Materials for Smarter, Safer, Longer-Lasting Batteries (A "Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research" contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thackeray, Michael; CEES Staff

    2011-05-01

    'Autonomic Materials for Smarter, Safer, Longer-Lasting Batteries' was submitted by the Center for Electrical Energy Storage (CEES) to the 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. CEES, an EFRC directed by Michael Thackery at Argonne National Laboratory is a partnership of scientists from three institutions: ANL (lead), Northwestern University, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges. The mission of the Center for Electrical Energy Storage is 'to acquire a fundamental understanding of interfacial phenomena controlling electrochemical processes that will enable dramatic improvements in the properties and performance of energy storage devices, notable Li ion batteries.' Research topics are: electrical energy storage, batteries, battery electrodes, electrolytes, adaptive materials, interfacial characterization, matter by design; novel materials synthesis, charge transport, and defect tolerant materials.

  12. Spatially resolving the very high energy emission from MGRO J2019+37 with VERITAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Aune, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Behera, B.; Chen, X.; Federici, S. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Berger, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Bird, R. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Bouvier, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Cui, W. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Dumm, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dwarkadas, V. V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Falcone, A., E-mail: ealiu@astro.columbia.edu, E-mail: nahee@uchicago.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); and others

    2014-06-10

    We present very high energy (VHE) imaging of MGRO J2019+37 obtained with the VERITAS observatory. The bright extended (?2) unidentified Milagro source is located toward the rich star formation region Cygnus-X. MGRO J2019+37 is resolved into two VERITAS sources. The faint, point-like source VER J2016+371 overlaps CTB 87, a filled-center remnant (SNR) with no evidence of a supernova remnant shell at the present time. Its spectrum is well fit in the 0.65-10 TeV energy range by a power-law model with photon index 2.3 0.4. VER J2019+378 is a bright extended (?1) source that likely accounts for the bulk of the Milagro emission and is notably coincident with PSR J2021+3651 and the star formation region Sh 2104. Its spectrum in the range 1-30 TeV is well fit with a power-law model of photon index 1.75 0.3, among the hardest values measured in the VHE band, comparable to that observed near Vela-X. We explore the unusual spectrum and morphology in the radio and X-ray bands to constrain possible emission mechanisms for this source.

  13. Delayed energy injection model for gamma-ray burst afterglows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, J. J.; Huang, Y. F.; Yu, Y. B. [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, X. F., E-mail: hyf@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2013-12-10

    The shallow decay phase and flares in the afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are widely believed to be associated with the later activation of the central engine. Some models of energy injection involve a continuous energy flow since the GRB trigger time, such as the magnetic dipole radiation from a magnetar. However, in the scenario involving a black hole accretion system, the energy flow from the fall-back accretion may be delayed for a fall-back time ?t {sub fb}. Thus, we propose a delayed energy injection model. The delayed energy would cause a notable rise to the Lorentz factor of the external shock, which will 'generate' a bump in the multiple band afterglows. If the delayed time is very short, our model degenerates to the previous models. Our model can explain the significant re-brightening in the optical and infrared light curves of GRB 081029 and GRB 100621A. A considerable fall-back mass is needed to provide the later energy; this indicates that GRBs accompanied with fall-back material may be associated with a low energy supernova so that the fraction of the envelope can survive during eruption. The fall-back time can give meaningful information on the properties of GRB progenitor stars.

