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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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Failure of Carbon Fibers at a Crease in a Fiber-Reinforced Silicone Sheet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Failure of Carbon Fibers at a Crease in a Fiber-Reinforced Silicone Sheet Francisco L´opez Jim 91125 E-mail: sergiop@caltech.edu Thin sheets of unidirectional carbon fibers embedded in a silicone's modulus Et tensile Young's modulus of fiber Ec compressive Young's modulus of fiber F end force on looped

Pellegrino, Sergio


Comparative analysis of LMFBR licensing in the United States and other countries - notably France. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents an analysis of LMFBR licensing in the United States. It approaches this question broadly, examining first the system in the United States with the various sectors of the nuclear power economy, and the experience of that system in LWR licensing. It then examines the nature of LMFBR safety licensing questions - to the degree that they differ from those of LWR's - and surveys the experience of the United States and other countries in LMFBR safety licensing. Special attention is devoted to the case of France because of the technical leadership which the French program has provided, and because of the apparent efficiency with which French licensing is performed. The French licensing system and LWR licensing experience are examined, and conclusions drawn regarding the reasons for their effectiveness. Finally, a general comparison of the United States and foreign licensing systems is performed, proposals offered during the recent past for changes in the United States system are examined, and possibilities for future changes are suggested.

Golay, M.W.; Castillo, M.



Notable altitudinal range extension of the northern naked-tailed armadillo Cabassous centralis (Cingulata: Dasypodidae) in Colombia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Cingulata: Dasypodidae) in Colombia Juan F. Díaz-N. & Camilo Sánchez-Giraldo Grupo de Mastozoología - CTUA. Instituto de Biología, Universidad de Antioquia. Apartado Aéreo 1226 Medellín, Colombia. juanfdiazn, Colombia The Northern naked-tailed armadillo, Cabassous centralis Miller 1899, is distributed through

Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad


11USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-166. 1998. Urban air basin produced oxidants, notably ozone, induce a decline in productivity in plants. This loss of productivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

11USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-166. 1998. Abstract Urban air basin produced oxidants, notably ozone, induce a decline in productivity in plants. This loss of productivity is manifested have been well-studied: increased production and more rapid turnover of antioxidant systems; production

Standiford, Richard B.


To the Board of Trustees of Northwestern University: In addition to the strong performance of the University's investments, fiscal year 2007 was notable for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the University at the end of calendar year 2007 entered into a onetime sale of a portion of its royalty interest a portion of its royalty interest to Royalty Pharma for $700 million in cash. The net proceeds from the sale


The WVU Center for Neuroscience NOTABLE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

deficits in health and disease can be ameliorated. Brain Mechanisms of Learning of Psychology and Neurology; the Director of the Evelyn F. McKnight Brain Institute

Mohaghegh, Shahab


A notable family of entire intrinsic minimal graph...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to C1(O). This notion of C2 surface obviously includes the entire intrinsic graphs ...... F. Serra Cassano, Surface measures in Carnot-Carathodory spaces, Calc.



IPCC estimates for emissions from land-use change, notably deforestation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IPCC estimates for emissions from land-use change, notably deforestation SYSTEM?KOLOGIE ETHZ., 2008. IPCC estimates for emissions from land-use change, notably deforestation Systems Ecology Report. Photo by Nathalie Baumgartner (2005) #12;A. Fischlin Emissions from land-use change (deforestation) 1

Fischlin, Andreas


creasing Hg2 concentration. After correcting for the initial shift caused by the new environment,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- tical density 9 4). The HgCl2 was still detected through these highly absorptive media (Fig. 3D-SWNTs and inserted into whole blood and muscle tissue. The complex was added directly to a black dye solution (op). The near-IR fluorescence of DNA-SWNTs in the dye solution exhibited the same response as SWNTs in pure

Garzione, Carmala N.


ARM - Research Highlights: Notable Findings  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC :ProductsSCM Forcing Data DerivedInstruments


Roles of Urban Tree Canopy and Buildings in Urban Heat Island Effects: Parameterization and Preliminary Results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

alongside roadways and buildings, the modified WRF-UCM is used to in- vestigate how urban trees, soil surfaces causes in- creased runoff, decreased evapotranspiration, increased solar radiation absorption

Dickerson, Russell R.


The Northern Galpagos Province (NGP; Fig. 1) is notable for its high density of seamounts, which were recently mapped with EM122 mulFbeam and MR-1 sidescan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

density of seamounts, which were recently mapped with EM122 mulFbeam and MR-1The Northern Galápagos Province (NGP; Fig. 1) is notable for its high are islands: Darwin, Wolf, Pinta, Marchena, and Genovesa (Fig. 1). We have merged

Geist, Dennis


Leadership and Stewardship of the Laboratory (Objective 4.1) Notable Outcome - Phase II Alternative Analysis and PNNL Site Plan Recommendation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) have recently completed an effort to identify the current state of the campus and gaps that exist with regards to space needs, facilities and infrastructure. This effort has been used to establish a campus strategy to ensure PNNL is ready to further the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) mission. Ten-year business projections and the impacts on space needs were assessed and incorporated into the long-term facility plans. In identifying/quantifying the space needs for PNNL, the following categories were addressed: Multi-purpose Programmatic (wet chemistry and imaging laboratory space), Strategic (Systems Engineering and Computation Analytics, and Collaboration space), Remediation (space to offset the loss of the Research Technology Laboratory [RTL] Complex due to decontamination and demolition), and Optimization (the exit of older and less cost-effective facilities). The findings of the space assessment indicate a need for wet chemistry space, imaging space, and strategic space needs associated with systems engineering and collaboration space. Based on the analysis, a 10-year campus strategy evolved that balanced four strategic objectives, as directed by the DOE Office of Science (DOE-SC): Mission Alignment - maintain customer satisfaction Reasonable & Achievable - do what makes sense from a practical and cost perspective Campus Continuity - increase the federal control of assets and follow the Campus Master Plan Guiding Principles - modern, collaborative, flexible, and sustainable. This strategy considered the following possible approaches to meet the identified space needs: Institutional General Plant Project (IGPP) funded projects Third party leased facilities Science Laboratory Infrastructure (SLI) line item funded projects. Pairing the four strategic objectives with additional key metrics as criteria for selection, an initial recommendation was made to DOE-SC to use all three funding mechanisms to deliver the mission need. DOE-SC provided feedback that third party facilities are not to be pursued at this time. The decision was made by DOE that an IGPP-funded program would be the base plan, while retaining the possibility of a 2019 SLI-funded project. The SLI project will be designed to deliver significant impact on science and technology (S&T) and support the development of a modern, synergistic core campus where a collaborative and innovative environment is fostered. The specific scientific impact will be further defined in the 2015 and 2016 Annual Laboratory Plans. Additionally, opportunities will be explored to construct annexes on current federal facilities, including the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), if proven synergistic and cost effective. The final result of this effort is an actionable, flexible plan with scope, schedule, and cost targets for individual acquisition projects. Implemented as planned, the result will increase federal ownership by approximately 15 percent, reduce the operating cost by approximately 7 percent, and reduce the geographic facility footprint by approximately 66,000 gross square feet (GSF). Reduction of surplus space will be addressed while maintaining customer satisfaction, lowering operating costs, reducing the campus footprint, and increasing the federal control of assets. This strategy is documented in PNNLs 2014 Laboratory Plan.

Pittman, Jeffery P.; Cassidy, Stephen R.; Mosey, Whitney LC; Leitz, Erlan M.; Oukrop, Lanson J.



New and Notable Teaching Old Coefficients New  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transport of water through the membrane. Crystal structures showed that these protein pores have diameters be compa- rable to single channel patch clamp re- cordings on ion channels. Thus, if we want to understand microscopic theory for water transport across all the pore dimensions relevant for biology (1,2) it is clear

de Groot, Bert


ORIGINAL ARTICLE Speciation and mobility of heavy metals in mud in coastal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the properties of the pore water in the mud may induce the release of some heavy metals into the mud. Field, but the heavy metals in the groundwater are in- creased. The release of heavy metals into pore water dueORIGINAL ARTICLE Speciation and mobility of heavy metals in mud in coastal reclamation areas

Jiao, Jiu Jimmy


Abstract Conifers decrease the amount of biomass ap-portioned to leaves relative to sapwood in response to in-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in response to in- creasing atmospheric evaporative demand. We deter- mined how these climate-driven shifts shoot water potential and sapwood relative water content did not differ between environments. Desert in biomass allocation often occur in plants in response to variation in resource availability. Because

DeLucia, Evan H.


Enhanced Thermal Stability in Nanostructured Bainitic Steel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Cambridge, U.K. bMaterials Engineering and Industrial Technologies, University of Trento, Italy c austenite can enhance the ductility and in- creases the work hardening rate, retarding plastic instability. Without modification, these temperatures are known to remove all of the retained austenite after 15

Cambridge, University of


AIAA 20023642 Effect of Rotation on Flow in a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AIAA 2002­3642 Effect of Rotation on Flow in a Ribbed Rotating Turbine Blade Cooling Duct Model of aircraft gas turbine engines, thereby in- creasing the resulting thrust. These improvements are extremely to these advancements is the structural integrity of the gas turbine engines themselves. Cur- rently available materials

Jacob, Jamey


RAPID COMMUNICATION NMDA Receptor-Mediated Oscillatory Activity in the Neonatal Rat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In the lamprey, application of 5-HT de-receptor-induced membrane voltage oscillations was examined us- creases, monitored via flexor and mediated intrinsic voltage oscillations in spinal neuronsextensor electroneurograms-HT receptor antagonists. Intrinsic motoneuronal voltage oscillations, induced by NMDA in the presence

Manitoba, University of


Dynamics of a Compound Vesicle in Shear Flow Shravan K. Veerapaneni,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

], similar to the symptoms caused by sickle cell anemia [13]. One of the main causes for the impaired RBC de sickle hemoglobin (in sickle cell anemia). A question naturally arises: Can we quantify the in- crease highlight the complex effects of internal cellular structures have on cell dynamics in micro- circulatory

Young, Yuan N.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Reduced Order Model Compensator Control of Species Transport in a CVD Reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reduced Order Model Compensator Control of Species Transport in a CVD Reactor G.M. Kepler, H for computation of feedback controls and compensators in a high pressure chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) reactor, through open­loop optimization [6, 21, 34]. However, because of process variability and the in­ creasing


Swimming and pregnancy in Tiger snakes, Notechis scutatus Fabien Aubret1,2,3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia 6008, Australia 3 - Universit de Poitiers S, 11539 E) in Western Australia in January and February 2002; including 13 pregnant and 9 non may result in increased risk of predation and/or de- creased energy intake compared to non

Shine, Rick


Bioindication Potential of Carbonic Anhydrase Activity in Anemones  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

bioindication. While oysters and many other bivalves are predisposed to accumulate heavy metal pollutants from polluted vs pristine ®eld sites. CA activity was found to be de- creased with increase in metal. Keywords: carbonic anhydrase; metal pollution; anemo- nes; coral reefs; Panama. The activity of the zinc

Bermingham, Eldredge


Decreasing fallow duration in tropical slash-and-burn agriculture alters soil macro-invertebrate diversity: A  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in terms of conservation and management of soil macrofaunal diversity in agro-ecosystems. Key words: Soil and for this reason, they are in-8 creasingly considered as a resource to be managed and protected. Amongst9 soil their populations to improve12 the sustainability of soil fertility especially in countries or regions where farm-13

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Effects of water deficit on leaf growth and initiation in fast-growing tree species  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to be particularly sensi- tive to water shortage (Pereira et al., 1986). These researchers have shown that biomass. In the longer term, a decline in biomass production under water shortage will result from reduced assimilation attributed the decreased foliage area observed with water shortage to de- creased leaf number. Our

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de


Profiling nitrogen in ultrathin silicon oxynitrides with angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

medium energy ion scattering and secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis. Preferential nitrogen by low energy ion (15 N2) implantation. The nitrogen profile and nitrogen chemical bonding states only minor in- crease in the dielectric constant compared to SiO2 but is still favored over other high

Gustafsson, Torgny


1. Introduction The efficiency of steam turbines can be improved by in-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1. Introduction The efficiency of steam turbines can be improved by in- creasing the maximum-efficiency power plant. 2. Turbines, Steam, Efficiency and Power Plant A power plant has a steam generator which the operating pressure is below about 22 MPa, in which case the steam is separated and passed on to the turbine

Cambridge, University of


526 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 17, No. 7 / April 1, 1992 Improved magneto-optic trapping in a vapor cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to remain proportional to d4, the required laser power must in- crease as d3. Monroe et al.6 have shown-optic trap in a vapor cell and cap- turing atoms in the low-velocity tail of the thermal distribution distribution, which is proportional to v3 for v

Gibble, Kurt


Investigation of In 0.53Ga,,47As/AIAs resonant tunnelifig diodes for high speed switching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(space charge transport). Unfortunately, large swing voltages in- crease the RTD heat load, forcing calculation, which includes the effects of strain and band bending. Swing voltages over the range OS-l.0 V of 6:l. The minimum rise time in this sample is calculated to be limited by RC switching delays to 1

Ozbay, Ekmel


Effects of the treatment of straw with NaOH and urea solutions on ingestibility and digestibility in sheep  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of the treatment of straw with NaOH and urea solutions on ingestibility and digestibility of digestibility measures. The main results appear in table I. Straw intake and digestibility were in- creased by the treatments. This was par- ticularly true for NaOH treatments with the exception of nitrogen digestibility

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de


Replicated Placements in the Polyhedron Model Peter Faber, Martin Griebl, and Christian Lengauer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

communication time. We aim at minimizing the communication time by using replicated storage. 1 Introduction be recognized by traditional code mo- tion techniques. However, this comes possibly at the price of increased, this improvement may come at the price of in- creased communication time. This is because intermediate results have

Passau, Universität


Highlighted article Metal levels in the bones and livers of globally threatened marbled teal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

¨gen 18A, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden d Institute of Maths, Natural and Computer Science, University of Ga and white-headed duck from El Hondo, Spain Mark A. Taggart a,e,?, Andy J. Green b , Rafael Mateo a , Fredrik). Further, the wetland has experienced periodic episodes where avian mortality has in- creased markedly

Green, Andy J.


Power-Aware Scheduling of Virtual Machines in DVFS-enabled Clusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and require equally massive cooling systems to keep the servers within normal operating temperatures by dynamically scaling the supplied voltages. The algorithm is studied via simulation and implementation, the computing system temperature may in- crease rapidly due to inefficient cooling equipments. Based


A Survey on the Encryption of Convergecast Traffic with In-Network Processing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nodes, 2) the overall energy consumption of the backbone can be reduced, 3) the system is more flexible to be on the biomedical sector, public safety, and safety support for vehicles. One major application scenario for a WSN. Since the energy consumption in- creases linearly with the amount of transmitted data, an aggregation

Castelluccia, Claude



E-Print Network [OSTI]

to mineraiogical reactions and a change of temperature (initially high and later continuously de creasing of water incorporated In hydrous minerals due to the reaction of hot saline brines with country rock of deposition). Shear zones and quartz veins acted as chimneys for heat release due to hot fluid transfer


This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

geophysical studies, and depleted in highly refractory elements, notably in Uranium and Thorium. © 2010

Kaminski, Edouard


eMPTCP: Energy Aware Multi-Path TCP for Mobile Devices Yeon-sup Lim  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to grow substantially, however battery storage in- creases relatively slowly in comparison. Thus, power

Kurose, Jim


How Green is Multipath TCP for Mobile Devices? Yeon-sup Lim  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, but battery storage in- creases slowly by comparison. Thus, power consump- tion is an important area

Kurose, Jim


Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers 2004, 36 (2), 339-346  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

responding in- creases (Belenky et al., 2003; Buck, 1976; Graeber, 1982; Mullaney, Kripke, Fleck, & Johnson


State and Local Financial Relations in Texas.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, for the number of counties using such distribution ledgers has in- creased tremendously since the system was released. In a good many instances the counties have purchased distribution ledgers other than the one designed by the State, but ordinarily...-Collector's Association sponsors a business meeting at the State Capital. This meeting lasts two or three days and is designed to acquaint the newly elected officers with their jobs. Many of the officials who remain in office for several terms keep on attending...

Bradshaw, H. C.


Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Experimental Study on Wave Transformation and Nearshore Circulation on a Variable Bathymetry in Wetlands  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by vegetation. The presence of the mounds induced an important de- crease in the wave height, in addition to the damping of the waves by the vegetation stems. The variation in spatial coverage of the wetland model has been shown to highly a ect the ow... local coordinate system. All distances measured in meters. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 192 57 List and classi cation of discarded time series for Test 101. Npts = number of points in the truncated time series. L = Lost, NR...

Truong, Melanie Khanh Phuong



A comparison of the histamine production in fish packaged aerobically and anaerobically  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

seafood caught in favorable areas is shipped, either processed or unprocessed, to distant markets. Experience has shown that food-poisoning problems may arise when preservation procedures are instituted in preparing and storing foods. Thus when new... products are introduced, potential food- poisoning must be investigated. The citations on the following pages follow the style of the Journal of Food Science. Recent incidences of histamine poisoning in canned tuna have in- creased the awareness...

Lu, Shin



Study of casing treatment effects in axial flow compressors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to in- creased tip leakage between shroud and blade tip. Figure (I) shows a typical performance curve for an axial flow compressor. Note that as pressure ratio increases, the operating 'range between surge and stall is decreased, there by reducing... the surge to stall margin of the axial flow compressor. REFERENCES I 1 ~ 4 Koch, C. C. , "Experimental Evaluation of Outer Case Blowing or Bleeding of Single Stage Axial Flow Compressor". , Part IV. Rep. R 69AEG256, General Electric Co. , (NASA CR...

Schiller, Robert Neil



The economic feasibility of computerized spot markets for feeder cattle in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and innovation. These variables were analyzed with demographic information such as age, location in the state, income derived from their livestock operation, and size. In a computerized market, animals would not be purchased on sight and therefore, would... discovery the market "thickens", making it potentially more competitive. Market power may be equalized by in- creasing the number of buyers and the potential for price manipulation is decreased. The absence of spatial restrictions on the price dis...

Glazener, Gretchen



Thermal and hydraulic effects of coke deposit in hydrocarbon pyrolysis process.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are of interest, notably in case of regenerative methods to be applied on the SCRamjet engine [1],[2]. Some

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Submitted to Geophysical and Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics Shear and Mixing in Oscillatory Doubly Di usive Convection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

convection are found in the Earth's oceans, most notably, below the polar ice caps. There melting ice

Paparella, Francesco


Thermomagnetic Force in Polyatomic Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

decreases as H/P is increased above about 500 Oe/Torr. Another difference in the two effects is that the SB effect is a universal function of H/P for the entire range of values covered. This does not appear to be true in the force effect. For NO... magnetic field also causes a de- crease in the shear viscosity of oxygen. These effects in Oz were later observed in NO and were extensively studied. It was observed that the trans- port coefficients decrease in a magnetic field 8, that the effect...

Larchez, M. E.; Adair, Thomas W.



Production of 3-methylindole by rumen microbes in continuous culture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and for the most part non-detectable levels of IAA and indole were observed for all trials. In Trial II, a reduction (P & . 05) in 3MI was observed as grain in- creased from 0/ to 90/. The 3MI levels were 7. 3, 2. 6, 0. 9 and &0. 1 pg/ml for the 0, 30, 60...) than for the hay with control buffer (6. 4 pg per milliliter). Trial IV demonstrated that as monensin increased from 0 to 88 ppm 3MI decreased from 9. 2 to 3. 8 pg per milliliter, respectively. In Trial V as pH's decreased from 7. 1 to 4. 6, 3MI...

Clark, A. Bruce



Studies in petroleum geology; reprints, 1935-1955  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of relatively large oil reserves around each of these three domes have been made within the past 3 years. The South Boling field on FACTORS AFFECTING OIL ACCUMULATION 709 the south flank of the Boling dome will probably result in doubling the entire past... of the North Blue Ridge field on the Blue Ridge dome will probably in crease the ultimate production of this dome by 10 million barrels. A salt over hang with oil showings in sands beneath the overhang has been discovered at Lost Lake, but has not yet been...

Halbouty, Michel Thomas



A numerical study of frictional entrainment in a cyclonic gulf stream ring  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(km) Fig. 2. Cross sections of aT for Atlantis 38. 160 Gulf Stream (and thus a factor in the heat, salt and energy budgets of the Gulf Strean system). b. Post stuff ss Gu'f Stream rings were first reported by Iselin (1936). Their origin in tn... is in km and z in m. 28 th, . result is the field shown in Fig. 6. The scale of g~ is 3. 76 x 10 m /sec ror a K of 20 m /sec. Since the scale of is 2'K, H , the value of Q varies di. rcctly with both K and H n I. . cr easin~ K i creases...

Farrar, Paul Denton



Engineering geology criteria for dredged material disposal in upper Laguna Madre, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to and parallel to the channel. Three disposal sites in different water depths, revealed varying conditions of sediment dispersion and island erosion. Water depth at the different sites varies from 0 to 1. 5 feet in the wind tidal flats, I to 3 feet.... In the wind tidal flats, the dispersion area decreased 28 percent between 1953 and 1960 and then in- creased 130 percent of the original dispersion area between 1960 and 1974. The volume of dredged material, decreased a total of 46 percent between 1953...

Stinson, James Edmellaire



Investigation of photoexcited parallel conduction in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures in the quantum limit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

', giving rise to the persistent photoconductivity (PPC). As the density of 2-DEG carriers in- creased the systematic shift of the quantum Hall plateaus and corresponding 40 12. 10. T = 75mK Iso= 500 nA 0 b cd c hl 6. Q. 0. 0. 0 1. 0 2. 0 3. 0 4... resistance between 0. 0 and 0. 3 T. 16, 2-DEG carrier density determined from SdH oscillations versus natural logarithm of photon dose at 75 mK. 17, (a) Deviation of the Hall resistance from quantized value at i = 4 plateau versus photon dose; (b...

Kobiela, Pawel Stanislaw



The Politics of Abundance: Export Agriculture and Redistributive Conflict in South America  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are not consumed in Argentina, policies that capture soybeanurban redistributive policy, Argentina is a notable outlier.bias in economic policy in Argentina and Brazil over time,

Richardson, Neal Philip



Selected Factors Influenceing the Abundance of Banks Grass Mite in Sorghum.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the physiological state of sorghum develop- ment. Prior to the boot stage of development ca. 1.2 mg sugar was present per 6 cmg leaf tissue; whereas, at boot stage, sugars increased to ca. 2.8 mg/6 cmg leaf tissue. This increase may have been caused by a... temporary de- crease in metabolic activity in the reproductive portion of the plant prior to blooming thereby removing less sugar from the leaves. Soluble leaf sugars decreased to ca. 1.3 mg/6 cms leaf tissue during the grain develop- ment stages. Data...

Kattes, David H.; Teetes, George L.



The variation of efficiency with angle of expansion, exit area, and velocity in a square diffuser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tapered seotices. Ths ezit tapered section is called the diffuser. The purpose of the diffaser 1s to decelerate the fluid snd raise its statio precede. The difference in pressure betseen the inlet and the azit of the venturi uhieh is a measure... increases ar as ths aLse of the vsnturi tube is in- creased, If the speed of flow through a venturi is gradually increased to an abnormally high value~ the ov~ pressure drop will increase very rapidly after a definite speed has been attained. If...

Weber, Hugh Conrad



Study protocol for iQuit in Practice: a randomised controlled trial to assess the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of tailored web- and text-based facilitation of smoking cessation in primary care  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to detect a true underlying difference of 5% as statistically significant and a larger trial would be needed to distinguish reliably a true in- crease from a Type 1 error. Importantly, if a 5% increase is observed, then an underlying population relative risk... -week follow-up questionnaire. Con- trol participants will not be sent any text messages. Audiotaping of consultations SCAs will be asked to audiotape a sample of interven- tion and control consultations. The tapes will be used to assess the fidelity...

Sutton, Stephen; Smith, Susan; Jamison, James; Boase, Sue; Mason, Dan; Prevost, A Toby; Brimicombe, James; Sloan, Melanie; Gilbert, Hazel; Naughton, Felix



Exploring the nature of surface barriers on MOF Zn(tbip) by applying IR microscopy in high temporal and spatial resolution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(propane) profiles in nanoporous materials (MOF Zn(tbip)) during transient sorption experiments, are found to exhibit notably reduced surface resistances while, with increasing time of storage under

Li, Jing


Biophysical Journal Volume 85 July 2003 14 1 New and Notable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 1998), or aggregate dynamics using the Folding@home community-wide megacluster for several hundred

Schlick, Tamar


Accounting for carbon dioxide emissions: A matter of time  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a difference in carbon intensity of economic activity (often called the carbon intensity of economic activity. and de- crease carbon intensities in developing countries,

Caldeira, K.; Davis, S. J



act industrial site: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fossil fuels, high shipping costs could lead tothey in- crease the cost of fossil-fuel investments, theyfossil fuel industry, future jobs in energy efficiency or clean tech,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


act industrial sites: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fossil fuels, high shipping costs could lead tothey in- crease the cost of fossil-fuel investments, theyfossil fuel industry, future jobs in energy efficiency or clean tech,...


An exploratory study of why customers resist the innovation of the electric motorcycles.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Population in the world is creasing. When humans destroy the environment, problems like global warming and energy shortage occur. In order to solve these problems (more)

Lee, Hsiao-Jung



ARE Update Volume 13, Number 4  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels In- creases Greenhousea mini- mum volume of biofuels and requires a nationalper unit of various biofuels. For example, corn ethanol



algorithm based differential: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Bandwidth Allocation Algorithms for Differentiated Services enabled Ethernet Passive support the in- creasing demands for high speed connections. One of the new technologies that...


431st Brookhaven Lecture  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Crease presents "Recombinant Science: The Birth of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider," a lecture that follows on the 429th Brookhaven Lecture, in which Crease talked about the early history of BNL. Both lectures are part of the ongoing celebration of BNL's 60th anniversary year.

Robert Crease



Inference in Hybrid Bayesian Networks with Deterministic Variables  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

this relationship is shown in Figure 1. The joint CDF for {X,Y} is then given by F X,Y (x, y)=P[X ? x, Y ? y] = braceleftBigg F X (x)ifxin- creasing function of X. Then, the equiva- lent...

Cobb, Barry R.; Shenoy, Prakash P.



MagLab - Pioneers in Electricity and Magnetism: Carl Friedrich...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Gauss to develop various surveying improvements. Most notably, he invented the heliotrope (a device that used a mirror to magnify the rays of the sun in order to send signals...


Quantum wave packet ab initio molecular dynamics: An approach to study quantum dynamics in large systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of computational methods in gas-phase1 and condensed phase quantum dynamics.2 In many cases the Born robust by using adaptive grids to achieve optimized sampling. One notable feature of the approach

Iyengar, Srinivasan S.


Field measurement of the fate of atmospheric H? in a forest environment : from canopy to soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric hydrogen (H? ), an indirect greenhouse gas, plays a notable role in the chemistry of the atmosphere and ozone layer. Current anthropogenic emissions of H? are substantial and may increase with its widespread ...

Meredith, Laura Kelsey, 1982-



Quantum noise and radiation pressure effects in high power optical interferometers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In recent years, a variety of mechanical systems have been approaching quantum limits to their sensitivity of continuous position measurements imposed by the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. Most notably, gravitational ...

Corbitt, Thomas Randall



The characterization of obesity and noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus in Swiss Webster mice associated with late-onset hepatocellular carcinoma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Despite increased awareness of the obesity epidemic and a higher incidence of the metabolic syndrome in humans, the incidence of obesity and its comorbidities-most notably, type II diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease ...

Lemke, Laura B. (Laura Beth)



This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of guest (propane) profiles in nanoporous materials (MOF Zn(tbip)) during transient sorption experiments, are found to exhibit notably reduced surface resistances while, with increasing time of storage under

Li, Jing


Depositional and diagenetic characteristics of Waulsortian-type buildups in the Lodgepole formation: Big Snowy Mountains, Montana, and Dickinson Field, North Dakota  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- most notably the pore-filling blocky calcite cements are saddle dolomite cements- are seen in the Montana and North Dakota mounds. Early rim cements and replacement chalcedony are also present. Cathodoluminescence and isotope analysis also show...

Adams, Andrea Suzanne



10126 * ISSN 1436-2228 Volume12Number3Pages000000May/June2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of extracellular calcium using Fura-2 as a calcium-sensitive dye. The calcium rise was comparable in amplitude- creased intracellular calcium levels in neuroendocrine cells (PC12) in the presence and absence

Pawlik, Joseph


ORIGINAL ARTICLE Siphonodictyal B1 from a Marine Sponge Increases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of extracellular calcium using Fura-2 as a calcium-sensitive dye. The calcium rise was comparable in amplitude- creased intracellular calcium levels in neuroendocrine cells (PC12) in the presence and absence

Pawlik, Joseph


Oceanography Vol. 19, No. 1, Mar. 200622 A DVA N C E S I N CO M P U TAT I O N A L O C E A N O G R A PH Y  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of capabilities in marine modeling, supported by in- creased computer power and technical innovation in ocean, there is growing recognition that management of marine resources and assessment of human perturbations must

Follows, Mick



U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

of pre-strike levels, market watchers began to place greater emphasis on in- creasing political tensions in- volving Iraq. U.S. President George W. Bush and other ad- ministration...


factsheetexpandingthebioeconomy withwoodybiomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

during tree harvest. The emerging bioenergy sector has in- creased interest in extracting logging Finnish) markets are too small to support commercial produc- tion. Co-development of the harvesting


Underwater Sensor Networking: Research Challenges and Potential Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

synchronization, and localization protocols for high- latency acoustic networks, long-duration network sleeping SCADA systems, but in- creasingly with more rapidly deployed sensor networks [39]. Advances in reducing

Heidemann, John


LISTENING LEVEL CHANGES MUSIC SIMILARITY Michael J. Terrell Gyorgy Fazekas Andrew J. R. Simpson Jordan Smith Simon Dixon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

outer hair cells act in phase-locked syn- chrony to amplify the excitation. This system is known, an in- creasing area of inner hair cells on the basilar membrane are excited beyond neural threshold

Dixon, Simon

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Implications of geographic diversity for short-term variability and predictability of solar power.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

expe- rience with large PV plants, however, demonstratesrapid changes in the output of PV plants are possible. Earlyis rapidly in- creasing. PV plants as large as 60 MW are

Mills, Andrew



PHYSICAL REVIEW B 89, 235105 (2014) Semiconducting ferroelectric photovoltaics through Zn2+  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

]. Unfortunately, the solar cell power conversion efficiency (PCE) is limited by the Shockley- Queisser limit been broadly explored to in- crease the PCE [4,8­18]. Further improvement of the PCE has been impeded

Rappe, Andrew M.


E-Print Network 3.0 - anti-diabetic ampk activator Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

unknown. We have previously shown that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in- creases nitric oxide (NO... of GI neurons to decreased glucose from 2.5 to 0.7 mM or to AMPK...


2001 Winter Quarter Award--Winning Team Prepares to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of solar arrays, and a new power con- trol unit. They will also retrofit an existing infrared instrument placing thermal panels on Hubble for in- creased protection from the harsh space environment. From

Christian, Eric


Altered Swimming Performance of a Benthic Fish (Erimyzon sucetta) Exposed to Contaminated Sediments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

morphology, we hypothesize that physiological disruptions (e.g., increased energy demands, de- creased oxygen, 1998). In sup- port of this contention, studies on fish from ash-impacted sites have documented

Hopkins, William A.


Effects of exogenous carbon monoxide on radiation-induced bystander effect in zebrafish embryos in vivo  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the dose-response of radiation in the low-dose regime deviated from the LNT model. A notable example radiation are linearly proportional to the absorbed dose, evidence accumulated in the past decades showed as a pharmaceutical agent to release a low dose of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) to attenuate the effect on bystander

Yu, K.N.


Social Perceptions of Drinking Water Quality in South Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

quality in the Lower Rio Grande Valley were examined, notably trying to assess the gap in social perceptions between key water managers and the colonia residents. A semi-structured interview methodology was used upon the key water managers in order...

Garcia, Victor



Mathematics and explanation in astronomy and astrophysics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The purpose of this paper is to expound and clarify the mathematics and explanations commonly employed in certain notable areas of astronomy and astrophysics. The first section concentrates upon the mathematics employed to represent and understand stellar structure and evolution. The second section analyses two different explanations for the structure of spiral galaxies.

Gordon McCabe




E-Print Network [OSTI]

security 1. PROBLEM STATEMENT Software engineers used standard software engineering processes to develop of software are annoying, but delays of an hour are not catastrophic. But in certain environments (notably to use techniques, and--more importantly--how to analyze social, political, and cultural environments


March 31, 2008 15:11 WSPC -Proceedings Trim Size: 9in x 6in mirrorstat Mirror modes observed with Cluster in the Earth's  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

events with solar wind parameters and Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) orientation. We notably reveal ubiquitousness : in environments of the Earth,1,2 Jupiter,4­6 Saturn,7 Io wake,8 the comet Halley,9 solar wind,10 with Cluster in the Earth's magnetosheath : statistical study and IMF/solar wind dependence V. G´enot*, E

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Ranked in the top 50 MFA programs in the nation by Poets & Writers, the nation's largest nonprofit organization for creative writers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ranked in the top 50 MFA programs in the nation by Poets & Writers, the nation's largest, starred reviews in Publishers Weekly and been named Notable Books by the Academy of American Poets's leading poets, with chapbooks that are available free of charge and without copyright #12;

Barrash, Warren


Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Utah  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the current Utah code, the 2006 IECC. The most notable changes are improved duct sealing and efficient lighting requirements. A limited analysis of these changes resulted in estimated savings of $168 to $188 for an average new house in Utah at recent fuel prices.

Cole, Pamala C.; Lucas, Robert G.



BMW in South Carolina: The Economic Impact of a Leading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

's output was shipped to foreign markets. The vast majority of the exports use the South Carolina port development metrics--to enhancing the state's innovative capacity, notably through the Clemson University. To support that effort and help build innovative capacity in South Carolina, BMW has established

Almor, Amit


The role of small RNAs in C4 photosynthesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the candidate C4 genes showed a high level of sRNA read alignment. In C. gynandra plants expressing p19 photosynthesis was compromised and transcripts of several genes (most notably RbcS and RCA) were upregulated. These data were complemented by examining...

Gage, Ewan



Characterization of Mg/Ca distributions in planktonic foraminifera species by electron microprobe mapping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Characterization of Mg/Ca distributions in planktonic foraminifera species by electron microprobe] The distribution of Mg/Ca within the tests of eight modern planktonic foraminifer species has been characterized variations in Mg/Ca composition within individual tests. However, the pattern of Mg/Ca variation is notably


Charge fluctuations in nano-scale capacitors David T. Limmer1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rarely exploited, with the notable exceptions of electrochemical noise analysis to in- fer redox reaction in dielectric or electrochemical double layer capacitors [1], electrochem- istry, water purification rates and information on corrosion pro- cesses [5, 6] or more recently electrochemical correlation

Boyer, Edmond


1 INRODUCTION Underground facilities are an integral part of the in-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in an increasingly urban world. Under- ground space is used for subways, highways, mate- rial storage and water of damage than have above-ground structures. Nevertheless, some under- ground structures have experienced behavior distinct from most above- ground structures, most notably (1) their complete enclosure in soil

Spencer Jr., B.F.


SWRL as a rule language for ontology-based models in power plant design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SWRL as a rule language for ontology-based models in power plant design Virginie Fortineau1 management in an industrial context, and notably for power plant design, like the increase of data, actors. However, the design of power plants presents a specific issue, which is rules expression and validation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Response to WAG Consultation on the Alternative Transport Fuels in Wales Action Plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Response to WAG Consultation on the Alternative Transport Fuels in Wales Action Plan Centre of alternative transport fuels in its own policy documents, notably the Sustainable Development Action Plan 2004, the EU Commission has proposed a binding target of 10% for biofuels for vehicle fuel by 2020. While

Martin, Ralph R.


Estimated number of women likely to benefit from bone mineral density measurement in France  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; Menopause Introduction The prevalence of osteoporosis is rising, most notably in postmenopausal women years of age with risk factors for osteoporosis likely to lead to bone mineral density measurement, an investigation reimbursed by the French national health insurance system in patients at risk for osteoporosis

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Current Undergraduate Research in Progress, Spring 2011 Several Afro-American Studies majors have senior thesis projects under way and are enrolled in 496Y, a research seminar that asks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Gods and Earths: Traces of the Five Percenters in the Wu-Tang Clan" an Undergraduate Senior Thesis an unsolved homicide, his message lived on. His most notable followers include hip-hop's Wu Tang Clan. Its on the influence of the Nation of Gods in the music, movement, and lives of those members of the Wu-Tang Clan

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of


Supporting Information Available. Supplementary Figure 1: PEG-Nanorod Synthesis and Stability In Vitro. A) The plasmon resonance of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Notably, iodine reagents lack absorbance in the near- infrared that could allow remote photothermal heating. B) Photothermal heating comparison between PEG-Nanorods, iodine, and saline monitored using Modeling of Photothermal Tumor Heating. A) X-ray CT image of PEG-Nanorod distribution in tumor B) A 3D

Bhatia, Sangeeta


Recombinant Science: The Birth of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (431st Brookhaven Lecture)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the celebration of Brookhaven Lab's 60th anniversary, Robert P. Crease, the Chair of the Philosophy Department at Stony Brook University and BNL's historian, will present the second of two talks on the Lab's history. In "Recombinant Science: The Birth of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider," Dr. Crease will focus on the creation of the world's most powerful colliding accelerator for nuclear physics. Known as RHIC, the collider, as Dr. Crease will recount, was formally proposed in 1984, received initial construction funding from the U.S. Department of Energy in 1991, and started operating in 2000. In 2005, the discovery at RHIC of the world's most perfect liquid, a state of matter that last existed just moments after the Big Bang, was announced, and, since then, this perfect liquid of quarks and gluons has been the subject of intense study.

Crease, Robert P. (Ph.D, Department of Philosophy, Stony Brook University) [Ph.D, Department of Philosophy, Stony Brook University



Preprint of the article published in Crop Protection 27 (2008) 1269 1276 Effectiveness and chemical pest control of Bt-cotton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and chemical pest control of Bt-cotton in the Yangtze River Valley, China 1 2 3 14 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 . Introduction In China, genetically modified cotton (GMC) was first marketed in 1997, with varieties integrating Bt genes (Bt-cotton) to control some cotton pests, notably Helicoverpa

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Using polarization to find a source in a turbid Julia Clark,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, fog, and rain, for example. The scalar approximation of the radiative transport equation is used often been some notable works done of inverse problems for the vector radiative transport equation. Siewert of partially polarized light using the theory of radiative transport. In particular, we study the light

Kim, Arnold D.


Carbon Monoxide Pollution Promotes Cardiac Remodeling and Ventricular Arrhythmia in Healthy Rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

worldwide by outdoor air pollution caused by vehicles and industrial emissions (http://www.who.int; http:// www.infoforhealth.org). Notably, air pollution increases the risk of mortality from cardiovascular investigating the effects of urban air pollution in humans are mainly restricted to epide- miological studies

Boyer, Edmond


Support for Personal and Service Mobility in Ubiquitous Computing Environments1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) #12;3 Wireless Personal Area Networking (WPAN), of which Bluetooth [2] is an example. Devices1 #12;2 Support for Personal and Service Mobility in Ubiquitous Computing Environments1 K. El to the background. One of its most notable attributes is its potential to extend the scope of service and personal

von Bochmann, Gregor



E-Print Network [OSTI]

EULERIANLAGRANGIAN LOCALIZED ADJOINT METHODS FOR TRANS PORT OF NUCLEARWASTE CONTAMINATION creasingly threatened by organic, inorganic, and radioactive pollutants as well as highlevel nuclear waste developed for use by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to analyze deep geologic nuclear waste disposal

Ewing, Richard E.


This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

institution and sharing with colleagues. Other uses, including reproduction and distribution, or selling the main meltwater flow. Variations in grain-size and clay mineral assemblage recorded in the Pigmy Basin geochemical and mineralogical signatures (notably, clay minerals and trace metal geochemistry) pinpoint

South Florida, University of


STATEOFTHEART IN PERFORMANCE MODELING AND SIMULATION: Theory, Techniques, and Tutorials. Edited by K. Bagchi, G. Zobrist, and K. Trivedi.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

' C and frequently yields relatively low reliability of benchmark results and excessive cost which can increase the reliability and de crease the cost of benchmarking of computer systems AND DESIGN OF BENCHMARK SUITES Jozo J. Dujmovi'c 12.1. INTRODUCTION Benchmark suites are most frequently

Dujmovic, Jozo J.


The effect of the age of a hen on fertility and hatchability of eggs and on livability and growth of chicks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

between the hens three years of age and the other two pens It is rpaite evident from the table Sn ted. s ezperiment that fertility de- creases as age incrsasese but the decrease is not of any importance until the hens are three years of age The per... by Table I These data agree with St 4obn (1955) in his statement that a dcoreasod fertility in hens does not become noticeable until their third brooding seasons at which time fertiU. ty materially de- creases snd continuee to do so in later breeding...

Crossland, Aubrey Lee



Shai Agassi's story of his evolving personal interest in energy issues, and the evolv-ing business plan of his electric vehicle company, Better Place, provides an impor-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

plan of his electric vehicle company, Better Place, provides an impor- tant lens on the pace short-lived efforts at developing electric vehicles. All this can be seen, in retrospect, as a clarion electric vehicles--is notable and challenging at the same time. The benefit of pure EV technology

Kammen, Daniel M.


