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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

NOTABLE SCIENTISTS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of particle physics discoveries which continue to this day, most recently with the Higgs Boson. 2. George Grover invented heat pipes at Los Alamos in 1963. Despite their name,...

2

JGI - Notable Scientific Publications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Notable Scientific Publications Notable Scientific Publications May 5, 2013 Nonhybrid, finished microbial genome assemblies from long-read SMRT sequencing data. (Nature Methods.) We present a hierarchical genome-assembly process (HGAP) for high-quality de novo microbial genome assemblies using only a single, long-insert shotgun DNA library in conjunction with Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) DNA sequencing. Our method uses the longest reads as seeds to recruit all other reads for construction of highly accurate preassembled reads through a directed acyclic graph–based consensus procedure, which we follow with assembly using off-the-shelf long-read assemblers. March 24, 2013 The high-quality draft genome of peach (Prunus persica) identifies unique patterns of genetic diversity, domestication and genome evolution. (Nature

3

Real-time creased approximate subdivision surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present an extension of recently developed Loop and Schaefer's approximation of Catmull-Clark surfaces (ACC) for surfaces with creases and corners which are essential for most applications. We discuss the integration of ACC into Valve's Source game ... Keywords: GPU tessellation, geometric modeling, hardware rendering, subdivision surfaces, video games

Denis Kovacs; Jason Mitchell; Shanon Drone; Denis Zorin

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Iterative Decoding and Turbo Equalization: The Z-Crease Phenomenon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Iterative probabilistic inference, popularly dubbed the soft-iterative paradigm, has found great use in a wide range of communication applications, including turbo decoding and turbo equalization. The classic approach of analyzing the iterative approach inevitably use the statistical and information-theoretical tools that bear ensemble-average flavors. This paper consider the per-block error rate performance, and analyzes it using nonlinear dynamical theory. By modeling the iterative processor as a nonlinear dynamical system, we report a universal "Z-crease phenomenon:" the zig-zag or up-and-down fluctuation -- rather than the monotonic decrease -- of the per-block errors, as the number of iteration increases. Using the turbo decoder as an example, we also report several interesting motion phenomenons which were not previously reported, and which appear to correspond well with the notion of "pseudo codewords" and "stopping/trapping sets." We further propose a heuristic stopping criterion to control Z-crease and identify the best iteration. Our stopping criterion is most useful for controlling the worst-case per-block errors, and helps to significantly reduce the average-iteration numbers.

Jing Li; Kai Xie

2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

5

Thickness measurement and crease detection of wheat grains using stereo vision  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wheat grain quality assessment is important in meeting market requirements. The thickness of grains can be used for the measurement of the mass proportion of grains that pass through a sieve. This measure is known as ''screenings''. The determination ... Keywords: Grain crease detection, Grain thickness measurement, Stereo vision

Changming Sun; Mark Berman; David Coward; Brian Osborne

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Transverse masses and kinematic constraints: from the boundary to the crease  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

work by Cheng and Han. Their proof that mT2 admits an equivalent, but implicit, definition as the ‘boundary of the region of parent and daughter masses that is kinematically consistent with the event hypothesis’ is far-reaching in its consequences. We... in the definition is lost, gives rise to a strange kink behaviour. What does all of this mean? Recently, Cheng and Han, gave an elegant interpreta- tion of the function mT2(mi) [47].4 They showed that, for a given event, it defines the boundary of the region...

Barr, Alan; Gripaios, Ben; Christopher, Lester

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Temporal variability in zooplankton prey capture rate of the passive ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

crease our understanding of energy fluxes in temperate ...... of Mexico. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 87:275–281. Officer CB, Smayda TJ, Mann R (1982) Benthic filter ...

8

Baylor Fox-Kemper Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences and D epartment of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.1177/097215090901000201 Introduction Globalization carries with it the risk of de- creased human rights in developing countries (Tandon', Business Strategy and the Environment, 12(5): 326­37. Tandon, Y. 1999. `The World Trade Organisation

Colorado at Boulder, University of

9

Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, 20(2) 389--399 (2012) Recent Advances in Flame Tomography*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-fuel combustion, co-firing biomass with coal and fluid- ized bed combustion. Flame characteristics under to be the main source of energy in many countries in the years to come. Coal-fired power stations are burning an in- creasingly varied range of fuels and fuel blends, in- cluding sub-bituminous and lower volatile

Yan, Yong

10

A biologically-consistent stand growth model for loblolly pine in the Piedmont physiographic region, USA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

climate, nutrition and carbon cycling modules for studying the effects of a changing environment. Key words: Pinus taeda, state space,, hybrid model, carbon, climate change, forest nutrition 1. Introduction, vegetation control, or genetic improvement. In- creasingly, there is interest in predicting responses to cli

García, Oscar

11

Application of Electromagnetic Waves in Durable Press Finishing with Polycarboxylic Acid: 2000 AATC International Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The treatment in a microwave oven described in this report has been done for the purose of preliminary research. New and innovative thermal treatments are presented, aimed at achieving better effects in crease-resistant treatments of cellulosic fabrics. Results obtained after treatment in a microwave oven are compared with those obtained after conventional thermal condensation treatment in a stenter. Favorable results indicate the need for further investigations of the application of microwave treatment ...

2000-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

12

Does Daylight Saving Time Save Energy? Evidence from a Natural Experiment in Indiana  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on residential electricity demand, we conduct the first-everin- creases residential electricity demand. Estimates of theDST and residential electricity demand. Our results provide

Kotchen, Matthew J; Grant, Laura E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

rencontre en quantit notable a peu de distance du granite, par consquent une profondeur relative-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

relative- ment très élevée, fait déjà constaté à Joaclumsthal. La mine de Weisser Ilirseh près de minéraux d'uranium prove- nani, de la décomposition de la pechblende : chalcolithe, zeunérite, walpurgine granite. Les minéraux d'uranium rencontrés dans le district sont la pechurane se pré- sentant en belles

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

14

New and Notable 1271 Prevelige, P. E., J. King and J. L. Silva. 1994.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

immobile, but glycophorin diffuses at control rates; and 3) anti-glycophorin antibody-treated Miltenberger

Knowles, David William

15

Section 5.2.2 Air Distribution Systems: Greening Federal Facilities...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and yield substantial energy savings. Small in- creases in duct diameter can yield large pressure drop and fan energy savings, because the pressure drop in ducts is proportional...

16

Sandia National Laboratories Heterojunction for Multi ...  

In space applications, an in-creased solar cell efficiency is advantageous for increasing the available electrical power or reducing satellite mass and launch cost

17

Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Consumer Search: An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Search with Learning from Prices: Does In- creased In?Gilbert (1997) “Do Gasoline Prices Respond Asymmet- ricallyto Crude Oil Price Changes? ” The Quarterly Journal of

Lewis, Matt

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

ARE Update Volume 13, Number 4  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels In- creases Greenhousea mini- mum volume of biofuels and requires a nationalper unit of various biofuels. For example, corn ethanol

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Electricity Merger Policy in the Shadow of Regulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

intrastate natural gas transport and storage in the region.and storage and balancing services are unbundled from other gas suppliers (notably Gas Natural),

Gilbert, Richard J; Newberry, David M

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Wind Power Price Trends in the United States: Struggling to Remain Competitive in the Face of Strong Growth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cost of both natural gas and coal power plants in the Unitedof natural gas- and coal-fired power plants. Most notably,

Bolinger, Mark A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Geographic Trends Among Same-Sex Couples in the US Census and the American Community Survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atlanta, Philadelphia and Detroit. In all cases the citiesTable 2). Notably, in both Detroit and Philadelphia, thatPopulation increase Atlanta Detroit Philadelphia Louisville/

Gates, Gary J

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Iron distribution and phytoplankton iron limitation in the southern California Current System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of notable sustained offshore wind events from National Buoypotentially advect offshore and mix with wind stress curlnearshore and wind stress curl upwelling offshore) and, in

King, Andrew Luke

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Highlights  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 Year in Review I nternational crude oil prices experienced notable in- creases during 1999, as fundamental market condi- tions changed significantly over the year. Throughout the first two months of the year, prices languished as several factors including abundant stocks of both crude oil and finished products, slow demand, and warm winter temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere dominated market trends. Lackluster demand for all petroleum products in key markets helped sustain glutted inventories and prevented any meaningful re- covery for prices. Consequently, refining margins shrank to unprofitable levels and led to reduced refin- ery runs. The cutback in runs decreased draws on crude oil stocks, which in turn affected prices. Plentiful wellhead production, particularly in Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) nations, exac- erbated the effects of

24

Stability and Reactivity of Iron Sulfide Films in Sour Environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Iron sulfide scales form on steels in the presence of H2S, notably in the extreme environments that exist in the oil and gas fields. Our research ...

25

Supplement to State of the Climate in 2006  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The State of the Climate in 2006 report summarizes the year's weather and climate conditions, both globally and regionally. In addition, the year is placed into a long-term climatological context. Furthermore, notable events are also discussed.

A. Arguez

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Load balancing utilizing data redundancy in distributed volume rendering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In interactive volume rendering, the cost for rendering a certain block of the volume strongly varies with dynamically changing parameters (most notably the camera position and orientation). In distributed environments — wherein each compute device ...

S. Frey; T. Ertl

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Interdecadal Changes in El Niño Onset in the Last Four Decades  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The characteristics of the onset of the Pacific basin-wide warming have experienced notable changes since the late 1970s. The changes are caused by a concurrent change in the background state on which El Niño evolves.

Bin Wang

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Building Technologies Program - 1995 Annual Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CFL fixture achieves the highest fixture efficiency byCFL, and a 22-watt Circline™ fluorescent lamp, with fixture efficienciesCFL rather than the typical A-Lamp have the possibility of significantly in- creasing fixture efficiency

Selkowitz, S.E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Marrying Poor: Women's Citizenship, Race, and TANF Policies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

programs is one study of eight ACF-funded "Building StrongAssistant Secretary for the ACF under President George W.for Children and Families (ACF) in- creased. 174 As of 2005,

Gallo, Cristina

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Hadamard Transform Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the ions. This multiplexing scheme in- creases the ion usage to 50% for a single detector instrument consists of a combination of magnetic and electric resolving stages. This is probably the oldest type

Zare, Richard N.

31

Section 7.1.4 Low-Slope Roofing: Greening Federal Facilities...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

rigid-foam roof insulation is loose-laid on top, and the insulation is protected by ballast. This configuration both in- creases the roof membrane life by protecting it from UV...

32

Development FERTILIZER CONSUMPTION TRENDS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INTRODUCTION: It is well understood that intensification of smallholder agriculture is critical to future economic development in most of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). There is a widespread view, however, that smallholders ’ use of agricultural inputs, notably

T. S. Jayne; Valerie Kelly; Eric Crawford

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Trend Reversal in Lake Michigan Contribution to Snowfall  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the most notable ways the Laurentian Great Lakes impact the region’s climate is by augmenting snowfall in downwind locations during autumn and winter months. Among many negative consequences, this surplus of snow can cause substantial ...

Luke Bard; David A. R. Kristovich

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Bayesian Estimation of Stochastic Parameterizations in a Numerical Weather Forecasting Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Parameterizations in numerical models account for unresolved processes. These parameterizations are inherently difficult to construct and as such typically have notable imperfections. One approach to account for this uncertainty is through ...

Yong Song; Christopher K. Wikle; Christopher J. Anderson; Steven A. Lack

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Productivity and Performance in Parallel Programming Environments using a novel Virtual Machine Framework  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a novel virtualization framework for rapid prototyping in parallel programming environments, without incurring notable performance penalty. The centerpiece of this approach is a high-level functional language, and a "parallel and pipelined" ...

Raja Neogi

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

A Method for Diagnosing the Sources of Infrasound in Convective Storm Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a convenient method for diagnosing the sources of infrasound in a numerical simulation of a convective storm. The method is based on an exact acoustic wave equation for the perturbation Exner function ??. One notable source ...

David A. Schecter

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Projected Tasman Sea extremes in sea surface temperature through the 21st Century  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ocean climate extremes have received little treatment in the literature, aside from coastal sea level and temperatures affecting coral bleaching. Further, it is notable that extremes, e.g., temperature and precipitation, are typically not well ...

Eric C. J. Oliver; Simon J. Wotherspoon; Matt A. Chamberlain; Neil J. Holbrook

38

Field measurement of the fate of atmospheric H? in a forest environment : from canopy to soil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric hydrogen (H? ), an indirect greenhouse gas, plays a notable role in the chemistry of the atmosphere and ozone layer. Current anthropogenic emissions of H? are substantial and may increase with its widespread ...

Meredith, Laura Kelsey, 1982-

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Quantum noise and radiation pressure effects in high power optical interferometers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In recent years, a variety of mechanical systems have been approaching quantum limits to their sensitivity of continuous position measurements imposed by the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. Most notably, gravitational ...

Corbitt, Thomas Randall

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Interannual Variability of Tropical Cyclones in the Australian Region: Role of Large-Scale Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the role of large-scale environmental factors, notably sea surface temperature (SST), low-level relative vorticity, and deep-tropospheric vertical wind shear, in the interannual variability of November–April tropical ...

Hamish A. Ramsay; Lance M. Leslie; Peter J. Lamb; Michael B. Richman; Mark Leplastrier

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

The characterization of obesity and noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus in Swiss Webster mice associated with late-onset hepatocellular carcinoma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Despite increased awareness of the obesity epidemic and a higher incidence of the metabolic syndrome in humans, the incidence of obesity and its comorbidities-most notably, type II diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease ...

Lemke, Laura B. (Laura Beth)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Towards the digital government of the 21st century: a report from the workshop on research and development opportunities in federal information services  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A partnership between Government agencies and the information technologies research community has succeeded in the past for the benefit of the Nation. The most notable example is the emergence of the Internet as the basis for broad scientific, cultural, ...

Herbert Schorr; Salvatore J. Stolfo

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Prenatal alcohol exposure pattern and timing and minor structural malformations and growth deficiencies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

al. , 1998). The best-fitting hockey stick functions for theother features, such as “hockey stick” palmar crease, haveexcavatum, camptodactyly, “hockey stick” palmar creases,

Sawada, Glenda Haruna

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Managing Risk in Disaster Scenarios with Autonomous Robots  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of damage. · The initial response to the disaster is limited to only those local rescue assets that have had some limited use in disaster response, most notably the responses led by the Center for Robot1 Managing Risk in Disaster Scenarios with Autonomous Robots Daniel P. Stormont and Vicki H. Allan

Allan, Vicki H.

45

Geometric Tomography: A Limited-View Approach for Computed Tomography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- sitions is increasing to improve image quality which further increases patient radiation exposure as well of the internal organs of the body. As a result, CT is used routinely in the clinical arena to obtain three resulted in a substantial rise in population-radiation-dose [1], which may lead to an in- creased incidence

Corso, Jason J.

46

Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Utah  

SciTech Connect

The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the current Utah code, the 2006 IECC. The most notable changes are improved duct sealing and efficient lighting requirements. A limited analysis of these changes resulted in estimated savings of $168 to $188 for an average new house in Utah at recent fuel prices.

Cole, Pamala C.; Lucas, Robert G.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Revisions in Natural Gas Monthly Consumption and Price Data, 2004 - 2007  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report summarizes the method in which natural gas consumption data are collected and processed for publication and details the most notable revisions in natural gas consumption data for the period 2004 to 2007. It is intended to assist data users in evaluating the quality of the monthly consumption and price data for residential, commercial, and industrial consumers of natural gas.

Information Center

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

48

Parallelization of an existing high-energy physics event reconstruction software package  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Software parallelization allows an efficient use of available computing power to in- crease the performance of applications. In a case study we have investigated the parallelization of high-energy physics event reconstruction software in terms of costs (effort, computing resource requirements), benefits (performance increase), and the feasibility of a systematic parallelization approach. Guidelines facilitating a parallel implementation are proposed for future software development.

Schiefer, R

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Mechanical engineering Department Seminar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

power generation gas turbines and jet engines. As the energy efficiency of gas turbines in- creases to pro- vide thermal protection to turbine blades and vanes in the hottest sections of both electric with turbine inlet turbine, advances in turbine efficiency depend on improved ther- mal barrier coatings

50

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS (TO APPEAR) 1 Optimal Placement of Phasor Measurement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

their deployment on every bus, which in turn motivates their strategic placement across the power grid. As state estimation is at the core of grid monitoring, PMU deployment is optimized here based on estimation concentrators. Merits of PMUs (a.k.a. synchrophasors) over conventional power meters include in- creased

Giannakis, Georgios

51

UMORE PARK -INTEGRATING SOLAR Overview, Solar Optimization & Technologies, & Recommendations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cost to the university. It is most often used for photovoltaic systems (PV). Instead of having to pay lower than current costs) in return for allowing the third party to install PV on the roof. The third the surprises of rapidly in- creasing fossil fuel costs. At the end of the 15-20 year contract, the system is ei

Netoff, Theoden

52

I . . . . . Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Vol. 75A, No. 3, pp. 397-400, 1983  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at the same temperature (Fish, 1979) and faster swimming speeds would necessitate in- creased convective heat by a platic grid in con- junction with a 5cm wide grid of plastic straws, both of which removed turbulence electric grid which stimulated swimming by the muskrat. Wires attached to the grid ran along the floor

Fish, Frank

53

Introduction Cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a transparent conducting oxide to create a series connection. ITO is indium tin oxide; CIGS is copper indium photovoltaic modules are entering the renewable energy marketplace in in- creasing volume, with more than cells. A number of such buffer layers have been used, the most common of which are undoped tin oxide (Sn

Beach, Joe

54

Managing Constructibility Reviews to Reduce Highway Project Durations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- creases costs. Research confirms that schedule compression has led to increases in project cost CII 1989 in project cost provided certain tech- niques are applied during project development and especially dur- ing to have the highest potential to reduce project duration without increasing total project cost. Project

Ford, David N.

55

Real-time rendering of textures with feature curves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The standard bilinear interpolation on normal maps results in visual artifacts along sharp features, which are common for surfaces with creases, wrinkles, and dents. In many cases, spatially varying features, like the normals near discontinuity curves, ... Keywords: Curvilinear feature rendering, GPU algorithms, distance function, normal mapping, resolution independence

Evgueni Parilov; Denis Zorin

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Disruption Management ( Operations Research between planning and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

creasing the cost of production gives rise to an increased demand for robustness in plans and calls ... T he monitoring and re-planning process is referred to as the control process. A s ..... have little help in estimating the quality of the recovery action they are about to. 8 .... and equipment , both of w hich are scarce resources.

57

The July 1995 Heat Wave in the Midwest: A Climatic Perspective and Critical Weather Factors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A brief but intense heat wave developed in the central and eastern United States in mid-July 1995, causing hundreds of fatalities. The most notable feature of this event was the development of very high dewpoint temperature (Td) over the southern ...

Kenneth E. Kunkel; Stanley A. Changnon; Beth C. Reinke; Raymond W. Arritt

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

SECTOR: secure tracking of node encounters in multi-hop wireless networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we present SECTOR, a set of mechanisms for the secure verification of the time of encounters between nodes in multi-hop wireless networks. This information can be used notably to prevent wormhole attacks (without requiring any clock synchronization), ... Keywords: mobile networks, mobility, positioning, security, security associations

Srdjan ?apkun; Levente Buttyán; Jean-Pierre Hubaux

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Schwertmannite and Fe oxides formed by biological low-pH Fe(II) oxidation versus abiotic neutralization: Impact  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a composite breakwater where a monolithic vertical concrete caisson rests on a rubble mound foundation has been attributed to experience and continued research. The con- ventional rubble mound breakwaters). However, economic benefits of composite breakwaters are realized as the water depth in- creases and also

Borch, Thomas

60

Surface morphological evolution during annealing of epitaxial Cu,,001... J. M. Purswani and D. Galla  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Landowners will also benefit from de- creased mound density because high RIFA-infestation levels reduce land or reduce ant infestations. Pastures planted with WW-B.Dahl had about one-third the fire ant mounds found or in mound vitality ratings, suggesting that more than one measure of ant infestation is needed to accurately

Gall, Daniel

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Random-Walk Models of Term Semantics: An Application to Opinion-Related Properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(ORPs), such as positivity and negativity, has recently attracted a lot of interest, due to in- creased.g. (Hatzi- vassiloglou and McKeown, 1997)) operated at the term level (i.e., by assuming that ORPs qualify.e., by assuming that ORPs qualify term senses, or synsets) (Andreevskaia and Bergler, 2006a; Esuli and Sebastiani

Sebastiani, Fabrizio

62

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 53375350, 2013 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/13/5337/2013/  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transporter, without after-treatment, idle conditions 13d 31/08/2009 cold idle 60 to 130 nm 0.11 14d 02 particle-associated organics (Robinson et al., 2007). The mass of PM emitted by diesel engines with no aftertreatment devices can decrease with in- creasing dilution ratio. This mass reduction is associated with semi

Meskhidze, Nicholas

63

1Prepared by BG Rahm & SJ Riha (NYS Water Resources Institute), D Yoxtheimer (Penn State Marcellus Center for Outreach and Research), E Boyer (PA Water Resources Research Center), D Carder (WVU Center for Alternative Fuels, Engines, and Emissions), K Davi  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transporter, without after-treatment, idle conditions 13d 31/08/2009 cold idle 60 to 130 nm 0.11 14d 02 particle-associated organics (Robinson et al., 2007). The mass of PM emitted by diesel engines with no aftertreatment devices can decrease with in- creasing dilution ratio. This mass reduction is associated with semi

64

j . Phycol. 17, 346-352 (1981) SORPTION OF PLUTONIUM-237 BY TWO SPECIES OF  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

plutonium (Edgington et al. 1978). However, the mechanism of Pu-sorption by phyto- plankton has not been plutonium (Vaughan and Strand 1972). The adsorption kinetics of--'^Pu by phytoplankton were very similar to plutonium. De- creased availability could be due to low levels of Pu left in solution after initial algal

Yen, Jeannette

65

Optimisation of Concentrating Solar Thermal Power Plants with Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimisation of Concentrating Solar Thermal Power Plants with Neural Networks Pascal Richter1 of solar power for energy supply is of in- creasing importance. While technical development mainly takes introduce our tool for the optimisation of parameterised solar thermal power plants, and report

Ábrahám, Erika

66

(plexiglass) covers (negligible transmittance at 290320 nm). NOx emission decreased  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that the controlling NOx formation and reduction reactions are insensi- tive to coal rank. This observation has been as the initial NOx level in- creases suggests that the char/NO reduction step(s) is more temperature sensitive concentrations cannot be reduced to levels ap- proaching 0 ppm without the use of downstream NOx reduction

67

Bimodal Character of Cyclone Climatology in the Bay of Bengal Modulated by Monsoon Seasonal Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The annual cycle of tropical cyclone (TC) frequency over the Bay of Bengal (BoB) exhibits a notable bimodal character, different from a single peak in other basins. The causes of this peculiar feature were investigated through the diagnosis of a ...

Zhi Li; Weidong Yu; Tim Li; V. S. N. Murty; Fredolin Tangang

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Rainfall and Atmospheric Circulation during Drought Periods and Wetter Years in West Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The semiarid regions of Africa experienced a number of extreme rainfall fluctuations in the present century, most notable of which are the “wet” 1950's and the drought 1968–75. Thirty-seven century-long regional rainfall departure series evidence ...

Sharon E. Nicholson

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Design of a DICOM image-based program for estimating patient exposure dose in computed tomography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the past decade, there has been a notable worldwide increase in the number of computed tomographic (CT) examinations. Since the radiation exposure to the patient during CT examinations is relatively high, it is important to optimize the dose so ... Keywords: DICOM, computed tomography (CT), effective dose

Shuji Yamamoto; Tetsuya Horiuchi; Junko Sekiguchi; Shigeo Wada; Mitsuru Komizu; Takami Yamaguchi

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

A cohort study of Plasmodium falciparum infection dynamics in Western Kenya Highlands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

availability of the asymptomatic, untreated malaria reservoir and the notably high efficiency of malaria transmission

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

State-of-Knowledge on Deposition, Part 2: Assessment of Deposition Activity in Fossil Plant Units  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the last 20 years, substantial advances have been made in the understanding and control of fossil plant cycle chemistry. In spite of these advances, deposition activity, most notably in boilers and steam turbines, remains an issue of concern to many organizations that operate fossil units. The underlying science of deposition in fossil unit components has not, with the exception of steam turbines, been studied extensively under the EPRI Boiler and Turbine Steam and Cycle Chemistry Program. This repo...

2003-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

72

Energy and the economy: Soaring development in Thailand  

SciTech Connect

Thailand's economy is one of the fastest growing in the world. Spectacular economic growth has brought a number of growing pains, energy being one of the many notables. Thailand's growth campaign has been fueled by oil, and as the economy shows little sign of slowing, energy use continues to grow. The government must balance a surging economy while scrambling to maintain sufficient energy supplies and infrastructure.

1993-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

73

Towards a Lasting Peace in Nepal: The Constitutional Issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, nor that the threat of going ahead with parliamentary elections without them could be carried out. Some kind of political transition was unavoidable. Information and Communications Minister Mohammed 43 Crisis Group interview with political... father in following Pakistani precedents: while Mahendra had drawn on General Ayub Khan's example, Gyanendra tried to emulate General Pervez Musharraf. But the most notable parallels and continuities were not with any external example...

International Crisis Group

2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

Specialist in Industry Economics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is a prospect of exceedingly large reserves of crude oil and natural gas in the Caspian Sea region, and a consequent large increase in the production of oil and gas from that area. Because diversity of energy sources is a consideration in Congressional deliberations on energy policy, this prospect could play a role in policy discussions. However, there are notable obstacles to increases in Caspian Sea region production of oil and gas both now and in the future that may slow development. The Caspian Sea is a 700-mile-long body of water in central Asia, landlocked

Bernard A. Gelb

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Life in the Fast Lane - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mathematics has fundamentally affected technology, most notably computers. ... Communications (between researchers): Ordinary mail, phone, fax, e-mail, and ...

76

Trends in Regional U.S. Electricity and Natural Gas Price Elasticity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The extent to which consumers are likely to alter energy consumption in response to energy price changes continues to be a critical element in energy policy analysis. Notably, climate change policies that are expected to increase the price of electricity will engender different consequences for the power industry, state economies, and power users, depending on how consumers respond to those prices. Understanding and acknowledging such impacts will be critical to the proper implementation of such policies...

2010-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

77

Thin-walled composite deployable booms with tape-spring hinges  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chapter, Chap- ter 2 begins with a brief review of the development of stored energy deployable structures. The first part of the chapter describes tape-spring hinge designs used in the space industry followed by larger deployable structures based... The simplest stored-energy deployable structure is the tape spring, of which an example is the steel tape measure (also known as carpenter tape). They are in- creasingly being used as a replacement of more traditional hinge mechanisms due to their high...

Mallikarachchi, H.M. Yasitha Chinthaka

2011-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

78

Editorial  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and analyze new resampling algorithms for particle filters that are suitable for real-time implementation. By de- creasing the number of operations and memory access, the algorithms reduce the complexity of both hardware and DSP realization. The performance... of the algorithms is evaluated on particle filters applied to bearings-only tracking and joint detection and estimation in wireless communications. In “A new class of particle filters for random dynamic sys- tems with unknown statistics,” M?´guez et al. propose a...

2004-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

79

Experimental observation of nonspherically-decaying radiation from a rotating superluminal source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, United Kingdom J. Singleton National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, TA-35, MS-E536, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 H. Ardavan Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, United Kingdom... of (retarded) source time. Consequently, the intensity of the radiation in the direction of these cusps declines more slowly with in- creasing distance from the source than would the emis- sion from a conventional antenna. Note, however, that energy...

Ardavan, A; Hayes, W; Singleton, J; Ardavan, H; Fopma, J; Halliday, D

2004-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

80

The Background to the Political Instability in Uganda  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Omwony Ojwok, and Y ash Tandon. The only notable omissionsRugumayo, Ojok and Tandon) , scattered. 52 The system of

Nyeko, Balam

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

The land around typical Darfur refugee camps is cleared of all wood 2 T H E T R O U B L E W I T H C O O K I N Gthe impact of biomass-burning on health & enviornment and what we are doing about it  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

O O K I N Gthe impact of biomass-burning on health & enviornment and what we are doing about it H fire By 2030, biomass use for cooking is projected to in- crease by an addi- tional 30%13 References [1-Darfur Stove World Population 3B 7B 3B 4B Biomass Users Non-Biomass Users 2 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0deaths annually

Eisen, Michael

82

Second-Generation Nickel-Base Single Crystal Superalloy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

creased, the demands placed on turbine airfoils have escalated dramatically. ... The demand- ing goals established ..... (maximum tensile strain at minimum ...

83

Mambila traditional religion : Sua in Somie  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the acceptable indigenous accounts. I doubt strongly whether there is any unanimity of opinion amongst Mambila on many of the issues here discussed. Summary The empirical core of this work consists of a set of transcripts of addresses made when sua-oaths were... as notables "emerge" (also discussed below); with less power to wield there is less at issue and the role may be shared, with one man arbitrating disputes and advising on rituals and another acts as hamlet spokesman: in other hamlets and villages. » 7 MAP...

Zeitlyn, David

1990-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

84

Improved phenomenological equation of state in the chemical picture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I present an overview of an equation of state, being developed in the chemical picture, and based on the very successful MHD equation of state. The flexibility of the chemical picture combined with the free-energy minimization procedure, makes it rather straight-forward, albeit laborious, to include new effects in the model free-energy, simply by adding new terms. The most notable additions to the original MHD equation of state, are relativistic effects, quantum effects, improved higher order Coulomb terms and a long list of molecules other than the H2 and H2+ treated so far.

Regner Trampedach

2004-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

85

Recent advances in the kinetics of oxygen reduction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Oxygen reduction is considered an important electrocatalytic reaction; the most notable need remains improvement of the catalytic activity of existing metal electrocatalysts and development of new ones. A review is given of new advances in the understanding of reaction kinetics and improvements of the electrocatalytic properties of some surfaces, with focus on recent studies of relationship of the surface properties to its activity and reaction kinetics. The urgent need is to improve catalytic activity of Pt and synthesize new, possibly non- noble metal catalysts. New experimental techniques for obtaining new level of information include various {ital in situ} spectroscopies and scanning probes, some involving synchrotron radiation. 138 refs, 18 figs, 2 tabs.

Adzic, R.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Chemical Process Measurements Group Homepage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... in the gas and liquid phases and ... inventory of atmospheric greenhouse gases, most notably ... Gas and Particulate Concentration Measurements and ...

2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

87

Small Particles in Cirrus  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Particles in Cirrus Particles in Cirrus Because the reflective properties of ice crystals in cirrus clouds can greatly influence the amount of solar energy that reaches the Earth, scientists use information about the shape and size of ice crystals as input to climate models. These data are obtained by satellite instruments, ground-based sensors, and research aircraft equipped with probes. However, notable discrepancies among these measurements have led to considerable uncertainty in how to represent these properties in climate models. From December 2009 through April 2010, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility will sponsor the use of an instrumented aircraft to obtain the most comprehensive set of measurements of ice crystals in cirrus clouds yet obtained. In conjunction with

88

Trends in stationary energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trends in stationary energy Trends in stationary energy Colin McCormick Senior Advisor for R&D Office of the Under Secretary US Department of Energy Building Technologies Office Peer Review 2013 April 2013 2 Under Secretary of Energy * Oversee the applied energy programs * Efficiency & Renewables * Electric grid * Fossil energy * Nuclear energy * Indian energy * Support interactions with Office of Science, ARPA-E * Support cross-cutting topics in energy systems * Energy systems interaction * Water-energy nexus * Bulk energy storage * Energy finance * International Lab engagement * Quadrennial Technology Review (QTR) 3 2013: Already a busy year for energy 4 Some notable trends in stationary energy The water-energy nexus The rise of natural gas Global trends New models for the grid

89

Trends in stationary energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Trends in stationary energy Trends in stationary energy Colin McCormick Senior Advisor for R&D Office of the Under Secretary US Department of Energy Building Technologies Office Peer Review 2013 April 2013 2 Under Secretary of Energy * Oversee the applied energy programs * Efficiency & Renewables * Electric grid * Fossil energy * Nuclear energy * Indian energy * Support interactions with Office of Science, ARPA-E * Support cross-cutting topics in energy systems * Energy systems interaction * Water-energy nexus * Bulk energy storage * Energy finance * International Lab engagement * Quadrennial Technology Review (QTR) 3 2013: Already a busy year for energy 4 Some notable trends in stationary energy The water-energy nexus The rise of natural gas Global trends New models for the grid

90

Ultrafine particle concentrations and exposure in seven residences...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Unvented natural-gas pilot lights contributed up to 19% to exposure for the two households where present. Episodic indoor source activities, most notably cooking, caused the...

91

Recent Advances in Augmented Reality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction The field of Augmented Reality (AR) has existed for just over one decade, but the growth and progress in the past few years has been remarkable. In 1997, the first author published a survey [3] (based on a 1995 SIGGRAPH course lecture) that defined the field, described many problems, and summarized the developments up to that point. Since then, the field has grown rapidly. In the late 1990s, several conferences specializing in this area were started, including the International Workshop and Symposium on Augmented Reality [29], the International Symposium on Mixed Reality [30], and the Designing Augmented Reality Environments workshop. Some wellfunded interdisciplinary consortia were formed that focused on AR, notably the Mixed Reality Systems Laboratory [50] in Japan and Project ARVIKA [61] in Germany. A freely-available software toolkit (the ARToolkit) for rapidly building AR applications is now available [2]. Because of this wealth of new developments, an updated survey

Ronald Azuma; Yohan Baillot; Reinhold Behringer; Steven Feiner; Simon Julier; Blair MacIntyre

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Audit Report: OAS-L-08-10 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy's Office of Science laboratories utilized joint appointments with institutions of higher education and other scientific institutions to supplement their staffing and crease...

93

GLASS-CERAMICS IN A COLD-CRUCIBLE MELTER : THE OPTIMUM COMBINATION FOR GREATER WASTE PROCESSING EFFICIENCY  

SciTech Connect

Improving the efficiency of nuclear waste immobilization is constantly desired by all nuclear waste management programs world-wide. For high-level and other waste to be vitrified in traditional ceramic Joule-heated melters operated at temperatures up to 1150 C, process flexibilities including waste loadings are often restricted by this temperature limit as well as the need to consider wasteform corrosion of refractory linings and electrodes. New melter technologies, such as the cold-crucible melter (CCM), enable processing up to significantly higher temperatures free of many of the limitations of conventional melters. Higher processing temperatures open up the way for wider composition and processing envelopes to be considered for the vitrification process, including the possibility for higher waste loadings. In many instances the presence of crystals in the final cooled wasteform is not considered desirable within presently existing glass specifications. For some feed compositions in creased waste loadings can lead to the formation of large amounts of crystals, and thus to a significant departure from the ''glass'' state. Nevertheless it is recognized that, in general, increasing the acceptable volume fractions of crystals in the glass offers the best opportunity to increase waste loading, all other factors being equal. In addition, the deliberate promotion of specific crystalline phases by design may enhance the quality of the wasteform, for example by partitioning a long-lived radionuclide into a very stable crystalline phase, or by depleting the glass in detrimental elements. In order to explore the potential improvements by harnessing the higher achievable processing temperatures and immunity to refractory corrosion available with the cold-crucible melter, and after promising indications for synroc-based matrices, it was decided to investigate the feasibility of designing and producing via melting new high temperature ''glass-ceramic'' wasteforms for high level was te immobilization. The INEEL calcines were selected as example feed compositions. These calcines have a wide range of problematic compositions. They either have high amounts of crystal-forming components, and/or components that lead to corrosive melts, and for good measure, the components in some waste types are quite refractory for vitrification as well. The recent DOE High-Level Waste Melter Review Report concluded that, for the INEEL calcine wastes in particular, the CCM could have sufficient advantages over the Joule-heated ceramic melter to justify its evaluation for direct vitrification of these wastes. Based on the extensive ceramic design experience of ANSTO, in collaboration with the CEA and COGEMA for a CCM implementation, a preliminary set of waste forms has been developed that immobilize long-lived waste actinides into highly chemically durable crystalline phases by design, using refractory crystal-forming components already in the wastes to advantage, while at the same tim e maintaining a very good overall leach resistance for the glass-ceramics even after ''canister centerline cooling'' (CCC) heat treatments. This paper presents the results of a 50 kg technological scale test in the CCM of a glass-ceramic formulation for the average Bin Set 2 formulation, at a conservative waste loading of 50%.

DAY, R.A.; FERENCZY, J.; DRABAREK, E.; ADVOCAT, T.; FILLET, C.; LACOMBE, J.; LADIRAT, C.; VEYER, C.; QUANG, R. DO; THOMASSON, J.

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

94

Slim holes haul in savings  

SciTech Connect

This article reports that during 1986 BP Exploration Company Ltd. successfully drilled six UK land wells with a Microdrill MD-3 ultra-slimhole drilling rig. The objective of the program was to evaluate the slimhole drilling technique, from both a technical and cost-effective viewpoint. Earlier studies indicated up to 30 percent savings in well costs compared to conventionally drilled UK land wells. The technology of drilling slim holes with small rigs is not new. For many years the mineral exploration industry has used small drilling and coring rigs. However, these rigs are not normally equipped with pressure control equipment, oilfield mud and cementing systems or the ability to run complex logs or production test. More recently, the oil industry has made efforts to adapt these rigs to slimhole oil and gas exploration, notably in Australia and Canada. The Microdrill MD-3 rig is a product of this evolution.

Floyd, K.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

"We will die and become science" : the production of invisibility and public knowledge about Chernobyl radiation effects in Belarus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are not only external—radionuclides are also consumed withcovered with short-lived radionuclides immediately followingwith long-living radionuclides, including most notably

Kuchinskaya, Olga

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Subsurface recirculation and larval retention in the lee of a small headland: A variation on the upwelling shadow theme  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of postlarval crabs. Wind Offshore wind speed and directioncoefficient = 0.8849), offshore winds were notably strongermay be due to tides, wind, offshore currents, and buoyancy

Roughan, M

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Search for underground openings for in situ test facilities in crystalline rock  

SciTech Connect

With a few exceptions, crystalline rocks in this study were limited to plutonic rocks and medium to high-grade metamorphic rocks. Nearly 1700 underground mines, possibly occurring in crystalline rock, were initially identified. Application of criteria resulted in the identification of 60 potential sites. Within this number, 26 mines and 4 civil works were identified as having potential in that they fulfilled the criteria. Thirty other mines may have similar potential. Most of the mines identified are near the contact between a pluton and older sedimentary, volcanic and metamorphic rocks. However, some mines and the civil works are well within plutonic or metamorphic rock masses. Civil works, notably underground galleries associated with pumped storage hydroelectric facilities, are generally located in tectonically stable regions, in relatively homogeneous crystalline rock bodies. A program is recommended which would identify one or more sites where a concordance exists between geologic setting, company amenability, accessibility and facilities to conduct in situ tests in crystalline rock.

Wollenberg, H.A.; Strisower, B.; Corrigan, D.J.; Graf, A.N.; O'Brien, M.T.; Pratt, H.; Board, M.; Hustrulid, W.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Progress in Paleoclimate Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper briefly surveys areas of paleoclimate modeling notable for recent progress. New ideas, including hypotheses giving a pivotal role to sea ice, have revitalized the low-order models used to simulate the time evolution of glacial cycles ...

Mark A. Cane; Pascale Braconnot; Amy Clement; Hezi Gildor; Sylvie Joussaume; Masa Kageyama; Myriam Khodri; Didier Paillard; Simon Tett; Eduardo Zorita

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Entanglement enhances performance in microscopic quantum fridges  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding the thermodynamics of quantum systems is of fundamental importance, from both theoretical and experimental perspectives. A growing interest has been recently given to small self-contained quantum thermal machines, the functioning of which requires no external source of work or control, but only incoherent interactions with thermal baths. The simplicity of such machines makes them and ideal test-bed for exploring quantum thermodynamics. So far, however, the importance of quantum effects in these machines has remained elusive. Here we show that entanglement, the paradigmatical quantum effect, plays a fundamental role in small self-contained quantum refrigerators, as it can enhance cooling and energy transport -- except notably when the efficiency is close to the Carnot limit. Hence a truly quantum refrigerator can outperform a classical one. Furthermore, the amount of entanglement alone quantifies the enhancement in cooling. More generally, our work shows that entanglement opens new possibilities in thermodynamics.

Nicolas Brunner; Marcus Huber; Noah Linden; Sandu Popescu; Ralph Silva; Paul Skrzypczyk

2013-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

100

Recent developments in radiative B decays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on recent theoretical progress in radiative B decays. We focus on a calculation of logarithmically enhanced QED corrections to the branching ratio and forward-backward asymmetry in the inclusive rare decay anti-B --> X(s) l+ l-, and present the results of a detailed phenomenological analysis. We also report on the calculation of NNLO QCD corrections to the inclusive decay anti-B --> X(s) gamma. As far as exclusive modes are concerned we consider transversity amplitudes and the impact of right-handed currents in the exclusive anti-B --> K^* l+ l- decay. Finally, we state results for exclusive B --> V gamma decays, notably the time-dependent CP-asymmetry in the exclusive B --> K^* gamma decay and its potential to serve as a so-called ``null test'' of the Standard Model, and the extraction of CKM and unitarity triangle parameters from B --> (rho,omega) gamma and B --> K^* gamma decays.

Huber, T

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Ion Trap in a Semiconductor Chip  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The electromagnetic manipulation of isolated atoms has led to many advances in physics, from laser cooling and Bose-Einstein condensation of cold gases to the precise quantum control of individual atomic ion. Work on miniaturizing electromagnetic traps to the micrometer scale promises even higher levels of control and reliability. Compared with 'chip traps' for confining neutral atoms, ion traps with similar dimensions and power dissipation offer much higher confinement forces and allow unparalleled control at the single-atom level. Moreover, ion microtraps are of great interest in the development of miniature mass spectrometer arrays, compact atomic clocks, and most notably, large scale quantum information processors. Here we report the operation of a micrometer-scale ion trap, fabricated on a monolithic chip using semiconductor micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. We confine, laser cool, and measure heating of a single 111Cd+ ion in an integrated radiofrequency trap etched from a doped gallium arsenide (GaAs) heterostructure.

D. Stick; W. K. Hensinger; S. Olmschenk; M. J. Madsen; K. Schwab; C. Monroe

2006-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

102

CO2 Mineral Sequestration Studies in US  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mineral Sequestration Studies in US Mineral Sequestration Studies in US Philip Goldberg 1 , Zhong-Ying Chen 2 , William O'Connor 3 , Richard Walters 3 , and Hans Ziock 4 1 National Energy Technology Laboratory, P.O. Box 10940, Pittsburgh, PA 15236, goldberg@netl.doe.gov, (412)386-5806 2 Science Applications International Corporation, 1710 Goodridge Dr. McLean, VA, zhong- ying.chen@saic.com, (703)676-7328 3 Albany Research Center, Albany, OR oconner@arc.doe.gov, walters@alrc.doe, (541)967-5834 4 Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, ksl@lanl.gov, ziock@lanl.gov, (505)667- 7265 Abstract Carbon sequestration by reacting naturally occurring Mg and Ca containing minerals with CO 2 to form carbonates has many unique advantages. Most notably is the fact that carbonates have a lower energy state than CO

103

The Role of Cellulosic Ethanol in Transportation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Petroleum provides essentially all of the energy used today in the transportation sector. To reduce this dependence on fossil energy, other fuels are beginning to be used, notably ethanol and biodiesel. Almost all fuel ethanol is produced by the conversion of corn grain to starch with subsequent fermentation to ethanol. In 2006, almost 5 billion gallons of fuel ethanol were produced, which used 17% of domestic corn production. The DOE has a goal to displace 30% of motor gasoline demand or 60 billion gallons per year by 2030. To achieve this goal, production of ethanol from lignocellulosic sources (e.g., agricultural residues, forest residues, and dedicated energy crops) is needed. This paper will describe the production of cellulosic ethanol as well as the issues and benefits associated with its production.

