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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Activity Stream - Brazil Direct Normal Solar Radiation Model...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dataset Activity Stream Activity Stream Jay Huggins updated the dataset Brazil Direct Normal Solar Radiation Model (10km) from INPE and LABSOLAR 6 days ago Jay Huggins added the...

2

Brazil Direct Normal Solar Radiation Model (10km) from INPE and...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dataset Activity Stream Brazil Direct Normal Solar Radiation Model (10km) from INPE and LABSOLAR (Abstract): Normal direct solar radiation in kWhm2day for 1 year organized into...

3

Insolation data manual and direct normal solar radiation data manual  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Insolation Data Manual presents monthly averaged data which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service (NWS) stations, principally in the United States. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24--25 years of data, generally from 1952--1975, and listed for each location. Insolation values represent monthly average daily totals of global radiation on a horizontal surface and are depicted using the three units of measurement: kJ/m{sup 2} per day, Btu/ft{sup 2} per day and langleys per day. Average daily maximum, minimum and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3 C (65 F). For each station, global {bar K}{sub T} (cloudiness index) values were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. Global {bar K}{sub T} is an index of cloudiness and indicates fractional transmittance of horizontal radiation, from the top of the atmosphere to the earth's surface. The second section of this volume presents long-term monthly and annual averages of direct normal solar radiation for 235 NWS stations, including a discussion of the basic derivation process. This effort is in response to a generally recognized need for reliable direct normal data and the recent availability of 23 years of hourly averages for 235 stations. The relative inaccessibility of these data on microfiche further justifies reproducing at least the long-term averages in a useful format. In addition to a definition of terms and an overview of the ADIPA model, a discussion of model validation results is presented.

none,

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Brazil Direct Normal Solar Radiation Model (40km) from INPE and LABSOLAR |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

40km) from INPE and LABSOLAR 40km) from INPE and LABSOLAR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Normal direct solar radiation in kWh/m2/day for 1 year organized into cells with 40km x 40km (Purpose): To provide a set of consistent, reliable, verifiable, and accessible global data sets for international and in-country investors and other stakeholders (Supplemental Information): The BRASIL-SR model and the SPRING software (both developed by INPE - National Institute for Space Research) were used to produce the dataset and SHAPE files. The assessment of reliability levels of the BRASIL-SR model were performed through the evaluation of the deviations shown by the estimated values for solar radiation flux vis-à-vis the values measured at the surface (ground truth). This evaluation was done in two phases. The first phase consisted in an inter-comparison between the core radiation transfer models adopted by the SWERA Project to map the solar energy in the various countries participating in the project. The HELIOSAT model took part in this phase like benchmark due to its employment to map solar energy resources in countries from European Union. In the second phase, the solar flux estimates provided by the BRASIL-SR model were compared with measured values acquired at several solarimetric stations spread along the Brazilian territory.

5

Brazil Direct Normal Solar Radiation Model (10km) from INPE and LABSOLAR |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

10km) from INPE and LABSOLAR 10km) from INPE and LABSOLAR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Normal direct solar radiation in kWh/m2/day for 1 year organized into cells with 10km x 10km (Purpose): The BRASIL-SR model and the SPRING software (both developed by INPE - National Institute for Space Research) were used to produce the dataset and SHAPE files (Supplemental Information): The assessment of reliability levels of the BRASIL-SR model were performed through the evaluation of the deviations shown by the estimated values for solar radiation flux vis-à-vis the values measured at the surface (ground truth). This evaluation was done in two phases. The first phase consisted in an inter-comparison between the core radiation transfer models adopted by the SWERA Project to map the solar energy in the various countries participating in the project. The HELIOSAT model took part in this phase like benchmark due to its employment to map solar energy resources in countries from European Union. In the second phase, the solar flux estimates provided by the BRASIL-SR model were compared with measured values acquired at several solarimetric stations spread along the Brazilian territory

6

Improved Methodology to Measure Normal Incident Solar Radiation with a Multi-Pyranometer Array  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and south sensors and one for the east and west sensors. The solution for the east and west sensors is expanded to two new solutions by mirroring their readings according to the solar noon; each real measurement and its mirrored values generate a solution..., which was originally developed approximately 30 years back, Hmlinen et al. [1] developed an instrument, which included 25 solar radiation sensors mounted on a metal hemisphere. Since then, many other have further studied how to simplify...

Baltazar, Juan Carlos; Haberl, Jeff; Sun, Yifu

7

Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) Upwelling shortwave (reflected) Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) Upwelling longwave (surface infrared)

Stoffel, T

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Solar energy: Radiation nation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Australia receives more solar radiation per square metre, on average, than any other continent. Although turning this ... to make use of its heat. We spoke to Australian proponents of two very different solar-thermal systems, both rather confusingly known as ...

Carina Dennis

2006-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

9

National Solar Radiation Database | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

National Solar Radiation Database National Solar Radiation Database Jump to: navigation, search The National Solar Radiation Database, or NSRDB, describes the amount of solar energy which is available at any location in the United States. It is generated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, with the assistance of many collaborators.[1] Technical Overview Per its user's manual, "The NSRDB is a serially complete collection of hourly values of the three most common measurements of solar radiation (global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal) over a period of time adequate to establish means and extremes, and at a sufficient number of locations to represent regional solar radiation climates."[2] There have been two releases of the NSRDB, each covering different time

10

NREL: Solar Radiation Research - Facilities  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Facilities Facilities Photo of two researchers standing on a platform near a solar tracker at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory gathers solar radiation and meteorological data on South Table Mountain. NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) has been collecting continuous measurements of basic solar radiation components since 1981. Since then, it has expanded its expertise to include integrated metrology, optics, electronics, and data acquisition capabilities. In addition, the SRRL provides facilities for outdoor performance testing of new research instrumentation and energy conversion devices such as photovoltaic modules. The SRRL is located on NREL's South Table Mountain site in Golden, Colorado, where it has excellent solar access because of its unrestricted

11

Resistance of Marine Bacterioneuston to Solar Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of Marine Bacterioneuston to Solar Radiation Helene Agogue Fabien...after exposure to simulated solar radiation. Bacterioneuston...estimate of their screening capacity. Appl. Environ. Microbiol...D. P. 2000. Effects of solar UV-B radiation on aquatic...

Hlne Agogu; Fabien Joux; Ingrid Obernosterer; Philippe Lebaron

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

NREL: Solar Radiation Research - Solar Radiation Research Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solar Radiation Research Laboratory Photographs Solar Radiation Research Laboratory Photographs The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) houses more than 70 instruments to analyze and record solar radiation and surface meteorology data. Learn more about this equipment by exploring the photographs below. Click on a thumbnail to view the full image. Photo of researcher working on an instrument platform in front of the SRRL building. The SRRL is located on South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado, at 39.74° N, 105.18° W, and 1,829 m AMSL. Photo of four researchers working on equipment atop the SRRL instrument deck. The SRRL's instrument deck is 96 ft long and 16 feet wide. Photo of two pyrheliometers mounted to an automatic sun-tracking base. These two SRRL pyrheliometers are mounted to automatically track the sun

13

solar radiation | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

radiation radiation Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude, for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location. Source NREL Date Released January 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords atmospheric water vapor Carribean Central America GEF. latitude tilt GIS Mexico NREL solar solar radiation SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 241.3 KiB)

14

Measurement of solar radiation exergy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Methods of estimating the energy of solar radiation during it conversion into other forms of energy-thermal, photoelectric, and chemical-during photosynthesis of plants are examined. Analytical expressions are gi...

I. I. Sventitskii; A. P. Grishin

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Brazil from NREL Brazil from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. Each container file contains up to 30 yearly files for one station, plus the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) file for the selected station, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): The intended use of these data files is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. The yearly data may be suitable for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a

16

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Central America from NREL Central America from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. Each container file contains up to 30 yearly files for one station, plus the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) file for the selected station, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): The intended use of these data files is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. The yearly data may be suitable for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a

17

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ghana from NREL Ghana from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. Each container file contains up to 30 yearly files for one station, plus the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) file for the selected station, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): The intended use of these data files is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. The yearly data may be suitable for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a

18

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sri Lanka from NREL Sri Lanka from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. Each container file contains up to 30 yearly files for one station, plus the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) file for the selected station, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): The intended use of these data files is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. The yearly data may be suitable for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a

19

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ethiopia from NREL Ethiopia from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. Each container file contains up to 30 yearly files for one station, plus the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) file for the selected station, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): The intended use of these data files is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. The yearly data may be suitable for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a

20

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cuba from NREL Cuba from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. Each container file contains up to 30 yearly files for one station, plus the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) file for the selected station, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): The intended use of these data files is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. The yearly data may be suitable for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a location, if enough years of data are present. The TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year.. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal solar radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nepal from NREL Nepal from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. Each container file contains up to 30 yearly files for one station, plus the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) file for the selected station, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): The intended use of these data files is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. The yearly data may be suitable for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a location, if enough years of data are present. The TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year.. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years.

22

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenya from NREL Kenya from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. Each container file contains up to 30 yearly files for one station, plus the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) file for the selected station, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): The intended use of these data files is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. The yearly data may be suitable for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a location, if enough years of data are present. The TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year.. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years.

23

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

China from NREL China from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. Each container file contains up to 30 yearly files for one station, plus the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) file for the selected station, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): The intended use of these data files is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. The yearly data may be suitable for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a location, if enough years of data are present. The TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years.

24

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bangladesh stations from NREL Bangladesh stations from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. Each container file contains up to 30 yearly files for one station, plus the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) file for the selected station, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): The intended use of these data files is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. The yearly data may be suitable for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a location, if enough years of data are present. The TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year.. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years.

25

Solar Position Algorithm for Solar Radiation Applications (Revised...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Afshin Michael Andreas afshinandreas@nrel.gov (303)384-6383 Measurement & Instrumentation Team Solar Radiation Research Laboratory National...

26

Definition: Solar radiation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

radiation radiation Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Solar radiation Electromagnetic energy emitted from the sun.[1][2][3] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition View on Reegle Reegle Definition Solar radiant energy impinging on the earth in any given region or area. Also Known As Solar energy, Solar resource Related Terms Solar energy, Solar cell, Photovoltaics, PV array, PV module, Passive solar, Passive solar heating, energy, bioenergy References ↑ http://www.eere.energy.gov/basics/renewable_energy/solar_resources.html ↑ http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/solar_glossary.html#S ↑ http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/glossary/gloss_s.html Retrieved f LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. rom "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Solar_radiation&oldid=502602"

27

Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Renewable Energy Laboratory Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) Instrument Calibrations Weather Observations Measurement Research Support Measurements & Instrumentation Team Center for Electric & Hydrogen Technologies & Systems http://www.nrel.gov/srrl NREL * * * * 1617 Cole Boulevard * * * * Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 * * * * (303) 275-3000 Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Midwest Research Institute * * * * Battelle * * * * Bechtel Mission Provide a unique outdoor research facility for supporting renewable energy conversion technologies and climate change studies for the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE). Objectives * Provide Improved Methods for Radiometer Calibrations * Develop a Solar Resource Climate Database for Golden, Colorado

28

VII. SOLAR RADIATION DATA COMPARISONS In this section some of the solar radiation data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

18 VII. SOLAR RADIATION DATA COMPARISONS In this section some of the solar radiation data gathered by the UO Solar Monitoring Network is presented in tabular and pictorial form and related to similar information from other Western U.S. sites. A comparison of the amount of incident solar radiation is made us

Oregon, University of

29

Solar radiation and human health  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Sun has played a major role in the development of life on Earth. In Western culture, people are warned against Sun exposure because of its adverse effects: erythema, photoimmunosuppression, photoageing, photocarcinogenesis, cataracts and photokeratitis. However, Sun exposure is also beneficial, since moderate doses give beneficial physiological effects: vitamin D synthesis, reduction of blood pressure and mental health. Shortage of Sun exposure may be even more dangerous to human health than excessive exposure. Avoiding Sun exposure leads to vitamin D deficiency which is associated not only with rickets and osteomalacia, but also with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, influenza, many types of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Solar radiation induces nitric oxide release in tissue and immediate pigment darkening which certainly play important roles, although these are still unknown. Action spectra relevant for health are described. We will also review what is known about spectral and intensity variations of terrestrial solar radiation as well as its penetration through the atmosphere and into human skin and tissue.

Asta Juzeniene; Pl Brekke; Arne Dahlback; Stefan Andersson-Engels; Jrg Reichrath; Kristin Moan; Michael F Holick; William B Grant; Johan Moan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network operated from November 1985 through December 1996. The six-station network provided 5-minute averaged measurements of global and diffuse horizontal solar irradiance. The data were processed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to improve the assessment of the solar radiation resources in the southeastern United States. Three of the stations also measured the direct-normal solar irradiance with a pyrheliometer mounted in an automatic sun tracker. All data are archived in the Standard Broadband Format (SBF) with quality-assessment indicators. Monthly data summaries and plots are also available for each month. In January 1997 the HBCU sites became part of the CONFRRM solar monitoring network.

31

Solar UV radiation reduces the barrier function of human skin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar UV radiation reduces the barrier function...Stanford, CA 94305 The ubiquitous presence of solar UV radiation in human life is essential for...defense against environmental exposures like solar UV radiation, and its effects on UV targets...

Krysta Biniek; Kemal Levi; Reinhold H. Dauskardt

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Solar radiation induces sublethal injury in Escherichia coli in seawater.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...after cells were exposed to solar radiation. Injury was detected...030670-05$02.00/0 Solar Radiation Induces Sublethal...Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 Sublethal injury was...after cells were exposed to solar radiation. Injury was detected...

R B Kapuscinski; R Mitchell

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Solar: annual and seasonal average direct normal (DNI) GIS data (contours)  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

direct normal (DNI) GIS data (contours) direct normal (DNI) GIS data (contours) for Brazil from INPE and LABSOLAR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Annual and seasonal mean of Direct Normal Solar Radiation in kWh/m2/day based on data from 1995 to 2002 (Purpose): To provide a set of consistent, reliable, verifiable, and accessible global data sets for international and in-country investors and other stakeholders (Supplemental Information): The cross-calibration process worked with data from 3 ground stations: Caicó (located in the Northeast of Brazil), Florianópolis (located in the South) and Balbina (located in Amazonia). These data have been used for validation and comparison of radiation transfer models operated in SWERA to estimate the incidence of solar radiation on the surface of the country from satellite images obtained from 1995 to 2002

34

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global horizontal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

East Asia from NREL East Asia from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

35

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global horizontal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Africa from NREL Africa from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

36

Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (Poster)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

SunShot Initiative awardee posters describing the different technologies within the four subprograms of the DOE Solar Program (Photovoltaics, Concentrating Solar Power, Soft Costs, and Systems Integration).

Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.; Reda, I.; Dooraghi, M.; Habte, A.; Kutchenreiter, M.; Wilcox, S.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Radiative cooling of solar cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Standard solar cells heat up under sunlight. The resulting increased temperature of the solar cell has adverse consequences on both its efficiency and its reliability. We introduce a...

Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath; Wang, Ken Xingze; Anoma, Marc Abou; Fan, Shanhui

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

PAR solar radiation | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PAR solar radiation PAR solar radiation Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Mean values of PAR Solar Radiation in kWh/m2/day for 40km cells for 1 year (month, season, year) based on data from 1995 to 2005 (Purpose): To provide a set of consistent, reliable, verifiable, and accessible global data sets for international and in-country investors and other stakeholders Source INPE (National Institute for Spatial Research) and LABSOLAR (Laboratory of Solar Energy/Federal University of Santa Catarina) - Brazil Date Released August 05th, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated August 05th, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords INPE LABSOLAR PAR solar radiation renewable energy South America SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 977.7 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 1.8 MiB)

39

Predicting solar radiation fluxes for solar energy system applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mean daily global solar radiation flux is influenced by astronomical, climatological, geographical, geometrical, meteorological, and physical parameters. This paper deals with the study of the effects of i...

M. H. Saffaripour; M. A. Mehrabian

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

SOLAR ORIGIN OF CHANGES IN THE PRIMARY COSMIC RADIATION  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

SOLAR ORIGIN OF CHANGES IN THE PRIMARY COSMIC RADIATION...DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO SOLAR ORIGIN OF CHANGES IN THE PRIMARY COSMIC RADIATION...that any relationship of these variations to solar phenomena arose through in- direct processes...

J. A. Simpson

1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal solar radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

NREL North American Solar Radiation Atlas (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation is about NREL's North American Solar Radiation Atlas, which currently includes 48 states (Alaska and Hawaii to be added in the future). It discusses the goals of the Atlas which are to: deliver basic solar performance estimates to general users, deliver a wide variety of additional information to more advanced users, be easy to use, full featured, and extensible.

George, R; Gray-Hann, P.

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

RADIATIVE HEATING OF THE SOLAR CORONA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the effect of solar visible and infrared radiation on electrons in the Sun's atmosphere using a Monte Carlo simulation of the wave-particle interaction and conclude that sunlight provides at least 40% and possibly all of the power required to heat the corona, with the exception of dense magnetic flux loops. The simulation uses a radiation waveform comprising 100 frequency components spanning the solar blackbody spectrum. Coronal electrons are heated in a stochastic manner by low coherence solar electromagnetic radiation. The wave 'coherence time' and 'coherence volume' for each component is determined from optical theory. The low coherence of solar radiation allows moving electrons to gain energy from the chaotic wave field which imparts multiple random velocity 'kicks' to these particles causing their velocity distribution to broaden or heat. Monte Carlo simulations of broadband solar radiative heating on ensembles of 1000 electrons show heating at per particle levels of 4.0 x 10{sup -21} to 4.0 x 10{sup -20} W, as compared with non-loop radiative loss rates of {approx}1 x 10{sup -20} W per electron. Since radiative losses comprise nearly all of the power losses in the corona, sunlight alone can explain the elevated temperatures in this region. The volume electron heating rate is proportional to density, and protons are assumed to be heated either by plasma waves or through collisions with electrons.