This study is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) through grant EF1049251: "Assessing Decadal Climate Change Impacts on Urban Populations in the Southwestern United States."  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Decadal Climate Change Impacts on Urban Populations in the Southwestern United States." Data calibrates a point-scale soil water balance model to available soil moisture data, using historical, despite its notable effects on water, energy and biomass conditions. This omission is noteworthy

Hall, Sharon J.


The Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS) was founded in 2007 as part of a government program called the World Premier International  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan. The fund provides a total of 6 million dollars per year science. iCeMS is one of nine WPI centers throughout Japan and boasts eighteen world-renowned principal investigators, who are leading experts in cell biology, chemistry, and physics. Notably, Kyoto University Center

Takada, Shoji


J. Phys. B AL Mol. Opt Phys. 26 (1993) 1569-1578. Printed in the UK Pure and mixed state calculationsof the laser-induced  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, altemative methods for separating the elements of uranium are being studied, notably the use of lasers of the isotopes of uranium has major commercial importance in the nuclear fuel industry. As is well known to induce preferential ionization of 23sU(see Greenland 1991 for a review). Laser isotope separation relies

Ford, Ian


Predicting market power in wholesale electricity markets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Predicting market power in wholesale electricity markets#3; David M Newbery Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge August 26, 2008 Abstract The traditional measure of market power is the HHI, which gives implausible results given the low... elasticity of demand in electricity spot markets, unless it is adapted to take account of contracting. In its place the Residual Supply Index has been proposed as a more suitable index to measure potential market power in electricity markets, notably...

Newbery, David


Ris Report No. 254 Danish Atomic Energy Commission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

relative intensity is 52% in ice and 27% in water. Spectra for heavy ice are identical with those for light ice, whereas heavy water gives 2.01 nsec, 22%. The in- crease in lifetime in ice above -100°C Lifetimes in Water and Ice, and in Frozen Aqueous Solutions by Morten Eldrup November 1971 Smk$ totribmun


Economists' Voice www.bepress.com/ev January, 2009 The Berkeley Electronic Press Eurozone: The High Cost of Complacency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

indicators (in- flation, interest rates, fiscal balance) and far better real ones (GDP per capita growth, un- employment, labour productivity). GDP per capita growth has actually de- creased in Eurozone countries in the Eurozone, as it does more generally in the European Union. The reason it absorbs so much time and energy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Algorithms for MIS Vector Generation and Pruning Kenneth S. Stevens  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

one input, as demonstrated in Figure 1. If in2 switches long before inl, the delay from inl to the output remains constant. However, as the separation between inl and in2 approaches zero, the delay from inl to the output can in- crease substantially. Figure 1 presents the maximum delay as a percentage

Stevens, Ken


Medical physics tackles cancer treatment Biochemistry preserves organs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that there is not a media report suggesting that some man-made chemical results in in- creased human disease. Most often Parliament asked that both human and environmental health be considered in the management of chemicals of chemicals was done in a way that would be use- ful to the current regulatory process. Indeed it took until

Dawson, Jeff W.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE CoZZoque C4, suppZ6ment au nOIO, Tome 42, octobre 1981 page C4-447  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

bias to the signal at zero bias in- creases with a decrease of gap state density in the i layer centers in solids [l]. PAS offers a direct and sensitive probe to reveal nonradiative proc- esses and provides information about extrinsic optical-absorption spectra or non- radiative states in semiconductors

Boyer, Edmond


Optical spectroscopy of jet-cooled NiSi Ned F. Lindholm, Dale J. Brugh, Gretchen K. Rothschopf, Shane M. Sickafoose,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

metal silicides has in- creased greatly in the last 30 years. Like the related transition metal carbides and nitrides, transition metal silicides possess many desirable physical properties, including high melting interest in nickel and other transition metal sili- cides is in their potential applications

Morse, Michael D.


A Mobility Model For UAV Ad hoc Network Ouns Bouachir, Alinoe Abrassart, Fabien Garcia, Nicolas Larrieu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Mobility Model For UAV Ad hoc Network Ouns Bouachir, Alinoe Abrassart, Fabien Garcia, Nicolas, there is an in- creasing attention on micro-UAVs in the military area as well as in the civilian domain. They are used as swarm (several UAVs) forming a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) since they are relatively cheap

Boyer, Edmond


Heart Rate Dynamics Before Spontaneous Onset of Ventricular  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heart Rate Dynamics Before Spontaneous Onset of Ventricular Fibrillation in Patients With Healed V. Huikuri, MD The traditional methods of analyzing heart rate (HR) variability have failed myocardial infarction has been shown to be in- creased in patients with reduced heart rate (HR) vari- ability


M. A. Minor R. E. Scheibling Effects of food ration and feeding regime on growth and reproduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- ylocentrotus droebachiensis (Mu? ller), sea urchins in lab- oratory aquaria were fed kelp (Laminaria signi®cant. Feed- ing rate on kelp at the end of the experiment was sig- ni®cantly greater for urchins rations of kelp support somatic and gonadal growth in S. droebachiensis. In- creasing the supply of kelp

Scheibling, Robert Eric


Inhalation Toxicology, 16:381390, 2004 Copyright c Taylor & Francis Inc.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

consistently identify the elderly at risk for air pollution-related morbidity and mortality, we developed daily fluctuations in ambient air pollution and in- creased mortality rates remain elusive (Borja as the constituent of air pollution that is most culpable in correlating with increased cardiac mortality rates

Broman, Karl W.



E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Dispersed Turbine Systems - 3 1 Introduction The development of wind energy use has led to a notice- able in of electricity by wind energy acts as a negative load leading to an in- crease in fluctuations of net load to two days additional conventional reserves have to be kept ready to replace the wind energy share

Heinemann, Detlev


Shackleton, N.J., Curry, W.B., Richter, C., and Bralower, T.J. (Eds.), 1997 Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, Vol. 154  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to be tied to Northern Hemisphere glaciations through reduc- tion of the Boreal Heat Pump (e.g., Imbrie et al focus in Cenozoic paleoceanography is the relationship between global climate change and deep ocean circulation. An in- creasing number of studies has implicated deep-water circulation in climatic change

Zachos, James


Salicidation process using NiSi and its device application R. A. Johnson, P. M. Asbeck, and S. S. Lau  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperature window. In this article, the formation of nickel mono-silicide NiSi using rapid thermal annealing. In the recent past, there have been concerns related to the in- crease of TiSi2 film resistivity on submicron resistivity C54 phase.5,6 The TiSi2 process- ing temperature window is relatively narrow due to the high

Asbeck, Peter M.


Mechanical engineering Department Seminar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

power generation gas turbines and jet engines. As the energy efficiency of gas turbines in- creases to pro- vide thermal protection to turbine blades and vanes in the hottest sections of both electric with turbine inlet turbine, advances in turbine efficiency depend on improved ther- mal barrier coatings


Transportation Fuels Policy Since the OPEC Embargo: Paved with Good Intentions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Knittel By the end of 1972, things were great for oil. Prices were on a steady downward trend, falling prices coincides with increases in US oil consumption. Consumption in- creased dramatically from 0 by the end of 1973. World oil prices rose sharply to an average of $52.85 (in 2011 dollars) dur- ing 1974

Rothman, Daniel


Financial Development, Entrepreneurship, and Job Satisfaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of their job. For example, entrepreneurs may derive utility from being their own boss.4 In line Forthcoming in The Review of Economics and Statistics Abstract This paper shows that utility di matching between individual motivation and occupation, thereby in- creasing entrepreneurial utility despite

Paris-Sud XI, Université de



E-Print Network [OSTI]

by recreational and commercial fisher- men has created a demand for underutilized fish resources. One. A dramatic in- crease in demand for this species can be seen in the commercial landings on the west coast- plastic cement and sectioning the shaft using the method described by Berry et al. (1977); 3) re- moving


1999-2009: Has the intensity and frequency of hurricanes increased ?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or causes of global warming. It simply analyses relevant quoted data and publishes the data in such a way Abstract One of the often quoted side-effects of global warming is an in- crease in the frequency that it can be easily checked by others. Keywords: Severe weather event frequency, Hurricanes, global warming

Hatton, Les


Microphysical Structure of the Marine Boundary Layer under Strong Wind and Spray Formation as Seen from Simulations Using a 2D Explicit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the vertical profiles of wind speed occurring with in- creasing wind speeds were attributed to a decrease generation is de- termined by a source function depending on the background wind speed assumed in the surface roughness and the drag coefficient for wind speeds exceeding about 33 m s21 . This decrease

Mark, Pinsky


TESLA Report 2005-21 Master Thesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

]. However behind the relative simple functioning principle of particle acceler- ation there are plenty accelerators of subatomic particles is ever in- creasing, in medical or industrial applications as well) - the particles are accelerated in a straight line, and circular (synchrotron). Today both types use


AbstractA total of 7244 Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

414 AbstractA total of 7244 Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides, Walbaum) were tagged in Greenland waters between 1986 and 1998 to in crease information on stock delinea tions, to clarify migration routes, and to describe the seasonal movements of fjord populations. At present 517 recaptured Greenland


InsideIllinoisDec. 7, 2006 Vol. 26, No. 11  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Illinois prod- ucts to the public, to promote the Allerton name and in- crease food service (at the re, food service administrator; and Eric Larson, pastry chef in the Housing Division, were among 20 Dog tile, an Allerton T-shirt and hat, and other items, and the Allerton Label Food Basket contains

Lewis, Jennifer


draft paper Refactoring Functional Programs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

manipulations involved in refactoring. Similarly to other program transformations, refactor- ings are based transformations for program restructuring emphasises a different kind of transformation from the more tradi design improve- ments finally became attractive and feasible because: (a) the in- creasing pressure

Kent, University of


A&A 560, A98 (2013) DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201322683  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), is the first radio telescope designed with the capability to measure radio emission from cosmic-ray induced air emission with unprecedented detail. This article describes the dataset, as well as the analysis pipeline With the development of ever faster electronics and the in- crease in computational power, the construction of radio

Hörandel, Jörg R.


Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Contributions of Renewable Energy Resources to Re-source Diversity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Contributions of Renewable Energy Resources to Re- source Diversity George Gross, Fellow, IEEE Resources, Environmental Attributes of Renewable Resources PANEL PRESENTATION SUMMARY HE myriad changes of renewable energy resources in meeting future energy needs. The dwindling oil supplies and their in- creasing

Gross, George


429th Brookhaven Lecture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Robert P. Crease, historian for Brookhaven National Laboratory and Chair of the Philosophy Department at Stony Brook University, presents "How Big Science Came to Long Island: The Birth of Brookhaven Lab," covering the founding of the Laboratory, the key figures involved in starting BNL, and the many problems that had to be overcome in creating and designing its first big machines.

Robert P. Crease



Z .Journal of Marine Systems 30 2001 155164 www.elsevier.comrlocaterjmarsys  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of eutrophication in the near coastal areas is overwhelming the signal of climate variability. q 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Benthos; Climate variability; NAO index; Eutrophication; Gulf of the variability have been related to the eutrophication through the in- creased primary production and periodic

Dippner, Joachim W.


429th Brookhaven Lecture  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Robert P. Crease, historian for Brookhaven National Laboratory and Chair of the Philosophy Department at Stony Brook University, presents "How Big Science Came to Long Island: The Birth of Brookhaven Lab," covering the founding of the Laboratory, the key figures involved in starting BNL, and the many problems that had to be overcome in creating and designing its first big machines.

Robert P. Crease



I . . . . . Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Vol. 75A, No. 3, pp. 397-400, 1983  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at the same temperature (Fish, 1979) and faster swimming speeds would necessitate in- creased convective heat by a platic grid in con- junction with a 5cm wide grid of plastic straws, both of which removed turbulence electric grid which stimulated swimming by the muskrat. Wires attached to the grid ran along the floor

Fish, Frank


National Environmental Research Institute Ministry of the Environment . Denmark  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Illerup Department: Department of Policy Analysis Serial title and no.: Research Notes from NERI No. 229 are described. The pollutants con- sidered are SO2 , NOX , NMVOC, CH4 , CO, CO2 , N2 O, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins and PAH. Since 1990 the fuel consumption in stationary combustion has in- creased


INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING SUPERCONDUCTOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19 (2006) 968979 doi:10.1088/0953-2048/19/9/013  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for high-power appli- cations in motors, generators, transformers, fault current limiters, superconducting-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires based on coated conductors (CC) can meet the de- mand for high critical currents Ic magnetic energy storage, and power transmission lines [1]. An obvious route to high Ic is to in- crease

Song, Xueyan


InsideIllinoisJuly 2, 2009 Vol. 29, No. 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

E xtreme weather, drought, heavy rainfall and in- creasing temperatures are a fact of life in many, environmental and economic costs of climate change. It focuses on effects by re- gion and details how the nation's transportation, agriculture, health, degrees by the end of the century, he said, with more warming pro- jected

Lewis, Jennifer


Decomposing Linear Programs for Parallel Solution?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Decomposing Linear Programs for Parallel Solution? Ali P nar, Umit V. Catalyurek, Cevdet Aykanat in the solution of Linear Programming (LP) problems with block angular constraint matrices has been exploited industrial applications and the advent of powerful computers have in- creased the users' ability to formulate

?atalyürek, ?mit V.


Decomposing Linear Programs for Parallel Solution ?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Decomposing Linear Programs for Parallel Solution ? Ali Pinar, ¨ Umit V. C¸ ataly¨urek, Cevdet in the solution of Linear Programming (LP) problems with block angular constraint matrices has been exploited with successful industrial applications and the advent of powerful computers have in­ creased the users' ability

?atalyürek, ?mit V.


Extracting Hydrogen Electricity from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In the United States, energy security motivates the de- velopment of previously untapped sources of oil as well & TECHNOLOGY 161A C oncerns about climate change, in- creased global demand for finite oil and natural gas reserves, and national en- ergy security, among other factors, are driving the search for alternatives


Original article Effect of a viable yeast culture on digestibility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original article Effect of a viable yeast culture on digestibility and rumen fermentation in sheep by yeast treatment. Supplementation of yeast in- creased acetate: propionate ratio, butyrate, isoacids, p that the effect of yeast culture on ru- men fermentation may depend on the nature of.the diet. Living yeast cell

Boyer, Edmond


750 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 58, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2010 Algorithms for Dynamic Spectrum Access With  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

demand for radio spectrum. The idea is to sense times when a specific licensed band is not used Spectrum Access With Learning for Cognitive Radio Jayakrishnan Unnikrishnan, Student Member, IEEE that exploit vacancies in the licensed spectrum have been proposed as a solution to the ever-in- creasing

Veeravalli, Venugopal


Open Archive Toulouse Archive Ouverte (OATAO) OATAO is an open access repository that collects the work of Toulouse researchers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the work of Toulouse researchers and makes it freely available over the web where possible dedicated to imaging are presented through the analysis of the dark current behavior in pixel arrays and isolated photodiodes. The mean dark current in- crease and the dark current nonuniformity are investigated

Mailhes, Corinne


Agent Cooperatives for Effective Power Consumption Shifting Charilaos Akasiadis and Georgios Chalkiadakis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reduced electricity price rates, given their different load shifting capabilities. This allows even agents of household energy pricing. In addition, due to in- creased levels of consumer uncertainty regarding imminent applicable scheme for electricity consumption shifting and effective de- mand curve flattening. The scheme

Chalkiadakis, Georgios


Agent Cooperatives for Effective Power Consumption Shifting Charilaos Akasiadis and Georgios Chalkiadakis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reduced electricity price rates, given their different load shifting capabilities. This allows even agents- ization of household energy pricing. In addition, due to in- creased levels of consumer uncertainty applicable scheme for electricity consumption shifting and effective de- mand curve flattening. The scheme

Chalkiadakis, Georgios


Disruption Management ( Operations Research between planning ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In ship-building , production plans usually allo w some fl exibility. ... creasing the cost of production gives rise to an increased demand for robustness in ..... H o w ever , from the passenger side it is the w orst option , since a group of customers.


32 Marine Fisheries Review Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fishery expanded rapidly due to an in- creasing demand for shark by-products (i.e. oil, liver, etc the Azores and Madeira (DGPA, 1998). Historically, fisheries have targeted elasmobranchs to supply the liver-oil.) and as the bycatch of an accelerated deep-sea teleost fishery (Nunes et al.1). In 1985, the demand for shark by


CPR: Composable Performance Regression for Scalable Multiprocessor Models Benjamin C. Lee  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

utilization cycle by cycle to estimate performance. Multiprocessor simulators, however, must account for synchronization events that in- crease the cost of every cycle simulated and shared resource contention that increases the total number of cycles simulated. These effects cause multiprocessor simulation times to scale

Lee, Benjamin C.


Engineering for a ChangingWorld A Roadmap to the Future of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

commodities, discarding them when their skills become obsolete or replaceable by cheaper engineering services from abroad. There are concerns that the in- creasing trends of outsourcing engineering servicesEngineering for a ChangingWorld A Roadmap to the Future of Engineering Practice, Research

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


A Model-Based Prognostics Approach Applied to Pneumatic Valves Matthew J. Daigle 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tech- nology for condition-based maintenance, and serves to in- crease system availability, reliability 1 University of California, Santa Cruz, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, 94035, USA matthew.j.daigle@nasa.gov 2 NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, 94035, USA kai

Daigle, Matthew



E-Print Network [OSTI]

. It is cheapest to ship long distance by train and so railroads are capturing an in- creasing amount of long-haul, and all local freight, is handled by truck. The basic problem faced by a distribution manager, then among the vehicles so that not too many trucks are required. Copyright c 1995,6 John J. Bartholdi, III

Bartholdi III, John J.


Supervised Control of a Flying Performing Robot using its Intrinsic Sound Benjamin N. Passow and Sophy Smith  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to achieve autonomous stable flight. The controllers have been tuned using genetic algorithms to further the need for additional sensors. 1. Introduction The interest on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in- creased. Our project goes even further as we are developing a multi-purpose lightweight autonomous flying robot

Hopgood, Adrian


Investigation of the secondary electron emission characteristics of alternative dynode materials for imaging photomultipliers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

electron emission (SEE) coefficients for polycrystalline CVD diamond of 84 have been reported for Hydrogen]. Polycrystalline diamond is a widely available, relatively inexpensive material that can be de- posited over large by in- creasing the gain of each dynode stage by utilizing materials such as CVD diamond. Secondary

Bristol, University of


Biogeosciences, 1, 3361, 2004 www.biogeosciences.net/bg/1/33/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the world's oceans caused by eutrophication and pollution problems resulting from in- creased anthropogenic and anthropogenic perturbations of their environment. Because the eutrophication-induced biological production has to the next. Further- more, one realizes that the study of the eutrophication prob- lems and their impacts

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Somniloquy: Augmenting Network Interfaces to Reduce PC Energy Usage Yuvraj Agarwal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Somniloquy: Augmenting Network Interfaces to Reduce PC Energy Usage Yuvraj Agarwal , Steve Hodges@cs.ucsd.edu Abstract Reducing the energy consumption of PCs is becoming in- creasingly important with rising energy costs and environmen- tal concerns. Sleep states such as S3 (suspend to RAM) save energy, but are often

Zhou, Yuanyuan


Cherish every Joule: Maximizing throughput with an eye on network-wide energy consumption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cherish every Joule: Maximizing throughput with an eye on network-wide energy consumption Canming: {jcm, yshi, thou, wjlou}@vt.edu Abstract Conserving network-wide energy consumption is becoming of wireless networks, the concern of energy consumption is becoming in- creasingly important for network

Hou, Y. Thomas


Browser Interfaces and EV-SSL Certificates: Confusion, Inconsistencies and HCI Challenges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Browser Interfaces and EV-SSL Certificates: Confusion, Inconsistencies and HCI Challenges Jennifer (EV) SSL certificates has caused web browser manufacturers to take a new look at how they design SSL certificates rather than in- creasing trust. We perform a systematic walkthrough involving

Van Oorschot, Paul



E-Print Network [OSTI]

an active control system to de- crease electrical sychronous machine vibrations. To reach this goal a quadratic cost function is next elaborated. Its good performances are then compared with a classical in simulation. The finality of this work is to decrease the vibrations of an elec- trical synchronous machine

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Liquid piston gas compression James D. Van de Ven a,*, Perry Y. Li b,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. As the compressed gas cools at constant pressure in a storage reservoir, the potential energy of the gas de- creases process and enables efficient energy storage through gas compression. Current applications involving piston Gas compression Air compressor Compression efficiency a b s t r a c t A liquid piston concept

Li, Perry Y.


ZUMA: A Platform for Smart-Home Environments The Case for Infrastructure*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the potential to control peak power consumption, and in- crease energy efficiency [13]. These systems use from the end devices to the system core. The paper spells out ZUMA, or functions that a UCR should communication systems, developed from a single line to a cluster of cordless de- vices connected to a central

Wawrzynek, John


Statistical evaluation on upper mesospheric and lower thermospheric temperature effects caused by energetic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reactions, infrared cooling, photoelectrons, and heat conduction do all influence the energy budget of solar radiation, the chemical heating rates, and the infrared cooling rates. The plasma flow, controlled. We interpret this increase as an accumulated heating effect associated with in- creased particle

Bergen, Universitetet i


Dynamic Management of Internet Telephony Servers: A Case Study based on JavaBeans and JDMK  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

management systems. The results of our work allow us to evaluate JDMK regarding its suitability for the mana such as CORBA and JavaBeans are gaining in- creasing importance for the integrated management of net- worksDynamic Management of Internet Telephony Servers: A Case Study based on JavaBeans and JDMK


Experimental Comparison of Observers for Tool Position Estimation of Industrial Robots  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental Comparison of Observers for Tool Position Estimation of Industrial Robots Robert methods for tool position estimation of industrial robots. It is assumed that the motor angular position industrial robot. I. INTRODUCTION Current industrial robot development is focused on in- creasing the robot

Schön, Thomas


Role of global warming on the statistics of recordbreaking temperatures S. Redner 1, * and Mark R. Petersen 2,+  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Role of global warming on the statistics of record­breaking temperatures S. Redner 1, * and Mark R of global warming, where the mean temperature systematically in­ creases with time. Over the 126­year time question arises: is global warming the cause of such heat waves or are they merely statistical fluctuations

Redner, Sidney


Towards a Fundamental Understanding of the Stability and Delay of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EPONs. We consider two re- porting strategies: immediate reporting, whereby the report is immediately ONU-to-OLT transmissions; see, e.g., [1­12]. However, growing bandwidth demand in- creasingly of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Goldwater Center, MC 5706, Tempe

Reisslein, Martin


Responses of Magnocellular Neurons to Osmotic Stimulation Involves Coactivation of Excitatory and Inhibitory Input: An  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of normal rats respond to intra- venous infusions of hypertonic saline with gradual, linear in- creases response to such infusions. We show that a simple computational model can reproduce these responses well, but only if it is assumed that hypertonic infusions coacti- vate excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs

Feng, Jianfeng


J. Dairy Sci. 84:241255 American Dairy Science Association, 2001.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or AA (65 g/d) was infused i.v. for 7.5 d, and, beginning on d 5, goats were subjected to a hyperinsuli-like growth factor-1 by 27%, and euglycemia was maintained by the infusion of glucose. Arterial, mammary continuously by probes. Insulin and insulin plus AA infusions in- creased the yields of milk by 13 to 18

Bequette, Brian J.


How Big Science Came to Long Island: the Birth of Brookhaven Lab (429th Brookhaven Lecture)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Robert P. Crease, historian for the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory and Chair of the Philosophy Department at Stony Brook University, will give two talks on the Laboratory's history on October 31 and December 12. Crease's October 31 talk, titled "How Big Science Came to Long Island: The Birth of Brookhaven Lab," will cover the founding of the Laboratory soon after World War II as a peacetime facility to construct and maintain basic research facilities, such as nuclear reactors and particle accelerators, that were too large for single institutions to build and operate. He will discuss the key figures involved in starting the Laboratory, including Nobel laureates I.I. Rabi and Norman Ramsey, as well as Donald Dexter Van Slyke, one of the most renowned medical researchers in American history. Crease also will focus on the many problems that had to be overcome in creating the Laboratory and designing its first big machines, as well as the evolving relations of the Laboratory with the surrounding Long Island community and news media. Throughout his talk, Crease will tell fascinating stories about Brookhaven's scientists and their research.

Crease, Robert P. (Ph.D., Stony Brook University, Department of Philosophy) [Ph.D., Stony Brook University, Department of Philosophy



Record External Quantum Efficiency in Blue OLED Device  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have created a blue organic light emitting diode (OLED) with an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 11% at 800 cd/m2, exceeding their previous record EQE of 8%. The EQE of blue OLEDs is a major challenge in OLED technology development. This achievement is particularly notable since it was accomplished at a much lower operating voltage (6.2V) than previous demonstrations using similar structures, revealing the potential for much higher power efficiencies.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Advanced regenerator testing in the Raytheon dual-use cryocoolerr  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant progress has been made on the Raytheon low cost space cryocooler called the Dual-Use Cryocooler (DUC). Most notably, the DUC has been integrated and tested with an advanced regenerator. The advanced regenerator is a drop-in replacement for stainless steel screens and has shown significant thermodynamic performance improvements. This paper will compare the performance of two different regenerators and explain the benefits of the advanced regenerator.

Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T. J. [Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems 2000 E. El Segundo Blvd., El Segundo, CA 90245 (United States)



Energy and the economy: Soaring development in Thailand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thailand's economy is one of the fastest growing in the world. Spectacular economic growth has brought a number of growing pains, energy being one of the many notables. Thailand's growth campaign has been fueled by oil, and as the economy shows little sign of slowing, energy use continues to grow. The government must balance a surging economy while scrambling to maintain sufficient energy supplies and infrastructure.

Not Available



'What's a Heaven For?' National Public Culture's Role in Shaping US Space Policy, 1957-61  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and Ray Finch provided valuable comment along the path, and Neil Oatsvall reviewed a chapter to provide helpful insights in preparing to present elements of my research. Gates Brown, Chris Rein, Frank Cai, and Mark Calhoun provided notable encouragement... officers Roy Houchin and Mark Erickson focused on the program. McDougall deemed the program an interesting example of how truly ridiculous programs could sometimes be ended even during a generally technology-happy era. Houchin studied the vehicle...

Sambaluk, Nicholas Michael



Citizen Watch in the Accounting Department? Tax and Financial Reporting Responses to Employee Whistleblowing Allegations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

statements (Hobson et al. 2012), the U.S. Congress and federal regulators have instituted ambitious whistleblowing programs to reward and protect employees who expose tax and financial reporting misdeeds (Williams et al. 2012).1 Regulators? heightened... emphasis on these whistleblowing programs is notable in light of concerns about external parties? ability to effectively detect financial misconduct using publicly available information (e.g., Dyck et al. 2010; Hobson et al. 2012; PCAOB 2007). Recent...

Wilde, Jaron H



SWEIS annual review - CY2002 : a comparison of CY2002 operations to projections included in the site-wide environmental impact statement for continued operation of Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The SNL/NM CY2002 SWEIS Annual Review discusses changes in facilities and facility operations that have occurred in selected and notable facilities since source data were collected for the SNL/NM SWEIS (DOE/EIS-0281). The following information is presented: {sm_bullet} An updated overview of SNL/NM selected and notable facilities and infrastructure capabilities. {sm_bullet} An overview of SNL/NM environment, safety, and health programs, including summaries of the purpose, operations, activities, hazards, and hazard controls at relevant facilities and risk management methods for SNL/NM. {sm_bullet} Updated base year activities data, together with related inventories, material consumption, emissions, waste, and resource consumption. {sm_bullet} Appendices summarizing activities and related hazards at SNL/NM individual special, general, and highbay laboratories, and chemical purchases.

Bayliss, Linda Sue (Outrider Environmental Planning & Technical Services, Cedar Crest, NM); White, Brenda Bailey (The Plus Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Guerrero, Joseph Vincent; Catechis, Christopher Spyros (Outrider Environmental Planning & Technical Services, Cedar Crest, NM)



New Models of Public Ownership in Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Energy1 Aoife Brophy Haney and Michael G. Pollitt ESRC Electricity Policy Research Group and Judge Business School University of Cambridge 24 September 2010 1. Background and current challenges facing the power sector This paper discusses... of successful reform (e.g. UK, Nordic countries, Chile and Argentina)3 but there are notable reforms which have stalled (e.g. in many US states, including California, and in South Africa, Turkey and Ukraine) and many others of slow progress (e.g. in most...

Haney, Aoife Brophy; Pollitt, Michael G.


Unconventional Integer Quantum Hall effect in graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Monolayer graphite films, or graphene, have quasiparticle excitations that can be described by 2+1 dimensional Dirac theory. We demonstrate that this produces an unconventional form of the quantized Hall conductivity $\\sigma_{xy} = - (2 e^2/h)(2n+1)$ with $n=0,1,...$, that notably distinguishes graphene from other materials where the integer quantum Hall effect was observed. This unconventional quantization is caused by the quantum anomaly of the $n=0$ Landau level and was discovered in recent experiments on ultrathin graphite films.

V. P. Gusynin; S. G. Sharapov



Algorithmic techniques for nanometer VLSI design and manufacturing closure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the traditional circuit design without handling variations. With in- creasing design complexity, innovative efiective and ecient algorithmic techniques are needed to compute a high quality design in terms of both timing and power. After that, variation... OF PHILOSOPHY May 2008 Major Subject: Computer Engineering ALGORITHMIC TECHNIQUES FOR NANOMETER VLSI DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING CLOSURE A Dissertation by SHIYAN HU Submitted to the Oce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulflllment...

Hu, Shiyan



Luminescence titrations of polyelectrolytes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The objectives of the research described in this thesis were to develop a luminescence titration procedure to determine the equivalent weight of polyelec- trolytes and to use viscosity studies to obtain information about the structures of the polyelectrolytes... in solution. The luminescence titration procedure is based on the fact that the emission intensity of a fluorescent molecule (lumophore) in- creases with increasing concentration of polyelectrolyte until a stoichiometrically equivalent amount...

Alvarez, Edwin Rene



National Environmental Research Institute Ministry of the Environment . Denmark  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

scenarios are outlined. In the basic scenario the emission in 2012 will de- crease to 9.8 mio. tonnes CO2 -eqv. and in 2017 a further reduction to 9.6 mio. tonnes of CO2 -eqv. is estimated. This corresponds to a reduction of 29% from 1990 to 2017. From 2002 to 2017 the reduction is estimated to 0.9 mio. tonnes CO2 -eqv


Heat Recovery From Arc Furnaces Using Water Cooled Panels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HEAT RECOVERY FROM ARC FURNACES USING WATER COOLED PANELS D. F. Darby Deere & Company Moline, Illinois ABSTRACT In 1980-81, the John Deere Foundry at East Moline underwent an expansion program that in creased its capacity by over 60...%. This expansion was centered around the melt department where the four existing 13MVA electric arc furnaces were augmented with two additional 13MVA arc furnaces. A waste heat recovery system was installed on all six of the arc furnaces which, with modifica...

Darby, D. F.


GettinG AlonG ColleGe AreA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, streetlights out, etc.) (619) 527-7500 www.sandiego.gov/street-div/sidewalk.shtml recycling (800) 237-2583 www.sandiego.gov/environmental- services/recycling/ tHe assoCiateD stuDents GooD neiGHbor proGram's (Gnp) purpose is to inCrease a of debris and furniture. · pets must be kept in a fenced area or on a leash. · pet waste must be cleaned up

Ponce, V. Miguel


Evaluation and Optimization of MTBE Biodegradation in Aquifers, Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was focused on meeting the following objectives concerning the process of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) biodegradation, with the goal of optimizing this process in situ: 1. Assess whether intrinsic bioattenuation of MTBE is feasible under aerobic conditions across several contaminated sites. 2. Determine the effect of co-contaminants, specifically water-soluble gasoline components (most notably benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes [BTEX]) on MTBE biodegradation. 3. Determine whether microbial and/or chemical factors contribute to different MTBE degradative activities. 4. Isolate and characterize MTBE-degrading microorganisms from sediments in which MTBE biodegradation was observed.

Legler, T; Balser, L; Koester, C; Wilson, W



The distribution of estuarine benthic invertebrates in the vicinity of a natural asphalt oil seep in Luguna de Tamiahua, Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to indicate that the distal trend is depth- oriented and not a case of low oil tolerance. The lower numbers in October could be due to a number of reasons -- point of time in life cycle, lower to1e: ance to low salinities, or lower tolerance of higher.... With respect to gastropods, observations of high mortali- ties due to exposure to oil have been reported by Nelson-Smith (1968a, 1968b). On the other hand, the ability of certain grazing mollusks, notably limpets, to ingest and pass oil through...

Yuill, Richard Matthew



Some factors in the control of the southern blight organism, Sclerotium rolfsii  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the organism in question, They noted also (12) that liming the soil had little effect in reducing the sclerotial population. Langley (10) found that nitro- genous fertilizers were of little benefit in reduoing south- ern blight of peanuts st Stephenville... ('/) noted that S. ~ro f ~ spread rapidly sweet potato slip-beds were fertilized with cotton seed which is notably high in nitrogen and carbon sources. t is then ~ vident that the organisms which are most active in the ini- tial stages of alfalfa meal...

Johnson, Samuel Park



Nucleon Form Factors in Point-Form Spectator-Model Constructions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss electromagnetic currents in the point-form formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics. The construction is along a spectator model and implies that only one quark is explicitly coupled to the photon, but nevertheless many-body contributions are present in the current operator. Such effects are unavoidable in relativistic constructions and resulting ambiguities are notably reduced by imposing charge normalization and time-reversal invariance. The residual theoretical indetermination introduces small but sizeable changes in the nucleon form-factors, particularly at higher Q-squared values, with the data generally centered in the middle of the theoretical band.

T. Melde



ATP is released from guinea pig ureter epithelium on distension  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ATP is released from guinea pig ureter epithelium on distension G. E. KNIGHT,1 P. BODIN,1 W. C. DE Knight, G. E., P. Bodin, W. C. De Groat, and G. Burn- stock. ATP is released from guinea pig ureter.2001.--Distension of the perfused guinea pig ureter at pressures from 20 to 700 cmH2O in- creased the amount of ATP

Burnstock, Geoffrey


Self-assembly of synthetic and biological components in water using cucurbit[8]uril  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Current technology can successfully build assemblies from the bottom up, assembling complex architectures using such building blocks as DNA,14,2426 peptides,27,28 saccharides,29,30 lipids,3133 as well as synthetic polymer com- ponents.3437 1900 1950... nature of an aqueous envir- onment are still being explored, and some notable examples are provided in Fig. 1.3. 3 Chapter 1 Introduction It is worthy of note that in each case, multiple non-covalent interactions work in concert, as is the case in nature...

Zayed, Jameel Majed



Characterizing planetary orbits and trajectories of light in the Reissner-Nordstrom metric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Exact analytic expressions for planetary orbits and light trajectories in the Reissner-Nordstrom geometry are presented. They are characterized in a map specified by three dimensionless parameters for the planetary orbits, while two dimensionless parameters are required to map the trajectories of light. Notable differences with the corresponding orbits and trajectories in the Schwarzschild geometry are indicated. In particular, when the energy and angular momentum of the planet are fixed, the precession angle of the orbit decreases as the net electric charge of the massive star or black hole increases. A similar result also holds for the deflection angle of a light ray.

F. T Hioe



Final scientific and technical report for grant DE-AI02-93ER40784: Fundamental Physics with Cold Neutrons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There have been a growing number of notable results in fundamental neutron physics, which are briefly summarized.

Dewey, Maynard, S.


Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


The role of energy efficiency and renewable energies in the future world energy market  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The world population is rising rapidly, notably in the developing countries. Historical trends suggest that increased annual energy use per capita is a good surrogate for the standard of living factors which promote a decrease in population growth rate. If these trends continue, stabilization of the world`s population will require the increased use of all sources of energy as cheap oil and gas are depleted. Improved efficiency of energy use and renewable energy sources will be essential to stabilizing population,while providing a decent standard all over the world.

Sheffield, J.



Potential of Thin Films for use in Charged Particle Tracking Detectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thin Film technology has widespread applications in everyday electronics, notably Liquid Crystal Display screens, solar cells, and organic light emitting diodes. We explore the potential of this technology as charged particle radiation tracking detectors for use in High Energy Physics experiments such as those at the Large Hadron Collider or the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Through modern fabrication techniques, a host of semiconductor materials are available to construct thin, flexible detectors with integrated electronics with pixel sizes on the order of a few microns. We review the material properties of promising candidates, discuss the potential benefits and challenges associated with this technology, and review previously demonstrated applicability as a neutron detector.

J. Metcalfe; I. Mejia; J. Murphy; M. Quevedo; L. Smith; J. Alvarado; B. Gnade; H. Takai



Potential of Thin Films for use in Charged Particle Tracking Detectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thin Film technology has widespread applications in everyday electronics, notably Liquid Crystal Display screens, solar cells, and organic light emitting diodes. We explore the potential of this technology as charged particle radiation tracking detectors for use in High Energy Physics experiments such as those at the Large Hadron Collider or the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Through modern fabrication techniques, a host of semiconductor materials are available to construct thin, flexible detectors with integrated electronics with pixel sizes on the order of a few microns. We review the material properties of promising candidates, discuss the potential benefits and challenges associated with this technology, and review previously demonstrated applicability as a neutron detector.

Metcalfe, J; Murphy, J; Quevedo, M; Smith, L; Alvarado, J; Gnade, B; Takai, H



Role of reversibility in viral capsid growth: A paradigm for self-assembly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Self-assembly at submicroscopic scales is an important but little understood phenomenon. A prominent example is virus capsid growth, whose underlying behavior can be modeled using simple particles that assemble into polyhedral shells. Molecular dynamics simulation of shell formation in the presence of an atomistic solvent provides new insight into the self-assembly mechanism, notably that growth proceeds via a cascade of strongly reversible steps and, despite the large variety of possible intermediates, only a small fraction of highly bonded forms appear on the pathway.

D. C. Rapaport



Origins of Chevron Rollovers in Non-Two-State Protein Folding Kinetics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chevron rollovers of some proteins imply that their logarithmic folding rates are nonlinear in native stability. This is predicted by lattice and continuum G\\=o models to arise from diminished accessibilities of the ground state from transiently populated compact conformations under strongly native conditions. Despite these models' native-centric interactions, the slowdown is due partly to kinetic trapping caused by some of the folding intermediates' nonnative topologies. Notably, simple two-state folding kinetics of small single-domain proteins are not reproduced by common G\\=o-like schemes.

Huseyin Kaya; Hue Sun Chan




SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A layer-on-substrate model is used to obtain the infrared reflectance for 3C-SiC with a rough surface morphology. The effect of varying dielectric parameters of the damaged layer on the observed reflectivity of the 3C-SiC in the reststrahlen region is assessed. Different simulated reflectance spectra are obtained to those if the dielectric parameters of the substrate were varied. Most notable changes in the shape of the simulated reststrahlen peak are observed for changes in the high frequency dielectric constant, the phonon damping constant, the phonon frequencies and thickness of damaged surface layer.

J.A.A. Engelbrecht; E. Janzn; A. Henry; I.J. van Rooyen



Government Regulations and Housing Markets: An Index to Characterize Local Land Use Regulatory Environments for Residential Markets in the Houston - Galveston Area  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the creation of such inventories. Notable efforts in administering surveys to obtain data on local land use regulations have been conducted by authors and institutions such as Linneman and Summers (1990); Pendall, Puentes et al. (2006); Gyourko, Saiz et al... have been considered as not so stringent in terms of its LUREs (Pendall, Puentes et al. 2006; Gyourko, Saiz et al. 2008). Empirical analysis looking at the overall role of local LUREs has not been fully addressed at the MSA level in Texas, thus...

Estevez Jimenez, Luis



Incidence and specificity of antibodies to types I, II, III, IV, and V collagen in rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic diseases as measured by 125I-radioimmunoassay  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Antibodies to human native and denatured types I, II, III, IV, and V collagens were measured using 125I-radioimmunoassay. Mean levels of binding by sera from 30 rheumatoid arthritis patients were significantly higher than those from 20 normal subjects against all of the collagens tested. The relative antibody concentration was higher in synovial fluid than in simultaneously obtained serum. Many patients with gout or various other rheumatic diseases also had detectable anticollagen antibodies. With a few notable exceptions, the majority of the reactivity detected in all patient groups was directed against covalent structural determinants present on all of the denatured collagens, suggesting a secondary reaction to tissue injury.

Stuart, J.M.; Huffstutter, E.H.; Townes, A.S.; Kang, A.H.



Coal quality trends and distribution of Title III trace elements in Eastern Kentucky coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The quality characteristics of eastern Kentucky coal beds vary both spatially and stratigraphically. Average total sulfur contents are lowest, and calorific values highest, in the Big Sandy and Upper Cumberland Reserve Districts. Average coal thickness is greatest in these two districts as well. Conversely, the thinnest coal with the highest total sulfur content, and lowest calorific value, on average, occurs in the Princess and Southwest Reserve Districts. Several Title III trace elements, notably arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, and nickel, mirror this distribution (lower average concentrations in the Big Sandy and Upper Cumberland Districts, higher average concentrations in the Princess and Southwest Districts), probably because these elements are primarily associated with sulfide minerals in coal. Ash yields and total sulfur contents are observed to increase in a stratigraphically older to younger direction. Several Title III elements, notably cadmium, chromium, lead, and selenium follow this trend, with average concentrations being higher in younger coals. Average chlorine concentration shows a reciprocal distribution, being more abundant in older coals. Some elements, such as arsenic, manganese, mercury, cobalt, and, to a lesser extent, phosphorus show concentration spikes in coal beds directly above, or below, major marine zones. With a few exceptions, average Title III trace element concentrations for eastern Kentucky coals are comparable with element distributions in other Appalachian coal-producing states.