Robert M. Neilson, Jr.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Rail transport. trends in energy efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The increasing cost and insecure future supply of diesel fuel have led the U.S. railroad industry to continuously improve on its already efficient use of energy. Among such improvements that are planned or in progress are a fuel-efficient version of a mainline engine, which should save 13,200 gal/yr of fuel; and lightweight coal cars and freight-car trucks, which offer fuel-saving opportunities. The use of synthetic fuels such as methanol-from-coal or all-electric locomotive on a broad scale is unlikely within the next 20 yr, but an increased use of synthetic fuels in other large fuel-consuming transport modes, notably cars, would ease the rail industry's future diesel fuel supply problems. Other fuel-saving factors to consider, such as proper train-operating procedures and the use of the best routes; and the new design of rail cars are also discussed.

Eldridge, C.C.; Van Gorp, P.H.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

EM's December Newsletter Recaps Cold War Cleanup Accomplishments in 2013  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

EM's December Newsletter Recaps Cold War Cleanup Accomplishments EM's December Newsletter Recaps Cold War Cleanup Accomplishments in 2013 EM's December Newsletter Recaps Cold War Cleanup Accomplishments in 2013 December 24, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis WASHINGTON, D.C. - On Dec. 19, EM completed demolition of the 4.8 million-square-foot Building K-25 at Oak Ridge, a milestone that capped a busy and successful 2013 for the Cold War cleanup program. The demolition was one of EM's most significant achievements this year, and it is captured in this newsletter issue along with dozens of other notable accomplishments across the EM complex. Read about EM's productive year, including cleanup of buildings and waste sites along the Columbia River in Washington state, progress in the disposition of transuranic waste at Idaho and other sites and preparations for a major demolition at the West Valley

106

Reducing Concurrency Bottlenecks in Parallel I/O Workloads  

SciTech Connect

To enable high performance parallel checkpointing we introduced the Parallel Log Structured File System (PLFS). PLFS is middleware interposed on the file system stack to transform concurrent writing of one application file into many non-concurrently written component files. The promising effectiveness of PLFS makes it important to examine its performance for workloads other than checkpoint capture, notably the different ways that state snapshots may be later read, to make the case for using PLFS in the Exascale I/O stack. Reading a PLFS file involved reading each of its component files. In this paper we identify performance limitations on broader workloads in an early version of PLFS, specifically the need to build and distribute an index for the overall file, and the pressure on the underlying parallel file system's metadata server, and show how PLFS's decomposed components architecture can be exploited to alleviate bottlenecks in the underlying parallel file system.

Manzanares, Adam C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bent, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wingate, Meghan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Status of vibrational structure in {sup 62}Ni  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements consisting of {gamma}-ray excitation functions and angular distributions were performed using the (n,n{sup '{gamma}}) reaction on {sup 62}Ni. The excitation function data allowed us to check the consistency of the placement of transitions in the level scheme. From {gamma}-ray angular distributions, the lifetimes of levels up to {approx}3.8 MeV in excitation energy were extracted with the Doppler-shift attenuation method. The experimentally deduced values of reduced transition probabilities were compared with the predictions of the quadrupole vibrator model and with large-scale shell model calculations in the fp shell configuration space. Two-phonon states were found to exist with some notable deviation from the predictions of the quadrupole vibrator model, but no evidence for the existence of three-phonon states could be established. Z=28 proton core excitations played a major role in understanding the observed structure.

Chakraborty, A.; Orce, J. N.; Ashley, S. F.; Crider, B. P.; Elhami, E.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Mukhopadhyay, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0055 (United States); Brown, B. A. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Peters, E. E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0055 (United States); Singh, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Yates, S. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0055 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0055 (United States)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

108

The geomechanics of CO{sub 2} storage in deep sedimentary formations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper provides a review of the geomechanics and modeling of geomechanics associated with geologic carbon storage (GCS), focusing on storage in deep sedimentary formations, in particular saline aquifers. The paper first introduces the concept of storage in deep sedimentary formations, the geomechanical processes and issues related with such an operation, and the relevant geomechanical modeling tools. This is followed by a more detailed review of geomechanical aspects, including reservoir stress-strain and microseismicity, well integrity, caprock sealing performance, and the potential for fault reactivation and notable (felt) seismic events. Geomechanical observations at current GCS field deployments, mainly at the In Salah CO2 storage project in Algeria, are also integrated into the review. The In Salah project, with its injection into a relatively thin, low-permeability sandstone is an excellent analogue to the saline aquifers that might be used for large scale GCS in parts of Northwest Europe, the U.S. Midwest, and China. Some of the lessons learned at In Salah related to geomechanics are discussed, including how monitoring of geomechanical responses is used for detecting subsurface geomechanical changes and tracking fluid movements, and how such monitoring and geomechanical analyses have led to preventative changes in the injection parameters. Recently, the importance of geomechanics has become more widely recognized among GCS stakeholders, especially with respect to the potential for triggering notable (felt) seismic events and how such events could impact the long-term integrity of a CO{sub 2} repository (as well as how it could impact the public perception of GCS). As described in the paper, to date, no notable seismic event has been reported from any of the current CO{sub 2} storage projects, although some unfelt microseismic activities have been detected by geophones. However, potential future commercial GCS operations from large power plants will require injection at a much larger scale. For such largescale injections, a staged, learn-as-you-go approach is recommended, involving a gradual increase of injection rates combined with continuous monitoring of geomechanical changes, as well as siting beneath a multiple layered overburden for multiple flow barrier protection, should an unexpected deep fault reactivation occur.

Rutqvist, J.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Bulk-edge correspondence in fractional Chern insulators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has been recently realized that strong interactions in topological Bloch bands give rise to the appearance of novel states of matter. Here we study connections between these systems -- fractional Chern insulators and the fractional quantum Hall states -- via generalization of a gauge-fixed Wannier-Qi construction in the cylinder geometry. Our setup offers a number of important advantages compared to the earlier exact diagonalization studies on a torus. Most notably, it gives access to edge states and to a single-cut orbital entanglement spectrum, hence to the physics of bulk-edge correspondence. It is also readily implemented in the state-of-the-art density matrix renormalisation group method that allows for numerical simulations of significantly larger systems. We demonstrate our general approach on examples of flat-band models on ruby and kagome lattices at bosonic filling fractions $\

Zhao Liu; D. L. Kovrizhin; Emil J. Bergholtz

2013-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

110

Inhibition of B-NHEJ in Plateau-Phase Cells Is Not a Direct Consequence of Suppressed Growth Factor Signaling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: It has long been known that the proliferation status of a cell is a determinant of radiation response, and the available evidence implicates repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the underlying mechanism. Recent results have shown that a novel, highly error-prone pathway of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) operating as backup (B-NHEJ) processes DSBs in irradiated cells when the canonical, DNA-PK (DNA-dependent protein kinase)-dependent pathway of NHEJ (D-NHEJ) is compromised. Notably, B-NHEJ shows marked reduction in efficiency when D-NHEJ-deficient cells cease to grow and enter a plateau phase. This phenomenon is widespread and observed in cells of different species with defects in core components of D-NHEJ, with the notable exception of DNA-PKcs (DNA-dependent protein kinase, catalytic subunit). Using new, standardized serum-deprivation protocols, we re-examine the growth requirements of B-NHEJ and test the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in its regulation. Methods and Materials: DSB repair was measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in cells maintained under different conditions of growth. Results: Serum deprivation in D-NHEJ-deficient cells causes a rapid reduction in B-NHEJ similar to that measured in normally growing cells that enter the plateau phase of growth. Upon serum deprivation, reduction in B-NHEJ activity is evident at 4 h and reaches a plateau reflecting maximum inhibition at 12-16 h. The inhibition is reversible, and B-NHEJ quickly recovers to the levels of actively growing cells upon supply of serum to serum-deprived cells. Chemical inhibition of EGFR in proliferating cells inhibits only marginally B-NHEJ and addition of EGFR in serum-deprived cells increases only a marginally B-NHEJ. Conclusions: The results document a rapid and fully reversible adaptation of B-NHEJ to growth activity and point to factors beyond EGFR in its regulation. They show notable differences in the regulation of error-prone DSB repair pathways between proliferating and non proliferating cells that may present new treatment design opportunities in radiation therapy.

Singh, Satyendra K.; Bednar, Theresa; Zhang Lihua [Institute of Medical Radiation Biology, University Duisburg-Essen Medical School, Essen (Germany)] [Institute of Medical Radiation Biology, University Duisburg-Essen Medical School, Essen (Germany); Wu, Wenqi [First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou, Urology Department, Minimally Invasive Center, Medical College, 510230 Guangzhou (China)] [First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou, Urology Department, Minimally Invasive Center, Medical College, 510230 Guangzhou (China); Mladenov, Emil [Institute of Medical Radiation Biology, University Duisburg-Essen Medical School, Essen (Germany)] [Institute of Medical Radiation Biology, University Duisburg-Essen Medical School, Essen (Germany); Iliakis, George, E-mail: Georg.Iliakis@uk-essen.de [Institute of Medical Radiation Biology, University Duisburg-Essen Medical School, Essen (Germany)] [Institute of Medical Radiation Biology, University Duisburg-Essen Medical School, Essen (Germany)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

New infrastructure boosts West Virginia, southern Pennsylvania ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

A notable increase since early 2012 in natural gas production in West Virginia and nearby counties in southern Pennsylvania continued through July 2013.

112

Time-domain approach to energy efficiency in high-performance network element design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy efficiency is a corner stone of sustainability in data center and high-performance networking. However, at present there is a notable structural mismatch between network silicon development targets and network equipment utilization patterns in the field. In particular, some aspects of network energy utilization (eg load-proportional energy consumption) routinely stay out of focus during system design and implementation. Drawing from hands-on research and development in high-speed and grid networking, we identify a novel approach to energy efficiency in network engineering. In this paper, we demonstrate how the problem of efficient network system design can be dissected into smaller sections based on timescales of traffic processing. The newly proposed approach allows R&D efforts to be tightly paired to resources and sustainability targets to improve energy efficiency in many classes of network and telecom devices.

Kharitonov, Daniel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

''Talk To Me!'' - Lessons Learned In Communicating Risks To Tenants And Others Involved In The Department Of Energy's Reindustrialization Program  

SciTech Connect

Communicating risk information is more difficult than assessing it. The latter relies on data, formulas, theorems and mathematical relationships that, with some effort, can be logically explained to another person; it's objective. Communicating risks, however, is subjective and relies on personalities, perceptions and predisposition, as well as emotions. Most notably the emotion is fear--fear of the unknown, fear of the message, the messenger, or the impact of the information on something of value to the person asking the questions. The Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Operations Office is engaged in a Reindustrialization program to lease (and most recently, to transfer) formerly used facilities to private sector entities. The facilities are located at the East Tennessee Technology Park, originally a gaseous diffusion plant operated to enrich uranium for World War II efforts and later for use as fuel in civilian nuclear reactors.

Cusick, Lesley T.; Golden, Karen M.

2003-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

114

U.S. Continues to Lead the World in Wind Power Growth | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

29, 2008 - 12:32pm 29, 2008 - 12:32pm Addthis DOE Report Shows Rapidly Growing U.S. Wind Power Market WASHINGTON - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today released the 2007 edition of its Annual Report on U.S. Wind Power Installation, Cost, and Performance Trends, which provides a comprehensive overview of developments in the rapidly evolving U.S. wind power market. Notably, the report finds that U.S. wind power capacity increased by 46 percent in 2007, with $9 billion invested in U.S. wind plants in 2007 alone, making the U.S. the fastest-growing wind power market in the world for the third straight year. The report also showed that wind is on a path to becoming a significant contributor to the U.S. power mix-wind projects accounted for 35 percent of all new U.S. electric generating capacity in 2007, and

115

State of the Climate in 2005  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The State of the Climate 2005 report summarizes global and regional climate conditions and places them, where possible, into the context of historical records. Descriptions and analyses of notable climatic anomalies, both global and regional, ...

K. A. Shein

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Biorenewable Process to Acrylic Acid - PNNL: Available ...  

Acrylic acid is commonly used in the production of consumer products. Highly notable is its use in producing super absorbent polymers, the component ...

117

Argonne TTRDC - D3 (Downloadable Dynamometer Database) - 2010...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

petroleum gas (LPG), which is predominately butane in South Korea (as opposed to Propane in the United States). Another notable feature of this vehicle is its lithium polymer...

118

U.S. Continues to Lead the World in Wind Power Growth | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

31, 2007 - 1:25pm 31, 2007 - 1:25pm Addthis DOE Report Shows Growing U.S. Wind Power Market WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today released its first Annual Report on U.S. Wind Power Installation, Cost, and Performance Trends: 2006, which provides a detailed and comprehensive overview of development and trends in the U.S. wind power market. Most notably, the Report concludes that U.S. wind power capacity increased by 27 percent in 2006; and that the U.S. had the fastest growing wind power capacity in the world in 2005 and 2006. More than 61 percent of the U.S.'s total wind capacity - over 7,300 Megawatts (MW) - has been installed since President Bush took office in 2001. "As we work to implement President Bush's Advanced Energy Initiative by increasing the use of home-grown, clean, affordable and renewable energy,

119

Self-consistent solution for proximity effect and Josephson current in ballistic graphene SNS Josephson junctions  

SciTech Connect

We use a tight-binding Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) formalism to self-consistently calculate the proximity effect, Josephson current, and local density of states in ballistic graphene SNS Josephson junctions. Both short and long junctions, with respect to the superconducting coherence length, are considered, as well as different doping levels of the graphene. We show that self-consistency does not notably change the current-phase relationship derived earlier for short junctions using the non-selfconsistent Dirac-BdG formalism but predict a significantly increased critical current with a stronger junction length dependence. In addition, we show that in junctions with no Fermi level mismatch between the N and S regions superconductivity persists even in the longest junctions we can investigate, indicating a diverging Ginzburg-Landau superconducting coherence length in the normal region.

Black-Schaffer, Annica M.

2010-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

120

Magnetic Method to Characterize the Current Densities in Breaker Arc  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this research was to use magnetic induction measurements from a low voltage breaker arc, to reconstruct the arc's current density. The measurements were made using Hall effect sensors, which were placed close to, but outside the breaking device. The arc was modelled as a rectangular current sheet, composed of a mix of threadlike current segments and with a current density varying across the propagation direction. We found the magnetic induction of the arc is a convolution product of the current density, and a function depending on the breaker geometry and arc model. Using deconvolution methods, the current density in the electric arc was determined.The method is used to study the arc behavior into the breaker device. Notably, position, arc size, and electric conductivity could all be determined, and then used to characterize the arc mode, diffuse or concentrated, and study the condition of its mode changing.

Machkour, Nadia [National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Oren Schetrit  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

mass applications. Notable projects have achieved, among other sustainability awards, LEED Platinum certification. Oren hold Bachelors of Science in both Civil & Mechanical...

122

How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as firewood, stalks and biogas continues to dominate ruralwith notable growth in biogas and stalks consumption (Consumption Firewood Stalks Biogas kgce per capita Source:

Aden, Nathaniel T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting GATEWAY Demonstration...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the museum's track fixtures, electricity use reductions were notable-recovering the cost of the LEDs in 16 months of operation through energy savings alone. (June 2012)...

124

Semiconductor Nanowires and Nanotubes for Energy Conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

notably energy conversion. As research continues in thisnanowires for energy conversion. Chemical Reviews, 2010.for solar energy conversion. Physical Review Letters, 2004.

Fardy, Melissa Anne

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

2012 ALS User Meeting Highlights  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and notable science highlights, which communicated ALS advances in structural biology, battery research, and fundamental science. Falcone acknowledged the work of Simon Morton and...

126

October - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Notable: The University of Puerto Rico-. Mayagüez Material Advantage chapter reports that it is the first materials-related student chapter in Puerto Rico.

127

PNNL: Breakthroughs Magazine - Fall 2006  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 issue Creative Energy Breakthroughs Magazine Breakthroughs Archive In this issue... Cover Editor's Screen Contents At A Glance Solutions Update Notable Achievements Science of...

128

PNNL: Breakthroughs Magazine - Summer 2006  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 issue Commercial Partnerships Breakthroughs Magazine Breakthroughs Archive In this issue... Cover Editor's Screen Contents At A Glance Solutions Update Notable Achievements...

129

Scott Giangrande | BNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

his professional career as a postdoctoral fellow at McGill University in Montreal, Canada, from 2008 to 2010. His notable accomplishments during that time were the development...

130

The roles of CymA in support of the respiratory flexibility of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Shewanella species are isolated from the oxic/anoxic regions of seawater and aquatic sediments where redox conditions fluctuate in time and space. Colonization of these environments is by virtue of flexible respiratory chains, many of which are notable for the ability to reduce extracellular substrates including the Fe(III) and Mn(IV) contained in oxide and phyllosilicate minerals. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 serves as a model organism to consider the biochemical basis of this flexibility. In the present paper, we summarize the various systems that serve to branch the respiratory chain of S. oneidensis MR-1 in order that electrons from quinol oxidation can be delivered the various terminal electron acceptors able to support aerobic and anaerobic growth. This serves to highlight several unanswered questions relating to the regulation of respiratory electron transport in Shewanella and the central role(s) of the tetrahaem-containing quinol dehydrogenase CymA in that process.

Marritt, Sophie; McMillan, Duncan G.; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Richardson, David J.; Jeuken, Lars J.; Butt, Julea N.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Theories of convection and the spectrum of turbulence in the solar photosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Classical theories of turbulence do not describe accurately inertial range scaling laws in turbulent convection and notably fail to model the shape of the turbulent spectrum of solar photospheric convection. To understand these discrepancies, a detailed study of scale-by-scale budgets in turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection is presented, with particular emphasis placed on anisotropy and inhomogeneity. A generalized Kolmogorov equation applying to convection is derived and its various terms are computed using numerical simulations of turbulent Boussinesq convection. The analysis of the isotropic part of the equation shows that the third-order velocity structure function is significantly affected by buoyancy forcing and large-scale inhomogeneities. Anisotropic contributions to this equation are also shown to be comparable to their isotropic counterpart at moderate to large scales. Implications of these results for convection in the solar photosphere, mesogranulation and supergranulation are discussed.

F. Rincon

2006-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

132

Optimal and robust energy transport in light-harvesting complexes: (II) A quantum interplay of multichromophoric geometries and environmental interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Today, the physical principles for the high efficiency of excitation energy transfer in light-harvesting complexes are still not fully understood. Notably, the degree of robustness of these systems for transporting energy is not known considering their realistic interactions with vibrational and radiative environments within the surrounding solvent and scaffold proteins. In this work, we employ an efficient technique to simulate ultrafast quantum dynamics of such complex excitonic systems in their non-equilibrium environment in the non-perturbative and non-Markovian regimes. We demonstrate that the natural dynamics of the FMO complex leads to optimum and stable energy transport due to a convergence of energy/time scales among important internal and external parameters. In particular, we show that the FMO energy transfer efficiency is optimal and robust with respect to all the relevant parameters of environmental interactions and Frenkel-exciton Hamiltonian including reorganization energy \\lambda, bath frequen...

Mohseni, Masoud; Lloyd, Seth; Rabitz, Herschel

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Kansas City, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the 2006 IECC. The notable changes are: (1) Improved duct sealing verified by testing the duct system; (2) Increased duct insulation; (3) Improvement of window U-factors from 0.40 to 0.35; and (4) Efficient lighting requirements. An analysis of these changes resulted in estimated annual energy cost savings of about $145 a year for an average new house. Construction cost increases are estimated at $655. Home owners will experience an annual cost savings of close to $100 a year because reduction to energy bills will more than compensate for increased mortgage payments and other costs.

Lucas, Robert G.

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

134

Interaction of silver and palladium with silicon carbide in HTGR fuel particles. Preliminary report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fuel particles for the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor contained a layer of pyrolytic silicon carbide, which acts as a pressure vessel and provides containment for metallic fission products. The SiC layer is deposited by the thermal decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane (CH/sub 3/SiCl/sub 3/ or MTS) in an excess of hydrogen. Certain fission products, notably silver and palladium, can cause degradation of the SiC during irradiation. The purpose of this study is to develop a quantitative data base to better understand noble-metal attack as well as to evaluate the relationship between SiC deposition conditions and noble-metal release. The interaction between SiC and noble-metal fission product elements was investigated in the temperature range 1200 to 1500/sup 0/C.

Lauf, R.J.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Charge exchange as a recombination mechanism in high-temperature plasmas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Charge exchange with neutral hydrogen is examined as a recombination mechanism for multi-charged impurity ions present in high-temperature fusion plasmas. At sufficiently low electron densities, fluxes of atomic hydrogen produced by either the injection of neutral heating beams or the background of thermal neutrals can yield an important or even dominant recombination process for such ions. Equilibrium results are given for selected impurity elements showing the altered ionization balance and radiative cooling rate produced by the presence of various neutral populations. A notable result is that the stripping of impurities to relatively non-radiative ionization states with increasing electron temperature can be postponed or entirely prevented by the application of intense neutral beam heating power. A time dependent calculation modelling the behavior of iron in recent PLT tokamak high power neutral beam heating experiments is also presented.

Hulse, R.A.; Post, D.E.; Mikkelsen, D.R.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Active laser frequency stabilization and resolution enhancement of interferometers for the measurement of gravitational waves in space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laser frequency stabilization is notably one of the major challenges on the way to a space-borne gravitational wave observatory. The proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is presently under development in an ESA, NASA collaboration. We present a novel method for active laser stabilization and phase noise suppression in such a gravitational wave detector. The proposed approach is a further evolution of the "arm locking" method, which in essence consists of using an interferometer arm as an optical cavity, exploiting the extreme long-run stability of the cavity size in the frequency band of interest. We extend this method by using the natural interferometer arm length differences and existing interferometer signals as additional information sources for the reconstruction and active suppression of the quasi-periodic laser frequency noise, enhancing the resolution power of space-borne gravitational wave detectors.

Markus Herz

2005-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

137

Understanding Trends in Wind Turbine Prices Over the Past Decade  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wind turbine market, along with newly emerging competition from a number of Asian countries, most notably Japan and India.Wind Turbine Equipment Imports Over Time Denmark Euro zone U.K. Japan India

Bolinger, Mark

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Influence of wettability on liquid water transport in gas diffusion layer of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water management is a key factor that limits PEFC's performance. We show how insights into this problem can be gained from pore-scale simulations of water invasion in a model fibrous medium. We explore the influence of contact angle on the water invasion pattern and water saturation at breakthrough and show that a dramatic change in the invasion pattern, from fractal to compact, occurs as the system changes from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Then, we explore the case of a system of mixed wettability, i.e. containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic pores. The saturation at breakthrough is studied as a function of the fraction of hydrophilic pores. The results are discussed in relation with the water management problem, the optimal design of a GDL and the fuel cell performance degradation mechanisms. We outline how the study could be extended to 3D systems, notably from binarised images of GDLs obtained by X ray microtomography.

Hamza Chraibi; L. Ceballos; M. Prat; Michel Quintard; Alexandre Vabre

2009-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

139

Pressure tuning of competing magnetic interactions in intermetallic CeFe2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We use high-pressure magnetic x-ray diffraction and numerical simulation to determine the low-temperature magnetic phase diagram of stoichiometric CeFe2. Near 1.5 GPa we find a transition from ferromagnetism to antiferromagnetism, accompanied by a rhombohedral distortion of the cubic Laves crystal lattice. By comparing pressure and chemical substitution we find that the phase transition is controlled by a shift of magnetic frustration from the Ce-Ce to the Fe-Fe sublattice. Notably the dominant Ce-Fe magnetic interaction, which sets the temperature scale for the onset of long-range order, remains satisfied throughout the phase diagram but does not determine the magnetic ground state. Our results illustrate the complexity of a system with multiple competing magnetic energy scales and lead to a general model for magnetism in cubic Laves phase intermetallic compounds.

Wang, Jiyang; Feng, Yejun; Jaramillo, R.; van Wezel, Jasper; Canfield, Paul C.; Rosenbaum, T.F.

2012-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

140

''Talk To Me!'' - Lessons Learned In Communicating Risks To Tenants And Others Involved In The Department Of Energy's Reindustrialization Program  

SciTech Connect

Communicating risk information is more difficult than assessing it. The latter relies on data, formulas, theorems and mathematical relationships that, with some effort, can be logically explained to another person; it's objective. Communicating risks, however, is subjective and relies on personalities, perceptions and predisposition, as well as emotions. Most notably the emotion is fear--fear of the unknown, fear of the message, the messenger, or the impact of the information on something of value to the person asking the questions. The Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Operations Office is engaged in a Reindustrialization program to lease (and most recently, to transfer) formerly used facilities to private sector entities. The facilities are located at the East Tennessee Technology Park, originally a gaseous diffusion plant operated to enrich uranium for World War II efforts and later for use as fuel in civilian nuclear reactors.

Cusick, Lesley T.; Golden, Karen M.

2003-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Influence of direct motor-motor interaction in models for cargo transport by a single team of motors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze theoretically the effects of excluded-volume interactions between motors on the dynamics of a cargo driven by multiple motors. The model considered shares many commons with other recently proposed in the literature, with the addition of direct interaction between motors and motor back steps. The cargo is assumed to follow a continuum Langevin dynamics, while individual motors evolve following a Monte Carlo algorithm based on experimentally accessible probabilities for discrete forward and backward jumps, and attachment and detachment rates. The links between cargo and motors are considered as non linear springs. By means of numerical simulations we compute the relevant quantities characterizing the dynamical properties of the system, and we compare the results to those for non interacting motors. We find that interactions lead to quite relevant changes in the force-velocity relation for cargo, with a considerable reduction of the stall force, and cause also a notable decrease of the run length. The...

Bouzat, Sebastian; 10.1088/1478-3975/7/4/046009

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Particle Generation by Laser Ablation in Support of Chemical Analysis of High Level Mixed Waste from Plutonium Production Operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Investigate particles produced by laser irradiation and their analysis by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (LA/ICP-MS), with a view towards optimizing particle production for analysis of high level waste materials and waste glass. LA/ICP-MS has considerable potential to increase the safety and speed of analysis required for the remediation of high level wastes from cold war plutonium production operations. In some sample types, notably the sodium nitrate-based wastes at Hanford and elsewhere, chemical analysis using typical laser conditions depends strongly on the details of sample history composition in a complex fashion, rendering the results of analysis uncertain. Conversely, waste glass materials appear to be better behaved and require different strategies to optimize analysis.

J. Thomas Dickinson; Michael L. Alexander

2001-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

143

Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

C:\ANNUAL\VENTCHAP.V8\NewNGA02.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 Overview The natural gas industry and markets experienced a num- ber of key changes during 2001. After two years of in- crease, consumption declined in 2001 in all sectors except electric power. Production and net imports increased by 716 Bcf, but much of this supply was added to storage. Prices were generally higher in 2001 compared with previ- ous years. The average wellhead price was $4.02 per thousand cubic feet (Mcf), which is 9 percent above the 2000 level and 84 percent above the 1999 level. However, wellhead prices declined throughout the year. Beyond the changes in market activities, the 2001 data re- flect recent changes in the industry accounting employed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). EIA has reclassified gas use in the electricity sector to reflect to- day's less regulated energy market. Regulatory reform in both natural gas and electricity markets during

145

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies FY14 Budget At-a-Glance  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES FY14 BUDGET AT-A-GLANCE Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Technologies develops fuel cells to be cost-competitive in diverse applications, including light-duty vehicles (at $30/kW) and stationary power (at less than $1,500/kW), and renewable hydrogen (from diverse resources) to be cost-competitive with gasoline ($2 to $4 per gallon gasoline equivalent [gge], delivered and dispensed). What We Do To achieve its goals, Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Technologies employs a comprehensive strategy that addresses both technical and non-technical barriers to commercialization and aims to catalyze domestic growth in this emerging in- dustry:  Research and Development: Investing in R&D to in- crease the durability and reduce the cost of fuel cells,

146

Distributed Energy Systems in California's Future: A Preliminary Report Volume 2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

arise when condensate from geothermal steam is used forGeysers, the condensate from the geothermal steam itself iscondensate is not reinjected* and to the pollut~nts~ notably ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, released if the geothermal steam

Balderston, F.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Does an August Singularity Exist in the Northern Rockies of the United States?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Climatic singularities offer a degree of orderliness to notable meteorological events that are typically characterized by significant temporal variability. Significant deviations from normal daily maximum temperatures that occur following the ...

Peter T. Soulé; Paul A. Knapp

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Nature's objects : geology, aesthetics, and the understanding of materiality in eighteenth-century Britain and France  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Explorations of aesthetic design and scientific experimentation have traditionally relied upon the natural world as a source of inspiration. Notably absent from previous studies of the eighteenth century is the dynamic ...

Ferng, Jennifer Hsiao-Mei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Size-dependent mechanical properties of beta-structures in protein materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Protein materials such as spider silk can be exceptionally strong, and they can stretch tremendously before failure. Notably, silks are made entirely of proteins, which owe their structure and stability to weak molecular ...

Keten, Sinan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

C:\ANNUAL\VENTCHAP.V8\NewNGA02.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

· · Twelve of the 23 States and the District of Colum- bia with residential "customer choice" programs added transportation-only customers. The increase in transportation customers exceeded the in- crease in traditional sales customers by more than 40 percent, with some States' programs (e.g., Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, New York, and Ohio) recording remarkable gains. Georgia had the largest number of transportation-only residential customers, at 1,430,673, and the highest participation rate at 82 percent. · The number of transportation-only commercial customers actually increased, by 50,720, even though natural gas deliveries for these customers de- clined by almost 10 percent in 2001. · Industrial use of natural gas declined by 779 Bcf (9.6 percent) from 2000 to 2001, reflecting a weak national economy and high natural gas prices (Fig- ure 3). Illustrative

151

C:\ANNUAL\VENTCHAP.V8\NGA.VP  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Principally Principally natural gas flows from the pro- ducing areas in Texas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and offshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico toward the northeast and mid- west. Imports, primarily from Canada have continued to provide significant contributions, helping the United States to meet its continuing increase in consumption. Imports and Exports During 1997, net imports rose for the 11th consecutive year, representing 13 percent of U.S. natural gas consumption. Canada continued its role as the major supplier of natural gas imported into the United States. However, the growth rate of U.S. imports of Canadian gas was minimal because pipeline capacity utilization remained near its maximum level and capacity expanded very little during the year. In- creases in pipeline capacity are under development and oth- ers have been proposed for the next several years. Crossborder trade with Mexico

152

C:\ANNUAL\VENTCHAP.V8\NGA.VP  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Principally, Principally, natural gas flows from the pro- ducing areas in Texas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and offshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico toward the northeast and mid- west. Imports, primarily from Canada, have continued to provide significant contributions, helping the United States meet increasing demand for natural gas. Imports and Exports During 1997, net imports rose for the 11th consecutive year, representing 13 percent of U.S. natural gas consumption. Canada continued its role as the major supplier of natural gas imported into the United States. However, the growth rate of U.S. imports of Canadian gas was minimal because pipeline capacity utilization remained near its maximum level and capacity expanded very little during the year. In- creases in pipeline capacity are under development and oth- ers have been proposed for the next several years. Crossborder trade with Mexico also

153

The Bulletin - BNL's Weekly Newspaper  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Arie van Steenbergen Arie van Steenbergen A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z In Memoriam Home | Bulletin Home Posted: March 23, 2009 Arie van Steenbergen, a former NSLS Deputy Department Chairman who helped bring the facility to fruition, died on January 2, 2009. He was 81. Van Steenbergen was born in 1928 in The Netherlands and attended Delft Technological University, with intentions to become an engineer. According to Brookhaven Historian Bob Crease, while at the university's library one day, van Steenbergen came across an issue of the Review of Scientific Instruments devoted to Brookhaven's Cosmotron and became so fascinated by the machine that he bought a personal copy of the issue that he kept for years to come.

154

Energy Conservation in Fertilizer Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An energy efficient fertilizer production device called the Pipe Cross Reactor (PCR) was developed by the National Fertilizer Development Center (NFDC) of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The Office of Industrial Programs (OIPI of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) provided funding to NFDC to promote acceptance of this technology by the fertilizer production industry. The PCR uses the heat of reaction of ammonia with phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid to replace fossil fuel heat used in granulating and drying fertilizer. The device has been installed in about 30 fertilizer plants across the U.S.A. resulting in current annual energy savings equivalent to approximately 11 million gallons of fuel oil. In six years of cooperation with the TVA, the DOE spent about one million dollars on the PCR technology transfer effort. This TVA project is a notable success based upon demonstrated energy savings and industry acceptance of the technology. The technology is applicable to producing NPKS, DAP and MAP types of fertilizer. This paper discusses the technology with emphasis on the technology transfer work conducted by TVA and supported by DOE-DIP.

Mings, W. J.; Sonnett, W. M.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Shear banding in soft glassy materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many soft materials, including foams, dense emulsions, micro gel bead suspensions, star polymers, dense packing of surfactant onion micelles, and textured morphologies of liquid crystals, share the basic "glassy" features of structural disorder and metastability. These in turn give rise to several notable features in the low frequency shear rheology (deformation and flow properties) of these materials: in particular, the existence of a yield stress below which the material behaves like a solid, and above which it flows like a liquid. In the last decade, intense experimental activity has also revealed that these materials often display a phenomenon known as shear banding, in which the flow profile across the shear cell exhibits macroscopic bands of different viscosity. Two distinct classes of yield stress fluid have been identified: those in which the shear bands apparently persist permanently (for as long as the flow remains applied), and those in which banding arises only transiently during a process in which a steady flowing state is established out of an initial rest state (for example, in a shear startup or step stress experiment). After surveying the motivating experimental data, we describe recent progress in addressing it theoretically, using the soft glassy rheology model and a simple fluidity model. We also briefly place these theoretical approaches in the context of others in the literature, including elasto-plastic models, shear transformation zone theories, and molecular dynamics simulations. We discuss finally some challenges that remain open to theory and experiment alike.

Suzanne M. Fielding

2013-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

156

Microsoft PowerPoint - eLens status Anerella 021511.pptx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

February 15 2011 February 15 2011 February 15, 2011 1 Outline Corrector coils Main solenoid coils Anti-Fringe field, Fringe Field coils Schedule 2 Corrector coils * aluminum tube machining: * Sent back to CS for re- f machining of lead slots, 1 st complete * Winding table complete g mp * Coil insulation started * Coil winding travelers released released * Assembly Drawings, parts, in progress d K t N * creased Kapton, Nomex parts are being made * OVEN! (AM/MA) 3 Main Solenoid Coils * Gantry tested ready to use Gantry tested, ready to use * Main support tube received and inspected * CS Machining in process, completion ~ 2/23 g p , p * Insulated Superconductor shipped to BNL (partial qty) * Assembly drawing, parts drawings - underway (LR) * Parts work order released to CS 4 AFF, FF Solenoid coils * AFF conductor is "drop-offs"

157

Identification of the Parasitic Chemical Reactions during AlGaN OMVPE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Identification of the Parasitic Chemical Reactions during AlGaN OMVPE Identification of the Parasitic Chemical Reactions during AlGaN OMVPE by J. R. Creighton, M. E. Coltrin, and W. G. Breiland Motivation-GaN and AlGaN alloys are ex- tremely important materials with widespread applications for optoelectronics (e.g. solid state lighting) and high power electronics. Or- ganometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) is the primary deposition methodology, but it suf- fers from several growth chemistry anomalies. Growth rate and alloy composition are often a sensitive function of temperature and other reac- tor variables. These factors make the AlGaN OMVPE process difficult to control and in- crease the cost of the material. Conventional wisdom has been that the non-ideal OMVPE behavior is due to parasitic "pre-reactions" be-

158

Improved Sea Ice Shortwave Radiation Physics in CCSM4: The Impact of Melt Ponds and Aerosols on Arctic Sea Ice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Community Climate System Model, version 4 has revisions across all components. For sea ice, the most notable improvements are the incorporation of a new shortwave radiative transfer scheme and the capabilities that this enables. This scheme ...

Marika M. Holland; David A. Bailey; Bruce P. Briegleb; Bonnie Light; Elizabeth Hunke

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Chemical characteristics of some major uranium deposits in western USA  

SciTech Connect

Multi-element chemical analyses of several thousand samples were retrieved from the US Geological Survey's computerized Rock Analysis Storage System and used to estimate the average abundances of various elements in each of several types of uranium deposits, in altered rocks associated with some of these deposits, and in unmineralized parts of the various host rocks. Deposits for which results are presented include the tabular deposits in the Morrison Formation, Ambrosia Lake district, New Mexico; secondary deposits in the Ambrosia Lake district; tabular deposits in the Morrison Formation of the Henry Mountains, Utah; tabular deposits in the Chinle Formation in Utah and Colorado; roll-type deposits in Tertiary rocks from the Texas Gulf district; roll-type deposits in the Tertiary basins of Wyoming; tabular deposits in the Entrada Sandstone in Colorado; and a vein-type deposit in crystalline rocks of the Front Range of Colorado. Statistical treatment of the data identified elements that were notably more or less abundant in the deposits and altered rocks than in the unmineralized parts of the host rocks. Comparisons of the mean abundances of elements in the deposits show that the chemical composition of roll-type deposits varies greatly even among deposits in the same district. By contrast, the chemical characteristics of tabular deposits display little variation; the Ambrosia Lake tabular deposits and those of the Henry Mountains district are particularly similar. The data place some constraints on the geochemical aspects of genetic models and suggest certain elements as potential prospecting guides.

Spirakis, C.S.; Pierson, C.T.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Evolution of predator-prey interactions in ancient lakes: implications for coevolution in marine environments  

SciTech Connect

Highly generalized predator-prey interrelationships are a hallmark of most lacustrine ecosystems where accommodation to the physical environment plays the major role in determining organismal distributions. Since the vast majority of lakes are ephemeral on a geological and evolutionary times scale, dispersal, rather than organism interaction, appears to be the dominant selective theme in lacustrine species evolution. In a few, very long lasting lakes, notably modern Lakes Tanganyika (Africa) and Baikal (USSR) and ancient lakes of the Brazilian Rift (Cretaceous) and Snake River Plain (Tertiary), invertebrates and fish occur which demonstrate the development of intense biological accommodation in coevolving predator-prey interactions. Shell crushing experiments on 2 endemic Tanganyikan gastropods, Lavigeria nassa and Spekia zonata show them to be comparable to warm temperature marine species in terms of grow load strength: 1-2 orders of magnitude stronger than confamilial cosmopolitan species from more ephemeral lakes in the same region of Africa. Shell repair is commonly observed in these and other Tanganyikan endemic snails although it is exceedingly rare inmost other lakes. The study of these early stages of evolutionary processes and rates in coevolving predator-prey systems in isolated lacustrine microcosms has important implications for those paleontologists concerned with marine invertebrates. It may shed considerable light on the interpretation of such events as the marine Mesozoic Revolution.

Cohen, A.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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161

Tubular electric heater with a thermocouple assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to a thermocouple or other instrumentation which is installed within the walls of a tubular sheath surrounding a process device such as an electric heater. The sheath comprises two concentric tubes, one or both of which have a longitudinal, concave crease facing the other tube. The thermocouple is fixedly positioned within the crease and the outer tube is mechanically reduced to form an interference fit onto the inner tube. (auth)

House, R.K.; Williams, D.E.

1975-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

On tadpoles and vacuum redefinitions in String Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tadpoles accompany, in one form or another, all attempts to realize supersymmetry breaking in String Theory, making the present constructions at best incomplete. Whereas these tadpoles are typically large, a closer look at the problem from a perturbative viewpoint has the potential of illuminating at least some of its qualitative features in String Theory. A possible scheme to this effect was proposed long ago by Fischler and Susskind, but incorporating background redefinitions in string amplitudes in a systematic fashion has long proved very difficult. In the first part of this paper, drawing from field theory examples, we thus begin to explore what one can learn by working perturbatively in a ``wrong'' vacuum. While unnatural in Field Theory, this procedure presents evident advantages in String Theory, whose definition in curved backgrounds is mostly beyond reach at the present time. At the field theory level, we also identify and characterize some special choices of vacua where tadpole resummations terminate after a few contributions. In the second part we present a notable example where vacuum redefinitions can be dealt with to some extent at the full string level, providing some evidence for a new link between IIB and 0B orientifolds. We finally show that NS-NS tadpoles do not manifest themselves to lowest order in certain classes of string constructions with broken supersymmetry and parallel branes, including brane-antibrane pairs and brane supersymmetry breaking models, that therefore have UV finite threshold corrections at one loop.

E. Dudas; G. Pradisi; M. Nicolosi; A. Sagnotti

2004-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

163

briefing paper page 1 Taipei in the Renminbi Offshore Market: Another Piece in the Jigsaw  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Summary points zz As the world’s second largest economy, China is promoting wider use of its currency, the renminbi (RMB), across the world. International financial centres, notably Hong Kong, are developing the RMB offshore market. zz The cross-border RMB trade settlement scheme has noticeably expanded the use of the RMB in trade since 2010. The scheme provides the main source of liquidity to the RMB offshore market. zz The RMB offshore market is expanding and offers more investment opportunities. But the limited supply of liquidity remains a constraint on its size and scope. zz Taipei is the new player in the RMB offshore market and has strong growth potential, the main drivers being close cross-Strait cooperation in trade and foreign direct investment. The recently opened currency clearing system should ensure liquidity to the market. zz As a regional financial centre, Taipei is unlikely to rival Hong Kong, at least in the short term. Non-Taiwanese investors are deterred by regulatory restrictions, higher taxation and lack of financial openness. zz Proactive policies are necessary to support the development of the RMB market in Taipei. To become a key regional financial centre, it needs a clear strategy to maximize the advantages derived from the dynamic domestic economy.

Paola Subacchi; Helena Huang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Exome sequencing identifies recurrent somatic RAC1 mutations in melanoma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We characterized the mutational landscape of melanoma, the form of skin cancer with the highest mortality rate, by sequencing the exomes of 147 melanomas. Sun-exposed melanomas had markedly more ultraviolet (UV)-like C>T somatic mutations compared to sun-shielded acral, mucosal and uveal melanomas. Among the newly identified cancer genes was PPP6C, encoding a serine/threonine phosphatase, which harbored mutations that clustered in the active site in 12% of sun-exposed melanomas, exclusively in tumors with mutations in BRAF or NRAS. Notably, we identified a recurrent UV-signature, an activating mutation in RAC1 in 9.2% of sun-exposed melanomas. This activating mutation, the third most frequent in our cohort of sun-exposed melanoma after those of BRAF and NRAS, changes Pro29 to serine (RAC1{sup P29S}) in the highly conserved switch I domain. Crystal structures, and biochemical and functional studies of RAC1{sup P29S} showed that the alteration releases the conformational restraint conferred by the conserved proline, causes an increased binding of the protein to downstream effectors, and promotes melanocyte proliferation and migration. These findings raise the possibility that pharmacological inhibition of downstream effectors of RAC1 signaling could be of therapeutic benefit.