Moran, Thomas G., E-mail: moran@grace.nascom.nasa.gov [Physics Department, Catholic University of America, 200 Hannan Hall, Washington, DC 20064 (United States) and NASA/GSFC, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

43

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Honduras from SUNY Honduras from SUNY Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Zip file contains year-site specific files including time series of global, direct and diffuse irradiance (Purpose): The time series are useful for performing site specific simulation of customized solar energy systems (Supplemental Information): Each file's name identifies year and location, by listing Country_City_latitude-longitude_year, e.g., EL_SALVADOR_San_Salvador_13.75-89.15_98.out is for the city of San Salvador, in El Salvador, latitude 13.75 degrees, longitude -89.15 degrees, year 1998. The content of each file includes A one line header, listing latitude, longitude and ground elevation in meters,Hourly records including, year, month, day, time (GMT), global irradiance, direct irradiance and

44

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nicaragua from SUNY Nicaragua from SUNY Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Zip file contains year-site specific files including time series of global, direct and diffuse irradiance (Purpose): The time series are useful for performing site specific simulation of customized solar energy systems (Supplemental Information): Each file's name identifies year and location, by listing Country_City_latitude-longitude_year, e.g., EL_SALVADOR_San_Salvador_13.75-89.15_98.out is for the city of San Salvador, in El Salvador, latitude 13.75 degrees, longitude -89.15 degrees, year 1998. The content of each file includes A one line header, listing latitude, longitude and ground elevation in meters,Hourly records including, year, month, day, time (GMT), global irradiance, direct irradiance and

45

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Guatemala from SUNY Guatemala from SUNY Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Zip file contains year-site specific files including time series of global, direct and diffuse irradiance (Purpose): The time series are useful for performing site specific simulation of customized solar energy systems (Supplemental Information): Each file's name identifies year and location, by listing Country_City_latitude-longitude_year, e.g., EL_SALVADOR_San_Salvador_13.75-89.15_98.out is for the city of San Salvador, in El Salvador, latitude 13.75 degrees, longitude -89.15 degrees, year 1998. The content of each file includes A one line header, listing latitude, longitude and ground elevation in meters,Hourly records including, year, month, day, time (GMT), global irradiance, direct irradiance and

46

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cuba sites from SUNY Cuba sites from SUNY Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Zip file contains year-site specific files including time series of global, direct and diffuse irradiance (Purpose): The time series are useful for performing site specific simulation of customized solar energy systems (Supplemental Information): Each file's name identifies year and location, by listing Country_City_latitude-longitude_year, e.g., EL_SALVADOR_San_Salvador_13.75-89.15_98.out is for the city of San Salvador, in El Salvador, latitude 13.75 degrees, longitude -89.15 degrees, year 1998. The content of each file includes A one line header, listing latitude, longitude and ground elevation in meters,Hourly records including, year, month, day, time (GMT), global irradiance, direct irradiance and

47

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

El Salvador sites from SUNY El Salvador sites from SUNY Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Zip file contains year-site specific files including time series of global, direct and diffuse irradiance (Purpose): The time series are useful for performing site specific simulation of customized solar energy systems (Supplemental Information): Each file's name identifies year and location, by listing Country_City_latitude-longitude_year, e.g., EL_SALVADOR_San_Salvador_13.75-89.15_98.out is for the city of San Salvador, in El Salvador, latitude 13.75 degrees, longitude -89.15 degrees, year 1998. The content of each file includes A one line header, listing latitude, longitude and ground elevation in meters,Hourly records including, year, month, day, time (GMT), global irradiance, direct irradiance and

48

OpenEI - solar radiation  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

monthly and monthly and annual average latitude tilt GIS data at 40km resolution for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands from NREL http://en.openei.org/datasets/node/500 (Abstract):  Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude, for Mexico, Central America,
and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose):  Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the

49

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global horizontal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

South America from NREL South America from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to the model. The local cloud cover can vary significantly even within a single grid cell as a result of terrain effects and other microclimate influences. Furthermore, the uncertainty of the modeled estimates increase with distance from reliable measurement sources and with the complexity of the terrain.

50

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global horizontal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Central America and the Carribean from NREL Central America and the Carribean from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to the model. The local cloud cover can vary significantly even within a single grid cell as a result of terrain effects and other microclimate influences. Furthermore, the uncertainty of the modeled estimates increase with distance from reliable measurement sources and with the complexity of the terrain.

51

hourly solar radiation | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

solar radiation solar radiation Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): A need for predicting hourly global radiation exists for many locations particularly in Bangladesh for which measured values are not available and daily values have to be estimated from sunshine data. The CPRG model has been used to predict values of hourly Gh for Dhaka (23.770N, 90.380E), Chittagong (22.270N, 91.820E) and Bogra (24.850N, 89.370E) for = ±7.50, ±22.50, ±37.50, ±52.50, ±67.50, ±82.50 and ±97.50 i.e., for ±1/2, ±3/2, ±5/2, ±7/2, ±9/2, ±11/2, ±13/2 hours before and after solar noon and the computed values for Source Renewable Energy Research Centre Date Released October 22nd, 2003 (11 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords Bangladesh documentation hourly solar radiation SWERA

52

Abiotic Production of Methylmercury by Solar Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abiotic Production of Methylmercury by Solar Radiation ... Department of Soil Science, 51 Campus Drive, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 5A8, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie Curie, P.O. ... Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (2000), 57 (5), 1080-1091 CODEN: CJFSDX; ISSN:0706-652X. ...

Steven D. Siciliano; Nelson J. O'Driscoll; Robert Tordon; Jonathan Hill; Stephen Beauchamp; David R. S. Lean

2005-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

53

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

49031 49031 Varnish cache server Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km resolution for China from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for China. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to

54

A BAYESIAN MODEL COMMITTEE APPROACH TO FORECASTING GLOBAL SOLAR RADIATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the realm of solar radiation forecasting. In this work, two forecasting models: Autoregressive Moving1 A BAYESIAN MODEL COMMITTEE APPROACH TO FORECASTING GLOBAL SOLAR RADIATION. The very first results show an improvement brought by this approach. 1. INTRODUCTION Solar radiation

Boyer, Edmond

55

Solar: annual average direct normal (DNI) map at 40km resolution for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

map at 40km resolution for map at 40km resolution for Central America from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): A map depicting model estimates of monthly average daily total radiation using inputs derived from satellite and surface observations of cloud cover, aerosol optical depth, precipitable water vapor, albedo, atmospheric pressure and ozone sampled at a 40km resolution. (Purpose): A visual depiction of solar energy resource for concentrating solar power systems. Source NREL Date Released December 11th, 2003 (11 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords Central America direct normal DNI map NREL solar SWERA UNEP Data application/pdf icon Download Map (pdf, 67.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency

56

Solar Radiation and Pyranometry Studies for Solar Energy Applications: an Overview of IEA Task IX  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With increased activity in the field of solar energy research and application, there is a need for accurate solar radiation and meteorological data to aid in resource assessment, solar system design evaluation, a...

D. C. McKay

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

NREL: Solar Radiation Research - Research Staff  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Research Staff Research Staff NREL's resource assessment and forecasting research staff provides expertise in renewable energy measurement and instrumentation through NREL's Power Systems Engineering Center. Photo of Mary Anderberg Mary Anderberg - Scientist M.S. Physics, University of Denver B.S. Physics, Auburn University Mary performs solar radiometric data quality analysis for the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and provides programming support for the resource integration section. She also contributed to the National Solar Radiation Database update. In addition, Mary is the Web administrator of the Renewable Resource Data Center, for which she provides UNIX, C, Perl, and HTML support. Photo of Afshín Andreas Afshín Andreas - Senior Scientist

58

Detecting solar chameleons through radiation pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Light scalar fields can drive the accelerated expansion of the universe. Hence, they are obvious dark energy candidates. To make such models compatible with tests of General Relativity in the solar system and "fifth force" searches on Earth, one needs to screen them. One possibility is the so-called "chameleon" mechanism, which renders an effective mass depending on the local matter density. If chameleon particles exist, they can be produced in the sun and detected on earth exploiting the equivalent of a radiation pressure. Since their effective mass scales with the local matter density, chameleons can be reflected by a dense medium if their effective mass becomes greater than their total energy. Thus, under appropriate conditions, a flux of solar chameleons may be sensed by detecting the total instantaneous momentum transferred to a suitable opto-mechanical force/pressure sensor. We calculate the solar chameleon spectrum and the reach in the chameleon parameter space of an experiment using the preliminary re...

Baum, S; Hoffmann, D H H; Karuza, M; Semertzidis, Y K; Upadhye, A; Zioutas, K

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

National Solar Radiation Data Base | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Solar Radiation Data Base Solar Radiation Data Base Dataset Summary Description The National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) is the most comprehensive collection of solar data freely available. The 1991 - 2005 NSRDB contains hourly solar radiation (including global, direct, and diffuse) and meteorological data for 1,454 stations. NCDC's Integrated Surface Data (ISD) were the key data source for this effort, with much of the solar data modeled/estimated based on the surface observations. This dataset builds on the 1961-1990 NSRDB, which contains data for 239 stations. These data are extremely useful in estimating solar energy potential across the U.S., and in estimating heating/cooling requirements for buildings based on heat-gain from solar radiation. More information available at http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/reds/

60

Solar-radiation-maintained glacier recession on Kilimanjaro drawn from combined ice-radiation geometry modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar-radiation-maintained glacier recession on Kilimanjaro drawn from combined ice of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA Georg Kaser Tropical Glaciology Group, Department of Geography retreat during the twentieth century. To evaluate the role of solar radiation in maintaining glacier

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal solar radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Soft x ray/extreme ultraviolet images of the solar atmosphere with normal incidence multilayer optics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first high resolution Soft X-Ray/Extreme Ultraviolet (XUV) images of the Sun with normal incidence multilayer optics were obtained by the Standford/MSFC Rocket X-Ray Spectroheliograph on 23 Oct. 1987. Numerous images at selected wavelengths from 8 to 256 A were obtained simultaneously by the diverse array of telescopes flown on-board the experiment. These telescopes included single reflection normal incidence multilayer systems (Herschelian), double reflection multilayer systems (Cassegrain), a grazing incidence mirror system (Wolter-Schwarzschild), and hybrid systems using normal incidence multilayer optics in conjunction with the grazing incidence primary (Wolter-Cassegrain). Filters comprised of approximately 1700{Angstrom} thick aluminum supported on a nickel mesh were used to transmit the soft x ray/EUV radiation while preventing the intense visible light emission of the Sun from fogging the sensitive experimental T-grain photographic emulsions. These systems yielded high resolution soft x ray/EUV images of the solar corona and transition region, which reveal magnetically confined loops of hot solar plasma, coronal plumes, polar coronal holes, supergranulation, and features associated with overlying cool prominences. The development, testing, and operation of the experiments, and the results from the flight are described. The development of a second generation experiment, the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array, which is scheduled to fly in the summer of 1990, and a recently approved Space Station experiment, the Ultra-High Resolution XUV Spectroheliograph, which is scheduled to fly in 1996 are also described.

Lindblom, J.F.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Short term forecasting of solar radiation based on satellite data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Short term forecasting of solar radiation based on satellite data Elke Lorenz, Annette Hammer University, D-26111 Oldenburg Forecasting of solar irradiance will become a major issue in the future integration of solar energy resources into existing energy supply structures. Fluctuations of solar irradiance

Heinemann, Detlev

63

The European Solar Radiation Atlas 1 Page J., M. Albuisson, L. Wald, 2001. The European solar radiation atlas: a valuable digital tool. Solar Energy,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

radiation atlas: a valuable digital tool. Solar Energy, 71, 81-83, 2001.1 The European Solar Radiation Atlas Author manuscript, published in "Solar Energy 71, 1 (2001) 81-83" DOI : 10.1016/S0038-092X(00)00157-2 #12 provided address the four most widely developed solar energy applications using simplified design methods

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

64

High-resolution maps of solar collector performance using a climatological solar radiation model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper will present a new methodology for producing estimates of the monthly and annual average performance of different types of flat-plate and concentrating solar collectors. The estimates are made on a uniform spatial grid with 40 km resolution. These estimates should be highly useful both to create maps to facilitate visualization of the solar resource, and as the basic data behind analytical studies of solar resources, deployment scenarios, CO{sub 2} mitigation strategies, and economic assessments. Their initial use of this methodology will be in the continental United States, where supporting data is available to evaluate the model outputs. In future years the authors hope to utilize this technique world-wide, especially in areas where the surface data are lacking. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, Golden, CO) has developed the Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) model to estimate climatological averages of daily-total solar radiation at a 40 km spatial resolution. The CSR model is operational and has been usefully applied to the US as well as several international areas. The model uses, as input, monthly climatological mean values of cloud cover, precipitable water vapor, aerosol optical depth, surface albedo, and total column ozone. These input parameters are available from various sources such as NASA and NCDC (National Climatic Data Center). The outputs from the original version of CSR are monthly mean daily total values of Global Horizontal, Direct Normal, and Diffuse radiation. Their latest revision of the model allows them to calculate the monthly mean output for the various collector types such as tilted flat-plate surfaces, one- and two-axis flat-plate collectors, and concentrating collectors.

George, R.L.; Maxwell, E.L.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Solar radiation on variously oriented sloping surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Monthly average daily irradiation on surfaces tilted towards the equator and also inclined at various azimuth angles are estimated for two locations in Lesotho and the results are presented. The isotropic model suggested by Liu and Jordan (Trans. of Ashrae, 526, 1962) along with the modified equation of Klein (Solar Energy, 19, 4, 1977) are employed for the estimation purposes. Surface orientations are selected at three inclinations for six different azimuth angles. Conclusions are reached for optimum tilt and orientation for summer, winter and annual collection. Total annual radiation values are computed for all the slopes and orientations.

Gopinathan, K.K. (National Univ. of Lesotho, Roma (South Africa))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 75 (2003) 307312 Extreme radiation hardness and light-weighted  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 75 (2003) 307­312 Extreme radiation hardness and light annealing and minority-carrier injection-enhanced annealing are responsible for the recovery of photovoltaic of InP solar cells with much higher radiation resistance, conversion efficiency and power/weight ratio

Woodall, Jerry M.

67

Author Ziegler, Susan Benner, Ronald Title Effects of solar radiation ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Author Ziegler, Susan Benner, Ronald Title Effects of solar radiation on dissolved ... M. Title Declining carrying capacity in the Bering Sea: Isotopic evidence from...

68

New Value for the Solar Constant of Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... joint JPLEppley investigation was sponsored by NASA. Drummond, A. J., Proc. IES/ASTM Int. Symp. Solar Radiation Simulation, Los Angeles (Inst. Environmental Sciences, Mt. ...

A. J. DRUMMOND; J. R. HICKEY; W. J. SCHOLES; E. G. LAUE

1968-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

69

INVENTORY OF SOLAR RADIATION/SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS ESTIMATORS, MODELS, SITE-SPECIFIC DATA, AND PUBLICATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INVENTORY OF SOLAR RADIATION/SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS ESTIMATORS, MODELS, SITE-SPECIFIC DATA, and Buildings Systems Integration Center National Renewable Energy Laboratory 8 July 2009 SOLAR SYSTEM POTENTIAL/calculators/PVWATTS/version1/ http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/calculators/PVWATTS/version2/ Estimates the electrical energy

70

Solar UV Radiation and Cancer in Young Children  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Boscoe FP , Schymura MJ.Solar ultraviolet-B exposure and...due to inadequate doses of solar ultraviolet-B radiation...Garland CF.The association of solar ultraviolet B (UVB) with reducing...Increased skin pigment reduces the capacity of skin to synthesise vitamin...

Christina Lombardi; Julia E. Heck; Myles Cockburn; and Beate Ritz

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

TRENDS IN DIRECT NORMAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE IN OREGON FROM 1979-2003 Laura Riihimaki  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. A better understanding of the regional climate models can be achieved by utilizing long- term solarTRENDS IN DIRECT NORMAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE IN OREGON FROM 1979-2003 Laura Riihimaki Frank Vignola To better understand the characteristics of the region's solar resource, a preliminary study was undertaken

Oregon, University of

72

Solar Radiation Estimated Through Mesoscale Atmospheric Modeling over Northeast Brazil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of renewable energy sources like solar wind and biomass is rapidly increasing in recent years with solar radiation as a particularly abundant energy source over Northeast Brazil. A proper quantitative knowledge of the incoming solar radiation is of great importance for energy planning in Brazil serving as basis for developing future projects of photovoltaic power plants and solar energy exploitation. This work presents a methodology for mapping the incoming solar radiation at ground level for Northeast Brazil using a mesoscale atmospheric model (Regional Atmospheric Modeling SystemRAMS) calibrated and validated using data from the network of automatic surface stations from the State Foundation for Meteorology and Water Resources from Cear (Fundao Cearense de Meteorologia e Recursos Hdricos? FUNCEME). The results showed that the model exhibits systematic errors overestimating surface radiation but that after the proper statistical corrections using a relationship between the model?predicted cloud fraction the ground?level observed solar radiation and the incoming solar radiation estimated at the top of the atmosphere a correlation of 0.92 with a confidence interval of 13.5? W / m 2 is found for monthly data. Using this methodology we found an estimate for annual average incoming solar radiation over Cear of 215? W / m 2 (maximum in October: 260? W / m 2 ).

Otacilio Leandro de Menezes Neto; Alexandre Arajo Costa; Fernando Pinto Ramalho; Paulo Henrique Santiago de Maria

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Diabat L., Blanc Ph., Wald L., Solar radiation climate in Africa. Solar Energy, 76, 733-744, 2004. SOLAR RADIATION CLIMATE IN AFRICA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diabaté L., Blanc Ph., Wald L., Solar radiation climate in Africa. Solar Energy, 76, 733-744, 2004 is very useful for preliminary assessment and modeling of solar energy systems. Following the approach: clearness index, atmosphere optics, clustering, interpolation, map, solar energy systems Nomenclature: (KTd

Boyer, Edmond

74

Physics-Based GOES Satellite Product for Use in NREL's National Solar Radiation Database: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), University of Wisconsin, and National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration are collaborating to investigate the integration of the Satellite Algorithm for Shortwave Radiation Budget (SASRAB) products into future versions of NREL's 4-km by 4-km gridded National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB). This paper describes a method to select an improved clear-sky model that could replace the current SASRAB global horizontal irradiance and direct normal irradiances reported during clear-sky conditions.

Sengupta, M.; Habte, A.; Gotseff, P.; Weekley, A.; Lopez, A.; Molling, C.; Heidinger, A.

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Spectral Solar Radiation Data Base at NREL  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

*In September 1991 the Solar Energy Research Institute became the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. [Description taken from http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/spectral/

76

Effects of Solar UV Radiation on Morphology and Photosynthesis of Filamentous Cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...time of exposure to solar radiation (E and F). (A and...E and F) daily solar doses during the exposure period...Cyanobacteria growth & development radiation effects ultrastructure Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation Photosynthesis radiation...