Eble, C.F. [Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States); Hower, J.C. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research



Characterization of resistance to the Mexican spittlebug complex Aeneolamia albofasciata (Lallemand) and Prosapia simulans (Walker) in selected buffelgrass genotypes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of A. albofasciata average 0. 88 mm long by 0. 31 mm wide; those of P. simu- lans average 0. 98 mm by 0. 35 mm (Bodegas 1973), while an average of 1. 02 mm by 0. 35 mm have been recorded for P. bicincta (Fagan and Kuitert 1969) . Eggs deposited... period of 1 to 4 days (Ceballos 1972). The mating may take place within 48 hours or up to 9 days after emergence (Byers and Taliaferro 1969; Flores and Velasco 1974). In studies of Aeneolamia albofasciata under laboratory conditions a notable...

Head, Henry Wesley



Evaluation of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibody activity to Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in cattle sera  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

this thesis and all the time spent on it to the one person without whom it would not have been possible, my de- voted wife, Noemi. She has supported me wholeheartedly and unselfishly through these many months of long hours, separations and missed vaca..., and the sonicated material (Fig 10b) had a peak ratio of 5. 3 at the I:200 dilution. Separation ra- tios of both preparations decreased as the antigen concentrations de- creased. fh AB~BI ' * Ig f I I d d *' ~ d I h BVBLA~il Ig . Big ll h h I b 1*d 36 Antigen...

Long, Ray Francis



Hierarchical carbon fiber composites with radially aligned carbon nanotubes : preservation of in-plane tensile properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hierarchical carbon-nanotube (CNT)-based composites have significant potential to expand the performance and functionality of aerospace composite structures. Notably, circumferentially aligned CNT arrays have previously ...

Li, Richard, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology



Recent Advances in AI for Computational Sustainability AI and Sustainability Department, IEEE Intelligent Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the natural environment also strongly emerged, most notably energy, smart grids of built, social, and natural environments; using AI strategies for learning, planning

Fisher, Douglas H.


Search for underground openings for in situ test facilities in crystalline rock  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With a few exceptions, crystalline rocks in this study were limited to plutonic rocks and medium to high-grade metamorphic rocks. Nearly 1700 underground mines, possibly occurring in crystalline rock, were initially identified. Application of criteria resulted in the identification of 60 potential sites. Within this number, 26 mines and 4 civil works were identified as having potential in that they fulfilled the criteria. Thirty other mines may have similar potential. Most of the mines identified are near the contact between a pluton and older sedimentary, volcanic and metamorphic rocks. However, some mines and the civil works are well within plutonic or metamorphic rock masses. Civil works, notably underground galleries associated with pumped storage hydroelectric facilities, are generally located in tectonically stable regions, in relatively homogeneous crystalline rock bodies. A program is recommended which would identify one or more sites where a concordance exists between geologic setting, company amenability, accessibility and facilities to conduct in situ tests in crystalline rock.

Wollenberg, H.A.; Strisower, B.; Corrigan, D.J.; Graf, A.N.; O'Brien, M.T.; Pratt, H.; Board, M.; Hustrulid, W.



Patterns in Illinois Educational School Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We examine Illinois educational data from standardized exams and analyze primary factors affecting the achievement of public school students. We focus on the simplest possible models: representation of data through visualizations and regressions on single variables. Exam scores are shown to depend on school type, location, and poverty concentration. For most schools in Illinois, student test scores decline linearly with poverty concentration. However Chicago must be treated separately. Selective schools in Chicago, as well as some traditional and charter schools, deviate from this pattern based on poverty. For any poverty level, Chicago schools perform better than those in the rest of Illinois. Selective programs for gifted students show high performance at each grade level, most notably at the high school level, when compared to other Illinois school types. The case of Chicago charter schools is more complex. In the last six years, their students' scores overtook those of students in traditional Chicago high...

Stevens, Cacey S; Nagel, Sidney R



Synchronous digitization for high dynamic range lock-in amplification in beam-scanning microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Digital lock-in amplification (LIA) with synchronous digitization (SD) is shown to provide significant signal to noise (S/N) and linear dynamic range advantages in beam-scanning microscopy measurements using pulsed laser sources. Direct comparisons between SD-LIA and conventional LIA in homodyne second harmonic generation measurements resulted in S/N enhancements consistent with theoretical models. SD-LIA provided notably larger S/N enhancements in the limit of low light intensities, through the smooth transition between photon counting and signal averaging developed in previous work. Rapid beam scanning instrumentation with up to video rate acquisition speeds minimized photo-induced sample damage. The corresponding increased allowance for higher laser power without sample damage is advantageous for increasing the observed signal content.

Muir, Ryan D.; Sullivan, Shane Z.; Oglesbee, Robert A.; Simpson, Garth J., E-mail: gsimpson@purdue.edu [Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, 560 Oval Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)



Community detection in directed acyclic graphs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Some temporal networks, most notably citation networks, are naturally represented as directed acyclic graphs (DAGs). To detect communities in DAGs, we propose a modularity for DAGs by defining an appropriate null model (i.e., randomized network) respecting the order of nodes. We implement a spectral method to approximately maximize the proposed modularity measure and test the method on citation networks and other DAGs. We find that the attained values of the modularity for DAGs are similar for partitions that we obtain by maximizing the proposed modularity (designed for DAGs), the modularity for undirected networks and that for general directed networks. In other words, if we neglect the order imposed on nodes (and the direction of links) in a given DAG and maximize the conventional modularity measure, the obtained partition is close to the optimal one in the sense of the modularity for DAGs.

Speidel, Leo; Masuda, Naoki



Production Methods and New Markets for Texas Florist Crops.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to use in the average home. The longer flowers and plants are offered in a mass market outlet, the greater the increase in sales. The value of sales per square foot of display space in mass market outlets is above the average for other perishable... be placed on a square-foot-per-year basis. The part of the costs that is variable or in- creases with the number of flowers or plants pro- duced is relatively small. The major expenses of the flower grower in Texas are labor, greenhouse maintenance...

Sorensen, H. B.; DeWerth, A.F.; Jensen, E. R.



Status of vibrational structure in {sup 62}Ni  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements consisting of {gamma}-ray excitation functions and angular distributions were performed using the (n,n{sup '{gamma}}) reaction on {sup 62}Ni. The excitation function data allowed us to check the consistency of the placement of transitions in the level scheme. From {gamma}-ray angular distributions, the lifetimes of levels up to {approx}3.8 MeV in excitation energy were extracted with the Doppler-shift attenuation method. The experimentally deduced values of reduced transition probabilities were compared with the predictions of the quadrupole vibrator model and with large-scale shell model calculations in the fp shell configuration space. Two-phonon states were found to exist with some notable deviation from the predictions of the quadrupole vibrator model, but no evidence for the existence of three-phonon states could be established. Z=28 proton core excitations played a major role in understanding the observed structure.

Chakraborty, A.; Orce, J. N.; Ashley, S. F.; Crider, B. P.; Elhami, E.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Mukhopadhyay, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0055 (United States); Brown, B. A. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Peters, E. E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0055 (United States); Singh, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Yates, S. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0055 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0055 (United States)



Correct quantitative determination of ethanol and volatile compounds in alcohol products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Determination of the volume content of ethanol in the alcohol products in practice is usually determined by pycnometry, electronic densimetry, or densimetry using a hydrostatic balance in accordance with Commission Regulation No 2870/2000. However, these methods determine directly only density of the tested liquid sample and does not take into account the effects of other volatile components such as aldehydes, esters and higher alcohols. So they are appropriate only for binary water-ethanol solutions in accordance with international table adopted by the International Legal Metrology Organization in its Recommendation No 22. Availability notable concentrations of the higher alcohols and ethers in different alcohol-based products, e. g. in whisky, cognac, brandy, wine as well as in waste alcohol and alcohol beverage production, leads to the significant contribution of these compounds in the value of the density of tested alcohol-containing sample. As a result, determination of the volume of ethanol content for ...

Charapitsa, Siarhei; Sytova, Svetlana; Yakuba, Yurii


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The geomechanics of CO{sub 2} storage in deep sedimentary formations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper provides a review of the geomechanics and modeling of geomechanics associated with geologic carbon storage (GCS), focusing on storage in deep sedimentary formations, in particular saline aquifers. The paper first introduces the concept of storage in deep sedimentary formations, the geomechanical processes and issues related with such an operation, and the relevant geomechanical modeling tools. This is followed by a more detailed review of geomechanical aspects, including reservoir stress-strain and microseismicity, well integrity, caprock sealing performance, and the potential for fault reactivation and notable (felt) seismic events. Geomechanical observations at current GCS field deployments, mainly at the In Salah CO2 storage project in Algeria, are also integrated into the review. The In Salah project, with its injection into a relatively thin, low-permeability sandstone is an excellent analogue to the saline aquifers that might be used for large scale GCS in parts of Northwest Europe, the U.S. Midwest, and China. Some of the lessons learned at In Salah related to geomechanics are discussed, including how monitoring of geomechanical responses is used for detecting subsurface geomechanical changes and tracking fluid movements, and how such monitoring and geomechanical analyses have led to preventative changes in the injection parameters. Recently, the importance of geomechanics has become more widely recognized among GCS stakeholders, especially with respect to the potential for triggering notable (felt) seismic events and how such events could impact the long-term integrity of a CO{sub 2} repository (as well as how it could impact the public perception of GCS). As described in the paper, to date, no notable seismic event has been reported from any of the current CO{sub 2} storage projects, although some unfelt microseismic activities have been detected by geophones. However, potential future commercial GCS operations from large power plants will require injection at a much larger scale. For such largescale injections, a staged, learn-as-you-go approach is recommended, involving a gradual increase of injection rates combined with continuous monitoring of geomechanical changes, as well as siting beneath a multiple layered overburden for multiple flow barrier protection, should an unexpected deep fault reactivation occur.

Rutqvist, J.



Some non-precipitation radar echoes as observed by CPS-9 radar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

's curvature, which caused the cell to lie below the radar bean. The decelerating gust line passed the radar station at 2304Z; its position at 2322Z is shown in (Figure ld, 5 mi markers). A wind-direction change of 60 deg and a wind speed in- 35 crease... markers) formed behind the second. The parent cell moved some 10 mi during the hour of its life cycle, and the gust lines dissipated before reaching the radar. At 0240Z the aerovane (not shown) showed a 55 deg shift in wind direction with a speed of 5...

Luckenbach, Guenther Edward



Gris Gris  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.... " Rafe shook himself briskly, as though someone had just doused him with ice water. "How'd I manage that?" "Must be those suits you been wearin' for the last few months," Brown teased. "She must dig guys in three-piece and tie." Joel pur on a hurt... reached up with his free hand, yanked at the knot in his tie and twisted the top button free. His brow creased in pain. "When?" he managed to ask. "Yesterday afternoon. Right before supper. She was gone before the ambulance could get to her. They say...

Alexander, TM



The effects of source, levels and method of feeding calcium on the performance of commercial layers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 75 and 3. bO noucent). '. ~a~ac dj ets co?uIraj n, . d calcium fnom lie&os tone at the basic lovel "; three diets contained cajc j um f corn oyster shell at the basic levels; and three diets contained lime- stone at the basic levels plus... the calcium level in th diets was in- creased. The ser um calcium level was also increased with increased dietar y calcj. um levels. Thor e ~;, cl'e fee dif for er ces in pr oduc tioir f rc t or s ?hon t:-os tsrent ane cosrpai'od, but ogg quality rras j...

Walker, Jerry Charles



Italy Revisited: The Encyclopedia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

chests for the in- creasingly lavish gifts and counter-gifts that accompanied mar- riages between wealthy Italian families. Paul F. Watsons essay evokes the social importance of these boxes, which is a feat since so few of the early ones have survived... discourse. Less defensible is an entry on Albertus Magnus, a German scholastic who never taught in Italy, with a wasteful illustration, again the ti- tle page of an early printed text. Although he was read in Italy, and was one of Thomas Aquinas teachers...

Epstein, Steven A.



The effect of flooding velocity and degree of reservoir depletion on the recovery of oil by water flooding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

allowables and transfer of allowables from injection wells to producing wells. In some states, waterflood allowables are deter- mined solely by the capacity of the reservoir to produce i. e. unres- 1 tricted production As in the case of primary production... the flood water Q injected ~he eil is pro- ducec4- Other considerations of an economic nature leading to in- creased allowables include the high initial cost of a waterflood develop- ment and the recovery of oil from a reservoir which would be un...

Hall, Phillips C



Effect of chronic exposure to low levels of ethylene on cotton during germination and early development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the degree of NASTER OF SCIENCE Auoust 1979 . "iajor Subject: Plant Physiology THE EFFECT OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO LON LEVELS OF ETHYLENE ON COTTON DURING GERMINATION AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT A Thesis by ELAINF NAN CONAN Approved as to sty1e and content... and Ryan indicated that endopeptidase reached a peak in activity 10 days after planting. Fumigation with 0. 5 ul/1 ethylene for 5 days prior to harvest inhibited this in- crease in activity. The present study was undertaken to deter- mine...

Cowan, Elaine Nan



Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Council of Texas forward capacity market U.S. Federal Energyseen in the wholesale capacity markets, most notably in theparticipates in the capacity market. Capacity markets are

Shen, Bo



All-integer integer programming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solution, causes F(X) to be de- creased by the amount 17 m k I (i) ik (2. 17) Simultaneously, each increase in xk means the objective function is increased by an amount ck. The net effect on F(X) is conventionally stated as m k k (i) ik k i=1.... Subtract, if a & 0 or add if a, & 0, respective a, ; j = 1, . . . , nr k, multiples of column p from or to respective columns p, ; j=l, . . . , npk? J th to make zeroes out of all but the pivot element in the g row. These steps efficiently apply...

Harrington, Paul Larry



A nutritional evaluation of sterile and fertile lines of seven sorghum varieties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sorghum varie- ties were grown: CK 60, Martin, Redlan (grain varieties); Texioca 63wx, CK 60wx (waxy endosperm varieties); Atlas and Neb. 4692 (for- age sorghums). They were harvested at the following five stages of maturity: boot stage, midbloom... & . 05) green matter (GM) and DM than grain or waxy varieties due to greater stem yield and greater leaf yield (P - . 05). Forage varieties were lower in DM due to in- creased proportion of stems and decreased proportion of gra~n. Atlas yielded...

Hart, Steven P



Design of switched-resistor monolithic filters using NMOS technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MOS Capacitors 19 Parasitics Capacitances on MOS Transrstor 21 10 Typical plot of different value MOS Switch I vs. frequen s of V and W/ gs 23 cy for L = 0. 3 , . 22 SR basic element 25 12 Operation of switched-resistor nique tech- 27..., the individual capac- itors must be closely matched. The drawbacks of this tech- nique are several. First, it requires a large number of taps for interconnections which usually results in an in- crease of chip area. Second, there is an error caused...

Ngo, Dinh Tai



An analysis of the parallel scalability of spatial domain decomposition for the neutron transport equation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by consecutive iterations (4'&"l and 4'&"+'l). The iteration matrix C in Equation 24 relates these fluxes, and thus deflnes the convergence of the iterative process. Given initial neutron flux approximation 4'& l(2:;, p, ), the approximation to the neutron... is not scaled to match the in- creased computational power. The goal of parallel source iteration for transport problems is to not only solve problems faster as the machine size is increased, but to also solve larger problems than could be previously solved...

Perez, Lennard



Light hydrocarbon geochemistry of brines and sediments of the red sea  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- creased from 0. 34'C/yr for the period 1965-1966 to 0, 75'C/y for the years 1971 ? ]972, indicating that the Atlantis II Deep is at the beginning of a discharge period. Host recent measurements indicate a temperature of &61'C [Ross, 1977] and chlorinity... 'involved an equi] ibrat. ion pro" e:!urc in conjunctior. with headspace sampling. Although the hot ?stets cooled con & derably from t1&e& r in si. '&, temperatu& e. upon ascent. from the depths, they were. stiJ 1 very warm at the time. of sa?&pl. !. ng...

Burke, Roger Allen



Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics.

Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, 5050 Anthony Wayne Dr., Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing, E-mail: hanqing.jiang@asu.edu [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Yu, Hongyu, E-mail: hongyu.yu@asu.edu [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)



Surface Crystallization in a Liquid AuSi Alloy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray measurements reveal a crystalline monolayer at the surface of the eutectic liquid Au{sub 82}Si{sub 18}, at temperatures above the alloy's melting point. Surface-induced atomic layering, the hallmark of liquid metals, is also found below the crystalline monolayer. The layering depth, however, is threefold greater than that of all liquid metals studied to date. The crystallinity of the surface monolayer is notable, considering that AuSi does not form stable bulk crystalline phases at any concentration and temperature and that no crystalline surface phase has been detected thus far in any pure liquid metal or nondilute alloy. These results are discussed in relation to recently suggested models of amorphous alloys.

Shpyrko,O.; Streitel, R.; Balagurusamy, V.; Grigoriev, A.; Deutsch, M.; Ocko, B.; Meron, M.; Lin, B.; Pershan, P.



Effect of interfacial oxide layers on the current-voltage characteristics of Al-Si contacts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reported (24). Silicon- Schottky-barrier solar cells having a carefully grown oxide layer in- creased the open-circuit voltage. Also, the minority-carrier injection efficiency of silicon-Schottky diodes were increased by a similar thin-oxide film (25...: Dr. W, A. Porter An experimental study has been made of aluminum-silicon contacts D with very thin interfacial oxide layers (15-100A) and various surface 16 20 impurity concentrations (10 ? 10 atoms/cm ) for both n and p-type silicon...

Nishizono, Taira



Test of Faith  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the shadows. "1 need ... to think, Starsk. You under stand?" Hutch lifted his hands a little at the disappointment and fear that suddenly creased his partner's strong featul"es. 'Tm not saying " Hutch's attempt at reassurance cut off as he realized he... and once again informed him of his rights. "Do you und; rstand your rights as I've read them to you?" Starsky said. Harry nod ded again and Starsky suppressed a sigh of exasperation. "Nod out loud for the tape recorder, Harry," he said. Hutch made...

Multiple Contributors



The use of dietary antibiotics and implanted ovarian hormones on self fed, fattening lambs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combination o f These, , 'ate rial s The Effects of ChlortetracYcline and Hormone ' upon the Average Paily , '-'. alt and Eater Con sar. ption on '/. ether Lambs, Experiment I . . . . . . . $5 Note ir crease in size of q-enitc-uri;. ar. . ; tracts... and fettering lambs. Feeder lambs receiving 5 and 15 r. g. of chlortet- racycline daily had. a higher rate of gain and re-uired and 20 per cent, respectively, less concentrate per unit gain than did their controls. Jordan (1952) found no adverse effects...

Packett, Leonard V



Thunderstorm characteristics displayed with three-dimensional digital radar data and digital goes infrared data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of flash- flooding and severe local storm events (tornadoes, large hail, or strong surface winds) could be a factor in reducing the frequency of storm-related deaths and minimizing property damage, an effort to de- velop more accurate forecasting... researchers who analyzed severe local storms by the CAZM technique. Several fea- tures, such as a 1ow-level bounded weak echo region (BWER) and the de- crease with time of upper-level reflectivity, were found to correlate with severe weather events...

McAnelly, Ray Lewis



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users, notably children. Additionally for adults, some contents included in abnormal porn sites can do ordinary peoples mental health harm. In this paper, we propose an...

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atmospheric emissions control: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

H? in a forest environment : from canopy to soil MIT - DSpace Summary: Atmospheric hydrogen (H? ), an indirect greenhouse gas, plays a notable role in the chemistry of the...


Quantum probes of timelike naked singularities in $2+1-$ dimensional power - law spacetimes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The formation of naked singularities in $2+1-$ dimensional power - law spacetimes in linear Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-scalar theories sourced by azimuthally symmetric electric field and a self-interacting real scalar field respectively, are considered in view of quantum mechanics. Quantum test fields obeying the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations are used to probe the classical timelike naked singularities developed at $r=0$. We show that when the classically singular spacetimes probed with scalar waves, the considered spacetimes remains singular. However, the spinorial wave probe of the singularity in the metric of a self-interacting real scalar field remains quantum regular. The notable outcome in this study is that the quantum regularity/singularity can not be associated with the energy conditions.

O. Gurtug; M. Halilsoy; S. Habib Mazharimousavi



Self-consistent solution for proximity effect and Josephson current in ballistic graphene SNS Josephson junctions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We use a tight-binding Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) formalism to self-consistently calculate the proximity effect, Josephson current, and local density of states in ballistic graphene SNS Josephson junctions. Both short and long junctions, with respect to the superconducting coherence length, are considered, as well as different doping levels of the graphene. We show that self-consistency does not notably change the current-phase relationship derived earlier for short junctions using the non-selfconsistent Dirac-BdG formalism but predict a significantly increased critical current with a stronger junction length dependence. In addition, we show that in junctions with no Fermi level mismatch between the N and S regions superconductivity persists even in the longest junctions we can investigate, indicating a diverging Ginzburg-Landau superconducting coherence length in the normal region.

Black-Schaffer, Annica M.



On an integral formula on hypersurfaces in General Relativity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We derive a general integral formula on an embedded hypersurface for general relativistic space-times. Suppose the hypersurface is foliated by two-dimensional compact ``sections'' $S_s$. Then the formula relates the rate of change of the divergence of outgoing light rays integrated over $S_s$ under change of section to geometric (convexity and curvature) properties of $S_s$ and the energy-momentum content of the space-time. We derive this formula using the Sparling-Nester-Witten identity for spinor fields on the hypersurface by appropriate choice of the spinor fields. We discuss several special cases which have been discussed in the literature before, most notably the Bondi mass loss formula.

J. Frauendiener



E-Print Network 3.0 - aujeszky disease Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: animals, the signs of disease are moderated and may just consist of a mild cough or mucopurulent nasal... studied in equine influenza. Notable exceptions outside the...


E-Print Network 3.0 - analysis phase ecological Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

pp. 7382 2005 Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd 10.11910309132505ph530pr Summary: of political ecology. Notably, research in this first phase of political ecology remained...


The Savage Visit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

E. Evans, Notable Persons in Cherokee History: Ostenaco,Journal of Cherokee Studies, vol. 1, no. 1 (1976).of 1777 into which most Cherokee were virtually forced.

Fullagar, Kate



U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Sector  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

services, notably in space cooling, refrigeration, and lighting. figure data Three alternative cases use different assumptions about technology and energy efficiency to...


Agricultural and Resource Economics Update  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis for Evaluating Biofuels. ARE Update 11(3) (2008):the RFS conventional biofuels mandate is severely harmingThe first is growth in biofuels demand. Notably, corn



E-Print Network 3.0 - anthropometry bia ct Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to Finnish growth charts. Preg- nancy... characteristics and, notably, no differences in birth weight, birth anthropometry, or gestation length (Table 1 Source: Bergstrom, Carl T....


How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as firewood, stalks and biogas continues to dominate ruralwith notable growth in biogas and stalks consumption (Consumption Firewood Stalks Biogas kgce per capita Source:

Aden, Nathaniel T.



E-Print Network 3.0 - apical cell surface Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

creased... and Na and K recycling; Cl then exits the cell via apical Cl channels down its electrochemical gradient... on exocytotic events that occur at the apical ... Source:...


The Nature of Flat-Spectrum Nuclear Radio Emission in Seyfert Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Parsec-scale VLBA imaging of five Seyfert galaxies with flat-spectrum radio nuclei was conducted to determine whether the flat spectrum represents thermal emission from the accretion disk/obscuring torus or nonthermal, synchrotron self-absorbed emission. Four of the five show emission consistent with synchrotron self-absorption, with intrinsic sizes ~0.05-0.2 pc (or 10^4 gravitational radii for a 10^8 Msun black hole for the smallest). In contrast, NGC 4388, which was detected with MERLIN but not the VLBA, shows thermal emission with similar properties to that detected in NGC 1068. It is notable that the two Seyfert galaxies with detected thermal nuclear radio emission both have large X-ray absorbing columns, suggesting that columns in excess of \\~10^{24} cm^{-2} are needed for such disks to be detectable.

C. G. Mundell; A. S. Wilson; J. S. Ulvestad; A. L. Roy



Phonon-assisted robust and deterministic two-photon biexciton preparation in a quantum dot  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate both experimentally and theoretically a simple yet more robust and flexible alternative to Rabi oscillation-type biexciton preparation protocols traditionally used for semiconductor quantum dots. The quantum dot is excited by a strong laser pulse positively detuned from the two-photon resonance yielding an on demand initialization of the biexciton state by making use of the phonon-induced thermalization of the photon dressed states. It is shown that for excitation pulses in the picosecond range, a stable and high fidelity of up to $f_{XX}=0.98\\pm 0.01$ is reached. Notably, the generated photons show similar coherence properties as measured in the resonant two-photon scheme. This protocol is a powerful tool for the control of complex solid state systems combining radiative cascades, entanglement and resonant cavity modes.

S. Bounouar; M. Mller; A. M. Barth; M. Glssl; V. M. Axt; P. Michler



Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Kansas City, Missouri  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the 2006 IECC. The notable changes are: (1) Improved duct sealing verified by testing the duct system; (2) Increased duct insulation; (3) Improvement of window U-factors from 0.40 to 0.35; and (4) Efficient lighting requirements. An analysis of these changes resulted in estimated annual energy cost savings of about $145 a year for an average new house. Construction cost increases are estimated at $655. Home owners will experience an annual cost savings of close to $100 a year because reduction to energy bills will more than compensate for increased mortgage payments and other costs.

Lucas, Robert G.



Standard Model Predictions and New Physics Sensitivity in B->DD Decays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An extensive model-independent analysis of B->DD decays is carried out employing SU(3) flavour symmetry, including symmetry-breaking corrections. Several theoretically clean observables are identified which allow for testing the Standard Model. These include the known time-dependent CP asymmetries, the penguin pollution of which can be controlled in this framework, but notably also quasi-isospin relations which are experimentally well accessible and unaffected by symmetry-breaking corrections. Theoretical assumptions can be kept to a minimum and controlled by additional sum rules. Available data are used in global fits to predict the branching ratio for the B0->DsDs decay as well as several CP asymmetries which have not been measured so far, and future prospects are analyzed.

Jung, Martin



Non-Convex Utility Maximization in Gaussian MISO Broadcast and Interference Channels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Utility (e.g., sum-rate) maximization for multiantenna broadcast and interference channels (with one antenna at the receivers) is known to be in general a non-convex problem, if one limits the scope to linear (beamforming) strategies at transmitter and receivers. In this paper, it is shown that, under some standard assumptions, most notably that the utility function is decreasing with the interference levels at the receivers, a global optimal solution can be found with reduced complexity via a suitably designed Branch-and-Bound method. Although infeasible for real-time implementation, this procedure enables a non-heuristic and systematic assessment of suboptimal techniques. A suboptimal strategy is then proposed that, when applied to sum-rate maximization, reduces to the well-known distributed pricing techniques. Finally, numerical results are provided that compare global optimal solutions with suboptimal (pricing) techniques for sum-rate maximization problems, leading to insight into issues such as the robus...

Rossi, M; Simeone, O; Haimovich, A M



Nonlinear Photoemission Electron Micrographs of Plasmonic Nanoholes in Gold Thin Films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nonlinear photoemission electron microscopy of isolated nanoholes in gold thin films map propagating surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) launched from the lithographically patterned plasmonic structures. A damped sinusoidal elongated ring-like photoemission beat pattern is observed from the nanoholes, following low angle of incidence irradiation of these structures with sub-15 fs 780 nm laser pulses. A notable agreement between finite difference time domain simulations and experiment corroborates our assignment of the observed photoemission patterns to SPPs launched from isolated nanoholes and probed through nonlinear photoemission. We also demonstrate how the efficiency of coupling light waves into isolated plasmonic holes can be tuned by varying hole diameter. In this regard, a simple intuitive geometrical model, which accounts for the observed and simulated diameter dependent plasmonic response, is proposed. Overall, this study paves the way for designing nanohole assemblies where optical coupling and subsequent plasmon propagation can be rationally controlled through 2D SPP interferometry

Gong, Yu; Joly, Alan G.; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hess, Wayne P.



Alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) induces a wave of global protein hyperacetylation: Implications in cancer cell death  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Protein acetylation modification has been implicated in many cellular processes but the direct evidence for the involvement of protein acetylation in signal transduction is very limited. In the present study, we found that an alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) induces a robust and reversible hyperacetylation of both cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins during the early phase of the cellular response to MMS. Notably, the acetylation level upon MMS treatment was strongly correlated with the susceptibility of cancer cells, and the enhancement of MMS-induced acetylation by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors was shown to increase the cellular susceptibility. These results suggest protein acetylation is important for the cell death signal transduction pathway and indicate that the use of HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of cancer is relevant.

Lee, Min-Young [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, 3-1, Dongdaeshin-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-714, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung-Ae [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, 3-1, Dongdaeshin-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-714, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun-Ju [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, 3-1, Dongdaeshin-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-714, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Yoe-Sik [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, 3-1, Dongdaeshin-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-714, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joo-In [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, 3-1, Dongdaeshin-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-714, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Jong-Young [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, 3-1, Dongdaeshin-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-714, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jay H. [Laboratory of Biochemical Genetics, NHLBI, NIH, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Yun, Jeanho [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, 3-1, Dongdaeshin-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-714, South Korea (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: yunj@dau.ac.kr



Charge-state-correlated cross sections for electron loss, capture, and ionization in C{sup 3+}-Ne collisions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Charge-state-correlated total cross sections for projectile-electron loss, capture, and target ionization in C{sup 3+}-Ne collisions have been measured and calculated at absolute energies in the few MeV regime. The calculations are based on a recently proposed coupled mean-field approach which combines a set of nonperturbative single-particle calculations for the initial projectile electrons with another one for the initial target electrons. The basis generator method has been used to solve these equations. Very good overall agreement between experimental and theoretical data is found, which provides further evidence for the applicability of the approach to rather complex many-electron collision systems. One notable exception is the cross section for elastic projectile-electron loss associated with no change of the target charge state. In this case, the theoretical and experimental results differ qualitatively.

Kirchner, T. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, TU Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 10, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Santos, A.C.F.; Sant'Anna, M.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cx. Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Luna, H.; Sigaud, G.M.; Montenegro, E.C. [Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ 22452-970 (Brazil); Melo, W.S. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora 36036-330 (Brazil)


Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Vibronic fine structure in high-resolution x-ray absorption spectra from ion-bombarded boron nitride nanotubes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have applied high-resolution near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements around the nitrogen K-edge to study the effects of ion-bombardment on near-surface properties of boron nitride nanotubes. A notable difference has been observed between surface sensitive partial electron yield (PEY) and bulk sensitive total electron yield (TEY) fine-structure measurements. The authors assign the PEY fine structure to the coupling of excited molecular vibrational modes to electronic transitions in NO molecules trapped just below the surface. Oxidation resistance of the boron nitride nanotubes is significantly reduced by low energy ion bombardment, as broken B-N bonds are replaced by N-O bonds involving oxygen present in the surface region. In contrast to the PEY spectra, the bulk sensitive TEY measurements on as-grown samples do not exhibit any fine structure while the ion-bombarded samples show a clear vibronic signature of molecular nitrogen.

Petravic, Mladen; Peter, Robert; Varasanec, Marijana [Department of Physics and Center for Micro and Nano Sciences and Technologies, University of Rijeka, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Li Luhua; Chen Ying [Institute for Technology Research and Innovation, Deakin University, Geelong Waurn Ponds Campus, 3217 (Australia); Cowie, Bruce C. C. [Australian Synchrotron, Clayton VIC 3168 (Australia)



Influence of wettability on liquid water transport in gas diffusion layer of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water management is a key factor that limits PEFC's performance. We show how insights into this problem can be gained from pore-scale simulations of water invasion in a model fibrous medium. We explore the influence of contact angle on the water invasion pattern and water saturation at breakthrough and show that a dramatic change in the invasion pattern, from fractal to compact, occurs as the system changes from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Then, we explore the case of a system of mixed wettability, i.e. containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic pores. The saturation at breakthrough is studied as a function of the fraction of hydrophilic pores. The results are discussed in relation with the water management problem, the optimal design of a GDL and the fuel cell performance degradation mechanisms. We outline how the study could be extended to 3D systems, notably from binarised images of GDLs obtained by X ray microtomography.

Hamza Chraibi; L. Ceballos; M. Prat; Michel Quintard; Alexandre Vabre



Investigation of Temperature Dependent Optical Modes in GexAs35-xSe65 Thin Films: Structure Specific Raman, FIR and Optical Absorption Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this article, we present a comprehensive study of temperature and composition dependent Raman spectroscopy of GexAs35-xSe65 thin films to understand different structural units responsible for optical properties. Strikingly, our experimental results uncover the ratio of GeSe4/2 tetrahedral and AsSe3/2 pyramidal units in GexAs35-xSe65 thin films and their linear scaling relationship with temperature and x. An important notable outcome of our study is the formation of Se8 rings at lower temperatures. Our experimental results further provide interesting optical features, thermally and compositionally tunable optical absorption spectra. Detailed structure specific FIR data at room temperature also present direct information on the structural units in consistent with Raman data. We foresee that our studies are useful in determining the lightinduced response of these films and also for their potential applications in optics and optoelectronics.

Khan, Pritam; Joshy, Abin; Sathe, Vasant; Deshpande, Uday; Adarsh, K V



Pressure tuning of competing magnetic interactions in intermetallic CeFe2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We use high-pressure magnetic x-ray diffraction and numerical simulation to determine the low-temperature magnetic phase diagram of stoichiometric CeFe2. Near 1.5 GPa we find a transition from ferromagnetism to antiferromagnetism, accompanied by a rhombohedral distortion of the cubic Laves crystal lattice. By comparing pressure and chemical substitution we find that the phase transition is controlled by a shift of magnetic frustration from the Ce-Ce to the Fe-Fe sublattice. Notably the dominant Ce-Fe magnetic interaction, which sets the temperature scale for the onset of long-range order, remains satisfied throughout the phase diagram but does not determine the magnetic ground state. Our results illustrate the complexity of a system with multiple competing magnetic energy scales and lead to a general model for magnetism in cubic Laves phase intermetallic compounds.

Wang, Jiyang; Feng, Yejun; Jaramillo, R.; van Wezel, Jasper; Canfield, Paul C.; Rosenbaum, T.F.



Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.



Instrumentation and process control development for in situ coal gasification. Seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth quarterly reports, December 1978 through August 1979  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The second phase of the Hanna IV In Situ Coal Gasification Test, Hanna IV-B, was initiated on April 20, 1979. The reverse combustion linking process was completed July 13, 1979, and gasification began July 28, 1979. Sandia Laboratories is providing support by fielding and monitoring diagnostic and remote monitoring instrumentation techniques. All techniques are supported by a minicomputer-based, field data acquisition system developed for this application which provides on-site, real-time reduction, analysis and display of the experimental data. Results to date show the development of at least three links, and the progress of the gasification front is being monitored. There have also been developments in hardware for use in the planned Hoe Creek III experiment, notably an inverted thermocouple string with a lateral transmission device. To support all field activities an in-house computing system with complete data base storage capability has been assembled.

Glass, R.E. (ed.)




SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Beryllium plays important roles in nuclear facilities. Its neutron multiplication capability and low atomic weight make it very useful as a reflector in fission reactors. Its low atomic number and high chemical affinity for oxygen have led to its consideration as a plasma-facing material in fusion reactors. In both applications, the beryllium and the impurities in it become activated by neutrons, transmuting them to radionuclides, some of which are long-lived and difficult to dispose of. Also, gas production, notably helium and tritium, results in swelling, embrittlement, and cracking, which means that the beryllium must be replaced periodically, especially in fission reactors where dimensional tolerances must be maintained. It has long been known that neutron activation of inherent iron and cobalt in the beryllium results in significant {sup 60}Co activity. In 2001, it was discovered that activation of naturally occurring contaminants in the beryllium creates sufficient {sup 14}C and {sup 94}Nb to render the irradiated beryllium 'Greater-Than-Class-C' for disposal in U.S. radioactive waste facilities. It was further found that there was sufficient uranium impurity in beryllium that had been used in fission reactors up to that time that the irradiated beryllium had become transuranic in character, making it even more difficult to dispose of. In this paper we review the extent of the disposal issue, processes that have been investigated or considered for improving the disposability of irradiated beryllium, and approaches for recycling.

R. Rohe; T. N. Tranter




SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Archival spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey of two optically faint flat-spectrum protostars, IRAS 04369+2539 and IRAS 05451+0037, show strong emission-line features including-notably-clear and broad emission across several molecular bands of TiO and VO. The molecular emission is indicative of dense, warm circumstellar gas and has been seen previously in only one object: the flat-spectrum protostar IRAS 20496+4354 during a strong optical outburst (PTF 10nvg). The presence of broad molecular emission features in two additional objects having similar mid-infrared properties (but not known to be undergoing outbursts) could provide new insight into phases of rapid accretion/outflow at early stages of the protoplanetary disk. At present, the relevant geometry and the formation or heating mechanisms responsible for the observed TiO/VO cooling emission remain unexplained.

Hillenbrand, Lynne A. [Astrophysics Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Knapp, Gillian R. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Padgett, Deborah L.; McGehee, Peregrine M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rebull, Luisa M. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)



Authentication in the Clouds: A Framework and its Application to Mobile Users  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.00. With bank accounts, health records, corporate intellectual property and politically sensitive information. For instance, it is often not practical to require security-related computation that notably limits battery


Signal processing and transduction in plant cells: the end of the beginning?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Plants have a very different lifestyle to animals, and one might expect that unique molecules and processes would underpin plant-cell signal transduction. But, with a few notable exceptions, the list is remarkably ...

Gilroy, Simon; Trewavas, Anthony J


Land use change in Maasailand drivers, dynamics and impacts on largeherbivores and agro-pastoralism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Maasailand of Kenya and Tanzania supports one of the richest wildlife populations remaining on Earth. However, over the last century, Maasailand has experienced land transformation notably through conversion of former ...

Msoffe, Fortunata Urban



Nature's objects : geology, aesthetics, and the understanding of materiality in eighteenth-century Britain and France  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Explorations of aesthetic design and scientific experimentation have traditionally relied upon the natural world as a source of inspiration. Notably absent from previous studies of the eighteenth century is the dynamic ...

Ferng, Jennifer Hsiao-Mei



POPULATION ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL PAPER Fitness consequences of individual specialisation in resource  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

their fitness, notably by optimising energy acquisition, and where food resources are scarce, this can drive can lead to the exploitation of different trophic and habitat resources and the production

Cucherousset, Julien


Depressive and anxiety disorders in primary care: factors affecting physicians' use of screening information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to logistic and multiple regression analyses, most notably severity of the psychiatric disorder and number of somatic complaints. The impact of demographic, psychiatric, and physical health factors varied greatly depending on the specific management activity...

Maner, Ashley Meredith



Shear banding in soft glassy materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many soft materials, including foams, dense emulsions, micro gel bead suspensions, star polymers, dense packing of surfactant onion micelles, and textured morphologies of liquid crystals, share the basic "glassy" features of structural disorder and metastability. These in turn give rise to several notable features in the low frequency shear rheology (deformation and flow properties) of these materials: in particular, the existence of a yield stress below which the material behaves like a solid, and above which it flows like a liquid. In the last decade, intense experimental activity has also revealed that these materials often display a phenomenon known as shear banding, in which the flow profile across the shear cell exhibits macroscopic bands of different viscosity. Two distinct classes of yield stress fluid have been identified: those in which the shear bands apparently persist permanently (for as long as the flow remains applied), and those in which banding arises only transiently during a process in which a steady flowing state is established out of an initial rest state (for example, in a shear startup or step stress experiment). After surveying the motivating experimental data, we describe recent progress in addressing it theoretically, using the soft glassy rheology model and a simple fluidity model. We also briefly place these theoretical approaches in the context of others in the literature, including elasto-plastic models, shear transformation zone theories, and molecular dynamics simulations. We discuss finally some challenges that remain open to theory and experiment alike.

Suzanne M. Fielding



Fluid velocity fluctuations in a collision of a sphere with a wall J. Rafael Pacheco,1,a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Coal-based energy systems such as pulverized coal boilers and gasifiers are of current interest) are scarce. There are notable exceptions, e.g., the case of bubbly liquids at high Reynolds and at low Weber

Pacheco, Jose Rafael


A Critical Analysis of the Viability and Impacts of Solar Energy Carve-Outs in Renewable Portfolio Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Numerous states have implemented legislation to advance the use of specific renewable energy resources, most notably solar. However, solar energy is accompanied by several deficiencies including high costs, limited ...

Anderson, Aaron D.



The occurrence, habitat use, and behavior of sharks and rays associating with topographic highs in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, an array of topographic highs comprising submerged hard-banks and reefs, and offshore petroleum platforms are notable. Among these features are the Flower Garden Banks, the northernmost coral reef communities on the North American continental shelf, where...

Childs, Jeffrey Nathaniel



Packing frustration in dense confined fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Packing frustration for confined fluids, i.e., the incompatibility between the preferred packing of the fluid particles and the packing constraints imposed by the confining surfaces, is studied for a dense hard-sphere fluid confined between planar hard surfaces at short separations. The detailed mechanism for the frustration is investigated via an analysis of the anisotropic pair distributions of the confined fluid, as obtained from integral equation theory for inhomogeneous fluids at pair correlation level within the anisotropic Percus-Yevick approximation. By examining the mean forces that arise from interparticle collisions around the periphery of each particle in the slit, we calculate the principal components of the mean force for the density profile - each component being the sum of collisional forces on a particle's hemisphere facing either surface. The variations of these components with the slit width give rise to rather intricate changes in the layer structure between the surfaces, but, as shown in this paper, the basis of these variations can be easily understood qualitatively and often also semi-quantitatively. It is found that the ordering of the fluid is in essence governed locally by the packing constraints at each single solid-fluid interface. A simple superposition of forces due to the presence of each surface gives surprisingly good estimates of the density profiles, but there remain nontrivial confinement effects that cannot be explained by superposition, most notably the magnitude of the excess adsorption of particles in the slit relative to bulk.