Krauthammer, Michael; Kong, Yong; Ha, Byung Hak; Evans, Perry; Bacchiocchi, Antonella; McCusker, James P.; Cheng, Elaine; Davis, Matthew J.; Goh, Gerald; Choi, Murim; Ariyan, Stephan; Narayan, Deepak; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Capatana, Ana; Holman, Edna C.; Bosenberg, Marcus; Sznol, Mario; Kluger, Harriet M.; Brash, Douglas E.; Stern, David F.; Materin, Miguel A.; Lo, Roger S.; Mane, Shrikant; Ma, Shuangge; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Lifton, Richard P.; Schlessinger, Joseph; Boggon, Titus J.; Halaban, Ruth (Yale-MED); (UCLA); (Queens)

2012-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

165

Solar energy legislation in the 95th Congress  

SciTech Connect

The 95th Congress is notable for a large body of solar legislation, whose highlights are: loans and tax credits for residential and commercial solar installations; grants to schools and hospitals for solar installations; installation of solar heating and cooling systems in Federal buildings; $98 million for Federal procurement of photovoltaic equipment; $470.2 million in appropriations to DOE for solar in FY79; solar demonstrations in military, agricultural, and foreign-service applications; establishment of the Energy Extension Service; and energy assistance to developing countries. Most of the legislators who demonstrated strong support for solar energy in the 95th Congress were returned for the 96th, and the Solar Coalition can be expected to renew its vigorous efforts to promote solar legislation. Major issues that will probably receive increased attention in this Congress include low-interest loans through a Solar Energy Development Bank, consumer protection, the maintenance of competition within the industry, and the elimination of institutional barriers to solar commercialization. If congressional interest continues to develop as rapidly as it did in the 95th, solar energy's potential contribution to national energy needs may be greatly enhanced. 2 tables.

Dawkins, L.; Troutman, G.

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Donor behavior of Sb in ZnO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrical behavior of Sb in ZnO:Sb layers doped in a wide concentration range was studied using temperature dependent Hall effect measurements. The layers were grown by plasma-enhanced molecular beam epitaxy, and the Sb concentration was changed by varying the Sb flux, resulting in electron concentrations in the range of 10{sup 16} to nearly 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. Upon annealing, the electron concentration increased slightly and more notable was that the electron mobility significantly improved, reaching a room-temperature value of 110 cm{sup 2}/V s and a low-temperature value of 145 cm{sup 2}/V s, close to the maximum of {approx}155 cm{sup 2}/V s set by ionized impurity scattering. Hall data and structural data suggest that Sb predominantly occupies Zn sublattice positions and acts as a shallow donor in the whole concentration range studied. In the layers with high Sb content ({approx}1 at. %), acceptor-type compensating defects (possibly Sb on oxygen sites and/or point-defect complexes involving Sb{sub O}) are formed. The increase of electron concentration with increasing oxygen pressure and the increase in ZnO:Sb lattice parameter at high Sb concentrations suggest that acceptors involving Sb{sub O} rather than Sb{sub Zn}-2V{sub Zn} complexes are responsible for the compensation of the donors.

Liu, H. Y.; Izyumskaya, N.; Avrutin, V.; Oezguer, Ue.; Morkoc, H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Yankovich, A. B.; Kvit, A. V.; Voyles, P. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Probing phonons in plutonium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Plutonium (Pu) is well known to have complex and unique physico-chemical properties [1]. Notably, the pure metal exhibits six solid-state phase transformations with large volume expansions and contractions along the way to the liquid state: {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} {yields} {delta}' {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid. Unalloyed Pu melts at a relatively low temperature {approx}640 C to yield a higher density liquid than that of the solid from which it melts. Detailed understanding of the properties of plutonium and plutonium-based alloys is critical for the safe handling, utilization, and long-term storage of these important, but highly toxic materials. However, both technical and safety issues have made experimental observations extremely difficult. Phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) are key experimental data to the understanding of the basic properties of Pu materials such as: force constants, sound velocities, elastic constants, thermodynamics, phase stability, electron-phonon coupling, structural relaxation, etc. However, phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) in plutonium (Pu) and its alloys have defied measurement for the past few decades since the discovery of this element in 1941. This is due to a combination of the high thermal-neutron absorption cross section of plutonium and the inability to grow the large single crystals (with dimensions of a few millimeters) necessary for inelastic neutron scattering. Theoretical simulations of the Pu PDC continue to be hampered by the lack of suitable inter-atomic potentials. Thus, until recently the PDCs for Pu and its alloys have remained unknown experimentally and theoretically. The experimental limitations have recently been overcome by using a tightly focused undulator x-ray micro-beam scattered from single-grain domains in polycrystalline specimens. This experimental approach has been applied successfully to map the complete PDCs of an fcc {delta}-Pu-Ga alloy using the high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (HRIXS) capability on ID28 [2].

Farber, D; Chiang, T; Krisch, M; Occelli, F; Schwartz, A; Wall, M; Xu, R; Boro, C

2003-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

168

Emissions Benefits of Distributed Generation in the Texas Market  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One potential benefit of distributed generation (DG) is a net reduction in air emissions. While DG will produce emissions, most notably carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides, the power it displaces might have produced more. This study used a system dispatch model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to simulate the 2012 Texas power market with and without DG. This study compares the reduction in system emissions to the emissions from the DG to determine the net savings. Some of the major findings are that 85% of the electricity displaced by DG during peak hours will be simple cycle natural gas, either steam or combustion turbine. Even with DG running as baseload, 57% of electricity displaced will be simple cycle natural gas. Despite the retirement of some gas-fired steam units and the construction of many new gas turbine and combined cycle units, the marginal emissions from the system remain quite high (1.4 lb NO{sub x}/MWh on peak and 1.1 lb NO{sub x}/MWh baseload) compared to projected DG emissions. Consequently, additions of DG capacity will reduce emissions in Texas from power generation in 2012. Using the DG exhaust heat for combined heat and power provides an even greater benefit, since it eliminates further boiler emissions while adding none over what would be produced while generating electricity. Further studies are warranted concerning the robustness of the result with changes in fuel prices, demands, and mixes of power generating technology.

Hadley, SW

2005-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

169

Blade-Vortex Interactions in High Pressure Steam Turbines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A detailed experimental and numerical investigation of the transport of streamwise (passage) vortices in high-pressure axial turbines and their interaction with the downstream blade rows was performed. The results indicate large variations in the downstream flow field, notably the development of the secondary flows. The mechanism of passage vortex transport was studied in two differently configured high-pressure turbine stages. In the first configuration, the blades are radially stacked while the second configuration features three-dimensionally stacked high-pressure steam turbine blading. The stator hub passage vortex is chopped by the downstream blade row in a similar way to the wake. The bowed vortex tube near the inlet to the rotor appeared to develop two counter-rotating legs extending back to the leading edges of the adjacent blades. These were termed the suction side leg and the pressure side leg. The two legs of the incoming passage vortex then convect with the respective velocities on the blade surfaces. The results are discussed for the radially stacked turbine and the 3-D turbine separately.

Venkata Siva Prasad Chaluvadi

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Manual  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

process used in TEF is notable in that it provides an effective mechanism to remove many human error precursors in human performance. In a few cases, procedures were overly...

171

Interhemispheric influence of the northern summer monsoons on the southern subtropical anticyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The southern subtropical anticyclones are notably stronger in the austral winter than in summer, particularly over the Atlantic and Indian Ocean basins. This is in contrast with the Northern Hemisphere (NH), in which subtropical anticyclones are ...

Sang-Ki Lee; Carlos R. Mechoso; Chunzai Wang; J. David Neelin

172

Project EARTH-13-MDB1: Survival and extinction at the dawn of the Cambrian explosion: the evidence from Brazil and beyond  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from Brazil and beyond Supervisors: Martin Brasier, Paul Smith, David Pyle (University of Oxford recently deeper water siliciclastics and volcaniclastics in Brazil containing Corumbella, as well in South America, notably in Corumba, Brazil in collaboration with Thomas Fairchild, Paulo Boggiani

Henderson, Gideon

173

EIA - Future role of the United States in world coal trade  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Future role of the United States in world coal trade Future role of the United States in world coal trade International Energy Outlook 2010 Future role of the United States in world coal trade U.S. coal exports increased each year from 2002 to 2008 at an average annual rate of 12.8 percent, to 82 million tons in 2008. Some analysts have viewed the sharp increase in U.S. exports as an indication of the growing importance of the United States as a world coal supplier. There has also been speculation that China's growing demand for coal will support this trend in the future. However, U.S. coal is a relatively high-cost supply source when shipped to Asian markets, and in the long term U.S. coal will be competing in the Chinese market with lower cost suppliers, notably Australia and Indonesia among others. U.S. exports compete most strongly in European markets and then only when less expensive options are unavailable. In IEO2010, the United States remains a marginal coal supplier over the long term, responding to short-term disruptions or spikes in demand rather than significantly expanding its market share of world coal trade.

174

Conductance fluctuations in chaotic systems with tunnel barriers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantum effects are expected to disappear in the short-wavelength, semiclassical limit. As a matter of fact, recent investigations of transport through quantum chaotic systems have demonstrated the exponential suppression of the weak localization corrections to the conductance and of the Fano factor for shot-noise when the Ehrenfest time exceeds the electronic dwell time. On the other hand, conductance fluctuations, an effect of quantum coherence, retain their universal value in the limit of the ratio of Ehrenfest time over dwell time to infinity, when the system is ideally coupled to external leads. Motivated by this intriguing result we investigate conductance fluctuations through quantum chaotic cavities coupled to external leads via (tunnel) barriers of arbitrary transparency. Using the trajectory-based semiclassical theory of transport, we find a linear Ehrenfest time-dependence of the conductance variance showing a nonmonotonous, sinusoidal behavior as a function of the transperancy. Most notably, we find an increase of the conductance fluctuations with the Ehrenfest time, above their universal value, for the transparency less than 0.5. These results, confirmed by numerical simulations, show that, contrarily to the common wisdom, effects of quantum coherence may increase in the semiclassical limit, under special circumstances.

Daniel Waltner; Jack Kuipers; Philippe Jacquod; Klaus Richter

2011-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

175

A Numerical Model for Evaluating the Impact of Noble Metal Chemical Addition in Boiling Water Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The technique of noble metal chemical addition (NMCA), accompanied by a low-level hydrogen water chemistry (HWC), is being employed by several U.S. nuclear power plants for mitigating intergranular stress corrosion cracking in the vessel internals of their boiling water reactors (BWRs). An improved computer model by the name of DEMACE was employed to evaluate the performance of NMCA throughout the primary coolant circuit (PCC) of a commercial BWR. The molar ratios of hydrogen to oxidizing species in the PCC under normal water chemistry and HWC are analyzed. The effectiveness of NMCA is justified by calculated electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) around the PCC and in a local power range monitoring (LPRM) housing tube, in which practical in-vessel ECP measurements are normally taken.Prior to the modeling work for the BWR, the Mixed Potential Model, which is embedded in DEMACE and responsible for ECP calculation, was calibrated against both laboratory and plant ECP data. After modeling for various HWC conditions, it is found that the effectiveness of NMCA in the PCC of the selected BWR varies from region to region. In particular, the predicted ECP in the LPRM housing tube is notably different from that in the nearby bulk environment under NMCA, indicating that cautions must be given to a possible, undesirable outcome due to a distinct ECP difference between a locally confined area and the actual bulk environment.

Yeh, T.-K. [National Tsing-Hua University, Taiwan (China)

2002-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

176

Nano-Domain Analysis Via Massive Cluster Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry in the Event-by-Event Mode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is a surface analysis technique which characterizes species sputtered by an energetic particle beam. Bombardment with cluster projectiles offers the following notable advantages over bombardment with atomic ions or small clusters: enhanced emission of molecular ions, low damage cross-section, and reduced molecular fragmentation. Additionally, in the case of Au4004 and C60 impacts, desorption originates from nanometric volumes. These features make clusters useful probes to obtain molecular information from both nano-objects and nano-domains. The "event-by-event bombardment/detection mode" probes nano-objects one-at-a-time, while collecting and storing the corresponding secondary ion (SI) information. Presented here are the first experiments where free-standing nano-objects were bombarded with keV projectiles of atomic to nanoparticle size. The objects are aluminum nano-whiskers, 2 nm in diameter and ~250 nm in length. Au4004 has a diameter of ~2 nm, comparable to the nominal diameter of the nanowhiskers. There are notable differences in the SI response from sample volumes too small for full projectile energy deposition. The whisker spectra are dominated by small clusters?the most abundant species being AlO- and AlO2-. Bulk samples have larger yields for AlO2- than for AlO-, while this trend is reversed in whisker samples. Bulk samples give similar abundances of large SI clusters, while whisker samples give an order of magnitude lower yield of these SIs. Effective yields were calculated in order to determine quantitative differences between the nano-objects and bulk samples. The characterization of individual nano-objects from a mixture is demonstrated with negatively charged polymer spheres that are attracted to and retained by the nano-whiskers. The spheres are monodisperse polystyrene nanoparticles (30nm diameter). Our results show that the event-by-event mode can provide information on the nature, size, relative location, and abundance of nano-objects in the field of view. This study presents the first evidence of quantitative molecular information originating from nano-object mixtures. Biologically relevant systems (solid-supported lipid bilayers) were also characterized using Au5 , Au4004 and C60 . Organization-dependent SI emission was observed for phosphocholine bilayers. Lipid domain formation was also investigated in bilayers formed from cholesterol and a mixed lipid system. Trends in the correlation coefficient suggest that cholesterol segregates from the surrounding lipid environment during raft formation.

Pinnick, Veronica Tiffany

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Small Heat Shock Protein aA-Crystallin Prevents Photoreceptor Degeneration in Experimental  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The small heat shock protein, aA-crystallin null (aA2/2) mice are known to be more prone to retinal degeneration than the wild type mice in Experimental Autoimmune Uveoretinitis (EAU). In this report we demonstrate that intravenous administration of aA preserves retinal architecture and prevents photoreceptor damage in EAU. Interestingly, only aA and not aB-crystallin (aB), a closely related small heat shock protein works, pointing to molecular specificity in the observed retinal protection. The possible involvement of aA in retinal protection through immune modulation is corroborated by adaptive transfer experiments, (employing aA2/2 and wild type mice with EAU as donors and Rag22/2 as the recipient mice), which indicate that aA protects against the autoimmune challenge by modulating the systemic B and T cell immunity. We show that aA administration causes marked reduction in Th1 cytokines (TNF-a, IL-12 and IFN-c), both in the retina and in the spleen; notably, IL-17 was only reduced in the retina suggesting local intervention. Importantly, expression of Toll-like receptors and their associated adaptors is also inhibited suggesting that aA protection, against photoreceptor

Autoimmune Uveitis; Narsing A. Rao; Sindhu Saraswathy; Geeta Pararajasegaram; Suraj P. Bhat

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Effects of Terrain Heights and Sizes on Island-Scale Circulations and Rainfall for the Island of Hawaii during HaRP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Islands in Hawaii have different sizes and terrain heights with notable differences in climate and weather. In this study, the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) land surface model (LSM) is used to conduct ...

Yang Yang; Yi-Leng Chen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

The entry of China to the gas market: constraints and opportunities Catherine Locatelli  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Kazakhstan, most notably those relating to the Kashagan, Karachaganak and Tengiz deposits, bear witness in the consortium exploiting the Kashagan deposit in Kazakhstan, are indications. The configuration of the Asian

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

180

Interhemispheric Influence of the Northern Summer Monsoons on Southern Subtropical Anticyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The southern subtropical anticyclones are notably stronger in austral winter than summer, particularly over the Atlantic and Indian Ocean basins. This is in contrast with the Northern Hemisphere (NH), in which subtropical anticyclones are more ...

Sang-Ki Lee; Carlos R. Mechoso; Chunzai Wang; J. David Neelin

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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181

Evolution of the university business model and infrastructure planning due to technological innovations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The quality of higher education has been a growing concern in the United States and United Kingdom. There have been no notable improvements in the education system until the last few years. Considerable transformation in ...

Go, Veronica, 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Machine Learning of Maritime Fog Forecast Rules  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, the field of artificial intelligence has contributed significantly to the science of meteorology, most notably in the now familiar form of expert systems. Expert systems have focused on rules or heuristics by establishing, in ...

Paul M. Tag; James E. Peak

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Sustainability Priorities in the Electric Power Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Improving sustainability performance has become an important indicator of corporate success, stewardship, and responsibility. Many companies publish annual sustainability and corporate responsibility reports to communicate their policies, goals, and ongoing performance on key sustainability issues. Notably, the sustainability priorities communicated through these reports vary considerably across the electric power industry. This study summarizes how the industry portrays its sustainability priorities thr...

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

184

State of the Climate in 2010  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several large-scale climate patterns influenced climate conditions and weather patterns across the globe during 2010. The transition from a warm El Niño phase at the beginning of the year to a cool La Niña phase by July contributed to many notable events, ...

J. Blunden; D. S. Arndt; M. O. Baringer

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

The Adoption of Electronic Procurement in Singapore  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The emergence of new Internet technologies has far-reaching ramifications on the way business is conducted. Notably, it has given rise to e-commerce, which is the transaction of business via the Internet. Recognizing the importance of the Internet as ... Keywords: EDI, Internet, Singapore, commerceOne, electronic commerce, procurement, value added networks

Chia Boon Kheng; Suliman Al-Hawamdeh

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Next-Generation Photovoltaic Technologies in the United States: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes highlights of exploratory research into next-generation photovoltaic (PV) technologies funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) through its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the purpose of finding disruptive or ''leap frog'' technologies that may leap ahead of conventional PV in energy markets. The most recent set of 14 next-generation PV projects, termed Beyond the Horizon PV, will complete their third year of research this year. The projects tend to take two notably different approaches: high-efficiency solar cells that are presently too expensive, or organic solar cells having potential for low cost although efficiencies are currently too low. We will describe accomplishments for several of these projects. As prime examples of what these last projects have accomplished, researchers at Princeton University recently reported an organic solar cell with 5% efficiency (not yet NREL-verified). And Ohio State University scientists recently demonstrated an 18% (NREL-verified) single-junction GaAs solar cell grown on a low-cost silicon substrate. We also completed an evaluation of proposals for the newest set of exploratory research projects, but we are unable to describe them in detail until funding becomes available to complete the award process.

McConnell, R.; Matson, R.

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Towards a phoenix phase in aeolian research: shifting geophysical perspectives from fluvial dominance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aeolian processes are a fundamental driver of earth surface dynamics, yet the importance of aeolian processes in a broader geosciences context may be overshadowed by an unbalanced emphasis on fluvial processes. Here we wish to highlight that aeolian and fluvial processes need to be considered in concert relative to total erosion and to potential interactions, that relative dominance and sensitivity to disturbance vary with mean annual precipitation, and that there are important scale-dependencies associated with aeolian-fluvial interactions. We build on previous literature to present relevant conceptual syntheses highlighting these issues. We then highlight the relative investments that have been made in aeolian research on dust emission and management relative to that in fluvial research on sediment production. Literature searches highlight that aeolian processes are greatly understudied relative to fluvial processes when considering total erosion in different environmental settings. Notably, within the USA, aeolian research was triggered by the Dust Bowl catastrophe of the 1930s, but the resultant research agencies have shifted to almost completely focusing on fluvial processes, based on number of remaining research stations and on monetary investments in control measures. However, numerous research issues associated with intensification of land use and climate change impacts require a rapid ramping up in aeolian research that improves information about aeolian processes relative to fluvial processes, which could herald a post-Dust Bowl Phoenix phase in which aeolian processes are recognized as broadly critical to geo- and environmental sciences.

Whicker, Jeffrey J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Field, Jason P [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Breshears, David D [UNIV OF ARIZONA

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Digest of United States Practice in International Law 2002 | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 2 Research Menu Data/Tools Apps Resources Let's Talk Research Alpha You are here Data.gov » Communities » Research » Data Digest of United States Practice in International Law 2002 Dataset Summary Description The Office of the Legal Adviser publishes the annual Digest of United States Practice in International Law to provide the public with a historical record of the views and practice of the Government of the United States in public and private international law. "In his introduction to the 2002 volume, then Legal Adviser William H. Taft IV stated in part: "Calendar year 2002 gave rise to a broad range of significant and sometimes novel issues of international law. Many developments again highlighted the need to protect our national security against a different kind of enemy through the use of force in self-defense, non-proliferation and arms control efforts, the detention of unlawful enemy combatants and establishment of military commissions, continued counter-terrorism efforts, the imposition of sanctions, and the freezing of governmental assets, sometimes made available for payment of claims by individuals against terrorist states. At the same time, there were notable developments in non-confrontational contexts, including the fields of human rights, trade and investment, law of the sea, international claims and state responsibility, treaty practice, and international crime. . . ."

189

Evidence of catalytic production of hot hydrogen in rf generated hydrogen/argon plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper the selective broadening of the atomic hydrogen lines in pure H2 and Ar/H2 mixtures in a large 'GEC' cell (36 cm length_ 14 cm ID) was mapped as a function of position, H2/Ar ratio, time, power, and pressure. Several observations regarding the selective line broadening were particularly notable as they are unanticipated on the basis of earlier models. First, the anomalous broadening of the Balmer lines was found to exist throughout the plasma, and not just in the region between the electrodes. Second, the broadening was consistently a complex function of the operating parameters particularly gas composition (highest in pure H2), position, power, time and pressure. Clearly not anticipated by earlier models were the findings that under some conditions the highest concentration of 'hot' (>10 eV) hydrogen was found at the entry end, and not in the high field region between the electrodes and that in other conditions, the hottest H was at the (exit) pump (also grounded electrode) end. Third, excitati...

Phillips, J; Akhtar, K; Dhandapani, B; Mills, R; Phillips, Jonathan; Chen, Chun-Ku; Akhtar, Kamran; Dhandapani, Bala; Mills, Randell

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

A Coherent Strategy for Qauntum Gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Affine quantum gravity, which differs notably from either string theory or loop quantum gravity, is briefly reviewed. Emphasis in this article is placed on the use of affine coherent states in this program.

John R. Klauder

2004-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

191

A Block-Oriented Language and Runtime System for Tensor Algebra with Very Large Arrays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Important classes of problems in computational chemistry, notably coupled cluster methods, consist of solutions to complicated expressions defined in terms of tensors. Tensors are represented by multidimensional arrays that are typically extremely large, ...

Beverly A. Sanders; Rod Bartlett; Erik Deumens; Victor Lotrich; Mark Ponton

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Development of an Inexpensive Raindrop Size Spectrometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The deployment of weather radar, notably in mountainous terrain with many microclimates, requires the use of several or even many drop size spectrometers to provide confidence in the quantitative relation between radar reflectivity and rainfall. ...

William Henson; Geoff Austin; Harry Oudenhoven

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

3-D Finite Di erence Modeling for Borehole and Reservoir Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ERL's in-house nite difference code (Krasovec et al., 2003) has undergone several upgrades in the past year. Most notably, a stretched grid can now be used to greatly reduce the amount of RAM memory needed by certain types ...

Krasovec, Mary L.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Summary of Inventory Pilot Project March 1993 - December 1994  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Lean Aircraft Initiative began in the summer of 1992 as a “quick look” into the feasibility of applying manufacturing principles that had been pioneered in the automobile industry, most notably the Toyota Production ...

Ling, James

195

Heterogeneity and dynamicity of clouds at scale: Google trace analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To better understand the challenges in developing effective cloud-based resource schedulers, we analyze the first publicly available trace data from a sizable multi-purpose cluster. The most notable workload characteristic is heterogeneity: in resource ...

Charles Reiss; Alexey Tumanov; Gregory R. Ganger; Randy H. Katz; Michael A. Kozuch

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Matter density perturbations and effective gravitational constant in modified gravity models of dark energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive the equation of matter density perturbations on sub-horizon scales for a general Lagrangian density f(R, phi, X) that is a function of a Ricci scalar R, a scalar field phi and a kinetic term X=-(nabla phi)^2/2. This is useful to constrain modified gravity dark energy models from observations of large-scale structure and weak lensing. We obtain the solutions for the matter perturbation delta_m as well as the gravitational potential Phi for some analytically solvable models. In a f(R) dark energy model with the Lagrangian density f(R)=alpha R^{1+m}-Lambda, the growth rates of perturbations exhibit notable differences from those in the standard Einstein gravity unless m is very close to 0. In scalar-tensor models with the Lagrangian density f=F(phi)R+2p(phi,X) we relate the models with coupled dark energy scenarios in the Einstein frame and reproduce the equations of perturbations known in the current literature by making a conformal transformation. We also estimate the evolution of perturbations in both Jordan and Einstein frames when the energy fraction of dark energy is constant during the matter-dominated epoch.

Shinji Tsujikawa

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

197

Strain-rate and temperature-driven transition in the shear transformation zone for two-dimensional amorphous solids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We couple the recently developed self-learning metabasin escape algorithm, which enables efficient exploration of the potential energy surface (PES), with shear deformation to elucidate strain-rate and temperature effects on the shear transformation zone (STZ) characteristics in two-dimensional amorphous solids. In doing so, we report a transition in the STZ characteristics that can be obtained through either increasing the temperature or decreasing the strain rate. The transition separates regions having two distinct STZ characteristics. Specifically, at high temperatures and high strain rates, we show that the STZs have characteristics identical to those that emerge from purely strain-driven, athermal quasistatic atomistic calculations. At lower temperatures and experimentally relevant strain rates, we use the newly coupled PES + shear deformation method to show that the STZs have characteristics identical to those that emerge from a purely thermally activated state. The specific changes in STZ characteristics that occur in moving from the strain-driven to thermally activated STZ regime include a 33% increase in STZ size, faster spatial decay of the displacement field, a change in the deformation mechanism inside the STZ from shear to tension, a reduction in the stress needed to nucleate the first STZ, and finally a notable loss in characteristic quadrupolar symmetry of the surrounding elastic matrix that has previously been seen in athermal, quasistatic shear studies of STZs.

Penghui Cao; Harold S. Park; Xi Lin

2013-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

198

Managing Research Data in Big Science  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The project which led to this report was funded by JISC in 2010--2011 as part of its 'Managing Research Data' programme, to examine the way in which Big Science data is managed, and produce any recommendations which may be appropriate. Big science data is different: it comes in large volumes, and it is shared and exploited in ways which may differ from other disciplines. This project has explored these differences using as a case-study Gravitational Wave data generated by the LSC, and has produced recommendations intended to be useful variously to JISC, the funding council (STFC) and the LSC community. In Sect. 1 we define what we mean by 'big science', describe the overall data culture there, laying stress on how it necessarily or contingently differs from other disciplines. In Sect. 2 we discuss the benefits of a formal data-preservation strategy, and the cases for open data and for well-preserved data that follow from that. This leads to our recommendations that, in essence, funders should adopt rather light-touch prescriptions regarding data preservation planning: normal data management practice, in the areas under study, corresponds to notably good practice in most other areas, so that the only change we suggest is to make this planning more formal, which makes it more easily auditable, and more amenable to constructive criticism. In Sect. 3 we briefly discuss the LIGO data management plan, and pull together whatever information is available on the estimation of digital preservation costs. The report is informed, throughout, by the OAIS reference model for an open archive.

Norman Gray; Tobia Carozzi; Graham Woan

2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

199

Low-temperature femtosecond spectroscopy of the initial step of electron transfer in reaction centers from photosynthetic purple bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The initial step of charge separation at 10 K has been monitored with 100-fs time resolution in reaction centers from Rhodopseudomonas viridis and Rhodobacter sphaeroides as well as in reaction centers from the latter species in which one of the two monomeric bacteriochlorophyll (B) molecules has been removed by treatment with borohydride. Upon excitation at 870 nm, the absorbance changes measured at several wavelengths in the near-infrared absorption bands of the pigments, and notably at the absorption maximum of the B molecule(s), give no indication of a detectable concentration of B{sup {minus}}. Instead, the appearance of the cation radical of the dimeric primary electron donor (P) and of the bacteriopheophytin anion develops in concert with the decay of P{sup *}. An initial bleaching of the 850-nm band in reaction centers from Rhodopseudomonas viridis is consistent with an assignment of at least a large fraction of this band to the high-energy exciton component of P. Upon excitation of the B molecule(s) around 600 nm in the three types of reaction centers investigated, ultrafast energy transfer leads to the formation of P{sup *} in less than 100 fs. Under these conditions, a fast transient bleaching decaying with a 400-fs time constant is observed within the absorption band of B. This transient is also present upon preferential excitation of the bacteriopheophytins in the reaction center of Rhodopseudomonas viridis.

Breton, J. (CEN Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Martin, J.L.; Fleming, G.R.; Lambry, J.C. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France))

1988-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

200

Role of Morphological Growth State and Gene Expression in Desulfovibrio africanus strain Walvis Bay Mercury Methylation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The biogeochemical transformations of mercury are a complex process, with the production of methylmercury, a potent human neurotoxin, repeatedly demonstrated in sulfate- and Fe(III)- reducing as well as methanogenic bacteria. However, little is known regarding the morphology, genes or proteins involved in methylmercury generation. Desulfovibrio africanus strain Walvis Bay is a Hg-methylating -proteobacterium with a sequenced genome and has unusual pleomorphic forms. In this study, a relationship between the pleomorphism and Hg methylation was investigated. Proportional increases in the sigmoidal (regular) cell form corresponded with increased net MeHg production, but decreased when the pinched cocci (persister) form became the major morphotype. D. africanus microarrays indicated that the ferrous iron transport genes (feoAB), as well as ribosomal genes and several genes whose products are predicted to have metal binding domains (CxxC), were up-regulated during exposure to Hg in the exponential phase. While no specific methylation pathways were identified, the finding that Hg may interfere with iron transport and the correlation of growth-phase dependent morphology with MeHg production are notable. The identification of these relationships between differential gene expression, morphology, and the growth phase dependence of Hg transformations suggests that actively growing cells are primarily responsible for methylation, and so areas with ample carbon and electron-acceptor concentrations may also generate a higher proportion of methylmercury than more oligotrophic environments. The observation of increased iron transporter expression also suggests that Hg methylation may interfere with iron biogeochemical cycles.

Moberly, James G [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Biswas, Abir [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

An Independent Planet Search In The Kepler Dataset. I. A hundred new candidates and revised KOIs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use the SARS pipeline to search for planetary transits only in a small subset of the Kepler targets - the Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs), which are already known to include at least one promising planet candidate. Although the KOIs represent less than 1% of the Kepler dataset we are able to significantly update the overall statistics of planetary multiplicity: we find 84 new transit signals on 64 systems on these light curves (LCs) only, nearly doubling the number of transit signals in these systems. 41 of the systems were singly-transiting systems that are now multiply-transiting, significantly reducing the chances of false positive in them. Notable among the new discoveries are KOI 435 as a new 6-candidate systems (where only Kepler-11 was known before), KOI 277 which includes two candidates in a 6:7 period commensurability and with anti-correlated TTVs -- all but validating the system, KOIs 719 and 1574 that have small planet candidates (1.29 R_Earth and 2.05 R_Earth respectively) in the habitable zo...

Ofir, Aviv

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Surface Decontamination of System Components in Uranium Conversion Plant at KAERI  

SciTech Connect

A chemical decontamination process using nitric acid solution was selected as in-situ technology for recycle or release with authorization of a large amount of metallic waste including process system components such as tanks, piping, etc., which is generated by dismantling a retired uranium conversion plant at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The applicability of nitric acid solution for surface decontamination of metallic wastes contaminated with uranium compounds was evaluated through the basic research on the dissolution of UO2 and ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC) powder. Decontamination performance was verified by using the specimens contaminated with such uranium compounds as UO2 and AUC taken from the uranium conversion plant. Dissolution rate of UO2 powder is notably enhanced by the addition of H2O2 as an oxidant even in the condition of a low concentration of nitric acid and low temperature compared with those in a nitric acid solution without H2O2. AUC powders dissolve easily in nitric acid solutions until the solution pH attains about 2.5 {approx} 3. Above that solution pH, however, the uranium concentration in the solution is lowered drastically by precipitation as a form of U3(NH3)4O9 . 5H2O. Decontamination performance tests for the specimens contaminated with UO2 and AUC were quite successful with the application of decontamination conditions obtained through the basic studies on the dissolution of UO2 and AUC powders.

Choi, W. K.; Kim, K. N.; Won, H. J.; Jung, C. H.; Oh, W. Z.

2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

203

Effects of Light and Temperature on Fatty Acid Production in Nannochloropsis Salina  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate prediction of algal biofuel yield will require empirical determination of physiological responses to the climate, particularly light and temperature. One strain of interest, Nannochloropsis salina, was subjected to ranges of light intensity (5-850 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and temperature (13-40 C); exponential growth rate, total fatty acids (TFA) and fatty acid composition were measured. The maximum acclimated growth rate was 1.3 day{sup -1} at 23 C and 250 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Fatty acids were detected by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) after transesterification to corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). A sharp increase in TFA containing elevated palmitic acid (C16:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1) during exponential growth at high light was observed, indicating likely triacylglycerol accumulation due to photo-oxidative stress. Lower light resulted in increases in the relative abundance of unsaturated fatty acids; in thin cultures, increases were observed in palmitoleic and eicosapentaenoeic acids (C20:5{omega}3). As cultures aged and the effective light intensity per cell converged to very low levels, fatty acid profiles became more similar and there was a notable increase of oleic acid (C18:1{omega}9). The amount of unsaturated fatty acids was inversely proportional to temperature, demonstrating physiological adaptations to increase membrane fluidity. This data will improve prediction of fatty acid characteristics and yields relevant to biofuel production.

Van Wagenen, Jonathan M.; Miller, Tyler W.; Hobbs, Samuel J.; Hook, Paul W.; Crowe, Braden J.; Huesemann, Michael H.

2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

204

Observation of Spin Coulomb Drag in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas  

SciTech Connect

An electron propagating through a solid carries spin angular momentum in addition to its mass and charge. Of late there has been considerable interest in developing electronic devices based on the transport of spin, which offer potential advantages in dissipation, size, and speed over charge-based devices. However, these advantages bring with them additional complexity. Because each electron carries a single, fixed value (-e) of charge, the electrical current carried by a gas of electrons is simply proportional to its total momentum. A fundamental consequence is that the charge current is not affected by interactions that conserve total momentum, notably collisions among the electrons themselves. In contrast, the electron's spin along a given spatial direction can take on two values, {+-} {h_bar}/2 (conventionally {up_arrow}, {down_arrow}), so that the spin current and momentum need not be proportional. Although the transport of spin polarization is not protected by momentum conservation, it has been widely assumed that, like the charge current, spin current is unaffected by electron-electron (e-e) interactions. Here we demonstrate experimentally not only that this assumption is invalid, but that over a broad range of temperature and electron density, the flow of spin polarization in a two-dimensional gas of electrons is controlled by the rate of e-e collisions.

Weber, C.P.

2011-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

205

Trends in emissions of acidifying species in Asia, 1985-1997.  

SciTech Connect

Acid deposition is a serious problem throughout much of Asia. Emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) have been increasing steadily, as nations strive to increase their levels of economic development. Coal and fuel oil have been the main choices for powering industrial development; and, until recently, only a few countries (notably Japan and Taiwan) had taken significant steps to avert the atmospheric emissions that accompany fuel combustion. This paper discusses trends in emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} that have occurred in Asian countries in the period 1985--1997, using results from the RAINS-ASIA computer model and energy-use trends from the IEA Energy Statistics and Balances database. Emissions of SO{sub 2} in Asia grew from 26.6 Tg in 1985 to 33.7 Tg in 1990 and to 39.2 Tg in 1997. Though SO{sub 2} emissions used to grow as fast as fossil-fuel use, recent limitations on the sulfur content of coal and oil have slowed the growth. The annual-average emissions growth between 1990 and 1997 was only 1.1%, considerably less than the economic growth rate. Emissions of NO{sub x}, on the other hand, continue to grow rapidly, from 14.1 Tg in 1985 to 18.7 Tg in 1990 and 28.5 Tg in 1997, with no signs of abating. Thus, though SO{sub 2} remains the major contributor to acidifying emissions in Asia, the role of NO{sub x}, will become more and more important in the future.

Streets, D. G.; Tsai, N. Y.; Akimoto, H.; Oka, K.

2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

206

Seismicity in the Vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the Period October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2006  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes earthquake activity within approximately 65 km of Yucca Mountain site during the October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2006 time period (FY05-06). The FY05-06 earthquake activity will be compared with the historical and more recent period of seismic activity in the Yucca Mountain region. The relationship between the distribution of seismicity and active faults, historical patterns of activity, and rates of earthquakes (number of events and their magnitudes) are important components in the assessment of the seismic hazard for the Yucca Mountain site. Since October 1992 the University of Nevada has compiled a catalog of earthquakes in the Yucca Mountain area. Seismicity reports have identified notable earthquake activity, provided interpretations of the seismotectonics of the region, and documented changes in the character of earthquake activity based on nearly 30 years of site-characterization monitoring. Data from stations in the seismic network in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain is collected and managed at the Nevada Seismological Laboratory (NSL) at the University of Nevada Reno (UNR). Earthquake events are systematically identified and cataloged under Implementing Procedures developed in compliance with the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) Quality Assurance Program. The earthquake catalog for FY05-06 in the Yucca Mountain region submitted to the Yucca Mountain Technical Data Management System (TDMS) forms the basis of this report.

Smith, Ken

2007-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

207

Evidence of the production of hot hydrogen atoms in RF plasmas by catalytic reactions between hydrogen and oxygen species  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Selective H-atom line broadening was found to be present throughout the volume (13.5 cm ID x 38 cm length) of RF generated H2O plasmas in a GEC cell. Notably, at low pressures (ca. hot' with energies greater than 40 eV with a pressure dependence, but only a weak power dependence. The degree of broadening was virtually independent of the position studied within the GEC cell, similar to the recent finding for He/H2 and Ar/H2 plasmas in the same GEC cell. In contrast to the atomic hydrogen lines, no broadening was observed in oxygen species lines at low pressures. Also, in control Xe/H2 plasmas run in the same cell at similar pressures and adsorbed power, no significant broadening of atomic hydrogen, Xe, or any other lines was observed. Stark broadening or acceleration of charged species due to high electric fields can not explain the results since (i) the electron density was insufficient by orders of magnitude, (ii) the RF field was essentially confined to the cathode fall region in contrast to the broadening that was independent of position, and (iii) only the atomic hydrogen lines were broadened. Rather, all of the data is consistent with a model that claims specific, predicted, species can act catalytically through a resonant energy transfer mechanism to create hot hydrogen atoms in plasmas.

Jonathan Phillips; Chun Ku Chen; Randell Mills

2004-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

208

John Podesta  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

 John Podesta is Chair of the Center for American Progress and the Center for American Progress Action Fund. Under his leadership American Progress has become a notable leader in the...

209

TMS Press Releases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Louis Hector Jr., General Motors R&D Center ... which represents the most notable contribution to metallurgical science during the period under review. ... in transferring research results or findings into commercial production and practical use.

210

Monitoring a multi-agent system evolution through iterative development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Iterative development is a well know project management technique which has notably been popularized in object-oriented development through the use of the Rational Unified Process. Such an approach is nevertheless always driven by milestones rules on ...

Yves Wautelet; Manuel Kolp

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New England 13 and the PJM Interconnection 14 . According toGW. The current size of the PJM system is approximately 165markets, most notably in the PJM Interconnection and ISO-New

Shen, Bo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Financing Non-Residential Photovoltaic Projects: Options and Implications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

escalation, some solar PPA providers offer to price the PPArecognition among solar PPA providers that several notableA lease enables the solar PPA provider to, in effect, borrow

Bolinger, Mark

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Recherche avec identificateur  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.e. antitrust, merger control, liberalisation and State aid control. It seeks to pursue a proactive approach to focus on the most serious and damaging competition problems, notably cartels, competition in liberalised

214

Kinematic, Dynamic, and Thermodynamic Analysis of a Weakly Sheared Severe Thunderstorm over Northern Alabama  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A kinematic, dynamic, and thermodynamic analysis of a weakly sheared, airmass thunderstorm observed over northern Alabama is presented. Most notable is the fact that the dominant cell in this storm closely resembles the Byers and Braham model for ...

David E. Kingsmill; Roger M. Wakimoto

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

The \\c{hi}2-test, the Muon AMM and Karl R. Popper  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this very brief note, we only wish to identify a simple but notable epistemological basis, concerning the Karl R. Popper philosophy of science thought, into the realm of the experimental proves of Fundamental Physics.

Giuseppe Iurato

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

216

Laser velocimetry study of the flow field in a centrifugal pump with a shrouded impeller  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study provides laser velocimetry measurements of the flow field within a centrifugal pump. The pump had a shrouded impeller of 254 mm diameter with five blades of backswept design. Measurements were made using a laser-two-focus (L2F) velocimetry system, both within the rotating impeller passages and in the pump volute. Both design operating conditions and off-design conditions were investigated. A comparison was made with a previous study, wherein measurements of the flow field were completed within the same pump, with an open face impeller. The absolute velocity, relative velocity, and turbulence kinetic energy levels were measured. The flow field within the impeller passages for the shrouded case was notably more uniform than for the unshrouded case. In addition, the turbulence kinetic energy within the passages was substantially lower. The efficiency of the shrouded pump was, however, lower than the unshrouded version. This was attributed primarily to losses due to leakage in the clearance region between the impeller shroud and the pump casing; a rather large passage was necessary to permit optical access. Velocimetry measurements were successfully made in the clearance region, and a leakage flow calculation was made.

Moran, Michael Kevin

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Scalar dark matter and fermion coannihilations in the radiative seesaw model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By extending the Standard Model with three right-handed neutrinos (N_i) and a second Higgs doublet (H_2), odd under a Z_2 symmetry, it is possible to explain non-zero neutrino masses and to account for the dark matter. We consider the case where the dark matter is a scalar and study its coannihilations with the right-handed neutrinos. These coannihilations tend to increase, rather than reduce, the dark matter density and they modify in a significant way the viable parameter space of the model. In particular, they allow to satisfy the relic density constraint for dark matter masses well below 500 GeV. The dependence of the relic density on the relevant parameters of the model, such as the dark matter mass, the mass splitting, and the number of coannihilating fermions, is analyzed in detail. We also investigate, via a scan over the parameter space, the new viable regions that are obtained when coannihilations are taken into account. Notably, they feature large indirect detection rates, with sigmav reaching values of order 10^{-24} cm^3/s. Finally, we emphasize that coannihilation effects analogous to those discussed here can be used to reconcile a thermal freeze-out with a large sigmav also in other models of dark matter.

Michael Klasen; Carlos E. Yaguna; Jose D. Ruiz-Alvarez; Diego Restrepo; Oscar Zapata

2013-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

218

Sustained H2 Production Driven by Photosynthetic Water Splitting in a Unicellular Cyanobacterium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Continuously illuminated nitrogen-deprived Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 evolved H2 via dinitrogenase at rates up to 400 ?mol•mg Chl-1•h-1 in parallel with photosynthetic O2 production. Notably, sustained co-production of H2 and O2 occurred over 100 h in the presence of CO2, with both gases displaying inverse oscillations which eventually dampened to stable rates. Oscillations were not observed when CO2 was omitted, while H2 and O2 evolution rates were positively correlated. In situ light saturation analyses of H2 production displayed dose-dependence and lack of O2 inhibition. Inactivation of photosystem II had substantial long-term effects but did not affect the short-term H2 production indicating that the process is also supported by photosystem I activity and oxidation of endogenous glycogen. Collectively, our results demonstrate that uninterrupted H2 production in unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria can be fueled by water photolysis without the detrimental effects of O2 and have important implications for sustainable production of biofuels.

Melnicki, Matthew R.; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Hill, Eric A.; Kucek, Leo A.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

219

Rotation and chemical abundances of Ap/Bp stars in the open cluster NGC 6475  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The connection between age, rotation and chemical abundance of magnetic Ap stars is poorly understood. Using open clusters, we are able to study samples of stars that are both co-eval and co-environmental. By determining rotation and chemical abundance for Ap star members of clusters with various ages, the variations of these properties as a function of age and environment can be derived. All four probable Ap star members of the open cluster NGC 6475, as well as one normal late B star, were studied using detailed spectrum synthesis of high resolution UVES-POP spectra. Probable cluster membership was confirmed for all five stars, however chemical abundance anomalies only appear to be present in spectra of three. Projected rotational velocity and chemical abundances for 21 elements ranging from C to Eu are presented for the 5 stars. In the three peculiar stars we find overabundances of Si, Cr, Mn, Fe and rare earths such as Nd, characteristic of Ap stars. The set of chemically peculiar stars show fairly homogeneous abundance tables, however notable differences exist for a few elements. There also exist appreciable differences in the v sin i and main sequence evolutionary stage of the chemically peculiar stars. This may hint at the underlying processes giving rise to the observed abundance anomalies. With this first detailed study of chemical abundances of a complete sample of magnetic Ap/Bp stars in an open cluster, we have initiated an exploration of the environmental and evolutionary influence on chemical peculiarity.