  14. Expansion of the commercial output of Estonian oil shale mining and processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraiman, J.; Kuzmiv, I. [Estonian Oil Shale State Co., Jyhvi (Estonia). Scientific Research Center

    1996-09-01

    Economic and ecological preconditions are considered for the transition from monoproduct oil shale mining to polyproduct Estonian oil shale deposits. Underground water, limestone, and underground heat found in oil shale mines with small reserves can be operated for a long time using chambers left after oil shale extraction. The adjacent fields of the closed mines can be connected to the operations of the mines that are still working. Complex usage of natural resources of Estonian oil shale deposits is made possible owing to the unique features of its geology and technology. Oil shale seam development is carried out at shallow depths (40--70 m) in stable limestones and does not require expensive maintenance. Such natural resources as underground water, carbonate rocks, heat of rock mass, and underground chambers are opened by mining and are ready for utilization. Room-and-pillar mining does not disturb the surface, and worked oil shale and greenery waste heaps do not breach its ecology. Technical decisions and economic evaluation are presented for the complex utilization of natural resources in the boundaries of mine take of the ``Tammiku`` underground mine and the adjacent closed mine N2. Ten countries have already experienced industrial utilization of oil shale in small volumes for many years. Usually oil shale deposits are not notable for complex geology of the strata and are not deeply bedded. Thus complex utilization of quite extensive natural resources of Estonian oil shale deposits is of both scientific and practical interest.

  15. SRNL LDRD ANNUAL REPORT 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, T

    2008-12-29

    The Laboratory Director is pleased to have the opportunity to present the 2008 Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) annual report. This is my first opportunity to do so, and only the second such report that has been issued. As will be obvious, SRNL has built upon the excellent start that was made with the LDRD program last year, and researchers have broken new ground in some important areas. In reviewing the output of this program this year, it is clear that the researchers implemented their ideas with creativity, skill and enthusiasm. It is gratifying to see this level of participation, because the LDRD program remains a key part of meeting SRNL's and DOE's strategic goals, and helps lay a solid scientific foundation for SRNL as the premier applied science laboratory. I also believe that the LDRD program's results this year have demonstrated SRNL's value as the EM Corporate Laboratory, having advanced knowledge in a spectrum of areas, including reduction of the technical risks of cleanup, separations science, packaging and transportation of nuclear materials, and many others. The research in support of Energy Security and National and Homeland Security has been no less notable. SRNL' s researchers have shown again that the nascent LDRD program is a sound investment for DOE that will pay off handsomely for the nation as time goes on.

  16. Brownian dynamics without Green's functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delong, Steven; Donev, Aleksandar; Usabiaga, Florencio Balboa; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Griffith, Boyce E.; Leon H. Charney Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016

    2014-04-07

    We develop a Fluctuating Immersed Boundary (FIB) method for performing Brownian dynamics simulations of confined particle suspensions. Unlike traditional methods which employ analytical Green's functions for Stokes flow in the confined geometry, the FIB method uses a fluctuating finite-volume Stokes solver to generate the action of the response functions on the fly. Importantly, we demonstrate that both the deterministic terms necessary to capture the hydrodynamic interactions among the suspended particles, as well as the stochastic terms necessary to generate the hydrodynamically correlated Brownian motion, can be generated by solving the steady Stokes equations numerically only once per time step. This is accomplished by including a stochastic contribution to the stress tensor in the fluid equations consistent with fluctuating hydrodynamics. We develop novel temporal integrators that account for the multiplicative nature of the noise in the equations of Brownian dynamics and the strong dependence of the mobility on the configuration for confined systems. Notably, we propose a random finite difference approach to approximating the stochastic drift proportional to the divergence of the configuration-dependent mobility matrix. Through comparisons with analytical and existing computational results, we numerically demonstrate the ability of the FIB method to accurately capture both the static (equilibrium) and dynamic properties of interacting particles in flow.

  17. Annual report to Congress 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-25

    By Congress in 1977 as an independent entity within the Department of Energy, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) is the principal and authoritative source of comprehensive energy data for the Congress, the Federal Government, the States, and the public. During 1992, EIA provided information and analysis in response to many energy-related issues and events, including Hurricane Andrew. In addition, EIA made substantial strides in a number of critical special projects, most notably development of the National Energy Modeling System, preparation of National Petroleum Council studies on petroleum refining and natural gas, and establishment of oxygenate data program mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. EIA also took advantage of new opportunities for international consultations and energy information exchanges. This report to Congress contains energy-related information on the following: petroleum; natural gas; integrated analysis and forecasting; electricity; coal; energy markets and end use, nuclear, statistical standards, and information services. The appendices include: data collection surveys of the Energy Information Administration; Analytic models of the Energy Information Administration; EIA publication -- EIA products available on diskette; and Major laws affecting EIA, 1974-1992.