Hongyan Wu; Kunshan Gao; Virginia E. Villafae; Teruo Watanabe; E. Walter Helbling

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Solar Radiation Mapping from NOAA AVHRR Data in Catalonia, Spain  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A statistical model is presented for the determination of hourly global solar radiation from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration advanced very high resolution radiometer (NOAA AVHRR) satellite data, which provide wide coverage ...

Henry Flores Tovar; Jose M. Baldasano

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Posters Mean Fluxes of Visible Solar Radiation in Broken Clouds  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

7 Posters Mean Fluxes of Visible Solar Radiation in Broken Clouds V. E. Zuev, G. A. Titov, T. B. Zhuravleva, and S. Y. Popov Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch...

79

National Solar Radiation Database 1991-2005 Update: User's Manual  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This manual describes how to obtain and interpret the data products from the updated 1991-2005 National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB). This is an update of the original 1961-1990 NSRDB released in 1992.

Wilcox, S.

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Solar Radiation and Meteorological Data Support  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Characterize the solar resource potential for feasibility assessment of centralized PV solarfeasibility assessment of centralized PV solar gene ating facilities in the No theastgene ating facilities in the No theastgenerating facilities in the Northeastgenerating facilities in the Northeast ·· Expansion of the national PV solar data

Homes, Christopher C.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal solar radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Frank Vignola Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for large-scale utility installations . With the solar industry on the verge of contributing meaningfully prompted utilities to either build their own solar generating facilities or, more often, enter into firm off-take agreements for the delivery of elec- tric energy from large or utility-scale solar generating

Oregon, University of

82

Evaluation of Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances. These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband radiometers, and a pyranometer with fixed internal shading and are all deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. Data from 32 global horizontal irradiance and 19 direct normal irradiance radiometers are presented. The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances.

Habte, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Skill of Direct Solar Radiation Predicted by the ECMWF Global Atmospheric Model over Australia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Prediction of direct solar radiation is key in sectors such as solar power and agriculture; for instance, it can enable more efficient production of energy from concentrating solar power plants. An assessment of the quality of the direct solar ...

Alberto Troccoli; Jean-Jacques Morcrette

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Progress Toward an Updated National Solar Radiation Data Base  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress is reported on an updated National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB). Focus on this year's work was on preparing a test-year database for evaluating several solar radiation models that could be used to replace the METSTAT model used in the original 1961-1990 NSRDB. That model is no longer compatible with cloud observations reported by the National Weather Service. We have also included a satellite-based model that will increase the spatial resolution of solar radiation for GIS or mapping applications. Work also included development of improved estimates for aerosols, water vapor, and ozone. High-quality solar measurements were obtained for 33 sites near National Weather Service stations, and model runs were completed for test years 1999 and 2000.

Wilcox, S.; Anderberg, M.; George, R.; Marion, W.; Myers, D.; Renne, D.; Beckman, W.; DeGaetano, A.; Gueymard, C.; Perez, R.; Plantico, M.; Stackhouse, P.; Vignola, F.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal irradiance GIS data at  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

irradiance GIS data at irradiance GIS data at one-degree resolution of the World from NASA/SSE Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Direct Normal Irradiance (kWh/m^2/day)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005) Parameter: Direct Normal Radiation (kWh/m^2/day) Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/ Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections online Note 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; positive values are north and east. Boundaries of the -90/-180 region are -90 to -89 (south) and -180 to -179 (west). The last region, 89/180, is bounded by 89 to 90 (north) and 179 to 180 (east). The mid-point of the region is +0.5 added to the the Lat/Lon value. These data are

86

Converting solar energy into laser radiation using a fullerene-oxygen-iodine laser with solar pumping  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The concept of a system for directly converting solar energy into laser radiation on the basis of a fullerene-oxygen-iodine laser has been developed. It is shown that this system has...

Mak, A A; Belousova, I M; Kiselev, V M; Grenishin, A S; Danilov, O B; Sosnov, E N

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ethiopia from NREL Ethiopia from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Ethiopia. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

88

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ghana from NREL Ghana from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Ghana. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

89

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Brazil from NREL Brazil from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Brazil. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

90

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

km for km for Sri Lanka from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Sri Lanka (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

91

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenya from NREL Kenya from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Kenya. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

92

Solar: monthly direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km resolution for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

40km resolution for 40km resolution for Bangladesh from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Bangladesh. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

93

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nepal from NREL Nepal from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Nepal. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

94

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

22 22 Varnish cache server Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km resolution for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is

95

A review of validation methodologies and statistical performance indicators for modeled solar radiation data: Towards a better bankability of solar projects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In the context of the current rapid development of large-scale solar power projects, the accuracy of the modeled radiation datasets regularly used by many different interest groups is of the utmost importance. This process requires careful validation, normally against high-quality measurements. Some guidelines for a successful validation are reviewed here, not just from the standpoint of solar scientists but also of non-experts with limited knowledge of radiometry or solar radiation modeling. Hence, validation results and performance metrics are reported as comprehensively as possible. The relationship between a desirable lower uncertainty in solar radiation data, lower financial risks, and ultimately better bankability of large-scale solar projects is discussed. A description and discussion of the performance indicators that can or should be used in the radiation model validation studies are developed here. Whereas most indicators are summary statistics that attempt to synthesize the overall performance of a model with only one number, the practical interest of more elaborate metrics, particularly those derived from the KolmogorovSmirnov test, is discussed. Moreover, the important potential of visual indicators is also demonstrated. An example of application provides a complete performance analysis of the predictions of clear-sky direct normal irradiance obtained with six models of the literature at Tamanrasset, Algeria, where high-turbidity conditions are frequent.

Christian A. Gueymard

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Management and exploitation of direct normal irradiance resources for concentrating solar collectors: Algeria as a case study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of concentrating solar collectors which are used in solar thermal power plant and concentrated photovoltaic systems implies that these systems only work with the direct normal irradiance (DNI). Unfortu...

Mohamed Salah Mecibah; Taqiy Eddine Boukelia

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Reliability analysis of solar photovoltaic system using hourly mean solar radiation data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the hourly mean solar radiation and standard deviation as inputs to simulate the solar radiation over a year. Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) technique is applied and MATLAB program is developed for reliability analysis of small isolated power system using solar photovoltaic (SPV). This paper is distributed in two parts. Firstly various solar radiation prediction methods along with hourly mean solar radiation (HMSR) method are compared. The comparison is carried on the basis of predicted electrical power generation with actual power generated by SPV system. Estimation of solar photovoltaic power using HMSR method is close to the actual power generated by SPV system. The deviation in monsoon months is due to the cloud cover. In later part of the paper various reliability indices are obtained by HMSR method using MCS technique. Load model used is IEEE-RTS. Reliability indices, additional load hours (ALH) and additional power (AP) reduces exponentially with increase in load indicates that a SPV source will offset maximum fuel when all of its generated energy is utilized. Fuel saving calculation is also investigated. Case studies are presented for Sagardeep Island in West Bengal state of India. (author)

Moharil, Ravindra M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yeshwantrao Chavan College of Engineering, Nagpur, Maharashtra (India); Kulkarni, Prakash S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, South Ambazari Road, Nagpur 440011, Maharashtra (India)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

98

ANALYSIS OF SHORT-TERM SOLAR RADIATION DATA Gayathri Vijayakumar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and short- term radiation data. 1. INTRODUCTION Analyses to predict long-term performances of solar energy commonly used in these analyses and are readily available; (e.g., hourly data for 239 US locations for 30, TN, Madison, WI, Seattle, WA, Salt Lake City, UT, and Sterling, VA. One year of ISIS data, from

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

99

Evaluation of solar radiation estimation methods for reference evapotranspiration estimation in Canada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The accuracy of nine solar radiation (R s ) estimation models and their effects on reference evapotranspiration (ET o ...)...

Olanike O Aladenola; Chandra A Madramootoo

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Solar electricity prospects in Oman using GIS-based solar radiation maps  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper discusses solar power prospects in Oman. First, the geographic and topographic information about Oman are presented. The methodology of producing solar radiation maps using GIS tools is then discussed. The results obtained show very high potential of solar radiation over all the lands of Oman during the whole year. A slope analysis has allowed calculating the yearly electricity generation potential for different Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technologies such as the parabolic trough, parabolic dish, tower, and concentrated PV. For instance if only 10% of the land of Oman with a slope less than 1% is considered an exploitable land for the parabolic trough CSP technology, then the total calculated potential of yearly electricity generation would be about 7.6 millionGWh, which is many multiples of (680 times) the current generation supply in Oman which was about 11,189GWh in 2007.

Adel Gastli; Yassine Charabi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal solar radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Progress on an Updated National Solar Radiation Data Base: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1992, The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) released the 1961-1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB), a 30-year set of hourly solar radiation data. In April 2003, NREL convened a meeting of experts to investigate issues concerning a proposed update of the NSRDB. The panel determined that an important difficulty posed by the update was the shift from manual to automated cloud observations at National Weather Service stations in the United States. The solar model used in the original NSRDB relied heavily on the methodology and resolution of the manual cloud observations. The meeting participants recommended that NREL produce a plan for creating an update using currently available meteorological observations and satellite imagery. This paper describes current progress toward a plan for an updated NSRDB.

Wilcox, S.; Anderberg, M.; George, R.; Marion, W.; Myers, D.; Renne, D.; Beckman, W.; DeGaetano, A.; Gueymard, C.; Perez, R.; Plantico, M.; Stackhouse, P.; Vignola, F.

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Are energetic electrons in the solar wind the source of the outer radiation belt?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Are energetic electrons in the solar wind the source of the outer radiation belt? Xinlin Li,1 D. N in the solar wind are the source of the outer rela- tivistic electron radiation belt. Though there is some the correlation of en- ergetic electrons in the 20-200 keV range in the solar wind and of high speed solar wind

Li, Xinlin

103

Effects of Solar UV Radiation on Morphology and Photosynthesis of Filamentous Cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ECOLOGY Effects of Solar UV Radiation on Morphology and Photosynthesis...study the impact of solar UV radiation (UVR) (280 to 400 nm) on...Ink and Chemicals, Tokyo, Japan. 12 Dismukes, G. C., V...Effects of solar and ultraviolet radiation on motility, photomovement...

Hongyan Wu; Kunshan Gao; Virginia E. Villafae; Teruo Watanabe; E. Walter Helbling

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Inhibitory effect of solar radiation on thymidine and leucine incorporation by freshwater and marine bacterioplankton.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Within the solar UV radiation...extracellular organic carbon. Our...bacterial production before more...information on how solar radiation...Leu into the cell is obtained...extracellular organic carbon. Our...bacterial production before more...information on how solar radiation...Leu into the cell is obtained...

R Sommaruga; I Obernosterer; G J Herndl; R Psenner

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Interactions between reducing CO2 emissions, CO2 removal and solar radiation management  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the geological storage capacity for CO2. For the SRM...reduction in incoming solar radiation that fully...3. Results (a) Solar radiation management...scale set by the heat capacity in the model. For s2030srm2015...reduction in incoming solar radiation in the first...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Long-Term Dosimetry of Solar UV Radiation in Antarctica with Spores of Bacillus subtilis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Microbiology Long-Term Dosimetry of Solar UV Radiation in Antarctica with...seasons in an exposure box open to solar radiation at the German Antarctic...subtilis of different repair capacity. Radiat. Environ. Biophys...Jagger, J. (ed.). 1985. Solar-UV actions on living cells...

Monika Puskeppeleit; Lothar E. Quintern; Saad el Naggar; Jobst-Ulrich Schott; Ute Eschweiler; Gerda Horneck; Horst Bcker

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

601 601 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142256601 Varnish cache server Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km resolution for Ethiopia from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) for Ethiopia for the years 2000, 2001 and 2002. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional background information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country.

108

ENERGY-SPECIFIC SOLAR RADIATION DATA FROM MSG: CURRENT STATUS OF THE HELIOSAT-3 PROJECT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENERGY-SPECIFIC SOLAR RADIATION DATA FROM MSG: CURRENT STATUS OF THE HELIOSAT-3 PROJECT Marion Solar energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, passive solar heating and operating of solar energy systems and as basis data set for electricity load forecasting. Both long term

Heinemann, Detlev

109

NREL: Solar Radiation Research - Optical Metrology Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Optical Metrology Laboratory Optical Metrology Laboratory Photo of a laser and a spectral irradiance calibration system used to create lamp-detector alignment. Researchers use a spectral irradiance calibration alignment jig and a laser beam to align a calibration source and test unit. The NREL Optical Metrology Laboratory ensures that optical radiation resource measurement equipment is calibrated to national or international standards to ensure the quality and traceability of data. NREL considers optical radiation to range from 250 nm to 2,500 nm and to include the ultraviolet (250-400 nm), visible (400-750 nm), near infrared (750-1,100 nm), and shortwave infrared (1,100-2,500 nm) ranges. Activities The Optical Metrology Laboratory provides National Institute of Standards and Technology-traceable measurements for:

110

National Solar Radiation Database 1991…2010 Update: User's Manual  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 National Solar Radiation Database 1991-2010 Update: User's Manual Stephen Wilcox Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-54824 August 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 National Solar Radiation Database 1991-2010 Update: User's Manual

111

Solar: monthly direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km resolution for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

for for Bangladesh from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) for Bangladesh for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional background information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords Bangladesh DLR DNI GEF solar SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 915.2 KiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 488 KiB)

112

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenya from DLR Kenya from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) for Kenya for the years 2000, 2001 and 2002. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional background information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI GEF GIS Kenya solar SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 2.5 MiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 1.3 MiB)

113

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ghana from DLR Ghana from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) for Ghana for the years 2000, 2001 and 2002. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional background information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI Ghana solar SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 1 MiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 519.6 KiB)

114

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nepal from DLR Nepal from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) for Nepal for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional background information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI GIS Nepal solar SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 1.2 MiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 600.4 KiB)

115

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

China from DLR China from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) for China for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional background information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords China CRED CREIA DLR DNI GEF GIS solar SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 8.8 MiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 4.4 MiB)

116

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sri Lanka from DLR Sri Lanka from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) for Sri Lanka for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional background information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI GEF GIS solar Sri Lanka SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 155.1 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 295.7 KiB)

117

A spatiotemporal auto-regressive moving average model for solar radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1). Solar radiation, averaged over ten minute intervals, was recorded at each site for two yearsA spatiotemporal auto-regressive moving average model for solar radiation C.A. Glasbey and D, is important in many hydrological, agricultural and energy contexts. To assess solar energy potential, data

Stone, J. V.

118

Particle acceleration and radiation by direct electric fields in flaring complex solar active regions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to connect the energy re- lease process with the acceleration of electrons in solar flares, using a CA modelParticle acceleration and radiation by direct electric fields in flaring complex solar active-Meudon, 92195 Meudon Cedex, FRANCE Abstract The acceleration and radiation of solar energetic particles

Anastasiadis, Anastasios

119

VARIABILITY OF SOLAR RADIATION DATA OVER SHORT TIME INTERVALS Frank Vignola  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

radiation values obtained from models utilizing satellite or cloud cover observation data with solarVARIABILITY OF SOLAR RADIATION DATA OVER SHORT TIME INTERVALS Frank Vignola Department of Physics to evaluate satellite and cloud cover models, it is useful to understand the short-term variability of solar

Oregon, University of

120

Effects of Solar UV Radiation on Morphology and Photosynthesis of Filamentous Cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Hader. 1991. Effects of solar and ultraviolet radiation on...Garcia-Pichel, F. 1998. Solar ultraviolet and the evolutionary...estimation of their screening capacity. Appl. Environ. Microbiol...D. P. 2000. Effects of solar UV-B radiation on aquatic...

Hongyan Wu; Kunshan Gao; Virginia E. Villafae; Teruo Watanabe; E. Walter Helbling

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal solar radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Solar Radiation Resources Applications in Agriculture Based on GIS in Ningxia YanChi  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to exploit solar energy resources, and improve agricultural production and, this paper make a analyses and calculation about the distribution of direct solar radiation in in Yanchi country of Ningxia by using the geographic information system(ViewGIS3.0). ... Keywords: direct solar radiation, agricultural meteorological, GIS, distribution pattern, YanChi

Wang ZhenHua; Yang JianYing

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Theoretical study of gas heated in a porous material subjected to a concentrated solar radiation (*)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

W solar furnace of Solar Energy Laboratory in Odeillo (France). Revue Phys. Appl. 15 (1980) 423-426 MARS423 Theoretical study of gas heated in a porous material subjected to a concentrated solar exposed to the solar radiation. These quantities may be expressed in any set consistent units. 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

123

Analytical and experimental determination of radiation and temperature distributions inside solar receivers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the cavity are calculated. An air-cooled solar receiver has been set up at a 6 kW solar furnace. Flux solar receivers C. Haziza and D. Blay Laboratoire d'Energétique Solaire, 40, avenue du Recteur Pineau concentrated solar radiation is modelized, using the diffuse and semi-gray surface hypothesis and the net

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

124

Asymptotic normalization coefficients, spectroscopic factors, and direct radiative capture rates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The summation over lB and jB is carried out over the values allowed by angular momentum and parity conser- vation in the virtual process B?A1p . The overlap function is the projection of the state wB onto the two-body channel wAwp . This projection..., the spectroscopic factor. The asymptotic behavior of the radial overlap function is given by IAplB jB B ~r ! ? r.RN CAplB jB B W 2hB ,lB11/2~2kBr ! r . ~3! Asymptotic normalization coefficients, spectroscopi A. M. Mukhamedzhanov, C. Cyclotron Institute...

Mukhamedzhanov, AM; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Tribble, Robert E.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Bacterial carbon production in Lake Erie is influenced by viruses and solar radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bacterial carbon production in Lake Erie is influenced by viruses and solar radiation Steven W basin, solar radiation was also dem- onstrated to regulate bacterial productivity. Ultraviolet radiation and >30% of the population of Canada. The lakes themselves constitute the largest system of fresh, surface

Wilhelm, Steven W.

126

Improving the reliability and accuracy of a multipyranometer array measuring solar radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The measurement of solar radiation is crucial for the use of solar energy in fields including power generation, agriculture and meteorology. In the building sciences, It is essential for daylighting studies, energy use calculations, and thermal...