Kim Nygrd; Sten Sarman; Roland Kjellander



Turbulent heat transfer in parallel flow boundary layers with streamwise step changes in surface conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines the convective heat/mass transfer behavior of a turbulent boundary layer with parallel streamlines. The most notable example of such flow is an atmospheric boundary layer with a steady mean wind in the absence of topography. The classic, two-dimensional problem involves the surface boundary condition of a finite-length step change in temperature/concentration in the streamwise direction of an atmospheric flow. In the literature on geophysical evapotranspiration, this problem is known as Sutton's problem (cf. Sutton, 1934, and Brutsaert, 1984). This flow situation is equally applicable to heat/mass transfer in solar ponds, ground solar collectors, and heated roadways, as examples. The present note revisits the Sutton problem, with the can Driest eddy diffusivity model, and expands the types of boundary conditions that are examined to include surface changes in temperature/concentration and fluxes. The parallel streamline condition allows for Graetz-type solutions, with boundary conditions at the surface and in the far flow field. The predicted results are presented as a series of power law correlations of the relevant nondimensional parameters.

Lindberg, W.R.; Lee, R.C.; Smathers, L.B. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie (United States))


Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Essential ingredients in core-collapse supernovae  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carrying 10{sup 44} joules of kinetic energy and a rich mix of newly synthesized atomic nuclei, core-collapse supernovae are the preeminent foundries of the nuclear species which make up our solar system and ourselves. Signaling the inevitable death of a massive star, and the birth of a neutron star or black hole, core-collapse supernovae combine physics over a wide range in spatial scales, from kilometer-sized hydrodynamic motions (eventually growing to gigameter scale) down to femtometer-scale nuclear reactions. We will discuss our emerging understanding of the convectively-unstable, neutrino-driven explosion mechanism, based on increasingly realistic neutrino radiation hydrodynamic simulations that include progressively better nuclear and particle physics. Multi-dimensional models with spectral neutrino transport from several research groups, which slowly develop successful explosions for a range of progenitors, have recently motivated changes in our understanding of the neutrino reheating mechanism. In a similar fashion, improvements in nuclear physics, most notably explorations of weak interactions on nuclei and the nuclear equation of state, continue to refine our understanding of the births of neutron stars and the supernovae that result. Recent progress on both the macroscopic and microscopic effects that affect core-collapse supernovae are discussed.

Hix, W. Raphael [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831-6354 (United States) [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831-6354 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1200 (United States); Lentz, Eric J.; Chertkow, M. Austin; Harris, J. Austin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1200 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1200 (United States); Endeve, Eirik [Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831-6008 (United States)] [Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831-6008 (United States); Baird, Mark [Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831-6003 (United States)] [Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831-6003 (United States); Messer, O. E. Bronson [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831-6354 (United States) [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831-6354 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1200 (United States); Center for Computational Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831-6008 (United States); Mezzacappa, Anthony [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1200 (United States) [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1200 (United States); Joint Institute for Computational Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6173 (United States); Bruenn, Stephen [Department of Physics, Florida Atlantic University, 777 W Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431-0991 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Florida Atlantic University, 777 W Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431-0991 (United States); Blondin, John [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States)] [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States)



Axin localizes to mitotic spindles and centrosomes in mitotic cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wnt signaling plays critical roles in cell proliferation and carcinogenesis. In addition, numerous recent studies have shown that various Wnt signaling components are involved in mitosis and chromosomal instability. However, the role of Axin, a negative regulator of Wnt signaling, in mitosis has remained unclear. Using monoclonal antibodies against Axin, we found that Axin localizes to the centrosome and along mitotic spindles. This localization was suppressed by siRNA specific for Aurora A kinase and by Aurora kinase inhibitor. Interestingly, Axin over-expression altered the subcellular distribution of Plk1 and of phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3{beta}) without producing any notable changes in cellular phenotype. In the presence of Aurora kinase inhibitor, Axin over-expression induced the formation of cleavage furrow-like structures and of prominent astral microtubules lacking midbody formation in a subset of cells. Our results suggest that Axin modulates distribution of Axin-associated proteins such as Plk1 and GSK3{beta} in an expression level-dependent manner and these interactions affect the mitotic process, including cytokinesis under certain conditions, such as in the presence of Aurora kinase inhibitor.

Kim, Shi-Mun; Choi, Eun-Jin; Song, Ki-Joon [Laboratory of Cell Biology, Department of Microbiology and Bank for Pathogenic Virus, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sewoon; Seo, Eunjeong; Jho, Eek-Hoon [Department of Life Science, University of Seoul, Seoul, 130-743 (Korea, Republic of); Kee, Sun-Ho [Laboratory of Cell Biology, Department of Microbiology and Bank for Pathogenic Virus, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, 136-705 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: keesh@korea.ac.kr



Integrable Aspects of Universal Quantum Transport in Chaotic Cavities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Painlev\\'e transcendents discovered at the turn of the XX century by pure mathematical reasoning, have later made their surprising appearance -- much in the way of Wigner's "miracle of appropriateness" -- in various problems of theoretical physics. The notable examples include the two-dimensional Ising model, one-dimensional impenetrable Bose gas, corner and polynuclear growth models, one dimensional directed polymers, string theory, two dimensional quantum gravity, and spectral distributions of random matrices. In the present contribution, ideas of integrability are utilized to advocate emergence of an one-dimensional Toda Lattice and the fifth Painlev\\'e transcendent in the paradigmatic problem of conductance fluctuations in quantum chaotic cavities coupled to the external world via ballistic point contacts. Specifically, the cumulants of the Landauer conductance of a cavity with broken time-reversal symmetry are proven to be furnished by the coefficients of a Taylor-expanded Painlev\\'e V function. Further, the relevance of the fifth Painlev\\'e transcendent for a closely related problem of sample-to-sample fluctuations of the noise power is discussed. Finally, it is demonstrated that inclusion of tunneling effects inherent in realistic point contacts does not destroy the integrability: in this case, conductance fluctuations are shown to be governed by a two-dimensional Toda Lattice.

Eugene Kanzieper



The Pin Groups in Physics: C, P, and T  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review the role in physics of the Pin groups, double covers of the full Lorentz group. Pin(1,3) is to O(1,3) what Spin(1,3) is to SO(1,3). The existence of two Pin groups offers a classification of fermions based on their properties under space or time reversal finer than the classification based on their properties under orientation preserving Lorentz transformations -- provided one can design experiments that distinguish the two types of fermions. Many promising experimental setups give, for one reason or another, identical results for both types of fermions. Two notable positive results show that the existence of two Pin groups is relevant to physics: 1) In a neutrinoless double beta decay, the neutrino emitted and reabsorbed in the course of the interaction can only be described in terms of Pin(3,1). 2) If a space is topologically nontrivial, the vacuum expectation values of Fermi currents defined on this space can be totally different when described in terms of Pin(1,3) and Pin(3,1). Possibly more important than the two above predictions, the Pin groups provide a simple framework for the study of fermions; they make possible clear definitions of intrinsic parities and time reversal. A section on Pin groups in arbitrary spacetime dimensions is included.

M. Berg; C. DeWitt-Morette; S. Gwo; E. Kramer



Emissions Benefits of Distributed Generation in the Texas Market  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One potential benefit of distributed generation (DG) is a net reduction in air emissions. While DG will produce emissions, most notably carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides, the power it displaces might have produced more. This study used a system dispatch model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to simulate the 2012 Texas power market with and without DG. This study compares the reduction in system emissions to the emissions from the DG to determine the net savings. Some of the major findings are that 85% of the electricity displaced by DG during peak hours will be simple cycle natural gas, either steam or combustion turbine. Even with DG running as baseload, 57% of electricity displaced will be simple cycle natural gas. Despite the retirement of some gas-fired steam units and the construction of many new gas turbine and combined cycle units, the marginal emissions from the system remain quite high (1.4 lb NO{sub x}/MWh on peak and 1.1 lb NO{sub x}/MWh baseload) compared to projected DG emissions. Consequently, additions of DG capacity will reduce emissions in Texas from power generation in 2012. Using the DG exhaust heat for combined heat and power provides an even greater benefit, since it eliminates further boiler emissions while adding none over what would be produced while generating electricity. Further studies are warranted concerning the robustness of the result with changes in fuel prices, demands, and mixes of power generating technology.

Hadley, SW



General Relativistic Flux Modulations from Disk Instabilities in Sagittarius A*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Near-IR and X-ray flares have been detected from the supermassive black hole Sgr A* at the center of our Galaxy with a (quasi)-period of ~17-20 minutes, suggesting an emission region only a few Schwarzschild radii above the event horizon. The latest X-ray flare, detected with XMM-Newton, is notable for its detailed lightcurve, yielding not only the highest quality period thus far, but also important structure reflecting the geometry of the emitting region. Recent MHD simulations of Sgr A*'s disk have demonstrated the growth of a Rossby wave instability, that enhances the accretion rate for several hours, possibly accounting for the observed flares. In this Letter, we carry out ray-tracing calculations in a Schwarzschild metric to determine as accurately as possible the lightcurve produced by general relativistic effects during such a disruption. We find that the Rossby wave induced spiral pattern in the disk is an excellent fit to the data, implying a disk inclination angle of ~77 deg. Note, however, that if this association is correct, the observed period is not due to the underlying Keplerian motion but, rather, to the pattern speed. The favorable comparison between the observed and simulated lightcurves provides important additional evidence that the flares are produced in Sgr A*'s inner disk.

Maurizio Falanga; Fulvio Melia; Michel Tagger; Andrea Goldwurm; Guillaume Belanger



Optimal Estimation of States in Quantum Image Processing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An optimal estimator of quantum states based on a modified Kalman Filter is presented in this work. Such estimator acts after state measurement, allowing to obtain an optimal estimation of quantum state resulting in the output of any quantum image algorithm. Besides, a new criteria, logic, and arithmetic based on projections onto vertical axis of Bloch Sphere exclusively are presented too. This approach will allow us: 1) a simpler development of logic and arithmetic quantum operations, where they will closer to those used in the classical digital image processing algorithms, 2) building simple and robust classical-to-quantum and quantum-to-classical interfaces. Said so far is extended to quantum algorithms outside image processing too. In a special section on metrics and simulations, three new metrics based on the comparison between the classical and quantum versions algorithms for filtering and edge detection of images are presented. Notable differences between the results of classical and quantum versions of such algorithms (outside and inside of quantum computer, respectively) show the need for modeling state and measurement noise inside estimation scheme.

Mario Mastriani



Supernova Sweeping and Black-Hole Feedback in Elliptical Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Most of the massive elliptical galaxies in the universe stopped forming stars billions of years ago, even though plenty of hot gas remains available for star formation. Here we present compelling evidence indicating that quenching of star formation depends on both black-hole feedback and Type Ia supernova heating. We analyze Chandra X-ray observations of ten massive ellipticals, five with extended, potentially star-forming multiphase gas and five single-phase ellipticals with no star formation. The ratio of cooling time to freefall time at 1--10 kpc in the multiphase galaxies is tc/tff ~10, indicating that precipitation-driven feedback limits cooling but does not eliminate condensation. In the same region of the single-phase galaxies, the radial profiles of gas entropy are consistent with a thermally stable (tc/tff > 20) supernova-driven outflow that sweeps stellar ejecta out of the galaxy. However, in one of those single-phase ellipticals (NGC 4261) we find tc/tff < 10 at < 300 pc. Notably, its jets ar...

Voit, G M; O'Shea, B W; Bryan, G L; Sun, M; Werner, N



Quantum information and information loss in General Relativity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When it comes to performing thought experiments with black holes, Einstein-Bohr like discussions have to be re-opened. For instance one can ask what happens to the quantum state of a black hole when the wave function of a single ingoing particle is replaced by an other one that is orthogonal to the first, while keeping the total energy and momentum unaffected. Observers at $t\\rightarrow\\infty$ will not notice any difference, or so it seems in certain calculational schemes. If one argues that this cannot be correct for the complete theory because a black hole should behave in accordance with conventional quantum mechanics, implying a unitary evolution, one is forced to believe that local quantum field theory near the black hole horizon is very different from what had hitherto been accepted. This would give us very valuable information concerning physics in the Planck length region, notably a mathematical structure very close to that of super string theory, but it does lead to conceptual difficulties. An approach that is somewhat related to this is to suspect a breakdown of General Relativity for quantum mechanical systems. It is to some extent unavoidable that Hilbert space is not invariant under general coordinate transformations because such transformations add and remove some states. Finally the cosmological constant problem also suggests that flat space-time has some special significance in a quantum theory. We suggest that a new causality principle could lead to further clues on how to handle this problem.

G. 't Hooft



The chemical composition of the Earth: Enstatite chondrite models , E. Kaminski a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

studies, and depleted in highly refractory elements, notably in Uranium and Thorium. © 2010 Elsevier B that is enriched in iron and depleted in silicium. Thus, current geophysical data cannot provide a precise estimate


The Boson Peak and Disorder in Hard Sphere Colloidal Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Boson peak is believed to be the key to the fundamental understanding of the anomalous thermodynamic properties of glasses, notably the anomalous peak in the heat capacity at low temperatures; it is believed to be due to an excess of low frequency vibrational modes and a manifestation of the structural disorder in these systems. We study the thermodynamics and vibrational dynamics of colloidal glasses and (defected) crystals. The experimental determination of the vibrational density of states allows us to directly observe the Boson peak as a strong enhancement of low frequency modes. Using a novel method [Zargar et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 258301 (2013)] to determine the free energy, we also determine the entropy and the specific heat experimentally. It follows that the emergence of the Boson peak and high values of the specific heat are directly related and are specific to the glass: for a very defected crystal with a disorder that is only slightly smaller than for the glass, both the low-frequency density of states and the specific heat are significantly smaller than in the glass.

Rojman Zargar; John Russo; Peter Schall; Hajime Tanaka; Daniel Bonn



Evolution of the university business model and infrastructure planning due to technological innovations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The quality of higher education has been a growing concern in the United States and United Kingdom. There have been no notable improvements in the education system until the last few years. Considerable transformation in ...

Go, Veronica, 1976-



Towards a phoenix phase in aeolian research: shifting geophysical perspectives from fluvial dominance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aeolian processes are a fundamental driver of earth surface dynamics, yet the importance of aeolian processes in a broader geosciences context may be overshadowed by an unbalanced emphasis on fluvial processes. Here we wish to highlight that aeolian and fluvial processes need to be considered in concert relative to total erosion and to potential interactions, that relative dominance and sensitivity to disturbance vary with mean annual precipitation, and that there are important scale-dependencies associated with aeolian-fluvial interactions. We build on previous literature to present relevant conceptual syntheses highlighting these issues. We then highlight the relative investments that have been made in aeolian research on dust emission and management relative to that in fluvial research on sediment production. Literature searches highlight that aeolian processes are greatly understudied relative to fluvial processes when considering total erosion in different environmental settings. Notably, within the USA, aeolian research was triggered by the Dust Bowl catastrophe of the 1930s, but the resultant research agencies have shifted to almost completely focusing on fluvial processes, based on number of remaining research stations and on monetary investments in control measures. However, numerous research issues associated with intensification of land use and climate change impacts require a rapid ramping up in aeolian research that improves information about aeolian processes relative to fluvial processes, which could herald a post-Dust Bowl Phoenix phase in which aeolian processes are recognized as broadly critical to geo- and environmental sciences.

Whicker, Jeffrey J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Field, Jason P [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Breshears, David D [UNIV OF ARIZONA



The Kronecker product in terms of Hubbard operators and the ClebschGordan decomposition of SU(2)SU(2)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We review the properties of the Kronecker (direct, or tensor) product of square matrices A?B?C? in terms of Hubbard operators. In its simplest form, a Hubbard operator X{sub n}{sup i,j} can be expressed as the n-square matrix which has entry 1 in position (i,j) and zero in all other entries. The algebra and group properties of the observables that define a multipartite quantum system are notably straightforward in such a framework. In particular, we use the Kronecker product in Hubbard notation to get the ClebschGordan decomposition of the product group SU(2)SU(2). Finally, the n-dimensional irreducible representations so obtained are used to derive closed forms of the ClebschGordan coefficients that rule the addition of angular momenta. Our results can be further developed in many different directions. -- Highlights: The Kronecker product is studied in terms of Hubbard operators. Complicated calculations involving large matrices are reduced to simple relations of subscripts. The algebraic properties of the quantum observables of multipartite systems are studied. The ClebschGordan coefficients are given in terms of hypergeometric {sub 3}F{sub 2} functions. The results can be further developed in many different directions.

Enrquez, Marco; Rosas-Ortiz, Oscar, E-mail: orosas@fis.cinvestav.mx



Law, Lawyers, and Empire: From the Foreign Policy Establishment To Technical Legal Hegemony  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Cultural Cold War under the CIA and in the many relatedwas a key leader of the CIA in the 1950s and beyond. Thebetween, for example, the CIA and a number of notable

Garth, Bryant



New Songdo City and the value of flexibility : a case study of implementation and analysis of a mega-scale project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the modern real estate industry, mega-scale developments have been a notable feature. The distinctiveness of these projects is that they are enormous in scale and thus require many years to develop. Unlike regular sized ...

Lee, Junho (Junho Justin)



Nanotechnology-mediated targeting of tumor angiogenesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract Angiogenesis is disregulated in many diseased states, most notably in cancer. An emerging strategy for the development of therapies targeting tumor-associated angiogenesis is to harness the potential of nanotechnology ...

Banerjee, Deboshri


Summary of Inventory Pilot Project March 1993 - December 1994  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Lean Aircraft Initiative began in the summer of 1992 as a quick look into the feasibility of applying manufacturing principles that had been pioneered in the automobile industry, most notably the Toyota Production ...

Ling, James


An architecture for intelligent sensors and fuzzy inputs for fuzzy logic controllers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many papers have shown that fuzzy logic can be successfully applied to problems that are nonlinear in nature. Specifically in the area of control, many fuzzy logic controllers (FLCS) have been shown to be excellent means of control, most notably...

Gillespie, Charles Wayne



Effect of interstitials on tensile strength and creep in nanostructured Ni  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The tensile, creep and anelastic behavior of nanostructured nickel doped and un-doped with boron was investigated. Specimen material with an average grain size of around 30 nm produced by the pulse electrodeposition method contains impurities such as carbon, sulfur and boron. The interstitials content does not have notable impact on the tensile strength at room temperature and 373 K. But, at 473 K, the minor change in sulfur content from 0.03 to 0.061 at.% raises the ultimate strength by 150 MPa while the boron doping further improves the tensile strength. On the other hand, with increasing sulfur content in nanostructured Ni, the ductility decreases. All the specimens exhibit significant anelastic relaxation from room temperature to 473 K. The creep test results show that both minimum creep rate and creep strain significantly decrease with increasing sulfur or by doping boron in nanostructured nickel. The stress exponent in the expression of Coble-type creep increases to around five at 373 and 473 K from two at room temperature. A model for grain boundary sliding, in which grain boundary dislocations and back stress are introduced, has successfully explained the large stress exponents. The calculated back stress indicates that the interstitials in grain boundaries effectively retard the sliding of grain boundary dislocations.

Yin, W.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic University, Six Metrotech Center, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Whang, S.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic University, Six Metrotech Center, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States)]. E-mail: swhang@poly.edu; Mirshams, R.A. [Department of Engineering Technology, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203-0679 (United States)


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Regulation and deregulation of natural gas in the US: 1938-1985  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Public policy towards natural gas has swung first towards, and then away from regulation in this century. In 1906, the Congress specifically excluded natural gas from the jurisdiction of the Interstate Commerce Commission. Three decades later, a New Deal Congress passed the Natural Gas Act of 1938 bringing pipelines under the control of the Federal Power Commission (FDC). Forty years thereafter, the Congress passed a phased decontrol bill, the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) of 1978, as part of the Carter Administration's National Energy Plan. Recently, the Congress has backed off from New Deal legislation in other markets - notably aviation and trucking. In this study, the rise and fall of economic regulation in the natural gas industry are examined to understand: (1) why public policy has followed a pendulum's path, and (2) the economic consequences of regulation and deregulation. The main part of the analysis is directed toward the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978. Widely viewed as a deregulation measure, the author finds that the Act is more restrictive and burdensome than the pricing policies it superceded. The path toward deregulation in natural gas and perhaps other markets is not as direct or simple as might be expected.

Merrill, Peter R.



Surface Decontamination of System Components in Uranium Conversion Plant at KAERI  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A chemical decontamination process using nitric acid solution was selected as in-situ technology for recycle or release with authorization of a large amount of metallic waste including process system components such as tanks, piping, etc., which is generated by dismantling a retired uranium conversion plant at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The applicability of nitric acid solution for surface decontamination of metallic wastes contaminated with uranium compounds was evaluated through the basic research on the dissolution of UO2 and ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC) powder. Decontamination performance was verified by using the specimens contaminated with such uranium compounds as UO2 and AUC taken from the uranium conversion plant. Dissolution rate of UO2 powder is notably enhanced by the addition of H2O2 as an oxidant even in the condition of a low concentration of nitric acid and low temperature compared with those in a nitric acid solution without H2O2. AUC powders dissolve easily in nitric acid solutions until the solution pH attains about 2.5 {approx} 3. Above that solution pH, however, the uranium concentration in the solution is lowered drastically by precipitation as a form of U3(NH3)4O9 . 5H2O. Decontamination performance tests for the specimens contaminated with UO2 and AUC were quite successful with the application of decontamination conditions obtained through the basic studies on the dissolution of UO2 and AUC powders.

Choi, W. K.; Kim, K. N.; Won, H. J.; Jung, C. H.; Oh, W. Z.



Stoichiometry effect on the irradiation response in the microstructure of zirconium carbides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zone-refined ultra high pure ZrC with five C/Zr ratios ranging from 0.84 to 1.17 was irradiated using a 2 MeV proton beam at 1125 C. The stoichiometry effect on the irradiation response of ZrC microstructure was examined using transmission electron microscopy following the irradiation. The irradiated microstructures generally feature a high density of perfect dislocation loops particularly at away from the graphite precipitates, and the C/Zr ratio shows a notable effect on the size and density of dislocation loops. The dislocation loops are identified as interstitial type perfect loops, and it was indirectly proved that the dislocation loop core likely consists of carbon atoms. Graphite precipitates that form with excess carbon in the super-stoichiometric ZrC are detrimental, and the dramatic increases in the size of and density of dislocation loops in the vicinity of graphite precipitates in ZrC phase were observed. Irradiationinduced faceted voids were only observed in ZrC0.95, which is attributed to the pre-existing dislocation lines as biased sinks for vacancies.

Young Yang; Wei-Yang Lo; Clayton Dickerson; Todd R. Allen



Observation of Spin Coulomb Drag in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An electron propagating through a solid carries spin angular momentum in addition to its mass and charge. Of late there has been considerable interest in developing electronic devices based on the transport of spin, which offer potential advantages in dissipation, size, and speed over charge-based devices. However, these advantages bring with them additional complexity. Because each electron carries a single, fixed value (-e) of charge, the electrical current carried by a gas of electrons is simply proportional to its total momentum. A fundamental consequence is that the charge current is not affected by interactions that conserve total momentum, notably collisions among the electrons themselves. In contrast, the electron's spin along a given spatial direction can take on two values, {+-} {h_bar}/2 (conventionally {up_arrow}, {down_arrow}), so that the spin current and momentum need not be proportional. Although the transport of spin polarization is not protected by momentum conservation, it has been widely assumed that, like the charge current, spin current is unaffected by electron-electron (e-e) interactions. Here we demonstrate experimentally not only that this assumption is invalid, but that over a broad range of temperature and electron density, the flow of spin polarization in a two-dimensional gas of electrons is controlled by the rate of e-e collisions.

Weber, C.P.



The Future of Food Demand: Understanding Differences in Global Economic Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the capacity of agricultural systems to feed the world population under climate change requires a good prospective vision on the future development of food demand. This paper reviews modeling approaches from ten global economic models participating to the AgMIP project, in particular the demand function chosen and the set of parameters used. We compare food demand projections at the horizon 2050 for various regions and agricultural products under harmonized scenarios. Depending on models, we find for a business as usual scenario (SSP2) an increase in food demand of 59-98% by 2050, slightly higher than FAO projection (54%). The prospective for animal calories is particularly uncertain with a range of 61-144%, whereas FAO anticipates an increase by 76%. The projections reveal more sensitive to socio-economic assumptions than to climate change conditions or bioenergy development. When considering a higher population lower economic growth world (SSP3), consumption per capita drops by 9% for crops and 18% for livestock. Various assumptions on climate change in this exercise do not lead to world calorie losses greater than 6%. Divergences across models are however notable, due to differences in demand system, income elasticities specification, and response to price change in the baseline.

Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Nelson, Gerald; Ahammad, Helal; Blanc, Elodie; Bodirsky, Benjamin; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Havlik, Petr; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, G. Page; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; Paltsev, S.; Rolinski, Susanne; Tabeau, Andrzej; van Meijl, Hans; von Lampe, Martin; Willenbockel, Dirk



Radon in the DRIFT-II directional dark matter TPC: emanation, detection and mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radon gas emanating from materials is of interest in environmental science and also a major concern in rare event non-accelerator particle physics experiments such as dark matter and double beta decay searches, where it is a major source of background. Notable for dark matter experiments is the production of radon progeny recoils (RPRs), the low energy (~100 keV) recoils of radon daughter isotopes, which can mimic the signal expected from WIMP interactions. Presented here are results of measurements of radon emanation from detector materials in the 1 metre cubed DRIFT-II directional dark matter gas time projection chamber experiment. Construction and operation of a radon emanation facility for this work is described, along with an analysis to continuously monitor DRIFT data for the presence of internal 222Rn and 218Po. Applying this analysis to historical DRIFT data, we show how systematic substitution of detector materials for alternatives, selected by this device for low radon emanation, has resulted in a factor of ~10 reduction in internal radon rates. Levels are found to be consistent with the sum from separate radon emanation measurements of the internal materials and also with direct measurement using an attached alpha spectrometer. The current DRIFT detector, DRIFT-IId, is found to have sensitivity to 222Rn of 2.5 {\\mu}Bq/l with current analysis efficiency, potentially opening up DRIFT technology as a new tool for sensitive radon assay of materials.

J. B. R. Battat; J. Brack; E. Daw; A. Dorofeev; A. C. Ezeribe; J. R. Fox; J. -L. Gauvreau; M. Gold; L. J. Harmon; J. L. Harton; J. M. Landers; E. R. Lee; D. Loomba; J. A. J. Matthews; E. H. Miller; A. Monte; A. StJ. Murphy; S. M. Paling; N. Phan; M. Pipe; M. Robinson; S. W. Sadler; A. Scarff; D. P. Snowden-Ifft; N. J. C. Spooner; S. Telfer; D. Walker; D. Warner; L. Yuriev



Kepler White Paper: Asteroseismology of Solar-Like Oscillators in a 2-Wheel Mission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We comment on the potential for continuing asteroseismology of solar-type and red-giant stars in a 2-wheel Kepler Mission. Our main conclusion is that by targeting stars in the ecliptic it should be possible to perform high-quality asteroseismology, as long as favorable scenarios for 2-wheel pointing performance are met. Targeting the ecliptic would potentially facilitate unique science that was not possible in the nominal Mission, notably from the study of clusters that are significantly brighter than those in the Kepler field. Our conclusions are based on predictions of 2-wheel observations made by a space photometry simulator, with information provided by the Kepler Project used as input to describe the degraded pointing scenarios. We find that elevated levels of frequency-dependent noise, consistent with the above scenarios, would have a significant negative impact on our ability to continue asteroseismic studies of solar-like oscillators in the Kepler field. However, the situation may be much more optimi...

Chaplin, W J; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Gilliland, R L; Kawaler, S D; Basu, S; De Ridder, J; Huber, D; Arentoft, T; Schou, J; Garcia, R A; Metcalfe, T S; Brogaard, K; Campante, T L; Elsworth, Y; Miglio, A; Appourchaux, T; Bedding, T R; Hekker, S; Houdek, G; Karoff, C; Molenda-Zakowicz, J; Monteiro, M J P F G; Aguirre, V Silva; Stello, D; Ball, W; Beck, P G; Birch, A C; Buzasi, D L; Casagrande, L; Cellier, T; Corsaro, E; Creevey, O L; Davies, G R; Deheuvels, S; Dogan, G; Gizon, L; Grundahl, F; Guzik, J; Handberg, R; Jimenez, A; Kallinger, T; Lund, M N; Lundkvist, M; Mathis, S; Mathur, S; Mazumdar, A; Mosser, B; Neiner, C; Nielsen, M B; Palle, P L; Pinsonneault, M H; Salabert, D; Serenelli, A M; Shunker, H; White, T R




SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the chromospheric evaporation in the flare of 2007 January 16 using line profiles observed by the Exterme-UV Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode. Three points at flare ribbons of different magnetic polarities are analyzed in detail. We find that the three points show different patterns of upflows and downflows in the impulsive phase of the flare. The spectral lines at the first point are mostly blueshifted, with the hotter lines showing a dominant blueshifted component over the stationary one. At the second point, however, only weak upflows are detected; instead, notable downflows appear at high temperatures (up to 2.5-5.0 MK). The third point is similar to the second one only in that it shows evidence of multi-component downflows. While the evaporated plasma falling back down as warm rain is a possible cause of the redshifts at the second and third points, the different patterns of chromospheric evaporation at the three points imply the existence of different heating mechanisms in the flaring active region.

Li, Y.; Ding, M. D., E-mail: dmd@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)



Trends in emissions of acidifying species in Asia, 1985-1997.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Acid deposition is a serious problem throughout much of Asia. Emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) have been increasing steadily, as nations strive to increase their levels of economic development. Coal and fuel oil have been the main choices for powering industrial development; and, until recently, only a few countries (notably Japan and Taiwan) had taken significant steps to avert the atmospheric emissions that accompany fuel combustion. This paper discusses trends in emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} that have occurred in Asian countries in the period 1985--1997, using results from the RAINS-ASIA computer model and energy-use trends from the IEA Energy Statistics and Balances database. Emissions of SO{sub 2} in Asia grew from 26.6 Tg in 1985 to 33.7 Tg in 1990 and to 39.2 Tg in 1997. Though SO{sub 2} emissions used to grow as fast as fossil-fuel use, recent limitations on the sulfur content of coal and oil have slowed the growth. The annual-average emissions growth between 1990 and 1997 was only 1.1%, considerably less than the economic growth rate. Emissions of NO{sub x}, on the other hand, continue to grow rapidly, from 14.1 Tg in 1985 to 18.7 Tg in 1990 and 28.5 Tg in 1997, with no signs of abating. Thus, though SO{sub 2} remains the major contributor to acidifying emissions in Asia, the role of NO{sub x}, will become more and more important in the future.

Streets, D. G.; Tsai, N. Y.; Akimoto, H.; Oka, K.



Seismicity in the Vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the Period October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2006  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes earthquake activity within approximately 65 km of Yucca Mountain site during the October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2006 time period (FY05-06). The FY05-06 earthquake activity will be compared with the historical and more recent period of seismic activity in the Yucca Mountain region. The relationship between the distribution of seismicity and active faults, historical patterns of activity, and rates of earthquakes (number of events and their magnitudes) are important components in the assessment of the seismic hazard for the Yucca Mountain site. Since October 1992 the University of Nevada has compiled a catalog of earthquakes in the Yucca Mountain area. Seismicity reports have identified notable earthquake activity, provided interpretations of the seismotectonics of the region, and documented changes in the character of earthquake activity based on nearly 30 years of site-characterization monitoring. Data from stations in the seismic network in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain is collected and managed at the Nevada Seismological Laboratory (NSL) at the University of Nevada Reno (UNR). Earthquake events are systematically identified and cataloged under Implementing Procedures developed in compliance with the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) Quality Assurance Program. The earthquake catalog for FY05-06 in the Yucca Mountain region submitted to the Yucca Mountain Technical Data Management System (TDMS) forms the basis of this report.

Smith, Ken



Evidence of the production of hot hydrogen atoms in RF plasmas by catalytic reactions between hydrogen and oxygen species  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Selective H-atom line broadening was found to be present throughout the volume (13.5 cm ID x 38 cm length) of RF generated H2O plasmas in a GEC cell. Notably, at low pressures (ca. hydrogen was 'hot' with energies greater than 40 eV with a pressure dependence, but only a weak power dependence. The degree of broadening was virtually independent of the position studied within the GEC cell, similar to the recent finding for He/H2 and Ar/H2 plasmas in the same GEC cell. In contrast to the atomic hydrogen lines, no broadening was observed in oxygen species lines at low pressures. Also, in control Xe/H2 plasmas run in the same cell at similar pressures and adsorbed power, no significant broadening of atomic hydrogen, Xe, or any other lines was observed. Stark broadening or acceleration of charged species due to high electric fields can not explain the results since (i) the electron density was insufficient by orders of magnitude, (ii) the RF field was essentially confined to the cathode fall region in contrast to the broadening that was independent of position, and (iii) only the atomic hydrogen lines were broadened. Rather, all of the data is consistent with a model that claims specific, predicted, species can act catalytically through a resonant energy transfer mechanism to create hot hydrogen atoms in plasmas.

Jonathan Phillips; Chun Ku Chen; Randell Mills



Varying trends in surface energy fluxes and associated climatebetween 1960-2002 based on transient climate simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The observed reduction in land surface radiation over the last several decades (1960-1990)---the so-called ''dimming effect''--- and the more recent evidence of a reversal in ''dimming'' over some locations beyond 1990 suggest several consequences on climate, notably on the hydrological cycle. Such a reduction in radiation should imply reduced surface temperature (Ts) and precipitation, which have not occurred. We have investigated the possible causes for the above climate features using a climate model coupled to a dynamic ocean model under natural and anthropogenic conditions. To isolate the aerosol influence on surface radiation trends, we have analyzed transient climate simulations from1960 to 2002 with and without anthropogenic aerosols. Based on a linear trend with aerosol effects included, the global mean change in the surface solar radiation absorbed over land is -0.021+-0.0033 Wm-2yr-1. Although the overall trend is negative, we do note a reversal in dimming after 1990, consistent with observations. Without aerosol effects, the surface solar radiation absorbed over land increases throughout 1960 to 2002, mainly due to the decrease in cloud cover associated with increased greenhouse warming. In spite of a simulated increase in Ts of 0.012 Kyr-1 for 1960 to 2002, the global mean latent heat flux and associated intensity of the hydrological cycle decrease overall, however with increases over some land locations due mainly to moisture advection. Simulated changes correspond more closely to observed changes when accounting for aerosol effects on climate.

Nazarenko, Larissa; Menon, Surabi



Novel small molecule induces p53-dependent apoptosis in human colon cancer cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using high-throughput screening with small-molecule libraries, we identified a compound, KCG165 [(2-(3-(2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)ethoxy)-1,10b-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c] quinazolin-5(6H)-one)], which strongly activated p53-mediated transcriptional activity. KCG165-induced phosphorylations of p53 at Ser{sup 6}, Ser{sup 15}, and Ser{sup 20}, which are all key residues involved in the activation and stabilization of p53. Consistent with these findings, KCG165 increased level of p53 protein and led to the accumulation of transcriptionally active p53 in the nucleus with the increased occupancy of p53 in the endogenous promoter region of its downstream target gene, p21{sup WAF1/CIP}. Notably, KCG165-induced p53-dependent apoptosis in cancer cells. Furthermore, we suggested topoisomerase II as the molecular target of KCG165. Together, these results indicate that KCG165 may have potential applications as an antitumor agent.

Park, Sang Eun [Drug Discovery Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, 100 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Yong Ki [Drug Discovery Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, 100 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Jae Du [Drug Discovery Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, 100 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bum Tae [Drug Discovery Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, 100 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woo Ghil [Drug Discovery Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, 100 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: bigguy@krict.re.kr



Sustained H2 Production Driven by Photosynthetic Water Splitting in a Unicellular Cyanobacterium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Continuously illuminated nitrogen-deprived Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 evolved H2 via dinitrogenase at rates up to 400 ?molmg Chl-1h-1 in parallel with photosynthetic O2 production. Notably, sustained co-production of H2 and O2 occurred over 100 h in the presence of CO2, with both gases displaying inverse oscillations which eventually dampened to stable rates. Oscillations were not observed when CO2 was omitted, while H2 and O2 evolution rates were positively correlated. In situ light saturation analyses of H2 production displayed dose-dependence and lack of O2 inhibition. Inactivation of photosystem II had substantial long-term effects but did not affect the short-term H2 production indicating that the process is also supported by photosystem I activity and oxidation of endogenous glycogen. Collectively, our results demonstrate that uninterrupted H2 production in unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria can be fueled by water photolysis without the detrimental effects of O2 and have important implications for sustainable production of biofuels.

Melnicki, Matthew R.; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Hill, Eric A.; Kucek, Leo A.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.



Proteomic Analysis of Saliva in HIV-positive Heroin Addicts Reveals Proteins Correlated with Cognition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains high despite effective antiretroviral therapies. Multiple etiologies have been proposed over the last few years to account for this phenomenon, including the neurotoxic effects of antiretrovirals and co-morbid substance abuse. However, no underlying molecular mechanism has been identified. Emerging evidence in several fields has linked the gut to brain diseases, but the effect of the gut on the brain during HIV infection has not been explored. Saliva is the most accessible gut biofluid, and is therefore of great scientific interest for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. This study presents a longitudinal, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics study investigating saliva samples taken from 8 HIV-positive (HIV+) and 11 -negative (HIV-) heroin addicts. In the HIV+ group, 58 proteins were identified that show significant correlations with cognitive scores and that implicate disruption of protein quality control pathways by HIV. Notably, no proteins from the HIV- heroin addict cohort showed significant correlations with cognitive scores. In addition, the majority of correlated proteins have been shown to be associated with exosomes, allowing us to propose that the salivary glands and/or oral epithelium may modulate brain function during HIV infection through the release of discrete packets of proteins in the form of exosomes.

Dominy, Stephen; Brown, Joseph N.; Ryder, Mark I.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Richard D.



Radon in the DRIFT-II directional dark matter TPC: emanation, detection and mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radon gas emanating from materials is of interest in environmental science and also a major concern in rare event non-accelerator particle physics experiments such as dark matter and double beta decay searches, where it is a major source of background. Notable for dark matter experiments is the production of radon progeny recoils (RPRs), the low energy (~100 keV) recoils of radon daughter isotopes, which can mimic the signal expected from WIMP interactions. Presented here are results of measurements of radon emanation from detector materials in the 1 metre cubed DRIFT-II directional dark matter gas time projection chamber experiment. Construction and operation of a radon emanation facility for this work is described, along with an analysis to continuously monitor DRIFT data for the presence of internal 222Rn and 218Po. Applying this analysis to historical DRIFT data, we show how systematic substitution of detector materials for alternatives, selected by this device for low radon emanation, has resulted in a f...

Battat, J B R; Daw, E; Dorofeev, A; Ezeribe, A C; Fox, J R; Gauvreau, J -L; Gold, M; Harmon, L J; Harton, J L; Landers, J M; Lee, E R; Loomba, D; Matthews, J A J; Miller, E H; Monte, A; Murphy, A StJ; Paling, S M; Phan, N; Pipe, M; Robinson, M; Sadler, S W; Scarff, A; Snowden-Ifft, D P; Spooner, N J C; Telfer, S; Walker, D; Warner, D; Yuriev, L



UV Habitability of Possible Exomoons in Observed F-star Planetary Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the present study we explore the astrobiological significance of F-type stars of spectral type between F5 V and F9.5 V, which possess Jupiter-type planets within or close to their climatological habitable zones. These planets, or at least a subset of them, may also possess rocky exomoons, which potentially offer habitable environments. Our work considers eight selected systems. The Jupiter-type planets in these systems are in notably different orbits with eccentricities ranging from 0.08 to 0.72. Particularly, we consider the stellar UV environments provided by the photospheric stellar radiation in regard to the circumstellar habitability of the system. According to previous studies, DNA is taken as a proxy for carbon-based macromolecules following the paradigm that extraterrestrial biology might be based on hydrocarbons. Thus, the DNA action spectrum is utilized to represent the impact of the stellar UV radiation. Atmospheric attenuation is taken into account based on parameterized attenuation functions. ...

Sato, Satoko



"Auctions: Theory" For the New Palgrave, 2nd  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. At the same time, the use of auctions for transactions between businesses has expanded greatly, most notably's experimentation with, and eventual adoption of, uniform-price auctions in place of pay-as-bid auctions, also

Sadeh, Norman M.


australian joint conference: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the end of the 20th Century, solar power has become a widely adopted sustainable energy solution developed for off-axis tracking devices, notably heliostats in a central...


John Podesta  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

John Podesta is Chair of the Center for American Progress and the Center for American Progress Action Fund. Under his leadership American Progress has become a notable leader in the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


PALC: Extending ALC ABoxes with Probabilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on description logics can be found in [BCM+ 03] and [BKW03]. For many applications it is important to extend on probabilities on terminological axioms, see for example [BKW03, Hei94, KLP97]. Notable exceptions are [Jae94, GL

Jäger, Gerhard


A 16-Channel Receive Array Insert for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Breast at 7T  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among females in the United States. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a powerful tool for detecting and evaluating the disease, with notable advantages over other modalities...