C. P. Folsom; G. A. Wade; S. Bagnulo; J. D. Landstreet

2006-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

220

Education in Safeguards and Security Technology Meeting Challenges with Technology and Experience  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Education and hands-on experience are crucial to ensuring a workforce of safeguards and security professionals who can meet the challenges currently faced in global nuclear safeguards and security. Global demand for nuclear energy and technology, the new Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), and the cleanup of Cold War facilities have resulted in an increased need for trained safeguards and security personnel. At the same time, the global community is facing a growing shortage of experienced workers with hands-on knowledge of nuclear material processing. Limited access to operating facilities has dramatically reduced the opportunities for next-generation practitioners to obtain hands-on training experience. To address these needs, the Safeguards Technology Integration Center (STIC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was created as a Department of Energy User Facility to provide access both to the latest technology and to field-experienced professionals. The STIC provides real-world conditions, process equipment mock-ups, and controlled access to encapsulated radioactive materials (including highly enriched uranium and plutonium) for training and technology evaluation encompassing various techniques and skills, such as Radiation Inspection Systems, Containment and Surveillance Systems, Nondestructive Assay, Security System Performance Testing, and System Design and Analysis. The STIC facilities, laboratories, test beds, and training facilities are described along with the more notable aspects of the training program, which has included more than 1000 participants in the last four years.

Paschal, Linda J [ORNL; Chapman, Jeffrey Allen [ORNL; Rowe, Nathan C [ORNL; Stinson, Brad J [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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221

DeWitt-Schwinger Renormalization and Vacuum Polarization in d Dimensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Calculation of the vacuum polarization, $$, and expectation value of the stress tensor, $$, has seen a recent resurgence, notably for black hole spacetimes. To date, most calculations of this type have been done only in four dimensions. Extending these calculations to $d$ dimensions includes $d$-dimensional renormalization. Typically, the renormalizing terms are found from Christensen's covariant point splitting method for the DeWitt-Schwinger expansion. However, some manipulation is required to put the correct terms into a form that is compatible with problems of the vacuum polarization type. Here, after a review of the current state of affairs for $$ and $$ calculations and a thorough introduction to the method of calculating $$, a compact expression for the DeWitt-Schwinger renormalization terms suitable for use in even-dimensional spacetimes is derived. This formula should be useful for calculations of $$ and $$ in even dimensions, and the renormalization terms are shown explicitly for four and six dimensions. Furthermore, use of the finite terms of the DeWitt-Schwinger expansion as an approximation to $$ for certain spacetimes is discussed, with application to four and five dimensions.

Robert T. Thompson; José P. S. Lemos

2008-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

222

Clusters of proteins in bio-membranes: insights into the roles of interaction potential shapes and of protein diversity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has recently been proposed that proteins embedded in lipidic bio-membranes can spontaneously self-organize into stable small clusters, or membrane nano-domains, due to the competition between short-range attractive and longer-range repulsive forces between proteins, specific to these systems. In this paper, we carry on our investigation, by Monte Carlo simulations, of different aspects of cluster phases of proteins in bio-membranes. First, we compare different long-range potentials (including notably three-body terms) to demonstrate that the existence of cluster phases should be quite generic. Furthermore, a real membrane contains hundreds of different protein species that are far from being randomly distributed in these nano-domains. We take this protein diversity into account by modulating protein-protein interaction potentials both at short and longer range. We confirm theoretical predictions in terms of biological cluster specialization by deciphering how clusters recruit only a few protein species. In this respect, we highlight that cluster phases can turn out to be an advantage at the biological level, for example by enhancing the cell response to external stimuli.

Nicolas Meilhac; Nicolas Destainville

2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

223

Sediment quality thresholds: Estimates from hockey stick regression of liver lesion prevalence in English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Comprehensive, integrative assessments of coastal sediment quality are best effected by using large, diverse data sets that include measures of biological dysfunction observed in association with chronic exposure to sediment contaminants. Under the auspices of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration`s National Status and Trends Program, the National Benthic Surveillance Project accumulated a database of synoptic sediment contaminant concentrations and indices of biological effects that were measured in indigenous animals collected during field surveys conducted from 1984 to 1994. This compilation of data provided the opportunity to develop a new approach for determining sediment quality criteria to add to the current repertoire of environmental assessment tools. Using a two-segment hockey stick regression, statistically significant chemical thresholds of biological effects were estimated for hepatic lesion prevalences in English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus, formerly Parophrys vetulus) in relation to sediment concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These threshold estimates are notably lower than many of those reported for other techniques. Application of this relatively simple dose-response model to subacute, chronic effects that are involved in pepatocarcinogenesis and associated with sediment toxicant content (1) reflects the link between toxicopathic disease progression and conditions observed in benthic fish exposed to contaminants and (2) provides endpoints for assessing sediment quality contaminant concentrations that are not necessarily acutely fatal but may have long-term health implications for populations that are chronically exposed.

Horness, B.H.; Lomax, D.P.; Johnson, L.L.; Myers, M.S.; Pierce, S.M.; Collier, T.K. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, WA (United States)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Evidence of the production of hot hydrogen atoms in RF plasmas by catalytic reactions between hydrogen and oxygen species  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Selective H atom broadening was found to be present throughout the volume (13.5 cm diameter x 38 cm length) of RF generated H2O plasmas in a GEC cell. Notably, at low pressures (hot' witha energies greater than 40 eV, with a pressure dependence, but only a weak power dependence. The degree of broadening was virtually independent of the position within the GEC cell. In contrast to the atomic hydrogen lines, no broadening was observed in oxygen species lines at low pressure. Also, in 'control' Xe/H2 plasmas run in the saem cell at similar pressures and absorbed power, no significant broadening of atomic hydrogen, Xe or any other lines was observed. Stark broadeing or acceleration of charged species due to high electric fields can not explain the results since (i) the electron density was insufficient by orders or magnitude, (ii) the RF field was essentially confined to the cathode fall region in contrast to the broadening which was fou...

Phillips, J; Mills, R; Phillips, Jonathan; Chen, Chun Ku; Mills, Randell

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Phase Changes in the Evolution of the IPv4 and IPv6 AS-Level Internet Topologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we investigate the evolution of the IPv4 and IPv6 Internet topologies at the autonomous system (AS) level over a long period of time.We provide abundant empirical evidence that there is a phase transition in the growth trend of the two networks. For the IPv4 network, the phase change occurred in 2001. Before then the network's size grew exponentially, and thereafter it followed a linear growth. Changes are also observed around the same time for the maximum node degree, the average node degree and the average shortest path length. For the IPv6 network, the phase change occurred in late 2006. It is notable that the observed phase transitions in the two networks are different, for example the size of IPv6 network initially grew linearly and then shifted to an exponential growth. Our results show that following decades of rapid expansion up to the beginning of this century, the IPv4 network has now evolved into a mature, steady stage characterised by a relatively slow growth with a stable network st...

Zhang, Guoqiang; Zhou, Shi; 10.1016/j.comcom.2010.06.004

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Progress in Heat Watch–Warning System Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Among all atmospheric hazards, heat is the most deadly. With such recent notable heat events as the Chicago Heat Wave of 1995, much effort has gone into redeveloping both the methods by which it is determined whether a day will be “oppressive,” ...

Scott C. Sheridan; Laurence S. Kalkstein

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

MPEG-21 digital items in research and practice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of the MPEG-21 standard, the so-called Multimedia Framework, is to enable transparent and augmented use of multimedia resources across a wide range of networks, devices, user preferences, and communities, notably for trading (of bits). As such, ... Keywords: DANAE, ENTHRONE, MPEG-21, P2P-Next, UPnP, application, digital item, digital library, usage

Christian Timmerer; Hermann Hellwagner

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Local Co Structure in Epitaxial Cox Ti?-xO?-x Anatase  

SciTech Connect

The quest for diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) which retain their magnetism at and above room temperature is spanning several classes of materials. Such materials are critically important in the development of spintronics as spin injectors for semiconductor heterostructures that can operate without cryogenic cooling. Group IV, III-V, and II-VI DMS materials typically exhibit Curie temperatures (Tc) well below ambient due to weak interaction of the magnetic impurities. Calculations based on the Zener model of magnetism suggest that the strongest interaction is that mediated by holes, and experimental studies carried out to date have borne out this prediciton. One notable exception is that of Mn-doped GaN, which grows n-type by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy under certain conditions, and appears to be ferromagnetic at room temperature. In addition, it has recently been shown that at least one oxide semiconductor - Co-doped TiO? anatase or CoxTi?-xO?-x - is ferromagnetic well above room temperature when doped n-type by oxygen vacancies for x < ~0.1, but the mechanism of magnetism remains unknown.

Chambers, Scott A.; Heald, Steve M.; Droubay, Timothy

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Mesa, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the 2006 IECC and the 2003 IECC. The notable changes are: (1) Improved duct sealing verified by testing the duct system; (2) Increased duct insulation; (3) Improvement of window U-factors from 0.40 to 0.35; and (4) Efficient lighting requirements. An analysis of these changes resulted in estimated annual energy cost savings of $145 a year for an average new house compared to the 2003 IECC. This energy cost saving decreases to $125 a year for the 2009 IECC compared to the 2006 IECC. Construction cost increases (per home) for complying with the 2009 IECC are estimated at $1256 relative to the 2003 IECC and $800 for 2006 IECC. Home owners will experience an annual cost savings of about $80 a year by complying with the 2009 IECC because reduction to energy bills will more than compensate for increased mortgage payments and other costs.

Lucas, Robert G.

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

230

Interaction of the burning spherical droplets in oxygen-enriched turbulent environment  

SciTech Connect

Three-dimensional numerical studies on the interaction of vaporizing and burning droplets were conducted to understand the burning characteristics of multiple droplets in a turbulent environment. The burning droplets characteristics, such as lifetime, surface temperature, vaporization, reaction, and burning rate were examined for various oxygen mole-fractions and geometrical arrangements of droplets. Results from a single droplet combustion test were first verified and validated against existing experimental data. Results indicate that turbulent intensity has a moderate effect on droplet burning rate, but not as prominent an effect as the oxygen mole-fraction. At high oxygen mole-fractions, droplet lifetime was short due to enhanced burning. It is shown that evaporation processes of multiple droplets are notably affected by the inter-space distance between droplets both in streamwise and spanwise directions. The burning rate as a function of oxygen mole-fraction and inter-space distance is determined and can be used as a guideline for future studies on spray combustion. (author)

Cho, Chong Pyo [Automobile Energy and Environment Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2 Jangdong, Yuseonggu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea); Kim, Ho Young; Yoon, Sam S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Anamdong, 5-Ga, Sungbukgu, Seoul, 136-701 (Korea)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

Performance Characterization and Remedy of Experimental CuInGaSe2 Mini-Modules: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We employed current-voltage (I-V), quantum efficiency (QE), photoluminescence (PL), electroluminescence (EL), lock-in thermography (LIT), and (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy (ECIS) to complementarily characterize the performance and remedy for two pairs of experimental CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) mini-modules. One pair had the three scribe-lines (P1/P2/P3) done by a single pulse-programmable laser, and the other had the P2/P3 lines by mechanical scribe. Localized QE measurements for each cell strip on all four mini-modules showed non-uniform distributions that correlated well with the presence of performance-degrading strips or spots revealed by PL, EL, and LIT imaging. Performance of the all-laser-scribed mini-modules improved significantly by adding a thicker Al-doped ZnO layer and reworking the P3 line. The efficiency on one of the all-laser-scribed mini-modules increased notably from 7.80% to 8.56% after the performance-degrading spots on the side regions along the cell array were isolated by manual scribes.

Pern, F. J.; Yan, F.; Mansfield, L.; Glynn, S.; Rekow, M.; Murion, R.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Bilayer Thickness Mismatch Controls Domain Size in Model Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The observation of lateral phase separation in lipid bilayers has received considerable attention, especially in connection to lipid raft phenomena in cells. It is widely accepted that rafts play a central role in cellular processes, notably signal transduction. While micrometer-sized domains are observed with some model membrane mixtures, rafts much smaller than 100 nm beyond the reach of optical microscopy are now thought to exist, both in vitro and in vivo. We have used small-angle neutron scattering, a probe free technique, to measure the size of nanoscopic membrane domains in unilamellar vesicles with unprecedented accuracy. These experiments were performed using a four-component model system containing fixed proportions of cholesterol and the saturated phospholipid 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC), mixed with varying amounts of the unsaturated phospholipids 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and 1,2-dioleoylsn- glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC). We find that liquid domain size increases with the extent of acyl chain unsaturation (DOPC:POPC ratio). Furthermore, we find a direct correlation between domain size and the mismatch in bilayer thickness of the coexisting liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases, suggesting a dominant role for line tension in controlling domain size. While this result is expected from line tension theories, we provide the first experimental verification in free-floating bilayers. Importantly, we also find that changes in bilayer thickness, which accompany changes in the degree of lipid chain unsaturation, are entirely confined to the disordered phase. Together, these results suggest how the size of functional domains in homeothermic cells may be regulated through changes in lipid composition.

Heberle, Frederick A [ORNL; Petruzielo, Robin S [ORNL; Pan, Jianjun [ORNL; Drazba, Paul [ORNL; Kucerka, Norbert [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre and Comelius University (Slovakia); Feigenson, Gerald [Cornell University; Katsaras, John [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

High-sulfur coals in the eastern Kentucky coal field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Eastern Kentucky coal field is notable for relatively low-sulfur, [open quotes]compliance[close quotes] coals. Virtually all of the major coals in this area do have regions in which higher sulfur lithotypes are common, if not dominant, within the lithologic profile. Three Middle Pennsylvanian coals, each representing a major resource, exemplify this. The Clintwood coal bed is the stratigraphically lowest coal bed mined throughout the coal field. In Whitley County, the sulfur content increase from 0.6% at the base to nearly 12% in the top lithotype. Pyrite in the high-sulfur lithotype is a complex mixture of sub- to few-micron syngenetic forms and massive epigenetic growths. The stratigraphically higher Pond Creek coal bed is extensively mined in portions of the coal field. Although generally low in sulfur, in northern Pike and southern Martin counties the top one-third can have up to 6% sulfur. Uniformly low-sulfur profiles can occur within a few hundred meters of high-sulfur coal. Pyrite occurs as 10-50 [mu]m euhedra and coarser massive forms. In this case, sulfur distribution may have been controlled by sandstone channels in the overlying sediments. High-sulfur zones in the lower bench of the Fire Clay coal bed, the stratigraphically highest coal bed considered here, are more problematical. The lower bench, which is of highly variable thickness and quality, generally is overlain by a kaolinitic flint clay, the consequence of a volcanic ash fall into the peat swamp. In southern Perry and Letcher counties, a black, illite-chlorite clay directly overlies the lower bench. General lack of lateral continuity of lithotypes in the lower bench suggests that the precursor swamp consisted of discontinuous peat-forming environments that were spatially variable and regularly inundated by sediments. Some of the peat-forming areas may have been marshlike in character.

Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M. (Univ. of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)); Eble, C.F. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States))

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Bismuth as a modifier of Au Pd catalyst: Enhancing selectivity in alcohol oxidation by suppressing parallel reaction  

SciTech Connect

Bi has been widely employed as a modifier for Pd and Pt based catalyst mainly in order to improve selectivity. We found that when Bi was added to the bimetallic system AuPd, the effect on activity in alcohol oxidation mainly depends on the amount of Bi regardless its position, being negligible when Bi was 0.1 wt% and detectably negative when the amount was increased to 3 wt%. However, the selectivity of the reactions notably varied only when Bi was deposited on the surface of metal nanoparticles suppressing parallel reaction in both benzyl alcohol and glycerol oxidation. After a careful characterization of all the catalysts and additional catalytic tests, we concluded that the Bi influence on the activity of the catalysts could be ascribed to electronic effect whereas the one on selectivity mainly to a geometric modification. Moreover, the Bi-modified AuPd/AC catalyst showed possible application in the production of tartronic acid, a useful intermediate, from glycerol.

Villa, Alberto [Universita di Milano, Italy; Wang, Di [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Berlin, Germany; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Prati, Laura [Universita di Milano, Italy

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

A Comparative Evaluation of Textured Wheat Ingredients and Soy Proteins in the Quality and Acceptability of Chicken Nuggets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chicken nuggets are commonly made with varying levels of textured vegetable proteins such as soy and wheat, for their ability to bind water and their meat like conformation. This project compared textured wheat proteins and soy proteins at 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% in both emulsified and non-emulsified chicken nuggets. A total of 6,048 chicken nuggets were evaluated in replications for batter breader pickup (%), par fry yield (%), cook loss (%), L*, a*, b* color value, texture profile analysis, and sensory analysis. Analysis was conducted for all four concentrations of wheat and soy treatments then compared to each other and an all-white meat chicken nugget control. All data was analyzed with a ? <0.05 using SAS with PROC GLM and Duncan’s MRT, except for sensory data which was analyzed as a complete randomized block design using analysis of variance with a ? <0.05, and was analyzed using SAS with PROC GLM. Results indicated that no notable trends were apparent in the quality testing. A trained sensory panel determined that Soy flavor was more detectable at 20% and 30% than wheat flavor was at similar levels. The results indicate that wheat proteins can replace soy proteins for functional properties in both emulsified and non-emulsified chicken nuggets at all concentrations evaluated. It was also determined that wheat proteins could be used at levels up to 30% without imparting a noticeable flavor.

Yeater, Michael C

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Neutron total and scattering cross sections of /sup 6/Li in the few MeV region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Neutron total cross sections of /sup 6/Li are measured from approx. 0.5 to approx. 4.8 MeV at intervals of approx. 10 scattering angles and at incident-neutron intervals of approx.< 100 keV. Neutron differential inelastic-scattering cross sections are measured in the incident-energy range 3.5 to 4.0 MeV. The experimental results are extended to lower energies using measured neutron total cross sections recently reported elsewhere by the authors. The composite experimental data (total cross sections from 0.1 to 4.8 MeV and scattering cross sections from 0.22 to 4.0 MeV) are interpreted in terms of a simple two-level R-matrix model which describes the observed cross sections and implies the reaction cross section in unobserved channels; notably the (n;..cap alpha..)t reaction (Q = 4.783 MeV). The experimental and calculational results are compared with previously reported results as summarized in the ENDF/B-V evaluated nuclear data file.

Smith, A.; Guenther, P.; Whalen, J.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

A joint x-ray and neutron study on amicyanin reveals the role of protein dynamics in electron transfer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The joint x-ray/neutron diffraction model of the Type I copper protein, amicyanin from Paracoccus denitrificans was determined at 1.8 {angstrom} resolution. The protein was crystallized using reagents prepared in D{sub 2}O. About 86% of the amide hydrogen atoms are either partially or fully exchanged, which correlates well with the atomic depth of the amide nitrogen atom and the secondary structure type, but with notable exceptions. Each of the four residues that provide copper ligands is partially deuterated. The model reveals the dynamic nature of the protein, especially around the copper-binding site. A detailed analysis of the presence of deuterated water molecules near the exchange sites indicates that amide hydrogen exchange is primarily due to the flexibility of the protein. Analysis of the electron transfer path through the protein shows that residues in that region are highly dynamic, as judged by hydrogen/deuterium exchange. This could increase the rate of electron transfer by transiently shortening through-space jumps in pathways or by increasing the atomic packing density. Analysis of C-H{hor_ellipsis}X bonding reveals previously undefined roles of these relatively weak H bonds, which, when present in sufficient number can collectively influence the structure, redox, and electron transfer properties of amicyanin.

Sukumar, N.; Mathews, F.S.; Langan, P.; Davidson, V.L. (Cornell); (UMMC); (WU-MED); (LANL)

2010-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

238

DEPICATIONS OF PATIENT-PHYSICIAN INTERACTION IN MODERN PRIMETIME TV DRAMA AND SITUATIONAL COMEDY: A CONTENT ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Popular culture portrayals of physicians have evolved in important ways since the early 1950s. During this time predominant medical best practices have shifted from task oriented approaches to patient oriented approaches. Studies have also discovered significant influence of popular media, notably Television (TV) and new age media, in influencing patient interactions through their role in entertainment education, and by creating expectations for reality consistent with the framing, cultivation and social cognitive theories. Recent research has thoroughly characterized these effects and primarily focused on content analysis, conversation analysis and part process communication method to help gain insight into successful manners of patient-physician communication and how media affects expectations and perceptions of received medical care. These studies have almost exclusively focused on long running dramas, specifically, Gray’s Anatomy, and ER. This paper seeks to replicate Yinjiao Ye’s content analysis of Gray’s Anatomy and ER in two unexplored areas: a popular situational comedy Scrubs, and the modern drama House. These results will be evaluated to determine if medical comedies, which ran during the same time period as the previously studied dramas showed similar content, and if a newer long running comparable drama depicts similar content three years after Ye’s study. This will be accomplished by viewing selected episodes and discussing similarities or differences between these shows and Ye’s existing data.

Reese, Eric William

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Economic and Non-proliferation Policy Considerations of Uranium Enrichment in Brazil and Argentina  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The nuclear development programs of both Argentina and Brazil have, since the 1970s, been premised on the desire for self-sufficiency and assurance of nuclear fuel supply. While military rivalry and mutual distrust led to nuclear weapons related development programs in the 1970s and 1980s, both countries have since terminated these programs. Furthermore, the governments of both countries have pledged their commitment to exclusively non-explosive use of nuclear energy and have signed the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Utilizing rights provided for under the NPT, both Argentina and Brazil have nuclear fuel production facilities, with the notable exception of enrichment plants, that provide much of the current indigenous fuel requirements for their nuclear power plants. However, both countries are actively developing enrichment capability to fill this gap. The purpose of this report is to assess the economic basis and non-proliferation policy considerations for indigenous enrichment capability within the context of their desired self-sufficiency and to evaluate possible United States Government policy options.

Short, Steven M.; Phillips, Jon R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Mahy, Heidi A.

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Performance of "WAMS East 1" in Providing Dynamic Information for the North East Blackout of August 14, 2003  

SciTech Connect

The blackout that impacted the U.S. and Canada on August 14, 2003, was notable for its extent, complexity, and impact. It triggered a massive review of operating records to determine what happened, why it happened, and how to avoid it in future operations. Much of this work was done at NERC level, through the U.S.-Canada Power System Outage Task Force. Additional background information concerning the event was gathered together by a group of utilities that, collectively, have been developing a wide area measurement system (WAMS) for the eastern interconnection. Like its counterpart in the western interconnection, "WAMS East" has a primary backbone of synchronized phasor measurements that are continuously recorded at central locations. Operational data have been critical for understanding and responding to the August 14 Blackout. Records collected on WAMS East demonstrate the contributions that well synchronized data offer in such efforts, and the value of strategically located continuous recording systems to facilitate their integration. This paper examines overall performance of the WAMS East backbone, with a brief assessment of the technology involved.

Hauer, John F.; Bhatt, Navin B.; Shah, Kirit; Kolluri, Sharma

2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Sowing the seeds of massive black holes in small galaxies: Young clusters as the building blocks of Ultra-Compact-Dwarf Galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interacting galaxies often have complexes of hundreds of young stellar clusters of individual masses ~ 10^{4-6} Msun in regions that are a few hundred parsecs across. These cluster complexes interact dynamically, and their coalescence is a candidate for the origin of some ultracompact dwarf galaxies (UCDs). Individual clusters with short relaxation times are candidates for the production of intermediate-mass black holes of a few hundred solar masses, via runaway stellar collisions prior to the first supernovae in a cluster. It is therefore possible that a cluster complex hosts multiple intermediate-mass black holes that may be ejected from their individual clusters due to mergers or binary processes, but bound to the complex as a whole. Here we explore the dynamical interaction between initially free-flying massive black holes and clusters in an evolving cluster complex. We find that, after hitting some clusters, it is plausible that the massive black hole will be captured in an ultracompact dwarf forming near the center of the complex. In the process, the hole typically triggers electromagnetic flares via stellar disruptions, and is also likely to be a prominent source of gravitational radiation for the advanced ground-based detectors LIGO and VIRGO. We also discuss other implications of this scenario, notably that the central black hole could be considerably larger than expected in other formation scenarios for ultracompact dwarfs.

Pau Amaro-Seoane; Symeon Konstantinidis; Marc Dewi Freitag; M. Coleman Miller; Frederic A. Rasio

2012-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

242

Data Mining Session-Based Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs) in a Mental Health Setting: Toward Data-Driven Clinical Decision Support and Personalized Treatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The CDOI outcome measure - a patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument utilizing direct client feedback - was implemented in a large, real-world behavioral healthcare setting in order to evaluate previous findings from smaller controlled studies. PROs provide an alternative window into treatment effectiveness based on client perception and facilitate detection of problems/symptoms for which there is no discernible measure (e.g. pain). The principal focus of the study was to evaluate the utility of the CDOI for predictive modeling of outcomes in a live clinical setting. Implementation factors were also addressed within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior by linking adoption rates to implementation practices and clinician perceptions. The results showed that the CDOI does contain significant capacity to predict outcome delta over time based on baseline and early change scores in a large, real-world clinical setting, as suggested in previous research. The implementation analysis revealed a number of critical factors affecting successful implementation and adoption of the CDOI outcome measure, though there was a notable disconnect between clinician intentions and actual behavior. Most importantly, the predictive capacity of the CDOI underscores the utility of direct client feedback measures such as PROs and their potential use as the basis for next generation clinical decision support tools and personalized treatment approaches.

Casey Bennett; Thomas Doub; April Bragg; Jason Luellen; Christina Van Regenmorter; Jennifer Lockman; Randall Reiserer

2011-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

243

Action plan for response to abnormal conditions in Hanford high level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks containing flammable gases. Revision 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Radioactive liquid waste tends to produce hydrogen as a result of the interaction of gamma radiation and water. In tanks containing organic chelating agents, additional hydrogen gas as well as nitrous oxide and ammonia can be produced by thermal and radiolytic decomposition of these organics. Several high-level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks, located underground at the Hanford Site, contain waste that retains the gases produced in them until large quantities are released rapidly to the tank vapor space. Tanks filled to near capacity have relatively little vapor space; therefore, if the waste suddenly releases a large amount of hydrogen and nitrous oxide, a flammable gas mixture may result. The most notable waste tank with a flammable gas problem is tank 241-SY-101. Waste in this tank has occasionally released enough flammable gas to burn if an ignition source had been present inside of the tank. Several other waste tanks exhibit similar behavior to a lesser magnitude. Administrative controls have been developed to assure that these Flammable Gas Watch List tanks are safely maintained. Responses have also been developed for off-normal conditions which might develop in these tanks. In addition, scientific and engineering studies are underway to further understand and mitigate the behavior of the Flammable Gas Watch List tanks.

Sherwood, D.J.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Saturated critical heat flux in a multi-microchannel heat sink fed by a split flow system  

SciTech Connect

An extensive experimental campaign has been carried out for the measurement of saturated critical heat flux in a multi-microchannel copper heat sink. The heat sink was formed by 29 parallel channels that were 199 {mu}m wide and 756 {mu}m deep. In order to increase the critical heat flux and reduce the two-phase pressure drop, a split flow system was implemented with one central inlet at the middle of the channels and two outlets at either end. The base critical heat flux was measured using three HFC Refrigerants (R134a, R236fa and R245fa) for mass fluxes ranging from 250 to 1500 kg/m{sup 2} s, inlet subcoolings from -25 to -5 K and saturation temperatures from 20 to 50 C. The parametric effects of mass velocity, saturation temperature and inlet subcooling were investigated. The analysis showed that significantly higher CHF was obtainable with the split flow system (one inlet-two outlets) compared to the single inlet-single outlet system, providing also a much lower pressure drop. Notably several existing predictive methods matched the experimental data quite well and quantitatively predicted the benefit of higher CHF of the split flow. (author)

Mauro, A.W.; Toto, D. [Department of Energetics, Applied Thermofluidynamics and Air Conditioning Systems, FEDERICO II University, p.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Thome, J.R. [Laboratory of Heat and Mass Transfer (LTCM), Faculty of Engineering (STI), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 9, Lausanne CH-1015 (Switzerland); Vanoli, G.P. [Engineering Department, Sannio University, Corso Garibaldi 107, Palazzo dell'Aquila Bosco Lucarelli, 82100 Benevento (Italy)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

245

Power supply expansion and the nuclear option in Poland  

SciTech Connect

Poland is in the process of liberalizing and modernizing its electric power system. Given its heavy reliance on coal and a consequent history of often severe environmental externalities associated with power production, the nature of capacity expansion in Poland has important environmental and social implications. To better understand capacity expansion in Poland, we constructed a data set of the Polish power sector for use with the Elfin capacity expansion planning model. Using Elfin, we derived four scenarios and several sensitivities for new generating capacity construction. These scenarios simulate choices among several generic generating technologies made to achieve the lowest overall net present cost of operating the power system through 2015. We find that natural gas is a highly desirable fuel for future power generation in Poland, but primarily as a peaking resource. As the current system is inflexible and peaking capacity appears to be the most pressing need, this result is not surprising. However, when nuclear power is included as a generation option, natural gas is less desirable than the Polish Power Grid Company (PPGCo) has suggested, and, despite the PPGCo`s claims to the contrary, nuclear power cannot be ruled out in Poland on economic grounds alone. In the unconstrained Elfin scenarios, using PPGCo assumptions, nuclear power is attractive, especially after 2010. The attractiveness of nuclear generation proves sensitive to certain input variables, however, notably fixed operating and maintenance cost, and possible carbon taxes. Moreover, we find that the effectiveness of conservation efforts designed to reduce airborne emissions is limited under scenarios in which nuclear generation is adopted. 23 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

Marnay, C.; Pickle, S.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Investigation of residential central air conditioning load shapes in NEMS  

SciTech Connect

This memo explains what Berkeley Lab has learned about how the residential central air-conditioning (CAC) end use is represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). NEMS is an energy model maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) that is routinely used in analysis of energy efficiency standards for residential appliances. As part of analyzing utility and environmental impacts related to the federal rulemaking for residential CAC, lower-than-expected peak utility results prompted Berkeley Lab to investigate the input load shapes that characterize the peaky CAC end use and the submodule that treats load demand response. Investigations enabled a through understanding of the methodology by which hourly load profiles are input to the model and how the model is structured to respond to peak demand. Notably, it was discovered that NEMS was using an October-peaking load shape to represent residential space cooling, which suppressed peak effects to levels lower than expected. An apparent scaling down of the annual load within the load-demand submodule was found, another significant suppressor of the peak impacts. EIA promptly responded to Berkeley Lab's discoveries by updating numerous load shapes for the AEO2002 version of NEMS; EIA is still studying the scaling issue. As a result of this work, it was concluded that Berkeley Lab's customary end-use decrement approach was the most defensible way for Berkeley Lab to perform the recent CAC utility impact analysis. This approach was applied in conjunction with the updated AEO2002 load shapes to perform last year's published rulemaking analysis. Berkeley Lab experimented with several alternative approaches, including modifying the CAC efficiency level, but determined that these did not sufficiently improve the robustness of the method or results to warrant their implementation. Work in this area will continue in preparation for upcoming rulemakings for the other peak coincident end uses, commercial air conditioning and distribution transformers.

Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris; Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Rosenquist, Greg; Osborn, Julie

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Causes of Long-Term Drought in the U.S. Great Plains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Great Plains experienced a number of multiyear droughts during the last century, most notably the droughts of the 1930s and 1950s. This study examines the causes of such droughts using ensembles of long-term (1930–2000) simulations ...

Siegfried D. Schubert; Max J. Suarez; Philip J. Pegion; Randal D. Koster; Julio T. Bacmeister

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Distributed computing in the 21st century: some aspects of cloud computing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Cloud Computing paradigm has gained considerable attention owing to the notable commercial success of many Cloud service providers. Typically, a Cloud Computing service provides its customers with resources as a utility, using a pay-as-you-go model. ... Keywords: cloud computing, peer to peer systems, quality of service, virtualization

Fabio Panzieri; Ozalp Babaoglu; Stefano Ferretti; Vittorio Ghini; Moreno Marzolla

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Computers in Biology and Medicine 36 (2006) 634655 www.intl.elsevierhealth.com/journals/cobm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

disease is high. Bladder cancer treatment options such as immunotherapy, chemotherapy, radiation therapy periodic internal inspections of bladders for even these patients. Though the exact cause of bladder cancer is unclear, various factors such as exposure to certain aromatic chemicals, notably aniline dyes

Kusiak, Andrew

250

Formation of a Sharp Snow Gradient in a Midwestern Heavy Snow Event  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A case study of the 13–14 March 1999 heavy snow event across southern Missouri and neighboring states is presented. Of the many features that made this storm notable, the very sharp gradient on the northern periphery of the snowfall field was ...

Patrick S. Market; David Cissell

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Energy R and D in the Industrialized World: Retrenchment and Refocusing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents preliminary findings from an ongoing research project examining trends in energy R&D investments in selected industrialized countries (The United States, Japan, Germany, the Netherlands, and the European Union). Its underlying purpose is to assess the adequacy of current energy R&D, in terms of investment levels and programmatic scope considering the likely energy technology demands associated with international efforts to address global climate change. It finds that, while overall levels of public and private investment in all forms of R&D have risen significantly across the countries studied, investments in energy R&D have declined in real terms. Causes of the observed decline might include the ongoing deregulation of the energy industries, the absence of acute energy crises, and shifts in domestic social and policy priorities in the post-Cold War period. In addition, it finds noteworthy shifts within industrialized countries' energy R&D investment portfolios. In most countries, nuclear R&D has declined (by more than 90% in key countries such as the U.S. and Germany) while the remaining R&D resources are shifting toward shorter-term projects, most notably in the energy efficiency area. Research on carbon sequestration, hydrogen production, and fuel cells is gaining in prominence public sector energy R&D, often displacing traditional fossil energy R&D projects. Future research associated with this project will include the preparation of reports on several additional industrialized countries, including the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Canada, and Switzerland. Collectively, the small set of countries addressed in this project account for over 95% of the world's energy R&D.

JJ Dooley; PJ Runci; E Luiten

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

The Pioneer Anomaly: Seeking an explanation in newly recovered data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft yielded very accurate navigation that was limited only by a small, anomalous frequency drift of their carrier signals received by the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN). This discrepancy, evident in the data for both spacecraft, was interpreted as an approximately constant acceleration and has become known as the Pioneer anomaly. The origin of this anomaly is yet unknown. Recent efforts to explain the effect included a search for independent confirmation, analyses of conventional mechanisms, even ideas rooted in new physics, and proposals for a dedicated mission. We assert that before any discussion of new physics and (or) a dedicated mission can take place, one must analyze the entire set of radiometric Doppler data received from Pioneer 10 and 11. We report on our efforts to recover and utilize the complete set of radio Doppler and telemetry records of both spacecraft. The collection of radio Doppler data for both missions is now complete; we are ready to begin its evaluation. We also made progress utilizing the recently recovered Pioneer telemetry data. We present a strategy for studying the effect of on-board generated small forces with this telemetry data, in conjunction with the analysis of the entire set of the Pioneer Doppler data. We report on the preparations for the upcoming analysis of the newly recovered data with the ultimate goal of determining the origin of the Pioneer anomaly. Finally, we discuss implications of our on-going research of the Pioneer anomaly for other missions, most notably for New Horizons, NASA's recently launched mission to Pluto.

Viktor T Toth; Slava G Turyshev

2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

253

Quantification of differences in the effective atomic numbers of healthy and cancerous tissues: A discussion in the context of diagnostics and dosimetry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: There are a range of genetic and nongenetic factors influencing the elemental composition of different human tissues. The elemental composition of cancerous tissues frequently differs from healthy tissue of the same organ, particularly in high-Z trace element concentrations. For this reason, one could suggest that this may be exploited in diagnostics and perhaps even influence dosimetry. Methods: In this work, for the first time, effective atomic numbers are computed for common cancerous and healthy tissues using a robust, energy-dependent approach between 10 keV and 100 MeV. These are then quantitatively compared within the context of diagnostics and dosimetry. Results: Differences between effective atomic numbers of healthy and diseased tissues are found to be typically less than 10%. Fibrotic tissues and calcifications of the breast exhibit substantial (tens to hundreds of percent) differences to healthy tissue. Expectedly, differences are most pronounced in the photoelectric regime and consequently most relevant for kV imaging/therapy and radionuclides with prominent low-energy peaks. Cancerous tissue of the testes and stomach have lower effective atomic numbers than corresponding healthy tissues, while diseased tissues of the other organ sites typically have higher values. Conclusions: As dose calculation approaches improve in accuracy, there may be an argument for the explicit inclusion of pathologies. This is more the case for breast, penile, prostate, nasopharyngeal, and stomach cancer, less so for testicular and kidney cancer. The calculated data suggest dual-energy computed tomography could potentially improve lesion identification in the aforementioned organs (with the exception of testicular cancer), with most import in breast imaging. Ultimately, however, the differences are very small. It is likely that the assumption of a generic 'tissue ramp' in planning will be sufficient for the foreseeable future, and that the Z differences do not notably aid lesion detection beyond that already facilitated by differences in mass density.

Taylor, M. L. [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovation Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne 3000 (Australia); Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne 3001 (Australia) and Medical Physics, WBRC, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne 3000 (Australia)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

254

Transmission grid access and pricing in Norway, Spain, and California: A comparative study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The openness of the transmission grid and the incentives given by transmission pricing form the foundation for retail and wholesale competition in the electricity market. The deregulated markets of Norway, Spain, and California all have introduced retail access and wholesale competition, although with different approaches to pricing of transmission grid services. This paper will briefly describe the three different solutions, and discuss some of their implications. Of the three electricity systems, Norway was the first to open the grid to competition in electricity trade. The Norwegian Energy Law of 1990 introduced open competition to wholesale and retail trade starting January 1991. In Spain, the Electricity Law of 1997 came into force early in 1998. Wholesale and retail markets in California were opened for competition on April 1, 1998, following the passage of Assembly Bill 1890, in August 1996. Introducing competition in electricity markets also implies introducing Third Party Access to the transmission grid. All potential competitors have to be given access to the grid in order to compete, no matter who owns the actual wires. This principle raises several challenges, notably, how to price transmission services. Who is to pay for which transmission services? The Norwegian grid is divided into three levels depending on its function. The transmission grid includes all parts of the national grid having a transmission function, meaning that some lower voltage levels also are included. In Spain, the definition of the transmission grid is similar, including the 400 kV and 220 kV national grid as well as lower voltage installations that could affect transmission operation or generation dispatch. For historic reasons, wholesale electricity transactions in the US are regulated by the federal government through the FERC. However, operations of utility systems within one state fall primarily under state jurisdiction. Because the utility systems in California generally are large and exchanges between them limited, the role of FERC was small prior to restructuring, although the state is a large importer of power.

Gronli, H.; Gomez San Ramon, T.; Marnay, C.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Prodigiosin down-regulates survivin to facilitate paclitaxel sensitization in human breast carcinoma cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Prodigiosin is a bacterial metabolite with potent anticancer activity, which is attributed to its proapoptotic effect selectively active in malignant cells. Still, the molecular mechanisms whereby prodigiosin induces apoptosis remain largely unknown. In particular, the role of survivin, a vital inhibitor of apoptosis, in prodigiosin-induced apoptosis has never been addressed before and hence was the primary goal of this study. Our results showed that prodigiosin dose-dependently induced down-regulation of survivin in multiple breast carcinoma cell lines, including MCF-7, T-47D and MDA-MB-231. This down-regulation is mainly regulated at the level of transcription, as prodigiosin reduced the levels of both survivin mRNA and survivin promoter activity but failed to rescue survivin expression when proteasome-mediated degradation is abolished. Importantly, overexpression of survivin rendered cells more resistant to prodigiosin, indicating an essential role of survivin down-regulation in prodigiosin-induced apoptosis. In addition, we found that prodigiosin synergistically enhanced cell death induced by paclitaxel, a chemotherapy drug known to up-regulate survivin that in turn confers its own resistance. This paclitaxel sensitization effect of prodigiosin is ascribed to the lowering of survivin expression, because prodigiosin was shown to counteract survivin induction by paclitaxel and, notably, the sensitization effect was severely abrogated in cells that overexpress survivin. Taken together, our results argue that down-regulation of survivin is an integral component mediating prodigiosin-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells, and further suggest the potential of prodigiosin to sensitize anticancer drugs, including paclitaxel, in the treatment of breast cancer.

Ho, T.-F. [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Technology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Peng, Y.-T.; Chuang, S.-M.; Lin, S.-C.; Feng, B.-L. [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lu, C.-H. [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Yu, W.-J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chang, J.-S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: changjs@mail.ncku.edu.tw; Chang, C.-C. [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: chia_che@dragon.nchu.edu.tw

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

The Influence of Flue Gas Recirculation on the Formation of NOx in the Process of Coal Grate-Fired  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the improvement of environmental protection requirements, the problems of NOx emission from industrial boiler become more and more notable. To explore a real effective method of low NOx combustion, the article discusses the influence of flue gas ... Keywords: flue gas recirculation, grate-fired, temperature, Nox

Li Xu; Jianmin Gao; Guangbo Zhao; Laifu Zhao; Zhifeng Zhao; Shaohua Wu

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Health Care Reform, What’s in It? Rural Communities and Rural Medical Care  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A critical component of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), the federal health care reform law, is the expansion of health insurance coverage and a resulting improvement in health outcomes through access to affordable and timely medical care. One notable concern expressed in the wake of passage of the law is the ability of the health care system to effectively serve over 30 million newly insured, plus deliver effective services to the currently insured in order to meet the goals of the new law. (McMorrow) We have long said the ultimate goal of health care reform is to help make people healthier. Access to health services is a crucial need to meet that goal, and constraints on access will make the health care reform law less meaningful than it should. (McMorrow) Access issues are even more acute in rural communities. As we have shown, many rural communities have severe medical professional shortages, few of the nation’s medical professionals practice in rural areas, rural health professionals are aging, fewer professionals are being trained in primary care and fewer new professionals are being educated and trained. (Top 10 paper) Medicare and Medicaid—major components of rural medical care—pay rural medical providers and facilities less than do private insurers and less than providers in urban areas. All of these exist at a time when, in general, rural people have greater medical care needs than do nonrural people. (National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services, Center on an Aging Society) Access provisions turned out to be a major part of the health reform law, but an unsung part that received little

Jon M. Bailey

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Estimating future global per capita water availability based on changes in climate and population  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Human populations are profoundly affected by water stress, or the lack of sufficient per capita available freshwater. Water stress can result from overuse of available freshwater resources or from a reduction in the amount of available water due to decreases in rainfall and stored water supplies. Analyzing the interrelationship between human populations and water availability is complicated by the uncertainties associated with climate change projections and population projections. We present a simple methodology developed to integrate disparate climate and population data sources and develop first-order per capita water availability projections at the global scale. Simulations from the coupled land-ocean-atmosphere Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) forced with a range of hypothetical greenhouse gas emissions scenarios are used to project grid-based changes in precipitation minus evapotranspiration as proxies for changes in runoff, or fresh water supply. Population growth changes according to several Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) storylines are used as proxies for changes in fresh water demand by 2025, 2050 and 2100. These freshwater supply and demand projections are then combined to yield estimates of per capita water availability aggregated by watershed and political unit. Results suggest that important insights might be extracted from the use of the process developed here, notably including the identification of the globe s most vulnerable regions in need of more detailed analysis and the relative importance of population growth versus climate change in in altering future freshwater supplies. However, these are only exemplary insights and, as such, could be considered hypotheses that should be rigorously tested with multiple climate models, multiple observational climate datasets, and more comprehensive population change storylines.