Klima, Peter Miloslaw

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

127

Radiation damage in biomimetic dye molecules for solar cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A significant obstacle to organic photovoltaics is radiation damage either directly by photochemical reactions or indirectly via hot electrons. Such effects are investigated for biomimetic dye molecules for solar cells (phthalocyanines) and for a biological analog (the charge transfer protein cytochrome c). Both feature a central transition metal atom (or H 2 ) surrounded by nitrogen atoms. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy are used to identify three types of radiation-induced changes in the electronic structure of these molecules. (1) The peptidebonds along the backbone of the protein are readily broken while the nitrogen cage remains rather stable in phthalocyanines. This finding suggests minimizing peptide attachments to biologically inspired molecules for photovoltaic applications. (2) The metal atom in the protein changes its 3d electron configuration under irradiation. (3) The Fermi level E F shifts relative to the band gap in phthalocyanine films due to radiation-induced gap states. This effect has little influence on the optical absorption but it changes the lineup between the energy levels of the absorbing dye and the acceptor/donor electrodes that collect the charge carriers in a solar cell.

Peter L. Cook; Phillip S. Johnson; Xiaosong Liu; An-Li Chin; F. J. Himpsel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Intra-hour Direct Normal Irradiance solar forecasting using genetic programming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of renewable resources, including solar energy, to achieveof renewable resources. Solar energy has seen considerable

Queener, Benjamin Daniel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

A limited assessment and characterization of the solar radiation energy resources in the Caribbean region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of our work was to produce a preliminary assessment and characterization of the Caribbean region (Barbados, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Jamaica, and Panama) solar radiation energy resources. Such information will be used to estimate the performance of, and identify the most promising applications of, solar heat technologies in the Caribbean region. We expect the solar radiation resources in the Caribbean region to be very location specific. Sunny areas will have an annual direct-beam resource of about 3,000 kWhm/sup /minus 2// and a global solar radiation resource of about 2,500 kWhm/sup /minus 2//. Cloud-covered areas will have annual solar radiation resources of about 1,500 kWhm/sup /minus 2/ for both the direct-beam and the global solar radiation. Monthly levels of solar radiaion will vary markedly, ranging from an average of 9 to 3 kWhm/sup /minus 2//day/sup /minus 1// for the direct-beam and from an average of 7 to 4 kWhm/sup /minus 2//day/sup /minus 1// for the global solar radiation. The Caribbean region is comparable to the Great Plains region of the US, in terms of annual solar radiation resources; however, thorough ''prospecting'' is required to avoid areas having very low amounts of solar radiation.

Hulstrom, R.L.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Detection of atmospheric Cherenkov radiation using solar heliostat mirrors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The gamma-ray energy region between 20 and 250 GeV is largely unexplored. Ground-based atmospheric Cherenkov detectors offer a possible way to explore this region, but large Cherenkov photon collection areas are needed to achieve low energy thresholds. This paper discusses the development of a Cherenkov detector using the heliostat mirrors of a solar power plant as the primary collector. As part of this development, we built a prototype detector consisting of four heliostat mirrors and used it to record atmospheric Cherenkov radiation produced in extensive air showers created by cosmic ray particles.

Ong, R A

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Chapter 1.12: Solar Radiation Resource Assessment for Renewable Energy Conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter addresses measurements, modeling, and databases of solar energy potential that may serve as fuel for solar energy conversion systems. Developing innovative designs for capturing and converting solar radiation is only one part of the equation for solar system deployment. Identifying, locating, and prospecting for the appropriate quantity and quality of solar resources to fuel these systems is critical to system designers, investors, financial backers, utilities, governments, and owner/operators. This chapter addresses the fundamentals and state of the art for measuring, modeling, and applying solar radiation resource data to meet decision-making needs.

Myers, D. R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

1.12 - Solar Radiation Resource Assessment for Renewable Energy Conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter addresses measurements, modeling, and databases of solar energy potential that may serve as fuel for solar energy conversion systems. Developing innovative designs for capturing and converting solar radiation is only one part of the equation for solar system deployment. Identifying, locating, and prospecting for the appropriate quantity and quality of solar resources to fuel these systems is critical to system designers, investors, financial backers, utilities, governments, and owner/operators. This chapter addresses the fundamentals and state of the art for measuring, modeling, and applying solar radiation resource data to meet decision-making needs.

D.R. Myers

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

University of Texas Panamerican (UTPA): Solar Radiation Lab (SRL); Edinburg, Texas (Data)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

This measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

Ramos, J.; Andreas, A.

134

Human Impact on Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation during the Industrial Era  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study the direct and diffuse solar radiation changes are estimated, and they contribute to the understanding of the observed global dimming and the more recent global brightening during the industrial era. Using a multistream radiative ...

Maria M. Kvalevg; Gunnar Myhre

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Solar Circuitry  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solar Circuitry" with the Solar Powered Energy Kit Curriculum: Solar Power- (lightelectromagnetic radiation, electricity, circuitry, efficiency, energy transformation, subatomic...

136

Current issues in terrestrial solar radiation instrumentation for energy, climate, and space applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Uncertainty in terrestrial solar radiation measurements of a few watts per square metre (1 W/m2 to 2 W/m2) is needed to validate estimates of the Earth's radiation balance derived from satellite data. The characterization of solar energy resources for renewable energy technologies requires similar accuracy for economical technology deployment. Solar radiation measurement research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses calibrations, operational characteristics, and corrections for terrestrial solar radiation measurements. The characterization of field instrument geometric and thermal responses contributing to radiometric errors is described, together with correction schemes reducing the uncertainty of broadband irradiance measurements from tens of watts per square metre to a few (2 W/m2 to 5 W/m2). Such improvements in accuracy reduce the time and labour required for detecting and quantifying trends in terrestrial solar radiation and possible changes in the Earth's radiation budget.

T L Stoffel; I Reda; D R Myers; D Renne; S Wilcox; J Treadwell

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

HEMISPHERIC ASYMMETRIES OF SOLAR PHOTOSPHERIC MAGNETISM: RADIATIVE, PARTICULATE, AND HELIOSPHERIC IMPACTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Among many other measurable quantities, the summer of 2009 saw a considerable low in the radiative output of the Sun that was temporally coincident with the largest cosmic-ray flux ever measured at 1 AU. Combining measurements and observations made by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft we begin to explore the complexities of the descending phase of solar cycle 23, through the 2009 minimum into the ascending phase of solar cycle 24. A hemispheric asymmetry in magnetic activity is clearly observed and its evolution monitored and the resulting (prolonged) magnetic imbalance must have had a considerable impact on the structure and energetics of the heliosphere. While we cannot uniquely tie the variance and scale of the surface magnetism to the dwindling radiative and particulate output of the star, or the increased cosmic-ray flux through the 2009 minimum, the timing of the decline and rapid recovery in early 2010 would appear to inextricably link them. These observations support a picture where the Sun's hemispheres are significantly out of phase with each other. Studying historical sunspot records with this picture in mind shows that the northern hemisphere has been leading since the middle of the last century and that the hemispheric ''dominance'' has changed twice in the past 130 years. The observations presented give clear cause for concern, especially with respect to our present understanding of the processes that produce the surface magnetism in the (hidden) solar interior-hemispheric asymmetry is the normal state-the strong symmetry shown in 1996 was abnormal. Further, these observations show that the mechanism(s) which create and transport the magnetic flux are slowly changing with time and, it appears, with only loose coupling across the equator such that those asymmetries can persist for a considerable time. As the current asymmetry persists and the basal energetics of the system continue to dwindle we anticipate new radiative and particulate lows coupled with increased cosmic-ray fluxes heading into the next solar minimum.

McIntosh, Scott W.; Burkepile, Joan; Miesch, Mark; Markel, Robert S.; Sitongia, Leonard [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Leamon, Robert J. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Gurman, Joseph B. [Solar Physics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Olive, Jean-Philippe [Astrium SAS, 6 rue Laurent Pichat, F-75016 Paris (France); Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Hathaway, David H. [Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

2013-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

138

A new solar radiation data manual for flat?plate and concentrating collectors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new solar radiation data manual is nearing completion by the National Renewable Energy Laboratorys (NRELs) Analytic Studies Division under the Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project and the Photovoltaic Solar Radiation Research Task. These tasks are funded and monitored by the Photovoltaics Branch of the Department of Energys Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The new manual is entitled Solar Radiation Data Manual for Flat?Plate and Concentrating Collectors. For designers and engineers of solar energy related systems it gives the solar resource available for various types of collectors for 239 stations in the United States and its territories. The data in the manual are modeled using diffuse horizontal and direct beam solar radiation values from the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). The NSRDB contains modeled (93%) and measured (7%) global horizontal diffuse horizontal and direct beam solar radiation for 19611990. This paper describes what is contained in the new data manual and how it was developed.

W. Marion; S. Wilcox

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Change in regime and transfer function models of global solar radiation in Kuwait  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The development of the models for global solar radiation in Kuwait is based on removing the annual periodicity and seasonal variation. The first methodology used here is the change in regime technique that relies on dividing the observations into two ... Keywords: ARMA model, Harmonic analysis, Solar radiation, Transfer function

S. A. Al-Awadhi

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

9,400 years of cosmic radiation and solar activity from ice cores and tree rings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

9,400 years of cosmic radiation and solar activity from ice cores and tree rings Friedhelm, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8582, Japan Edited by Timothy Patterson, Carleton) Understanding the temporal variation of cosmic radiation and solar activity during the Holocene is essential

Wehrli, Bernhard

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal solar radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Accuracy of Humidity Measurement on Ships: Consideration of Solar Radiation Effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of heating due to solar radiation on measurements of humidity obtained from ships is examined. Variations in wet- and dry-bulb temperature measured on each side of a research ship are shown to correlate with solar radiation. However, ...

Elizabeth C. Kent; Peter K. Taylor

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

An investigation of solar radiation induced cell death in a human keratinocyte cell line  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Molecular Biology 64: Cell Death Regulators...investigation of solar radiation induced cell death in a human...Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland...basal and squamous cell carcinomas) accounting...radiation from non-solar type UV lamp sources...

Alanna Maguire; James Walsh; and Fiona M. Lyng

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

143

The Larger Opportunities for Research on the Relations of Solar and Terrestrial Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the so-called "solar constant of radiation...an insuperable obstacle to the highest...distribution of energy along the diameter of the solar image. These measurements...quantitative in terms of energy. Something can...reflecting the solar beam by means of...

C. G. Abbot

1920-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

SHORT-TERM FORECASTING OF SOLAR RADIATION BASED ON SATELLITE DATA WITH STATISTICAL METHODS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by one blank line, and from the paper body by two blank lines. 1. INTRODUCTION Fluctuations of solarSHORT-TERM FORECASTING OF SOLAR RADIATION BASED ON SATELLITE DATA WITH STATISTICAL METHODS Annette Solar World Congress. This portion of the paper is the abstract. The abstract should not exceed 250

Heinemann, Detlev

145

Solar simulated radiation induced cell death depends on spectral distribution and irradiance but not output delivery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......research-article Papers Solar simulated radiation induced cell death depends...Dublin Institute of Technology, 13 Camden Row...with a second solar simulator and...Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin 8, Ireland...S. Gov't | Cell Death Cells...effects Photobiology Solar Energy Ultraviolet......

Alanna Maguire; Fiona M. Lyng; James E. Walsh

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Predicted Inactivation of Viruses of Relevance to Biodefense by Solar Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of Relevance to Biodefense by Solar Radiation C. David Lytle Jose-Luis...estimate inactivation of viruses by solar exposure. We reviewed published...74 Tyrrell, R. M. 1978. Solar dosimetry with repair deficient...cells: similar increase in capacity to replicate intact minute-virus-of-mice...

C. David Lytle; Jose-Luis Sagripanti

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

147

Norathyriol Suppresses Skin Cancers Induced by Solar Ultraviolet Radiation by Targeting ERK Kinases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...UVB (5% of the total solar UV radiation) is mainly...norathyriol strongly suppresses solar UVinduced mouse skin...structure was subjected to energy minimization using the...hairless mice exposed to solar UV. The inhibition by...U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy...

Jixia Li; Margarita Malakhova; Madhusoodanan Mottamal; Kanamata Reddy; Igor Kurinov; Andria Carper; Alyssa Langfald; Naomi Oi; Myoung Ok Kim; Feng Zhu; Carlos P. Sosa; Keyuan Zhou; Ann M. Bode; and Zigang Dong

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Norathyriol Suppresses Skin Cancers Induced by Solar Ultraviolet Radiation by Targeting ERK Kinases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Research Animal Resources, University of...induced using a solar UV irradiation system. The solar UV radiation source...mice exposed to solar UV. The inhibition...Center for Research Resources at the NIH. Use...Department of Energy, Office of Basic...

Jixia Li; Margarita Malakhova; Madhusoodanan Mottamal; Kanamata Reddy; Igor Kurinov; Andria Carper; Alyssa Langfald; Naomi Oi; Myoung Ok Kim; Feng Zhu; Carlos P. Sosa; Keyuan Zhou; Ann M. Bode; and Zigang Dong

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Characterization of the solar light field within the ocean mesopelagic zone based on radiative transfer simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Characterization of the solar light field within the ocean mesopelagic zone based on radiative t The solar light field within the ocean from the sea surface to the bottom of the mesopelagic zone there is sufficient amount of solar light to support the process of photosynthesis, and below by the aphotic

Stramski, Dariusz

150

Solar Radiation Monitoring Station (SoRMS): Humboldt State University, Arcata, California (Data)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

A partnership with HSU and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

151

Effects of oxygen concentration on radiative loss from normal-gravity and microgravity methane diffusion flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laminar diffusion flames of methane, burning in quiescent oxidizing environments at atmospheric pressure, have been studied under both normal-gravity and microgravity conditions. Radiation from these flames is measured using a wide-view-angle, thermopile detector radiometer. The oxidizer was 18, 21, and 30 percent oxygen in nitrogen. 17 refs.

Bahadori, M.Y.; Edelman, R.B.; Stocker, D.P.; Sotos, R.G.; Vaughan, D.F. (Science Applications International Corp., Torrance, CA (United States) Rockwell International Corp., Rocketdyne Div., Canoga Park, CA (United States) NASA, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Assessment of SUNY Version 3 Global Horizontal and Direct Normal Solar Irradiance in Canada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, hourly, daily and annual solar resource data derived form the latest SUNY solar model (version 3) using visible and infrared satellite data is analysed and compared with ground measured solar data from eighteen northern- latitude locations distributed all across Canada. The statistics of spatial and temporal differences between the two datasets obtained from the two versions of SUNY model, i.e., V1 and V3, are analysed for both global horizontal irradiance (GHI) and direct normal irradiance (DNI). SUNY V3 GHI and DNI data set is also compared to a dataset produced by the MAC3 cloud layer model for ten northern-latitude locations across Canada. The MAC3 model, using ground-based data, is the basis of the weather design input data files referred to in the current Canadian Model National Energy Code. It is also the model used for generating the CWEEDS (Canadian Weather Energy and Engineering Data Sets) long term hourly dataset, which is in turn used to derive the CWEC files (Canadian Weather year for Energy Calculations) also called typical meteorological years. CWEC files are used for design and analysis in various applications, including buildings heating and cooling as well as solar systems. Overall, results show that SUNY V3 has improved slightly compared to SUNY V1 in terms of estimating global and beam irradiance. Comparison of the SUNY V3 beta model with the MAC3 model seems to indicate that SUNY V3 model is resulting in better DNI estimates than those derived by the MAC3 model. Both SUNY V3 and MAC 3 models give similar estimates for GHI.

Reda Djebbar; Robert Morris; Didier Thevenard; Richard Perez; James Schlemmer

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Dropouts of the outer electron radiation belt in response to solar wind stream interfaces: global positioning system observations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...radiation belt in response to solar wind stream interfaces: global...Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada We present a statistical study...examined statistically for 67 solar wind stream interfaces (SIs...global positioning system|solar wind| 1. Introduction (a...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Exposure to galactic cosmic radiation and solar energetic particles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......various destinations near solar maximum condition (1991...WEATHER EFFECTS Transient solar effects produced by sudden releases of energy in solar flares and CMEs can be observed...predictable, the recent DOSMAX project set out to have active detectors......

D. O'Sullivan

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Statistical correlation between hourly and daily values of solar radiation on horizontal surface at sea level in the Italian climate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

219- Statistical correlation between hourly and daily values of solar radiation on horizontal- nalières du rayonnement solaire. Abstract. 2014 The knowledge of hourly data of solar radiation is required data measured in Italian stations and propose a method to estimate hourly solar radiation

Boyer, Edmond

156

Artificial and Solar UV Radiation Induces Strand Breaks and Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimers in Bacillus subtilis Spore DNA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ECOLOGY Artificial and Solar UV Radiation Induces Strand Breaks and Cyclobutane...to solar UV-B and UV-A radiation (Y. Xue and W. L. Nicholson...monitoring studies at Tokyo, Japan. . N. Munakata Biologically...effective dose of solar ultraviolet radiation estimated by spore dosimetry...

Tony A. Slieman; Wayne L. Nicholson

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Spectral Dependencies of Killing, Mutation, and Transformation in Mammalian Cells and Their Relevance to Hazards Caused by Solar Ultraviolet Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...to Hazards Caused by Solar Ultraviolet Radiation...States Department of Energy, Contract W-31-109-ENG-38...to hazards caused by solar ultraviolet radiation...to Hazards Caused by Solar Ultraviolet Radiation1...States Department of Energy, Contract W-31-109...

F. Suzuki; A. Han; G. R. Lankas; H. Utsumi; and M. M. Elkind

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Observed reductions of surface solar radiation at Sites in the United States and worldwide from 1961 to 1990  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and there is room for further improvement (World Climate Research Programme, 1991). 2. All Sky Solar Radiation Here I use a new quality-tested global database of monthly mean surface solar radiation time seriesObserved reductions of surface solar radiation at Sites in the United States and worldwide from

159

Deriving cloud velocity from an array of solar radiation measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

irradiance sensors at the UC San Diego Solar Energy testUCSD Solar Energy Test Bed (UCSD- SETB). The sensors were

Bosch, J.L.; Zheng, Y.; Kleissl, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Deriving cloud velocity from an array of solar radiation measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar Energy Test Bed (UCSD- SETB). The sensors were placed onto an exposed rooftop without obstacles

Bosch, J.L.; Zheng, Y.; Kleissl, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal solar radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Estimation of hourly global and diffuse solar radiation from hourly sunshine duration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A statistical procedure has been employed to develop correlations of monthly-mean-hourly global and diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface to hourly sunshine duration. Several years of measured data on solar radiation and sunshine duration, reported in the literature for two stations in the southern African region, is employed for this purpose. The applicability of the developed correlations is tested by estimating solar radiation for a new location. The excellent agreement between the measured and estimated data for that station the wide applicability of the method.