By, Samantha



Lupus erythematosus tumidus with discoid lupus erythematosus-induced alopecia of the scalp  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

case of concurrent LET and DLE. References 1. Hoffman E, etdiscoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) and SCLE. In a cohort ofinvariably associated with DLE. Notably, our patients patch

Lehrhoff, Stephanie; Tzu, Julia; Patel, Rishi; Sanchez, Miguel; Jr, Andrew Franks



AMPAC 9. Semichem, 12456 W, 62nd Terrace, Suite D, Shawnee, KS 66216. www.semichem.com. See Web site  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dewar published his seminal book The Molecular Orbital Theory of Organic Chemistry, and today AMPAC initio and density functional computations. Most notably, PM6 provides higher accuracy in the modeling

Glaser, Rainer


Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New England 13 and the PJM Interconnection 14 . According toGW. The current size of the PJM system is approximately 165markets, most notably in the PJM Interconnection and ISO-New

Shen, Bo



Beyond Repetiton: Karl Kraus's "Absolute Satire"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This article reassesses the theoretical import of the Viennese satirist Karl Kraus, arguing that his satire challenges conventional understandings of the genre. Most notably in The Last Days of Mankind (Die letzten Tage ...

Linden, Ari



ankle brachial indices: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

helium and 6 x 1019 eV for iron. The ankle, in spite of its notable importance at the Earth, is a local perturbation of the universal spectrum which, between the knee and the...


Algebraic Lower Bounds for Computing on Encrypted Rafail Ostrovsky  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

semantically-secure encryption schemes, using homomorphic properties in a black- box way. A few notable protocols, including PIR-writing and private keyword search protocols. We hope that this work will provide


Dynamic Modeling and Wavelet-Based Multi-Parametric Tuning and Validation for HVAC Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Tummescheit and Eborn [11] discussed the modeling of a thermo-hydraulic model using lumped parameter and distributed parameter methods using commercial software known as Modelica. In 2002, Bendapudi [12] presented a detailed literature review of notable...

Liang, Shuangshuang



Structure and dynamics of proteins that inhibit complement activation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NMR studies have long been used as a tool to derive structural and dynamic information. Such information has a wide range of applications, and notably is used in the study of structure-activity relationships. The aims ...

Maciejewski, Mateusz



Wilsons Woes Should Keep Us on Our Toes: Where is Plan B for the California State Budget?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DanBernstein,2year BudgetPlanGainsGOPSupporter,BombsTickAwayinStateBudgetPackage, SacramentoBee,DanWalters,TimelyBudgetaNotableFeat,Sacramento

Mitchell, Daniel J.B.



BBF RFC 106: A Standard Type IIS Syntax for Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Here we define a standard syntax for assembling standard parts for expression in plant cells, extensible to all other eukaryotes. Variations of the Type IIS mediated cloning method known as Golden Gate Cloning, most notably ...

Rutten, Virginia



Advanced Propulsion for Microsatellites Vadim Khayms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as the scale of the device is reduced. The consequences of strict scaling, most notably the higher particle. These are representatives of a technology of electrostatic acceler- ators which does not rely on ionization in the gas phase


Concentrations of /sup 207/Bi and /sup 210/Pb-/sup 210/Bi-/sup 210/Po disequilibrium in fish  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radioactive /sup 207/Bi, produced during nuclear testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds, concentrates in the muscle tissue and organs of goatfish and certain pelagic lagoon fish from Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. It is reasonable to expect that fish capable of accumulating /sup 207/Bi could also be efficient accumulators of other bismuth isotopes - namely /sup 210/Bi, the daughter of naturally occurring /sup 210/Pb. Therefore, /sup 210/Bi and consequently /sup 210/Po, the decay product of /sup 210/Bi, would be expected in notable excess over the precursor /sup 210/Pb in specific tissues. To test this assumption, we compared concentrations of /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Bi, and /sup 210/Po in muscle, liver, and bone separated from some reef species from the Marshall Islands. Concentrations of /sup 210/Bi in muscle and liver were found to exceed those of its precursor by factors of 2 to 15. The excess /sup 210/Bi in some species, however, is not from the environmental sources (either food or water) from which /sup 207/Bi is derived. The data suggest that the excess /sup 210/Bi may be translocated to muscle and liver tissue following the decay of /sup 210/Pb in bone.

Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Jokela, T.A.



Eurographics Symposium on Rendering 2003 Per Christensen and Daniel Cohen-Or (Editors)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for quickly rendering soft shadows are needed. Shadows consist of two parts, an umbra and a penumbra. Umbral- proach breaks down when the umbra region significantly de- creases or disappears. This happens for very

Utah, University of


Radiosensitizing effect of misonidazole in combination with an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis in murine tumors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The radiosensitizing effects of misonidazole (MISO) in combination with D,L-buthionine-S, R-sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis, were studied in NFSa tumors of C/sub 3/H/He mice. The radiation response of tumors was assayed by the tumor growth delay time. The GSH contents in tissues were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). GSH content in the tumors decreased to the minimum level (45% of the control), and then gradually recovered to 75% of the control, respectively, 12 and 24 hr after the intraperitoneal injection of 5 mmole/kg BSO. On the other hand, the maximum non-protein sulfhydryl (NPSH) depletion (29% of the control) in the liver of tumor bearing mice was achieved 6 hr after the administration of the same dose of BSO, but fully recovered 24 hr later. When 5 mmole/kg BSO was injected repeatedly 4 times at an interval of 6 hr, GSH content in the tumors decreased to 19% of the control 24 hr after the first injection of BSO. The radiosensitizing effect of 0.5 mmole/kg MISO was markedly increased by this BSO treatment. The enhancement ratio (ER) of this combined treatment was 1.93. On the other hand, ERs of 1.44 and 1.16 were obtained for MISO (0.5 mmole/kg) and for 4 injections of BSO (5 mmole/kg) in combination with radiation, respectively. Although a considerable increase in the radiosensitizing efficiency of MISO in vivo by the treatment with BSO was found without any notable side effects of the combination, more studies on toxicities are needed to get a definite conclusion on the clinical applicability of the combination.

Ono, K.; Komuro, C.; Nishidai, T.; Shibamoto, Y.; Tsutsui, K.; Takahashi, M.; Abe, M.



Particle density distributions in Fermi gas superfluids: Differences between one- and two-channel models in the Bose-Einstein-condensation limit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We discuss the differences between one- and two-channel descriptions of fermionic gases with arbitrarily tunable attractive interactions; these two cases correspond to whether molecular bosonic degrees of freedom are omitted or included. We adopt the standard ground state wave function for the fermionic component associated with the BCS to BEC crossover problem: for weak attraction the system is in the BCS state while it crosses over continuously to a Bose-Einstein-condensed (BEC) state as the interaction strength is increased. Our analysis focuses on the BEC and near-BEC limit where the differences between the one- and two-channel descriptions are most notable, and where analytical calculations are most tractable. Among the differences we elucidate are the equations of state at general T below T{sub c} and related particle density profiles. We find a narrowing of the density profile in the two-channel problem relative to the one-channel analog. Importantly, we infer that the ratio between bosonic and fermionic scattering lengths depends on the magnetic detuning and is generally smaller than its one-channel counterpart. Future experiments will be required to determine to what extent this ratio varies with magnetic fields, as predicted here.

Stajic, Jelena; Levin, K. [James Franck Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Chen Qijin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)



Temperature dependence of thermal conductivities of coupled rotator lattice and the momentum diffusion in standard map  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In contrary to other 1D momentum-conserving lattices such as the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam $\\beta$ (FPU-$\\beta$) lattice, the 1D coupled rotator lattice is a notable exception which conserves total momentum while exhibits normal heat conduction behavior. The temperature behavior of the thermal conductivities of 1D coupled rotator lattice had been studied in previous works trying to reveal the underlying physical mechanism for normal heat conduction. However, two different temperature behaviors of thermal conductivities have been claimed for the same coupled rotator lattice. These different temperature behaviors also intrigue the debate whether there is a phase transition of thermal conductivities as the function of temperature. In this work, we will revisit the temperature dependent thermal conductivities for the 1D coupled rotator lattice. We find that the temperature dependence follows a power law behavior which is different with the previously found temperature behaviors. Our results also support the claim that there is no phase transition for 1D coupled rotator lattice. We also give some discussion about the similarity of diffusion behaviors between the 1D coupled rotator lattice and the single kicked rotator also called the Chirikov standard map.

Yunyun Li; Nianbei Li; Baowen Li



Education in Safeguards and Security Technology Meeting Challenges with Technology and Experience  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Education and hands-on experience are crucial to ensuring a workforce of safeguards and security professionals who can meet the challenges currently faced in global nuclear safeguards and security. Global demand for nuclear energy and technology, the new Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), and the cleanup of Cold War facilities have resulted in an increased need for trained safeguards and security personnel. At the same time, the global community is facing a growing shortage of experienced workers with hands-on knowledge of nuclear material processing. Limited access to operating facilities has dramatically reduced the opportunities for next-generation practitioners to obtain hands-on training experience. To address these needs, the Safeguards Technology Integration Center (STIC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was created as a Department of Energy User Facility to provide access both to the latest technology and to field-experienced professionals. The STIC provides real-world conditions, process equipment mock-ups, and controlled access to encapsulated radioactive materials (including highly enriched uranium and plutonium) for training and technology evaluation encompassing various techniques and skills, such as Radiation Inspection Systems, Containment and Surveillance Systems, Nondestructive Assay, Security System Performance Testing, and System Design and Analysis. The STIC facilities, laboratories, test beds, and training facilities are described along with the more notable aspects of the training program, which has included more than 1000 participants in the last four years.

Paschal, Linda J [ORNL; Chapman, Jeffrey Allen [ORNL; Rowe, Nathan C [ORNL; Stinson, Brad J [ORNL



Reduction in radiation-induced brain injury by use of pentobarbital or lidocaine protection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To determine if barbiturates would protect brain at high doses of radiation, survival rates in rats that received whole-brain x-irradiation during pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia were compared with those of control animals that received no medication and of animals anesthetized with ketamine. The animals were shielded so that respiratory and digestive tissues would not be damaged by the radiation. Survival rates in rats that received whole-brain irradiation as a single 7500-rad dose under pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia was increased from between from 0% and 20% to between 45% and 69% over the 40 days of observation compared with the other two groups (p less than 0.007). Ketamine anesthesia provided no protection. There were no notable differential effects upon non-neural tissues, suggesting that pentobarbital afforded protection through modulation of ambient neural activity during radiation exposure. Neural suppression during high-dose cranial irradiation protects brain from acute and early delayed radiation injury. Further development and application of this knowledge may reduce the incidence of radiation toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS) and may permit the safe use of otherwise unsafe doses of radiation in patients with CNS neoplasms.

Oldfield, E.H.; Friedman, R.; Kinsella, T.; Moquin, R.; Olson, J.J.; Orr, K.; DeLuca, A.M. (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))


Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Energy-scales convergence for optimal and robust quantum transport in photosynthetic complexes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Underlying physical principles for the high efficiency of excitation energy transfer in light-harvesting complexes are not fully understood. Notably, the degree of robustness of these systems for transporting energy is not known considering their realistic interactions with vibrational and radiative environments within the surrounding solvent and scaffold proteins. In this work, we employ an efficient technique to estimate energy transfer efficiency of such complex excitonic systems. We observe that the dynamics of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex leads to optimal and robust energy transport due to a convergence of energy scales among all important internal and external parameters. In particular, we show that the FMO energy transfer efficiency is optimum and stable with respect to the relevant parameters of environmental interactions and Frenkel-exciton Hamiltonian including reorganization energy $\\lambda$, bath frequency cutoff $\\gamma$, temperature $T$, bath spatial correlations, initial excitations, dissipation rate, trapping rate, disorders, and dipole moments orientations. We identify the ratio of $\\lambda T/\\gamma\\*g$ as a single key parameter governing quantum transport efficiency, where g is the average excitonic energy gap.

Masoud Mohseni; Alireza Shabani; Seth Lloyd; Herschel Rabitz



Natural equilibria in steady-state neutron diffusion with temperature feedback  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The critical diffusion equation with feedback is investigated within the context of steady-state multiphysics. It is proposed that for critical configurations there is no need to include the multiplication factor k in the formulation of the diffusion equation. This is notable because exclusion of k from the coupled system of equations precludes the mathematically tenuous notion of a nonlinear eigenvalue problem. On the other hand, it is shown that if the factor k is retained in the diffusion equation, as is currently common practice, then the resulting problem is equivalent to the constrained minimization of a functional representing the critical equilibrium of neutron and temperature distributions. The unconstrained solution corresponding to k = 1 represents the natural equilibrium of a critical system at steady-state. Computational methods for solving the constrained problem (with k) are briefly reviewed from the literature and a method for the unconstrained problem (without k) is outlined. A numerical example is studied to examine the effects of the constraint in the nonlinear system. (authors)

Pounders, J. M.; Ingram, R. [Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, P.O. Box 79, West Mifflin, PA 15122-0079 (United States)



High-sulfur coals in the eastern Kentucky coal field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Eastern Kentucky coal field is notable for relatively low-sulfur, [open quotes]compliance[close quotes] coals. Virtually all of the major coals in this area do have regions in which higher sulfur lithotypes are common, if not dominant, within the lithologic profile. Three Middle Pennsylvanian coals, each representing a major resource, exemplify this. The Clintwood coal bed is the stratigraphically lowest coal bed mined throughout the coal field. In Whitley County, the sulfur content increase from 0.6% at the base to nearly 12% in the top lithotype. Pyrite in the high-sulfur lithotype is a complex mixture of sub- to few-micron syngenetic forms and massive epigenetic growths. The stratigraphically higher Pond Creek coal bed is extensively mined in portions of the coal field. Although generally low in sulfur, in northern Pike and southern Martin counties the top one-third can have up to 6% sulfur. Uniformly low-sulfur profiles can occur within a few hundred meters of high-sulfur coal. Pyrite occurs as 10-50 [mu]m euhedra and coarser massive forms. In this case, sulfur distribution may have been controlled by sandstone channels in the overlying sediments. High-sulfur zones in the lower bench of the Fire Clay coal bed, the stratigraphically highest coal bed considered here, are more problematical. The lower bench, which is of highly variable thickness and quality, generally is overlain by a kaolinitic flint clay, the consequence of a volcanic ash fall into the peat swamp. In southern Perry and Letcher counties, a black, illite-chlorite clay directly overlies the lower bench. General lack of lateral continuity of lithotypes in the lower bench suggests that the precursor swamp consisted of discontinuous peat-forming environments that were spatially variable and regularly inundated by sediments. Some of the peat-forming areas may have been marshlike in character.

Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M. (Univ. of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)); Eble, C.F. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States))



Industrialization in the late 19th Century --up through WWII  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Caribbean ~ 38 m · Central America (with Mexico) ~ 144 m · Mexico ~ 105 m · South America (with Brazil ~ 358 America (including Mexico) ~ 2.4% · Mexico ~ 2.4 % · South America (including Brazil) ~ 1.5% Brazil ~ 1 (including Mexico) ~ 2.8 · Mexico ~ 2.6 · South America (including Brazil) ~ 2.5 · Notable extremes

Lopez-Carr, David


Performance Characterization and Remedy of Experimental CuInGaSe2 Mini-Modules: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We employed current-voltage (I-V), quantum efficiency (QE), photoluminescence (PL), electroluminescence (EL), lock-in thermography (LIT), and (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy (ECIS) to complementarily characterize the performance and remedy for two pairs of experimental CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) mini-modules. One pair had the three scribe-lines (P1/P2/P3) done by a single pulse-programmable laser, and the other had the P2/P3 lines by mechanical scribe. Localized QE measurements for each cell strip on all four mini-modules showed non-uniform distributions that correlated well with the presence of performance-degrading strips or spots revealed by PL, EL, and LIT imaging. Performance of the all-laser-scribed mini-modules improved significantly by adding a thicker Al-doped ZnO layer and reworking the P3 line. The efficiency on one of the all-laser-scribed mini-modules increased notably from 7.80% to 8.56% after the performance-degrading spots on the side regions along the cell array were isolated by manual scribes.

Pern, F. J.; Yan, F.; Mansfield, L.; Glynn, S.; Rekow, M.; Murion, R.



Diagnostics of the Heating Processes in Solar Flares Using Chromospheric Spectral Lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have calculated the H$\\alpha$ and Ca {\\sc ii} 8542 {\\AA} line profiles based on four different atmospheric models, including the effects of nonthermal electron beams with various energy fluxes. These two lines have different responses to thermal and nonthermal effects, and can be used to diagnose the thermal and nonthermal heating processes. We apply our method to an X-class flare that occurred on 2001 October 19. We are able to identify quantitatively the heating effects during the flare eruption. We find that the nonthermal effects at the outer edge of the flare ribbon are more notable than that at the inner edge, while the temperature at the inner edge seems higher. On the other hand, the results show that nonthermal effects increase rapidly in the rise phase and decrease quickly in the decay phase, but the atmospheric temperature can still keep relatively high for some time after getting to its maximum. For the two kernels that we analyze, the maximum energy fluxes of the electron beams are $\\sim$ 10$^{10}$ and 10$^{11}$ ergs cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, respectively. However, the atmospheric temperatures are not so high, i.e., lower than or slightly higher than that of the weak flare model F1 at the two kernels. We discuss the implications of the results for two-ribbon flare models.

J. X. Cheng; M. D. Ding; J. P. Li



Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Mesa, Arizona  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the 2006 IECC and the 2003 IECC. The notable changes are: (1) Improved duct sealing verified by testing the duct system; (2) Increased duct insulation; (3) Improvement of window U-factors from 0.40 to 0.35; and (4) Efficient lighting requirements. An analysis of these changes resulted in estimated annual energy cost savings of $145 a year for an average new house compared to the 2003 IECC. This energy cost saving decreases to $125 a year for the 2009 IECC compared to the 2006 IECC. Construction cost increases (per home) for complying with the 2009 IECC are estimated at $1256 relative to the 2003 IECC and $800 for 2006 IECC. Home owners will experience an annual cost savings of about $80 a year by complying with the 2009 IECC because reduction to energy bills will more than compensate for increased mortgage payments and other costs.

Lucas, Robert G.



Searching for Dark Matter Annihilation in the Smith High-Velocity Cloud  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent observations suggest that some high-velocity clouds may be confined by massive dark matter halos. In particular, the proximity and proposed dark matter content of the Smith Cloud make it a tempting target for the indirect detection of dark matter annihilation. We argue that the Smith Cloud may be a better target than some Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies and use gamma-ray observations from the Fermi Large Area Telescope to search for a dark matter annihilation signal. No significant gamma-ray excess is found coincident with the Smith Cloud, and we set strong limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section assuming a spatially-extended dark matter profile consistent with dynamical modeling of the Smith Cloud. Notably, these limits exclude the canonical thermal relic cross section ($\\sim 3\\times10^{-26}{\\rm cm}^{3}{\\rm s}^{-1}$) for dark matter masses $\\lesssim 30$ GeV annihilating via the $b \\bar b$ or $\\tau^{+}\\tau^{-}$ channels for certain assumptions of the dark matter density profile; however, uncertainties in the dark matter content of the Smith Cloud may significantly weaken these constraints.

Alex Drlica-Wagner; German A. Gomez-Vargas; John W. Hewitt; Tim Linden; Luigi Tibaldo



Systematics of the temperature-dependent interplane resistivity in Ba(Fe1-xMx)?As? (M=Co, Rh, Ni, and Pd)  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Temperature-dependent interplane resistivity ?c(T) was measured systematically as a function of transition-metal substitution in the iron-arsenide superconductors Ba(Fe1-xMx)?As?, M=Ni, Pd, Rh. The data are compared with the behavior found in Ba(Fe1-xCox)?As?, revealing resistive signatures of pseudogap. In all compounds we find resistivity crossover at a characteristic pseudogap temperature T* from nonmetallic to metallic temperature dependence on cooling. Suppression of T* proceeds very similarly in cases of Ni and Pd doping and much faster than in similar cases of Co and Rh doping. In cases of Co and Rh doping an additional minimum in the temperature-dependent ?c emerges for high dopings, when superconductivity is completely suppressed. These features are consistent with the existence of a charge gap covering part of the Fermi surface. The part of the Fermi surface affected by this gap is notably larger for Ni- and Pd-doped compositions than in Co- and Rh-doped compounds.

Tanatar, M. A.; Ni, N.; Thaler, A.; Budko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Prozorov, R.



Turbulence driven diffusion in protoplanetary disks - chemical effects in the outer disk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The dynamics and chemistry of protostellar disks are likely to be intricately linked, with dynamical processes altering the chemical composition, and chemistry, in turn, controlling the ionization structure and hence the ability of the magneto-rotational instability to drive the disk turbulence. Here we present the results from the first chemical models of the outer regions (R > 100 AU) of protoplanetary disks to consider the effects of turbulence driven diffusive mixing in the vertical direction. We show that vertical diffusion can greatly affect the column densities of many species, increasing them by factors of up to two orders of magnitude. Previous disk models have shown that disks can be divided into three chemically distinct layers, with the bulk of the observed molecular emission coming from a region between an atomic/ionic layer on the surface of the disk and the midplane regoin where the bulk of molecules are frozen onto grains. Diffusion retains this three layer structure, but increases the depth of the molecular layer by bringing atoms and atomic ions form by photodissociation in the surface layers into the shielded molecular layer where molecules can reform. For other species, notably NH3 and N2H+, the column densities are relatively unaffected by diffusion. These species peak in abundance near the midplane where most other molecules are heavily depleted, rather than in the molecular layer above. Diffusion only affects the abundances of those molecules with peak abundances in the molecular layer. We find that diffusion does not affect the ionization fraction of the disk. We compare the calculated column densities to observations of DM Tau, LkCa 15 and TW Hya and find good agreement for many molecules with a diffusion coefficient of 1e18 cm^2 s^-1.

K. Willacy; W. D. Langer; M. Allen; G. Bryden



The process of data formation for the Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) in Solar Orbiter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) is a hard X-ray imaging spectroscopy device to be mounted in the Solar Orbiter cluster with the aim of providing images and spectra of solar flaring regions at different photon energies in the range from a few keV to around 150 keV. The imaging modality of this telescope is based on the Moire pattern concept and utilizes 30 sub-collimators, each one containing a pair of co-axial grids. This paper applies Fourier analysis to provide the first rigorous description of the data formation process in STIX. Specifically, we show that, under first harmonic approximation, the integrated counts measured by STIX sub-collimators can be interpreted as specific spatial Fourier components of the incoming photon flux, named visibilities. Fourier analysis also allows the quantitative assessment of the reliability of such interpretation. The description of STIX data in terms of visibilities has a notable impact on the image reconstruction process, since it fosters the applic...

Giordano, Sara; Piana, Michele; Massone, Anna Maria



Expansions of the solutions of the biconfluent Heun equation in terms of incomplete Beta and Gamma functions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the equations obeyed by different functions which involve the first or the second derivatives of the biconfluent Heun function. A notable feature of these equations is that they have at least one more regular singularity, as compared with the biconfluent Heun equation. The position of this extra singularity is defined by the accessory parameter of the biconfluent Heun equation, and in general it may be located at any point of the extended complex z-plane. Starting from these equations, we construct two different expansions of the solutions of the biconfluent Heun equation in terms of incomplete Beta functions. The first series applies single Beta functions as expansion functions, while the second one involves a combination of two Beta functions. The coefficients of expansions obey four- and five-term recurrence relations, respectively. It is shown that the proposed technique is potent to produce series solutions in terms of other special functions. Two examples of such expansions in terms of the incomplete Gamma functions are presented.

C. Leroy; Y. Pashayan-Leroy; A. M. Ishkhanyan



A joint x-ray and neutron study on amicyanin reveals the role of protein dynamics in electron transfer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The joint x-ray/neutron diffraction model of the Type I copper protein, amicyanin from Paracoccus denitrificans was determined at 1.8 {angstrom} resolution. The protein was crystallized using reagents prepared in D{sub 2}O. About 86% of the amide hydrogen atoms are either partially or fully exchanged, which correlates well with the atomic depth of the amide nitrogen atom and the secondary structure type, but with notable exceptions. Each of the four residues that provide copper ligands is partially deuterated. The model reveals the dynamic nature of the protein, especially around the copper-binding site. A detailed analysis of the presence of deuterated water molecules near the exchange sites indicates that amide hydrogen exchange is primarily due to the flexibility of the protein. Analysis of the electron transfer path through the protein shows that residues in that region are highly dynamic, as judged by hydrogen/deuterium exchange. This could increase the rate of electron transfer by transiently shortening through-space jumps in pathways or by increasing the atomic packing density. Analysis of C-H{hor_ellipsis}X bonding reveals previously undefined roles of these relatively weak H bonds, which, when present in sufficient number can collectively influence the structure, redox, and electron transfer properties of amicyanin.

Sukumar, N.; Mathews, F.S.; Langan, P.; Davidson, V.L. (Cornell); (UMMC); (WU-MED); (LANL)



Rotational spectroscopy as a tool to investigate interactions between vibrational polyads in symmetric top molecules: low-lying states v8 <= 2 of methyl cyanide, CH$_3$CN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spectra of methyl cyanide were recorded to analyze interactions in low-lying vibrational states and to construct line lists for radio astronomical observations as well as for infrared spectroscopic investigations of planetary atmospheres. The rotational spectra cover large portions of the 36-1627 GHz region. In the infrared (IR), a spectrum was recorded for this study in the region of 2nu8 around 717 cm-1 with assignments covering 684-765 cm-1. Additional spectra in the nu8 region were used to validate the analysis. The large amount and the high accuracy of the rotational data extend to much higher J and K quantum numbers and allowed us to investigate for the first time in depth local interactions between these states which occur at high K values. In particular, we have detected several interactions between v8 = 1 and 2. Notably, there is a strong Delta(v8) = +- 1, Delta(K) = 0, Delta(l) = +-3 Fermi resonance between v8 = 1^-1 and v8 = 2^+2 at K = 14. Pronounced effects in the spectrum are also caused by reso...

Mller, Holger S P; Drouin, Brian J; Pearson, John C; Kleiner, Isabelle; Sams, Robert L; Sung, Keeyoon; Ordu, Matthias H; Lewen, Frank



X-ray Studies of Regenerated Cellulose Fibers Wet Spun from Cotton Linter Pulp in NaOH/Thiourea Aqueous Solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Regenerated cellulose fibers were fabricated by dissolution of cotton linter pulp in NaOH (9.5 wt%) and thiourea (4.5 wt%) aqueous solution followed by wet-spinning and multi-roller drawing. The multi-roller drawing process involved three stages: coagulation (I), coagulation (II) and post-treatment (III). The crystalline structure and morphology of regenerated cellulose fiber was investigated by synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Results indicated that only the cellulose II crystal structure was found in regenerated cellulose fibers, proving that the cellulose crystals were completely transformed from cellulose I to II structure during spinning from NaOH/thiourea aqueous solution. The crystallinity, orientation and crystal size at each stage were determined from the WAXD analysis. Drawing of cellulose fibers in the coagulation (II) bath (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O) was found to generate higher orientation and crystallinity than drawing in the post-treatment (III). Although the post-treatment process also increased crystal orientation, it led to a decrease in crystallinity with notable reduction in the anisotropic fraction. Compared with commercial rayon fibers fabricated by the viscose process, the regenerated cellulose fibers exhibited higher crystallinity but lower crystal orientation. SAXS results revealed a clear scattering maximum along the meridian direction in all regenerated cellulose fibers, indicating the formation of lamellar structure during spinning.

Chen,X.; Burger, C.; Fang, D.; Ruan, D.; Zhang, L.; Hsiao, B.; Chu, B.



Magnetic Reconnection in the MST Reversed Field Pinch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnetic field line reconnection is a process whereby magnetic field lines which are otherwise topologically preserved by, and frozen into, a plasma can break and reconnect to form field lines with different topologies. It plays a significant role in a wide variety of plasmas, including stellar, space and laboratory plasmas. The focus of this dissertation is the underlying dynamics of reconnection in one particular kind of laboratory plasma: the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP). Specifically, this dissertation reports measurements, made using a pair of insertable diagnostics in conjunction with arrays of magnetic sensing coils positioned near the plasma surface, of the spatial structure of the magnetic and parallel current density fluctuations associated with reconnection in the edge of MST. At least 4 significant results are obtained form such measurements. First we observe direct evidence of reconnection which takes the form of tearing modes in an RFP. Specifically we measure a (radial) magnetic field fluctuation that causes reconnection in the so-called reversal surface, or q = 0 surface, in the edge of MST. Notably this evidence of reconnection at the reversal surface is the first of its kind in an RFP. Second, we measure the radial width of the associated current sheet, or fluctuation in the component of the current density parallel to the equilibrium magnetic field. Such current sheets are a characteristic feature of the reconnection process but their radial widths are sensitive to the specific effects that allow reconnection to occur sometimes call non-ideal effects because reconnection is forbidden by ideal MHD. We compare the observed width to those expected from models of reconnection that incorporate different non-ideal effects in Ohm's law. In particular we see that the observed width is significantly larger than those expected form resistivity in the context of linearly unstable tearing modes and electron inertia. It is a factor of a few larger than the width expected form the electron pressure gradient effect. It is significantly smaller than the width expected from the ion inertia, but this width is not expected to be relevant to a strongly magnetized plasma such as an RFP. Notably it is comparable to the width of the magnetic island produced by the associated tearing mode. This is consistent with expectation for saturated or fully developed resistive tearing modes such as MST is believed to exhibit. It is also consistent with the broadening of a smaller width current sheet through current transport due to parallel streaming of charge carriers (along the field lines of the associated island). Third we obtain estimates of the radial charge transport or radial current density due to streaming charge of carriers along magnetic field lines that results from reconnection in the edge of MST. We find that in contradiction with the theoretical expectation for isolated tearing modes it is non-vanishing and in fact large enough to imply both the existence of another charge transport mechanism to maintain charge neutrality and a significant difference in the radial ion and electron particle fluxes due to parallel streaming of particles. Fourth we interpret the flux surface average of j and b as a J x B force density on the plasma. We observe in agreement with theory and observation for interacting tearing modes in an RFP that the radial structure of the force density during sawtooth crashes is such as to flatten the equilibrium radial gradient in toroidal velocity. We observe also that it is sufficiently large as to imply the existence of other force densities on the plasma.

Crocker, N.E.



Bioenergy in Energy Transformation and Climate Management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Unlike fossil fuels, biomass is a renewable resource that can sequester carbon during growth, be converted to energy, and then re-grown. Biomass is also a flexible fuel that can service many end-uses. This paper explores the importance of bioenergy to potential future energy transformation and climate change management. Using a model comparison of fifteen models, we characterize and analyze future dependence on, and the value of, bioenergy in achieving potential long-run climate objectivesreducing radiative forcing to 3.7 and 2.8 W/m2 in 2100 (approximately 550 and 450 ppm carbon dioxide equivalent atmospheric concentrations). Model scenarios project, by 2050, bioenergy growth of 2 to 10% per annum reaching 5 to 35 percent of global primary energy, and by 2100, bioenergy becoming 15 to 50 percent of global primary energy. Non-OECD regions are projected to be the dominant suppliers of biomass, as well as consumers, with up to 35 percent of regional electricity from biopower by 2050, and up to 70 percent of regional liquid fuels from biofuels by 2050. Bioenergy is found to be valuable to many models with significant implications for mitigation costs and world consumption. The availability of bioenergy, in particular biomass with carbon dioxide capture and storage (BECCS), notably affects the cost-effective global emissions trajectory for climate management by accommodating prolonged near-term use of fossil fuels. We also find that models cost-effectively trade-off land carbon and nitrous oxide emissions for the long-run climate change management benefits of bioenergy. Overall, further evaluation of the viability of global large-scale bioenergy is merited.

Rose, Steven K.; Kriegler, Elmar; Bibas, Ruben; Calvin, Katherine V.; Popp, Alexander; van Vuuren, Detlef; Weyant, John



Sowing the seeds of massive black holes in small galaxies: Young clusters as the building blocks of Ultra-Compact-Dwarf Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interacting galaxies often have complexes of hundreds of young stellar clusters of individual masses $\\sim 10^{4-6}~M_\\odot$ in regions that are a few hundred parsecs across. These cluster complexes interact dynamically, and their coalescence is a candidate for the origin of some ultracompact dwarf galaxies (UCDs). Individual clusters with short relaxation times are candidates for the production of intermediate-mass black holes of a few hundred solar masses, via runaway stellar collisions prior to the first supernovae in a cluster. It is therefore possible that a cluster complex hosts multiple intermediate-mass black holes that may be ejected from their individual clusters due to mergers or binary processes, but bound to the complex as a whole. Here we explore the dynamical interaction between initially free-flying massive black holes and clusters in an evolving cluster complex. We find that, after hitting some clusters, it is plausible that the massive black hole will be captured in an ultracompact dwarf forming near the center of the complex. In the process, the hole typically triggers electromagnetic flares via stellar disruptions, and is also likely to be a prominent source of gravitational radiation for the advanced ground-based detectors LIGO and VIRGO. We also discuss other implications of this scenario, notably that the central black hole could be considerably larger than expected in other formation scenarios for ultracompact dwarfs.

Pau Amaro-Seoane; Symeon Konstantinidis; Marc Dewi Freitag; M. Coleman Miller; Frederic A. Rasio



The French nuclear power plant reactor building containment contributions of prestressing and concrete performances in reliability improvements and cost savings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Electricite de France`s N4 CHOOZ B nuclear power plant, two units of the world`s largest PWR model (1450 Mwe each), has earned the Electric Power International`s 1997 Powerplant Award. This lead NPP for EDF`s N4 series has been improved notably in terms of civil works. The presentation will focus on the Reactor Building`s inner containment wall which is one of the main civil structures on a technical and safety point of view. In order to take into account the necessary evolution of the concrete technical specification such as compressive strength low creep and shrinkage, the HSC/HPC has been used on the last N4 Civaux 2 NPP. As a result of the use of this type of professional concrete, the containment withstands an higher internal pressure related to severe accident and ensures higher level of leak-tightness, thus improving the overall safety of the NPP. On that occasion, a new type of prestressing has been tested locally through 55 C 15 S tendons using a new C 1500 FE Jack. These updated civil works techniques shall allow EDF to ensure a Reactor Containment lifespan for more than 50 years. The gains in terms of reliability and cost saving of these improved techniques will be developed hereafter.

Rouelle, P.; Roy, F. [Electricite de France, Paris (France). Engineering and Construction Div.



Full-scale tests of sulfur polymer cement and non-radioactive waste in heated and unheated prototypical containers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sulfur polymer cement has been demonstrated to be superior to portland cement in the stabilization of numerous troublesome low- level radioactive wastes, notably mixed waste fly ash, which contains heavy metals. EG G Idaho, Inc. conducted full-scale, waste-stabilization tests with a mixture of sulfur polymer cement and nonradioactive incinerator ash poured over simulated steel and ash wastes. The container used to contain the simulated waste for the pour was a thin-walled, rectangular, steel container with no appendages. The variable in the tests was that one container and its contents were at 65{degree}F (18{degree}C) at the beginning of the pour, while the other was preheated to 275{degree}F (135{degree}C) and was insulated before the pour. The primary goal was to determine the procedures and equipment deemed operationally acceptable and capable of providing the best probability of passing the only remaining governmental test for sulfur polymer cement, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's full-scale test. The secondary goal was to analyze the ability of the molten cement and ash mixture to fill different size pipes and thus eliminate voids in the resultant 24 ft{sup 3} monolith.

Darnell, G.R.; Aldrich, W.C.; Logan, J.A.


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Full-scale tests of sulfur polymer cement and non-radioactive waste in heated and unheated prototypical containers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sulfur polymer cement has been demonstrated to be superior to portland cement in the stabilization of numerous troublesome low- level radioactive wastes, notably mixed waste fly ash, which contains heavy metals. EG&G Idaho, Inc. conducted full-scale, waste-stabilization tests with a mixture of sulfur polymer cement and nonradioactive incinerator ash poured over simulated steel and ash wastes. The container used to contain the simulated waste for the pour was a thin-walled, rectangular, steel container with no appendages. The variable in the tests was that one container and its contents were at 65{degree}F (18{degree}C) at the beginning of the pour, while the other was preheated to 275{degree}F (135{degree}C) and was insulated before the pour. The primary goal was to determine the procedures and equipment deemed operationally acceptable and capable of providing the best probability of passing the only remaining governmental test for sulfur polymer cement, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s full-scale test. The secondary goal was to analyze the ability of the molten cement and ash mixture to fill different size pipes and thus eliminate voids in the resultant 24 ft{sup 3} monolith.

Darnell, G.R.; Aldrich, W.C.; Logan, J.A.



Likely detection of water-rich asteroid debris in a metal-polluted white dwarf  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The cool white dwarf SDSS J124231.07+522626.6 exhibits photospheric absorption lines of 8 distinct heavy elements in medium resolution optical spectra, notably including oxygen. The Teff = 13000 K atmosphere is helium-dominated, but the convection zone contains significant amounts of hydrogen and oxygen. The four most common rock-forming elements (O, Mg, Si, and Fe) account for almost all the accreted mass, totalling at least 1.2e+24 g, similar to the mass of Ceres. The time-averaged accretion rate is 2e+10 g/s, one of the highest rates inferred among all known metal-polluted white dwarfs. We note a large oxygen excess, with respect to the most common metal oxides, suggesting that the white dwarf accreted planetary debris with a water content of ~38 per cent by mass. This star, together with GD 61, GD 16, and GD 362, form a small group of outliers from the known population of evolved planetary systems accreting predominantly dry, rocky debris. This result strengthens the hypothesis that, integrated over the c...

Raddi, R; Koester, D; Farihi, J; Hermes, J J; Scaringi, S; Breedt, E; Girven, J



Economic and Non-proliferation Policy Considerations of Uranium Enrichment in Brazil and Argentina  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nuclear development programs of both Argentina and Brazil have, since the 1970s, been premised on the desire for self-sufficiency and assurance of nuclear fuel supply. While military rivalry and mutual distrust led to nuclear weapons related development programs in the 1970s and 1980s, both countries have since terminated these programs. Furthermore, the governments of both countries have pledged their commitment to exclusively non-explosive use of nuclear energy and have signed the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Utilizing rights provided for under the NPT, both Argentina and Brazil have nuclear fuel production facilities, with the notable exception of enrichment plants, that provide much of the current indigenous fuel requirements for their nuclear power plants. However, both countries are actively developing enrichment capability to fill this gap. The purpose of this report is to assess the economic basis and non-proliferation policy considerations for indigenous enrichment capability within the context of their desired self-sufficiency and to evaluate possible United States Government policy options.

Short, Steven M.; Phillips, Jon R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Mahy, Heidi A.




SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have used the high-resolution observations obtained at the Anglo-Australian Telescope with Ultra-High Resolution Facility (R {approx} 100,000) and at Gemini-S with b-HROS (R {approx} 150,000) to determine magnesium isotope ratios for seven {omega} Cen red giants that cover a range in iron abundance from [Fe/H] = -1.78 to -0.78 dex, and for two red giants in M4 (NGC 6121). The {omega} Cen stars sample both the ''primordial'' (i.e., O-rich, Na- and Al-poor) and the ''extreme'' (O-depleted, Na- and Al-rich) populations in the cluster. The primordial population stars in both {omega} Cen and M4 show ({sup 25}Mg, {sup 26}Mg)/{sup 24}Mg isotopic ratios that are consistent with those found for the primordial population in other globular clusters with similar [Fe/H] values. The isotopic ratios for the {omega} Cen extreme stars are also consistent with those for extreme population stars in other clusters. The results for the extreme population stars studied indicate that the {sup 26}Mg/{sup 24}Mg ratio is highest at intermediate metallicities ([Fe/H] < -1.4 dex), and for the highest [Al/Fe] values. Further, the relative abundance of {sup 26}Mg in the extreme population stars is notably higher than that of {sup 25}Mg, in contrast to model predictions. The {sup 25}Mg/{sup 24}Mg isotopic ratio in fact does not show any obvious dependence on either [Fe/H] or [Al/Fe] nor, intriguingly, any obvious difference between the primordial and extreme population stars.

Da Costa, G. S.; Norris, John E.; Yong, David [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)



Data Mining Session-Based Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs) in a Mental Health Setting: Toward Data-Driven Clinical Decision Support and Personalized Treatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The CDOI outcome measure - a patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument utilizing direct client feedback - was implemented in a large, real-world behavioral healthcare setting in order to evaluate previous findings from smaller controlled studies. PROs provide an alternative window into treatment effectiveness based on client perception and facilitate detection of problems/symptoms for which there is no discernible measure (e.g. pain). The principal focus of the study was to evaluate the utility of the CDOI for predictive modeling of outcomes in a live clinical setting. Implementation factors were also addressed within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior by linking adoption rates to implementation practices and clinician perceptions. The results showed that the CDOI does contain significant capacity to predict outcome delta over time based on baseline and early change scores in a large, real-world clinical setting, as suggested in previous research. The implementation analysis revealed a number of critical factors affecting successful implementation and adoption of the CDOI outcome measure, though there was a notable disconnect between clinician intentions and actual behavior. Most importantly, the predictive capacity of the CDOI underscores the utility of direct client feedback measures such as PROs and their potential use as the basis for next generation clinical decision support tools and personalized treatment approaches.