Parish, Esther S [ORNL; Kodra, Evan [Northeastern University; Ganguly, Auroop R [Northeastern University; Steinhaeuser, Karsten [University of Minnesota

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Quick-change filter cartridge  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A quick-change filter cartridge. In sampling systems for measurement of airborne materials, a filter element is introduced into the sampled airstream such that the aerosol constituents are removed and deposited on the filter. Fragile sampling media often require support in order to prevent rupture during sampling, and careful mounting and sealing to prevent misalignment, tearing, or creasing which would allow the sampled air to bypass the filter. Additionally, handling of filter elements may introduce cross-contamination or exposure of operators to toxic materials. Moreover, it is desirable to enable the preloading of filter media into quick-change cartridges in clean laboratory environments, thereby simplifying and expediting the filter-changing process in the field. The quick-change filter cartridge of the present invention permits the application of a variety of filter media in many types of instruments and may also be used in automated systems. The cartridge includes a base through which a vacuum can be applied to draw air through the filter medium which is located on a porous filter support and held there by means of a cap which forms an airtight seal with the base. The base is also adapted for receiving absorbing media so that both particulates and gas-phase samples may be trapped for investigation, the latter downstream of the aerosol filter.

Rodgers, John C. (Santa Fe, NM); McFarland, Andrew R. (College Station, TX); Ortiz, Carlos A. (Bryan, TX)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Micro-level land use impacts of bioconversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The energy crisis has prompted research and development of renewable energy sources, among which are the bioconversion technologies. Crops, crop residues, manure and other organic wastes are potential sources of liquid, solid and gaseous fuels. These feedstocks originate on the farm or in the forest and therefore are land intensive. Implementation of the bioconversion technologies will involve actions which will impact existing land use patterns. Because of differences in crop type, yield per acre, existing land use conditions and agricultural practices, an aggregated national approach to the assessment of land use is not sufficient. If energy policy regarding bioconversion is to be successful, then it must be sensitive to micro-level information. This paper demonstrates the land use assessment work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in support of the Department of Energy's Technical Assessment of Solar Energy Program, (TASE). Local Biomass potential, existing and use and potential land use impacts from bio-energy implementation for three of the fifteen counties selected for the TASE study will be presented. The methodology creased for the evaluation is useful in determining the biomass potential for any community or county, and in identifying regional differences inherent in the trade-offs between existing land use and energy production.

Parsons, V.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Study and analysis of the stress state in a ceramic, button-head, tensile specimen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The final results are reported for a study to identify and correct the causes of nongage-section failures (notably button-head failures) in ceramic tensile specimens observed in several laboratories. Numerical modeling of several candidate specimen gripping systems has shown inherent stress concentrations near the specimen button head at which the maximum stress may approach 75 to 100% of the gage-section stress for certain grip conditions. Empirical comparisons of both tapered- and straight-collet gripping systems revealed compromises in both systems. The straight-collet system, with deformable collets, is simpler to use but produces statistically significant greater average percent bending for all tests than those produced for the tapered-collet system, which is slightly more difficult to use. Empirical tensile tests of {approximately}50 aluminium oxide and {approximately}50 silicon nitride specimens were conducted to evaluate the loading capability of both gripping systems, the percent bending in each system, and the potential of consistently producing successful test results. These tests revealed that, due to variations in individuals specimens or the individual specimen/grip interfaces, neither of the gripping systems can consistently produce bending of less than 3 to 4% at failure although occasional values of {approximately}0.5% bending were attained. Refinements of grinding procedures and dimensional measurement techniques have shown critical details in both the practices and consistency of machining necessary for achieving the dimensional tolerances while minimizing subsurface damage. Numerical integration techniques indicate that up to a consistent 5.0% bending during fast- fracture tests can be tolerated before large influences are detected in the determination of the Weibull modulus and the Weibull characteristic strength.

Jenkins, M.G.; Ferber, M.K.; Martin, R.L.; Jenkins, V.T.; Tennery, V.J.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

THE OBSERVED PROPERTIES OF DWARF GALAXIES IN AND AROUND THE LOCAL GROUP  

SciTech Connect

Positional, structural, and dynamical parameters for all dwarf galaxies in and around the Local Group are presented, and various aspects of our observational understanding of this volume-limited sample are discussed. Over 100 nearby galaxies that have distance estimates reliably placing them within 3 Mpc of the Sun are identified. This distance threshold samples dwarfs in a large range of environments, from the satellite systems of the MW and M31, to the quasi-isolated dwarfs in the outer regions of the Local Group, to the numerous isolated galaxies that are found in its surroundings. It extends to, but does not include, the galaxies associated with the next nearest groups, such as Maffei, Sculptor, and IC 342. Our basic knowledge of this important galactic subset and their resolved stellar populations will continue to improve dramatically over the coming years with existing and future observational capabilities, and they will continue to provide the most detailed information available on numerous aspects of dwarf galaxy formation and evolution. Basic observational parameters, such as distances, velocities, magnitudes, mean metallicities, as well as structural and dynamical characteristics, are collated, homogenized (as far as possible), and presented in tables that will be continually updated to provide a convenient and current online resource. As well as discussing the provenance of the tabulated values and possible uncertainties affecting their usage, the membership and spatial extent of the MW sub-group, M31 sub-group, and the Local Group are explored. The morphological diversity of the entire sample and notable sub-groups is discussed, and timescales are derived for the Local Group members in the context of their orbital/interaction histories. The scaling relations and mean stellar metallicity trends defined by the dwarfs are presented, and the origin of a possible 'floor' in central surface brightness (and, more speculatively, stellar mean metallicity) at faint magnitudes is considered.

McConnachie, Alan W., E-mail: alan.mcconnachie@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

263

Instruments of Empire: Colonial Elites and U.S. Governance in Early National Louisiana, 1803-1820  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The United States confronted new problems of territorial expansion with the Louisiana Purchase, as it involved, for the first time, the transfer in sovereignty of a territory that contained a population who by birth, language and religion differed substantially from the inhabitants of the United States, but who had been guaranteed the rights of full citizens. A series of other colonial powers faced these same problems on the North American continent, notably the Spanish in Louisiana. As with those earlier powers, ultimately the United States pursued processes that both brought Louisiana government and law into line with its institutions, and allowed for continued local control. County and parish officeholders through their interactions with U.S. authorities prove especially useful for an examination of the processes that gradually integrated the Territory of Orleans into the United States. Neither a study of high political figures in Washington nor marginalized groups in Louisiana can accurately demonstrate how this process of accommodation worked. Local elites and U.S. officials served as the middlemen who oversaw the implementation of new policy and therefore were in a position to obstruct these policies if they so chose. Native-born Louisiana elites confronted significant challenges in dealing with a U.S. administration that in some areas chose to accommodate them, but in many others chose to implement policies through Anglo- American or foreign French newcomers to the territory. The change in sovereignty to the United States offered many individuals from local elites new pathways to power in the territorial legislature, and later in a stronger state legislature. Local governance played a central role in the success of U.S. sovereignty within Louisiana.

Beauchamp, Michael Kelly

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

New Mexico's energy resources '81. Annual report of Bureau of Geology in the Mining and Minerals Division of New Mexico Energy and Minerals Department  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Although production of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ declined only slightly in 1980, New Mexico's share of domestic production has declined from 48% in 1976 to 35% in 1980. Production projections indicate a continued decline in 1981 and lower production until at least 1984. New Mexico has 41% of total domestic reserves producible in the $50-per-lb cost category. In keeping with the anticipated steady depletion of reserves, production of crude oil in New Mexico was 69.9 million bls, a 6.3% decline in production from 1979. Condensate production of 5.4 million bbls in 1980, however, represented an increase of 7% from 1979 production. Although natural gas production was the lowest since 1970 and declined by 2.6% from 1979 production, 1980 was the 15th year that production exceeded 1 trillion cu ft. Despite declines in production, the valuation of oil and gas production has increased significantly with oil sales doubling from the previous year and gas sales increasing by $409 million because of higher prices. Reserves have been estimated to be 959 million bbls of crude oil and 17.667 trillion cu ft of natural gas. Production of 19.5 million short tons of coal in 1980 represented a 33% increase over 1979 production and an increase of 157% since 1970. Coal resources in New Mexico are estimated to be 180.79 billion short tons, and production is projected to incease to 39.61 million tons in 1985 and 67.53 million tons in 1990. The most notable developments in geothermal energy have been in technical advances in drilling, testing, and applications, especially in the area of hot dry rock systems. The US Bureau of Land Management has issued 113 geothermal leases that remain active. Recent geothermal exploration activity has been detailed for 21 companies.

Arnold, E.C.; Hill, J.M. (comps.)

1981-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

265

Quantification of total mercury in liver and heart tissue of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) from Alaska USA  

SciTech Connect

This study quantified the Hg levels in the liver (n=98) and heart (n=43) tissues of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) (n=102) harvested from Prince William Sound and Kodiak Island Alaska. Mercury tissue dry weight (dw) concentrations in the liver ranged from 1.7 to 393 ppm dw, and in the heart from 0.19 to 4.99 ppm dw. Results of this study indicate liver and heart tissues' Hg ppm dw concentrations significantly increase with age. Male Harbor Seals bioaccumulated Hg in both their liver and heart tissues at a significantly faster rate than females. The liver Hg bioaccumulation rates between the harvest locations Kodiak Island and Prince William Sound were not found to be significantly different. On adsorption Hg is transported throughout the Harbor Seal's body with the partition coefficient higher for the liver than the heart. No significant differences in the bio-distribution (liver:heart Hg ppm dw ratios (n=38)) values were found with respect to either age, sex or geographic harvest location. In this study the age at which Hg liver and heart bioaccumulation levels become significantly distinct in male and female Harbor Seals were identified through a Tukey's analysis. Of notably concern to human health was a male Harbor Seal's liver tissue harvested from Kodiak Island region. Mercury accumulation in this sample tissue was determined through a Q-test to be an outlier, having far higher Hg concentrarion (liver 392 Hg ppm dw) than the general population sampled. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury accumulation in the liver and heart of seals exceed food safety guidelines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accumulation rate is greater in males than females with age. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Liver mercury accumulation is greater than in the heart tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury determination by USA EPA Method 7473 using thermal decomposition.

Marino, Kady B. [Department of Chemistry, Roger Williams University, Bristol, RI 02809 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Roger Williams University, Bristol, RI 02809 (United States); Hoover-Miller, Anne; Conlon, Suzanne; Prewitt, Jill [Alaska SeaLife Center, City of Seward, AK (United States)] [Alaska SeaLife Center, City of Seward, AK (United States); O'Shea, Stephen K., E-mail: soshea@rwu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Roger Williams University, Bristol, RI 02809 (United States)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

266

DisClose: Discovering Colossal Closed Itemsets via a Memory Efficient Compact Row-Tree  

SciTech Connect

Itemset mining has recently focused on discovery of frequent itemsets from high-dimensional datasets with relatively few rows and a larger number of items. With exponentially in-creasing running time as average row length increases, mining such datasets renders most conventional algorithms impracti-cal. Unfortunately, large cardinality closed itemsets are likely to be more informative than small cardinality closed itemsets in this type of dataset. This paper proposes an approach, called DisClose, to extract large cardinality (colossal) closed itemsets from high-dimensional datasets. The approach relies on a memory-efficient Compact Row-Tree data structure to represent itemsets during the search process. The search strategy explores the transposed representation of the dataset. Large cardinality itemsets are enumerated first followed by smaller ones. In addition, we utilize a minimum cardinality threshold to further reduce the search space. Experimental result shows that DisClose can complete the extraction of colossal closed itemsets in the considered dataset, even for low support thresholds. The algorithm immediately discovers closed itemsets without needing to check if each new closed itemset has previously been found.

Zulkurnain, Nurul F.; Keane, John A.; Haglin, David J.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Phorbol myristate acetate and catechol as skin cocarcinogens in SENCAR mice. Environ. Health Perspect. 68  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The enhancement of the carcinogenicity of benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P) and 3-propiolactone (BPL) by the mouse skin cocarcinogens phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and catechol were examined in female SEN-CAR mice, 30 per group. The carcinogen and cocarcinogen were applied simultaneously, three times weekly for 490-560 days. B(a)P and BPL were used at constant doses of 5 and 50 jig, respectively, in all experiments. PMA was used at three doses, 2.5, 1.0, and 0.5 p.g per application, and catechol was used at one dose, 2 mg per application. Control groups included animals that received carcinogen only, cocarcinogen only, acetone only, and no treatment. The carcinogenicity of B(a)P and BPL were enhanced by the cocarcinogens, particularly in terms of tumor multiplicity. For both carcinogens, the most marked cocarcinogenic effects were observed at the lowest dose of PMA used (0.5,ug per application). This observation applied for days to first tumor, animals with tumors, tumor multiplicity, and incidence of malignant skin tumors. Catechol applied alone did not induce any tumors; with PMA alone there were significant incidences of benign and malignant tumors, e.g., at a dose of only 0.5,ug per application, 15 of 30 animals had 28 tumors, 5 of which were squamous carcinomas. In two-stage carcinogenesis experiments with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) as initiator and PMA as promoter, SENCAR mice showed a greater susceptibility to tumor induction when compared to ICR/Ha mice used in earlier work. This susceptibility was most notable in terms of rate of tumor appearance and tumor multiplicity.

Benjamin L. Van Duuren; Susan Melchionne; Irving Seidmant

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Small-scale stress heterogeneity in the Anza seismic gap, southern California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Focal mechanism inversions reveal significant lateral variations in stress orientations along the Anza segment of the San Jacinto fault zone. The most notable stress anomaly is within the 20-km aseismic (seismic gap) portion of the fault zone, where {sigma}{sub 1}, the maximum compressive stress, is nearly horizontal and is oriented at 74{degrees} {+-} 13{degrees} relative to the fault strike. This contrasts with orientations ranging from 62{degrees} {+-} 11{degrees} to 49{degrees} {+-} 7{degrees} along the more seismically active portions of the fault zone immediately to the northwest and southeast of the seismic gap. Regional stress results, found by inverting all focal mechanisms simultaneously, indicate that {sigma}{sub 1} is horizontal and trends north-south, while {sigma}{sub 3} is horizontal and trends east-west. Approximately, 15 km west of the seismic gap, in the off-fault Cahuilla swarm area, {sigma}{sub 1} and {sigma}{sub 3} solutions are rotated clockwise by about 25{degrees} relative to the regional model. Roughly, 10 km southeast of the seismic gap near the Buck Ridge fault, {sigma}{sub 1} and {sigma}{sub 3} are rotated counterclockwise by about 10{degrees} relative to the regional solution. Northwest of the seismic gap along the fault zone, {sigma}{sub 3} plunges about 30{degrees} from the horizontal, correlating with a local increase in reverse faulting between the Hot Springs and San Jacinto faults. Southeast of the seismic gap, {sigma}{sub 1} plunges about 45{degrees} from the horizontal, correlating with a local increase in normal faulting in the trifurcation region of the Buck Ridge, Clark, and Coyote Creek faults. The authors propose a simple mechanical model in which a block rotation superimposed on the dominant right-lateral strike-slip motion of the fault zone satisfies the first-order observations of stress orientation, faulting, and horizontal surface strain. 51 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Hartse, H.E.; Fehler, M.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Aster, R.C. [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Scott, J.S.; Vernon, F.L. [Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, La Jolla, CA (United States)

1994-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

269

The role of randomized field trials in social science research: A perspective from evaluations of reforms of social welfare programs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

views are those of the author alone. yale_ms_v3.wpd One of the areas of policy research where randomized field trials have been utilized most intensively is welfare reform. Starting in the late 1960s with experimental tests of a negative income tax and continuing through current experimental tests of recent welfare reforms, randomized evaluations have played a strong and increasing role in informing policy. This paper reviews the record of these experiments and assesses the implications of that record for the use of randomization. The review demonstrates that, while randomized field trials in the area of welfare reform have been professionally conducted and well-run, and have yielded much valuable and credible information, their usefulness has been limited by a number of weaknesses, some of which are inherent in the method and some of which result from constraints imposed by the political process. The conclusion is that randomized field trials have an important but limited role to play in future welfare reform evaluations, and that it is essential that they be supplemented by nonexperimental research. Unlike the case in many other social sciences, randomized field trials (RFTs) have been used extensively in certain subareas of the discipline of economics. While there are several such subareas where experimentation has been employed, the area of social welfare is perhaps that which has seen the most intensive use. RFTs in social welfare were begun in the 1960s with experimental tests of a negative income tax, and RFTs testing various reforms of cash welfare--most notably, reforms to the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program--have continued unabated since then and have, indeed, accelerated in the 1990s.

Robert A. Moffitt; Alan Krueger; Charles Michalopoulos

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Post-Remediation Biomonitoring of Pesticides and Other Contaminants in Marine Waters and Sediment Near the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California  

SciTech Connect

This report, PNNL-1 3059 Rev. 1, was published in July 2000 and replaces PNNL-1 3059 which is dated October 1999. The revision corrects tissue concentration units that were reported as dry weight but were actually wet weight, and updates conclusions based on the correct reporting units. Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in February 1999 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for Year 2 of post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathom Site. Dieldrin and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in water and total DDT in tissue were compared with Year 1 of post-remediation monitoring, and with preremediation data from the California State Mussel Watch program (tissue s) and the Ecological Risk Assessment for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site (tissues and water). Mussel tissues were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), which were detected in sediment samples. Chlorinated pesticide concentrations in water samples were similar to preremediation levels and did not meet remediation goals. Mean dieldrin concentrations in water ranged from 0.62 ng/L to 12.5 ng/L and were higher than the remediation goal (0.14 ng/L) at all stations. Mean total DDT concentrations in water ranged from 14.4 ng/L to 62.3 ng/L and exceeded the remediation goal (0.59 ng/L) at all stations. The highest concentrations of both DDT and dieldrin were found at the Lauritzen Canal/End station. Despite exceedence of the remediation goals, chlorinated pesticide concentrations in Lauritzen Canal water samples were notably lower in 1999 than in 1998. PCBS were not detected in water samples in 1999.

LD Antrim; NP Kohn

2000-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

271

Simulation of H behavior in p-GaN(Mg) at elevated temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The behavior of H in p-GaN(Mg) at temperatures >400 C is modeled by using energies and vibrational frequencies from density-functional theory to parameterize transport and reaction equations. Predictions agree semiquantitatively with experiment for the solubility, uptake, and release of the H when account is taken of a surface barrier. Hydrogen is introduced into GaN during growth by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and subsequent device processing. This impurity affects electrical properties substantially, notably in p-type GaN doped with Mg where it reduces the effective acceptor concentration. Application of density-functional theory to the zincblende and wurtzite forms of GaN has indicated that dissociated H in interstitial solution assumes positive, neutral, and negative charge states. The neutral species is found to be less stable than one or the other of the charged states for all Fermi energies. Hydrogen is predicted to form a bound neutral complex with Mg, and a local vibrational mode ascribed to this complex has been observed. The authors are developing a unified mathematical description of the diffusion, reactions, uptake, and release of H in GaN at the elevated temperatures of growth and processing. Their treatment is based on zero-temperature energies from density functional theory. One objective is to assess the consistency of theory with experiment at a more quantitative level than previously. A further goal is prediction of H behavior pertinent to device processing. Herein is discussed aspects relating to p-type GaN(Mg).

Myers, S.M. Jr.; Wright, A.F.; Petersen, G.A.; Seager, C.H.; Crawford, M.H.; Wampler, W.R.; Han, J.

1999-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

272

Waste drum gas generation sampling program at Rocky Flats during FY 1988  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Rocky Flats Plant Transuranic Waste Drums were sampled for gas composition. Combustibles, plastics, Raschig rings, solidified organic sludge, and solidified inorganic sludge transuranic waste forms were sampled. Plastic bag material and waste samples were also taken from some solidified sludge waste drums. A vacuum system was used to sample each layer of containment inside a waste drum, including individual waste bags. G values (gas generation) were calculated for the waste drums. Analytical results indicate that very low concentrations of potentially flammable or corrosive gas mixtures will be found in vented drums. G(H{sub 2}) was usually below 1.6, while G(Total) was below 4.0. Hydrogen permeability tests on different types of plastic waste bags used at Rocky Flats were also conducted. Polyvinylchloride was slightly more permeable to hydrogen than polyethylene for new or creased material. Permeability of aged material to hydrogen was slightly higher than for new material. Solidified organic and inorganic sludges were sampled for volatile organics. The analytical results from two drums of solidified organic sludges showed concentrations were above detection limits for four of the 36 volatile organics analyzed. The analytical results for four of the five solidified inorganic sludges show that concentrations were below detection limits for all volatile organics analyzed. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Roggenthen, D.K.; McFeeters, T.L.; Nieweg, R.G.

1991-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

273

AUTOMATICALLY DETECTING AND TRACKING CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS. I. SEPARATION OF DYNAMIC AND QUIESCENT COMPONENTS IN CORONAGRAPH IMAGES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Automated techniques for detecting and tracking coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in coronagraph data are of ever increasing importance for space weather monitoring and forecasting. They serve to remove the biases and tedium of human interpretation, and provide the robust analysis necessary for statistical studies across large numbers of observations. An important requirement in their operation is that they satisfactorily distinguish the CME structure from the background quiescent coronal structure (streamers, coronal holes). Many studies resort to some form of time differencing to achieve this, despite the errors inherent in such an approach-notably spatiotemporal crosstalk. This article describes a new deconvolution technique that separates coronagraph images into quiescent and dynamic components. A set of synthetic observations made from a sophisticated model corona and CME demonstrates the validity and effectiveness of the technique in isolating the CME signal. Applied to observations by the LASCO C2 and C3 coronagraphs, the structure of a faint CME is revealed in detail despite the presence of background streamers that are several times brighter than the CME. The technique is also demonstrated to work on SECCHI/COR2 data, and new possibilities for estimating the three-dimensional structure of CMEs using the multiple viewing angles are discussed. Although quiescent coronal structures and CMEs are intrinsically linked, and although their interaction is an unavoidable source of error in any separation process, we show in a companion paper that the deconvolution approach outlined here is a robust and accurate method for rigorous CME analysis. Such an approach is a prerequisite to the higher-level detection and classification of CME structure and kinematics.

Morgan, Huw [Sefydliad Mathemateg a Ffiseg, Prifysgol Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, Cymru, SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Byrne, Jason P.; Habbal, Shadia Rifai, E-mail: hmorgan@aber.ac.uk [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

274

Incorporating global warming risks in power sector planning: A case study of the New England region. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

Growing international concern over the threat of global climate change has led to proposals to buy insurance against this threat by reducing emissions of carbon (short for carbon dioxide) and other greenhouse gases below current levels. Concern over these and other, non-climatic environmental effects of electricity generation has led a number of states to adopt or explore new mechanisms for incorporating environmental externalities in utility resource planning. For example, the New York and Massachusetts utility commissions have adopted monetized surcharges (or adders) to induce emission reductions of federally regulated air pollutants (notably, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulates) beyond federally mandated levels. These regulations also include preliminary estimates of the cost of reducing carbon emissions, for which no federal regulations exist at this time. Within New England, regulators and utilities have also held several workshops and meetings to discuss alternative methods of incorporating externalities as well as the feasibility of regional approaches. This study examines the potential for reduced carbon emissions in the New England power sector as well as the cost and rate impacts of two policy approaches: environmental externality surcharges and a target- based approach. We analyze the following questions: Does New England have sufficient low-carbon resources to achieve significant reductions (10% to 20% below current levels) in fossil carbon emissions in its utility sector? What reductions could be achieved at a maximum? What is the expected cost of carbon reductions as a function of the reduction goal? How would carbon reduction strategies affect electricity rates? How effective are environmental externality cost surcharges as an instrument in bringing about carbon reductions? To what extent could the minimization of total electricity costs alone result in carbon reductions relative to conventional resource plans?

Krause, F.; Busch, J.; Koomey, J.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Scale Matters: An Action Plan for Realizing Sector-Wide"Zero-Energy" Performance Goals in Commercial Buildings  

SciTech Connect

It is widely accepted that if the United States is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions it must aggressively address energy end use in the building sector. While there have been some notable but modest successes with mandatory and voluntary programs, there have also been puzzling failures to achieve expected savings. Collectively, these programs have not yet reached the majority of the building stock, nor have they yet routinely produced very large savings in individual buildings. Several trends that have the potential to change this are noteworthy: (1) the growing market interest in 'green buildings' and 'sustainable design', (2) the major professional societies (e.g. AIA, ASHRAE) have more aggressively adopted significant improvements in energy efficiency as strategic goals, e.g. targeting 'zero energy', carbon-neutral buildings by 2030. While this vision is widely accepted as desirable, unless there are significant changes to the way buildings are routinely designed, delivered and operated, zero energy buildings will remain a niche phenomenon rather than a sector-wide reality. Toward that end, a public/private coalition including the Alliance to Save Energy, LBNL, AIA, ASHRAE, USGBC and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) are developing an 'action plan' for moving the U.S. commercial building sector towards zero energy performance. It addresses regional action in a national framework; integrated deployment, demonstration and R&D threads; and would focus on measurable, visible performance indicators. This paper outlines this action plan, focusing on the challenge, the key themes, and the strategies and actions leading to substantial reductions in GHG emissions by 2030.

Selkowitz, Stephen; Selkowitz, Stephen; Granderson, Jessica; Haves, Philip; Mathew, Paul; Harris, Jeff

2008-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

276

Design and Analysis of a Test Rig for Modeling the Bit/Formation Interface in Petroleum Drilling Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Equipment failure and well deviations are prevailing contributors to production delays within the petroleum industry. Particular monetary focus is given to the drilling operations of wells to overcome these deficits, in order to extract natural resources as efficiently, and as safely, as possible. The research presented here focuses on minimizing vibrations of the drill string near the bottom-hole assembly (BHA) by identifying the cause of external forcing on the drillstring in vertical and horizontal wells and measuring the effects of various factors on the stability of perturbations on the system. A test rig concept has been developed to accurately measure the interaction forces and torques between the bit, formation and fluids during drilling in order to clearly define a bit/formation interface law (BFIL) for the purpose vibrational analysis. As a secondary function, the rig will be able to measure the potential inputs to a drilling simulation code that can be used to model drillstring vibrations. All notable quantities will be measured including torque on bit (TOB), weight on bit (WOB), lateral impact loads (LIL), formation stiffness, bit specific properties, fluid damping coefficients and rate of penetration (ROP). The conceptual design has been analyzed and refined, in detail, to verify its operational integrity and range of measurement error. The operational envelope of the rig is such that a drill bit of up to 8 ½ inches in diameter can be effectively tested at desired operational parameters (WOB: 0-55,000 lbf, RPM: 60-200) with various rock formations and multiple fluid types. Future use and design possibilities are also discussed to enhance the functionality of the rig and the potential for further research in the area of oil and gas drilling and vibrational modeling.

Wilson, Joshua Kyle

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

THE CHEMICAL SIGNATURE OF A RELIC STAR CLUSTER IN THE SEXTANS DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY-IMPLICATIONS FOR NEAR-FIELD COSMOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

We present tentative evidence for the existence of a dissolved star cluster at [Fe/H] = -2.7 in the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy. We use the technique of chemical tagging to identify stars that are highly clustered in a multi-dimensional chemical abundance space (C-space). In a sample of six stars, three, possibly four, stars are identified as potential cluster stars. The initial stellar mass of the parent cluster is estimated from two independent observations to be M{sub *,init}=1.9{sup +1.5}{sub -0.9}(1.6{sup +1.2}{sub -0.8}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub sun}, assuming a Salpeter (Kroupa) initial mass function. If corroborated by follow-up spectroscopy, this star cluster is the most metal-poor system identified to date. Chemical signatures of remnant clusters in dwarf galaxies like Sextans provide us with a very powerful probe to the high-redshift universe. From available observational data, we argue that the average star cluster mass in the majority of the newly discovered ultra-faint dwarf galaxies was notably lower than it is in the Galaxy today and possibly lower than in the more luminous, classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Furthermore, the mean cumulative metallicity function of the dwarf spheroidals falls below that of the ultra-faints, which increases with increasing metallicity as predicted from our stochastic chemical evolution model. These two findings, together with a possible difference in the ([Mg/Fe]) ratio suggest that the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy population, or a significant fraction thereof, and the dwarf spheroidal population were formed in different environments and would thus be distinct in origin.

Karlsson, Torgny [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Bland-Hawthorn, Joss [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Freeman, Ken C. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston ACT 2611 (Australia); Silk, Joe, E-mail: torgny.karlsson@physics.uu.se [Physics Department, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

278

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Evaluation After Initial Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy Predicts Local Control in Rhabdomyosarcoma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) is already an integral part of staging in rhabdomyosarcoma. We investigated whether primary-site treatment response characterized by serial PET imaging at specific time points can be correlated with local control. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively examined 94 patients with rhabdomyosarcoma who received initial chemotherapy 15 weeks (median) before radiotherapy and underwent baseline, preradiation, and postradiation PET. Baseline PET standardized uptake values (SUVmax) and the presence or absence of abnormal uptake (termed PET-positive or PET-negative) both before and after radiation were examined for the primary site. Local relapse-free survival (LRFS) was calculated according to baseline SUVmax, PET-positive status, and PET-negative status by the Kaplan-Meier method, and comparisons were tested with the log-rank test. Results: The median patient age was 11 years. With 3-year median follow-up, LRFS was improved among postradiation PET-negative vs PET-positive patients: 94% vs 75%, P=.02. By contrast, on baseline PET, LRFS was not significantly different for primary-site SUVmax {7 (median), although the findings suggested a trend toward improved LRFS: 96% for SUVmax {7, P=.08. Preradiation PET also suggested a statistically insignificant trend toward improved LRFS for PET-negative (97%) vs PET-positive (81%) patients (P=.06). Conclusion: Negative postradiation PET predicted improved LRFS. Notably, 77% of patients with persistent postradiation uptake did not experience local failure, suggesting that these patients could be closely followed up rather than immediately referred for intervention. Negative baseline and preradiation PET findings suggested statistically insignificant trends toward improved LRFS. Additional study may further understanding of relationships between PET findings at these time points and outcome in rhabdomyosarcoma.

Dharmarajan, Kavita V., E-mail: dharmark@mskcc.org [Departments of Radiation Oncology, Pediatric Oncology, and Nuclear Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering, New York, New York (United States); Wexler, Leonard H.; Gavane, Somali; Fox, Josef J.; Schoder, Heiko; Tom, Ashlyn K.; Price, Alison N.; Meyers, Paul A.; Wolden, Suzanne L. [Departments of Radiation Oncology, Pediatric Oncology, and Nuclear Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering, New York, New York (United States)] [Departments of Radiation Oncology, Pediatric Oncology, and Nuclear Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering, New York, New York (United States)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

279

Influence of direct motor-motor interaction in models for cargo transport by a single team of motors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze theoretically the effects of excluded-volume interactions between motors on the dynamics of a cargo driven by multiple motors. The model considered shares many commons with other recently proposed in the literature, with the addition of direct interaction between motors and motor back steps. The cargo is assumed to follow a continuum Langevin dynamics, while individual motors evolve following a Monte Carlo algorithm based on experimentally accessible probabilities for discrete forward and backward jumps, and attachment and detachment rates. The links between cargo and motors are considered as non linear springs. By means of numerical simulations we compute the relevant quantities characterizing the dynamical properties of the system, and we compare the results to those for non interacting motors. We find that interactions lead to quite relevant changes in the force-velocity relation for cargo, with a considerable reduction of the stall force, and cause also a notable decrease of the run length. These effects are mainly due to traffic-like phenomena in the microtubule. The consideration of several parallel tracks for motors reduces such effects. However, we find that for realistic values of the number of motors and the number of tracks, the influence of interactions on the global parameters of transport of cargo are far from being negligible. Our studies provide also an analysis of the relevance of motor back steps on the modeling, and of the influence of different assumptions for the detachment rates. In particular, we discuss these two aspects in connection with the possibility of observing processive back motion of cargo at large load forces.

Sebastian Bouzat; Fernando Falo

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

280

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 59115923, 2010 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/10/5911/2010/  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

contributed 9­ 40%, 3­24%, and 1­5%, respectively, to reductions of am- bient NMHCs. Sources of liquefied.e., hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides (NOx) have been de- creasing, the level of surface O3 is still increasing

Meskhidze, Nicholas

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281

Genizah MS T-S AS 127.123  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

*k T-S AS 127.123 *t Piyyu?; letter (?) *s 5.3 x 8.5; 7 lines (recto); 4 lines (verso) *m Paper; 1 leaf; torn, rubbed, creased, stained *l Hebrew; Arabic *c Recto: piyyu?. Verso: Arabic: unidentified Arabic text, possibly a letter *e Verso...

Unknown

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

282

Genizah MS T-S AS 154.478  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

*k T-S AS 154.478 *t Liturgy *s 8.2 x 5; 17 lines (recto); 18 lines (verso) *m Vellum; 1 leaf; torn, faded, stained, creased *l Judaeo-Arabic; Hebrew *c Instructions for the Sabbath readings, with reference made to Sa?adya. *e Seems to belong...

Unknown

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

283

A NONLINEAR MODELING FRAMEWORK FOR AUTONOMOUS CRUISE CONTROL Gabor Orosz  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the powertrain specifications (internal combustion engine, hybrid-electric vehi- cles, electric vehicles, etc- creases the efficiency, further improvement are possible by ex- ploiting advanced vehicle technologies A nonlinear modeling framework is presented for au- tonomous cruise control (ACC) equipped vehicles which

Daly, Samantha

284

Characterization & Transport in Nanoporous Networks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

These research studies focused on the characterization and transport for porous solids which comprise both microporosity and mesoporosity. Such materials represent membranes made from zeolites as well as for many new nanoporous solids. Several analytical sorption techniques were developed and evaluated by which these multi-dimensional porous solids could be quantitatively characterized. Notably an approach by which intact membranes could be studied was developed and applied to plate-like and tubular supported zeolitic membranes. Transport processes were studied experimentally and theoretically based on the characterization studies.

William C. Conner

2007-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

285

Understanding Trends in Wind Turbine Prices Over the Past Decade  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Understanding Trends in Wind Turbine Prices Over the Past Decade Understanding Trends in Wind Turbine Prices Over the Past Decade Title Understanding Trends in Wind Turbine Prices Over the Past Decade Publication Type Report Refereed Designation Unknown Year of Publication 2011 Authors Bolinger, Mark, and Ryan H. Wiser Pagination 46 Date Published 10/2011 Publisher LBNL City Berkeley Keywords electricity markets and policy group, energy analysis and environmental impacts department Abstract Berkeley Lab has gathered price data on 81 U.S. wind turbine transactions totaling 23,850 MW announced from 1997 through early 2011. Figure ES-1 depicts these reported wind turbine transaction prices (along with the associated trend line), broken out by the size of the transaction (in MW). Figure ES-1 also presents average (global) turbine prices reported by Vestas for the years 2005 through 2010, as well as a range of reported pricing (among various turbine manufacturers) for transactions signed in 2010 and so far in 2011 (with 2011 prices generally lower than 2010 prices). After hitting a low of roughly $750/kW from 2000 to 2002, average wind turbine prices doubled through 2008, rising to an average of roughly $1,500/kW. Wind turbine prices have since declined substantially, with price quotes for transactions executed in 2010 and to date in 2011 ranging from $900-$1,400/kW depending on the manufacturer and turbine model. For example, turbines designed for lower wind speed sites - deploying higher hub heights and larger rotor diameters for a given nameplate capacity - are priced at the higher end of this range. These quotes suggest price declines of as much as 33% or more since late 2008, with an average decline closer to perhaps 20% for orders announced in 2010 (as opposed to in 2011, which has seen further price declines). These two substantial and opposing wind turbine price trends over the past decade - and particularly the doubling in prices in the 2002-2008 period - run counter to the smooth, gradually declining technology cost trajectories that are often assumed by energy analysts modeling the diffusion of new technologies, including wind power. Understanding and explaining this notable discrepancy between theory and historical reality is the primary motivation for this work. Taking a bottom-up approach, this report examines seven primary drivers of wind turbine prices in the United States, with the goal of estimating the degree to which each contributed to the doubling in turbine prices from 2002 through 2008, as well as the subsequent decline in prices through 2010 (our analysis does not extend into 2011 because several of these drivers are best gauged on a full-year basis due to seasonality issues).

286

Reco level Smin and subsystem Smin: improved global inclusive variables for measuring the new physics mass scale in MET events at hadron colliders  

SciTech Connect

The variable {radical}s{sub min} was originally proposed in [1] as a model-independent, global and fully inclusive measure of the new physics mass scale in missing energy events at hadron colliders. In the original incarnation of {radical}s{sub min}, however, the connection to the new physics mass scale was blurred by the effects of the underlying event, most notably initial state radiation and multiple parton interactions. In this paper we advertize two improved variants of the {radical}s{sub min} variable, which overcome this problem. First we show that by evaluating the {radical}s{sub min} variable at the RECO level, in terms of the reconstructed objects in the event, the effects from the underlying event are significantly diminished and the nice correlation between the peak in the {radical}s{sub min}{sup (reco)} distribution and the new physics mass scale is restored. Secondly, the underlying event problem can be avoided altogether when the {radical}s{sub min} concept is applied to a subsystem of the event which does not involve any QCD jets. We supply an analytic formula for the resulting subsystem {radical}s{sub min}{sup (sub)} variable and show that its peak exhibits the usual correlation with the mass scale of the particles produced in the subsystem. Finally, we contrast {radical}s{sub min} to other popular inclusive variables such as H{sub T}, M{sub Tgen} and M{sub TTgen}. We illustrate our discussion with several examples from supersymmetry, and with dilepton events from top quark pair production.

Konar, Partha; /Florida U.; Kong, Kyoungchul; /SLAC; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Park, Myeonghun; /Florida U.

2011-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

287

Kinetics and Mechanism of Hydroxyapatite Crystal Dissolution inWeak Acid Buffers Using the Rotating Disk Method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dissolution rates of synthetic hydroxyapatite pellets under sink conditions were measured using the rotating disk method. The experimental data were analyzed by means of a physical model that yielded an ionic activity product of KHAP=aOCa2+ a6 PO43- a2011. = 1 X 10-124.5+1.0 that was found to govern the dissolution reaction. Also, a surface resistance factor of k ' equal to about 174 sec/cm was deduced from the data. A physical model for describing the dissolution rate behavior of human dental enamel and of hydroxyapatite in weak acid buffers under sink conditions was introduced by Higuchi and his collaborators.1-3 The model assumed that a hydroxyapatite phase governs the driving force of the dissolution and that the dissolution was essentially diffusion controlled in a diffusion layer adjacent to the enamel surface. The mathematical development also included the consideration of simultaneous diffusion and equilibriums of all species in the system. This early model enjoyed notable success.1-3 It was able to generally account for the effects of buffer types (pKa), buffer concentration, pH, and common ions (calcium and phosphate). Furthermore, an extension of this model showed that the influence of solution fluoride on the dissolution rate may be explained by assuming that a surface exchange of OH- by F- occurs rapidly during dissolution.4 For several reasons, it has been apparent that a more critical study of this model would be necessary. First, the value of KHAP This investigation was supported by USPHS Service

Maw-sheng Wu; William Higuchi; Jeffrey L. Fox; Michael Friedman

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Advances in diapriid (Hymenoptera: diapriidae) systematics, with contributions to cybertaxonomy and the analysis of rRNA sequence data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diapriids (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) are small parasitic wasps. Though found throughout the world they are relatively unknown. A framework for advancing diapriid systematics is developed by introducing a new web-based application/database capable of storing a broad range of systematic data, and the first molecular phylogeny specifically focused at examining intrafamilial relationships. In addition to these efforts, a description of a new taxon is provided. Several advantages of digital description, including linking descriptions to an ontology of morphological terms, are highlighted. The functionality of the database is further illustrated in the production of a catalog of diapriid host associations. The hosts database currently holds over 450 association records, for over 500 named taxa (parasitoids and hosts), and over 180 references. Diapriids are found to be primarily endoparasitoids of Diptera emerging from the host pupa. Phylogenetic inference for a molecular dataset of 28S and 18S rRNA sequence data, derived from a diverse selection of diapriids, is accomplished with a new suite of tools developed for handling complex rRNA datasets. Several parsimony-based methodologies, including an alignment-free method of analyzing multiple sequences, are reviewed and applied using the new software tools. Diapriid phylogenetic relationships are shown to be broadly congruent with existing morphology-based classifications. Methods for analyzing typically excluded sequence data are shown to recover phylogenetic signal that would otherwise be lost and the alignment-free method performed remarkably well in this regard. Empirically, phylogenetic approaches that incorporate structural data were not notably different than those that did not.

Yoder, Matthew Jon

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Role of SrMoO{sub 4} in Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Here we investigate the elemental and phase compositions during the solid-state synthesis of the promising SOFC-anode material, Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6}, and demonstrate that molybdenum does not notably evaporate under the normal synthesis conditions with temperatures up to 1200 {sup o}C due to the formation of SrMoO{sub 4} as an intermediate product at low temperatures, below 600 {sup o}C. However, partial decomposition of the Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} phase becomes evident at the higher temperatures ({approx}1500 {sup o}C). The effect of SrMoO{sub 4} on the electrical conductivity of Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} is evaluated by preparing a series of Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} samples with different amounts of additional SrMoO{sub 4}. Under the reducing operation conditions of an SOFC anode the insulating SrMoO{sub 4} phase is apparently reduced to the highly conductive SrMoO{sub 3} phase. Percolation takes place with 20-30 wt% of SrMoO{sub 4} in a Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} matrix, with a notable increase in electrical conductivity after reduction. Conductivity values of 14, 60 and 160 S/cm are determined at 800 {sup o}C in 5% H{sub 2}/Ar for the Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} samples with 30, 40 and 50 wt% of added SrMoO{sub 4}, respectively. -- Graphical abstract: SrMoO{sub 4} is formed at low temperatures during the synthesis of Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6}, which prevents the volatilization of Mo from typical precursor mixtures of this promising SOFC anode material. SrMoO{sub 4} is insulating and it is often found as an impurity in Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} samples. It is however readily reduced to highly conducting SrMoO{sub 3}. Composites of Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} and SrMoO{sub 3} show increased electrical conductivities compared to pure Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} under the reductive operation conditions of an SOFC anode. Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} is a promising SOFC anode material. {yields} During the Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} synthesis SrMoO{sub 4} is formed at low temperatures. {yields} Formation of SrMoO{sub 4} effectively prevents volatilization of Mo at high temperatures. {yields} Insulating SrMoO{sub 4} reduces to highly conductive SrMoO{sub 3} under SOFC-anode conditions. {yields} Composites of Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} and SrMoO{sub 3} show high electrical conductivities.

Vasala, S.; Yamauchi, H. [Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Karppinen, M., E-mail: maarit.karppinen@aalto.f [Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

290

A MOLECULAR STAR FORMATION LAW IN THE ATOMIC-GAS-DOMINATED REGIME IN NEARBY GALAXIES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We use the IRAM HERACLES survey to study CO emission from 33 nearby spiral galaxies down to very low intensities. Using 21 cm line atomic hydrogen (H I) data, mostly from THINGS, we predict the local mean CO velocity based on the mean H I velocity. By re-normalizing the CO velocity axis so that zero corresponds to the local mean H I velocity we are able to stack spectra coherently over large regions. This enables us to measure CO intensities with high significance as low as I{sub CO} {approx} 0.3 K km s{sup -1} ({Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}}{approx}1 M{sub sun} pc{sup -2}), an improvement of about one order of magnitude over previous studies. We detect CO out to galactocentric radii r{sub gal} {approx} r{sub 25} and find the CO radial profile to follow a remarkably uniform exponential decline with a scale length of {approx}0.2 r{sub 25}. Here we focus on stacking as a function of radius, comparing our sensitive CO profiles to matched profiles of H I, H{alpha}, far-UV (FUV), and Infrared (IR) emission at 24 {mu}m and 70 {mu}m. We observe a tight, roughly linear relationship between CO and IR intensity that does not show any notable break between regions that are dominated by molecular gas ({Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}}>{Sigma}{sub H{sub i}}) and those dominated by atomic gas ({Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}}gas with little dependence on the local total gas surface density. While galaxies display small internal variations in the SFR-to-H{sub 2} ratio, we do observe systematic galaxy-to-galaxy variations. These galaxy-to-galaxy variations dominate the scatter in relationships between CO and SFR tracers measured at large scales. The variations have the sense that less massive galaxies exhibit larger ratios of SFR-to-CO than massive galaxies. Unlike the SFR-to-CO ratio, the balance between atomic and molecular gas depends strongly on the total gas surface density and galactocentric radius. It must also depend on additional parameters. Our results reinforce and extend to lower surface densities, a picture in which star formation in galaxies can be separated into two processes: the assembly of star-forming molecular clouds and the formation of stars from H{sub 2}. The interplay between these processes yields a total gas-SFR relation with a changing slope, which has previously been observed and identified as a star formation threshold.