Gopinathan, K.K (National Univ. of Lesotho, Roma (South Africa))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

A unified model for radiation-resistance of advanced space solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

1-MeV electron irradiation effects on MBE-grown InGaAs and AlGaAs solar cells have been examined in comparison with previous results for radiation damage of InP and GaAs solar cells in order to clarify radiation-resistance of advanced space solar cells. Moreover, 1-MeV electron irradiation results of several space solar cells such as InP, InGaP, InGaAsP, GaAs, AlGaAs, InGaAs, Si, Ge, and CuInSe{sub 2} cells have also been analyzed by considering their damage constants, bandgap energies and optical absorption coefficients. The authors believe that this study will provide a unified model for radiation-resistance of advanced space solar cells.

Yamaguchi, Masafumi [Toyota Technical Inst., Nagoya (Japan); Katsumoto, Shingo [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Amano, Chikara [NTT Opto-Electrical Labs., Kanagawa (Japan)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

163

Radiation induced recombination centers in organic solar cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Prolonged x-ray exposure of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells induces deep trap states that are observed in measurements of the photocurrent spectral response. The density of induced trap states is proportional to the density of recombination centers as measured by the voltage dependence of the photocurrent, therefore identifying the traps as primary recombination centers. The states are reversible by thermal annealing to about 100?C, which implies a metastable structural change with binding energy 11.2 eV. However, the annealing kinetics reveal three different annealing processes, although for defect states with essentially the same electronic character. Analysis of the radiation damage indicates that defects are formed by hydrogen release from C-H bonds due to electronic excitation by the energetic secondary electrons created by the x rays. Theoretical structure calculations of possible hydrogen-related defects find specific defect states that match the experimental observations and provide values for hydrogen migration energies that are consistent with the annealing kinetics. The effects of prolonged white light exposure are very similar to x-ray exposure, although the annealing kinetics are significantly different. Measurements of the spectral response with bias illumination provide information about the energy level of the localized states.

R. A. Street; J. E. Northrup; B. S. Krusor

2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

164

Interactions between reducing CO2 emissions, CO2 removal and solar radiation management  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...World Energy Council. 41 World Energy Council.2009 Survey of energy resources interim update 2009. London, UK: World Energy Council. 42 Haszeldine, R. S...CO2 emissions, CO2 removal and solar radiation management. | We use...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Modelling of radiation exposure at high altitudes during solar storms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......with a different energy spectrum. To estimate...exposure due to solar flares, a model...measuring the flux of solar and galactic particles...and the high-energy proton and alpha...Exposure during Solar Maximum) project. One flight from......

H. Al Anid; B. J. Lewis; L. G. I. Bennett; M. Takada

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Solar ultraviolet-B radiation and vitamin D: a cross-sectional population-based  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

)D for the population. Conclusions: In Canada, cumulative exposure to ambient solar UV-B has a small but significantSolar ultraviolet-B radiation and vitamin D: a cross-sectional population-based study using dataAUR 17326E125C4(7E3E3C7E>4(72B43.EE7D4" 7D4":BE27B725CE9393BE647 #12;RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Solar

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

167

Sacrificial Hydrogen Generation from Formaldehyde with Pt/TiO2 Photocatalyst in Solar Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sacrificial Hydrogen Generation from Formaldehyde with Pt/TiO2 Photocatalyst in Solar Radiation ... Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9, Canada ... The simulated solar light was generated using solar simulator (model: SS1KW, Sciencetech, ON, Canada with a 1000-W Xe arc lamp and an AM 1.5 G filter). ...

Pankaj Chowdhury; Ghodsieh Malekshoar; Madhumita B. Ray; Jesse Zhu; Ajay K. Ray

2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

168

USING LEARNING MACHINES TO CREATE SOLAR RADIATION MAPS FROM NUMERICAL WEATHER PREDICTION MODELS,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

USING LEARNING MACHINES TO CREATE SOLAR RADIATION MAPS FROM NUMERICAL WEATHER PREDICTION MODELS simulation by means of a Numerical Weather Prediction Model (NWP), Skiron. After that, we have made spatial solar resource map. 2.1. Meteorological simulation The numerical weather prediction model used is SKIRON

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

169

Estimate of Solar Radiative Forcing by Polluted Clouds Using OMI and SCIAMACHY Satellite Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This range of 280-1750 nm contains 92 % of the solar energy. Therefore, SCIAMACHY can be used to determineEstimate of Solar Radiative Forcing by Polluted Clouds Using OMI and SCIAMACHY Satellite Data P. These events we call polluted clouds. Next we zoom in on SW-Africa, where polluted clouds occur most frequently

Graaf, Martin de

170

Impact of surface inhomogeneity on solar radiative transfer under overcast conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Impact of surface inhomogeneity on solar radiative transfer under overcast conditions Zhanqing Li1. Trishchenko Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Received 20 June 2001; revised 26 to a method of estimating surface spectral areal-mean albedo from downwelling solar transmittance measurements

Li, Zhanqing

171

PAPER www.rsc.org/pps | Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences Alteration of chromophoric dissolved organic matter by solar UV radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dissolved organic matter by solar UV radiation causes rapid changes in bacterial community composition dissolved organic carbon concentration. On two occasions during the austral summer, bacteria-free water of the lagoon was exposed to different regions of the solar spectrum (full solar radiation, UV-A + PAR, PAR

Sommaruga, Ruben

172

Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling of Radiation-Induced Hypothyroidism After Head-and-Neck Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To determine the dose-response relationship of the thyroid for radiation-induced hypothyroidism in head-and-neck radiation therapy, according to 6 normal tissue complication probability models, and to find the best-fit parameters of the models. Methods and Materials: Sixty-five patients treated with primary or postoperative radiation therapy for various cancers in the head-and-neck region were prospectively evaluated. Patient serum samples (tri-iodothyronine, thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], free tri-iodothyronine, and free thyroxine) were measured before and at regular time intervals until 1 year after the completion of radiation therapy. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the patients' thyroid gland were derived from their computed tomography (CT)-based treatment planning data. Hypothyroidism was defined as increased TSH (subclinical hypothyroidism) or increased TSH in combination with decreased free thyroxine and thyroxine (clinical hypothyroidism). Thyroid DVHs were converted to 2 Gy/fraction equivalent doses using the linear-quadratic formula with {alpha}/{beta} = 3 Gy. The evaluated models included the following: Lyman with the DVH reduced to the equivalent uniform dose (EUD), known as LEUD; Logit-EUD; mean dose; relative seriality; individual critical volume; and population critical volume models. The parameters of the models were obtained by fitting the patients' data using a maximum likelihood analysis method. The goodness of fit of the models was determined by the 2-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Ranking of the models was made according to Akaike's information criterion. Results: Twenty-nine patients (44.6%) experienced hypothyroidism. None of the models was rejected according to the evaluation of the goodness of fit. The mean dose model was ranked as the best model on the basis of its Akaike's information criterion value. The D{sub 50} estimated from the models was approximately 44 Gy. Conclusions: The implemented normal tissue complication probability models showed a parallel architecture for the thyroid. The mean dose model can be used as the best model to describe the dose-response relationship for hypothyroidism complication.

Bakhshandeh, Mohsen [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, Bijan, E-mail: bhashemi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahdavi, Seied Rabi Mehdi [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nikoofar, Alireza; Vasheghani, Maryam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hafte-Tir Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hafte-Tir Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan [Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Solar: monthly direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km resolution for Central  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

for Central for Central America from SUNY Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Central America. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 10 km by 10 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as kilowatt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from the State University of New York's (SUNY) GOES satellite solar model. This

174

Solar: annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km resolution for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GIS data at 10km resolution for GIS data at 10km resolution for Cuba from SUNY Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Cuba (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 10 km by 10 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as kilowatt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from the State University of New York's (SUNY) GOES satellite solar model. This

175

Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular Composition of Laboratory Proxies of Atmospheric Brown Carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular Composition of Laboratory Proxies A. Nizkorodov*, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697, United

Nizkorodov, Sergey

176

Broadband Model Performance for an Updated National Solar Radiation Database in the United States of America: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Updated review of broadband model performance in a project being done to update the existing United States National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB).

Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S.; Marion, W.; George, R.; Anderberg, M.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Response of five tropical plant species to natural solar ultraviolet-B radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The tropical latitudes currently receive high solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280-320 nm) even without ozone depletion. Thus, the influence of natural, present-day UV-B irradiance was examined for three native rainforest tree species and two economically important species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama (9[degrees] N). Solar UV-B radiation conditions were obtained using a UV-B excluding plastic film or a near-ambient UV-B transmitting film over potted plants in a small clearing. Significant differences were often exhibited as increased foliar UV-B absorbing compounds, increased leaf mass pre area, and reduced leaf blade length for plants receiving solar UV-B radiation. Plant height was typically reduced under solar UV-B, but some variation among species in response was seen. Biomass and photosystem II function were generally unaffected. The results provide evidence that tropical vegetation responds to the present level of Solar UV-B radiation. This suggests even a small increase in UV-B radiation with ozone depletion may have biological implications.

Searles, P.S.; Caldwell, M.M. (Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)); Winter, K. (Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa (Panama))

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Solar irradiance changes and photobiological effects at Earth's surface following astrophysical ionizing radiation events  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Astrophysical ionizing radiation events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in surface-level solar ultraviolet radiation. Simulations of the atmospheric effects of a variety of events (such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events) have been previously published, along with estimates of biological damage at Earth's surface. In this work, we employed the TUV radiative transfer model to expand and improve calculations of surface-level irradiance and biological impacts following an ionizing radiation event. We considered changes in surface-level UVB, UVA, and photosynthetically active radiation (visible light) for clear-sky conditions and fixed aerosol parameter values. We also considered a wide range of biological effects on organisms ranging from humans to phytoplankton. We found that past work overestimated UVB irradiance, but that relative estimates for increase in exposure to DNA damaging radi...

Thomas, Brian C; Snyder, Brock R

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Solar Cycle Variation and Application to the Space Radiation Environment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The interplanetary plasma and fields are affected by the degree of disturbance that is related to the number and types of sunspots in the solar surface. Sunspot observations were improved with the introduction of the telescope in the seventeenth century, ...

Wilson John W.; Kim Myung-Hee Y.; Shinn Judy L.; Tai Hsiang; Cucinotta Francis A.; Badhwar Gautam D.; Badavi Francis F.; Atwell William

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

For the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and the Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

H:PVKitComponents© TableH.1:ContentsofPVKitandpartsrequiredforcomponents Quantity Item Quantity Item 1 Solar panel 1 and the Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

Oregon, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal solar radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Radiation Dry Bias in the TWP-ICE Radiosonde Soundings Solar Zenith Angle Correction Factor  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radiation Dry Bias in the TWP-ICE Radiosonde Soundings Radiation Dry Bias in the TWP-ICE Radiosonde Soundings Solar Zenith Angle Correction Factor Figure 3: Ratio of MWR TCWV to radiosonde derived TCWV, and the solar zenith angle at the radiosonde launch time (black dots). The dry bias observed in sonde TCWV values is mainly attributable to a dry RH bias near the surface The red dots show the 1000 hPa RH correction factors suggested by Voemel et al for sondes launched near noon (10-30 degree solar zenith angle), and at night time (90 degree zenith angle). The green line shows a modified RH correction factor which is a function of the solar zenith angle. ● During the day-time, the TCWV bias is significantly smaller when the zenith angle correction is applied than when no correction, or only the Crad and Ccal corrections are applied.

182

JANUARY 1998 5L I Influence of Absorbing Aerosols on the Inference of Solar Surface Radiation Budget  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

JANUARY 1998 5L I Influence of Absorbing Aerosols on the Inference of Solar Surface Radiation Budget and Cloud Absorption ZHANQING LI Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada of absorbing aerosols on the retrieval of the solar surface radiation budget (SSRB) and on the inference

Li, Zhanqing

183

Ann. Geophysicae 14, 1051--1059 (1996) EGS --Springer-Verlag 1996 Diffuse solar radiation and associated meteorological  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

received from the sky assumes great importance in problems concerning the utilization of solar energy represents the short- wave energy of solar origin scattered downwards by gas molecules, aerosols (orAnn. Geophysicae 14, 1051--1059 (1996) EGS -- Springer-Verlag 1996 Diffuse solar radiation

Boyer, Edmond

184

Forecasting of Solar Radiation Detlev Heinemann, Elke Lorenz, Marco Girodo  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Any efficient implementation of wind and solar energy conversion processes has to account, numerical model 1. Introduction One of the major challenges for future global energy supply application. Examples are the storage management in stand-alone photo- voltaic or wind energy systems, control

Heinemann, Detlev

185

Beyer H.-G., Czeplak G., Terzenbach U., Wald L., 1997. Assessment of the method used to construct clearness index maps for the new european solar radiation atlas (ESRA). Solar Energy, 61, 6, 389-397.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

clearness index maps for the new european solar radiation atlas (ESRA). Solar Energy, 61, 6, 389 period 1981-1990, the setup of a toolbox to derive the radiation parameters of relevance for solar energy, published in "Solar Energy 61, 6 (1997) 389-397" #12;Beyer H.-G., Czeplak G., Terzenbach U., Wald L., 1997

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

186

Extremely Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Up-regulates CXC Chemokines in Normal Human Fibroblasts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...with radiation exposure (1). Ionizing radiation at moderate and higher doses (0.1-10 Gy) can produce DNA strand...death. Studies of mutants sensitive to ionizing radiation at this range of doses have revealed that the responsible genes...

Akira Fujimori; Ryuichi Okayasu; Hiroshi Ishihara; Satoshi Yoshida; Kiyomi Eguchi-Kasai; Kumie Nojima; Satoru Ebisawa; and Sentaro Takahashi

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

Brazil Global Horizontal Solar Radiation Model (10km) from INPE | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

10km) from INPE 10km) from INPE Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Global horizontal solar radiation in kWh/m2/day for 1 year organized into cells with 10km x 10km (Purpose): The BRASIL-SR model and the SPRING software (both developed by INPE - National Institute for Space Research) were used to produce the dataset and SHAPE files (Supplemental Information): The assessment of reliability levels of the BRASIL-SR model were performed through the evaluation of the deviations shown by the estimated values for solar radiation flux vis-à-vis the values measured at the surface (ground truth). This evaluation was done in two phases. The first phase consisted in an inter-comparison between the core radiation transfer models adopted by the SWERA Project to map the solar energy in the various countries participating in the project. The HELIOSAT model took part in this phase like benchmark due to its employment to map solar energy resources in countries from European Union. In the second phase, the solar flux estimates provided by the BRASIL-SR model were compared with measured values acquired at several solarimetric stations spread along the Brazilian territory

188

Brazil Global Horizontal Solar Radiation Model (40km) from INPE | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

40km) from INPE 40km) from INPE Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Global horizontal solar radiation in kWh/m2/day for 1 year organized into cells with 40km x 40km (Purpose): To provide a set of consistent, reliable, verifiable, and accessible global data sets for international and in-country investors and other stakeholders (Supplemental Information): The BRASIL-SR model and the SPRING software (both developed by INPE - National Institute for Space Research) were used to produce the dataset and SHAPE files. The assessment of reliability levels of the BRASIL-SR model were performed through the evaluation of the deviations shown by the estimated values for solar radiation flux vis-à-vis the values measured at the surface (ground truth). This evaluation was done in two phases. The first phase consisted in an inter-comparison between the core radiation transfer models adopted by the SWERA Project to map the solar energy in the various countries participating in the project. The HELIOSAT model took art in this phase like benchmark due to its employment to map solar energy resources in countries from European Union. In the second phase, the solar flux estimates provided by the BRASIL-SR model were compared with measured values acquired at several solarimetric stations spread along the Brazilian territory.

189

Brazil Latitude Tilted Solar Radiation Model (10km) from INPE and LABSOLAR  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

10km) from INPE and LABSOLAR 10km) from INPE and LABSOLAR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Latitude tilted solar radiation in kWh/m2/day for 1 year organized into cells with 10km x 10km (Purpose): The BRASIL-SR model and the SPRING software (both developed by INPE -National Institute for Space Research) were used to produce the dataset and SHAPE files (Supplemental Information): The assessment of reliability levels of the BRASIL-SR model were performed through the evaluation of the deviations shown by the estimated values for solar radiation flux vis-à-vis the values measured at the surface (ground truth). This evaluation was done in two phases. The first phase consisted in an inter-comparison between the core radiation transfer models adopted by the SWERA Project to map the solar energy in the various countries participating in the project. The HELIOSAT model took part in this phase like benchmark due to its employment to map solar energy resources incountries from European Union. In the second phase, the solar flux estimates providedby the BRASIL-SR model were compared with measured values acquired at several solarimetric stations spread along the Brazilian territory

190

Satellite-Based Techniques for the Retrieval of Solar Radiation Data A Review of Current European  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Meteosat satellite generation MSG which will be launched in 2002. This platform will show resolutions will be the availability of more detailed information on atmospheric constituents affecting the atmospheric transmittance of solar radiation (clouds, water vapor, aerosols, ozone) through the use of twelve spectral radiometer

Heinemann, Detlev

191

Absorption of solar radiation by the cloudy atmosphere: Further interpretations of collocated aircraft measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Absorption of solar radiation by the cloudy atmosphere: Further interpretations of collocated%) of this enhanced cloud absorption occurs at wavelengths 680 nm, and that the observed cloud absorption does stated, the purpose of ARESE was to address the issue of cloud shortwave (SW) absorption. Do clouds

Zender, Charles

192

Solar radiation management impacts on agriculture in China: A case study in the Geoengineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar radiation management impacts on agriculture in China: A case study in the Geoengineering, Environment Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 3 School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, 4 State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology

Robock, Alan

193

2008 European PV Conference, Valencia, Spain COMPARISON OF SOLAR RADIATION FORECASTS FOR THE USA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2008 European PV Conference, Valencia, Spain COMPARISON OF SOLAR RADIATION FORECASTS FOR THE USA J, The University at Albany, 251 Fuller Rd, Albany, NY 12203, USA 3 University of Oldenburg, Institute of Physics for a half year period (summer 2007) at three different climates in the USA. ECMWF shows the best results

Perez, Richard R.

194

Decomposition of H2SO4 by Direct Solar Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The experimental apparatus is presented in Figure 2 and consists of four parts:? the 1.5 kW solar furnace (Figure 2a), the high-temperature reactor (Figure 2b), the H2SO4 + N2 inlet feeding system and the reaction product collector system. ... A large temperature gradient was observed in the hot zone both across the horizontal section and along the vertical direction. ...