  18. World-Wide Experience with SRF Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Hutton, Adam Carpenter

    2011-03-01

    The speaker will review and analyze the performance of existing SRF facilities in the world, addressing issues of usage and availability for different customers (HEP research, material sciences, ADS). Lessons learned should be summarized for proposed future facilities (ILC, Project X, Muon Collider). The first use of superconducting cavities for accelerating beams was at HEPL, Stanford University in the early sixties. Rather quickly, other laboratories followed suit, notably the University of Illinois at Champagne, Urbana and Cornell University. There were two main uses, which still persist today. The first is to provide accelerated particles as an injector or for fixed target experiments. The second is to maintain circulating beams, either for synchrotron light sources or for colliding beam experiments. Given the differing requirements, these two uses led to rather different implementations and, in particular, different average operating gradients. A second difference in the implementation is the speed of the particle being accelerated. Electrons are sufficiently relativistic at low beam energies (> {approx} 5 MeV) that cavities designed for relativistic beams can also function acceptably at low energy. This is not the case for protons or ion accelerators so, until recently, copper cavities were used to cover the first {approx} 100 MeV. Superconducting cavities are now also being proposed to cover this energy range as well using a series of superconducting cavities, each of which is matched to the particle velocity.

  19. Electronic Submersible Pump (ESP) Technology and Limitations with Respect to Geothermal Systems (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    The current state of geothermal technology has limitations that hinder the expansion of utility scale power. One limitation that has been discussed by the current industry is the limitation of Electric Submersible Pump (ESP) technology. With the exception of a few geothermal fields artificial lift technology is dominated by line shaft pump (LSP) technology. LSP's utilize a pump near or below reservoir depth, which is attached to a power shaft that is attached to a motor above ground. The primary difference between an LSP and an ESP is that an ESP motor is attached directly to the pump which eliminates the power shaft. This configuration requires that the motor is submersed in the geothermal resource. ESP technology is widely used in oil production. However, the operating conditions in an oil field vary significantly from a geothermal system. One of the most notable differences when discussing artificial lift is that geothermal systems operate at significantly higher flow rates and with the potential addition of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) even greater depths. The depths and flow rates associated with geothermal systems require extreme horsepower ratings. Geothermal systems also operate in a variety of conditions including but not limited to; high temperature, high salinity, high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS), and non-condensable gases.

  20. Representation of Dormant and Active Microbial Dynamics for Ecosystem Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Gangsheng; Mayes, Melanie; Gu, Lianhong; Schadt, Christopher Warren

    2014-01-01

    Dormancy is an essential strategy for microorganisms to cope with environmental stress. However, global ecosystem models typically ignore microbial dormancy, resulting in notable model uncertainties. To facilitate the consideration of dormancy in these large-scale models, we propose a new microbial physiology component that works for a wide range of substrate availabilities. This new model is based on microbial physiological states and the major parameters are the maximum specific growth and maintenance rates of active microbes and the ratio of dormant to active maintenance rates. A major improvement of our model over extant models is that it can explain the low active microbial fractions commonly observed in undisturbed soils. Our new model shows that the exponentially-increasing respiration from substrate-induced respiration experiments can only be used to determine the maximum specific growth rate and initial active microbial biomass, while the respiration data representing both exponentially-increasing and non-exponentially-increasing phases can robustly determine a range of key parameters including the initial total live biomass, initial active fraction, the maximum specific growth and maintenance rates, and the half-saturation constant. Our new model can be incorporated into existing ecosystem models to account for dormancy in microbially-driven processes and to provide improved estimates of microbial activities.