Casey Bennett; Thomas Doub; April Bragg; Jason Luellen; Christina Van Regenmorter; Jennifer Lockman; Randall Reiserer



Light-ion production in the interaction of 175 MeV quasi-mono-energetic neutrons with iron and with bismuth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nuclear data for neutron-induced reactions in the intermediate energy range of 20 to 200 MeV are of great importance for the development of nuclear reaction codes since little data exist in that range. Also several different applications benefit from such data, notably accelerator-driven incineration of nuclear waste. The Medley setup was used for a series of measurements of p, d, t, $^3$He and $\\alpha$-particle production by 175 MeV quasi-mono-energetic neutrons on various target nuclei. The measurements were performed at the The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala, Sweden. Eight detector telescopes placed at angles between 20$^\\circ$ and 160$^\\circ$ were used. Medley uses the $\\Delta E$-$\\Delta E$-$E$ technique to discriminate among the particle types and is able to measure double-differential cross sections over a wide range of particle energies. This paper briefly describes the experimental setup, summarizes the data analysis and reports on recent changes in the previously reported preliminary data set on bismuth. Experimental data are compared with INCL4.5-Abla07, MCNP6 using CEM03.03, TALYS and PHITS model calculations as well as with nuclear data evaluations. The models agree fairly well overall but in some cases systematic differences are found.

R. Bevilacqua; K. Jansson; S. Pomp; P. Andersson; J. Blomgren; C. Gustavsson; A. Hjalmarsson; V. D. Simutkin; M. sterlund; A. J. Koning; A. V. Prokofiev; M. Hayashi; S. Hirayama; Y. Naitou; Y. Watanabe; U. Tippawan; S. G. Mashnik; L. M. Kerby; F. -R. Lecolley; N. Marie; J. -C. David; S. Leray



Centennial black carbon turnover observed in a Russia steppe soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black carbon (BC), from incomplete combustion of fuels and biomass, has been considered highly recalcitrant and a substantial sink for carbon dioxide. Recent studies have shown that BC can be degraded in soils. We use two soils with very low spatial variability sampled 100 years apart in a Russian steppe preserve to generate the first whole-profile estimate of BC stocks and turnover in the field. Quantities of fire residues in soil changed significantly over a century. Black carbon stock was 2.5 kg m{sup -2}, or about 7-10% of total organic C in 1900. With cessation of biomass burning, BC stocks decreased 25% over a century, which translates into a centennial soil BC turnover (293 years best estimate; range 182-541 years), much faster than so-called inert or passive carbon in ecosystem models. The turnover time presented here is for loss by all processes, namely decomposition, leaching, and erosion, although the latter two were probably insignificant in this case. Notably, at both time points, the peak BC stock was below 30 cm, a depth interval, which is not typically accounted for. Also, the quality of the fire residues changed with time, as indicated by the use benzene poly carboxylic acids (BPCA) as molecular markers. The proportions of less-condensed (and thus more easily degradable) BC structures decreased, whereas the highly condensed (and more recalcitrant) BC structures survived unchanged over the 100-year period. Our results show that BC cannot be assumed chemically recalcitrant in all soils, and other explanations for very old soil carbon are needed.

Hammes, K.; Torn, M.S.; Lapenas, A.G.; Schmidt, M.W.I.



INPP4B-mediated tumor resistance is associated with modulation of glucose metabolism via hexokinase 2 regulation in laryngeal cancer cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: HIF-1?-regulated INPP4B enhances glycolysis. INPP4B regulates aerobic glycolysis by inducing HK2 via Akt-mTOR pathway. Blockage of INPP4B and HK2 sensitizes radioresistant laryngeal cancer cells to radiation and anticancer drug. INPP4B is associated with HK2 in human laryngeal cancer tissues. -- Abstract: Inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II (INPP4B) was recently identified as a tumor resistance factor in laryngeal cancer cells. Herein, we show that INPP4B-mediated resistance is associated with increased glycolytic phenotype. INPP4B expression was induced by hypoxia and irradiation. Intriguingly, overexpression of INPP4B enhanced aerobic glycolysis. Of the glycolysis-regulatory genes, hexokinase 2 (HK2) was mainly regulated by INPP4B and this regulation was mediated through the Akt-mTOR pathway. Notably, codepletion of INPP4B and HK2 markedly sensitized radioresistant laryngeal cancer cells to irradiation or anticancer drug. Moreover, INPP4B was significantly associated with HK2 in human laryngeal cancer tissues. Therefore, these results suggest that INPP4B modulates aerobic glycolysis via HK2 regulation in radioresistant laryngeal cancer cells.

Min, Joong Won [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang Il [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Eun-Kyu; Noh, Woo Chul [Department of Surgery, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Surgery, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hong Bae [Biomedical Research Institute, MEDIPOST Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Biomedical Research Institute, MEDIPOST Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Dong-Hyung [Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)] [Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jeong Su [Department of Genetic Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Genetic Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, In-Chul; Hwang, Sang-Gu [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Sung, E-mail: jaesung@kirams.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)



Distinct kinetics of human DNA ligases I, IIIalpha, IIIbeta, and IV reveal direct DNA sensing ability and differential physiological functions in DNA repair  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The three human LIG genes encode polypeptides that catalyze phosphodiester bond formation during DNA replication, recombination and repair. While numerous studies have identified protein partners of the human DNA ligases (hLigs), there has been little characterization of the catalytic properties of these enzymes. In this study, we developed and optimized a fluorescence-based DNA ligation assay to characterize the activities of purified hLigs. Although hLigI joins DNA nicks, it has no detectable activity on linear duplex DNA substrates with short, cohesive single-strand ends. By contrast, hLigIII{beta} and the hLigIII{alpha}/XRCC1 and hLigIV/XRCC4 complexes are active on both nicked and linear duplex DNA substrates. Surprisingly, hLigIV/XRCC4, which is a key component of the major non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway, is significantly less active than hLigIII on a linear duplex DNA substrate. Notably, hLigIV/XRCC4 molecules only catalyze a single ligation event in the absence or presence of ATP. The failure to catalyze subsequent ligation events reflects a defect in the enzyme-adenylation step of the next ligation reaction and suggests that, unless there is an in vivo mechanism to reactivate DNA ligase IV/XRCC4 following phosphodiester bond formation, the cellular NHEJ capacity will be determined by the number of adenylated DNA ligaseIV/XRCC4 molecules.

Chen, Xi; Ballin, Jeff D.; Della-Maria, Julie; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; White, Elizabeth J.; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Wilson, Gerald M.



Radiative Feedback in Relic HII Regions at High-Redshift  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UV radiation from early astrophysical sources could have a large impact on subsequent star formation in nearby protogalaxies. Here we study the radiative feedback from the first, short-lived stars using hydrodynamical simulations with transient UV backgrounds (UVBs) and persistent Lyman-Werner backgrounds (LWBs) of varying intensity. We extend our prior work in Mesinger et al. (2006), by studying a more typical region whose proto-galaxies form at lower redshifts, z~13-20, in the epoch likely preceding the bulk of reionization. We confirm our previous results that feedback in the relic HII regions resulting from such transient radiation, is itself transient. Feedback effects dwindle away after ~30% of the Hubble time, and the same critical specific intensity of J_UV~0.1 x 10^{-21} ergs/s/cm^2/Hz/sr separates positive and negative feedback regimes. Additionally, we discover a second episode of eventual positive feedback in halos which have not yet collapsed when their progenitor regions were exposed to the transient UVB. This eventual positive feedback appears in all runs, regardless of the strength of the UVB. However, this feedback regime is very sensitive to the presence of Lyman-Werner radiation, and notable effects disappear under fairly modest background intensities of J_LW>10^{-3} x 10^{-21} ergs/s/cm^2/Hz/sr. We conclude that UV radiative feedback in relic HII regions, although a complicated process, seems unlikely to have a major impact on the progress of cosmological reionization, provided that present estimates of the lifetime and luminosity of a PopIII star are accurate. More likely is that the build-up of the LWB ultimately governs the feedback strength until a persistent UV background can be established. [abridged

Andrei Mesinger; Greg L. Bryan; Zoltan Haiman



Paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and neuroblastoma in offspring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Investigators in Texas have reported an association between paternal employment in jobs linked with exposure to electromagnetic fields and risk of neuroblastoma in offspring. In an attempt to replicate this finding, the authors conducted a case-control study in Ohio. A total of 101 incident cases of neuroblastoma were identified through the Columbus (Ohio) Children's Hospital Tumor Registry. All cases were born sometime during the period 1942-1967. From a statewide roster of birth certificates, four controls were selected for each case, with individual matching on the case's year of birth, race, and sex, and the mother's county of residence at the time of the (index) child's birth. Multiple definitions were employed to infer the potential for paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields from the industry/occupation statements on the birth certificates. Case-control comparisons revealed adjusted odds ratios ranging in magnitude from 0.5 to 1.9. For two of the exposure definitions employed--both of which are similar to one used by the Texas investigators--the corresponding odds ratios were modestly elevated (odds ratios = 1.6 and 1.9). Notably, the magnitude of these odds ratios is not inconsistent with the Texas findings, where the exposure definition referred to yielded an odds ratio of 2.1. Because the point estimates in this study are imprecise, and because the biologic plausibility of the association is uncertain, the results reported here must be interpreted cautiously. However, the apparent consistency between two independent studies suggests that future evaluation of the association is warranted.

Wilkins, J.R. 3d.; Hundley, V.D. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA))



Disease Mutations in Rab7 Result in Unregulated Nucleotide Exchange and Inappropriate Activation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rab GTPases are molecular switches that orchestrate vesicular trafficking, maturation and fusion by cycling between an active, GTP-bound form, and an inactive, GDP-bound form. The activity cycle is coupled to GTP hydrolysis and is tightly controlled by regulatory proteins. Missense mutations of the GTPase Rab7 cause a dominantly inherited axonal degeneration known as Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2B through an unknown mechanism. We present the 2.8 A crystal structure of GTP-bound L129F mutant Rab7 which reveals normal conformations of the effector binding regions and catalytic site, but an alteration to the nucleotide binding pocket that is predicted to alter GTP binding. Through extensive biochemical analysis, we demonstrate that disease-associated mutations in Rab7 do not lead to an intrinsic GTPase defect, but permit unregulated nucleotide exchange leading to both excessive activation and hydrolysis-independent inactivation. Consistent with augmented activity, mutant Rab7 shows significantly enhanced interaction with a subset of effector proteins. In addition, dynamic imaging demonstrates that mutant Rab7 is abnormally retained on target membranes. However, we show that the increased activation of mutant Rab7 is counterbalanced by unregulated, GTP hydrolysis-independent membrane cycling. Notably, disease mutations are able to rescue the membrane cycling of a GTPase-deficient mutant. Thus, we demonstrate that disease mutations uncouple Rab7 from the spatial and temporal control normally imposed by regulatory proteins and cause disease not by a gain of novel toxic function, but by misregulation of native Rab7 activity.

B McCray; E Skordalakes; J Taylor



Strong reduction of V{sup 4+} amount in vanadium oxide/hexadecylamine nanotubes by doping with Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} ions: Electron paramagnetic resonance and magnetic studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work we present a complete characterization and magnetic study of vanadium oxide/hexadecylamine nanotubes (VO{sub x}/Hexa NT's) doped with Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} ions. The morphology of the NT's has been characterized by transmission electron microscopy, while the metallic elements have been quantified by the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. The static and dynamic magnetic properties were studied by collecting data of magnetization as a function of magnetic field and temperature and by electron paramagnetic resonance. At difference of the majority reports in the literature, we do not observe magnetic dimers in vanadium oxide nanotubes. Also, we observed that the incorporation of metallic ions (Co{sup 2+}, S = 3/2 and Ni{sup 2+}, S = 1) decreases notably the amount of V{sup 4+} ions in the system, from 14-16% (nondoped case) to 2%-4%, with respect to the total vanadium atoms (fact corroborated by XPS experiments) anyway preserving the tubular nanostructure. The method to decrease the amount of V{sup 4+} in the nanotubes improves considerably their potential technological applications as Li-ion batteries cathodes.

Saleta, M. E.; Troiani, H. E.; Ribeiro Guevara, S.; Ruano, G.; Sanchez, R. D. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, CNEA, (8400) S. C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Malta, M. [Depto. de Cs. Exatas e da Terra, Univ. do Estado da Bahia, Cabula Salvador CP 2555 (Brazil); Torresi, R. M. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidad de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo CP 26077, 05513-970 (Brazil)



Disease-associated changes in the expression of ion channels, ion receptors, ion exchangers and Ca{sup 2+}-handling proteins in heart hypertrophy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The molecular pathology of cardiac hypertrophy is multifactorial with transcript regulation of ion channels, ion exchangers and Ca{sup 2+}-handling proteins being speculative. We therefore investigated disease-associated changes in gene expression of various ion channels and their receptors as well as ion exchangers, cytoskeletal proteins and Ca{sup 2+}-handling proteins in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. We also compared experimental findings with results from hypertrophic human hearts, previously published (Borlak, J., and Thum, T., 2003. Hallmarks of ion channel gene expression in end-stage heart failure. FASEB J. 17, 1592-1608). We observed significant (P < 0.05) induction in transcript level of ATP-driven ion exchangers (Atp1A1, NCX-1, SERCA2a), ion channels (L-type Ca{sup 2+}-channel, K{sub ir}3.4, Na{sub v}1.5) and RyR-2 in hypertrophic hearts, while gene expression was repressed in diseased human hearts. Further, the genes coding for calreticulin and calmodulin, PMCA 1 and 4 as well as {alpha}-skeletal actin were significantly (P < 0.05) changed in hypertrophic human heart, but were unchanged in hypertrophic left ventricles of the rat heart. Notably, transcript level of {alpha}- and {beta}-MHC, calsequestrin, K{sub ir}6.1 (in the right ventricle only), phospholamban as well as troponin T were repressed in both diseased human and rat hearts. Our study enabled an identification of disease-associated candidate genes. Their regulation is likely to be the result of an imbalance between pressure load/stretch force and vascular tonus and the observed changes may provide a rational for the rhythm disturbances observed in patients with cardiac hypertrophy.

Zwadlo, Carolin [Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Center for Drug Research and Medical Biotechnology, Hannover (Germany); Borlak, Juergen [Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Center for Drug Research and Medical Biotechnology, Hannover (Germany)]. E-mail: borlak@item.fraunhofer.de



for the alkylation reaction. We (23) and others (24) observed similar carbon isotope effects in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- ination proceeds to yield the alkylation product and a cationic Ru-hydroxo complex 23. Notably, Ru for the regeneration of the Ru-alkenyl species 22. Extensive hydrogen- deuterium exchange between indene and 2 the catalytic conditions. Our catalytic alkylation method exhibits a broad substrate scope, as well as a high

Jacob, Daniel J.


Climate policies in a second-best world a case study on India Sandrine Mathya,*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to cut carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by a notable margin by 2020 from the 2005 level [...] We - A case study on India', Energy Policy 38:3, 1519-1528. Abstract The aim of this article is to analyze on the power sector sub- optimalities. To do so, we use IMACLIM-R, a dynamic recursive energy-economy model

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Atomic Beam Merging and Suppression of Alkali Contaminants in Multi Body High Power Targets: Design and Test of Target and Ion Source Prototypes at ISOLDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The next generation of high power ISOL-facilities will deliver intense and pure radioactive ion beams. Two key issues of developments mandatory for the forthcoming generation of ISOL target-ion source units are assessed and demonstrated in this thesis. The design and production of target and ion-source prototypes is described and dedicated measurements at ISOLDE-CERN of their radioisotope yields are analyzed. The purity of short lived or rare radioisotopes suffer from isobaric contaminants, notably alkalis which are highly volatile and easily ionized elements. Therefore, relying on their chemical nature, temperature controlled transfer lines were equipped with a tube of quartz that aimed at trapping these unwanted elements before they reached the ion source. The successful application yields high alkali-suppression factors for several elements (ie: 80, 82mRb, 126, 142Cs, 8Li, 46K, 25Na, 114In, 77Ga, 95, 96Sr) for quartz temperatures between 300C and 1100C. The enthalpies of adsorption on quartz were measu...

Bouquerel, Elian J A; Lettry, J; Stora, T



Stochastic Acceleration in the Galactic Center HESS Source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stochastic acceleration of electrons interacting resonantly with a turbulent magnetic field in a small accretion torus appears to be the likely mechanism responsible for much of Sagittarius A*'s millimeter and shorter wavelength spectrum. The longer wavelength radiation is produced at larger radii by electrons either diffusing from smaller scales or accelerated in situ. An important prediction of this model is the ejection of a significant flux of relativistic protons from a magnetic-field-dominated acceleration site into the wind-shocked medium surrounding the black hole. Recently, several air Cerenkov telescopes, notably HESS, have detected TeV emission from the Galactic center, with characteristics hinting at a p-p-induced pion decay process for the \\gamma-ray emission. Given (1) the size of this acceleration region measured in the radio band and (2) the wind-injected ISM mapped with Chandra using the diffuse X-rays, it is feasible to test the idea that protons accelerated within \\~20 Schwarzschild radii of the black hole produce the TeV emission farther out. We show a fraction of TeV protons scattering about once within ~3 pc of Sagittarius A* and the proton power (~10^37 erg s^-1) produced in concert with the 7 mm radio emission matches the TeV luminosity well. This model explains why the TeV source does not vary on a timescale of a year or less. The particle cascade generated by the p-p scatterings also produces bremsstrahlung, inverse Compton, and synchrotron emission at longer wavelengths from secondary particles. We compare these with current measurements and demonstrate that GLAST will detect this source during its one-year all-sky survey.

Siming Liu; Fulvio Melia; Vahe Petrosian; Marco Fatuzzo



Alternative materials to cadmium for neutron absorbers in safeguards applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cadmium is increasingly difficult to use in safeguards applications because of rising cost and increased safety regulations. This work examines the properties of two materials produced by Ceradyne, inc. that present alternatives to cadmium for neutron shielding. The first is an aluminum metal doped with boron and the second is a boron carbide powder, compressed into a ceramic. Both are enriched in the {sup 10}B isotope. Two sheets of boron doped aluminum (1.1 mm and 5.2mm thick) and one sheet of boron carbide (8.5mm thick) were provided by Ceradyne for testing. An experiment was designed to test the neutron absorption capabilities of these three sheets against two different thicknesses of cadmium (0.6mm and 1.6mm thick). The thinner piece of aluminum boron alloy (1.1mm) performed as well as the cadmium pieces at absorbing neutrons. The thicker aluminum-boron plate provided more shielding than the cadmium sheets and the boron carbide performed best by a relatively large margin. Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) transport code modeling of the experiment was performed to provide validaLed computational tools for predicting the behavior of systems in which these materials may be incorporated as alternatives to cadmium. MCNPX calculations predict that approximately 0.17mm of the boron carbide is equivalent to 0.6mm of cadmium. There are drawbacks to these materials that need to be noted when considering using them as replacements for cadmium. Notably, they may need to be thicker than cadmium, and are not malleable, requiring machining to fit any curved forms.

Freeman, Corey R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Geist, William H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; West, James D [Los Alamos National Laboratory



Genetic ablation and short-duration inhibition of lipoxygenase results in increased macroautophagy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) is involved in organelle homeostasis by degrading mitochondria in maturing red blood cells and by eliminating excess peroxisomes in liver. Furthermore, 12/15-LOX contributes to diseases by exacerbating oxidative stress-related injury, notably in stroke. Nonetheless, it is unclear what the consequences are of abolishing 12/15-LOX activity. Mice in which the alox15 gene has been ablated do not show an obvious phenotype, and LOX enzyme inhibition is not overtly detrimental. We show here that liver histology is also unremarkable. However, electron microscopy demonstrated that 12/15-LOX knockout surprisingly leads to increased macroautophagy in the liver. Not only macroautophagy but also mitophagy and pexophagy were increased in hepatocytes, which otherwise showed unaltered fine structure and organelle morphology. These findings were substantiated by immunofluorescence showing significantly increased number of LC3 puncta and by Western blotting demonstrating a significant increase for LC3-II protein in both liver and brain homogenates of 12/15-LOX knockout mice. Inhibition of 12/15-LOX activity by treatment with four structurally different inhibitors had similar effects in cultured HepG2 hepatoma cells and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with significantly increased autophagy discernable already after 2 hours. Hence, our study reveals a link between ablation or inhibition of 12/15-LOX and stimulation of macroautophagy. The enhanced macroautophagy may be related to the known tissue-protective effects of LOX ablation or inhibition under various diseased conditions caused by oxidative stress and ischemia. This could provide an important cleaning mechanism of cells and tissues to prevent accumulation of damaged mitochondria and other cellular components. - Highlights: A relationship between lipoxygenases and autophagy is disclosed. 12/15-lipoxygenase knockout increases autophagy in mice liver and brain. Lipoxygenase inhibition boosts autophagy in human hepatoma and neuroblastoma cells. Lipoxygenase knockout or inhibition triggers selective autophagy.

Jang, Insook; Park, Sujin; Cho, Jin Won [Department of Integrated OMICS for Biomedical Science, WCU Program of Graduate School, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Yigitkanli, Kazim; Leyen, Klaus van [Neuroprotection Research Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129 (United States); Roth, Jrgen, E-mail: jurgen.roth@bluewin.ch [Department of Integrated OMICS for Biomedical Science, WCU Program of Graduate School, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)


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Transmission grid access and pricing in Norway, Spain, and California: A comparative study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The openness of the transmission grid and the incentives given by transmission pricing form the foundation for retail and wholesale competition in the electricity market. The deregulated markets of Norway, Spain, and California all have introduced retail access and wholesale competition, although with different approaches to pricing of transmission grid services. This paper will briefly describe the three different solutions, and discuss some of their implications. Of the three electricity systems, Norway was the first to open the grid to competition in electricity trade. The Norwegian Energy Law of 1990 introduced open competition to wholesale and retail trade starting January 1991. In Spain, the Electricity Law of 1997 came into force early in 1998. Wholesale and retail markets in California were opened for competition on April 1, 1998, following the passage of Assembly Bill 1890, in August 1996. Introducing competition in electricity markets also implies introducing Third Party Access to the transmission grid. All potential competitors have to be given access to the grid in order to compete, no matter who owns the actual wires. This principle raises several challenges, notably, how to price transmission services. Who is to pay for which transmission services? The Norwegian grid is divided into three levels depending on its function. The transmission grid includes all parts of the national grid having a transmission function, meaning that some lower voltage levels also are included. In Spain, the definition of the transmission grid is similar, including the 400 kV and 220 kV national grid as well as lower voltage installations that could affect transmission operation or generation dispatch. For historic reasons, wholesale electricity transactions in the US are regulated by the federal government through the FERC. However, operations of utility systems within one state fall primarily under state jurisdiction. Because the utility systems in California generally are large and exchanges between them limited, the role of FERC was small prior to restructuring, although the state is a large importer of power.

Gronli, H.; Gomez San Ramon, T.; Marnay, C.



Radar range measurements in the atmosphere.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The earth's atmosphere affects the velocity of propagation of microwave signals. This imparts a range error to radar range measurements that assume the typical simplistic model for propagation velocity. This range error is a function of atmospheric constituents, such as water vapor, as well as the geometry of the radar data collection, notably altitude and range. Models are presented for calculating atmospheric effects on radar range measurements, and compared against more elaborate atmospheric models.

Doerry, Armin Walter



Particulate matter chemistry and dynamics in the Twilight Zone at VERTIGO ALOHA and K2 Sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding particle dynamics in the 'Twilight Zone' is critical to prediction of the ocean's carbon cycle. As part of the VERTIGO (VERtical Transformations In the Global Ocean) project, this rarely sampled regime extending from the base of the euphotic layer to 1000 m, was characterized by double-paired day/night Multiple Unit Large Volume in-situ Filtration System (MULVFS) deployments and by {approx}100 high-frequency CTD/transmissometer/turbidity sensor profiles. VERTIGO studies lasting three weeks, contrasted oligotrophic station ALOHA (22.75{sup o}N 158{sup o}W), sampled in June-July 2004, with a biologically productive location (47{sup o}N 161{sup o}E) near station K2 in the Oyashio, occupied July-August 2005. Profiles of major and minor particulate components (C{sub org}, N, P, Ca, Si, Sr, Ba, Mn) in <1, 1-51, and >51 {micro}m size fractions, in-water optics, neutrally buoyant sediment trap (NBST) fluxes, and zooplankton data were intercompared. MULVFS total C{sub org} and C-Star particle beam attenuation coefficient (C{sub P}) were consistently related at both sites with a 27 {micro}M m{sup -1} conversion factor. 26 At K2, C{sub P} profiles further showed a multitude of transient spikes throughout the water column and spike abundance profiles closely paralleled the double peaked abundance profiles of zooplankton. Also at K2, copepods contributed {approx}40% and 10%, night and day, respectively to >51 {micro}m C{sub org} of MULVFS samples in the mixed layer, but few copepods were collected in deeper waters; however, non-swimming radiolarians were quantitatively sampled. A recent hypothesis regarding POC differences between pumps and bottles is examined in light of these results. Particulate >51 {micro}m C{sub org}, N, and P at both ALOHA and K2 showed strong attenuation with depth at both sites. Notable at ALOHA were unusually high levels of >51 {micro}m Sr (up to 4 nM) in the mixed layer, a reflection of high abundances of SrSO{sub 4} precipitating Acantharia. Notable at K2 were major changes in water column inventories of many particulate components to 700 m over 10 days. Carbon mass balance, with the consideration of particle inventory changes included, indicated that over 98% and 96% of primary produced C{sub org} was remineralized shallower than 500 m at ALOHA and K2, respectively. Production of CaCO3 was estimated to be {approx}0.06, 0.89 and 0.02 mmols m{sup -2} d{sup -1} at ALOHA and at K2 during two separate week long study periods, respectively. Similarly, Si production was estimated to be {approx}0.08, 10.7, and 4.2 mols m{sup -2} d{sup -1}. An estimated 50% and 65% of produced Si was remineralized by 500m at ALOHA and K2, respectively. Little carbonate dissolution was seen in the upper 500 m at ALOHA, a reflection of 400% super saturation of surface waters and the 700 m deep saturation horizon. Over 92% of produced CaCO{sub 3} was dissolved shallower than 500 m at K2 and biological enhancement of dissolution was readily apparent in waters above the 200 m calcite saturation horizon.

Bishop, James K.B.; Wood, T.J.



Quasiparticle band structure and density-functional theory: Single-particle excitations and band gaps in lattice models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ARTICLES Quasiparticle band structure and density-functional theory: Single-particle excitations-particle eigenvalues. Without rigorous basis even for the exact density-functional theory , these are often taken, eigenvalues obtained from density-functional theory DFT , and those from a corresponding LDA. Notable among

Hess, Daryl W.


Studies in Geology 56 Copyright 2007 by The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. DOI: 10.1306/1240924St563265  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(reservoir facies), as well as muddy-matrix conglomerate (nonreservoir facies). Alternating intervals of the sandy and muddy deposits are roughly correlatable across the outcrop, partitioning the sedimentary body smaller, more dilute gravity flows that passed through the channel. They are particularly notable


Estimating future global per capita water availability based on changes in climate and population  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Human populations are profoundly affected by water stress, or the lack of sufficient per capita available freshwater. Water stress can result from overuse of available freshwater resources or from a reduction in the amount of available water due to decreases in rainfall and stored water supplies. Analyzing the interrelationship between human populations and water availability is complicated by the uncertainties associated with climate change projections and population projections. We present a simple methodology developed to integrate disparate climate and population data sources and develop first-order per capita water availability projections at the global scale. Simulations from the coupled land-ocean-atmosphere Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) forced with a range of hypothetical greenhouse gas emissions scenarios are used to project grid-based changes in precipitation minus evapotranspiration as proxies for changes in runoff, or fresh water supply. Population growth changes according to several Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) storylines are used as proxies for changes in fresh water demand by 2025, 2050 and 2100. These freshwater supply and demand projections are then combined to yield estimates of per capita water availability aggregated by watershed and political unit. Results suggest that important insights might be extracted from the use of the process developed here, notably including the identification of the globe s most vulnerable regions in need of more detailed analysis and the relative importance of population growth versus climate change in in altering future freshwater supplies. However, these are only exemplary insights and, as such, could be considered hypotheses that should be rigorously tested with multiple climate models, multiple observational climate datasets, and more comprehensive population change storylines.

Parish, Esther S [ORNL; Kodra, Evan [Northeastern University; Ganguly, Auroop R [Northeastern University; Steinhaeuser, Karsten [University of Minnesota



Colloquium: Majorana Fermions in nuclear, particle and solid-state physics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ettore Majorana (1906-1938) disappeared while traveling by ship from Palermo to Naples in 1938. His fate has never been fully resolved and several articles have been written that explore the mystery itself. His demise intrigues us still today because of his seminal work, published the previous year, that established symmetric solutions to the Dirac equation that describe a fermionic particle that is its own anti-particle. This work has long had a significant impact in neutrino physics, where this fundamental question regarding the particle remains unanswered. But the formalism he developed has found many uses as there are now a number of candidate spin-1/2 neutral particles that may be truly neutral with no quantum number to distinguish them from their anti-particles. If such particles exist, they will influence many areas of nuclear and particle physics. Most notably the process of neutrinoless double beta decay can only exist if neutrinos are massive Majorana particles. Hence, many efforts to search for this process are underway. Majorana's influence doesn't stop with particle physics, however, even though that was his original consideration. The equations he derived also arise in solid state physics where they describe electronic states in materials with superconducting order. Of special interest here is the class of solutions of the Majorana equation in one and two spatial dimensions at exactly zero energy. These Majorana zero modes are endowed with some remarkable physical properties that may lead to advances in quantum computing and, in fact, there is evidence that they have been experimentally observed. This review first summarizes the basics of Majorana's theory and its implications. It then provides an overview of the rich experimental programs trying to find a fermion that is its own anti-particle in nuclear, particle, and solid state physics.

S. R. Elliott; M. Franz



Using quantum dots to tag subsurface damage in lapped and polished glass samples  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Grinding, lapping, and polishing are finishing processes used to achieve critical surface parameters in a variety of precision optical and electronic components. As these processes remove material from the surface through mechanical and chemical interactions, they may induce a damaged layer of cracks, voids, and stressed material below the surface. This subsurface damage (SSD) can degrade the performance of a final product by creating optical aberrations due to diffraction, premature failure in oscillating components, and a reduction in the laser induced damage threshold of high energy optics. As these defects lie beneath the surface, they are difficult to detect, and while many methods are available to detect SSD, they can have notable limitations regarding sample size and type, preparation time, or can be destructive in nature. The authors tested a nondestructive method for assessing SSD that consisted of tagging the abrasive slurries used in lapping and polishing with quantum dots (nano-sized fluorescent particles). Subsequent detection of fluorescence on the processed surface is hypothesized to indicate SSD. Quantum dots that were introduced to glass surfaces during the lapping process were retained through subsequent polishing and cleaning processes. The quantum dots were successfully imaged by both wide field and confocal fluorescence microscopy techniques. The detected fluorescence highlighted features that were not observable with optical or interferometric microscopy. Atomic force microscopy and additional confocal microscope analysis indicate that the dots are firmly embedded in the surface but do not appear to travel deep into fractures beneath the surface. Etching of the samples exhibiting fluorescence confirmed that SSD existed. SSD-free samples exposed to quantum dots did not retain the dots in their surfaces, even when polished in the presence of quantum dots.

Williams, Wesley B.; Mullany, Brigid A.; Parker, Wesley C.; Moyer, Patrick J.; Randles, Mark H.



Self- and zinc diffusion in gallium antimonide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The technological age has in large part been driven by the applications of semiconductors, and most notably by silicon. Our lives have been thoroughly changed by devices using the broad range of semiconductor technology developed over the past forty years. Much of the technological development has its foundation in research carried out on the different semiconductors whose properties can be exploited to make transistors, lasers, and many other devices. While the technological focus has largely been on silicon, many other semiconductor systems have applications in industry and offer formidable academic challenges. Diffusion studies belong to the most basic studies in semiconductors, important from both an application as well as research standpoint. Diffusion processes govern the junctions formed for device applications. As the device dimensions are decreased and the dopant concentrations increased, keeping pace with Moore's Law, a deeper understanding of diffusion is necessary to establish and maintain the sharp dopant profiles engineered for optimal device performance. From an academic viewpoint, diffusion in semiconductors allows for the study of point defects. Very few techniques exist which allow for the extraction of as much information of their properties. This study focuses on diffusion in the semiconductor gallium antimonide (GaSb). As will become clear, this compound semiconductor proves to be a powerful one for investigating both self- and foreign atom diffusion. While the results have direct applications for work on GaSb devices, the results should also be taken in the broader context of III-V semiconductors. Results here can be compared and contrasted to results in systems such as GaAs and even GaN, indicating trends within this common group of semiconductors. The results also have direct importance for ternary and quaternary semiconductor systems used in devices such as high speed InP/GaAsSb/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors (DHBT) [Dvorak, (2001)]. Many of the findings which will be reported here were previously published in three journal articles. Hartmut Bracht was the lead author on two articles on self-diffusion studies in GaSb [Bracht, (2001), (2000)], while this report's author was the lead author on Zn diffusion results [Nicols, (2001)]. Much of the information contained herein can be found in those articles, but a more detailed treatment is presented here.

Nicols, Samuel Piers



The Distribution and Flux of Fish in the Forebay of The Dalles Dam in 2003  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In spring and summer 2003, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory led a team that conducted mobile and fixed hydroacoustic surveys in the forebay of The Dalles Dam for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - Portland District, for the Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program. The surveys provided information on the distribution and movement of smolt-sized fish relative to ambient factors such as flow, bathymetry, or diel cycle in the forebay at The Dalles Dam. This information is intended to provide baseline data for the development of a surface bypass alternative for juvenile salmon at The Dalles Dam. We sampled the forebay of The Dallas Dam one day and night each week for six weeks in the spring and another six weeks in the summer. In general, during the day in the spring, the greatest densities of smolt-sized fish were observed in the thalweg of the main channel from the Washington bank, to the east side of the powerhouse, along the powerhouse, and concentrated in the areas next to the sluiceway. Fish density was lower on the Washington side of the river and west of mid-powerhouse (north spillway side). The spring night distribution was similar, with a few notable differences. The density of fish was high on the east side of the powerhouse and along the face of the powerhouse, and more fish were detected on the north spillway side. The distribution of sub-yearling sized fish in summer followed the same general patterns as spring, except that summer fish had a greater presence on the east side of the powerhouse and on the north spillway side. The vertical distribution of fish was also determined. In spring 80% of fish were above 5.6 m of depth during the day and above 4.7 m in the night. The summer fish were similarly distributed in the day and night with 80% of the fish in the upper 4.5 m and 4.7 m of the water column respectively. In general the smolt-sized fish were distributed deeper in the water column in the center of the channel than near the edges. The net movement of smolt-sized fish in the forebay from fixed-point samples appeared to be in a circular pattern, with fish moving with the flow and channel upstream of the powerhouse, and upstream at points near the powerhouse. The rate of fish movement (flux) was greatest at the east end of the powerhouse and on the upstream-north side of the channel.

Faber, Derrek M.; Hanks, Michael E.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Skalski, John R.; Dillingham, Peter W.



Temporally, spatially, and spectrally resolved barrier discharge produced in trapped helium gas at atmospheric pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental study was made on induced effects by trapped helium gas in the pulsed positive dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operating in symmetrical electrode configuration at atmospheric pressure. Using fast photography technique and electrical measurements, the differences in the discharge regimes between the stationary and the flowing helium are investigated. It was shown experimentally that the trapped gas atmosphere (TGA) has notable impact on the barrier discharge regime compared with the influence of the flowing gas atmosphere. According to our experimental results, the DBD discharge produced in trapped helium gas can be categorized as a multi-glow (pseudo-glow) discharge, each discharge working in the sub-normal glow regime. This conclusion is made by considering the duration of current pulse (few {mu}s), their maximum values (tens of mA), the presence of negative slope on the voltage-current characteristic, and the spatio-temporal evolution of the most representative excited species in the discharge gap. The paper focuses on the space-time distribution of the active species with a view to better understand the pseudo-glow discharge mechanism. The physical basis for these effects was suggested. A transition to filamentary discharge is suppressed in TGA mode due to the formation of supplementary source of seed electrons by surface processes (by desorption of electrons due to vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules, originated from barriers surfaces) rather than volume processes (by enhanced Penning ionisation). Finally, we show that the pseudo-glow discharge can be generated by working gas trapping only; maintaining unchanged all the electrical and constructive parameters.

Chiper, Alina Silvia; Popa, Gheorghe [Faculty of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, 700506 Iasi (Romania)] [Faculty of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, 700506 Iasi (Romania)



Palynologic and petrographic cycles in the McLeansboro Group, Western Kentucky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The McLeansboro Group in the Western Kentucky coal field spans the upper Desmoinesian and the Missourian and Virgilian series. Extensive drilling has demonstrated the lateral continuity of major and minor beds in the group, making it possible to study vertical and lateral changes in palynology and petrology. The Desmoinesian (Westphalian D) Baker (No. 13) and Wheatcroft (No. 13a) coal beds were included in the study but the primary emphasis is on the Missourian and Virgilian (Stephanian) coals. Patoka fm (lower Missourian) coals are dominated by tree fern spores with lesser sphenopsids, ferns, and cordaites. This is in marked contrast to the arborescent lycopod-dominated Desmoinesian coals. Only the No. 15 coal bed exceeds 80% vitrinite with the No. 16 coal bed vitrinite content of < 72% being the lowest of any Western Kentucky humic coal. The Bond Fm. (upper Missourian) represents a distinct floristic cycle with a greater diversity of plant groups including herbaceous lycopods, relatively minor contributors to the Patoka coals. The coals generally exceed 80% vitrinite. The Mattoon Fm. (Virgilian) coals have a variety of polynomorph assemblages. The low-sulfur Geiger Lake coal bed is dominated by tree ferns with important contributions from ferns and sphenopsids. Similar to the underlying tree fern interval, vitrinite contents are <80%. The uppermost Mattoon coals are dominated by ferns and are notable in being the only >1 m thick coals in the Stephanian portion of the section, with the top coal being 4.3 m thick. The uppermost coals are generally > 80% vitrinite. The palynologic/petrographic cycles appear to represent fluctuating dry (low vitrinite) and wet intervals within the Missourian/Virgilian which itself was drier than the Desmoinesian.

Hower, J.C. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research); Helfrich, C.T. (Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond, KY (United States)); Williams, D.A. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Henderson, KY (United States))



New Mexico's energy resources '81. Annual report of Bureau of Geology in the Mining and Minerals Division of New Mexico Energy and Minerals Department  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although production of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ declined only slightly in 1980, New Mexico's share of domestic production has declined from 48% in 1976 to 35% in 1980. Production projections indicate a continued decline in 1981 and lower production until at least 1984. New Mexico has 41% of total domestic reserves producible in the $50-per-lb cost category. In keeping with the anticipated steady depletion of reserves, production of crude oil in New Mexico was 69.9 million bls, a 6.3% decline in production from 1979. Condensate production of 5.4 million bbls in 1980, however, represented an increase of 7% from 1979 production. Although natural gas production was the lowest since 1970 and declined by 2.6% from 1979 production, 1980 was the 15th year that production exceeded 1 trillion cu ft. Despite declines in production, the valuation of oil and gas production has increased significantly with oil sales doubling from the previous year and gas sales increasing by $409 million because of higher prices. Reserves have been estimated to be 959 million bbls of crude oil and 17.667 trillion cu ft of natural gas. Production of 19.5 million short tons of coal in 1980 represented a 33% increase over 1979 production and an increase of 157% since 1970. Coal resources in New Mexico are estimated to be 180.79 billion short tons, and production is projected to incease to 39.61 million tons in 1985 and 67.53 million tons in 1990. The most notable developments in geothermal energy have been in technical advances in drilling, testing, and applications, especially in the area of hot dry rock systems. The US Bureau of Land Management has issued 113 geothermal leases that remain active. Recent geothermal exploration activity has been detailed for 21 companies.

Arnold, E.C.; Hill, J.M. (comps.)



Quantification of total mercury in liver and heart tissue of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) from Alaska USA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study quantified the Hg levels in the liver (n=98) and heart (n=43) tissues of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) (n=102) harvested from Prince William Sound and Kodiak Island Alaska. Mercury tissue dry weight (dw) concentrations in the liver ranged from 1.7 to 393 ppm dw, and in the heart from 0.19 to 4.99 ppm dw. Results of this study indicate liver and heart tissues' Hg ppm dw concentrations significantly increase with age. Male Harbor Seals bioaccumulated Hg in both their liver and heart tissues at a significantly faster rate than females. The liver Hg bioaccumulation rates between the harvest locations Kodiak Island and Prince William Sound were not found to be significantly different. On adsorption Hg is transported throughout the Harbor Seal's body with the partition coefficient higher for the liver than the heart. No significant differences in the bio-distribution (liver:heart Hg ppm dw ratios (n=38)) values were found with respect to either age, sex or geographic harvest location. In this study the age at which Hg liver and heart bioaccumulation levels become significantly distinct in male and female Harbor Seals were identified through a Tukey's analysis. Of notably concern to human health was a male Harbor Seal's liver tissue harvested from Kodiak Island region. Mercury accumulation in this sample tissue was determined through a Q-test to be an outlier, having far higher Hg concentrarion (liver 392 Hg ppm dw) than the general population sampled. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury accumulation in the liver and heart of seals exceed food safety guidelines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accumulation rate is greater in males than females with age. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Liver mercury accumulation is greater than in the heart tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury determination by USA EPA Method 7473 using thermal decomposition.