Schruba, Andreas; Walter, Fabian; Dumas, Gaelle; Sandstrom, Karin [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Leroy, Adam K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Bigiel, Frank [Department of Astronomy, Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brinks, Elias [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); De Blok, W. J. G. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre, Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Kramer, Carsten [IRAM, Avenida Divina Pastora 7, 18012 Granada (Spain); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Schuster, Karl [IRAM, 300 rue de la Piscine, 38406 St. Martin d'Heres (France); Usero, Antonio [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, C/Alfonso XII, 3, 28014, Madrid (Spain); Weiss, Axel; Wiesemeyer, Helmut, E-mail: schruba@mpia.de [MPIfR, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

291

Heat Transport in Groundwater Systems--Laboratory Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar energy is a possible alternate energy source for space heating. A method of economic long term solar energy storage is needed. Researchers have proposed storing solar energy by heating water using solar collectors and injecting the hot water into groundwater aquifers for long term energy storage. Of paramount importance to the success of such a system is the quality and the behavior of the aquifer used for hot water storage. In general, the problem is to obtain an accurate prediction of the response of an aquifer system and its basic components to the operation of a system of injection and pumping wells which are transporting water at a notably different temperature than the natural groundwater. The injection of hot water into a groundwater storage system will have a pronounced effect on the specific storage and mass flow within the aquifer. These effects will result from differences in viscosity, density, specific heat, and thermal conductivity between the injected water and the natural groundwater. A complex system of energy and mass transport will result, making analytical solutions unattainable or very complex. The objective of this study was to develop a numerical simulation which would predict the pressure and temperature of water in a groundwater system at any time in response to the pumping and injecting of hot and cold water. A numerical model was developed in which the groundwater flow equation and the energy transport equation are solved simultaneously using a finite difference approximation for the time derivative and three-dimensional Galerkin-finite element approximations for the space derivatives. The use of a strict Galerkin approach led to unacceptable solution oscillations in sharp temperature front problems (i.e., problems where the temperature changes quickly over a small distance or time). Several techniques were tried in an attempt to correct the problem. Reduction of element and time step size proved ineffective in eliminating the sharp temperature front oscillation problem. An upstream weighting scheme corrected the oscillation problem, but resulted in an unacceptable smear of the sharp temperature front. A mass lumping scheme resulted in the best solution to sharp temperature front problems. The mass lumping scheme yielded solutions without the oscillation problem and with less smear than the upstream weighting scheme.

Reed, D. B.; Reddell, D. L.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

A Study to Develop an Industrial-Scale, Computer-Controlled High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) System to Assist in Commercializing the Novel, Enabling HMFP Manufacturing Technology  

SciTech Connect

As the original magnet designer and manufacturer of ORNL’s 9T, 5-inch ID bore magnet, American Magnetics Inc. (AMI) has collaborated with ORNL’s Materials Processing Group’s and this partnership has been instrumental in the development of our unique thermo-magnetic facilities and expertise. Consequently, AMI and ORNL have realized that the commercial implementation of the High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) technology will require the evolution of robust, automated superconducting (SC) magnet systems that will be cost-effective and easy to operate in an industrial environment. The goal of this project and CRADA is to significantly expedite the timeline for implementing this revolutionary and pervasive cross-cutting technology for future US produced industrial components. The successful completion of this project is anticipated to significantly assist in the timely commercialization and licensing of our HMFP intellectual property for a broad spectrum of industries; and to open up a new market for AMI. One notable outcome of this project is that the ThermoMagnetic Processing Technology WON a prestigious 2009 R&D 100 Awards. This award acknowledges and recognizes our TMP Technology as one of the top 100 innovative US technologies in 2009. By successfully establishing the design requirements for a commercial scale magnetic processing system, this project effort has accomplished a key first step in facilitating the building and demonstration of a superconducting magnetic processing coil, enabling the transition of the High Magnetic Field Processing Technology beyond a laboratory novelty into a commercially viable and industrially scalable Manufacturing Technology.

Lutdka, G. M.; Chourey, A. (American Magnetics, Inc.)

2010-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

293

Persistence of gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in proliferating and nonproliferating human mammary epithelial cells after exposure to gamma-rays or iron ions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To investigate {gamma}-H2AX (phosphorylated histone H2AX) and 53BP1 (tumour protein 53 binding protein No. 1) foci formation and removal in proliferating and non-proliferating human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) after exposure to sparsely and densely ionizing radiation under different cell culture conditions. HMEC cells were grown either as monolayers (2D) or in extracellular matrix to allow the formation of acinar structures in vitro (3D). Foci numbers were quantified by image analysis at various time points after exposure. Our results reveal that in non-proliferating cells under 2D and 3D cell culture conditions, iron-ion induced {gamma}-H2AX foci were still present at 72 h after exposure, although 53BP1 foci returned to control levels at 48 h. In contrast in proliferating HMEC, both {gamma}-H2AX and 53BP1 foci decreased to control levels during the 24-48 h time interval after irradiation under 2D conditions. Foci numbers decreased faster after {gamma}-ray irradiation and returned to control levels by 12 h regardless of marker, cell proliferation status, and cell culture condition. Conclusions: The disappearance of radiation induced {gamma}-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in HMEC have different dynamics that depend on radiation quality and proliferation status. Notably, the general patterns do not depend on the cell culture condition (2D versus 3D). We speculate that the persistent {gamma}-H2AX foci in iron-ion irradiated non-proliferating cells could be due to limited availability of double strand break (DSB) repair pathways in G0/G1-phase, or that repair of complex DSB requires replication or chromatin remodeling.

Groesser, Torsten; Chang, Hang; Fontenay, Gerald; Chen, James; Costes, Sylvain V.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Parvin, Bahram; Rydberg, Bjorn

2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

294

Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Berkeley Lab has for several years been developing methods for selection of optimal microgrid systems, especially for commercial building applications, and applying these methods in the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). This project began with 3 major goals: (1) to conduct detailed analysis to find the optimal equipment combination for microgrids at a few promising commercial building hosts in the two favorable markets of California and New York, (2) to extend the analysis capability of DER-CAM to include both heat and electricity storage, and (3) to make an initial effort towards adding consideration of power quality and reliability (PQR) to the capabilities of DER-CAM. All of these objectives have been pursued via analysis of the attractiveness of a Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Microgrid consisting of multiple nameplate 100 kW Tecogen Premium Power Modules (CM-100). This unit consists of an asynchronous inverter-based variable speed internal combustion engine genset with combined heat and power (CHP) and power surge capability. The essence of CERTS Microgrid technology is that smarts added to the on-board power electronics of any microgrid device enables stable and safe islanded operation without the need for complex fast supervisory controls. This approach allows plug and play development of a microgrid that can potentially provide high PQR with a minimum of specialized site-specific engineering. A notable feature of the CM-100 is its time-limited surge rating of 125 kW, and DER-CAM capability to model this feature was also a necessary model enhancement.

Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Coffey, Brian; Aki, Hirohisa

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

295

Commercial potential of natural gas storage in lined rock caverns (LRC)  

SciTech Connect

The geologic conditions in many regions of the United States will not permit the development of economical high-deliverability gas storage in salt caverns. These regions include the entire Eastern Seaboard; several northern states, notably Minnesota and Wisconsin; many of the Rocky Mountain States; and most of the Pacific Northwest. In late 1997, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Federal Energy Technology Center engaged Sofregaz US to investigate the commercialization potential of natural gas storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC). Sofregaz US teamed with Gaz de France and Sydkraft, who had formed a consortium, called LRC, to perform the study for the USDOE. Underground storage of natural gas is generally achieved in depleted oil and gas fields, aquifers, and solution-mined salt caverns. These storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Unlined rock caverns have been used for decades to store hydrocarbons - mostly liquids such as crude oil, butane, and propane. The maximum operating pressure in unlined rock caverns is limited, since the host rock is never entirely impervious. The LRC technology allows a significant increase in the maximum operating pressure over the unlined storage cavern concept, since the gas in storage is completely contained with an impervious liner. The LRC technology has been under development in Sweden by Sydkraft since 1987. The development process has included extensive technical studies, laboratory testing, field tests, and most recently includes a storage facility being constructed in southern Sweden (Skallen). The LRC development effort has shown that the concept is technically and economically viable. The Skallen storage facility will have a rock cover of 115 meters (375 feet), a storage volume of 40,000 cubic meters (250,000 petroleum barrels), and a maximum operating pressure of 20 MPa (2,900 psi). There is a potential for commercialization of the LRC technology in the United States. Two regions were studied in some detail - the Northeast and the Southeast. The investment cost for an LRC facility in the Northeast is approximately $182 million and $343 million for a 2.6-billion cubic foot (bcf) working gas facility and a 5.2-bcf working gas storage facility, respectively. The relatively high investment cost is a strong function of the cost of labor in the Northeast. The labor union-related rules and requirements in the Northeast result in much higher underground construction costs than might result in Sweden, for example. The LRC technology gas storage service is compared to other alternative technologies. The LRC technology gas storage service was found to be competitive with other alternative technologies for a variety of market scenarios.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Neutron Scattering Studies of Fundamental Processes in Earth Materials, Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The aim of this work was to use neutron scattering techniques to explore the dynamics and structure of water in rock samples. The dynamics of water in rock at low (residual) saturation are directly related to the transport properties of fluids within the host rock. The structure of water in rock may be related to the elastic behavior of the rock, which in many cases is nonlinear and hysteretic. Neutron scattering techniques allow us to study water in intact rock samples at both the molecular and microstructural scales. Our samples were Berea sandstone, Calico Hills and Prow Pass tuffs from Yucca Mountain, NV, and pure samples of the tuff constituents, specifically mordenite and clinoptilolite. We chose Berea sandstone because its macroscopic elastic behavior is known to be highly unusual, and the microscopic mechanisms producing this behavior are not understood. We chose Yucca Mountain tuff, because the fluid transport properties of the geologic structure at Yucca Mountain, Nevada could be relevant to the performance of a high level nuclear waste repository at that site. Neutron scattering methods have a number of properties that are extremely useful for the study of earth materials. In contrast to X-rays, neutrons have very low absorption cross-sections for most elements so that entire bulk samples of considerable size can be 'illuminated' by the neutron beam. Similarly, samples that are optically opaque can be readily investigated by inelastic neutron scattering techniques. Neutrons are equally sensitive to light atoms as to heavy atoms, and can, for example, readily distinguish between Al and Si, neighboring atoms in the periodic table that are difficult to tell apart by X-ray diffraction. Finally, neutrons are particularly sensitive to hydrogen and thus can be used to study the motions, both vibrational and diffusive, of H-containing molecules in rocks, most notably of course, water. Our studies were primarily studies of guest molecules (in our case, water) in a host material (rock). We used three neutron scattering techniques: quasielastic neutron scattering (QNS), inelastic neutron scattering (INS), and neutron powder diffraction (NPD). We used QNS to measure the translational and rotational diffusional motion of water in rock; INS vibrational spectra allowed us to determine the nature of residual water in a sample (disassociated, chemisorbed, or physisorbed); and NPD measurements may allow us to determine the locations of residual water molecules (and the associated dynamic disorder), and thereby understand the binding of water molecules in our samples.

McCall, K. R.

2007-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

297

Making a strong business case for multiagent technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we describe lessons learned in commercializing and implementing agent-based systems in real-world business situations. Most notably we discuss gains in programmer productivity achieved by using AdaptivEnterprise, a commercial IDE and J2EE ... Keywords: AdaptivEnterprise, Agentis, function point analysis

Steve S. Benfield; Jim Hendrickson; Daniel Galanti

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Human Postures Recognition Based on D-S Evidence Theory and Multi-sensor Data Fusion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) are conveying notable attention due to their capabilities in supporting humans in their daily life. In particular, real-time and noninvasive monitoring of assisted livings is having great potential in many application domains, ... Keywords: Body sensor networks, D-S Evidence Theory, wearable sensors, human postures recognition

Wenfeng Li; Junrong Bao; Xiuwen Fu; Giancarlo Fortino; Stefano Galzarano

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Suzaku And Multi-Wavelength Observations of OJ 287 During the Periodic Optical Outburst in 2007  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Suzaku observations of the blazar OJ 287 were performed in 2007 April 10-13 and November 7-9. They correspond to a quiescent and a flaring state, respectively. The X-ray spectra of the source can be well described with single power-law models in both exposures. The derived X-ray photon index and the flux density at 1 keV were found to be {Lambda} = 1.65 {+-} 0.02 and S{sub 1keV} = 215 {+-} 5 nJy, in the quiescent state. In the flaring state, the source exhibited a harder X-ray spectrum ({Lambda} = 1.50 {+-} 0.01) with a nearly doubled X-ray flux density S{sub 1keV} = 404{sub -5}{sup +6} nJy. Moreover, significant hard X-ray signals were detected up to {approx} 27 keV. In cooperation with the Suzaku, simultaneous radio, optical, and very-high-energy {gamma}-ray observations of OJ 287 were performed with the Nobeyama Millimeter Array, the KANATA telescope, and the MAGIC telescope, respectively. The radio and optical fluxes in the flaring state (3.04 {+-} 0.46 Jy and 8.93 {+-} 0.05 mJy at 86.75 Hz and in the V-band, respectively) were found to be higher by a factor of 2-3 than those in the quiescent state (1.73 {+-} 0.26 Jy and 3.03 {+-} 0.01 mJy at 86.75 Hz and in the V-band, respectively). No notable {gamma}-ray events were detected in either observation. The spectral energy distribution of OJ 287 indicated that the X-ray spectrum was dominated by inverse Compton radiation in both observations, while synchrotron radiation exhibited a spectral cutoff around the optical frequency. Furthermore, no significant difference in the synchrotron cutoff frequency was found between the quiescent and flaring states. According to a simple synchrotron self-Compton model, the change of the spectral energy distribution is due to an increase in the energy density of electrons with small changes of both the magnetic field strength and the maximum Lorentz factor of electrons.

Seta, Hiromi; /Saitama U.; Isobe, N.; /Kyoto U.; Tashiro, Makoto S.; /Saitama U.; Yaji, Yuichi; /Saitama U.; Arai, Akira; /Hiroshima U.; Fukuhara, Masayuki; /Tokyo U. /Grad. U. for Adv. Stud., Nagano; Kohno, Kotaro; /Tokyo U.; Nakanishi, Koichiro; /Grad. U. for Adv. Stud., Nagano; Sasada, Mahito; /Hiroshima U.; Shimajiri, Yoshito; /Tokyo U. /Grad. U. for Adv. Stud., Nagano; Tosaki, Tomoka; /Grad. U. for Adv. Stud., Nagano; Uemura, Makoto; /Hiroshima U.; Anderhub, Hans; /Zurich, ETH; Antonelli, L.A.; /INFN, Rome; Antoranz, Pedro; /Madrid U.; Backes, Michael; /Dortmund U.; Baixeras, Carmen; /Barcelona, Autonoma U.; Balestra, Silvia; /Madrid U.; Barrio, Juan Abel; /Madrid U.; Bastieri, Denis; /Padua U. /INFN, Padua; Becerra Gonzalez, Josefa; /IAC, La Laguna /Dortmund U. /Lodz U. /Lodz U. /DESY /Zurich, ETH /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Siena U. /INFN, Siena /Barcelona, IEEC /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Barcelona, IEEC /Madrid U. /Zurich, ETH /Wurzburg U. /Zurich, ETH /Madrid U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Zurich, ETH /Madrid U. /Barcelona, IFAE /IAC, La Laguna /Laguna U., Tenerife /INFN, Rome /Dortmund U. /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /INFN, Padua /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Barcelona, IEEC /Madrid U. /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /IAC, La Laguna /Madrid, CIEMAT /Sierra Nevada Observ. /Zurich, ETH /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Wurzburg U. /Barcelona, IFAE /UC, Davis /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, IFAE /Madrid U. /Barcelona, Autonoma U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /IAC, La Laguna /Laguna U., Tenerife /Barcelona, IFAE /IAC, La Laguna /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Barcelona, Autonoma U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /SLAC /IAC, La Laguna /Laguna U., Tenerife /Zurich, ETH /Wurzburg U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Zurich, ETH /INFN, Rome /UC, Davis /Siena U. /INFN, Siena /Turku U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Zurich, ETH /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /DESY /Sofiya, Inst. Nucl. Res. /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Wurzburg U. /INFN, Rome /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, IFAE /Siena U. /INFN, Siena /Wurzburg U. /Madrid U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Barcelona, IEEC /Sierra Nevada Observ. /Barcelona, IFAE /Madrid U. /Turku U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /UC, Santa Cruz /Madrid U. /Siena U. /INFN, Siena /Barcelona, IEEC /Turku U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Zurich, ETH /Siena U. /INFN, Siena /Sierra Nevada Observ. /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /INFN, Trieste /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Sierra Nevada Observ. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, IFAE /Dortmund U. /Barcelona, IEEC /ICREA, Barcelona /Barcelona, IFAE /Zurich, ETH /Barcelona, Autonoma U. /Wurzburg U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /INFN, Rome /Sierra Nevada Observ. /DESY /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, IEEC /Turku U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Lodz U. /Lodz U. /Wurzburg U. /Siena U. /INFN, Siena /Zurich, ETH /Turku U. /INFN, Rome /Sofiya, Inst. Nucl. Res. /Barcelona, IFAE /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /DESY /ICREA, Barcelona /Barcelona, IEEC /Siena U. /INFN, Siena /Sofiya, Inst. Nucl. Res. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Barcelona, IEEC /Sierra Nevada Observ. /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, Autonoma U.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Photoemission in strongly correlated crystalline f-electron systems: A need for a new approach  

SciTech Connect

The unusual properties of heavy fermion (or heavy electron) materials have sparked an avalanche of research over the last two decades in order to understand the basic phenomena responsible for these properties. Photoelectron spectroscopy (often referred to as PES in the following sections), the most direct measurement of the electronic structure of a material, should in principle be able to shed considerable light on this matter. In general the distinction between a localized and a band-like state is trivially observed in band dispersion. Much of the past work was performed on poly-crystalline samples, scraped in-situ to expose a clean surface for PES. There have since been considerable advances both in the quality of specimens as well as experimental resolution, which raise questions regarding these conclusions. Much of the past work on poly-crystalline samples has been reported in several review articles, most notably Allen et al., and it is not necessary here to review those efforts again, with the exception of subsequent work performed at high resolution. The primary focus of the present review will be on new measurements obtained on single crystals, cleaved or prepared in situ and measured at high resolution, which seem to suggest that agreement with the GS and NCA approximations is less than perfect, and that perhaps the starting models need to be modified, or that even an entirely new approach is called for. Of the promising new models the Periodic Anderson Model is most closely related to the SIM. Indeed, at high temperatures it reverts to the SIM. However, the charge polaron model of Liu (1997) as well as the two-electron band model of Sheng and Cooper (1995) cannot yet be ruled out. Inasmuch as the bulk of the single crystal work was performed by the Los Alamos group, this review will draw heavily on those results. Moreover, since the GS and NCA approximations represent the most comprehensive and widely accepted treatment of heavy fermion PES, it is only natural that the authors primarily concern themselves with analysis of PES data in terms of these models, in order to thoroughly test their validity in light of the new data.

Arko, A.J.; Joyce, J.J.; Sarrao, J. [and others

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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301

Multi-Proxy Approach on Black Carbon Characterization and Combustion Products Source Discrimination in Environmental Media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Environmental applications of pyrogenic carbon, aka black carbon (BC), have been hampered due to the poor characterization and quantification of environmental BC. This dissertation was dedicated to the better characterization of environmental char/charcoal BC (char-BC), the most heterogeneous and the less identifiable group in the BC continuum. The analytical approach developed for char-BC was further incorporated with other BC methods in environmental samples for a comprehensive assessment of combustion-derived carbon inputs in different environmental systems. The present study firstly evaluated the feasibility of using levoglucosan, a marker derived from cellulose/hemocellulose combustion, to characterize and quantify char-BC in the environment. Levoglucosan was found exclusively in BC materials derived from biomass combustion albeit in highly variable yields across different char-BC. A further examination of synthetic chars showed that temperature is the most influential factor affecting levoglucosan yield in char. Notably, levoglucosan was only detectable in low temperature char samples (150-350 degrees C), regardless of plant species. These results demonstrated that levoglucosan could serve as a good qualitative indicator for the presence of char produced under low temperature conditions in soil, sediments, and aerosols. Results of lignin analysis on the synthetic chars further reveal that combustion can greatly decrease the yield of the eight major lignin phenols with no lignin phenols detected in any synthetic char produced at greater than or equal to 400 degrees C. The values of all lignin parameters show significant shifts with increasing combustion severity (temperature and/or duration), indicating that thermal alteration is an important abiotic lignin degradation process. Hence the input of char-BC in the environments represents a terrestrial organic matter source with highly altered lignin signatures. Finally, a multi-proxy approach, including elemental (soot-BC) and molecular (levoglucosan, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and lignin oxidation products) proxies, was adopted to investigate the centennial-scale temporal distribution of combustion products in four sediment cores from Puget Sound basins, WA. The observed temporal trends of soot-BC and combustion PAHs fluxes reflect the evolution of energy consumption and the positive effects of environmental regulations. The distinct temporal patterns of soot and PAHs among cores demonstrate that urbanization is a crucial factor controlling the inputs of combustion byproducts to the environment. On the other hand, the trends of levoglucosan may be more relevant to the climate oscillation and thus show a regional distribution pattern. Our results demonstrate that environmental loading of combustion byproducts is a complex function of urbanization and land use, fuel usage, combustion technology, environmental policies, and climate changes.

Kuo, Li-Jung

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Gender Equity and Fertility in European Below-Replacement Fertility Countries: Poland and Estonia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Much of the recent scholarly attention has been devoted to the low fertility situation experienced by a growing number of developed countries. In this context, the theoretical framework explicitly incorporating the issues of gender in explanations of low fertility has been gaining notable popularity. This dissertation is focused primarily on the application of McDonald's theory of gender equity to the fertility context of two post-communist "low" and "very low" fertility countries, namely Poland and Estonia. Additionally, it tests the relative importance of gender equity at the societal level and the level of the family, contrasts the results of using different operationalizations of gender equity in the family, and compares the effects of gender equity on male and female fertility. I estimate two sex-specific models for Poland and two-sex specific models for Estonia, which respectively use three and two independent variables capturing gender equity in different institutions as well as in the family. All the models use intended fertility as the dependent variable operationalized as either the intention to have the second or higher order birth or the number of additional children intended. The main findings of this dissertation support the gendered explanation of low fertility in Poland and Estonia. More specifically, they indicate that gender equity in the family significantly increases fertility intentions of Polish men and women and Estonian women but not men. However, in none of the models there is evidence that gender equity in institutions outside the family matters to fertility. All in all, the findings support the gendered approach to fertility. The results of my dissertation indicate that it is important to pay attention to how we measure gender equity. I observe some variation in the findings depending on how stringent definition of equity is used. Finally, my research suggests that the importance of gender equity for women's fertility might be more universal but it is also not completely irrelevant to the fertility of men. I conclude this dissertation with a discussion of the implications of my findings and the potential for future development of research in this area.

Iwinska-Nowak, Anna Malgorzata

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

1 INTRODUCTION Probabilistic risk (or safety) assessments (PRA) pro-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reliability analyses. Finally, a case study in- volving a nuclear reactor is presented in Section 3. Dynamic for managing risks linked to engineering systems, notably in nuclear power plants, aerospace, and chemical of dynamic reliability was established under the name of Con- tinuous Event Tree (CET) theory, (Devooght

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

304

DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES  

SciTech Connect

This report describes progress, experiments, and results for a project to develop a pipeline inline inspection tool that uses electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to detect and grade stress corrosion cracking (SCC). There is a brief introduction that gives background material about EMATs and relevant previous Tuboscope work toward a tool. This work left various choices about the modes and transducers for this project. The experimental section then describes the lab systems, improvements to these systems, and setups and techniques to narrow the choices. Improvements, which involved transducer matching networks, better magnetic biasing, and lower noise electronics, led to improved signal to noise (SNR) levels. The setups permitted transducer characterizations and interaction measurements in plates with man-made cracks, pipeline sections with SCC, and a full pipe with SCC. The latter were done with a moveable and compact EMAT setup, called a lab mouse, which is detailed. Next, the results section justifies the mode and transducer choices. These were for magnetostrictive EMATs and the use of EMAT launched modes: SH0 (at 2.1 MHz-mm) and SV1 (at 3.9 MHz-mm). This section then gives details of measurements on these modes. The measurements consisted of signal to noise ratio, insertion loss, magnetic biasing sensitivities crack reflection and transmission coefficients, beam width, standoff and tilt sensitivities. For most of the measurements the section presents analysis curves, such as reflection coefficient versus crack depth. Some notable results for the chosen modes are: that acceptable SNRs were generated in a pipe with magnetostrictive EMATs, that optimum bias for magnetostrictive transmitters and receivers is magnetic saturation, that crack reflection and transmission coefficients from crack interactions agree with 2 D simulations and seem workable for crack grading, and that the mouse has good waveform quality and so is ready for exhaustive measurement EMAT scans of SCC interactions. This section also reviews further coil optimization and implementation requirements. These involve transmitter and receiver power, acquisition parameters, and magnetic configuration. At this time all these seem reasonable for an ILI tool.

Jeff Aron; Jon Gore, Roger Dalton; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Owen Thomas; Tim Jarman

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Screening Protocol for Iodine-Specific Getters in YMP-Related Invert Applications  

SciTech Connect

This document defines a standardized screening protocol for use in developing iodine ''getters'' for placement in the proposed YMP-repository invert. The work was funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), Office of Science and Technology International (S&T) during 2004-2005. First, the likely environmental conditions in the invert are reviewed as a basis for defining the thermal and geochemical regimes in which a getter must function. These considerations, then, served as the basis for laying out a hierarchy of materials screening tests (Table 1). An experimental design for carrying out these screening tests follows next. Finally, the latter half of the document develops methods for preparing test solutions with chemistries that relate to various aspects of the YMP-repository environment (or, at least to such representations as were available from program documents late in 2004). Throughout the document priority was given to defining procedures that would quickly screen out unpromising candidate materials with a minimum amount of labor. Hence, the proposed protocol relies on batch tests over relatively short times, and on a hierarchy of short pre-test conditioning steps. So as not to repeat the mistakes (and frustrations) encountered in the past (notably in preparing WIPP test brines) particular care was also given to developing standardized test solution recipes that could be prepared easily and reproducibly. This document is principally intended for use as a decision-making tool in evaluating and planning research activities. It is explicitly NOT a roadmap for qualifying getters for actual placement in the repository. That would require a comprehensive test plan and a substantial consensus building effort. This document is also not intended to provide a complete list of all the tests that individuals may wish to carry out. Various materials will have their own peculiar concerns that will call for additional specialized tests. In many cases additional research will also be needed to verify the exact nature of the chemical process responsible for scavenging the iodine from the test solutions.

J.L. Krumhansl; J.D. Pless; J.B. Chwirka

2006-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

306

Screening protocol for iodine-specific getters in YMP-related invert applications.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document defines a standardized screening protocol for use in developing iodine ''getters'' for placement in the proposed YMP-repository invert. The work was funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), Office of Science and Technology International (S&T) during 2004-2005. First, the likely environmental conditions in the invert are reviewed as a basis for defining the thermal and geochemical regimes in which a getter must function. These considerations, then, served as the basis for laying out a hierarchy of materials screening tests (Table 1). An experimental design for carrying out these screening tests follows next. Finally, the latter half of the document develops methods for preparing test solutions with chemistries that relate to various aspects of the YMP-repository environment (or, at least to such representations as were available from program documents late in 2004). Throughout the document priority was given to defining procedures that would quickly screen out unpromising candidate materials with a minimum amount of labor. Hence, the proposed protocol relies on batch tests over relatively short times, and on a hierarchy of short pre-test conditioning steps. So as not to repeat the mistakes (and frustrations) encountered in the past (notably in preparing WIPP test brines) particular care was also given to developing standardized test solution recipes that could be prepared easily and reproducibly. This document is principally intended for use as a decision-making tool in evaluating and planning research activities. It is explicitly NOT a roadmap for qualifying getters for actual placement in the repository. That would require a comprehensive test plan and a substantial consensus building effort. This document is also not intended to provide a complete list of all the tests that individuals may wish to carry out. Various materials will have their own peculiar concerns that will call for additional specialized tests. In many cases additional research will also be needed to verify the exact nature of the chemical process responsible for scavenging the iodine from the test solutions.

Krumhansl, James Lee; Pless, Jason; Chwirka, J. Benjamin

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

ing the distribution of those galaxies, the way they clump and spread out, scientists  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

illuminated realms as small as a single molecule and as large as a gamma ray burst. of the Year Agony ex- plosions in the universe: titanic blasts of en- ergy called gamma ray bursts (GRBs). Most notably of black holes and other phenomena in the gamma ray region of the spectrum. And the Wilkinson Microwave

Yildiz, Ahmet

308

This National Response Framework (NRF) is a guide to how the Nation conducts all-hazards response. It is built upon scalable, flexible, and adaptable coordinating structures to align  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) facilities, notably in healthcare and power generation. NGOs also serve and key resources (CIKR) can be found in the CIKR Support Annex available at the NRF Resource Center, http people also includes the preservation of the Nation's CIKR. Guiding our efforts to protect the Nation

Bandettini, Peter A.

309

Innovative approaches to integrated global change modelling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Integrated models are important tools to investigate the interactions between planetary processes and the growing impacts of human populations - in short: global change. Current models still have significant shortcomings, notably in their representation ... Keywords: Global change, Innovative approaches, Integrated assessment, Modelling, Research priorities

Carlo Giupponi, Mark E. Borsuk, Bert J. M. De Vries, Klaus Hasselmann

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

The 1988 Drought, Barges, and Diversion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The drought of 1988 rated as one of the nation's worst in the past 100 years, resulting in a myriad of impacts and responses. A notable, largely unexpected impact involved stoppages of barge traffic on the lower Mississippi River during June and ...

Stanley A. Changnon

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Institute for Fusion Studies, Final Technical Report, December 1, 1995 - February 29, 2004  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the 2001-2003 grant period, Institute for Fusion Studies (IFS) scientist made notable progress in a number of research areas. This report summarizes the work that has been accomplished in the following areas: (1) Magnetohydrodynamics; (2) Burning plasma and energetic particle physics; (3) Turbulent transport; (4) Computational physics; (5) Fundamental Theory; (6) Innovative confinement concepts; and (7) Plasma applications.

Dr. James Van Dam

2005-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

312

MML Inference of Decision Graphs with Multi-way Joins  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A decision tree is a comprehensible representation that has been widely used in many machine learning domains. But in the area of supervised learning, decision trees have their limitations. Two notable problems are those of replication and fragmentation. ... Keywords: MDL, MML, decision graphs, decision trees, machine learning, minimum message length, probabilistic prediction, supervised learning

Peter J. Tan; David L. Dowe

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Structural Change and Futures for the Electric Utility Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technological change and evolving customer needs have already combined to precipitate fundamental structural change in several capital-intensive industries, notably the telecommunications, natural gas, and transportation sectors. These forces are now being unleashed in the electric utility sector. This report outlines some common patterns of change across several industries and presents scenarios of structural change for the electric power industry.

1995-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

314

Dynamical regimes and learning properties of evolved Boolean networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boolean networks (BNs) have been mainly considered as genetic regulatory network models and are the subject of notable works in complex systems biology literature. Nevertheless, in spite of their similarities with neural networks, their potential as ... Keywords: Boolean networks, Density classification problem, Machine learning, Metaheuristics, State-controlled Boolean network

Stefano Benedettini; Marco Villani; Andrea Roli; Roberto Serra; Mattia Manfroni; Antonio Gagliardi; Carlo Pinciroli; Mauro Birattari

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

An Efficient Semi-Lagrangian Scheme Using Third-Order Semi-Implicit Time Integration and Forward Trajectories  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method of implementing the semi-Lagrangian technique is presented in the context of a limited-area, barotropic primitive equation model. The most notable feature of the new method is the way in which the semi-Lagrangian advection is ...

R. J. Purser; L. M. Leslie

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Quantitative 3-D Elemental Mapping by LA-ICP-MS of a Basaltic Clast from the Hanford 300 Area, Washington, USA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantitative 3-D Elemental Mapping by LA-ICP-MS of a Basaltic Clast from the Hanford 300 Area collected from the Hanford 300 Area in south-central Washington State, United States. A calibration method and riparian quality in many locations, most notably at the Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge, and Nevada Test

Hu, Qinhong "Max"

317

Higgs-Z-photon Coupling from Effect of Composite Resonances  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explore the Higgs-Z-photon coupling in the Minimal Composite Higgs Model with vector and axial resonances. The electroweak precision measurement, i.e. S and T, is estimated for this model. We calculate the signal strength for Higgs decay into Z-photon and notable enhancement is found in certain EWPT allowed parameter region.

Cai, Haiying

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Optimized image acquisition for breast tomosynthesis in projection and reconstruction space  

SciTech Connect

Breast tomosynthesis has been an exciting new development in the field of breast imaging. While the diagnostic improvement via tomosynthesis is notable, the full potential of tomosynthesis has not yet been realized. This may be attributed to the dependency of the diagnostic quality of tomosynthesis on multiple variables, each of which needs to be optimized. Those include dose, number of angular projections, and the total angular span of those projections. In this study, the authors investigated the effects of these acquisition parameters on the overall diagnostic image quality of breast tomosynthesis in both the projection and reconstruction space. Five mastectomy specimens were imaged using a prototype tomosynthesis system. 25 angular projections of each specimen were acquired at 6.2 times typical single-view clinical dose level. Images at lower dose levels were then simulated using a noise modification routine. Each projection image was supplemented with 84 simulated 3 mm 3D lesions embedded at the center of 84 nonoverlapping ROIs. The projection images were then reconstructed using a filtered backprojection algorithm at different combinations of acquisition parameters to investigate which of the many possible combinations maximizes the performance. Performance was evaluated in terms of a Laguerre-Gauss channelized Hotelling observer model-based measure of lesion detectability. The analysis was also performed without reconstruction by combining the model results from projection images using Bayesian decision fusion algorithm. The effect of acquisition parameters on projection images and reconstructed slices were then compared to derive an optimization rule for tomosynthesis. The results indicated that projection images yield comparable but higher performance than reconstructed images. Both modes, however, offered similar trends: Performance improved with an increase in the total acquisition dose level and the angular span. Using a constant dose level and angular span, the performance rolled off beyond a certain number of projections, indicating that simply increasing the number of projections in tomosynthesis may not necessarily improve its performance. The best performance for both projection images and tomosynthesis slices was obtained for 15-17 projections spanning an angular arc of {approx}45 deg. - the maximum tested in our study, and for an acquisition dose equal to single-view mammography. The optimization framework developed in this framework is applicable to other reconstruction techniques and other multiprojection systems.

Chawla, Amarpreet S.; Lo, Joseph Y.; Baker, Jay A.; Samei, Ehsan [Department of Radiology and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Department of Medical Physics, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Department of Medical Physics, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

319

Passive Acoustic Detection of Wind Turbine In-Flow Conditions for Active Control and Optimization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Wind is a significant source of energy; however, the human capability to produce electrical energy still has many hurdles to overcome. One of these is the unpredictability of the winds in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The ABL is highly turbulent in both stable and unstable conditions (based on the vertical temperature profile) and the resulting fluctuations can have a dramatic impact on wind turbine operation. Any method by which these fluctuations could be observed, estimated, or predicted could provide a benefit to the wind energy industry as a whole. Based on the fundamental coupling of velocity fluctuations to pressure fluctuations in the nearly incompressible flow in the ABL, This work hypothesizes that a ground-based array of infrasonic pressure transducers could be employed to estimate the vertical wind profile over a height relevant for wind turbines. To analyze this hypothesis, experiments and field deployments were conducted. Wind tunnel experiments were performed for a thick turbulent boundary layer over a neutral or heated surface. Surface pressure and velocity probe measurements were acquired simultaneously. Two field deployments yielded surface pressure data from a 49 element array. The second deployment at the Reese Technology Center in Lubbock, TX, also included data from a smaller aperture, 96-element array and a 200-meter tall meteorological tower. Analysis of the data successfully demonstrated the ability to estimate the vertical velocity profile using coherence data from the pressure array. Also, dynamical systems analysis methods were successful in identifying and tracking a gust type event. In addition to the passive acoustic profiling method, this program also investigated a rapid response Doppler SODAR system, the optimization of wind turbine blades for enhanced power with reduced aeroacoustic noise production, and the implementation of a wireless health monitoring system for the wind turbine blades. Each of these other objectives was met successfully. The use of phase unwrapping applied to SODAR data was found to yield reasonable results for per-pulse measurements. A health monitoring system design analysis was able to demonstrate the ability to use a very small number of sensors to monitor blade health based on the blade's overall structural modes. Most notable was the development of a multi-objective optimization methodology that successfully yielded an aerodynamic blade design that produces greater power output with reduced aerodynamic loading noise. This optimization method could be significant for future design work.

Murray, Nathan E.

2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

320

Interim Results from a Study of the Impacts of Tin (II) Based Mercury Treatment in a Small Stream Ecosystem: Tims Branch, Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

A research team is assessing the impacts of an innovative mercury treatment system in Tims Branch, a small southeastern stream. The treatment system, installed in 2007, reduces and removes inorganic mercury from water using tin(II) (stannous) chloride addition followed by air stripping. The system results in discharge of inorganic tin to the ecosystem. This screening study is based on historical information combined with measurements of contaminant concentrations in water, fish, sediment, biofilms and invertebrates. Initial mercury data indicate that first few years of mercury treatment resulted in a significant decrease in mercury concentration in an upper trophic level fish, redfin pickerel, at all sampling locations in the impacted reach. For example, the whole body mercury concentration in redfin pickerel collected from the most impacted pond decreased approximately 72% between 2006 (pre-treatment) and 2010 (post-treatment). Over this same period, mercury concentrations in the fillet of redfin pickerel in this pond were estimated to have decreased from approximately 1.45 {micro}g/g (wet weight basis) to 0.45 {micro}g/g - a decrease from 4.8x to 1.5x the current EPA guideline concentration for mercury in fillet (0.3 {micro}g/g). Thermodynamic modeling, scanning electron microscopy, and other sampling data for tin suggest that particulate tin (IV) oxides are a significant geochemical species entering the ecosystem with elevated levels of tin measured in surficial sediments and biofilms. Detectable increases in tin in sediments and biofilms extended approximately 3km from the discharge location. Tin oxides are recalcitrant solids that are relatively non-toxic and resistant to dissolution. Work continues to develop and validate methods to analyze total tin in the collected biota samples. In general, the interim results of this screening study suggest that the treatment process has performed as predicted and that the concentration of mercury in upper trophic level fish, as a surrogate for all of the underlying transport and transformation processes in a complex ecosystem, has declined as a direct result of the elimination of inorganic mercury inputs. Inorganic tin released to the ecosystem has been found in compartments where particles accumulate with notable levels measured in biofilms.

Looney, Brian [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); BryanJr., Larry [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory; Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Roy, W Kelly [ORNL; Jett, Robert T [ORNL; Smith, John G [ORNL

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Effective passivation of In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As by HfO{sub 2} surpassing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} via in-situ atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect

High {kappa} gate dielectrics of HfO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were deposited on molecular beam epitaxy-grown In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As pristine surface using in-situ atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) without any surface treatment or passivation layer. The ALD-HfO{sub 2}/p-In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As interface showed notable reduction in the interfacial density of states (D{sub it}), deduced from quasi-static capacitance-voltage and conductance-voltage (G-V) at room temperature and 100 Degree-Sign C. More significantly, the midgap peak commonly observed in the D{sub it}(E) of ALD-oxides/In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As is now greatly diminished. The midgap D{sub it} value decreases from {>=}15 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} eV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} for ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to {approx}2-4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} eV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} for ALD-HfO{sub 2}. Further, thermal stability at 850 Degree-Sign C was achieved in the HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As, whereas C-V characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/p-In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As degraded after the high temperature annealing. From in-situ x-ray photoelectron spectra, the AsO{sub x}, which is not the oxidized state from the native oxide, but is an induced state from adsorption of trimethylaluminum and H{sub 2}O, was found at the ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As interface, while that was not detected at the ALD-HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As interface.

Chang, Y. H.; Chiang, T. H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lin, C. A.; Liu, Y. T.; Lin, H. Y.; Huang, M. L.; Kwo, J. [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lin, T. D.; Hong, M. [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Pi, T. W. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

322

Supernova rates from the Southern inTermediate Redshift ESO Supernova Search (STRESS)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To measure the supernova (SN) rates at intermediate redshift we performed the Southern inTermediate Redshift ESO Supernova Search (STRESS). Unlike most of the current high redshift SN searches, this survey was specifically designed to estimate the rate for both type Ia and core collapse (CC) SNe. We counted the SNe discovered in a selected galaxy sample measuring SN rate per unit blue band luminosity. Our analysis is based on a sample of ~43000 galaxies and on 25 spectroscopically confirmed SNe plus 64 selected SN candidates. Our approach is aimed at obtaining a direct comparison of the high redshift and local rates and at investigating the dependence of the rates on specific galaxy properties, most notably their colour. The type Ia SN rate, at mean redshift z=0.3, amounts to 0.22^{+0.10+0.16}_{-0.08 -0.14} h_{70}^2 SNu, while the CC SN rate, at z=0.21, is 0.82^{+0.31 +0.30}_{-0.24 -0.26} h_{70}^2 SNu. The quoted errors are the statistical and systematic uncertainties. With respect to local value, the CC SN rate at z=0.2 is higher by a factor of ~2 already at redshift, whereas the type Ia SN rate remains almost constant. This implies that a significant fraction of SN Ia progenitors has a lifetime longer than 2-3 Gyr. We also measured the SN rates in the red and blue galaxies and found that the SN Ia rate seems to be constant in galaxies of different colour, whereas the CC SN rate seems to peak in blue galaxies, as in the local Universe. SN rates per unit volume were found to be consistent with other measurements showing a steeper evolution with redshift for CC SNe with respect to SNe Ia. Finally we have exploited the link between star formation (SF) and SN rates to predict the evolutionary behaviour of the SN rates and compare it with the path indicated by observations.

M. T. Botticella; M. Riello; E. Cappellaro; S. Benetti; G. Altavilla; A. Pastorello; M. Turatto; L. Greggio; F. Patat; S. Valenti; L. Zampieri; A. Harutyunyan; G. Pignata; S. Taubenberger

2007-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

323

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for atmospheric trace gases: Fiscal year 1995 annual report  

SciTech Connect

Fiscal year 1995 was both a very productive year for the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and a year of significant change. This document presents information about the most notable accomplishments made during the year. Topics include: high-lights; statistics; future plans; publications, presentations, and awards; and change in organization and staff.