Sergio Brutti; Giovanni De Maria; Giovanni Cerri; Ambra Giovannelli; Bruno Brunetti; Patrizia Cafarelli; Elvio Semprin; Vincenzo Barbarossa; Antonio Ceroli

2007-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

195

Definition: Direct normal irradiance | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

normal irradiance normal irradiance (Redirected from Definition:DNI) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Direct normal irradiance the amount of solar radiation received per unit area by a surface perpendicular (normal) to the rays that come in a straight line from the direction of the sun at its current position in the sky.[1] Also Known As DNI Related Terms Solar radiation, Irradiance, Concentrating solar power, Global horizontal irradiance References ↑ http://www.3tier.com/en/support/glossary/#dni Retrie LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. ved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Direct_normal_irradiance&oldid=423379" Category: Definitions What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link

196

Method and apparatus for measuring solar radiation in a vegetative canopy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for measuring solar radiation received in a vegetative canopy. A multiplicity of sensors selectively generates electrical signals in response to impinging photosynthetically active radiation in sunlight. Each sensor is attached to a plant within the canopy and is electrically connected to a separate port in a junction box having a multiplicity of ports. Each port is connected to an operational amplifier. Each amplifier amplifies the signals generated by the sensors. Each amplifier is connected to an analog-to-digital convertor which digitizes each signal. A computer is connected to the convertors and accumulates and stores solar radiation data. A data output device such as a printer is connected to the computer and displays the data.

Gutschick, V.P.; Barron, M.H.; Waechter, D.A.; Wolf, M.A.

1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

197

Method and apparatus for measuring solar radiation in a vegetative canopy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for measuring solar radiation received in a vegetative canopy. A multiplicity of sensors selectively generates electrical signals in response to impinging photosynthetically active radiation in sunlight. Each sensor is attached to a plant within the canopy and is electrically connected to a separate port in a junction box having a multiplicity of ports. Each port is connected to an operational amplifier. Each amplifier amplifies the signals generated by the sensors. Each amplifier is connected to an analog-to-digital convertor which digitizes each signal. A computer is connected to the convertors and accumulates and stores solar radiation data. A data output device such as a printer is connected to the computer and displays the data.

Gutschick, Vincent P. (Los Alamos, NM); Barron, Michael H. (Los Alamos, NM); Waechter, David A. (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Solar: hourly global horizontal (GHI) and direct normal (DNI) data for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ethiopia from DLR Ethiopia from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Hourly time series of GHI and DNI for the years 2000, 2001 and 2002 for selected sites in Ethiopia. The hourly data are stored in ASCII files for each station. Please read the documentation file for additional information. (Purpose): For the selected sites, the hourly time series can be used for the simulation of Photovoltaic (PV)-systems or Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)-systems. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI GHI hourly data solar SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download data (zip, 2.1 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

199

Solar: hourly global horizontal (GHI) and direct normal (DNI) data for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenya from DLR Kenya from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Hourly time series of GHI and DNI for the years 2000, 2001 and 2002 for selected sites in Kenya. The hourly data are stored in ASCII files for each station. Please read the documentation file for additional information. (Purpose): For the selected sites, the hourly time series can be used for the simulation of Photovoltaic (PV)-systems or Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)-systems. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI GEF GHI hourly data Kenya solar SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download data (zip, 3.9 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

200

Solar: hourly global horizontal (GHI) and direct normal (DNI) data for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nepal from DLR Nepal from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Hourly time series of GHI and DNI for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003 for selected sites in Nepal. The hourly data are stored in ASCII files for each station. Please read the documentation file for additional information. (Purpose): For the selected sites, the hourly time series can be used for the simulation of Photovoltaic (PV)-systems or Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)-systems. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI GEF GHI hourly data Nepal NREL solar SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download data (zip, 1.2 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal solar radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Solar: hourly global horizontal (GHI) and direct normal (DNI) data for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sri Lanka sites from DLR Sri Lanka sites from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Hourly time series of GHI and DNI for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003 for selected sites in Sri Lanka. The hourly data are stored in ASCII files for each station. Please read the documentation file for additional information. (Purpose): For the selected sites, the hourly time series can be used for the simulation of Photovoltaic (PV)-systems or Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)-systems. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI GHI hourly data solar Sri Lanka SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download data (zip, 368.2 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment

202

Solar: hourly global horizontal (GHI) and direct normal (DNI) data for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

China sites from DLR China sites from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Hourly time series of GHI and DNI for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003 for selected sites in China. The hourly data are stored in ASCII files for each station. Please read the documentation file for additional information. (Purpose): For the selected sites, the hourly time series can be used for the simulation of Photovoltaic (PV)-systems or Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)-systems. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords China DLR DNI GEF GHI solar SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Data (zip, 953.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

203

Solar: hourly global horizontal (GHI) and direct normal (DNI) data for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ghana from DLR Ghana from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Hourly time series of GHI and DNI for the years 2000, 2001 and 2002 for selected sites in Ghana. The hourly data are stored in ASCII files for each station. Please read the documentation file for additional information. (Purpose): For the selected sites, the hourly time series can be used for the simulation of Photovoltaic (PV)-systems or Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)-systems. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI Ghana GHI hourly data solar SWERA TILT TMY UNEP Data application/zip icon ghanaDLRtimeseries_103.zip (zip, 2.7 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment

204

Solar: hourly global horizontal (GHI) and direct normal (DNI) data for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bangladesh sites from DLR Bangladesh sites from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Hourly time series of GHI and DNI for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003 for selected sites in Bangladesh. The hourly data are stored in ASCII files for each station. Please read the documentation file for additional information. (Purpose): For the selected sites, the hourly time series can be used for the simulation of Photovoltaic (PV)-systems or Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)-systems. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords Bangladesh DLR DNI GHI hourly data solar SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Data (zip, 1.2 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment

205

NREL: TroughNet - Parabolic Trough Technology Solar Resource Data and Tools  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solar Resource Data and Tools Solar Resource Data and Tools Here you'll find resources on solar radiation data and tools for siting parabolic trough power plants. This includes solar radiation data for power plants in the United States and worldwide. You'll also find resources for direct solar radiation instrumentation. For an overview on solar resource terms and direct beam radiation used for concentrating solar power technologies, see NREL's Shining On Web site. U.S. Solar Radiation Resource Data The following resources include maps, and hourly metrological and solar resource data for parabolic trough power plants sites in the United States. NREL Concentrating Solar Power Resource Maps Features direct normal solar radiation maps of the southwestern United States, including state maps for Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico,

206

Brazil PAR Solar Radiation Model (40km) from INPE and LABSOLAR | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

40km) from INPE and LABSOLAR 40km) from INPE and LABSOLAR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Photosynthetically active radiation in kWh/m2/day for 1 year organized into cells with 40km x 40km (Purpose): The BRASIL-SR model and the SPRING software (both developed by INPE - National Institute for Space Research) were used to produce the dataset and SHAPE files (Supplemental Information): The assessment of reliability levels of the BRASIL-SR model were performed through the evaluation of the deviations shown by the estimated values for solar radiation flux vis-à-vis the values measured at the surface (ground truth). This evaluation was done in two phases. The first phase consisted in an inter-comparison between the core radiation transfer models adopted by the SWERA Project to map the solar energy in the various countries participating in the project. The HELIOSAT model took part in this phase like benchmark due to its employment to map solar energy resources in countries from European Union. In the second phase, the solar flux estimates provided by the BRASIL-SR model were compared with measured values acquired at several solarimetric stations spread along the Brazilian territory

207

Brazil PAR Solar Radiation Model (10km) from INPE and LABSOLAR | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

10km) from INPE and LABSOLAR 10km) from INPE and LABSOLAR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Photosynthetically active radiation in kWh/m2/day for 1 year organized into cells with 10km x 10km (Purpose): The BRASIL-SR model and the SPRING software (both developed by INPE -National Institute for Space Research) were used to produce the dataset and SHAPE files (Supplemental Information): The assessment of reliability levels of the BRASIL-SR model were performed through the evaluation of the deviations shown by the estimated values for solar radiation flux vis-à-vis the values measured at the surface (ground truth). This evaluation was done in two phases. The first phase consisted in an inter-comparison between the core radiation transfer models adopted by the SWERA Project to map the solar energy in the various countries participating in the project. The HELIOSAT model took part in this phase like benchmark due to its employment to map solar energy resources in countries from European Union. In the second phase, the solar flux estimates provided by the BRASIL-SR model were compared with measured values acquired at several solarimetric stations spread along the Brazilian territory

208

High-temperature photochemical destruction of toxic organic wastes using concentrated solar radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Application of concentrated solar energy has been proposed to be a viable waste disposal option. Specifically, this concept of solar induced high-temperature photochemistry is based on the synergistic contribution of concentrated infrared (IR) radiation, which acts as an intense heating source, and near ultraviolet and visible (UV-VIS) radiation, which can induce destructive photochemical processes. Some significant advances have been made in the theoretical framework of high-temperature photochemical processes (Section 2) and development of experimental techniques for their study (Section 3). Basic thermal/photolytic studies have addressed the effect of temperature on the photochemical destruction of pure compounds (Section 4). Detailed studies of the destruction of reaction by-products have been conducted on selected waste molecules (Section 5). Some very limited results are available on the destruction of mixtures (Section 6). Fundamental spectroscopic studies have been recently initiated (Section 7). The results to date have been used to conduct some relatively simple scale-up studies of the solar detoxification process. More recent work has focused on destruction of compounds that do not directly absorb solar radiation. Research efforts have focused on homogeneous as well as heterogeneous methods of initiating destructive reaction pathways (Section 9). Although many conclusions at this point must be considered tentative due to lack of basic research, a clearer picture of the overall process is emerging (Section 10). However, much research remains to be performed and most follow several veins, including photochemical, spectroscopic, combustion kinetic, and engineering scale-up (Section 11).

Dellinger, B.; Graham, J.L.; Berman, J.M.; Taylor, P.H. [Dayton Univ., OH (United States)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Solar Radiation, its Measurement and Application in Solar Energy Utilization Programme  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The electromagnetic radiation emitted by the sun, covers a very large range of wavelengths, from radiowaves through the visible to X-rays and gamma rays. But 99 percent of this energy is contained in the region 0...

A. Mani

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimating Unmeasured Solar Radiation Quantities . . . . . .Weather Data . . . . . , . , . . . . . . . . . .Solar DataB. l'he Solar Constant. . . . . . C. Solar Time and Standard

Berdahl, P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Radiation Absorption and Optimization of Solar Photocatalytic Reactors for Environmental Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ray tracing technique was coupled with the six-flux absorption scattering model (SFM) to analyze the complex radiation field in solar compound parabolic collectors (CPC) and tubular photoreactors. ... The SFM was applied to estimate the LVRPA in a flat plate (21), in annular reactors to model the photocatalytic degradation of phenylurea and triazine herbicides (12, 13), and in conjunction with ray tracing to model the photocatalytic mineralization of commercial herbicides (used in sugar cane crops) in a pilot-scale, solar, compound parabolic collector (CPC) reactor (22). ... horizontal coordinate, m ...

Jose Colina-Mrquez; Fiderman Machuca-Martnez; Gianluca Li Puma

2010-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

212

extremely low-dose ionizing radiation upregulates CXC chemokines in normal human fibroblasts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...2006 Abstract Tumor Biology 32: Radiation Biology 2 Proc Amer Assoc Cancer...Volume 47, 2006 extremely low-dose ionizing radiation upregulates CXC chemokines in...biological effects of this low dose range have not been established. We...

Akira Fujimori; Katsutoshi Suetomi; Keiji Kinoshita; Ayako Kojima; Yaqun Fang; Ayako Egusa; and Ryuichi Okayasu

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

213

Extremely Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Up-regulates CXC Chemokines in Normal Human Fibroblasts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Research Center for Radiation Safety, National...263-8555 Chiba, Japan. Phone: 81-43-206-3159...doses of ionizing radiation (5). A recent...study showed that Japan has the worlds highest...Research Center for Radiation Safety, National...Inage, Chiba, Japan. fujimora@nirs...

Akira Fujimori; Ryuichi Okayasu; Hiroshi Ishihara; Satoshi Yoshida; Kiyomi Eguchi-Kasai; Kumie Nojima; Satoru Ebisawa; and Sentaro Takahashi

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

214

High-sensitivity observations of solar flare decimeter radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new acousto-optic radio spectrometer has observed the 1 - 2 GHz radio emission of solar flares with unprecedented sensitivity. The number of detected decimeter type III bursts is greatly enhanced compared to observations by conventional spectrometers observing only one frequency at the time. The observations indicate a large number of electron beams propagating in dense plasmas. For the first time, we report weak, reversed drifting type III bursts at frequencies above simultaneous narrowband decimeter spikes. The type III bursts are reliable signatures of electron beams propagating downward in the corona, apparently away from the source of the spikes. The observations contradict the most popular spike model that places the spike sources at the footpoints of loops. Conspicuous also was an apparent bidirectional type U burst forming a fish-like pattern. It occurs simultaneously with an intense U-burst at 600-370 MHz observed in Tremsdorf. We suggest that it intermodulated with strong terrestrial interference (cellular phones) causing a spurious symmetric pattern in the spectrogram at 1.4 GHz. Symmetric features in the 1 - 2 GHz range, some already reported in the literature, therefore must be considered with utmost caution.

Arnold O. Benz; Peter Messmer; Christian Monstein

2000-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

215

The optimization of solar radiation upon a rectangular building  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and July, 2 ~ LAT = 0 q 15 Ny 30 N ~ 45 Nq end 60 Nr 3 ' Te0 ~ ? Oe 5 ~ 0 ~ 7y and 0 ~ 9e 4? A = 1BO ~ 210 g 240 p 270 , 300 ~ 330 ~ and 360 , and, 5~ E = 0 f 15 g 30 p 60 ~ and 90 ~ The results of the calculations are listed, in tabular form... = 330 and 30 16 x = January o = July 18 ~g 16 e lo 10 8 180 North Pig@ (T. C. 180 North 370 360 QO East South %est AZI?U N OP SURPACE (degrees) 1 ~ . Direct radiat' on on a given surface, c 3 o 0 ~ 7 ~ Latitude = 30 N, Slcpe = 15 ) 22...

Ingle, James Allen

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Solar UV-B in tropical forest gaps: Analysis using direct and diffuse radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experiments with natural levels of solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) have recently shown inhibition of the growth of some tropical forest tree seedlings. A knowledge of forest radiation environments is needed to help assess UV-B effects in natural situations. Although forest canopies strongly attenuate solar radiation, treefall gaps provide a very different radiation environment. We simultaneously measured both UV-B and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in forest gaps on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Outside the forest, UV-B is predominately diffuse even under clear sky conditions. In sunflecks of small forest gaps, most of the UV-B was in the direct beam component. Compared to conditions outside the forest, the UV-B in these sunflecks was low relative to PAR. Shaded portions of the gap, in contrast, had proportionately high levels of UV-B relative to PAR. There are indications in the literature that relatively low UV-B levels may be effective under low PFD. Seasonal trends of PAR and UV-B in different locations in gaps can be inferred from hemispherical canopy photographs.

Flint, S.D.; Caldwell, M.M. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

direct normal | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

normal normal Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): A map depicting model estimates of monthly average daily total radiation using inputs derived from satellite and surface observations of cloud cover, aerosol optical depth, precipitable water vapor, albedo, atmospheric pressure and ozone sampled at a 40km resolution. (Purpose): A visual depiction of solar energy resource for concentrating solar power systems. Source NREL Date Released December 11th, 2003 (10 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords Central America direct normal DNI map NREL solar SWERA UNEP Data application/pdf icon Download Map (pdf, 67.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below

218

Brazil Latitude Tilted Solar Radiation Model (40km) from INPE and LABSOLAR  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

40km) from INPE and LABSOLAR 40km) from INPE and LABSOLAR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Latitude tilted solar radiation in kWh/m2/day for 1 year organized into cells with 40km x 40km (Purpose): To provide a set of consistent, reliable, verifiable, and accessible global data sets for international and in-country investors and other stakeholders (Supplemental Information): The BRASIL-SR model and the SPRING software (both developed by INPE - National Institute for Space Research) were used to produce the dataset and SHAPE files.The assessment of reliability levels of the BRASIL-SR model were performed through the evaluation of the deviations shown by the estimated values for solar radiation flux vis-à-vis the values measured at the surface (ground truth). This evaluation was done in two phases. The first phase

219

Solar Radiation Data Manual for Flat-Plate and Concentrating Collectors  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Solar Radiation Data Manual Solar Radiation Data Manual for Flat-Plate and Concentrating Collectors NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefuleness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply iots endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not

220

Millimeter radiation from a 3D model of the solar atmosphere I. Diagnosing chromospheric thermal structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aims. We use advanced 3D NLTE radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar atmosphere to carry out detailed tests of chromospheric diagnostics at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. Methods. We focused on the diagnostics of the thermal structure of the chromosphere in the wavelength bands from 0.4 mm up to 9.6 mm that can be accessed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) and investigated how these diagnostics are affected by the instrumental resolution. Results. We find that the formation height range of the millimeter radiation depends on the location in the simulation domain and is related to the underlying magnetic structure. Nonetheless, the brightness temperature is a reasonable measure of the gas temperature at the effective formation height at a given location on the solar surface. There is considerable scatter in this relationship, but this is significantly reduced when very weak magnetic fields are avoided. Our results indicate that although instrumental smearin...

Loukitcheva, Maria; Carlsson, Mats; White, Stephen

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal solar radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

National Solar Radiation Database 1991--2005 Update: Users Manual  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future National Solar Radiation Database 1991-2005 Update: User's Manual Technical Report NREL/TP-581-41364 April 2007 NREL is operated by Midwest Research Institute ● Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 National Solar Radiation Database 1991-2005 Update: User's Manual Prepared under Task No. PVA7.6102 Technical Report NREL/TP-581-41364 April 2007 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy by Midwest Research Institute * Battelle

222

Heat efficiency of translucent cover-radiation absorbing heat-exchange panel system of flat solar collectors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An analytic expression is proposed for determining the heat efficiency of the translucent cover-radiation absorbing heat-exchange panel system of flat solar collectors, and on its base the heat efficiency of th...

R. R. Avezov; N. R. Avezova

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Response of natural phytoplankton assemblages to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-B) in the coastal water, Japan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Variability in the effect of solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-B) on primary productivity of ... water off Manazuru Harbor, Sagami Bay, central Japan for two full years during the period...13C method. Size distribu...