Marino, Kady B. [Department of Chemistry, Roger Williams University, Bristol, RI 02809 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Roger Williams University, Bristol, RI 02809 (United States); Hoover-Miller, Anne; Conlon, Suzanne; Prewitt, Jill [Alaska SeaLife Center, City of Seward, AK (United States)] [Alaska SeaLife Center, City of Seward, AK (United States); O'Shea, Stephen K., E-mail: soshea@rwu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Roger Williams University, Bristol, RI 02809 (United States)



Recent Improvements in Interface Management for Hanford's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - 13263  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for management and completion of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, which includes the Hanford Site tank farms operations and the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The RPP mission is to store, retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste; store and dispose of treated wastes; and close the tank farm waste management areas and treatment facilities by 2047. The WTP is currently being designed and constructed by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) for DOE-ORP. BNI relies on a number of technical services from other Hanford contractors for WTP's construction and commissioning. These same services will be required of the future WTP operations contractor. Partly in response to a DNFSB recommendation, the WTP interface management process managing these technical services has recently been improved through changes in organization and issue management. The changes are documented in an Interface Management Plan. The organizational improvement is embodied in the One System Integrated Project Team that was formed by integrating WTP and tank farms staff representing interfacing functional areas into a single organization. A number of improvements were made to the issue management process but most notable was the formal appointment of technical, regulatory and safety subject matter experts to ensure accurate identification of issues and open items. Ten of the thirteen active WTP Interface Control Documents have been revised in 2012 using the improved process with the remaining three in progress. The value of the process improvements is reflected by the ability to issue these documents on schedule and accurately identify technical, regulatory and safety issues and open items. (authors)

Arm, Stuart T.; Van Meighem, Jeffery S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)] [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); Duncan, Garth M.; Pell, Michael J. [Bechtel National Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)] [Bechtel National Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); Harrington, Christopher C. [Department of Energy - Office of River Protection, 2440 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)] [Department of Energy - Office of River Protection, 2440 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)



Kinetic theory of quasi-stationary collisionless axisymmetric plasmas in the presence of strong rotation phenomena  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The problem of formulating a kinetic treatment for quasi-stationary collisionless plasmas in axisymmetric systems subject to the possibly independent presence of local strong velocity-shear and supersonic rotation velocities is posed. The theory is developed in the framework of the Vlasov-Maxwell description for multi-species non-relativistic plasmas. Applications to astrophysical accretion discs arising around compact objects and to plasmas in laboratory devices are considered. Explicit solutions for the equilibrium kinetic distribution function (KDF) are constructed based on the identification of the relevant particle adiabatic invariants. These are shown to be expressed in terms of generalized non-isotropic Gaussian distributions. A suitable perturbative theory is then developed which allows for the treatment of non-uniform strong velocity-shear/supersonic plasmas. This yields a series representation for the equilibrium KDF in which the leading-order term depends on both a finite set of fluid fields as well as on the gradients of an appropriate rotational frequency. Constitutive equations for the fluid number density, flow velocity, and pressure tensor are explicitly calculated. As a notable outcome, the discovery of a new mechanism for generating temperature and pressure anisotropies is pointed out, which represents a characteristic feature of plasmas considered here. This is shown to arise as a consequence of the canonical momentum conservation and to contribute to the occurrence of temperature anisotropy in combination with the adiabatic conservation of the particle magnetic moment. The physical relevance of the result and the implications of the kinetic solution for the self-generation of quasi-stationary electrostatic and magnetic fields through a kinetic dynamo are discussed.

Cremaschini, Claudio; Stuchlk, Zden?k [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezru?ovo nm.13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)] [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezru?ovo nm.13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic); Tessarotto, Massimo [Department of Mathematics and Geosciences, University of Trieste, Via Valerio 12, 34127 Trieste (Italy)] [Department of Mathematics and Geosciences, University of Trieste, Via Valerio 12, 34127 Trieste (Italy)



A phenomenological approach to normal form modeling: a case study in laser induced nematodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An experimental setting for the polarimetric study of optically induced dynamical behavior in nematic liquid crystal films has allowed to identify most notably some behavior which was recognized as gluing bifurcations leading to chaos. This analysis of the data used a comparison with a model for the transition to chaos via gluing bifurcations in optically excited nematic liquid crystals previously proposed by G. Demeter and L. Kramer. The model of these last authors, proposed about twenty years before, does not have the central symmetry which one would expect for minimal dimensional models for chaos in nematics in view of the time series. What we show here is that the simplest truncated normal forms for gluing, with the appropriate symmetry and minimal dimension, do exhibit time signals that are embarrassingly similar to the ones found using the above mentioned experimental settings. The gluing bifurcation scenario itself is only visible in limited parameter ranges and substantial aspect of the chaos that can be observed is due to other factors. First, out of the immediate neighborhood of the homoclinic curve, nonlinearity can produce expansion leading to chaos when combined with the recurrence induced by the homoclinic behavior. Also, pairs of symmetric homoclinic orbits create extreme sensitivity to noise, so that when the noiseless approach contains a rich behavior, minute noise can transform the complex damping into sustained chaos. Leonid Shil'nikov taught us that combining global considerations and local spectral analysis near critical points is crucial to understand the phenomenology associated to homoclinic bifurcations. Here this helps us construct a phenomenological approach to modeling experiments in nonlinear dissipative contexts.

C. Toniolo; G. Russo; S. Residori; C. Tresser



Post-Remediation Biomonitoring of Pesticides and Other Contaminants in Marine Waters and Sediment Near the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report, PNNL-1 3059 Rev. 1, was published in July 2000 and replaces PNNL-1 3059 which is dated October 1999. The revision corrects tissue concentration units that were reported as dry weight but were actually wet weight, and updates conclusions based on the correct reporting units. Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in February 1999 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for Year 2 of post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathom Site. Dieldrin and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in water and total DDT in tissue were compared with Year 1 of post-remediation monitoring, and with preremediation data from the California State Mussel Watch program (tissue s) and the Ecological Risk Assessment for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site (tissues and water). Mussel tissues were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), which were detected in sediment samples. Chlorinated pesticide concentrations in water samples were similar to preremediation levels and did not meet remediation goals. Mean dieldrin concentrations in water ranged from 0.62 ng/L to 12.5 ng/L and were higher than the remediation goal (0.14 ng/L) at all stations. Mean total DDT concentrations in water ranged from 14.4 ng/L to 62.3 ng/L and exceeded the remediation goal (0.59 ng/L) at all stations. The highest concentrations of both DDT and dieldrin were found at the Lauritzen Canal/End station. Despite exceedence of the remediation goals, chlorinated pesticide concentrations in Lauritzen Canal water samples were notably lower in 1999 than in 1998. PCBS were not detected in water samples in 1999.

LD Antrim; NP Kohn



Examination of the effects of arsenic on glucose homeostasis in cell culture and animal studies: Development of a mouse model for arsenic-induced diabetes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Previous epidemiologic studies found increased prevalences of type 2 diabetes mellitus in populations exposed to high levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in drinking water. Although results of epidemiologic studies in low-exposure areas or occupational settings have been inconclusive, laboratory research has shown that exposures to iAs can produce effects that are consistent with type 2 diabetes. The current paper reviews the results of laboratory studies that examined the effects of iAs on glucose metabolism and describes new experiments in which the diabetogenic effects of iAs exposure were reproduced in a mouse model. Here, weanling male C57BL/6 mice drank deionized water with or without the addition of arsenite (25 or 50 ppm As) for 8 weeks. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests revealed impaired glucose tolerance in mice exposed to 50 ppm As, but not to 25 ppm As. Exposure to 25 and 50 ppm As in drinking-water resulted in proportional increases in the concentration of iAs and its metabolites in the liver and in organs targeted by type 2 diabetes, including pancreas, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Dimethylarsenic was the predominant form of As in the tissues of mice in both 25 and 50 ppm groups. Notably, the average concentration of total speciated arsenic in livers from mice in the 50 ppm group was comparable to the highest concentration of total arsenic reported in the livers of Bangladeshi residents who had consumed water with an order of magnitude lower level of iAs. These data suggest that mice are less susceptible than humans to the diabetogenic effects of chronic exposure to iAs due to a more efficient clearance of iAs or its metabolites from target tissues.

Paul, David S. [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Hernandez-Zavala, Araceli [Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma, and Lung Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Walton, Felecia S. [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Adair, Blakely M. [Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Dedina, Jiri; Matousek, Tomas [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Laboratory of Trace Element Analysis, Videnska 1083, CZ-142 20 Prague (Czech Republic); Styblo, Miroslav [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma, and Lung Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)], E-mail: styblo@med.unc.edu



Osteoradionecrosis and Radiation Dose to the Mandible in Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To determine the association between radiation doses delivered to the mandible and the occurrence of osteoradionecrosis (ORN). Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 402 oropharyngeal cancer patients with stage T1 or T2 disease treated with definitive radiation between January 2000 and October 2008 for the occurrence of ORN. Demographic and treatment variables were compared between patients with ORN and those without. To examine the dosimetric relationship further, a nested case-control comparison was performed. One to 2 ORN-free patients were selected to match each ORN patient by age, sex, radiation type, treatment year, and cancer subsite. Detailed radiation treatment plans for the ORN cases and matched controls were reviewed. Mann-Whitney test and conditional logistic regression were used to compare relative volumes of the mandible exposed to doses ranging from 10 Gy-60 Gy in 10-Gy increments. Results: In 30 patients (7.5%), ORN developed during a median follow-up time of 31 months, including 6 patients with grade 4 ORN that required major surgery. The median time to develop ORN was 8 months (range, 0-71 months). Detailed radiation treatment plans were available for 25 of the 30 ORN patients and 40 matched ORN-free patients. In the matched case-control analysis, there was a statistically significant difference between the volumes of mandible in the 2 groups receiving doses between 50 Gy (V50) and 60 Gy (V60). The most notable difference was seen at V50, with a P value of .02 in the multivariate model after adjustment for the matching variables and dental status (dentate or with extraction). Conclusions: V50 and V60 saw the most significant differences between the ORN group and the comparison group. Minimizing the percent mandibular volume exposed to 50 Gy may reduce ORN risk.

Tsai, Chiaojung Jillian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hofstede, Theresa M. [Department of Dental Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Dental Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Sturgis, Erich M. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Garden, Adam S., E-mail: agarden@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lindberg, Mary E. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wei Qingyi [Department of Epidemiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tucker, Susan L. [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dong Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)


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The ends of uncertainty: Air quality science and planning in Central California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air quality planning in Central California is complicated and controversial despite millions of dollars invested to improve scientific understanding. This research describes and critiques the use of photochemical air quality simulation modeling studies in planning to attain standards for ground-level ozone in the San Francisco Bay Area and the San Joaquin Valley during the 1990's. Data are gathered through documents and interviews with planners, modelers, and policy-makers at public agencies and with representatives from the regulated and environmental communities. Interactions amongst organizations are diagramed to identify significant nodes of interaction. Dominant policy coalitions are described through narratives distinguished by their uses of and responses to uncertainty, their exposures to risks, and their responses to the principles of conservatism, civil duty, and caution. Policy narratives are delineated using aggregated respondent statements to describe and understand advocacy coalitions. I found that models impacted the planning process significantly, but were used not purely for their scientific capabilities. Modeling results provided justification for decisions based on other constraints and political considerations. Uncertainties were utilized opportunistically by stakeholders instead of managed explicitly. Ultimately, the process supported the partisan views of those in control of the modeling. Based on these findings, as well as a review of model uncertainty analysis capabilities, I recommend modifying the planning process to allow for the development and incorporation of uncertainty information, while addressing the need for inclusive and meaningful public participation. By documenting an actual air quality planning process these findings provide insights about the potential for using new scientific information and understanding to achieve environmental goals, most notably the analysis of uncertainties in modeling applications. Concurrently, needed uncertainty information is identified and capabilities to produce it are assessed. Practices to facilitate incorporation of uncertainty information are suggested based on research findings, as well as theory from the literatures of the policy sciences, decision sciences, science and technology studies, consensus-based and communicative planning, and modeling.

Fine, James



Stratigraphy and depositional environments of Fox Hills Formation in Williston basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fox Hills Formation (Maestrichtian), representing part of a regressive wedge deposited during the withdrawal of the sea from the Western Interior at the close of the Cretaceous, consists of marginal marine strata transitional between the offshore deposits of the underlying Pierre Shale and the terrestrial deltaic and coastal deposits of the overlying Hell Creek Formation. An investigation of outcrops of the Fox Hills Formation along the western and southern flanks of the Williston basin and study of over 300 oil and gas well logs from the central part of the basin indicate that the formation can be divided both stratigraphically and areally. Stratigraphically, the Fox Hills can be divided into lower and upper sequences; the lower includes the Trail City and Timber Lake Members, and the upper sequence includes the Colgate Member in the west and the Iron Lightning and Linton Members in the east. Areally, the formation can be divided into a northeastern and western part, where the strata are 30-45 m thick and are dominated by the lower sequence, and into a southeastern area where both the lower and upper sequences are well developed in a section 80-130 m thick. Typically, the lower Fox Hills consists of upward-coarsening shoreface or delta-front sequences containing hummocky bedding and a limited suite of trace fossils, most notably Ophiomorpha. In the southeast, however, these strata are dominated by bar complexes, oriented northeast-southwest, composed of cross-bedded medium to very fine-grained sand with abundant trace and body fossils. The upper Fox Hills represents a variety of shoreface, deltaic, and channel environments. The strata of the Fox Hills Formation exhibit facies similar to those reported for Upper Cretaceous gas reservoirs in the northern Great Plains.

Daly, D.J.



Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a two-programming hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is the first programming, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as the second programming. - Highlights: Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal livers glucose and lipid metabolism . Prenatal ethanol exposure cause the adaptive change of glucocorticoid-IGF1 axis.

Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Linlong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Universit, Facult de Mdicine, Vandoeuvre-ls-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)



Trajectories of change in sagebrush steppe vegetation communities in relation to multiple wildfires  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Repeated perturbations, both biotic and abiotic, can lead to fundamental changes in the nature of ecosystems including changes in state. Sagebrush-steppe communities provide important habitat for wildlife and grazing for livestock. Fire is an integral part of these systems, but there is concern that increased ignition frequencies and invasive species are fundamentally altering these systems. Despite these issues, the majority of studies of fire effects in Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis-dominated systems have focused on the effects of single burns. The Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE), in south-central Washington (U.S.A.), was one of the largest areas of continuous shrub-steppe habitat in the state until large wildfires burnt the majority of it in 2000 and 2007. We analysed data from permanent vegetation transects established in 1996 and resampled in 2002 and 2009. Our objective was to describe how the fires, and subsequent post-fire restoration efforts, affected communities successional pathways. Plant communities differed in response to repeated fire and restoration; these differences could largely be ascribed to the functional traits of the dominant species. Low elevation communities, previously dominated by obligate seeders, moved farthest from their initial composition and were dominated by weedy, early successional species in 2009. Higher elevation sites with resprouting shrubs, native bunchgrasses and few invasive species were generally more resilient to the effects of repeated disturbances. Shrub cover has been almost entirely removed from ALE, though there is evidence of recovery where communities were dominated by re-sprouters. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) dominance was reduced by herbicide application in areas where it was previously abundant but increased significantly in untreated areas. Several re-sprouting species, notably Phlox longifolia and Poa secunda, expanded remarkably following competitive release from shrub canopies and/or abundant cheatgrass. Our results suggest that community dynamics can be understood through a state-and-transition model with two axes (shrub/grass and native/invasive abundance), though such models also need to account for differences in plant functional traits and disturbance regimes. We use our results to develop an illustrative model that will be expanded with further research.

Davies, G. M.; Bakker, J. D.; Dettweiler-Robinson, E.; Dunwiddie, Peter W.; Hall, S. A.; Downs, Janelle L.; Evans, J.



Trends in robotics: A summary of the Department of Energy`s critical technology roadmap  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Technology roadmaps serve as pathways to the future. They call attention to future needs for research and development; provide a structure for organizing technology forecasts and programs; and help communicate technological needs and expectations among end users and the research and development (R and D) community. Critical Technology roadmaps, of which the Robotics and Intelligent Machines (RIM) Roadmap is one example, focus on enabling or cross-cutting technologies that address the needs of multiple US Department of Energy (DOE) offices. Critical Technology roadmaps must be responsive to mission needs of the offices; must clearly indicate how the science and technology can improve DOE capabilities; and must describe an aggressive vision for the future of the technology itself. The RIM Roadmap defines a DOE research and development path for the period beginning today, and continuing through the year 2020. Its purpose is to identify, select and develop objectives that will satisfy near- and long-term challenges posed by DOE`s mission objectives. If implemented, this roadmap will support DOE`s mission needs while simultaneously advancing the state-of-the-art of RIM. For the purposes of this document, RIM refers to systems composed of machines, sensors, computers and software that deliver processes to DOE operations. The RIM Roadmap describes how such systems will revolutionize DOE processes, most notably manufacturing, hazardous and remote operations, and monitoring and surveillance. The advances in DOE operations and RIM discussed in this document will be possible due to the developments in many other areas of science and technology, including computing, communication, electronics and micro-engineering. Modern software engineering techniques will permit the implementation of inherently safe RIM systems that will depend heavily on software.

Eicker, P.J.



Incorporating global warming risks in power sector planning: A case study of the New England region. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Growing international concern over the threat of global climate change has led to proposals to buy insurance against this threat by reducing emissions of carbon (short for carbon dioxide) and other greenhouse gases below current levels. Concern over these and other, non-climatic environmental effects of electricity generation has led a number of states to adopt or explore new mechanisms for incorporating environmental externalities in utility resource planning. For example, the New York and Massachusetts utility commissions have adopted monetized surcharges (or adders) to induce emission reductions of federally regulated air pollutants (notably, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulates) beyond federally mandated levels. These regulations also include preliminary estimates of the cost of reducing carbon emissions, for which no federal regulations exist at this time. Within New England, regulators and utilities have also held several workshops and meetings to discuss alternative methods of incorporating externalities as well as the feasibility of regional approaches. This study examines the potential for reduced carbon emissions in the New England power sector as well as the cost and rate impacts of two policy approaches: environmental externality surcharges and a target- based approach. We analyze the following questions: Does New England have sufficient low-carbon resources to achieve significant reductions (10% to 20% below current levels) in fossil carbon emissions in its utility sector? What reductions could be achieved at a maximum? What is the expected cost of carbon reductions as a function of the reduction goal? How would carbon reduction strategies affect electricity rates? How effective are environmental externality cost surcharges as an instrument in bringing about carbon reductions? To what extent could the minimization of total electricity costs alone result in carbon reductions relative to conventional resource plans?

Krause, F.; Busch, J.; Koomey, J.



Scale Matters: An Action Plan for Realizing Sector-Wide"Zero-Energy" Performance Goals in Commercial Buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is widely accepted that if the United States is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions it must aggressively address energy end use in the building sector. While there have been some notable but modest successes with mandatory and voluntary programs, there have also been puzzling failures to achieve expected savings. Collectively, these programs have not yet reached the majority of the building stock, nor have they yet routinely produced very large savings in individual buildings. Several trends that have the potential to change this are noteworthy: (1) the growing market interest in 'green buildings' and 'sustainable design', (2) the major professional societies (e.g. AIA, ASHRAE) have more aggressively adopted significant improvements in energy efficiency as strategic goals, e.g. targeting 'zero energy', carbon-neutral buildings by 2030. While this vision is widely accepted as desirable, unless there are significant changes to the way buildings are routinely designed, delivered and operated, zero energy buildings will remain a niche phenomenon rather than a sector-wide reality. Toward that end, a public/private coalition including the Alliance to Save Energy, LBNL, AIA, ASHRAE, USGBC and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) are developing an 'action plan' for moving the U.S. commercial building sector towards zero energy performance. It addresses regional action in a national framework; integrated deployment, demonstration and R&D threads; and would focus on measurable, visible performance indicators. This paper outlines this action plan, focusing on the challenge, the key themes, and the strategies and actions leading to substantial reductions in GHG emissions by 2030.

Selkowitz, Stephen; Selkowitz, Stephen; Granderson, Jessica; Haves, Philip; Mathew, Paul; Harris, Jeff




E-Print Network [OSTI]

;2 D. KHOSHNEVISAN, D. A. LEVIN, AND P. M´ENDEZ functions f C(R+) that satisfy f(1) = 0 (Fukushima events of full Wiener measure do hold q.s. A notable example is a theorem of M. Fukushima (1984). We can(R+), (1.5) lim inf t supu[0,t] |f(u)| t/ ln ln t = 8 . Fukushima's method can be adapted to prove

Levin, David Asher


Influence of direct motor-motor interaction in models for cargo transport by a single team of motors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyze theoretically the effects of excluded-volume interactions between motors on the dynamics of a cargo driven by multiple motors. The model considered shares many commons with other recently proposed in the literature, with the addition of direct interaction between motors and motor back steps. The cargo is assumed to follow a continuum Langevin dynamics, while individual motors evolve following a Monte Carlo algorithm based on experimentally accessible probabilities for discrete forward and backward jumps, and attachment and detachment rates. The links between cargo and motors are considered as non linear springs. By means of numerical simulations we compute the relevant quantities characterizing the dynamical properties of the system, and we compare the results to those for non interacting motors. We find that interactions lead to quite relevant changes in the force-velocity relation for cargo, with a considerable reduction of the stall force, and cause also a notable decrease of the run length. These effects are mainly due to traffic-like phenomena in the microtubule. The consideration of several parallel tracks for motors reduces such effects. However, we find that for realistic values of the number of motors and the number of tracks, the influence of interactions on the global parameters of transport of cargo are far from being negligible. Our studies provide also an analysis of the relevance of motor back steps on the modeling, and of the influence of different assumptions for the detachment rates. In particular, we discuss these two aspects in connection with the possibility of observing processive back motion of cargo at large load forces.

Sebastian Bouzat; Fernando Falo



Neutrino fluxes from constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model lightest supersymmetric particle annihilations in the Sun  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We evaluate the neutrino fluxes to be expected from neutralino lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) annihilations inside the Sun, within the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model with supersymmetry-breaking scalar and gaugino masses constrained to be universal at the grand unified theory scale [the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model (CMSSM)]. We find that there are large regions of typical CMSSM (m{sub 1/2},m{sub 0}) planes where the LSP density inside the Sun is not in equilibrium, so that the annihilation rate may be far below the capture rate. We show that neutrino fluxes are dependent on the solar model at the 20% level, and adopt the AGSS09 model of Serenelli et al. for our detailed studies. We find that there are large regions of the CMSSM (m{sub 1/2},m{sub 0}) planes where the capture rate is not dominated by spin-dependent LSP-proton scattering, e.g., at large m{sub 1/2} along the CMSSM coannihilation strip. We calculate neutrino fluxes above various threshold energies for points along the coannihilation/rapid-annihilation and focus-point strips where the CMSSM yields the correct cosmological relic density for tan{beta}=10 and 55 for {mu}>0, exploring their sensitivities to uncertainties in the spin-dependent and -independent scattering matrix elements. We also present detailed neutrino spectra for four benchmark models that illustrate generic possibilities within the CMSSM. Scanning the cosmologically favored parts of the parameter space of the CMSSM, we find that the IceCube/DeepCore detector can probe at best only parts of this parameter space, notably the focus-point region and possibly also at the low-mass tip of the coannihilation strip.

Ellis, John [TH Division, Physics Department, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Olive, Keith A. [William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Savage, Christopher [Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Spanos, Vassilis C. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, GR-26500 Patras (Greece)



Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Evaluation After Initial Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy Predicts Local Control in Rhabdomyosarcoma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) is already an integral part of staging in rhabdomyosarcoma. We investigated whether primary-site treatment response characterized by serial PET imaging at specific time points can be correlated with local control. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively examined 94 patients with rhabdomyosarcoma who received initial chemotherapy 15 weeks (median) before radiotherapy and underwent baseline, preradiation, and postradiation PET. Baseline PET standardized uptake values (SUVmax) and the presence or absence of abnormal uptake (termed PET-positive or PET-negative) both before and after radiation were examined for the primary site. Local relapse-free survival (LRFS) was calculated according to baseline SUVmax, PET-positive status, and PET-negative status by the Kaplan-Meier method, and comparisons were tested with the log-rank test. Results: The median patient age was 11 years. With 3-year median follow-up, LRFS was improved among postradiation PET-negative vs PET-positive patients: 94% vs 75%, P=.02. By contrast, on baseline PET, LRFS was not significantly different for primary-site SUVmax {<=}7 vs >7 (median), although the findings suggested a trend toward improved LRFS: 96% for SUVmax {<=}7 vs 79% for SUVmax >7, P=.08. Preradiation PET also suggested a statistically insignificant trend toward improved LRFS for PET-negative (97%) vs PET-positive (81%) patients (P=.06). Conclusion: Negative postradiation PET predicted improved LRFS. Notably, 77% of patients with persistent postradiation uptake did not experience local failure, suggesting that these patients could be closely followed up rather than immediately referred for intervention. Negative baseline and preradiation PET findings suggested statistically insignificant trends toward improved LRFS. Additional study may further understanding of relationships between PET findings at these time points and outcome in rhabdomyosarcoma.

Dharmarajan, Kavita V., E-mail: dharmark@mskcc.org [Departments of Radiation Oncology, Pediatric Oncology, and Nuclear Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering, New York, New York (United States); Wexler, Leonard H.; Gavane, Somali; Fox, Josef J.; Schoder, Heiko; Tom, Ashlyn K.; Price, Alison N.; Meyers, Paul A.; Wolden, Suzanne L. [Departments of Radiation Oncology, Pediatric Oncology, and Nuclear Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering, New York, New York (United States)] [Departments of Radiation Oncology, Pediatric Oncology, and Nuclear Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering, New York, New York (United States)




E-Print Network [OSTI]

If a small-scale clean coal fu eled power plant is co-fu eled with 5 % of cre o-sote-treated used-up sleeper wood, the de con tam i na tion by carbonisation at 500 C in an in di rectly heated ro tary kiln with the di am e ter 1.7 m and ef fec-tive length 10 m can be real ised. It should be in cluded in the 3R Clean Coal Carbonisation Plant sys tem, which pro cesses coal. It will im prove the heat bal ance of the sys tem, since the carbonisation of wood will de liver a lot of high caloricity pyroligneous vapour to the joint fur nace of the 3R Clean Coal Carbonisation Plant. Pine wood sleeper sap wood con tains 0.25 % of sul phur, but the av er age pine sleeper wood (sap wood and heart wood) 0.05% of sul phur. Most of the sul phur is lost with the pyroligneous vapour and burned in the fur nace. Since the 3R Clean Coal Carbonisation Plant is equipped with a flue gases clean ing sys tem, the SO2 emis sion level will not ex-ceed 5 mg/m 3. The char coal of the sap wood por tion of sleep ers and that of the av er age sleeper wood will con tain 0.22 % and 0.035 % of sul phur, re spec-tively. The in crease of the carbonisation tem per a ture does not sub stan tially de crease the sul phur con tent in char coal, al though it is suf fi ciently low, and the char coal can be co-fired with clean coal. The con sid ered pro cess is suit-able for small power plants, if the bio mass in put in the com mon en ergy bal-ance is 5 to 10%. If the mean dis tance of sleep ers trans por ta tion for Cen tral and East ern Eu-rope is es ti mated not to ex ceed 200 km, the co-com bus tion of clean coal and carbonised sleep ers would be an ac cept able op tion from the en vi ron men tal and eco nomic points of view.

Janis Zandersons; Aivars Zhurinsh; Edward Someus


A Phase I Clinical and Pharmacology Study Using Amifostine as a Radioprotector in Dose-escalated Whole Liver Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Diffuse intrahepatic tumors are difficult to control. Whole-liver radiotherapy has been limited by toxicity, most notably radiation-induced liver disease. Amifostine is a prodrug free-radical scavenger that selectively protects normal tissues and, in a preclinical model of intrahepatic cancer, systemic amifostine reduced normal liver radiation damage without compromising tumor effect. We hypothesized that amifostine would permit escalation of whole-liver radiation dose to potentially control microscopic disease. We also aimed to characterize the pharmacokinetics of amifostine and its active metabolite WR-1065 to optimize timing of radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: We conducted a radiation dose-escalation trial for patients with diffuse, intrahepatic cancer treated with whole-liver radiation and intravenous amifostine. Radiation dose was assigned using the time-to-event continual reassessment method. A companion pharmacokinetic study was performed. Results: Twenty-three patients were treated, with a maximum dose of 40 Gy. Using a logistical regression model, compared with our previously treated patients, amifostine increased liver tolerance by 3.3 {+-} 1.1 Gy (p = 0.007) (approximately 10%) with similar response rates. Peak concentrations of WR-1065 were 25 {mu}M with an elimination half-life of 1.5 h; these levels are consistent with radioprotective effects of amifostine in patients. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate for the first time that amifostine is a normal liver radioprotector. They further suggest that it may be useful to combine amifostine with fractionated or stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with focal intrahepatic cancer.

Feng, Mary, E-mail: maryfeng@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Smith, David E. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Normolle, Daniel P. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Knol, James A. [Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Pan, Charlie C.; Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Lu Zheng; Feng, Meihua R.; Chen Jun [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ensminger, William [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)



Persistence of gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in proliferating and nonproliferating human mammary epithelial cells after exposure to gamma-rays or iron ions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To investigate {gamma}-H2AX (phosphorylated histone H2AX) and 53BP1 (tumour protein 53 binding protein No. 1) foci formation and removal in proliferating and non-proliferating human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) after exposure to sparsely and densely ionizing radiation under different cell culture conditions. HMEC cells were grown either as monolayers (2D) or in extracellular matrix to allow the formation of acinar structures in vitro (3D). Foci numbers were quantified by image analysis at various time points after exposure. Our results reveal that in non-proliferating cells under 2D and 3D cell culture conditions, iron-ion induced {gamma}-H2AX foci were still present at 72 h after exposure, although 53BP1 foci returned to control levels at 48 h. In contrast in proliferating HMEC, both {gamma}-H2AX and 53BP1 foci decreased to control levels during the 24-48 h time interval after irradiation under 2D conditions. Foci numbers decreased faster after {gamma}-ray irradiation and returned to control levels by 12 h regardless of marker, cell proliferation status, and cell culture condition. Conclusions: The disappearance of radiation induced {gamma}-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in HMEC have different dynamics that depend on radiation quality and proliferation status. Notably, the general patterns do not depend on the cell culture condition (2D versus 3D). We speculate that the persistent {gamma}-H2AX foci in iron-ion irradiated non-proliferating cells could be due to limited availability of double strand break (DSB) repair pathways in G0/G1-phase, or that repair of complex DSB requires replication or chromatin remodeling.

Groesser, Torsten; Chang, Hang; Fontenay, Gerald; Chen, James; Costes, Sylvain V.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Parvin, Bahram; Rydberg, Bjorn



Strong-Field Quantum Electrodynamics and Muonic Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We explore the possibility of a breakdown of perturbative quantum electrodynamics in light muonic bound systems, notably, muonic hydrogen. The average electric field seen by a muon orbiting a proton is shown to be comparable to hydrogenlike Uranium and, notably, larger than the electric field achievable using even the most advanced strong-laser facilities. Following Maltman and Isgur who have shown that fundamental forces such as the meson exchange force may undergo a qualitative change in the strong-coupling regime, we investigate a concomitant possible existence of muon-proton and electron-proton contact interactions, of nonperturbative origin, and their influence on transition frequencies in light one-muon ions.

U. D. Jentschura



Commercial potential of natural gas storage in lined rock caverns (LRC)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The geologic conditions in many regions of the United States will not permit the development of economical high-deliverability gas storage in salt caverns. These regions include the entire Eastern Seaboard; several northern states, notably Minnesota and Wisconsin; many of the Rocky Mountain States; and most of the Pacific Northwest. In late 1997, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Federal Energy Technology Center engaged Sofregaz US to investigate the commercialization potential of natural gas storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC). Sofregaz US teamed with Gaz de France and Sydkraft, who had formed a consortium, called LRC, to perform the study for the USDOE. Underground storage of natural gas is generally achieved in depleted oil and gas fields, aquifers, and solution-mined salt caverns. These storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Unlined rock caverns have been used for decades to store hydrocarbons - mostly liquids such as crude oil, butane, and propane. The maximum operating pressure in unlined rock caverns is limited, since the host rock is never entirely impervious. The LRC technology allows a significant increase in the maximum operating pressure over the unlined storage cavern concept, since the gas in storage is completely contained with an impervious liner. The LRC technology has been under development in Sweden by Sydkraft since 1987. The development process has included extensive technical studies, laboratory testing, field tests, and most recently includes a storage facility being constructed in southern Sweden (Skallen). The LRC development effort has shown that the concept is technically and economically viable. The Skallen storage facility will have a rock cover of 115 meters (375 feet), a storage volume of 40,000 cubic meters (250,000 petroleum barrels), and a maximum operating pressure of 20 MPa (2,900 psi). There is a potential for commercialization of the LRC technology in the United States. Two regions were studied in some detail - the Northeast and the Southeast. The investment cost for an LRC facility in the Northeast is approximately $182 million and $343 million for a 2.6-billion cubic foot (bcf) working gas facility and a 5.2-bcf working gas storage facility, respectively. The relatively high investment cost is a strong function of the cost of labor in the Northeast. The labor union-related rules and requirements in the Northeast result in much higher underground construction costs than might result in Sweden, for example. The LRC technology gas storage service is compared to other alternative technologies. The LRC technology gas storage service was found to be competitive with other alternative technologies for a variety of market scenarios.




Wnt interaction and extracellular release of prominin-1/CD133 in human malignant melanoma cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prominin-1 (CD133) is the first identified gene of a novel class of pentaspan membrane glycoproteins. It is expressed by various epithelial and non-epithelial cells, and notably by stem and cancer stem cells. In non-cancerous cells such as neuro-epithelial and hematopoietic stem cells, prominin-1 is selectively concentrated in plasma membrane protrusions, and released into the extracellular milieu in association with small vesicles. Previously, we demonstrated that prominin-1 contributes to melanoma cells pro-metastatic properties and suggested that it may constitute a molecular target to prevent prominin-1-expressing melanomas from colonizing and growing in lymph nodes and distant organs. Here, we report that three distinct pools of prominin-1 co-exist in cultures of human FEMX-I metastatic melanoma. Morphologically, in addition to the plasma membrane localization, prominin-1 is found within the intracellular compartments, (e.g., Golgi apparatus) and in association with extracellular membrane vesicles. The latter prominin-1positive structures appeared in three sizes (small, ?40 nm; intermediates ?4080 nm, and large, >80 nm). Functionally, the down-regulation of prominin-1 in FEMX-I cells resulted in a significant reduction of number of lipid droplets as observed by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering image analysis and Oil red O staining, and surprisingly in a decrease in the nuclear localization of beta-catenin, a surrogate marker of Wnt activation. Moreover, the T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) promoter activity was 2 to 4 times higher in parental than in prominin-1-knockdown cells. Collectively, our results point to Wnt signaling and/or release of prominin-1containing membrane vesicles as mediators of the pro-metastatic activity of prominin-1 in FEMX-I melanoma. - Highlights: ? First report of release of prominin-1containing microvesicles from cancer cells. ? Pro-metastatic role of prominin-1containing microvesicles in FEMX-I melanoma. ? Down-regulation of prominin-1 results in decreased nuclear localization of ?-catenin. ? Wnt signaling as mediator of the pro-metastatic activity of prominin-1.

Rappa, Germana [Cancer Research Program, Roseman University of Health Sciences, 10530 Discovery Drive. Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); College of Pharmacy, Roseman University of Health Sciences, Henderson, NV 89104 (United States); Mercapide, Javier; Anzanello, Fabio [Cancer Research Program, Roseman University of Health Sciences, 10530 Discovery Drive. Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); Le, Thuc T. [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); Johlfs, Mary G. [Cancer Research Program, Roseman University of Health Sciences, 10530 Discovery Drive. Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); Center for Diabetes and Obesity Prevention, Treatment, Research and Education, Roseman University of Health Sciences, Henderson, NV 89104 (United States); Fiscus, Ronald R. [Cancer Research Program, Roseman University of Health Sciences, 10530 Discovery Drive. Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); College of Pharmacy, Roseman University of Health Sciences, Henderson, NV 89104 (United States); Center for Diabetes and Obesity Prevention, Treatment, Research and Education, Roseman University of Health Sciences, Henderson, NV 89104 (United States); Wilsch-Bruninger, Michaela [Max-Planck-Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Pfotenhauerstr. 108, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Corbeil, Denis [Tissue Engineering Laboratories (BIOTEC) and DFG Research Center and Cluster of Excellence for Regenerative Therapies Dresden (CRTD), Technische Universitt Dresden, Tatzberg 4749, 01307 Dresden, Germany Technische Universitat Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Lorico, Aurelio, E-mail: alorico@roseman.edu [Cancer Research Program, Roseman University of Health Sciences, 10530 Discovery Drive. Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); College of Pharmacy, Roseman University of Health Sciences, Henderson, NV 89104 (United States)



Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Berkeley Lab has for several years been developing methods for selection of optimal microgrid systems, especially for commercial building applications, and applying these methods in the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). This project began with 3 major goals: (1) to conduct detailed analysis to find the optimal equipment combination for microgrids at a few promising commercial building hosts in the two favorable markets of California and New York, (2) to extend the analysis capability of DER-CAM to include both heat and electricity storage, and (3) to make an initial effort towards adding consideration of power quality and reliability (PQR) to the capabilities of DER-CAM. All of these objectives have been pursued via analysis of the attractiveness of a Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Microgrid consisting of multiple nameplate 100 kW Tecogen Premium Power Modules (CM-100). This unit consists of an asynchronous inverter-based variable speed internal combustion engine genset with combined heat and power (CHP) and power surge capability. The essence of CERTS Microgrid technology is that smarts added to the on-board power electronics of any microgrid device enables stable and safe islanded operation without the need for complex fast supervisory controls. This approach allows plug and play development of a microgrid that can potentially provide high PQR with a minimum of specialized site-specific engineering. A notable feature of the CM-100 is its time-limited surge rating of 125 kW, and DER-CAM capability to model this feature was also a necessary model enhancement.

Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Coffey, Brian; Aki, Hirohisa



Acetylation and glycation of fibrinogen in vitro occur at specific lysine residues in a concentration dependent manner: A mass spectrometric and isotope labeling study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fibrinogen was incubated in vitro with glucose or aspirin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylations and glycations were found at twelve lysine sites by mass spectrometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The labeling by aspirin and glucose occurred dose-dependently. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No competition between glucose and aspirin for binding to fibrinogen was found. -- Abstract: Aspirin may exert part of its antithrombotic effects through platelet-independent mechanisms. Diabetes is a condition in which the beneficial effects of aspirin are less prominent or absent - a phenomenon called 'aspirin resistance'. We investigated whether acetylation and glycation occur at specific sites in fibrinogen and if competition between glucose and aspirin in binding to fibrinogen occurs. Our hypothesis was that such competition might be one explanation to 'aspirin resistance' in diabetes. After incubation of fibrinogen in vitro with aspirin (0.8 mM, 24 h) or glucose (100 mM, 5-10 days), we found 12 modified sites with mass spectrometric techniques. Acetylations in the {alpha}-chain: {alpha}K191, {alpha}K208, {alpha}K224, {alpha}K429, {alpha}K457, {alpha}K539, {alpha}K562, in the {beta}-chain: {beta}K233, and in the {gamma}-chain: {gamma}K170 and {gamma}K273. Glycations were found at {beta}K133 and {gamma}K75, alternatively {gamma}K85. Notably, the lysine 539 is a site involved in FXIII-mediated cross-linking of fibrin. With isotope labeling in vitro, using [{sup 14}C-acetyl]salicylic acid and [{sup 14}C]glucose, a labeling of 0.013-0.084 and 0.12-0.5 mol of acetylated and glycated adduct/mol fibrinogen, respectively, was found for clinically (12.9-100 {mu}M aspirin) and physiologically (2-8 mM glucose) relevant plasma concentrations. No competition between acetylation and glycation could be demonstrated. Thus, fibrinogen is acetylated at several lysine residues, some of which are involved in the cross-linking of fibrinogen. This may mechanistically explain why aspirin facilitates fibrin degradation. We find no support for the idea that glycation of fibrin(ogen) interferes with acetylation of fibrinogen.

Svensson, Jan, E-mail: jan.svensson@ki.se [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital (Solna), SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden) [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital (Solna), SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, SE-182 88 Stockholm (Sweden); Bergman, Ann-Charlotte [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital (Solna), SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden)] [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital (Solna), SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Adamson, Ulf [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, SE-182 88 Stockholm (Sweden)] [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, SE-182 88 Stockholm (Sweden); Blombaeck, Margareta [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital (Solna), SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden)] [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital (Solna), SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Wallen, Hakan; Joerneskog, Gun [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, SE-182 88 Stockholm (Sweden)] [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, SE-182 88 Stockholm (Sweden)



Quick-change filter cartridge  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A quick-change filter cartridge. In sampling systems for measurement of airborne materials, a filter element is introduced into the sampled airstream such that the aerosol constituents are removed and deposited on the filter. Fragile sampling media often require support in order to prevent rupture during sampling, and careful mounting and sealing to prevent misalignment, tearing, or creasing which would allow the sampled air to bypass the filter. Additionally, handling of filter elements may introduce cross-contamination or exposure of operators to toxic materials. Moreover, it is desirable to enable the preloading of filter media into quick-change cartridges in clean laboratory environments, thereby simplifying and expediting the filter-changing process in the field. The quick-change filter cartridge of the present invention permits the application of a variety of filter media in many types of instruments and may also be used in automated systems. The cartridge includes a base through which a vacuum can be applied to draw air through the filter medium which is located on a porous filter support and held there by means of a cap which forms an airtight seal with the base. The base is also adapted for receiving absorbing media so that both particulates and gas-phase samples may be trapped for investigation, the latter downstream of the aerosol filter.