Burtis, M.D. [comp.; Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Jones, S.B.; Nelson, T.; Stoss, F.W.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

A Quarterly Bulletin of the Pacific El Nio/Southern Oscillation Applications Climate (PEAC) Center Providing Information on Climate Variability for the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

s 1 ) and 24-h rain ac- cumulations 250 mm on the island of Kauai. Ad- ditional details of both destruction of life and property in the region. Notable examples include Hurricane Iniki (Kauai, September into the Philippines and Southeast Asia regions (33%) or later recurve to- ward the northeast (25%). A significant

325

Botany Profile Continued on page 14  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

s 1 ) and 24-h rain ac- cumulations 250 mm on the island of Kauai. Ad- ditional details of both destruction of life and property in the region. Notable examples include Hurricane Iniki (Kauai, September into the Philippines and Southeast Asia regions (33%) or later recurve to- ward the northeast (25%). A significant

Mathis, Wayne N.

326

A market-based bandwidth charging framework  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The increasing demand for high-bandwidth applications such as video-on-demand and grid computing is reviving interest in bandwidth reservation schemes. Earlier attempts did not catch on for a number of reasons, notably lack of interest on the part of ... Keywords: Trust management, bandwidth reservations, credentials, network management

David Michael Turner; Vassilis Prevelakis; Angelos D. Keromytis

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Extended windmill polynomials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a generalization of a class of characteristic polynomials used for linear feedback shift registers (LFSRs). In previous works, several restrictions have been demonstrated for the windmill polynomials. Most notably, no irreducible windmill ... Keywords: FCSRs, LFSRs, sequences, shift registers, windmill polynomials

Cédric Lauradoux

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Perils of Long-Range Energy Forecasting: Reflections on Looking Far Ahead  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

! #12;PERILS OF LONG-RANGE ENERGY FORCASTING 255 Fig. 1. Forecasts of the U.S. primary energy notable forecasts of the U.S. primary energy consumption in the year 2000 that were released between have been around energy matters for some time--is the goal of U.S. energy independence charted

Smil, Vaclav

329

High resolution and high density ion beam lithography employing HSQ resist  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the early stages of focused ion beam (FIB) development, ion beam lithography (IBL) employing organic resists showed potential advantages over electron beam lithography (EBL) (most notably less proximity effects and higher sensitivity [1,2]). However, ... Keywords: FIB, HSQ, IBL, LMIS, Nano patterning, Resist

L. Bruchhaus; S. Bauerdick; L. Peto; U. Barth; A. Rudzinski; J. Mussmann; J. Klingfus; J. Gierak; H. HöVel

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

ULYSSES BEGINS EXPLORATION OF THE SUN'S NORTHERN POLE The Ulysses spacecraft has begun to explore the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

latitudes. At that time, during the peak of the Sun's 11-year solar cycle, scientists expect to find the Sun at different latitudes. Most notably, solar winds at high southern latitudes traveled at roughly double the speed found in the equatorial zone. The solar winds flow at approximately two million miles

Christian, Eric

331

Estimation and regularization techniques for regression models with multidimensional prediction functions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boosting is one of the most important methods for fitting regression models and building prediction rules. A notable feature of boosting is that the technique can be modified such that it includes a built-in mechanism for shrinking coefficient estimates ... Keywords: Count data model, Gradient boosting, Multidimensional prediction function, Scale parameter estimation, Variable selection

Matthias Schmid; Sergej Potapov; Annette Pfahlberg; Torsten Hothorn

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Metal-On-Metal Bonding and Rebonding Revisited  

SciTech Connect

Density-functional calculations for a wide variety of metals show that, contrary to the rebonding view of adsorbate bonding, addimers do not have notably longer surface bonds than adatoms, do not reside farther above the surface, and do not meet the rebonding arguments for augmented mobility. Rebonding concepts are found to have some utility in explaining addimer stability.

Bogicevic, A.

1999-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

333

The games computers play...: perfectly  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Artificial intelligence has had notable success in building high-performance game-playing programs to compete against the best human players; Deep Blue is the obvious example, but there are many more. However, the availability of fast and plentiful machines ...

Jonathan Schaeffer

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Solving checkers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AI has had notable success in building high-performance game-playing programs to complete against the best human players. However, the availability of fast and plentiful machines with large memories and disks creates the possibility of solving a game. ...

J. Schaeffer; Y. Björnsson; N. Burch; A. Kishimoto; M. M¨ uller; R. Lake; P. Lu; S. Sutphen

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

A comparative study of artificial neural networks, and decision trees for digital game content stocks price prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precise prediction of stock prices is difficult chiefly because of the many intervening factors. Unpredictability is particularly notable in the aftermath of the global financial crisis. Data mining may however be used to discover highly correlated estimation ... Keywords: Artificial neural networks (ANN), C&RT, Decision tree, Stock price forecasting

Tsung-Sheng Chang

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Windsofchange Abreathoffresh  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2007 Airtricity is a world leading renewable energy company, developing and operating wind farms systems, power electronics and renewable technologies ­ notably in the elds of wind and marine energy. e | News Energy Matters | Summer 2007 Wind energy is a relatively young, but rapidly expanding, industry

Mottram, Nigel

337

Stylized facts of financial time series and hidden semi-Markov models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hidden Markov models reproduce most of the stylized facts about daily series of returns. A notable exception is the inability of the models to reproduce one ubiquitous feature of such time series, namely the slow decay in the autocorrelation function ... Keywords: Daily return series, EM algorithm, Hidden Markov model, Hidden semi-Markov model, Right-censoring, Sojourn time distribution

Jan Bulla; Ingo Bulla

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Bibliography of L.M. Liebrock Journal Papers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, an example is presented of a hybrid automaton modelling the temperature control system of a nuclear reactor theories and tools that are currently spread over distinct disciplines, most notably Computer Science and Control Theory. The interest in the for­ mal treatment of digital systems that interact with an analog

Liebrock, Lorie M.

339

Curvelet based face recognition via dimension reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multiresolution ideas, notably the wavelet transform, have been proved quite useful for analyzing the information content of facial images. Numerous papers and research articles have discussed the application of wavelet transform in face recognition. ... Keywords: Digital curvelet transform, LDA, Multiresolution analysis, PCA, Subbands, Wavelet transform

Tanaya Mandal; Q. M. Jonathan Wu; Yuan Yuan

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

CTR/ANL, July 2010 1 Updated Estimation of Energy Efficiencies of U.S. Petroleum Refineries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for emissions associated with hydrogen production. Hydrogen is generated in a refinery's catalytic reformer-process distillate material into commercial diesel and jet fuel. From this perspective catalytic reforming transfers refinery operations, most notably catalytic reforming. References Bredeson, L., Quiceno-Gonzalez, R., Riera

Argonne National Laboratory

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Modeling of Microwave Ovens with Perforated Metal Walls Erin M. Kiley and Vadim V. Yakovlev  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

engineers developing new microwaveable products. This can be explained by the particularly complex nature, modeling. I. INTRODUCTION While historically, technological progress in microwave power engineering has microwave ovens - the most widespread microwave heating devices - have not yet been notably adopted by food

Yakovlev, Vadim

342

Integrated Energy Policy Report Subsidiary Volume: TRANSPORTATION FUELS,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heads, to be present on primordial earth. Hydrocarbon molecules could be formed in Fischer-Tropsch. 2012b). Notably, the yield of the Fischer-Tropsch reaction, while insensitive to the presence of sodium (Nooner et al. 1976; Graf and Muhler 2011). Thus, Fischer-Tropsch-type reac- tions within K+ -rich rocks

343

Looking back, looking forward: a metadata standard for LANL's aDORe repository  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although often disparaged or dismissed in the library community, the MARC standard, notably the MARCXML standard, provides surprising flexibility and robustness for mapping disparate metadata to a vendor-neutral format for storage, exchange, and downstream ... Keywords: MARCXML, data mapping, metadata standards

Beth Goldsmith; Frances Knudson

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

/scratch as a cache: rethinking HPC center scratch storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To sustain emerging data-intensive scientific applications, High Performance Computing (HPC) centers invest a notable fraction of their operating budget on a specialized fast storage system, scratch space, which is designed for storing the data of currently ... Keywords: hpc scratch management, just-in-time staging, offloading

Henry M. Monti; Ali R. Butt; Sudharshan S. Vazhkudai

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Efficient highly over-complete sparse coding using a mixture model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sparse coding of sensory data has recently attracted notable attention in research of learning useful features from the unlabeled data. Empirical studies show that mapping the data into a significantly higher-dimensional space with sparse coding can ... Keywords: PASCAL VOC challenge, highly over-complete dictionary training, image classification, mixture model, mixture sparse coding, sparse coding

Jianchao Yang; Kai Yu; Thomas Huang

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

SPE-163690-MS Synthetic, Geomechanical Logs for Marcellus Shale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SPE-163690-MS Synthetic, Geomechanical Logs for Marcellus Shale M. O. Eshkalak, SPE, S. D of hydrocarbons from the reservoirs, notably shale, is attributed to realizing the key fundamentals of reservoir and mineralogy is crucial in order to identify the "right" pay-zone intervals for shale gas production. Also

Mohaghegh, Shahab

347

CEBAF 200 kV Inverted Electron Gun  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two DC high volt­age GaAs pho­to­guns have been built at Jef­fer­son Lab based on a com­pact in­vert­ed in­su­la­tor de­sign. One pho­to­gun pro­vides the po­lar­ized elec­tron beam at CEBAF and op­er­ates at 130 kV bias volt­age. The other gun is used for high av­er­age cur­rent life­time stud­ies at a ded­i­cat­ed test fa­cil­i­ty and has been op­er­at­ed at bias volt­age up to 225 kV. The ad­van­tages of high­er DC volt­age for CEBAF in­clude re­duced space-charge emit­tance growth and the po­ten­tial for pro­longed pho­to­cath­ode life­time. How­ev­er, a con­se­quence of op­er­at­ing at high­er volt­ages is the in­creased like­li­hood of field emis­sion or break­down, both of which are un­ac­cept­able. High­lights of the R&D stud­ies lead­ing to­ward a pro­duc­tion 200keV GaAs pho­to­gun for CEBAF will be pre­sent­ed.

Grames, J M; Clark, J; Hansknecht, J; Poelker, M; Stutzman, M L; Suleiman, R; Surles-Law, K.E.L.; BastaniNejad, M

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

THE KINEMATICS OF LATE-TYPE STARS IN THE SOLAR CYLINDER STUDIED WITH SDSS DATA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the velocity distribution of Milky Way disk stars in a kiloparsec-sized region around the Sun, based on {approx}2 million M-type stars from DR7 of SDSS, which have newly re-calibrated absolute proper motions from combining SDSS positions with the USNO-B catalogue. We estimate photometric distances to all stars, accurate to {approx}20%, and combine them with the proper motions to derive tangential velocities for this kinematically unbiased sample of stars. Based on a statistical deprojection method we then derive the vertical profiles (to heights of Z = 800 pc above the disk plane) for the first and second moments of the three-dimensional stellar velocity distribution. We find that (W) = -7 {+-} 1 km s{sup -1} and (U) = -9 {+-} 1 km s{sup -1}, independent of height above the mid-plane, reflecting the Sun's motion with respect to the local standard of rest. In contrast, (V) changes distinctly from -20 {+-} 2 km s{sup -1} in the mid-plane to (V) = -32 km s{sup -1} at Z = 800 pc, reflecting an asymmetric drift of the stellar mean velocity that increases with height. All three components of the M-star velocity dispersion show a strong linear rise away from the mid-plane, most notably {sigma} {sub ZZ}, which grows from 18 km s{sup -1} (Z = 0) to 40 km s{sup -1} (at Z = 800 pc). We determine the orientation of the velocity ellipsoid, and find a significant vertex deviation of 20{sup 0}-25{sup 0}, which decreases only slightly to heights of Z = 800 pc. Away from the mid-plane, our sample exhibits a remarkably large tilt of the velocity ellipsoid toward the Galactic plane, which reaches 20{sup 0} at Z = 800 pc and which is not easily explained. Finally, we determine the ratio {sigma}{sup 2} {sub {phi}}{sub {phi}}/{sigma}{sup 2} {sub RR} near the mid-plane, which in the epicyclic approximation implies an almost perfectly flat rotation curve at the solar radius.

Fuchs, Burkhard; Dettbarn, Christian; Jahreiss, Hartmut [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut am Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Rix, Hans-Walter; Klement, Rainer [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, CSCE: Center for the Study of Cosmic Evolution, and JINA: Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Dan; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey; Snedden, Stephanie [Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

349

Energy Emission by Quantum Systems in an Expanding FRW Metric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bound quantum mechanical systems not expanding with the comoving frame of an expanding, flat FRW metric are found to release energy at a rate linearly proportional to the local Hubble constant ($H_{o}$) and the systems' binding energy ($E_{b}$); {\\em i.e.}, $\\dot{E} = H_{o} E_{b}$. Three exemplary quantum systems are examined. For systems with early cosmological condensation times | notably hadrons | time-integrated energy release could have been significant and could account for an appreciable fraction of the dark matter inventory.

D. P. Sheehan; V. G. Kriss

2004-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

350

Reduction of Carbon Footprint and Energy Efficiency Improvement in Aluminum Production by Use of Novel Wireless Instrumentation Integrated with Mathematical Modeling  

SciTech Connect

The work addressed the greenhouse gas emission and electrical energy consumption of the aluminum industry. The objective was to provide a means for reducing both through the application of wireless instrumentation, coupled to mathematical modeling. Worldwide the aluminum industry consumes more electrical energy than all activities in many major countries (e.g. the UK) and emits more greenhouse gasses (e.g. than France). Most of these excesses are in the 'primary production' of aluminum; that is the conversion of aluminum oxide to metal in large electrolytic cells operating at hundreds of thousands of amps. An industry-specific GHG emission has been the focus of the work. The electrolytic cells periodically, but at irregular intervals, experience an upset condition known as an 'anode effect'. During such anode effects the cells emit fluorinated hydrocarbons (PFCs, which have a high global warming potential) at a rate far greater than in normal operation. Therefore curbing anode effects will reduce GHG emissions. Prior work had indicated that the distribution of electrical current within the cell experiences significant shifts in the minutes before an anode effect. The thrust of the present work was to develop technology that could detect and report this early warning of an anode effect so that the control computer could minimize GHG emissions. A system was developed to achieve this goal and, in collaboration with Alcoa, was tested on two cells at an Alcoa plant in Malaga, Washington. The project has also pointed to the possibility of additional improvements that could result from the work. Notable among these is an improvement in efficiency that could result in an increase in cell output at little extra operating cost. Prospects for commercialization have emerged in the form of purchase orders for further installations. The work has demonstrated that a system for monitoring the current of individual anodes in an aluminum cell is practical. Furthermore the system has been installed twice on a smelter in the US without exposing workers to hazards usually associated with running signal wires in aluminum plants. The results display the early warning of an anode effect that potentially can be used to minimize such anode effects with their excessive GHG emissions. They also point to a possible, but substantial, economic benefit that could result in improved current efficiency by anode adjustment based on individual anode current measurements.

James W. Evans

2012-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

351

Development of colorimetric solid Phase Extraction (C-SPE) for in-flight Monitoring of spacecraft Water Supplies  

SciTech Connect

Although having recently been extremely successful gathering data on the surface of Mars, robotic missions are not an effective substitute for the insight and knowledge about our solar system that can be gained though first-hand exploration. Earlier this year, President Bush presented a ''new course'' for the U.S. space program that shifts NASA's focus to the development of new manned space vehicles to the return of humans to the moon. Re-establishing the human presence on the moon will eventually lead to humans permanently living and working in space and also serve as a possible launch point for missions into deeper space. There are several obstacles to the realization of these goals, most notably the lack of life support and environmental regeneration and monitoring hardware capable of functioning on long duration spaceflight. In the case of the latter, past experience on the International Space Station (ISS), Mir, and the Space Shuttle has strongly underscored the need to develop broad spectrum in-flight chemical sensors that: (1) meet current environmental monitoring requirements on ISS as well as projected requirements for future missions, and (2) enable the in-situ acquisition and analysis of analytical data in order to further define on-orbit monitoring requirements. Additionally, systems must be designed to account for factors unique to on-orbit deployment such as crew time availability, payload restrictions, material consumption, and effective operation in microgravity. This dissertation focuses on the development, ground testing, and microgravity flight demonstration of Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (C-SPE) as a candidate technology to meet the near- and long-term water quality monitoring needs of NASA. The introduction will elaborate further on the operational and design requirements for on-orbit water quality monitoring systems by discussing some of the characteristics of an ''ideal'' system. A description of C-SPE and how the individual components of the platform are combined to satisfy many of these requirements is then presented, along with a literature review on the applications of C-SPE and similar sorption-spectrophotometric techniques. Finally, a brief overview of diffuse reflection spectroscopy and the Kubelka-Munk function, which are used to quantify analytes via C-SPE, is presented.

Daniel Bryan Gazda

2004-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

352

DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a result of the WAO reaction. (4) Off-gas composition was measured in the resulting gas phase from the reaction. Benzene and hydrogen were formed during the reaction, but they were reasonably low in the off-gas at 0.096 and 0.0063 vol% respectively. Considering the consistency in replicating similar test results with simulated waste and Tank 48H waste under similar test conditions, the results confirm the validity of the simulant for other WAO test conditions.

Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

353

Stretched Exponential Decline Model as a Probabilistic and Deterministic Tool for Production Forecasting and Reserve Estimation in Oil and Gas Shales  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Today everyone seems to agree that ultra-low permeability and shale reservoirs have become the potentials to transform North America's oil and gas industry to a new phase. Unfortunately, transient flow is of long duration (perhaps life of the well) in ultra-low permeability reservoirs, and traditional decline curve analysis (DCA) models can lead to significantly over-optimistic production forecasts without additional safeguards. Stretched Exponential decline model (SEDM) gives considerably more stabilized production forecast than traditional DCA models and in this work it is shown that it produces unchanging EUR forecasts after only two-three years of production data are available in selected reservoirs, notably the Barnett Shale. For an individual well, the SEDM model parameters, can be determined by the method of least squares in various ways, but the inherent nonlinear character of the least squares problem cannot be bypassed. To assure a unique solution to the parameter estimation problem, this work suggests a physics-based regularization approach, based on critical velocity concept. Applied to selected Barnett Shale gas wells, the suggested method leads to reliable and consistent EURs. To further understand the interaction of the different fracture properties on reservoir response and production decline curve behavior, a series of Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) simulations were performed. Results show that at least a 3-layer model is required to reproduce the decline behavior as captured in the published SEDM parameters for Barnett Shale. Further, DFN modeling implies a large number of parameters like fracture density and fracture length are in such a way that their effect can be compensated by the other one. The results of DFN modeling of several Barnett Shale horizontal wells, with numerous fracture stages, showed a very good agreement with the estimated SEDM model for the same wells. Estimation of P90 reserves that meet SEC criteria is required by law for all companies that raise capital in the United States. Estimation of P50 and P10 reserves that meet SPE/WPC/AAPG/SPEE Petroleum Resources Management System (PRMS) criteria is important for internal resource inventories for most companies. In this work a systematic methodology was developed to quantify the range of uncertainty in production forecast using SEDM. This methodology can be used as a probabilistic tool to quantify P90, P50, and P10 reserves and hence might provide one possible way to satisfy the various legal and technical-society-suggested criteria.

Akbarnejad Nesheli, Babak

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Annual report of groundwater monitoring at Everest, Kansas in 2011.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Everest, Kansas, is a small rural community (population approximately 300) located in the southeast corner of Brown County, in the northeastern corner of Kansas. Carbon tetrachloride and chloroform contamination in groundwater at Everest was initially identified in 1997 as a result of testing performed under the Commodity Credit Corporation/U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) private well sampling program conducted by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The KDHE collected samples from seven private wells in and near Everest. Carbon tetrachloride and chloroform were found in only one of the wells, the Donnie Nigh domestic well (owned at that time by Tim Gale), approximately 3/8 mi northwest of the former Everest CCC/USDA facility. Carbon tetrachloride and chloroform were detected at 121 {mu}g/L and 4 {mu}g/L, respectively. Nitrate was found at 12.62 mg/L. The USDA subsequently connected the Nigh residence to the Everest public water supply system. The findings of the 2011 monitoring at Everest support the following conclusions: (1) Measurements of groundwater levels obtained manually during annual monitoring in 2009-2011 (and through the use of automatic recorders in 2002-2010) have consistently indicated an initial direction of groundwater flow from the former CCC/USDA facility to the north-northwest and toward the Nigh property, then west-southwest from the Nigh property toward the intermittent creek that lies west of the former CCC/USDA facility and the Nigh property. (2) At most of the monitored locations, carbon tetrachloride concentrations decreased in April 2011 relative to 2010 results. Noteworthy decreases of > 50% occurred at locations MW4, MW60, and MW88, in the most concentrated part of the plume. (3) Comparison of accumulated data demonstrates that the area of the carbon tetrachloride plume with concentrations > 200 {mu}g/L has decreased markedly over time and suggests a generally decreasing trend in contaminant levels. (4) The trace increases in carbon tetrachloride concentrations observed in 2010 at locations SB63 and SB64 were notable because of the locations proximity to the downgradient intermittent creek. However, these increases were not confirmed in sampling in 2011. (5) The results of the April 2011 monitoring event continue to support the interpretation, made during the 9-yr observation period from 2001 to 2010, that the migration rate for contamination in groundwater toward the intermittent creek is very slow. (6) No carbon tetrachloride was detected in five samples of surface water collected from the intermittent creek west of the former CCC/USDA facility and the Nigh property, or in tree branch tissue samples collected at locations along the banks of the creek. These observations indicate that the carbon tetrachloride contamination identified at Everest has, to date, not impacted the surface waters of the intermittent creek.

LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

355

An infant with double trisomy (48,XXX,+18)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors report on an infant with double trisomy 48,XXX,+18. She presented with manifestation of trisomy 18: prominent occiput, microphthalmia, small mouth, micrognathia, malformed ears, congenital heart defect, overlapping fingers, talipes equinovarus, and rockerbottom feet. An extra palmar crease was present only on the right hand. This patient was alive at 12 months. The clinical manifestations are compared with those of 10 previously reported cases. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Jaruratanasirikul, S.; Jinorose, U. [Prince of Songkla Univ. (Thailand)

1994-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

356

Probing phonons in plutonium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Plutonium (Pu) is well known to have complex and unique physico-chemical properties. Notably, the pure metal exhibits six solid-state phase transformations with large volume expansions and contractions along the way to the liquid state: {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} {yields} {delta}{prime} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid. Unalloyed Pu melts at a relatively low temperature {approx}640 C to yield a higher density liquid than that of the solid from which it melts, (Figure 1). Detailed understanding of the properties of plutonium and plutonium-based alloys is critical for the safe handling, utilization, and long-term storage of these important, but highly toxic materials. However, both technical and and safety issues have made experimental observations extremely difficult. Phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) are key experimenta l data to the understanding of the basic properties of Pu materials such as: force constants, sound velocities, elastic constants, thermodynamics, phase stability, electron-phonon coupling, structural relaxation, etc. However, phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) in plutonium (Pu) and its alloys have defied measurement for the past few decades since the discovery of this element in 1941. This is due to a combination of the high thermal-neutron absorption cross section of plutonium and the inability to grow the large single crystals (with dimensions of a few millimeters) necessary for inelastic neutron scattering. Theoretical simulations of the Pu PDC continue to be hampered by the lack of suitable inter -atomic potentials. Thus, until recently the PDCs for Pu and its alloys have remained unknown experimentally and theoretically. The experimental limitations have recently been overcome by using a tightly focused undulator x-ray micro-beam scattered from single -grain domains in polycrystalline specimens. This experimental approach has been applied successfully to map the complete PDCs of an fcc d-Pu-Ga alloy using the high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (HRIXS) capability on ID28. The complete PDCs for an fcc Pu-0.6 wt% Ga alloy are plotted in Figure 2, and represent the first full set of phonon dispersions ever determined for any Pu-bearing materials. The solid curves (red) are calculated using a standard Born-von Karman (B-vK) force constant model. An adequate fit to the experimental data is obtained if interactions up to the fourth-nearest neighbours are included. The dashed curves (blue) are recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) results by Dai et al. The elastic moduli calculated from the slopes of the experimental phonon dispersion curves near the {Lambda} point are: C{sub 11} = 35.3 {+-} 1.4 GPa, C{sub 12} = 25.5 {+-} 1.5 GPa and C{sub 44} = 30.53 {+-} 1.1 GPa. These values are in excellent agreement with those of the only other measurement on a similar alloy (1 wt % Ga) using ultrasonic techniques as well as with those recently calculated from a combined DMFT and linear response theory for pure {delta}-Pu. Several unusual features, including a large elastic anisotropy, a small shear elastic modulus C{prime}, a Kohn-like anomaly in the T{sub 1}[011] branch, and a pronounced softening of the [111] transverse modes are found. These features can be related to the phase transitions of plutonium and to strong coupling between the lattice structure and the 5f valence instabilities. The HRIXS results also provide a critical test for theoretical treatments of highly correlated 5f electron systems as exemplified by recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) calculations for {delta}-plutonium. The experimental-theoretical agreements shown in Figure 2 in terms of a low shear elastic modulus C{prime}, a Kohn-like anomaly in the T{sub 1}[011] branch, and a large softening of the T[111] modes give credence to the DMFT approach for the theoretical treatment of 5f electron systems of which {delta}-Pu is a classic example. However, quantitative differences remain. These are the position of the Kohn anomaly along the T{sub 1}[011] branch, the energy maximum of the T[111] mode s

Wong, Joe; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Occelli, F.; Schwartz, A.; Chiang, T.C.; Wall, M.; Boro, C.; Xu, Ruqing (UIUC); (LLNL); (ESRF); (LANL)

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

357

Design of top covers supporting aerobic in situ stabilization of old landfills - An experimental simulation in lysimeters  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tested engineered covers as surrogate to gas extraction during and after in situ aeration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examined how covers influence gas emissions, water balance and leachate generation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigated effect of top covers on air-distribution in waste mass during aeration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We suggest criteria and cover design to meet the demands during and after aeration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such cover systems may offer greenhouse gas emission reduction also after active aeration. - Abstract: Landfill aeration by means of low pressure air injection is a promising tool to reduce long term emissions from organic waste fractions through accelerated biological stabilization. Top covers that enhance methane oxidation could provide a simple and economic way to mitigate residual greenhouse gas emissions from in situ aerated landfills, and may replace off-gas extraction and treatment, particularly at smaller and older sites. In this respect the installation of a landfill cover system adjusted to the forced-aerated landfill body is of great significance. Investigations into large scale lysimeters (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Multiplication-Sign 3 m) under field conditions have been carried out using different top covers including compost materials and natural soils as a surrogate to gas extraction during active low pressure aeration. In the present study, the emission behaviour as well as the water balance performance of the lysimeters has been investigated, both prior to and during the first months of in situ aeration. Results reveal that mature sewage sludge compost (SSC) placed in one lysimeter exhibits in principle optimal ambient conditions for methanotrophic bacteria to enhance methane oxidation. Under laboratory conditions the mature compost mitigated CH{sub 4} loadings up to 300 l CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} d. In addition, the compost material provided high air permeability even at 100% water holding capacity (WHC). In contrast, the more cohesive, mineral soil cover was expected to cause a notably uniform distribution of the injected air within the waste layer. Laboratory results also revealed sufficient air permeability of the soil materials (TS-F and SS-Z) placed in lysimeter C. However, at higher compaction density SS-Z became impermeable at 100% WHC. Methane emissions from the reference lysimeter with the smaller substrate cover (12-52 g CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} d) were significantly higher than fluxes from the other lysimeters (0-19 g CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} d) during in situ aeration. Regarding water balance, lysimeters covered with compost and compost-sand mixture, showed the lowest leachate rate (18-26% of the precipitation) due to the high water holding capacity and more favourable plant growth conditions compared to the lysimeters with mineral, more cohesive, soil covers (27-45% of the precipitation). On the basis of these results, the authors suggest a layered top cover system using both compost material as well as mineral soil in order to support active low-pressure aeration. Conventional soil materials with lower permeability may be used on top of the landfill body for a more uniform aeration of the waste due to an increased resistance to vertical gas flow. A compost cover may be built on top of the soil cover underlain by a gas distribution layer to improve methane oxidation rates and minimise water infiltration. By planting vegetation with a high transpiration rate, the leachate amount emanating from the landfill could be further minimised. The suggested design may be particularly suitable in combination with intermittent in situ aeration, in the later stage of an aeration measure, or at very small sites and shallow deposits. The top cover system could further regulate water infiltration into the landfill and mitigate residual CH{sub 4} emissions, even beyond the time of active aeration.

Hrad, Marlies [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water-Atmosphere-Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Huber-Humer, Marion, E-mail: marion.huber-humer@boku.ac.at [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water-Atmosphere-Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Wimmer, Bernhard; Reichenauer, Thomas G. [Health and Environment Department, Environmental Resources and Technologies, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

358

Multicomponent Transport through Realistic Zeolite Membranes: Characterization & Transport in Nanoporous Networks  

SciTech Connect

These research studies focused on the characterization and transport for porous solids which comprise both microporosity and mesoporosity. Such materials represent membranes made from zeolites as well as for many new nanoporous solids. Several analytical sorption techniques were developed and evaluated by which these multi-dimensional porous solids could be quantitatively characterized. Notably an approach by which intact membranes could be studied was developed and applied to plate-like and tubular supported zeolitic membranes. Transport processes were studied experimentally and theoretically based on the characterization studies.

William C. Conner

2007-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

359

The Potential For Energy Efficiency In The State of Iowa  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to do an initial estimate of the potential for energy savings in the state of Iowa. Several methods for determining savings were examined, including existing programs, surveys, savings calculators, and economic simulation. Each method has advantages and disadvantages, trading off between detail of information, accuracy of results, and scope. This paper concentrated on using economic simulation (the NEMS model (EIA 2000a)) to determine market potential for energy savings for the residential and commercial sectors. The results of surveys were used to calculate the economic potential for savings in the industrial sector. The NEMS model is used by the Energy Information Administration to calculate twenty-year projections of energy use for every region of the country. The results of the Annual Energy Outlook 2000 were used as the Base case (EIA 1999a). Two alternative cases were created to simulate energy savings policies. Voluntary, market-related programs were simulated by lowering the effective discount rates that end-users use when making decisions on equipment purchases. Standards programs in the residential sector were simulated by eliminating the availability of low efficiency equipment in future years. The parameters for these programs were based on the Moderate scenario from the DOE Clean Energy Futures study (Interlaboratory Working Group 2000), which assumed increased concern by society on energy efficiency but not to the point of fiscal policies such as taxes or direct subsidies. The study only considered a subset of the various programs, policies, and technologies that could reduce energy use. The major end-uses in the residential sector affected by the policies were space cooling (20% savings by 2020) and water heating (14% savings by 2020.) Figure S-1 shows the space cooling savings when voluntary programs and minimum efficiency standards were implemented. Refrigerators, freezers, and clothes dryers saw slight improvements. The study did not involve changes to the building shell (e.g., increased insulation) or residential lighting improvements. Nevertheless, the residential sector's market potential for electrical energy savings was calculated to be 5.3% of expected electrical use, representing 850 GWh by 2020. Natural gas savings could be 2.4% of expected gas use, representing 2.1 trillion Btus. Using expected prices for energy in that year, these represent savings of $47 million and $12 million per year. In the commercial sector, the study only considered voluntary market-based policies for some of the technologies. The most notable savings were in ventilation (12% savings by 2020), lighting (12% savings), refrigeration (7% savings), water heating (6% savings), and space heating (5% savings by 2020). The commercial sector's market potential for electrical energy savings based on the programs modeled was calculated to be 5.1% of its total expected electrical use, representing 605 GWh of power by 2020. Natural gas savings were 2.3 trillion Btu, 3.7% of use. Using the same prices as the residential sector (5.5{cents}/kWh and $5.74/MBtu), the savings represent $33 million and $13 million per year, respectively.

Hadley, SW

2001-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

360

Community wind power ownership schemes in Europe and their relevance to the United States  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

With varying success, the United States and Europe have followed a more or less parallel path of policies to support wind development over the past twenty years. Feed-in laws and tax incentives first popularized in California in the early 1980s and greatly expanded upon in Europe during the 1990s are gradually giving way to market-based support mechanisms such as renewable portfolio standards, which are being implemented in one form or another in ten US states and at least three European nations. At the same time, electricity markets are being liberalized in both the US and Europe, and many electricity consumers are being given the choice to support the development of renewable energy through higher tariffs, both in traditionally regulated and newly competitive markets. One notable area in which wind development in Europe and United States has not evolved in common, however, is with respect to the level of community ownership of wind turbines or clusters. While community ownership of wind projects is unheard of in the United States, in Europe, local wind cooperatives or other participatory business schemes have been responsible for a large share of total wind development. In Denmark, for example, approximately 80% of all wind turbines are either individually or cooperatively owned, and a similar pattern holds in Germany, the world leader in installed wind capacity. Sweden also has a strong wind cooperative base, and the UK has recently made forays into community wind ownership. Why is it that wind development has evolved this way in Europe, but not in the United States? What incremental effect have community-owned wind schemes had on European wind development? Have community-owned wind schemes driven development in Europe, or are they merely a vehicle through which the fundamental driving institutions have been channeled? Is there value to having community wind ownership in the US? Is there reason to believe that such schemes would succeed in the US? If so, which model seems most appropriate, and what barriers--legal, regulatory, tax, market, or investment--stand in the way of implementing such a scheme? These are the questions this report seeks to address. The report begins with a discussion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of community wind ownership, as opposed to the large commercially-owned projects that have so far dominated US wind development. Next, four detailed case studies relate community-owned wind experience in Denmark, Sweden, the UK, Germany, focusing primarily on the different participatory models employed in each country. The report then categorizes the various models into three main groupings--community-led, developer-led, and investment funds--and draws general conclusions about the success of each category in Europe, and the conditions that dictate the effective use of one approach over another. Finally, the focus shifts to the US, where the report discusses the domestic barriers facing each model category, and identifies the category offering the most value with the fewest barriers to implementation. The report concludes with a high-level introduction to potential applications for community wind ownership within the United States.

Bolinger, Mark

2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

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361

Assessing the Efficacy of the Aerobic Methanotrophic Biofilter in Methane Hydrate Environments  

SciTech Connect

In October 2008 the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) initiated investigations of water column methane oxidation in methane hydrate environments, through a project funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) entitled: assessing the efficacy of the aerobic methanotrophic biofilter in methane hydrate environments. This Final Report describes the scientific advances and discoveries made under this award as well as the importance of these discoveries in the broader context of the research area. Benthic microbial mats inhabit the sea floor in areas where reduced chemicals such as sulfide reach the more oxidizing water that overlies the sediment. We set out to investigate the role that methanotrophs play in such mats at locations where methane reaches the sea floor along with sulfide. Mats were sampled from several seep environments and multiple sets were grown in-situ at a hydrocarbon seep in the Santa Barbara Basin. Mats grown in-situ were returned to the laboratory and used to perform stable isotope probing experiments in which they were treated with 13C-enriched methane. The microbial community was analyzed, demonstrating that three or more microbial groups became enriched in methane’s carbon: methanotrophs that presumably utilize methane directly, methylotrophs that presumably consume methanol excreted by the methanotrophs, and sulfide oxidizers that presumably consume carbon dioxide released by the methanotrophs and methylotrophs. Methanotrophs reached high relative abundance in mats grown on methane, but other bacterial processes include sulfide oxidation appeared to dominate mats, indicating that methanotrophy is not a dominant process in sustaining these benthic mats, but rather a secondary function modulated by methane availability. Methane that escapes the sediment in the deep ocean typically dissolved into the overlying water where it is available to methanotrophic bacteria. We set out to better understand the efficacy of this process as a biofilter by studying the distribution of methane oxidation and disposition of methanotrophic populations in the Pacific Ocean. We investigated several environments including the basins offshore California, the continental margin off Central America, and the shallow waters around gas seeps. We succeeded in identifying the distributions of activity in these environments, identified potential physical and chemical controls on methanotrophic activity, we further revealed details about the methanotrophic communities active in these settings, and we developed new approaches to study methanotrophic communities. These findings should improve our capacity to predict the methanotrophic response in ocean waters, and further our ability to generate specific hypotheses as to the ecology and efficacy of pelagic methanotrophic communites. The discharge of methane and other hydrocarbons to Gulf of Mexico that followed the sinking of the Deepwater Horizon provided a unique opportunity to study the methanotorphic biofilter in the deep ocean environment. We set out to understand the consumption of methane and the bloom of methanotrophs resulting from this event, as a window into the regional scale release of gas hydrate under rapid warming scenarios. We found that other hydrocarbon gases, notably propane and ethane, were preferred for consumption over methane, but that methane consumption accelerated rapidly and drove the depletion of methane within a matter of months after initial release. These results revealed the identity of the responsible community, and point to the importance of the seed population in determining the rate at which a methanotrophic community is able to respond to an input of methane. Collectively, these results provide a significant advance in our understanding of the marine methanotrohic biofilter, and further provide direction and context for future investigations of this important phenomenon. This project has resulted in fourteen publications to date, with five more circulating in draft form, and several others planned.

Valentine, David

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

362

Report of the Public Lands Committee  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Perhaps the most notable event of 1992 was the passage of the long-awaited Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Act). As is described in this report, the Act in its final form is more notable for what it fails to address than for what it does address. The entire Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) chapter was eliminated by House and Senate conferees because of impasses over whether to pass a five-year ban on OCS drilling in certain areas and whether the government should buy back leases off the coasts of Alaska, Florida, and North Carolina. Also eliminated were programs for sharing federal OCS revenues with coastal governments, royalty relief for producers developing fields in more than 200 meters of water, and leasing bans on part of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in northern Alaska. The Act does, however, give independent producers and estimated one billion dollars in tax breaks over the next five years as incentive to further domestic exploration.

Not Available

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

U.S. Natural Gas Supply Equation and Price Envelope  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents a composite assessment of U.S. natural gas supply and demand balance for the time period 2005 to 2011. The key elements in this outlook, or equation, are changes in supply (rapidly increasing LNG [liquefied natural gas] imports, modest U.S. supply growth, and declining imports from Canada) and in demand (notably, growth for electric power generation and small increases in other sectors). Uncertainties concerning each component are identified and analyzed. While LNG will account for t...

2007-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

364

Nepal: Beyond Royal Rule  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Report N°99, Towards a Lasting Peace in Nepal: The Constitutional Issues, 15 June 2005. In the months following the 2005 coup, international pressure had some effect. Most notably, it left the royal government in an awkward limbo -- prevented from... "King cuts civil service reservations for indigenous peoples", Weekly Indigenous News, 26 August 2005, available at http://us.oneworld.net. 11 "Parties should be declared anti-national", The Kathmandu Post, 3 July 2005. Nepal: Beyond Royal Rule...

International Crisis Group

2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

365

U.S. Department of Energy Workshop Report: Solar Resources and Forecasting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the technical presentations, outlines the core research recommendations, and augments the information of the Solar Resources and Forecasting Workshop held June 20-22, 2011, in Golden, Colorado. The workshop brought together notable specialists in atmospheric science, solar resource assessment, solar energy conversion, and various stakeholders from industry and academia to review recent developments and provide input for planning future research in solar resource characterization, including measurement, modeling, and forecasting.

Stoffel, T.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Experimental Mathematics and Mathematical Physics  

SciTech Connect

One of the most effective techniques of experimental mathematics is to compute mathematical entities such as integrals, series or limits to high precision, then attempt to recognize the resulting numerical values. Recently these techniques have been applied with great success to problems in mathematical physics. Notable among these applications are the identification of some key multi-dimensional integrals that arise in Ising theory, quantum field theory and in magnetic spin theory.

Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Broadhurst, David; Zudilin, Wadim

2009-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

367

Interactions of Cost-Containment Measures and Linking of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Cap-and-Trade Programs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many recent greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions cap-and-trade proposals in the United States0150including proposals in the Northeast, California, and at the national level0150include specific measures designed to contain the potential compliance costs of the proposed programs. These cost-containment measures include "new" provisions not included in existing emissions trading programs0150notably a "safety valve" that would cap the allowance price0150as well as provisions such as banking or the use of offsets t...

2006-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

368

FY 1996 Summary of Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Power Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The report describes progress and status of the HDR project at Hijiori. The year was notable for a flow enhancement test of a system with two production wells in operation. Other items include a geochemical survey, reinterpretation of acoustic emission data from 1988 through 1995, borehole measurements to find intersections with fractures, a geological survey, preparation for modeling fractures, improvements in crack simulation in a reservoir analysis model, and environmental survey work. (DJE 2005)

None

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

369

IN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I hereby declare that all information in this document has been obtained and presented in accordance with academic rules and ethical conduct. I also declare that, as required by these rules and conduct, I have fully cited and referenced all material and results that are not original to this work. iii

Prof Dr; Canan Özgen; Prof Dr; Kemal I?der; Prof Dr; Tülay Ye?in

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Header and Drum Damage: Theory and Practice: Volume 1: Information Common to All Damage Types; Volume 2: Mechanisms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Headers and drums represent two of the largest and most expensive components in boilers. Particularly in the case of high-temperature headers, there are considerable safety concerns when operating aging plants, and some notable failures have occurred. For these reasons, understanding the types of damage that can accumulate and dealing with that damage are vital to the safe and economic operation of fossil power plants.

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

371

FTT:Power : A global model of the power sector with induced technological change and natural resource depletion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The decarbonisation of the global power system depends first and foremost on the rate at which highly emitting technologies based on fossil fuels can be substituted for cleaner ones. While fossil fueled electricity generation technologies are mature and well... determine the 90% confidence level, and the blue curve corresponds to the most probable set of values. Uncertainty in the determination of natural resource avail- ability is notable in the case of fossil fuel reserves and re- sources. Rogner (1997) paints a...

Mercure, Jean-Francois

2011-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

372

Underground Energy Storage Program: 1981 annual report. Volume I. Progress summary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the 1981 annual report for the Underground Energy Storage Program administered by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The two-volume document describes all of the major research funded under this program during the period March 1981 to March 1982. Volume I summarizes the activities and notable progress toward program objectives in both Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) and Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES). Major changes in program emphasis and structure are also documented.

Kannberg, L.D.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Preliminary Evaluation of the Impact of the Section 1603 Treasury Grant Program on Renewable Energy Deployment in 2009  

SciTech Connect

Federal support for renewable energy deployment in the United States has traditionally been delivered primarily through tax benefits, including the production tax credit ('PTC') in Section 45 of the U.S. tax code, investment tax credits ('ITC') in Sections 25D and 48, and accelerated tax depreciation in Section 168. Many renewable power project developers are unable to use the majority of these tax benefits directly or immediately, however, and have therefore often relied on third-party 'tax equity' investors for the necessary investment capital in order to monetize the available tax benefits. As has been well-publicized, most of these tax equity investors were hit hard by the global financial crisis that unfolded in the last months of 2008 and, as a result, most either withdrew from the renewable power market at that time or reduced their available investment capital. This left a significant financing gap beginning in late 2008, and placed at some risk the continued near-term growth of renewable energy supply in the U.S. In recognition of these developments, the U.S. Congress passed two stimulus bills - The Energy Improvement and Extension Act ('the Extension Act') in October 2008 and The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act ('the Recovery Act') in February 2009 - parts of which were intended to address the growing shortage of finance for renewable power projects. Most notably, Section 1603 of the Recovery Act enables qualifying commercial renewable energy projects to choose between the Section 45 PTC, the Section 48 ITC, or a cash grant of equal value to the Section 48 ITC (i.e., 30% of the project's eligible basis in most cases). By giving developers the option to receive a 30% cash grant (administered by the U.S. Department of the Treasury) in lieu of either the ITC or the PTC, Congress hoped to 'temporarily fill the gap created by the diminished investor demand for tax credits,' and thereby achieve 'the near term goal of creating and retaining jobs - as well as the long-term benefit of expanding the use of clean and renewable energy and decreasing our dependency on non-renewable energy sources' (U.S. Department of the Treasury 2009). More than a year has now passed since the Recovery Act became law. Although the Section 1603 program has been operational for only part of that time - roughly eight months - the program faces a looming milestone in just another nine months. Specifically, in order to qualify for the Section 1603 grant, eligible projects must have commenced construction by the end of 2010. With this deadline approaching, the Committee on Ways and Means of the U.S. House of Representatives requested that Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory evaluate the effectiveness of the Section 1603 grant program to date (see Attachment 1), focusing on specific elements of the program that were subsequently agreed upon by Committee staff, the U.S. Department of Energy, and Berkeley Lab. This report responds to the Committee's request. The evaluation focuses primarily on the commercial wind power sector, for two reasons: (1) commercial wind power projects had received nearly 86% of all grant money awarded as of March 1, 2010; and (2) there is substantially more market-related information available for the commercial wind power sector than there is for other renewable power sectors, thereby facilitating analysis. Despite the focus on wind power, this initial analysis does endeavor to provide relevant information on other technologies, and in particular geothermal (the second-largest recipient of grant money), where possible.