Takashi Sugawara; K. Hamasaki; T. Toda; T. Kikuchi; Satoru Taguchi

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

New data on the effect of solar radiation and ?-farnesene on development of apple superficial scald during storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The previously unknown selective effect of solar radiation on the development of apple superficial scald is established. Superficial scald doesnt occur on the sun-exposed side of certain green fruits after st...

S. A. Rodikov

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL): Baseline Measurement System (BMS); Golden, Colorado (Data)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The SRRL was established at the Solar Energy Research Institute (now NREL) in 1981 to provide continuous measurements of the solar resources, outdoor calibrations of pyranometers and pyrheliometers, and to characterize commercially available instrumentation. The SRRL is an outdoor laboratory located on South Table Mountain, a mesa providing excellent solar access throughout the year, overlooking Denver. Beginning with the basic measurements of global horizontal irradiance, direct normal irradiance and diffuse horizontal irradiance at 5-minute intervals, the SRRL Baseline Measurement System now produces more than 130 data elements at 1-min intervals that are available from the Measurement & Instrumentation Data Center Web site. Data sources include global horizontal, direct normal, diffuse horizontal (from shadowband and tracking disk), global on tilted surfaces, reflected solar irradiance, ultraviolet, infrared (upwelling and downwelling), photometric and spectral radiometers, sky imagery, and surface meteorological conditions (temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, precipitation, snow cover, wind speed and direction at multiple levels). Data quality control and assessment include daily instrument maintenance (M-F) with automated data quality control based on real-time examinations of redundant instrumentation and internal consistency checks using NREL's SERI-QC methodology. Operators are notified of equipment problems by automatic e-mail messages generated by the data acquisition and processing system. Radiometers are recalibrated at least annually with reference instruments traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR).

Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

226

Using direct normal irradiance models and utility electrical loading to assess benefit of a concentrating solar power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of this paper was to determine if three different direct normal irradiance (DNI) models were sufficiently accurate to determine if concentrating solar power (CSP) plants could meet the utility electrical load. DNI data were measured at three different laboratories in the United States and compared with DNI calculated by three DNI models. In addition, utility electrical loading data were obtained for all three locations. The DNI models evaluated were: the Direct Insolation Simulation Code (DISC), DIRINT, and DIRINDEX. On an annual solar insolation (e.g. kWh/m2) basis, the accuracy of the DNI models at all three locations was within: 7% (DISC), 5% (DIRINT), and 3% (DIRINDEX). During the three highest electrical loading months at the three locations, the monthly accuracy varied from: 0% to 16% (DISC), 0% to 9% (DIRINT), and 0% to 8% (DIRINDEX). At one location different pyranometers were used to measure GHI, and the most expensive pyranometers did not improve the DNI model monthly accuracy. In lieu of actually measuring DNI, using the DIRINT model was felt to be sufficient for assessing whether to build a CSP plant at one location, but use of either the DIRINT or DIRINDEX models was felt to be marginal for the other two locations due to errors in modeling DNI for utility peak electrical loading days especially for partly cloudy days.

Brian D. Vick; Daryl R. Myers; William E. Boyson

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Comparison of Historical Satellite-Based Estimates of Solar Radiation Resources with Recent Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Measurements: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The availability of rotating shadow band radiometer measurement data at several new stations provides an opportunity to compare historical satellite-based estimates of solar resources with measurements. We compare mean monthly daily total (MMDT) solar radiation data from eight years of NSRDB and 22 years of NASA hourly global horizontal and direct beam solar estimates with measured data from three stations, collected after the end of the available resource estimates.

Myers, D. R.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Optimum fixed orientations and benefits of tracking for capturing solar radiation in the continental United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solar collector, Solar & Wind Technology. 4 (1987) 407-410.to the solar azimuth. While other tracking technologies such

Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Concentrating Solar Power  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Concentrating Solar Power Resource Maps Concentrating Solar Power Resource Maps These direct-normal solar radiation maps-filtered by solar resource and land availability-identify the most economically suitable lands available for deploying of large-scale concentrating solar power plants in the southwestern United States. Each of the following seven states, as well as the southwestern U.S. region, has two maps: the left and right maps represent analyses excluding land with slopes >1% and >3%, respectively. Lower-resolution jpg versions are available below; much higher-resolution pdf files, suitable for plotting large-scale posters, can be requested. You can also access an unfiltered direct-normal solar radiation map of the southwestern United States. Download Adobe Reader. Southwestern U.S.

230

Brazil Direct Normal Solar Radiation Model (10km) from INPE and...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Data Download Download Data URL: http:en.openei.orgdatasetsdataset4378e298-a06a-46c3-a187-6eb50b8699d0resource8e9b8d76-5fdb-4162-9e65-5dc5ccbab8fadownload...

231

Brazil Direct Normal Solar Radiation Model (10km) from INPE and...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Shapefile Download Download Shapefile URL: http:en.openei.orgdatasetsdataset4378e298-a06a-46c3-a187-6eb50b8699d0resource70043e8d-e4fe-47b6-a725-18d5d27aaae2download...

232

Modeling the Dynamical Coupling of Solar Convection with the Radiative Interior  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The global dynamics of a rotating star like the Sun involves the coupling of a highly turbulent convective envelope overlying a seemingly benign radiative interior. We use the anelastic spherical harmonic code to develop a new class of three-dimensional models that nonlinearly couple the convective envelope to a deep stable radiative interior. The numerical simulation assumes a realistic solar stratification from r = 0.07 up to 0.97R (with R the solar radius), thus encompassing part of the nuclear core up through most of the convection zone. We find that a tachocline naturally establishes itself between the differentially rotating convective envelope and the solid body rotation of the interior, with a slow spreading that is here diffusively controlled. The rapid angular momentum redistribution in the convective envelope leads to a fast equator and slow poles, with a conical differential rotation achieved at mid-latitudes, much as has been deduced by helioseismology. The convective motions are able to overshoot downward about 0.04R into the radiative interior. However, the convective meridional circulation there is confined to a smaller penetration depth and is directed mostly equatorward at the base of the convection zone. Thermal wind balance is established in the lower convection zone and tachocline but departures are evident in the upper convection zone. Internal gravity waves are excited by the convective overshooting, yielding a complex wave field throughout the radiative interior.

Allan Sacha Brun; Mark S. Miesch; Juri Toomre

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

By Stanley Micklavzina, Asher Tubman, and Frank Vignola for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solar cell and light bulb filament. #12;Name: ______________________________________ Kit Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory as the distance between the solar cell and the lamp changes. The power generated by the solar cell is calculated

Oregon, University of

234

Experimental analysis of a direct expansion solar assisted heat pump with integral storage tank for domestic water heating under zero solar radiation conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper deals with the experimental evaluation of the performance of a direct expansion solar assisted heat pump water heating (DX-SAHPWH) system working under zero solar radiation conditions at static heating operation mode of the storage tank. The DX-SAHPWH system includes two bare solar collectors as evaporator, a \\{R134a\\} rotary-type hermetic compressor, a thermostatic expansion valve and a helical coil condenser immersed in a 300L water storage tank. The zero solar radiation and stable ambient air temperature working conditions were established by placing the solar collectors into a climate chamber. The analysis is based on experimental data taken from the DX-SAHPWH provided by the manufacturer and equipped with an appropriate data acquisition system. In the paper, the experimental facility, the data acquisition system and the experimental methodology are described. Performance parameters to evaluate the energy efficiency, such as COP and equivalent seasonal performance factors (SPFe) for the heating period, and the water thermal stratification in the storage tank are defined and obtained from the experimental data. Results from the experimental analysis under transient operating working conditions of the DX-SAHPWH system and its main components are shown and discussed. Lastly, the Huang and Lee DX-SAHPWH performance evaluation method was applied resulting in a characteristic COP of 3.23 for the DX-SAHPWH system evaluated under zero solar radiation condition.

Jos Fernndez-Seara; Carolina Pieiro; J. Alberto Dopazo; F. Fernandes; Paulo X.B. Sousa

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Longitudinal variation of tides in the MLT region: 2. Relative effects of solar radiative and latent heating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of solar radiative and latent heating Xiaoli Zhang,1 Jeffrey M. Forbes,1 and Maura E. Hagan2 Received 11 study examines the relative importance of radiative heating and latent heating in accounting (GSWM) and new tidal heating rates derived from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP

Forbes, Jeffrey

236

Solar Flare Chromospheric Line Emission: Comparison Between IBIS High-resolution Observations and Radiative Hydrodynamic Simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar flares involve impulsive energy release, which results in enhanced radiation in a broad spectral and at a wide height range. In particular, line emission from the chromosphere (lower atmosphere) can provide critical diagnostics of plasma heating processes. Thus, a direct comparison between high-resolution spectroscopic observations and advanced numerical modeling results can be extremely valuable, but has not been attempted so far. We present in this paper such a self-consistent investigation of an M3.0 flare observed by the Dunn Solar Telescope's (DST) Interferometric Bi-dimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) on 2011 September 24 that we have modeled with the radiative hydrodynamic code RADYN (Carlsson & Stein 1992, 1997; Abbett & Hawley 1999; Allred et al. 2005). We obtained images and spectra of the flaring region with IBIS in H$\\alpha$ 6563 \\AA\\ and Ca II 8542 \\AA, and with the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscope Imager (RHESSI) in X-rays. The latter was used to infer the non-thermal elect...

da Costa, Fatima Rubio; Petrosian, Vah; Dalda, Alberto Sainz; Liu, Wei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Solar  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With sharp drop in costs for photovoltaic and solar thermal processes, solar energy has become more attractive alternative ... Almost half the total was earmarked for PV and solar thermal projects. ...

WARD WORTHY

1991-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

238

Performance analysis of PV system for maximum utilization of solar radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A detailed analysis of a photovolatic (PV) stand-alone system using a novel battery voltage regulator to maximize the utilization of solar radiation is presented. The basic idea of the novel battery voltage regulator is discussed in a previously published work. The proposed system disconnects the battery rather than the PV array when the battery is fully charged. When the battery is disconnected, the load is supplied through a chopper. Hence, instead of losing available solar energy-by disconnecting the array-the energy is supplied to the load. The analysis presented here shows that the PV array may be disconnected for a variable period, ranging between 4 and 5 h per day during the summer season. This result indicates that a significant energy loss, up to 50% of the available solar energy, may occur during the summer. An elaborate analysis for the chopper circuit is given in this work. The analysis showed that the chopper keeps the load voltage almost constant if the chopper parameters are carefully designed. The novel system preserves the battery charge during periods of high solar insolation, thus the battery state of charge is kept high for long periods during the year. Consequently, the battery lifetime is prolonged. In this work, the climatic conditions of Cairo, the Egyptian capital, are considered. The effects of cloudy days on the system performance were taken into consideration.

Wagdy R. Anis; M.Abdul-Sadek Nour

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

BBO-based small autonomous hybrid power system optimization incorporating wind speed and solar radiation forecasting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Rising carbon emission or carbon footprint imposes grave concern over the earth?s climatic condition, as it results in increasing average global temperature. Renewable energy sources seem to be the favorable solution in this regard. It can reduce the overall energy consumption rate globally. However, the renewable sources are intermittent in nature with very high initial installation price. Off-grid Small Autonomous Hybrid Power Systems (SAHPS) are good alternative for generating electricity locally in remote areas, where the transmission and distribution of electrical energy generated from conventional sources are otherwise complex, difficult and costly. In optimizing SAHPS, weather data over past several years are generally the main input, which include wind speed and solar radiation. The weather resources used in this optimization process have unsystematic variations based on the atmospheric and seasonal phenomenon and it also varies from year to year. While using past data in the analysis of SAHPS performance, it was assumed that the same pattern will be followed in the next year, which in reality is very unlikely to happen. In this paper, we use BBO optimization algorithm for SAHPS optimal component sizing by minimizing the cost of energy. We have also analysed the effect of using forecast weather data instead of past data on the SAHPS performance. ANNs, which are trained with back-propagation training algorithm, are used for wind speed and solar radiation forecasting. A case study was used for demonstrating the performance of BBO optimization algorithm along with forecasting effects. The simulation results clearly showed the advantages of utilizing wind speed and solar radiation forecasting in a SAHPS optimization problem.

R.A. Gupta; Rajesh Kumar; Ajay Kumar Bansal

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Gschwind Benot, Lionel Mnard, Thierry Ranchin, Lucien Wald, Paul Stackhouse, 2007. A proposal for a thesaurus for web services in solar radiation. In Proceedings EnviroInfo 2007, O. Hryniewicz, J. Studzinski and M. Romaniuk (Eds), Shaker Verlag,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for a thesaurus for web services in solar radiation. In Proceedings EnviroInfo 2007, O. Hryniewicz, J. Studzinski in Solar Radiation Benoît Gschwind1 , Lionel Ménard1 , Thierry Ranchin1 , Lucien Wald1 and Paul Stackhouse2 energies. This communication focuses on solar energy and more specifically on aspects in solar radiation

Boyer, Edmond

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal solar radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Optical design of a high radiative flux solar furnace for Mexico  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present work, the optical design of a new high radiative flux solar furnace is described. Several optical configurations for the concentrator of the system have been considered. Ray tracing simulations were carried out in order to determine the concentrated radiative flux distributions in the focal zone of the system, for comparing the different proposals. The best configuration was chosen in terms of maximum peak concentration, but also in terms of economical and other practical considerations. It consists of an arrangement of 409 first surface spherical facets with hexagonal shape, mounted on a spherical frame. The individual orientation of the facets is corrected in order to compensate for aberrations. The design considers an intercepted power of 30kW and a target peak concentration above 10,000 suns. The effect of optical errors was also considered in the simulations.

D. Riveros-Rosas; J. Herrera-Vzquez; C.A. Prez-Rbago; C.A. Arancibia-Bulnes; S. Vzquez-Montiel; M. Snchez-Gonzlez; F. Granados-Agustn; O.A. Jaramillo; C.A. Estrada

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Analysis of Gamma Radiation from a Radon Source: Indications of a Solar Influence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This article presents an analysis of about 29,000 measurements of gamma radiation associated with the decay of radon in a sealed container at the Geological Survey of Israel (GSI) Laboratory in Jerusalem between 28 January 2007 and 10 May 2010. These measurements exhibit strong variations in time of year and time of day, which may be due in part to environmental influences. However, time-series analysis reveals a number of periodicities, including two at approximately 11.2 year$^{-1}$ and 12.5 year$^{-1}$. We have previously found these oscillations in nuclear-decay data acquired at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), and we have suggested that these oscillations are attributable to some form of solar radiation that has its origin in the deep solar interior. A curious property of the GSI data is that the annual oscillation is much stronger in daytime data than in nighttime data, but the opposite is true for all other oscillations. This may be a systematic effect but, if it is not, this property should help narrow the theoretical options for the mechanism responsible for decay-rate variability.

Peter A. Sturrock; Gideon Steinitz; Ephraim Fischbach; Daniel Javorsek, II; Jere H. Jenkins

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Solar forecasting review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2.1.2 European Solar Radiation Atlas (ESRA)2.4 Evaluation of Solar Forecasting . . . . . . . . .2.4.1 Solar Variability . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Inman, Richard Headen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Relating geo-meteorological parameters to global solar radiation for Egypt by Iranna-Bapat's estimation models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Estimation of solar radiation is considered as the most important parameter for the design and development of various solar energy systems. But, the availability of the required data is very scarce and often not readily accessible. The foremost objective of the present study was to estimate the monthly average global solar radiation (GSR) at various locations for Egypt, by the generalised Iranna-Bapat's model. Iranna-Bapat's model is developed to estimate the value of global solar radiation at any location on earth surface. This model uses the most commonly measurable meteorological parameters such as ambient temperature, humidity, windspeed, moisture for a given location. A total of 11 locations spread across the country are used to validate this model. The computed values from Iranna-Bapat's model are compared with the measured values. Iranna-Bapat's model demonstrated acceptable results, and statistically displayed lower RMSE. Therefore this model could be a good estimator for predicting the global solar radiation at other locations for Egypt, where such data is not available.

Iranna Korachagaon; V.N. Bapat

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Solar Central Receiver with an Irising Aperture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. If the aperture is small, it will be inefficient for periods when the solar isolation is inclined due to spillage. However, if the aperture is large, it will be inefficient for periods when the solar isolation is normal, due to excess heat radiation and convection...

Galal, T.; Kulaib, A. M.; Abuzaid, M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Radiative Hydrodynamic Models of the Optical and Ultraviolet Emission from Solar Flares  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on radiative hydrodynamic simulations of moderate and strong solar flares. The flares were simulated by calculating the atmospheric response to a beam of non-thermal electrons injected at the apex of a one-dimensional closed coronal loop, and include heating from thermal soft X-ray, extreme ultraviolet and ultraviolet (XEUV) emission. The equations of radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium were treated in non-LTE and solved for numerous transitions of hydrogen, helium, and Ca II allowing the calculation of detailed line profiles and continuum emission. This work improves upon previous simulations by incorporating more realistic non-thermal electron beam models and includes a more rigorous model of thermal XEUV heating. We find XEUV backwarming contributes less than 10% of the heating, even in strong flares. The simulations show elevated coronal and transition region densities resulting in dramatic increases in line and continuum emission in both the UV and optical regions. The optical continuum reaches a peak increase of several percent which is consistent with enhancements observed in solar white light flares. For a moderate flare (~M-class), the dynamics are characterized by a long gentle phase of near balance between flare heating and radiative cooling, followed by an explosive phase with beam heating dominating over cooling and characterized by strong hydrodynamic waves. For a strong flare (~X-class), the gentle phase is much shorter, and we speculate that for even stronger flares the gentle phase may be essentially non-existent. During the explosive phase, synthetic profiles for lines formed in the upper chromosphere and transition region show blue shifts corresponding to a plasma velocity of ~120 km/s, and lines formed in the lower chromosphere show red shifts of ~40 km/s.