Rodgers, John C. (Santa Fe, NM); McFarland, Andrew R. (College Station, TX); Ortiz, Carlos A. (Bryan, TX)


Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Above- and below-ground biomass accumulation, production, and distribution of sweetgum and loblolly pine grown with irrigation and fertilization.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract: Increased forest productivity has been obtained by improving resource availability through water and nutrient amendments. However, more stress-tolerant species that have robust site requirements do not respond consistently to irrigation. An important factor contributing to robust site requirements may be the distribution of biomass belowground, yet available information is limited. We examined the accumulation and distribution of above- and below-ground biomass in sweetgum (Liqrridambar sfyrac$lua L.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stands receiving irrigation and fertilization. Mean annual aboveground production after 4 years ranged from 2.4 to 5.1 ~g.ha-'.year' for sweetgum and from 5.0 to 6.9 ~g.ha-l.year-l for pine. Sweetgum responded positively to irrigation and fertilization with an additive response to irrigation + fertilization. Pine only responded to fertilization. Sweetgum root mass fraction (RME)in creased with fertilization at 2 years and decreased with fertilization at 4 years. There were no detectable treatment differences in loblolly pine RMF. Development explained from 67% to 98% of variation in shoot versus root allometry for ephemeral and perennial tissues, fertilization explained no more than 5% of the variation in for either species, and irrigation did not explain any. We conclude that shifts in allocation from roots to shoots do not explain nutrient-induced growth stimulations.

Coyle, David, R.; Coleman, Mark, D.; Aubrey, Doug, P.



Analysis of a Defected Dissimilar Metal Weld in a PWR Power Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the refueling outage 2000, inspections of the RC-loops of one of the Ringhals PWR-units, Ringhals 4, indicated surface breaking defects in the axial direction of the piping in a dissimilar weld between the Low alloy steel nozzle and the stainless safe end in the hot leg. In addition some indications were found that there were embedded defects in the weld material. These defects were judged as being insignificant to the structural integrity. The welds were inspected in 1993 with the result that no significant indications were found. The weld it self is a double U weld, where the thickness of the material is ideally 79,5 mm. Its is constructed by Inconel 182 weld material. At the nozzle a buttering was applied, also by Inconel 182. The In-service inspection, ISI, of the object indicated four axial defects, 9-16 mm deep. During fabrication, the areas where the defects are found were repaired at least three times, onto a maximum depth of 32 mm. To evaluate the defects, 6 boat samples from the four axial defects were cut from the perimeter and shipped to the hot-cell laboratory for further examination. This examination revealed that the two deep defects had been under sized by the ISI outside the requirement set by the inspection tolerances, while the two shallow defects were over sized, but within the tolerances of the detection system. When studying the safety case it became evident that there were several missing elements in the way this problems is handled with respect to the Swedish safety evaluation code. Among these the most notable at the beginning was the absence of reliable fracture mechanical data such as crack growth laws and fracture toughness at elevated temperature. Both these questions were handled by the project. The fracture mechanical evaluation has focused on a fit for service principal. Thus defects both in the unaffected zones and the disturbed zones, boat sample cutouts, of the weld have been analyzed. With reference to the Swedish safety evaluation system in accordance to the regulatory demands, a safety evaluation was performed using the R6-method. The failure assessment diagram is modified by the addition of the ASME XI safety factors both for limit load analysis and fracture assessment. This results in a very high conservatism since the secondary stresses such as residual stresses are high in the area. In order to quantify this effect an analysis in accordance to ASME IWB-3640, App. C was performed. This analysis provides the decision-makers with a sensitivity study; important to have to value the real risk of any missed defects in the area. (authors)

Efsing, P. [Barseback Kraft AB, P.O. Box 524, Loddekopinge SE-246 25 (Sweden); Lagerstrom, J. [Vattenfall AB, Ringhals, 430 22 Vaeroebacka (Sweden)



Suzaku And Multi-Wavelength Observations of OJ 287 During the Periodic Optical Outburst in 2007  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Suzaku observations of the blazar OJ 287 were performed in 2007 April 10-13 and November 7-9. They correspond to a quiescent and a flaring state, respectively. The X-ray spectra of the source can be well described with single power-law models in both exposures. The derived X-ray photon index and the flux density at 1 keV were found to be {Lambda} = 1.65 {+-} 0.02 and S{sub 1keV} = 215 {+-} 5 nJy, in the quiescent state. In the flaring state, the source exhibited a harder X-ray spectrum ({Lambda} = 1.50 {+-} 0.01) with a nearly doubled X-ray flux density S{sub 1keV} = 404{sub -5}{sup +6} nJy. Moreover, significant hard X-ray signals were detected up to {approx} 27 keV. In cooperation with the Suzaku, simultaneous radio, optical, and very-high-energy {gamma}-ray observations of OJ 287 were performed with the Nobeyama Millimeter Array, the KANATA telescope, and the MAGIC telescope, respectively. The radio and optical fluxes in the flaring state (3.04 {+-} 0.46 Jy and 8.93 {+-} 0.05 mJy at 86.75 Hz and in the V-band, respectively) were found to be higher by a factor of 2-3 than those in the quiescent state (1.73 {+-} 0.26 Jy and 3.03 {+-} 0.01 mJy at 86.75 Hz and in the V-band, respectively). No notable {gamma}-ray events were detected in either observation. The spectral energy distribution of OJ 287 indicated that the X-ray spectrum was dominated by inverse Compton radiation in both observations, while synchrotron radiation exhibited a spectral cutoff around the optical frequency. Furthermore, no significant difference in the synchrotron cutoff frequency was found between the quiescent and flaring states. According to a simple synchrotron self-Compton model, the change of the spectral energy distribution is due to an increase in the energy density of electrons with small changes of both the magnetic field strength and the maximum Lorentz factor of electrons.

Seta, Hiromi; /Saitama U.; Isobe, N.; /Kyoto U.; Tashiro, Makoto S.; /Saitama U.; Yaji, Yuichi; /Saitama U.; Arai, Akira; /Hiroshima U.; Fukuhara, Masayuki; /Tokyo U. /Grad. U. for Adv. Stud., Nagano; Kohno, Kotaro; /Tokyo U.; Nakanishi, Koichiro; /Grad. U. for Adv. Stud., Nagano; Sasada, Mahito; /Hiroshima U.; Shimajiri, Yoshito; /Tokyo U. /Grad. U. for Adv. Stud., Nagano; Tosaki, Tomoka; /Grad. U. for Adv. Stud., Nagano; Uemura, Makoto; /Hiroshima U.; Anderhub, Hans; /Zurich, ETH; Antonelli, L.A.; /INFN, Rome; Antoranz, Pedro; /Madrid U.; Backes, Michael; /Dortmund U.; Baixeras, Carmen; /Barcelona, Autonoma U.; Balestra, Silvia; /Madrid U.; Barrio, Juan Abel; /Madrid U.; Bastieri, Denis; /Padua U. /INFN, Padua; Becerra Gonzalez, Josefa; /IAC, La Laguna /Dortmund U. /Lodz U. /Lodz U. /DESY /Zurich, ETH /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Siena U. /INFN, Siena /Barcelona, IEEC /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Barcelona, IEEC /Madrid U. /Zurich, ETH /Wurzburg U. /Zurich, ETH /Madrid U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Zurich, ETH /Madrid U. /Barcelona, IFAE /IAC, La Laguna /Laguna U., Tenerife /INFN, Rome /Dortmund U. /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /INFN, Padua /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Barcelona, IEEC /Madrid U. /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /IAC, La Laguna /Madrid, CIEMAT /Sierra Nevada Observ. /Zurich, ETH /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Wurzburg U. /Barcelona, IFAE /UC, Davis /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, IFAE /Madrid U. /Barcelona, Autonoma U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /IAC, La Laguna /Laguna U., Tenerife /Barcelona, IFAE /IAC, La Laguna /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Barcelona, Autonoma U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /SLAC /IAC, La Laguna /Laguna U., Tenerife /Zurich, ETH /Wurzburg U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Zurich, ETH /INFN, Rome /UC, Davis /Siena U. /INFN, Siena /Turku U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Zurich, ETH /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /DESY /Sofiya, Inst. Nucl. Res. /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Wurzburg U. /INFN, Rome /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, IFAE /Siena U. /INFN, Siena /Wurzburg U. /Madrid U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Barcelona, IEEC /Sierra Nevada Observ. /Barcelona, IFAE /Madrid U. /Turku U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /UC, Santa Cruz /Madrid U. /Siena U. /INFN, Siena /Barcelona, IEEC /Turku U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Zurich, ETH /Siena U. /INFN, Siena /Sierra Nevada Observ. /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /INFN, Trieste /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Sierra Nevada Observ. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, IFAE /Dortmund U. /Barcelona, IEEC /ICREA, Barcelona /Barcelona, IFAE /Zurich, ETH /Barcelona, Autonoma U. /Wurzburg U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /INFN, Rome /Sierra Nevada Observ. /DESY /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, IEEC /Turku U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Lodz U. /Lodz U. /Wurzburg U. /Siena U. /INFN, Siena /Zurich, ETH /Turku U. /INFN, Rome /Sofiya, Inst. Nucl. Res. /Barcelona, IFAE /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /DESY /ICREA, Barcelona /Barcelona, IEEC /Siena U. /INFN, Siena /Sofiya, Inst. Nucl. Res. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Barcelona, IEEC /Sierra Nevada Observ. /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, Autonoma U.



Algorithms for revenue metering and their evaluation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conditions are well accepted among the metering community. But in recent years, due to the increase of non-linear loads, the presence of harmonics in the current and voltage waveforms in the power network has increased notably, and in the future years...

Martinez-Lagunes, Rodrigo



DisClose: Discovering Colossal Closed Itemsets via a Memory Efficient Compact Row-Tree  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Itemset mining has recently focused on discovery of frequent itemsets from high-dimensional datasets with relatively few rows and a larger number of items. With exponentially in-creasing running time as average row length increases, mining such datasets renders most conventional algorithms impracti-cal. Unfortunately, large cardinality closed itemsets are likely to be more informative than small cardinality closed itemsets in this type of dataset. This paper proposes an approach, called DisClose, to extract large cardinality (colossal) closed itemsets from high-dimensional datasets. The approach relies on a memory-efficient Compact Row-Tree data structure to represent itemsets during the search process. The search strategy explores the transposed representation of the dataset. Large cardinality itemsets are enumerated first followed by smaller ones. In addition, we utilize a minimum cardinality threshold to further reduce the search space. Experimental result shows that DisClose can complete the extraction of colossal closed itemsets in the considered dataset, even for low support thresholds. The algorithm immediately discovers closed itemsets without needing to check if each new closed itemset has previously been found.

Zulkurnain, Nurul F.; Keane, John A.; Haglin, David J.



Fusion Energy Sciences The Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) program mission is to expand the fundamental understanding of matter at very high  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the National Science Foundation. Highlights of the FY 2015 Budget Request The most notable changes in the FY 2015 budget include: Increased support for collaboration in the DIII-D and NSTX-U national research of experimental operations in early FY 2015, funding for NSTX-U operations is increased to support 18 weeks of run


Some thoughts on the BUGS package for Bayesian analysis1 Andrew Gelman, Dept of Statistics and Dept of Political Science, Columbia University  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

we kept running into difficulty when we tried to expand our model in different ways, most notably in Medicine. #12;for (i in 1:n){ y[i] ~ dnorm (y.hat[i], tau.y) y.hat[i] county[i

Gelman, Andrew


Procedia Computer Science 00 (2011) 000000 www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of object services, notably in smart buildings composed of sensors and actuators. Many things are now taking services, WebSockets, CoAP, Energy efficiency, Smart buildings 1. Introduction In the last decade objects are also arising in such smart-buildings, as for example to provide feedback to the user

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de



An interview on the life and work of John Gurdon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the job and then heads of other departments in Oxford, most notably Rodney Porter, the Head of Biochemistry, mounted a counter move to keep me in Oxford; however my Head of Department stuck to his guns; as I had a house and family in Oxford I was very...

Gurdon, John



Characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed using the MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in 1970s.6) In order to explain this weakening *1 Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere (RISH for Sustainable Humanosphere (RISH), Kyoto Univer- sity, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan (e-mail: tsuda processes of atmospheric gravity waves was proposed.7),8) In the 1980s a notable advance was made

Takada, Shoji


Single proteins that serve linked functions in intracellular and extracellular microenvironments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Maintenance of organ homeostasis and control of appropriate response to environmental alterations requires intimate coordination of cellular function and tissue organization. An important component of this coordination may be provided by proteins that can serve distinct, but linked, functions on both sides of the plasma membrane. Here we present a novel hypothesis in which non-classical secretion can provide a mechanism through which single proteins can integrate complex tissue functions. Single genes can exert a complex, dynamic influence through a number of different processes that act to multiply the function of the gene product(s). Alternative splicing can create many different transcripts that encode proteins of diverse, even antagonistic, function from a single gene. Posttranslational modifications can alter the stability, activity, localization, and even basic function of proteins. A protein can exist in different subcellular localizations. More recently, it has become clear that single proteins can function both inside and outside the cell. These proteins often lack defined secretory signal sequences, and transit the plasma membrane by mechanisms separate from the classical ER/Golgi secretory process. When examples of such proteins are examined individually, the multifunctionality and lack of a signal sequence are puzzling - why should a protein with a well known function in one context function in such a distinct fashion in another? We propose that one reason for a single protein to perform intracellular and extracellular roles is to coordinate organization and maintenance of a global tissue function. Here, we describe in detail three specific examples of proteins that act in this fashion, outlining their specific functions in the extracellular space and in the intracellular space, and we discuss how these functions may be linked. We present epimorphin/syntaxin-2, which may coordinate morphogenesis of secretory organs (as epimorphin) with control of protein secretion (as syntaxin-2), amphoterin/high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), which may link inflammation (as amphoterin) with regulation of gene expression (as HMGB1), and tissue transglutaminase, which affects delivery of and response to apoptotic signals by serving a related function on both sides of the plasma membrane. As it is notable that all three of these proteins have been reported to transit the plasma membrane through non-classical secretory mechanisms, we will also discuss why coordinated inside/outside functions may be found in some examples of proteins which transit the plasma membrane through non-classical mechanisms and how this relationship can be used to identify additional proteins that share these characteristics.

Radisky, Derek C.; Stallings-Mann, Melody; Hirai, Yohei; Bissell, Mina J.



Salzburg ii rEcommEndationS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as the basis of the reforms for doctoral education. In the half decade that has passed since then, Europe's universities have carried out wide-ranging reforms in this area, most notably by establishing doctoral schools achieved recognition as a key part of this process. For this reason, reform of doctoral education has been

Breu, Ruth


1 Introduction We begin with a historical survey of the exciting early days of metallurgical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

were in many respects formative as far as the whole subject of metallurgy is concerned. The details of that period are documented in the several textbooks and articles covering the history of metallurgy Notable historical works include: The Sorby Centennial Symposium on the History of Metallurgy, published

Cambridge, University of


Robotics and Autonomous Systems 30 (2000) 133153 Biomimetic robot navigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Robotics and Autonomous Systems 30 (2000) 133­153 Biomimetic robot navigation Matthias O. Franz Abstract In the past decade, a large number of robots has been built that explicitly implement biological applications, most notably in the field of indoor robot navigation. While simpler insect navigation behaviours


September 5, 2012 CLASS OF 2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Burgess is the pre-eminent historian of the Later Roman Empire in Canada. He is especially notable for his that led to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. CAMERON, Christina - School of Architecture, Faculty authority on the ancient Latin poet Ovid, and broken new ground in the understanding of Roman literature

Sankoff, David


Goal-based Composition of Stateful Services for Smart Homes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- ning techniques 1 Introduction The promise of Web services (WSs) and of Service Oriented Architectures together with their pre- and post-conditions (a notable extension is [2]), and specify the over- all in [4], often referred to as Roman Model, in w

De Giacomo, Giuseppe


Some Inconvenient Truths About Climate Change Policy: The Distributional Impacts of Transportation Policies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

program (CAT) and three policies currently in use: ethanol subsidies, a renewable fuel standard (RFS currently in place essentially translate into subsidies for biofuels, most notably ethanol.1,2Two major policies exist at the national level: direct subsidies to ethanol and the Renewable Fuel Standard requiring

Rothman, Daniel


Solution-based thermodynamic modeling of the NiAlMo system using first-principles calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

function with appropriate treatment of the chemical ordering contribution. In addition, notable in current and future power generation and transportation technologies. Moreover, the refrac- tory metal Mo-base super- alloys [1­6]. Despite its widespread use, quantitative guidelines for future alloy development

Chen, Long-Qing


156 IEEE JOURNAL OF OCEANIC ENGINEERING, VOL. 22, NO. 1, JANUARY 1997 The Structure of Ocean-Surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

156 IEEE JOURNAL OF OCEANIC ENGINEERING, VOL. 22, NO. 1, JANUARY 1997 The Structure of Ocean engineering applications, notably in the design of ocean outfalls [2] and in the design of tidal power the Ocean Pollution Research Center under Grant R09401. D. A. Chin and S. Chinthamreddy

Miami, University of


Chemistry at York has had another fantastic year and we are very proud  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemistry at York has had another fantastic year and we are very proud of all our notable achievements in both teaching and research, and of the numerous prizes awarded to our Chemistry staff for their outstanding successes. As part of a £29 million investment in Chemistry, we have recently completed

Joshi, Manoj

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Oceanic Linguistics, Volume 44, no. 2 (December 2005) by University of Hawai`i Press. All rights reserved.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of this area have historically increased their inventories to as many as 13 and even 16 vowels. The aim. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTORICAL EXPANSION OF VOWEL INVENTORIES. In compari- son with the ²ve-vowel system that has), the modern languages spoken in northern Vanuatu possess much richer inventories.1 With the notable exception

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Quantitative 3-D Elemental Mapping by LA-ICP-MS of a Basaltic Clast from the Hanford 300 Area, Washington, USA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantitative 3-D Elemental Mapping by LA-ICP-MS of a Basaltic Clast from the Hanford 300 Area collected from the Hanford 300 Area in south-central Washington State, United States. A calibration method and riparian quality in many locations, most notably at the Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge, and Nevada Test

Hu, Qinhong "Max"


From Minimal Logical Forms for Answer Extraction to Logical Graphs for Question  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and grammar system implemented in the C programming language and that is easily customisable [Sleator, notably by Jerry Hobbs [Hobbs, 1985]. Similar approaches were used in practical implementations of Question Answering (QA) systems such as Lasso [Moldovan et al., 1999], a system that obtained the best

Aliod, Diego Mollá


Interim Results from a Study of the Impacts of Tin (II) Based Mercury Treatment in a Small Stream Ecosystem: Tims Branch, Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A research team is assessing the impacts of an innovative mercury treatment system in Tims Branch, a small southeastern stream. The treatment system, installed in 2007, reduces and removes inorganic mercury from water using tin(II) (stannous) chloride addition followed by air stripping. The system results in discharge of inorganic tin to the ecosystem. This screening study is based on historical information combined with measurements of contaminant concentrations in water, fish, sediment, biofilms and invertebrates. Initial mercury data indicate that first few years of mercury treatment resulted in a significant decrease in mercury concentration in an upper trophic level fish, redfin pickerel, at all sampling locations in the impacted reach. For example, the whole body mercury concentration in redfin pickerel collected from the most impacted pond decreased approximately 72% between 2006 (pre-treatment) and 2010 (post-treatment). Over this same period, mercury concentrations in the fillet of redfin pickerel in this pond were estimated to have decreased from approximately 1.45 {micro}g/g (wet weight basis) to 0.45 {micro}g/g - a decrease from 4.8x to 1.5x the current EPA guideline concentration for mercury in fillet (0.3 {micro}g/g). Thermodynamic modeling, scanning electron microscopy, and other sampling data for tin suggest that particulate tin (IV) oxides are a significant geochemical species entering the ecosystem with elevated levels of tin measured in surficial sediments and biofilms. Detectable increases in tin in sediments and biofilms extended approximately 3km from the discharge location. Tin oxides are recalcitrant solids that are relatively non-toxic and resistant to dissolution. Work continues to develop and validate methods to analyze total tin in the collected biota samples. In general, the interim results of this screening study suggest that the treatment process has performed as predicted and that the concentration of mercury in upper trophic level fish, as a surrogate for all of the underlying transport and transformation processes in a complex ecosystem, has declined as a direct result of the elimination of inorganic mercury inputs. Inorganic tin released to the ecosystem has been found in compartments where particles accumulate with notable levels measured in biofilms.

Looney, Brian [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); BryanJr., Larry [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory; Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Roy, W Kelly [ORNL; Jett, Robert T [ORNL; Smith, John G [ORNL



Passive Acoustic Detection of Wind Turbine In-Flow Conditions for Active Control and Optimization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wind is a significant source of energy; however, the human capability to produce electrical energy still has many hurdles to overcome. One of these is the unpredictability of the winds in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The ABL is highly turbulent in both stable and unstable conditions (based on the vertical temperature profile) and the resulting fluctuations can have a dramatic impact on wind turbine operation. Any method by which these fluctuations could be observed, estimated, or predicted could provide a benefit to the wind energy industry as a whole. Based on the fundamental coupling of velocity fluctuations to pressure fluctuations in the nearly incompressible flow in the ABL, This work hypothesizes that a ground-based array of infrasonic pressure transducers could be employed to estimate the vertical wind profile over a height relevant for wind turbines. To analyze this hypothesis, experiments and field deployments were conducted. Wind tunnel experiments were performed for a thick turbulent boundary layer over a neutral or heated surface. Surface pressure and velocity probe measurements were acquired simultaneously. Two field deployments yielded surface pressure data from a 49 element array. The second deployment at the Reese Technology Center in Lubbock, TX, also included data from a smaller aperture, 96-element array and a 200-meter tall meteorological tower. Analysis of the data successfully demonstrated the ability to estimate the vertical velocity profile using coherence data from the pressure array. Also, dynamical systems analysis methods were successful in identifying and tracking a gust type event. In addition to the passive acoustic profiling method, this program also investigated a rapid response Doppler SODAR system, the optimization of wind turbine blades for enhanced power with reduced aeroacoustic noise production, and the implementation of a wireless health monitoring system for the wind turbine blades. Each of these other objectives was met successfully. The use of phase unwrapping applied to SODAR data was found to yield reasonable results for per-pulse measurements. A health monitoring system design analysis was able to demonstrate the ability to use a very small number of sensors to monitor blade health based on the blade's overall structural modes. Most notable was the development of a multi-objective optimization methodology that successfully yielded an aerodynamic blade design that produces greater power output with reduced aerodynamic loading noise. This optimization method could be significant for future design work.

Murray, Nathan E.



Effective passivation of In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As by HfO{sub 2} surpassing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} via in-situ atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High {kappa} gate dielectrics of HfO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were deposited on molecular beam epitaxy-grown In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As pristine surface using in-situ atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) without any surface treatment or passivation layer. The ALD-HfO{sub 2}/p-In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As interface showed notable reduction in the interfacial density of states (D{sub it}), deduced from quasi-static capacitance-voltage and conductance-voltage (G-V) at room temperature and 100 Degree-Sign C. More significantly, the midgap peak commonly observed in the D{sub it}(E) of ALD-oxides/In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As is now greatly diminished. The midgap D{sub it} value decreases from {>=}15 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} eV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} for ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to {approx}2-4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} eV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} for ALD-HfO{sub 2}. Further, thermal stability at 850 Degree-Sign C was achieved in the HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As, whereas C-V characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/p-In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As degraded after the high temperature annealing. From in-situ x-ray photoelectron spectra, the AsO{sub x}, which is not the oxidized state from the native oxide, but is an induced state from adsorption of trimethylaluminum and H{sub 2}O, was found at the ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As interface, while that was not detected at the ALD-HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As interface.

Chang, Y. H.; Chiang, T. H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lin, C. A.; Liu, Y. T.; Lin, H. Y.; Huang, M. L.; Kwo, J. [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lin, T. D.; Hong, M. [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Pi, T. W. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)



Supernova rates from the Southern inTermediate Redshift ESO Supernova Search (STRESS)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To measure the supernova (SN) rates at intermediate redshift we performed the Southern inTermediate Redshift ESO Supernova Search (STRESS). Unlike most of the current high redshift SN searches, this survey was specifically designed to estimate the rate for both type Ia and core collapse (CC) SNe. We counted the SNe discovered in a selected galaxy sample measuring SN rate per unit blue band luminosity. Our analysis is based on a sample of ~43000 galaxies and on 25 spectroscopically confirmed SNe plus 64 selected SN candidates. Our approach is aimed at obtaining a direct comparison of the high redshift and local rates and at investigating the dependence of the rates on specific galaxy properties, most notably their colour. The type Ia SN rate, at mean redshift z=0.3, amounts to 0.22^{+0.10+0.16}_{-0.08 -0.14} h_{70}^2 SNu, while the CC SN rate, at z=0.21, is 0.82^{+0.31 +0.30}_{-0.24 -0.26} h_{70}^2 SNu. The quoted errors are the statistical and systematic uncertainties. With respect to local value, the CC SN rate at z=0.2 is higher by a factor of ~2 already at redshift, whereas the type Ia SN rate remains almost constant. This implies that a significant fraction of SN Ia progenitors has a lifetime longer than 2-3 Gyr. We also measured the SN rates in the red and blue galaxies and found that the SN Ia rate seems to be constant in galaxies of different colour, whereas the CC SN rate seems to peak in blue galaxies, as in the local Universe. SN rates per unit volume were found to be consistent with other measurements showing a steeper evolution with redshift for CC SNe with respect to SNe Ia. Finally we have exploited the link between star formation (SF) and SN rates to predict the evolutionary behaviour of the SN rates and compare it with the path indicated by observations.

M. T. Botticella; M. Riello; E. Cappellaro; S. Benetti; G. Altavilla; A. Pastorello; M. Turatto; L. Greggio; F. Patat; S. Valenti; L. Zampieri; A. Harutyunyan; G. Pignata; S. Taubenberger



Adsorbed state of thiophene on Si(100)-(2 1) surface studied by electron spectroscopic techniques and semiempirical methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

indicate that the adsorption behavior of thiophene depends on the reactivity of the silicon surfaces with the experimental facts. The proposed adsorption geometry is notably different from that of thiophene on the Si 111 were performed in an ion-pumped Per- kin Elmer UHV system which has a typical base pressure of 2 10 10

Kim, Sehun


School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology Building on 20 years of excellence and innovation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and accounts for 30% of the overhead generated at UH M¯anoa. SOEST offers a world-class undergraduate The Dean of SOEST humans have added to the atmosphere more than one quarter of its carbon dioxide since- ing intensity of the strongest tropical cyclones, notably in the Atlantic. For the first time

Wang, Yuqing



E-Print Network [OSTI]

stand in the way, and key among these, the interaction between graphene and its host substrate. Our work substrates, the affect of substrate chemistry and crystallography on the fundamental electronic properties notably, epitaxial graphene and electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. He received his Ph.D. from

Farritor, Shane


1 | P a g e Chem 124H Organic Chemistry Case Study #2: "Overcoming Bacterial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

resistance worldwide: causes, challenges and responses" Nat. Med. 2004, 10, pS122. c) "MRSA" (wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mrsa. The most notable resistant bacterium is Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA, "Superbug and sterilization are essential in hospitals to prevent the spread of MRSA and other resistant bacterial infections

Reed, Christopher A.


Aquatic Botany 76 (2003) 299315 Phosphorus uptake kinetics of a dominant tropical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laboratory, Biological Sciences Department, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL; Morse et al., 1987; Fourqurean et al., 1993; Jensen et al., 1998; Koch et al., 2001), with some notable in the observed P-limited growth of some tropical seagrass species (Short et al., 1985; Short, 1987; Powell et al

Koch-Rose, Marguerite


nature neurOSCIenCe VOLUME 16 | NUMBER 7 | JULY 2013 919 a r t I C l e S  

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in a multitude of neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, addiction range of social behaviors, including social recognition, aggression and maternal care15,16. Notably by mating. RESULTS TSA treatment facilitates partner preference Sexually naive female prairie voles were

Hull, Elaine


Exploring Cosmic Evolution with the FORS Deep Field I. Appenzeller 1 , R. Bender 2,5 , A. Bohm 3 , S. Frank 4 , K. Fricke 3 , A. Gabasch 2 , J. Heidt 1 , U.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. By that time various deep field projects (notably the HDF­N) had already resulted in important new informationExploring Cosmic Evolution with the FORS Deep Field I. Appenzeller 1 , R. Bender 2,5 , A. B?ohm 3­redshift galaxies, on the evolution of the galaxy luminosity function, of the cosmic star formation rate

Saglia, Roberto P.


New Architectures for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Alex B. F. Martinson,[a, b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New Architectures for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Alex B. F. Martinson,[a, b] Thomas W. Hamann of magnitude such as depicted in Figure 1. Abstract: Modern dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) tech- nology steadily climbing, one class--dye-sensi- tized solar cells (DSSCs)--has notably plateaued. After


Calcium-dependent Membrane Penetration Is a Hallmark of the C2 Domain of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 Whereas the C2A Domain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-stranded anti-parallel -sandwich. The most notable structural differ- ences occur in three loops at the calciumCalcium-dependent Membrane Penetration Is a Hallmark of the C2 Domain of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 of their structures and calcium binding. Here we demonstrate that the protein-lipid interaction is dramatically

Williams, Roger L.


Optimal control of interbank contagion under complete information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

infusions. This problem is motivated by the government interventions during the recent crisis, which took and the gain from these equity infusion programs is an important topic of notable research in the finance), Bayazitova and Shivdasani (2012), Philippon and Schnabl (2009). Several possible reasons for equity infusion


Chapter 11 Stark Spectroscopy of Photosynthetic Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This method probes the movement (if charge associated with optical excitation, and is thus sensitive field effects on reaction dynamics, notably electron transfer reactions (Boxer, 1993). Several recent as guests in host crystals, primar ily as a test of the predictions of molecular orbital ('orrcspomh

Boxer, Steven G.


Model-based Bayesian Seismic Monitoring  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

notable in the U.S. and Kazakhstan, where NET-VISA finds atRegion Japan U.S. Italy Kazakhstan LEB NET-VISA Precision36 to 48 ROM bulletin (ISC) Kazakhstan 46 to 86 40 to 55 NNC

Arora, Nimar S.



Photopigment spectral absorbance of Lake Malaw^ i R. JORDAN*, K. KELLOGG, D. HOWE, F. JUANES*,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, U.S.A., Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers). Two of the more notable theories generated to explain this astounding radiation are ecological is necessary. The spectral limits of visual perception are determined in part by the visual pigments within

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Procedural Level Generation Using Occupancy-Regulated Extension Peter Mawhorter, Michael Mateas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Procedural Level Generation Using Occupancy-Regulated Extension Peter Mawhorter, Michael Mateas Abstract-- Existing approaches to procedural level generation in 2D platformer games are, with some notable at arbitrary scales. I. INTRODUCTION A good procedural level generator must satisfy complex constraints

California at Santa Cruz, University of


A Hardware Acceleration Unit for MPI Queue Processing Keith D. Underwood, K. Scott Hemmert, Arun Rodrigues, Richard Murphy, and Ron Brightwell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

interface. With this important capability has come significant performance im- plications. Most notably- ing of moderate length queues in MPI. Simulations are used to compare the performance of an embedded, for the United States Department of En- ergy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE- AC04

Brightwell, Ron


On Digital Philosophy (Discrete Physics) and the Cellular Automaton: A Mathematical Deterministic Structure for Reality (as a Huge Computer Simulation)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this note we overview some notable definitions, works and thoughts concerning digital philosophy - that mainly, suggests a finite and discrete characteristic for the real world - and the cellular automaton which, definitely, could be a more (or maybe the one most) perfect mathematical deterministic model for physical world than other models.

Zahedi, Ramin



U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation Hearing on "A Time for Change: Improving the Federal Climate Change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Improving the Federal Climate Change Research and Information Program" November 14, 2007 Testimony of Dr to appear before you today to address improving the Federal climate change research and information program engaged in several assessments of the environmental consequences of climate change. Notably, I served


A conserved pattern of brain scaling from sharks to primates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A conserved pattern of brain scaling from sharks to primates Kara E. Yopaka,b,1 , Thomas J. Lisneyc June 4, 2010 (received for review February 23, 2010) Several patterns of brain allometry previously. In each clade, the relative size of brain parts, with the notable exception of the olfactory bulbs

Finlay, Barbara L.


1920 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 46, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 1998 Injection-and Phase-Locking Techniques  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the wireless communications, imaging, and automotive electronics markets for active, "smart" antenna array, these wireless applications will likely suffer the same constraints as the automotive radar electronics. Most notably, these are: cost, size, and efficiency. For automotive-collision avoidance or blind

York, Robert A.



E-Print Network [OSTI]

) The distribution and abundance of any species on Earth is governed most notably by: (a) the physical nature of the surrounding landscape (b) the presence of predators (c) the temperature (d) the availability of water (2 of the above (5) The shape of the Earth is important in determining the amount of energy received by the sun

Kah, Linda



E-Print Network [OSTI]

.Eng. Department of Mechanical Engineering NORTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY DeKalb, Illinois 60115-2828, U.S.A. Web.kostic.niu.edu/CVita/Kostic_C-Vita.pdf Milivoje M. Kostic, Ph.D., P.Eng., Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Northern Illinois University, is a notable researcher and scholar in energy fundamentals and applications, including nanotechnology

Kostic, Milivoje M.



E-Print Network [OSTI]

at Northern Illinois University, is a notable researcher and scholar in energy fundamentals and applications were similar. 1986-88 Research Associate, Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago. KOSTIC, Ph.D., P.Eng. Department of Mechanical Engineering NORTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY DeKalb, Illinois

Kostic, Milivoje M.


To link to this article : DOI:10.1023/A:1011062505107 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1011062505107  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and De Grave, Eddy and Vandenberghe, Robert E. From ceramicmatrix nanocomposites to the synthesis) pp. 275-300" DOI : 10.1023/A:1011062505107 #12;From ceramicmatrix nanocomposites to the synthesis and organic materials. Ceramicmatrix nanocomposites have been widely studied in recent years, notably metal

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de


Quantitative Analysis of UML Models Florian Leitner-Fischer and Stefan Leue  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

industrial partner TRW Automotive GmbH we have proven the applicability of probabilistic verification was that of probabilistic Failure Modes Effect Analysis (pFMEA) [GCW07]. The most notable shortcoming of the approach models and the modeling languages that they are typically written in. TRW Automotive GmbH, like many

Leue, Stefan


Submitted to: c F. Leitner-Fischer & S. Leue  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with our industrial partner TRW Automotive GmbH we have proven the applica- bility of probabilistic was that of probabilistic Failure Modes Effect Analysis (pFMEA) [12]. The most notable shortcoming of the approach that we and the modeling languages that they are typically written in. TRW Automotive GmbH, like many other software

Leue, Stefan


STERN REVIEW: The Economics of Climate Change Executive Summary  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

notably in creating price signals and markets for carbon, spurring technology research, development and to the Prime Minister, as a contribution to assessing the evidence and building understanding of the economics and deployment, and promoting adaptation, particularly for developing countries. Climate change presents a unique

Ford, Andrew


Page 1 of 3 ES&H Quarterly Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Page 1 of 3 ES&H Quarterly Report Directorate: Particle Physics & Astrophysics 3rd Quarter FY ES&H Manual Chapter 33 requirements based on supervisors. Notable trends and followup actions trained in the new the ES&H Manual Chapter 33 walkthrough requirements. The walkthroughs and recording

Wechsler, Risa H.


Ultrafast X-ray Diffraction Theory Jianshu Cao* and Kent R. Wilson  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

notablely using ultrafast optical pump-probe pulses. Unfortunately, except for a few favorable cases of a sample is initiated by an ultrafast optical laser pulse and then probed by an ultrafast X-ray pulse initiated by the optical pump pulse in real time and real space.9-11 From a simple viewpoint, ultrafast X

Cao, Jianshu


Wiki as a Pedagogical Tool for Translation Teaching HARI VENKATESAN ROBERT P. BIUK-AGHAI  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the classroom. As technology improved around the mid 1990s, computers and the new Internet began to be seen in technology and notably the advent of the Internet. Computer Aided Instruction, the precursor to CSCL, brought about automation of data dissemination, test-taking, language drills etc. that radically changed

Biuk-Aghai, Robert P.


Agron. Sustain. Dev. c INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of biofuel chains, notably the impact on global warming. This tool, whose holistic nature is fundamental by 2030 a global 10% biofuel share in the transport sector, contributing to lower global greenhouse gas online at: www.agronomy-journal.org for Sustainable Development Biofuels, greenhouse gases and climate

Boyer, Edmond


MILP islanding of power networks by bus splitting P. A. Trodden, W. A. Bukhsh, A. Grothey, and K. I. M. McKinnon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

]­[7]. A more recently occurring factor is increased penetration of variable distributed generation, notably into `viable' islands. Motives for splitting range from islands balanced in load and generation to electroMILP islanding of power networks by bus splitting P. A. Trodden, W. A. Bukhsh, A. Grothey, and K. I

Grothey, Andreas


Endorser affiliations are for identification purposes only and do not reflect views of their academic institutions. October 18, 2013 Iowa Climate Statement 2013: A Rising Challenge to Iowa Agriculture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gases. Climate change damages agriculture in additional ways. Intense rain events, the most notable is now increasingly threatened by rising greenhouse gas emissions and resulting climate change. Our climate has disrupted agricultural production profoundly during the past two years and is projected

Debinski, Diane M.



E-Print Network [OSTI]

industries are expanding, notably in the automotive industry. Furthermore, natural fibres have the intrinsic® and Terralin® ) must be characterized. Vacuum moulded Flax/PLA and Flax/PP samples were made, and samples based on sisal, flax, hemp fibres associated to either PLA, PP or epoxy matrix and exposed to distilled

Boyer, Edmond

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


Consolidating Capitalism By Jeffrey Sachs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

industrial democracies act with wisdom, they have a chance to consolidate a global capitalist world system.S. leadership and fractious relations among the industrial democracies are already putting at risk. With a few notable exceptions, the market revolution has gone hand in hand with a democratic revolution


On the distribution of magnetic null points above the solar photosphere D.W. Longcope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vanishes. In several astrophysical contexts, most notably the solar corona, energy is released within a lowOn the distribution of magnetic null points above the solar photosphere D.W. Longcope Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9SS, UK (Dated: March 4, 2003) Many

Priest, Eric


Life Sciences Division E-Newsletter August 24, 2007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the discussion of radiation risk relevant to low dose exposures. Eleanor Blakely and Amy Kronenberg were members presentations of their research in low dose and charged particle radiation biology. DOE was a notable supporter -------------------------------------- Low Dose Forum Life Sciences Division scientists and research were prominently featured at the 13th

Knowles, David William


Refraction of dispersive shock waves , V.V. Khodorovskii 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a dispersive counterpart of the classical gas dynamics problem of the interaction of a shock wave investigations, most notably in Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) (see, e.g., [8, 32, 6]), where these waves problem involves complicated analysis of nonlinear multiphase wavetrains (see e.g. [22] for the Kd



E-Print Network [OSTI]

product) and acetic (0,1-0,3 per cent) acids are produced by carbohydrate fermentation. The silage p mas grain humide, la fermentation des glucides entrane une pro- duction notable d'acides lactique (0 degradative change is practically inhi- bited after 3 to 8 months : in our assays, lactic and acetic acids

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de


NATURE PHYSICS | VOL 8 | FEBRUARY 2012 | www.nature.com/naturephysics 101 The hands of the Doomsday Clock have  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the power plant. (Brighter news, as Nature Physics goes to press, is that the Main Ring of J of global threat, notably that of climate change. In 1947, the clock was set initially at seven minutes the issues of both nuclear materials and the environment -- that is, the safety of nuclear power

Loss, Daniel


POLLAN, MICHAEL Nicolas Larchet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­ it was dubbed by its editor as "a modern Walden." Pollan notably argued here that the soil benefits of compost experience in a 1987 essay for Harper's, "Cultivating Virtue: Compost and Its Moral Imperatives", which "don't account for the halo of righteousness that has come to hover over compost and those who make it

Recanati, Catherine


The Research Agency of the Forestry Commission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Rural Affairs (Defra), Department for Transport (DfT), Department for Energy and Climate Change (DECC on behaviour and behaviour change, most notably in relation to health, the environment, travel, and energy use woodland management, physical exercise and renewable energy use. A range of intervention types are already


ii Colorado Climate Table of Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;ii Colorado Climate Table of Contents An Unusually Heavy Snowfall in North Central Colorado . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 A Brief History of Colorado's Most Notable Snowstorms" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Colorado Climate Water Year 2003 Vol. 4, No. 1-4 If you have a photo or slide that your would like


SPE-163690-MS Synthetic, Geomechanical Logs for Marcellus Shale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SPE-163690-MS Synthetic, Geomechanical Logs for Marcellus Shale M. O. Eshkalak, SPE, S. D of hydrocarbons from the reservoirs, notably shale, is attributed to realizing the key fundamentals of reservoir and mineralogy is crucial in order to identify the "right" pay-zone intervals for shale gas production. Also

Mohaghegh, Shahab


Alex Davies ajd74@cam.ac.uk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from JVM bytecode were all completed successfully. In addition, I wrote tools to help me to achieve. The implementations on a desk- top and microcontroller device (Altera DE2 board), some examples, and the translator the core aims, notably an assembler and a tool to organise the routines that emulate instructions. Also

Ghahramani, Zoubin