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Darghouth, Naim

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

374

Gravity's weight on worldline fuzziness  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate a connection between recent results in 3D quantum gravity, providing an effective noncommutative-spacetime description, and some earlier heuristic descriptions of a quantum-gravity contribution to the fuzziness of the worldlines of particles. We show that 3D-gravity-inspired spacetime noncommutativity reflects some of the features suggested by previous heuristic arguments. Most notably, gravity-induced worldline fuzziness, while irrelevantly small on terrestrial scales, could be observably large for propagation of particles over cosmological distances.

Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Rosati, Giacomo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Electric Transmission Right-of-Way Invasive Non-Native Woody Plant Species Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Invasive non-native woody plant species are a significant issue in the United States. Invasive woody plants are a particular concern for electric transmission right-of-way (ROW) managers. While invasive non-native woody plants have beneficial usesincluding erosion control, wildlife food and cover, and use as ornamentalsthey also have a notably negative impact on electric transmission ROWs. Negative impacts include reducing line clearance, reliability, and accessibility, and increasing vegetation manageme...

2006-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

376

Technical Assessment of State-of-the-Art, Internet-Based Commercial Building Control Systems: Unrestricted version  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advancements in building automation and controls technology, most notably Internet-enablement, are providing ever more powerful information and control capabilities to the fingertips of building owners and managers. It would serve utilities well to understand this technology, become acquainted with leading vendors and products on the market, and consider potential business opportunities that the technology might enable. This study is intended help a utility marketing professional, such as an account man...

2004-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

377

Hydrocarbon Reformers for Fuel Cell Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several new or emerging technologies are vying to compete in the distributed resources market; notably, fuel cells and microturbines. Fuel cells represent an idealized power generation technology with tremendous long-term promise. As a hydrogen-fueled system, however, fuel cells need either a hydrogen fuel supply infrastructure or fuel processing (reforming and clean-up) technology to convert conventional fossil fuels to a hydrogen-rich energy source. This report provides an overview of fuel processing t...

2000-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

378

OpenEI International Sponsors and Partners | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

International Sponsors and Partners International Sponsors and Partners Jump to: navigation, search Overview OpenEI partners with a variety of international organizations to enhance its content, services and data offerings. Additionally, some partners share data bi-directionally with OpenEI. Below is a list of OpenEI sponsor organizations, partnerships and notable data consumers. Sponsors Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory Reegle logo.png Partners REEEP-big.png Reegle logo.png Illinois State University Logo.png UNEP.JPG CDKN.png Clean energy ministerial logo.png IRENA logo trans.png CER.png Cesc logo.gif ArgonneNationalLaboratory logo.png OakRidgeNationalLaboratory logo.png ISGAN logo.png Notable data consumers Beopt logo with text.png Sam screenshot.jpg Should your organization or application be listed in any of these sections?

379

Wind Powering America  

Wind Powering America (EERE)

These news items are notable additions These news items are notable additions to the Wind Powering America Web site. The Wind Powering America Web site reports recent national and state wind market changes by cataloging wind activities such as wind resource maps, small wind consumer's guides, local wind workshops, news articles, and publications in the areas of policy, public power, small wind, Native Americans, agricultural sector, economic development, public lands, and schools. en-us julie.jones@nrel.gov (Julie Jones) http://www.windpoweringamerica.gov/images/wpa_logo_sm.jpg Wind Powering America http://www.windpoweringamerica.gov/ Nominate an Electric Cooperative for Wind Power Leadership Award by January 15 http://www.windpoweringamerica.gov/filter_detail.asp?itemid=4076 http://www.windpoweringamerica.gov/filter_detail.asp?itemid=4076 Mon, 16

380

Reviving Abandoned Reservoirs with High-Pressure Air Injection: Application in a Fractured and Karsted Dolomite Reservoir  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the United States contain vast volumes of remaining oil that is not being effectively recovered. This oil resource constitutes a huge target for the development and application of modern, cost-effective technologies for producing oil. Chief among the barriers to the recovery of this oil are the high costs of designing and implementing conventional advanced recovery technologies in these mature, in many cases pressure-depleted, reservoirs. An additional, increasingly significant barrier is the lack of vital technical expertise necessary for the application of these technologies. This lack of expertise is especially notable among the small operators and independents that operate many of these mature, yet oil-rich, reservoirs. We addressed these barriers to more effective oil recovery by developing, testing, applying, and documenting an innovative technology that can be used by even the smallest operator to significantly increase the flow of oil from mature U.S. reservoirs. The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The Permian Basin, the largest oil-bearing basin in North America, contains more than 70 billion barrels of remaining oil in place and is an ideal venue to validate this technology. We have demonstrated the potential of HPAI for oil-recovery improvement in preliminary laboratory tests and a reservoir pilot project. To more completely test the technology, this project emphasized detailed characterization of reservoir properties, which were integrated to access the effectiveness and economics of HPAI. The characterization phase of the project utilized geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. The successful development of HPAI technology has tremendous potential for increasing the flow of oil from deep carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin, a target resource that can be conservatively estimated at more than 1.5 billion barrels. Successful implementation in the field chosen for demonstration, for example, could result in the recovery of more than 34 million barrels of oil that will not otherwise be produced. Geological and petrophysical analysis of available data at Barnhart field reveals the following important observations: (1) the Barnhart Ellenburger reservoir is similar to most other Ellenburger reservoirs in terms of depositional facies, diagenesis, and petrophysical attributes; (2) the reservoir is characterized by low to moderate matrix porosity much like most other Ellenburger reservoirs in the Permian Basin; (3) karst processes (cave formation, infill, and collapse) have substantially altered stratigraphic architecture and reservoir properties; (4) porosity and permeability increase with depth and may be associated with the degree of karst-related diagenesis; (5) tectonic fractures overprint the reservoir, improving overall connectivity; (6) oil-saturation profiles show that the oil-water contact (OWC) is as much as 125 ft lower than previous estimations; (7) production history and trends suggest that this reservoir is very similar to other solution-gas-drive reservoirs in the Permian Basin; and (8) reservoir simulation study showed that the Barnhart reservoir is a good candidate for HPAI and that application of horizontal-well technology can improve ultimate resource recovery from the reservoir.

Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel; Dembla Dhiraj; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jeff Kane; Jon Olson; John A. Jackson; Katherine G. Jackson

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

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381

In  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

c3 c3 In 0 .2 0 P DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsi- bility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Refer- ) . ence herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recom- 5 mendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views

382

Ultracoatings: Enabling Energy and Power Solutions in High Contact Stress Environments through next-generation Nanocoatings Final Technical Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A review of current commercially available, industrial-grade, low friction coatings will show that interfacial contact pressures nearing 1GPa ({approx}150ksi) inherently limit surface engineering solutions like WC, TiN, TiAlN, and so forth. Extremely hard coatings, then, are often pursued as the principle path, although they too are not without significant limitations. A majority of these compounds are inherently brittle in nature or may not pair well with their mating substrate. In either case, their durability in high contact stress environments is compromised. In parallel to thin film coatings, many conventional surface treatments do not yield an interface hard enough to withstand extreme stresses under load. New research into advanced, nanocomposite materials like (Ti, Zr)B2 shows great promise. Bulk compacts of this compound have demonstrated an order of magnitude better wear resistance than current offerings, notably materials like tungsten carbide. At a laboratory level, the (Ti,Zr)B2 nanocomposite material exhibited abrasive and erosive wear resistance nearly ten times better than existing mixed-phase boride systems. In ASTM abrasion and erosion testing, these new compositions exhibit wear resistance superior to other known advanced materials such as RocTec 500 and 'Borazon' cubic boron nitride. Many significant challenges exist for mass production of (Ti, Zr)B2, one of which is the necessary processing technology that is capable of minimizing deleterious impurity phases. Secondly, this material's performance is derived from a synergistic effect of the two materials existing as a single phase structure. While the individual constituents of TiB2 and ZrB2 do yield improvements to wear resistance, their singular effects are not as significant. Lastly, deposition of this material on a commercial level requires thorough knowledge of nanocomposite boride solids; the benefits associated with these innovative new materials are just being realized. Advancing this technology, called Ultracoatings, through initial development, scale up, and commercialization to a variety of markets would represent a transformative leap to surface engineering. Several application spaces were considered for immediate implementation of the Ultracoatings technology, including, but not limited to, a drive shaft for an aerospace fuel pump, engine timing components, and dry solids pump hardware for an innovative coal gasifier. The primary focus of the program was to evaluate and screen the performance of the selected (Ti, Zr)B2 Ultracoatings composition for future development. This process included synthesis of the material for physical vapor deposition, sputtering trials and coating characterization, friction and wear testing on sample coupons, and functional hardware testing. The main project deliverables used to gage the project's adherence to its original objective were: Development of a coating/substrate pairing that exhibits wear rate of 0.1 mg/hour or lower at a 1GPa contact pressure, while achieving a maximum coating cost of $0.10/cm2. Demonstrate the aforementioned wear rate in both lubricated and starved lubrication conditions. Although the (Ti, Zr) B2 coating was not tailored for low friction performance, friction and wear evaluations of the material demonstrated a coefficient of sliding friction as low as 0.09. This suggests that varying the percentage of TiB2 present in the composite could enhance the materials performance in water-based lubricants. In the aerospace drive shaft application, functional hardware coated with (Ti, Zr)B2 survived a variety of abuse and long-range durability tests, with contact pressures exceeding 2 GPa. For engine timing components, further work is planned to evaluate the Ultracoatings technology in direct injection and diesel engine conditions. In the final identified application space the dry solids pump hardware, discussions continue on the application of the Ultracoatings technology for those specific components. Full implementation of the technology into the targeted markets equates to a U.S.-based en

Clifton B. Higdon III

2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

383

Characterization of the Sources and Concentrations of Formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds in four new manufactured houses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The concentrations of formaldehyde, 52 individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total VOCs (TVOC) were measured in four new manufactured houses on three occasions over a period of approximately nine months following completion of their construction. The houses were furnished, but unoccupied, model homes produced by a single U.S. manufacturer. Several of the houses incorporated interior finish materials with lower VOC emissions than standard materials. One house had a modified ventilation system. Ventilation rates were measured concurrently with the collection of air samples. A steady-state mass-balance model was used to calculate the area-specific emission rates of the target compounds and TVOC. The emissions of formaldehyde and VOCs from a specimen of plywood used as the floor sheeting were additionally quantified. The median formaldehyde concentration in the four houses was 37 parts-per-billion ( ppb). The formaldehyde concentrations were all less than the most restrictive guideline for this compound of 50 ppb. The concentrations of many of the target VOCs were low. Thirty-one of the VOCs had median concentrations that were at or below 1 ppb. Seven of the compounds were among the most abundant VOCs in all four houses. These compounds were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 3-carene, ethylene glycol, hexanal, 2-butanone, and acetic acid. The concentrations of the aldehydes, hexanal, octanal and nonanal, in the four houses were either near or exceeded their respective odor thresholds. The concentrations of acetic acid increased with time. In the final sampling period, the odor threshold for acetic acid was exceeded in all of the houses. The range of TVOC concentrations in the four houses was 0.8 to 3 mg m{sup -3}, with a median value of 1.6 mg m{sup -3}. These concentrations were somewhat lower than TVOC concentrations previously measured in several new site-built houses, and the median concentration was only about twice the typical value for existing residences. The house with the modified ventilation system and several lower emitting materials had consistently low TVOC concentrations that were near 1 mg m{sup -3}. There were no large decreases with time in the emission rates of the individual VOCs or TVOC during the course of the study. However, the emission rates were often lowest in the final sampling with the notable exception of the acetic acid emission rate that increased with time. The source of the aldehydes was most likely engineered wood products, such as the plywood floor sheeting and possibly other structural or interior components. The source of the acetic acid was uncertain. The effects of the source substitution treatments were measurable but turned out to be relatively minor due to the predominance of other sources.

Hodgson, A.T.; Beal, D.; Chandra, S.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Continuous Microwave Furnaces for Industrial-Scale Sintering ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The temperature ranges of operation for some specific applications together with energy savings compared to conventional processing, and other notable ...

385

d'ordre : 437GP presentee par  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

). It 'is known t o occur among phosphogypsum and Ti02 industrial wastes which a r e notably released

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

386

fermenter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... decade. decide. decision. decline. decommission. decommissione. decrease. deep. deeper. ... northern. notably. nra. nub. nuclear. nuke. number. nuts. ...

387

Born Again: Globalization’s Sixteenth-Century Origins (Asian/Global versus European Dynamics)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and New York, Routledge. GARTEN, J. E. (Ed. ) (2000b) Worldof places – notably India (Garten 2000b) – that have been

Flynn, Dennis O; Giraldez, Arturo

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

A fundamental approach for storage commodity classification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

effects of different heat-transfer processes [40]. A usefulreal-world heat-transfer processes, notably radiative

Gollner, Michael J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

JILA Team Finds New Parallel Between Cold Gases and 'Hot' ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... theorists, have discovered another notable similarity between ultracold atomic gases and high-temperature superconductors, suggesting there may ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

390

The Design and Qualification of a Hydraulic Hardware-in-the- Loop Simulator Approved by:  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Special thanks go to my advisor, Dr. Book, for his support and guidance throughout this project and to my committee members Dr. Sadegh and Dr. Paredis. Our lab research engineer, James D. Huggins, was instrumental to getting a working system and teaching me the ways of the hydraulic world. This work would not have been possible without the generous support of many companies involved with the Fluid Power and Motion Control Center. Notable contributions for this project came from Siemens, which donated the electric motors, John Deere, Sauer Danfoss, and Hydac. Finally, I would like to thank my sage officemates, Amir Shenuda and Matt Kontz, for the never ending consultations the shared office obliged them to give.

Dr. Wayne Book Chair; Dr. Chris Paredis; Dr. Nader Sadegh

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Tuna field, a recent Gippsland development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Successfully completed in 1982, the Tuna field in Australia's Gippsland basin was the most complex of the fields developed by Esso in that area. The commercial oil and gas reserves are contained in four sets of reservoirs in the Upper Cretaceous to Eocene Latrobe group sediments in a faulted and partly eroded anticlinal closure. Some of these reservoirs were not discovered until the development phase of drilling, causing significant changes to the initial development plan, notably the installation of multiple completions in 13 wells. The types of completions used were single, tandem, dual, and dual/tandem.

O'Byrne, M.J.; Henderson, D.J.

1983-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

392

Impacts of the 2009 IECC for Residential Buildings at State Level - Michigan  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Michigan Michigan September 2009 Prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Energy Codes Program BUILDING ENERGY CODES PROGRAM IMPACTS OF THE 2009 IECC FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN MICHIGAN BUILDING ENERGY CODES PROGRAM IMPACTS OF THE 2009 IECC FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN MICHIGAN Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Michigan Summary The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the current state code, the 2003 IRC with considerable amendments. The most notable changes are improved duct sealing and efficient lighting requirements. A limited analysis of these changes resulted in

393

Impacts of the 2009 IECC for Residential Buildings at State Level - Nebraska  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nebraska Nebraska September 2009 Prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Energy Codes Program BUILDING ENERGY CODES PROGRAM IMPACTS OF THE 2009 IECC FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN NEBRASKA BUILDING ENERGY CODES PROGRAM IMPACTS OF THE 2009 IECC FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN NEBRASKA Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Nebraska Summary The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the current state code, the 2003 IECC. The most notable changes are improved duct sealing and efficient lighting requirements. A limited analysis of these changes resulted in estimated savings of $236 a year

394

Impacts of the 2009 IECC for Residential Buildings at State Level - Utah  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Utah Utah September 2009 Prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Energy Codes Program BUILDING ENERGY CODES PROGRAM IMPACTS OF THE 2009 IECC FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN UTAH BUILDING ENERGY CODES PROGRAM IMPACTS OF THE 2009 IECC FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN UTAH Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Utah Summary The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the current state code, the 2006 IECC. The most notable changes are improved duct sealing and efficient lighting requirements. A limited analysis of these changes resulted in estimated savings of $219 to

395

Impacts of the 2009 IECC for Residential Buildings at State Level - Minnesota  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Minnesota Minnesota September 2009 Prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Energy Codes Program BUILDING ENERGY CODES PROGRAM IMPACTS OF THE 2009 IECC FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN MINNESOTA BUILDING ENERGY CODES PROGRAM IMPACTS OF THE 2009 IECC FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN MINNESOTA Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Minnesota Summary The energy efficiency requirements in the Minnesota building code are based on the 2006 International Residential Code (IRC) with relatively extensive modifications. The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the 2006 IRC. The most notable

396

Impacts of the 2009 IECC for Residential Buildings at State Level - Nevada  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nevada Nevada September 2009 Prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Energy Codes Program BUILDING ENERGY CODES PROGRAM IMPACTS OF THE 2009 IECC FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN NEVADA BUILDING ENERGY CODES PROGRAM IMPACTS OF THE 2009 IECC FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN NEVADA Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Nevada Summary The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the current state code, the 2006 IECC. The most notable changes are improved duct sealing and efficient lighting requirements. A limited analysis of these changes resulted in estimated savings of $205 to

397

Impacts of the 2009 IECC for Residential Buildings at State Level - Virginia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Virginia Virginia September 2009 Prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Energy Codes Program BUILDING ENERGY CODES PROGRAM IMPACTS OF THE 2009 IECC FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN VIRGINIA BUILDING ENERGY CODES PROGRAM IMPACTS OF THE 2009 IECC FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN VIRGINIA Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Virginia Summary The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the current state code, the 2006 IRC and IECC. The most notable changes are improved duct sealing and efficient lighting requirements. A limited analysis of these changes resulted in estimated savings of

398

Impacts of the 2009 IECC for Residential Buildings at State Level - New York  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

York York September 2009 Prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Energy Codes Program BUILDING ENERGY CODES PROGRAM IMPACTS OF THE 2009 IECC FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN NEW YORK BUILDING ENERGY CODES PROGRAM IMPACTS OF THE 2009 IECC FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN NEW YORK Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in New York Summary The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the current state code, the 2004 IECC Supplement with amendments. The most notable changes are improved duct sealing and efficient lighting requirements. A limited analysis of these changes resulted in

399

Impacts of the 2009 IECC for Residential Buildings at State Level - New Jersey  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Jersey Jersey September 2009 Prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Energy Codes Program BUILDING ENERGY CODES PROGRAM IMPACTS OF THE 2009 IECC FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN NEW JERSEY BUILDING ENERGY CODES PROGRAM IMPACTS OF THE 2009 IECC FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN NEW JERSEY Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in New Jersey Summary The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the current state code, the 2006 IECC with extensive amendments. The most notable changes are improved duct sealing and efficient lighting requirements. A limited analysis of these changes resulted in

400

Impacts of the 2009 IECC for Residential Buildings at State Level - Iowa  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Iowa Iowa September 2009 Prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Energy Codes Program BUILDING ENERGY CODES PROGRAM IMPACTS OF THE 2009 IECC FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN IOWA BUILDING ENERGY CODES PROGRAM IMPACTS OF THE 2009 IECC FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN IOWA Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Iowa Summary The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the current state code, the 2006 IECC. The most notable changes are improved duct sealing and efficient lighting requirements. A limited analysis of these changes resulted in estimated savings of $245 to

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "notable in creases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Impacts of the 2009 IECC for Residential Buildings at State Level - Oklahoma  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oklahoma Oklahoma September 2009 Prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Energy Codes Program BUILDING ENERGY CODES PROGRAM IMPACTS OF THE 2009 IECC FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN OKLAHOMA BUILDING ENERGY CODES PROGRAM IMPACTS OF THE 2009 IECC FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN OKLAHOMA Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Oklahoma Summary The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the current state code, the 2003 IECC. The most notable changes are improved duct sealing and efficient lighting requirements. A limited analysis of these changes resulted in estimated savings of $266 to

402

Impacts of the 2009 IECC for Residential Buildings at State Level - Tennessee  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tennessee Tennessee September 2009 Prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Energy Codes Program BUILDING ENERGY CODES PROGRAM IMPACTS OF THE 2009 IECC FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN TENNESSEE BUILDING ENERGY CODES PROGRAM IMPACTS OF THE 2009 IECC FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN TENNESSEE Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Tennessee Summary The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the current state code, the 2003 IECC. The most notable changes are improved duct sealing and efficient lighting requirements. A limited analysis of these changes resulted in estimated savings of $231 to

403

Financial Innovation Among the Community Wind Sector in the United States  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the relatively brief history of utility-scale wind generation, the 'community wind' sector - defined here as consisting of relatively small utility-scale wind power projects that are at least partly owned by one or more members of the local community - has played a vitally important role as a 'test bed' or 'proving ground' for wind turbine manufacturers. In the 1980s and 1990s, for example, Vestas and other now-established European wind turbine manufacturers relied heavily on community wind projects in Scandinavia and Germany to install - and essentially field-test - new turbine designs. The fact that orders from community wind projects seldom exceeded more than a few turbines at a time enabled the manufacturers to correct any design flaws or manufacturing defects fairly rapidly, and without the risk of extensive (and expensive) serial defects that can accompany larger orders. Community wind has been slower to take root in the United States - the first such projects were installed in the state of Minnesota around the year 2000. Just as in Europe, however, the community wind sector in the U.S. has similarly served as a proving ground - but in this case for up-and-coming wind turbine manufacturers that are trying to break into the broader U.S. wind power market. For example, community wind projects have deployed the first U.S. installations of wind turbines from Suzlon (in 2003), DeWind (2008), Americas Wind Energy (2008) and later Emergya Wind Technologies (2010),1 Goldwind (2009), AAER/Pioneer (2009), Nordic Windpower (2010), Unison (2010), and Alstom (2011). Just as it has provided a proving ground for new turbines, so too has the community wind sector in the United States served as a laboratory for experimentation with innovative new financing structures. For example, a variation of one of the most common financing arrangements in the U.S. wind market today - the 'partnership flip structure' - was first developed by community wind projects in Minnesota more than a decade ago (and is therefore sometimes referred to as the 'Minnesota flip' model) before being adapted by the broader wind market. More recently, a handful of community wind projects built in the United States over the past year have been financed via new and creative structures that push the envelope of wind project finance in the U.S. - in many cases, moving beyond the now-standard partnership flip structures. These projects include: (1) a 4.5 MW project in Maine that combines low-cost government debt with local tax equity, (2) a 25.3 MW project in Minnesota using a sale/leaseback structure, (3) a 10.5 MW project in South Dakota financed by an intrastate offering of both debt and equity, (4) a 6 MW project in Washington state that taps into 'New Markets Tax Credits' using an 'inverted' or 'pass-through' lease structure, and (5) a 9 MW project in Oregon that combines a variety of state and federal incentives and loans with unconventional equity from high-net-worth individuals. In most cases, these are first-of-their-kind financing structures that could serve as useful examples for other projects - both community and commercial wind alike. This new wave of financial innovation occurring in the community wind sector has been facilitated by policy changes, most of them recent. Most notably, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 ('the Recovery Act') enables, for a limited time, wind power (and other types of) projects to elect either a 30% investment tax credit ('ITC') or a 30% cash grant (the 'Section 1603 grant') in lieu of the federal incentive that has historically been available to wind projects in the U.S. - a 10-year production tax credit ('PTC'). This flexibility, in turn, enables wind power projects to pursue lease financing for the first time - leasing is not possible under the PTC. Because they are based on a project's cost rather than energy generation, the 30% ITC and Section 1603 grant also reduce performance risk relative to the PTC - this, too, is an important enabler of lease financing. Finally, by providing a cash rather than ta

Bolinger, Mark

2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

404

Impacts of the 2009 IECC for Residential Buildings at State Level - Texas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Texas Texas September 2009 Prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Energy Codes Program BUILDING ENERGY CODES PROGRAM IMPACTS OF THE 2009 IECC FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN TEXAS BUILDING ENERGY CODES PROGRAM IMPACTS OF THE 2009 IECC FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN TEXAS Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Texas Summary The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the current state code, the 2001 IECC Supplement. The most notable changes are improved duct sealing and efficient lighting requirements. An energy analysis comparing the 2009 IECC to the state code

405

Impacts of the 2009 IECC for Residential Buildings at State Level - Alaska  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Alaska Alaska September 2009 Prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Energy Codes Program BUILDING ENERGY CODES PROGRAM IMPACTS OF THE 2009 IECC FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN ALASKA BUILDING ENERGY CODES PROGRAM IMPACTS OF THE 2009 IECC FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN ALASKA Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Alaska Summary The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several improvements in energy efficiency over the current state code, the 2006 IECC with amendments. The most notable changes are improved duct sealing and efficient lighting requirements. A comparison of the overall impacts on energy use for these two

406

EPRI Review of Geologic Disposal for Used Fuel and High Level Radioactive Waste: Volume I--The U.S. Site Selection Process Prior to the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

U.S. efforts to site and construct a deep geologic repository for used fuel and high level radioactive waste (HLW) proceeded in fits and starts over a three decade period from the late 1950s until 1982, when the U.S. Congress enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA). This legislation codified a national approach for developing a deep geologic repository. Amendment of the NWPA in 1987 resulted in a number of dramatic changes in direction for the U.S. program, most notably the selection of Yucca Mountai...

2010-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

407

Roles of nanoclusters in shear banding and plastic deformation of bulk metallic glasses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the course of this research we published 33 papers in various physics/material journals. We select four representing papers in this report and their results are summarized as follows. I. To study shear banding process, it is pertinent to know the intrinsic shear strain rate within a propagating shear band. To this aim, we used nanoindentation technique to probe the mechanical response of a Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 bulk metallic glass in locality and found notable pop-in events associated with shear band emission. Using a free volume model and under the situation when temperature and stress/hardness are fixed result in an equation, which predicts that hardness serration caused by pop-in decreases exponentially with the strain rate. Our data are in good agreement with the prediction. The result also predicts that, when strain rate is higher than a critical strain rate of 1700 s^-1, there will be no hardness serration, thereby no pop-in. In other words, multiple shear bandings will take place and material will flow homogeneously. The critical strain rate of 1700 s^-1 can be treated as the intrinsic strain rate within a shear band. We subsequently carried out a simulation study and showed that, if the imposed strain rate was over , the shear band spacing would become so small that the entire sample would virtually behave like one major shear band. Using the datum strain rate =1700 s^-1 and based on a shear band nucleation model proposed by us, the size of a shear-band nucleus in Au-BMG was estimated to be 3 ���� 10^6 atoms, or a sphere of ~30 nm in diameter. II. Inspired by the peculiar result published in a Science article �¢����Super Plastic Bulk Metallic Glasses at Room Temperature�¢���, we synthesized the Zr-based bulk metallic glass with a composition identical to that in the paper (Zr64.13Cu15.75Ni10.12Al10) and, subsequently, tested in compression at the same slow strain rate (~10^-4 s^-1). We found that the dominant deformation mode is always single shear. The stress-strain curve exhibited serrated pattern in the plastic region, which conventionally has been attributed to individual shear band propagation. The scanning electron micrographs taken from the deformed sample surface revealed regularly spaced striations. Analysis indicates that the observed stress-strain serrations are intimately related to the striations on the shear surface, suggesting the serrations were actually caused slip-and-stick shear along the principal shear plane. We further use video camera to conduct in situ compression experiments to unambiguously confirm the one-to-one temporal and spatial correspondence between the intermittent sliding and flow serration. This preferential shear band formation along the principal shear plane is, in fact, a natural consequence of Mode II crack, independent of strain softening or hardening, usually claimed in the literature. III. Flow serration in compression of metallic glasses is caused by the formation and propagation of localized shear bands. These shear bands propagate at an extremely high speed, so high that a load cell and load frame were unable to capture the details of the dynamic event. To subdue this problem, we conducted uniaxial compression on Zr64.13Cu15.75Ni10.12Al10 bulk metallic glass using a high-speed camera to capture the sample image and also high-sensitivity strain gauges attached to the test samples to directly measure the strain. The displacement-time curves obtained from the test and a magnified version of the displacement burst reveals clearly a three-step (acceleration, steady-state, and deceleration) process during shear band propagation. The fastest propagating speed occurring at the steady state is calculated as 8����10^2 ���µm/s. This speed is about 1,000 times faster than the crosshead speed. This explains the gradual disappearance of flow serration at higher strain rates previously reported during compression of

Nieh, T.G.

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

408

Roles of nanoclusters in shear banding and plastic deformation of bulk metallic glasses  

SciTech Connect

During the course of this research we published 33 papers in various physics/material journals. We select four representing papers in this report and their results are summarized as follows. I. To study shear banding process, it is pertinent to know the intrinsic shear strain rate within a propagating shear band. To this aim, we used nanoindentation technique to probe the mechanical response of a Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 bulk metallic glass in locality and found notable pop-in events associated with shear band emission. Using a free volume model and under the situation when temperature and stress/hardness are fixed result in an equation, which predicts that hardness serration caused by pop-in decreases exponentially with the strain rate. Our data are in good agreement with the prediction. The result also predicts that, when strain rate is higher than a critical strain rate of 1700 s^-1, there will be no hardness serration, thereby no pop-in. In other words, multiple shear bandings will take place and material will flow homogeneously. The critical strain rate of 1700 s^-1 can be treated as the intrinsic strain rate within a shear band. We subsequently carried out a simulation study and showed that, if the imposed strain rate was over , the shear band spacing would become so small that the entire sample would virtually behave like one major shear band. Using the datum strain rate =1700 s^-1 and based on a shear band nucleation model proposed by us, the size of a shear-band nucleus in Au-BMG was estimated to be 3 ���� 10^6 atoms, or a sphere of ~30 nm in diameter. II. Inspired by the peculiar result published in a Science article �¢����Super Plastic Bulk Metallic Glasses at Room Temperature�¢���, we synthesized the Zr-based bulk metallic glass with a composition identical to that in the paper (Zr64.13Cu15.75Ni10.12Al10) and, subsequently, tested in compression at the same slow strain rate (~10^-4 s^-1). We found that the dominant deformation mode is always single shear. The stress-strain curve exhibited serrated pattern in the plastic region, which conventionally has been attributed to individual shear band propagation. The scanning electron micrographs taken from the deformed sample surface revealed regularly spaced striations. Analysis indicates that the observed stress-strain serrations are intimately related to the striations on the shear surface, suggesting the serrations were actually caused slip-and-stick shear along the principal shear plane. We further use video camera to conduct in situ compression experiments to unambiguously confirm the one-to-one temporal and spatial correspondence between the intermittent sliding and flow serration. This preferential shear band formation along the principal shear plane is, in fact, a natural consequence of Mode II crack, independent of strain softening or hardening, usually claimed in the literature. III. Flow serration in compression of metallic glasses is caused by the formation and propagation of localized shear bands. These shear bands propagate at an extremely high speed, so high that a load cell and load frame were unable to capture the details of the dynamic event. To subdue this problem, we conducted uniaxial compression on Zr64.13Cu15.75Ni10.12Al10 bulk metallic glass using a high-speed camera to capture the sample image and also high-sensitivity strain gauges attached to the test samples to directly measure the strain. The displacement-time curves obtained from the test and a magnified version of the displacement burst reveals clearly a three-step (acceleration, steady-state, and deceleration) process during shear band propagation. The fastest propagating speed occurring at the steady state is calculated as 8����10^2 ���µm/s. This speed is about 1,000 times faster than the crosshead speed. This explains the gradual disappearance of flow serration at higher strain rates previously reported during compression of

Nieh, T.G.

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

409

EA-1418: Final Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8: Final Environmental Assessment 8: Final Environmental Assessment EA-1418: Final Environmental Assessment Otter Tail Power Company Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector, Big Stone City, Grant County, South Dakota DOE's objective in participating in the cooperative agreement is to support demonstration of technoloy potentially capable of substantially reducing particulate emissions, particularly emissions of fine particulate, from coal-fired power plants. The environmental analysis identified that the most notable changes to result from the proposed action would occur in the following areas: air emissions, construction impacts, and solid waste disposal. Final Environmental Assessment Otter Tail Power Company Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector, Big Stone City, Grant County, South Dakota

410

EPRI Review of Geologic Disposal for Used Fuel and High Level Radioactive Waste: Volume II--U.S. Regulations for Geologic Disposal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

U.S. efforts to site and construct a deep geologic repository for used fuel and high level radioactive waste (HLW) proceeded sporadically over a three-decade period from the late 1950s until 1982, when the U.S. Congress enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) codifying a national approach for developing a deep geologic repository. Amendment of the NWPA in 1987 resulted in a number of dramatic changes in direction for the U.S. program, most notably the selection of Yucca Mountain as the only site of t...

2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

411

Characterizing flows with an instrumented particle measuring Lagrangian accelerations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present in this article a novel Lagrangian measurement technique: an instrumented particle which continuously transmits the force/acceleration acting on it as it is advected in a flow. We develop signal processing methods to extract information on the flow from the acceleration signal transmitted by the particle. Notably, we are able to characterize the force acting on the particle and to identify the presence of a permanent large-scale vortex structure. Our technique provides a fast, robust and efficient tool to characterize flows, and it is particularly suited to obtain Lagrangian statistics along long trajectories or in cases where optical measurement techniques are not or hardly applicable.

Zimmermann, Robert; Gasteuil, Yoann; Volk, Romain; Pinton, Jean-François

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Extraction chromatography: Progress and opportunities  

SciTech Connect

Extraction chromatography provides a simple and effective method for the analytical and preparative-scale separation of a variety of metal ions. Recent advances in extractant design, particularly the development of extractants capable of metal ion recognition or of strong complex formation in highly acidic media, have significantly improved the utility of the technique. Advances in support design, most notably the introduction of functionalized supports to enhance metal ion retention, promise to yield further improvements. Column instability remains a significant obstacle, however, to the process-scale application of extraction chromatography. 79 refs.

Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Synthesis of high porosity, monolithic alumina aerogels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many non-silica aerogels are notably weak and fragile in monolithic form. Particularly, few monolithic aerogels with densities less than 50kg/m3 have any significant strength. It is especially difficult to prepare uncracked monoliths of pure alumina aerogels that are robust and moisture stable. In this paper, we discuss the synthesis of strong, stable, monolithic, high porosity (>98% porous) alumina aerogels, using a two-step sol-gel process. The alumina aerogels have a polycrystalline morphology that results in enhanced physical properties. Most of the measured physical properties of the alumina aerogels are superior to those for silica aerogels for equivalent densities.

Poco, J F; Satcher, J H; Hrubesh, L W

2000-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

414

IG-0519.PDF  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

9 9 EVALUATION REPORT THE DEPARTMENT'S UNCLASSIFIED CYBER SECURITY PROGRAM AUGUST 2001 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL OFFICE OF AUDIT SERVICES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Washington, DC 20585 August 30, 2001 MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY FROM: Gregory H. Friedman (Signed) Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Evaluation of the Department's Unclassified Cyber Security Program BACKGROUND Protecting unclassified information systems continues to be one of the top issues facing Government organizations today. While the increase in computer interconnectivity, most notably growth in the use of the Internet, has revolutionized the way the Government does business, it has also significantly increased the risk of damage to information

415

Physics as an element of radiation research.  

SciTech Connect

Since its inception in 1954, Radiation Research has published an estimated total of about 8700 scientific articles up to August 2001, about 520, or roughly 6%, of which are primarily related to physics. This average of about 11 articles per year indicates steadily continuing contributions by physicists, though there are appreciable fluctuations from year to year. These works of physicists concern radiation sources, dosimetry, instrumentation for measurements of radiation effects, fundamentals of radiation physics, mechanisms of radiation actions, and applications. In this review, we have selected some notable accomplishments for discussion and present an outlook for the future.

Inokuti, M.; Seltzer, S.; Physics; National Inst. of Standards and Technology

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Computing Solar Absolute Fluxes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Computed color indices and spectral shapes for individual stars are routinely compared with observations for essentially all spectral types, but absolute fluxes are rarely tested. We can confront observed irradiances with the predictions from model atmospheres for a few stars with accurate angular diameter measurements, notably the Sun. Previous calculations have been hampered by inconsistencies and the use of outdated atomic data and abundances. I provide here a progress report on our current efforts to compute absolute fluxes for solar model photospheres. Uncertainties in the solar composition constitute a significant source of error in computing solar radiative fluxes.

Prieto, Carlos Allende

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

The norm of restaurant tipping  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using survey data, we identify a variety of factors that influence tipping behavior and in the process lay out a simple theoretical framework to help to interpret our empirical observations. We first investigate the efficiency of observed tipping behavior. While there are elements of efficiency— notably, percent tip depends on service quality—it does not appear fully efficient. We then posit a model in which customers trade off material well-being against disutility from not adhering to the norm, and we use this model to reinterpret initial empirical findings and make additional empirical predictions.

Michael Conlin; Michael Lynn; Ted O’Donoghue

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Fiscal Year 1994 annual report to Congress  

SciTech Connect

The events of Fiscal Year 1994 made it a notable year in OCRWN`s history. Highlights include formulation of a new program approach; intensive consultation with other parties to build confidence in that approach; the delivery, assembly, and initial testing of the tunnel boring machine that is now digging into Yucca Mountain; steps toward acquisition of a standardized multipurpose canister system and planning for the accompanying environmental impact statement; and solicitation, through a Federal Register notice, of utilities` and other interested parties` recommendations toward resolving key waste-acceptance issues.

NONE

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Computational modelling of the collective stochastic motion of Kinesin nano motors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed a two dimensional stochastic molecular dynamics model for the description of intra cellular collective motion of bio motors, in particular Kinesins, on a microtubular track. The model is capable or reproducing the hand-over-hand mechanism of the directed motion along the microtubule. The model gives the average directed velocity and the current of Kinesins along the microtubule. It is shown that beyond a certain density of Kinesins, the average velocity and current undergo notable decrease which is due to formation of traffic jams in the system.

Yousef Jamali; M. Ebrahim Foulaadvand; H. Rafii Tabar

2010-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

420

A bacterium that can grow by using arsenic instead of phosphorus  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Life is mostly composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur and phosphorus. Although these six elements make up nucleic acids, proteins and lipids and thus the bulk of living matter, it is theoretically possible that some other elements in the periodic table could serve the same functions. Here we describe a bacterium, strain GFAJ-1 of the Halomonadaceae, isolated from Mono Lake, CA, which substitutes arsenic for phosphorus to sustain its growth. Our data show evidence for arsenate in macromolecules that normally contain phosphate, most notably nucleic acids and proteins. Exchange of one of the major bio-elements may have profound evolutionary and geochemical significance.

Wolfe-Simon, F; Blum, J S; Kulp, T R; Gordon, G W; Hoeft, S E; Pett-Ridge, J; Stolz, J F; Webb, S M; Weber, P K; Davies, P W; Anbar, A D; Oremland, R S

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

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421

CRC materials science and engineering handbook. Third edition  

SciTech Connect

This definitive reference is organized in an easy-to-follow format based on materials properties. It features new and existing data verified through major professional societies in the materials fields, such as ASM International and the American Ceramic Society. The third edition has been significantly expanded, most notably by the addition of new tabular material for a wide range of nonferrous alloys and various materials. The contents include: Structure of materials; Composition of materials; Phase diagram sources; Thermodynamic and kinetic data; Thermal properties of materials; Mechanical properties of materials; Electrical properties of materials; Optical properties of materials; Chemical properties of materials.

Shackelford, J.F.; Alexander, W. (eds.)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Catalyst for selective conversion of synthesis gas and method of making the catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalyst, a method of making the catalyst and an F-T process utilizing the catalyst by which synthesis gas, particularly carbon-monoxide rich synthesis gas is selectively converted to higher hydrocarbons of relatively narrow carbon number range. In general, the selective and notably stable catalyst, consists of an inert carrier first treated with a Group IV B metal compound (such as zirconium or titanium), preferably an alkoxide compound, and subsequently treated with an organic compound of an F-T metal catalyst, such as cobalt, iron or ruthenium carbonyl. Reactions with air and water and calcination are specifically avoided in the catalyst preparation procedure.

Dyer, Paul N. (Allentown, PA); Pierantozzi, Ronald (Macungie, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Fischer-Tropsch process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Fischer-Tropsch process utilizing a product selective and stable catalyst by which synthesis gas, particularly carbon-monoxide rich synthesis gas is selectively converted to higher hydrocarbons of relatively narrow carbon number range is disclosed. In general, the selective and notably stable catalyst, consist of an inert carrier first treated with a Group IV B metal compound (such as zirconium or titanium), preferably an alkoxide compound, and subsequently treated with an organic compound of a Fischer-Tropsch metal catalyst, such as cobalt, iron or ruthenium carbonyl. Reactions with air and water and calcination are specifically avoided in the catalyst preparation procedure.

Dyer, Paul N. (Allentown, PA); Pierantozzi, Ronald (Orefield, PA); Withers, Howard P. (Douglassville, PA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Supported fischer-tropsch catalyst and method of making the catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and a method of making the catalyst for a Fischer-Tropsch process utilizing the catalyst by which synthesis gas, particularly carbon-monoxide rich synthesis gas, is selectively converted to higher hydrocarbons of relatively narrow carbon number range is disclosed. In general, the selective and notably stable catalyst, consist of an inert carrier first treated with a Group IV B metal compound (such as zirconium or titanium), preferably an alkoxide compound, and subsequently treated with an organic compound of a Fischer-Tropsch metal catalyst, such as cobalt, iron or ruthenium carbonyl. Reactions with air and water and calcination are specifically avoided in the catalyst preparation procedure.

Dyer, Paul N. (Allentown, PA); Pierantozzi, Ronald (Orefield, PA); Withers, Howard P. (Douglassville, PA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Application of Vacuum Deposition Methods to Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The application of vacuum deposition techniques to the fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell materials and structures are reviewed, focusing on magnetron sputtering, vacuum plasma methods, laser ablation, and electrochemical vapor deposition. A description of each method and examples of use to produce electrolyte, electrode, and/or electrical interconnects are given. Generally high equipment costs and relatively low deposition rates have limited the use of vacuum deposition methods in solid oxide fuel cell manufacture, with a few notable exceptions. Vacuum methods are particularly promising in the fabrication of micro fuel cells, where thin films of high quality and unusual configuration are desired.

Pederson, Larry R.; Singh, Prabhakar; Zhou, Xiao Dong

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Synthesis and Optimization of the Sintering Kinetics of Actinide Nitrides  

SciTech Connect

Research conducted for this NERI project has advanced the understanding and feasibility of nitride nuclear fuel processing. In order to perform this research, necessary laboratory infrastructure was developed; including basic facilities and experimental equipment. Notable accomplishments from this project include: the synthesis of uranium, dysprosium, and cerium nitrides using a novel, low-cost mechanical method at room temperature; the synthesis of phase pure UN, DyN, and CeN using thermal methods; and the sintering of UN and (Ux, Dy1-x)N (0.7 ? X ? 1) pellets from phase pure powder that was synthesized in the Advanced Materials Laboratory at Boise State University.

Drryl P. Butt; Brian Jaques

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

427