J. C. Allred; S. L. Hawley; W. P. Abbett; M. Carlsson

2005-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

247

SOLAR ENERGY FOR ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS Solar Suitability Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOLAR ENERGY FOR ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS Solar Suitability Assessment of Dalhousie University.................................................................................................. 2 2.2 Solar Radiation Data for Calculating Solar Energy Resource .................... 3 3 Campus.1 Evaluation of Suitability for Solar Energy Generation................................ 12 4.2 Solar

Brownstone, Rob

248

For the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and the Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

://www.californiasolarcenter.org/history_pv.html http://www.eere.energy.gov/basics/renewable_energy/solar.html http://www.nrel.gov/ncpv/ http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/education/index.htm http://www.nrel.gov/data/pix/searchpix.html http://www.ases.org/ http://www.seia.org/cs/about_solar_energy and the Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

Oregon, University of

249

PROCEEDINGS O F THE IEEE, VOL.56, NO. 1, JANUARY196837 [`I J. J. Wysocki,"Lithium-doped radiation-resistant silicon solar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,"Lithium-doped radiation-resistant silicon solar cells," IEEE Trans. Nuclear Science. vol.NS-13, pp. 168-173, December 1966 damagein semiconductorsXI1: Effects ofhighenergy electrons in silicon and silicon solar cells," Contract NAS 5-3805, May 25, 1966. 14] R. V. Tauke, "Thermal annealing of irradiated n-on-p silicon solar cells

Teich, Malvin C.

250

Energy partition and conversion of solar and thermal radiation into sensible and latent heat in a greenhouse under arid conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For a greenhouse thermal analysis, it is essential to know the energy partition and the amount of solar and thermal radiation converted into sensible and latent heat in the greenhouse. Factors that are frequently needed are: efficiency of utilization of incident solar radiation (?), and sensible and latent heat factors (? and ?). Previous studies considered these factors as constant parameters. However, they depend on the environmental conditions inside and outside the greenhouse, plants and soil characteristics, and structure, orientation and location of the greenhouse. Moreover, these factors have not yet been evaluated under the arid climatic conditions of the Arabian Peninsula. In this study, simple energy balance equations were applied to investigate ?, ? and ?; energy partitioning among the greenhouse components; and conversion of solar and thermal radiation into sensible and latent heat. For this study, we used an evaporatively cooled, planted greenhouse with a floor area of 48m2. The parameters required for the analysis were measured on a sunny, hot summer day. The results showed that value of ? was almost constant (?0.75); whereas the values of ? and ? strongly depended on the net radiation over the canopy (Rna); and could be represented by exponential decay functions of Rna. At a plant density corresponding to a leaf area index (LAI) of 3 and an integrated incident solar energy of 27.7MJm?2d?1, the solar and thermal radiation utilized by the greenhouse components were 20.7MJm?2d?1 and 3.74MJm?2d?1, respectively. About 71% of the utilized radiation was converted to sensible heat and 29% was converted to latent heat absorbed by the inside air. Contributions of the floor, cover and plant surfaces on the sensible heat of the inside air were 38.6%, 48.2% and 13.2%, respectively.

I.M. Al-Helal; A.M. Abdel-Ghany

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Absorption of solar radiation by the atmosphere as determined using satellite, aircraft, and surface data during the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Absorption of solar radiation by the atmosphere as determined using satellite, aircraft overcast conditions the aircraft measurements yield an absorptance of 0.32 0.03 for the layer between the aircraft (0.5­13 km), while the GOES 8 albedo versus surface transmittance analysis gives an absorptance

Dong, Xiquan

252

Specific gene expression by extremely low-dose ionizing radiation which related to enhance proliferation of normal human diploid cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We demonstrated that X-ray irradiation at low doses of between 2 and 5 cGy stimulated proliferation of a normal human diploid. At low doses of between 2 and 5 cGy, ERK1/2 was phosphorylated as efficiently as at higher doses between 50 and 100 cGy of X-rays, while the p53 protein level was not increased by doses below 50 cGy. On the other hand, the p53 protein was efficiently accumulated at higher doses of X-ray more than 100 cGy. ERK1/2 was phosphorylated by doses over 50 cGy with increasing doses. We found that activated ERK1/2 augmented phosphorylation of the Elk-1 protein. Furthermore, over expression of ERK2 in NCI-H1299, and human lung carcinoma cells, potentiated enhanced proliferation, while down-regulation of ERK2 using the anti-sense ERK2 gene abrogated the stimulative effect of low-dose irradiation. These results indicate that a limited range of low-dose ionizing radiation differentially activate ERK1/2 kinases, which causes enhanced proliferation of cells receiving very low doses of ionizing radiation.

Masami Watanabe; Keiji Suzuki; Seiji Kodama

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Optimum fixed orientations and benefits of tracking for capturing solar radiation in the continental United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a two-axis tracking solar panel. Figure 5b: Map of theand azimuth angles for solar panels were calculated for aannual azimuth for a solar panel, and can be combined with

Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST METEOROLOGY 14 8 ( 20 0 8 ) 1 6 9 6 1 7 0 6; doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2008.06.001 Efficient assessment of topographic solar radiation to improve  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.06.001 Efficient assessment of topographic solar radiation to improve plant distribution models Christian Piedallu the efficiency of plant distribution models. Keywords: solar radiation, topographic proxies, geographical of solar radiation for decades but have difficulty measuring it on plots. Proxies recorded on the ground

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

255

Toward the Development of Multi-Year Total and Special Solar Radiation Budgets at the Three ARM Locales  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the Development of Multi-Year Total and Special the Development of Multi-Year Total and Special Solar Radiation Budgets at the Three ARM Locales Z. Li and M. C. Cribb Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center University of Maryland College Park, Maryland A. P. Trishchenko Canada Centre for Remote Sensing Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Introduction Over the past decade, an unprecedented amount of high-quality observational data pertaining to atmospheric and surface parameters has been collected at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) locales around the globe. These data have been critical in the development and validation of models used to study the complex interaction of cloud, aerosols, and the surface on the solar radiative budget (SRB), the primary force driving atmospheric circulation. As the next step forward, the challenge of

256

The Effect of Gas Absorption on the Scattered Radiation in the Solar Almucantar: Results of Numerical Simulation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Gas Absorption on the Gas Absorption on the Scattered Radiation in the Solar Almucantar: Results of Numerical Simulation T. Yu. Chesnokova, K. M. Firsov, I. M. Nasrtdinov, S. M. Sakerin, V. V. Veretennikov, and T. B. Zhuravleva Institute of Atmospheric Optics Tomsk, Russia Introduction The methods for reconstruction of the aerosol optical characteristics (e.g., aerosol size distribution, and single-scattering albedo) from diffuse and direct radiation measured in the solar almucantar has been widely used during the last decade. The photometers with filters in the "atmospheric transparency windows" in the wavelength range 0.4 to 1 m were applied for measurements. Usually it was assumed that one could neglect the molecular absorption of the measured diffuse radiation. Further development

257

The evolution of energetic particles and the emitted radiation in solar flares  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The evolution of accelerated particle distributions in a magnetized plasma and the resulting radiation are calculated, and the results are applied to solar flares. To study the radiation on timescales of order of the particle lifetimes, the evolution of the particle distribution is determined using the Fokker-Planck equation including Coulomb collisions and magnetic mirroring. Analytic solution to the equation are obtained for limiting cases such as homogeneous injection in a homogeneous plasma, and for small pitch angle. These analytic solutions are used to place constraints on flare parameters such as density, loop length, and the injection timescale for very short impulsive flares. For general particle distributions in arbitrary magnetic field and background density, the equation is solved numerically. Over longer timescales, the variation with X-ray peak fluxes is shown to be consistent with the nonthermal thick target beam model, while multithermal and thin target models have difficulty matching the observations. The relative timing of microwaves and X-ray during individual flares is then investigated. The observation that the microwaves are observed to peak {approximately}2 s later than hard X-rays is interpreted as being due to an excess of microwave flux above that predicted by the simple thick target model. The author discusses a number of possible sources for this excess microwave flux including a flattening in the electron spectrum above hard X-ray energies, thermal synchroton emission, and trapping of electrons by converging magnetic field.

Lu, E.T.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Evaluation of solar energy resources by establishing empirical models for diffuse solar radiation on tilted surface and analysis for optimum tilt angle for a prospective location in southern region of Sindh, Pakistan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Diffuse solar radiation data is very important and is required for solar energy system implementations. The main purpose of the present study is to evaluate solar energy resources by establishing diffuse solar radiation models and obtaining optimum tilt angle fora prospective location is southern region of Sindh, Pakistan. Due to the unavailability of measured diffuse solar radiation data, nine new models, based on available data from local agency and values obtain from existing models, to predict diffuse solar radiation on tilted surface has been established. The best model was chosen based on test results from statistical indicators. The optimum tilt angle for monthly, seasonally, half-yearly and yearly adjustment was determined. The optimum tilt angle varies from 0 in May, June and July to 49 in December. The yearly optimum tilt angle was found as 23, which is close to latitude of investigated location (2507?N). The monthly average total, beam and diffuse solar radiations were calculated for optimum and vertical tilted surfaces and were compared with those obtain for horizontal surfaces. The half-yearly adjustment of optimum tilt angle is recommended for the investigated location because very small difference in annual solar energy gains in comparison with monthly or seasonal adjustment. The total annual energy for completer year and for four seasons of the year was calculated and found that maximum total annual energy is obtained at optimum tilt angle.

Shahnawaz Farhan Khahro; Kavita Tabbassum; Shahnawaz Talpur; Mohammad Bux Alvi; Xiaozhong Liao; Lei Dong

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Recent Studies on the Exposure of Aircrew to Cosmic and Solar Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......wide range of energies involved and...and stage of solar cycle. The...the DOSMAX project in another...for a whole solar cycle will...wide range of energies involved and...the DOSMAX project in another...for a whole solar cycle will...Activity Solar Energy...

D. O'Sullivan

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Effects of solar radiation on dissolved organic matter cycling in a ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Jun 11, 1996 ... Solar UVR has been found to inhibit both phytoplankton and ..... national Light Inc

2000-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal solar radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE AND LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM FLOW PARAMETERS FROM INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER LOW ENERGY HYDROGEN MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Neutral hydrogen atoms that travel into the heliosphere from the local interstellar medium (LISM) experience strong effects due to charge exchange and radiation pressure from resonant absorption and re-emission of Ly?. The radiation pressure roughly compensates for the solar gravity. As a result, interstellar hydrogen atoms move along trajectories that are quite different than those of heavier interstellar species such as helium and oxygen, which experience relatively weak radiation pressure. Charge exchange leads to the loss of primary neutrals from the LISM and the addition of new secondary neutrals from the heliosheath. IBEX observations show clear effects of radiation pressure in a large longitudinal shift in the peak of interstellar hydrogen compared with that of interstellar helium. Here, we compare results from the Lee et al. interstellar neutral model with IBEX-Lo hydrogen observations to describe the distribution of hydrogen near 1 AU and provide new estimates of the solar radiation pressure. We find over the period analyzed from 2009 to 2011 that radiation pressure divided by the gravitational force (?) has increased slightly from ? = 0.94 0.04 in 2009 to ? = 1.01 0.05 in 2011. We have also derived the speed, temperature, source longitude, and latitude of the neutral H atoms and find that these parameters are roughly consistent with those of interstellar He, particularly when considering the filtration effects that act on H in the outer heliosheath. Thus, our analysis shows that over the period from 2009 to 2011, we observe signatures of neutral H consistent with the primary distribution of atoms from the LISM and a radiation pressure that increases in the early rise of solar activity.

Schwadron, N. A.; Moebius, E.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; French, J. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Saul, L.; Wurz, P. [University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Bzowski, M. [Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Fuselier, S. A.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Frisch, P. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Gruntman, M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Mueller, H. R. [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Analysis of the empirical relations between visible solar radiation, the solar altitude and the transparency of the atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of equations provide a practical method of evaluating the fluxes of solar origin incident on the sea surface provided that the turbidity parameters of the air mass are known. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Tbe author is particularly indebted to Professor Robert O. Raid... of equations provide a practical method of evaluating the fluxes of solar origin incident on the sea surface provided that the turbidity parameters of the air mass are known. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Tbe author is particularly indebted to Professor Robert O. Raid...

Garcia Occhipinti, Antonio

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

263

Long-Term Dosimetry of Solar UV Radiation in Antarctica with Spores of Bacillus subtilis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...biologically harmful ultraviolet radiation in Antarctica with a biological...hanced springtime ultraviolet radiation at Palmer Station, Ant- arctica...monitoring studies at Tokyo, Japan. J. Radiat. Res. 30:338-351...Ozone depletion: ultraviolet radiation and phytoplankton biology in...

Monika Puskeppeleit; Lothar E. Quintern; Saad el Naggar; Jobst-Ulrich Schott; Ute Eschweiler; Gerda Horneck; Horst Bcker

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Solar Energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There are major advantages to using solar energy for a variety of energy needs including electrical generation and space heating. The availability of solar radiation is extremely high in some localities of the...

Charles E. Brown Ph.D.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Evaluation of Various Methods for Estimating Global Solar Radiation in the Southeastern United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Global solar radiation Rg is an important input for crop models to simulate crop responses. Because the scarcity of long and continuous records of Rg is a serious limitation in many countries, Rg is estimated using models. For crop-model application, empirical Rg models that use commonly measured meteorological variables, such as temperature and precipitation, are generally preferred. Although a large number of models of this kind exist, few have been evaluated for conditions in the United States. This study evaluated the performances of 16 empirical, temperature- and/or precipitation-based Rg models for the southeastern United States. By taking into account spatial distribution and data availability, 30 locations in the region were selected and their daily weather data spanning eight years obtained. One-half of the data was used for calibrating the models, and the other half was used for evaluation. For each model, location-specific parameter values were estimated through regressions. Models were evaluated for each location using the root-mean-square error and the modeling efficiency as goodness-of-fit measures. Among the models that use temperature or precipitation as the input variable, the Mavromatis model showed the best performance. The piecewise linear regression?¢????based Wu et al. model (WP) performed best not only among the models that use both temperature and precipitation but also among the 16 models evaluated, mainly because it has separate relationships for low and high radiation levels. The modeling efficiency of WP was from ~5% to more than 100% greater than those of the other models, depending on models and locations.

Woli, Prem; Paz, Joel O.

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

266

Solar cooling in Madrid: Available solar energy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper analyzes the behaviour of an absorption chiller lithium bromide installation fed by a field of flat-plate solar collectors and condensed by swimming pool water. A method of calculation in a variable regime is developed in terms of the obtained experimental results. Starting from the meteorological variables of a clear summer day and from the project data (collector normalization curve, collector and installation mass), the minimum solar radiation level necessary to initiate the process, I[sub min], and the instantaneous available solar energy, Q[sub u] + W[sub 1] is determined. The solar radiation threshold, I[sub min], necessary to obtain the process temperature, t[sub ave], in each instant, is obtained by adding to the corrected Klein radiation threshold, I[sub k,c], the heat capacity effects of the collector, HCE[sub CO], and of the installation, HCE[sub ins], as well as the losses of heat of the pipes to the surroundings, Q[sub 1]. The instantaneous available solar energy, available useful heat, in addition to the wind collector losses to the surroundings, Q[sub u] + W[sub 1], is the difference, in each instant, between the radiation, I[sub g1T], and the radiation threshold, I[sub min].The integration during the day of the instantaneous available solar energy allows us to calculate the daily available function, H[sub T]. The value of H[sub T], measured in the swimming-pool water condensation installation reached 6.92 MJ/(m[sup 2] day ). The calculated values of H[sub T] for a conventional installation condensed by tower water, or air, have been 6.35 and 0.56 MJ/(m[sup 2] day). respectively.

Izquierdo, M.; Hernandez, F.; Martin, E. (Instituto de Ciencias de la Construccion Eduardo Torroja, Madrid (Spain))

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Final Report for Annex II--Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources In Saudi Arabia, 1998-2000  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Final Report for Annex II - Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1998-2000 summarizes the accomplishment of work performed, results achieved, and products produced under Annex II, a project established under the Agreement for Cooperation in the Field of Renewable Energy Research and Development between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United States. The report covers work and accomplishments from January 1998 to December 2000. A previous progress report, Progress Report for Annex II - Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1993-1997, NREL/TP-560-29374, summarizes earlier work and technical transfer of information under the project. The work was performed in at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, at the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and at selected weather stations of the Saudi Meteorological and Environmental Protection Administration (MEPA).

Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.; Marion, W. F.; Al-Abbadi, N. M.; Mahfoodh, M.; Al-Otaibi, Z.

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development project: Solar radiation research annual report, 1 October 1990--30 September 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a summary of the year 1991 research activities and results under the Solar Radiation Research task of the Photovoltaic (PV) Advanced Research and Development project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This task directly supports the characterization, testing, and design of PV cells modules, and systems. The development of a scientific and engineering understanding of incident (i.e., available to PV devices) solar irradiance and the appropriate instrumentation systems and measurement methods are the activities and results of this project. Activities described in this report include the completion of the Atmospheric Optical Calibration Systems (AOCS) and the comparison of instrumentation systems that collect site-specific measurements of solar irradiance for the purpose of PV system feasibility studies and/or design.

Hulstrom, R.; Cannon, T.; Stoffel, T.; Riordan, C.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Evaluation on penetration rate of cloud for incoming solar radiation using geostationary satellite data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar surface insolation (SSI) represents how much solar radiance reaches the Earths surface in a specified area and is an important parameter in various fields such as surface energy research, meteorology, a...

Jong-Min Yeom; Kyung-Soo Han; Jae-Jin Kim

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Optimum fixed orientations and benefits of tracking for capturing solar radiation in the continental United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mexico, and along the Pacific Coastline. A due south azimuth would suggest that equal amounts of solar

Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Norathyriol Suppresses Skin Cancers Induced by Solar Ultraviolet Radiation by Targeting ERK Kinases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...muL acetone 1 hour before solar UV irradiation. At week 1, the solar UV dose was 30 kJ/m2 UVA...twice/week. The dose of solar UV was progressively increased...Tyr-204) raised in rabbit (Cell Signaling Technology) and 1:200 donkey anti-rabbit...

Jixia Li; Margarita Malakhova; Madhusoodanan Mottamal; Kanamata Reddy; Igor Kurinov; Andria Carper; Alyssa Langfald; Naomi Oi; Myoung Ok Kim; Feng Zhu; Carlos P. Sosa; Keyuan Zhou; Ann M. Bode; and Zigang Dong

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Canonical rotation variables and non-Hamiltonian forces: solar radiation pressure effects on asteroid rotation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......the effects by absorbed solar photons on the rotation...drawn. At last, if the solar photons are not absorbed...induced by inelastic energy dissipation for subkilometre...specular reflection of solar photons on Eros' surface...Research Council of Norway, projects 153382 and 170870. REFERENCES......

E. Mysen

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Modelling of aircrew radiation exposure from galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......at limiting values of solar modulation present during...intermediate conditions of solar modulation(14). However...Here, the curves near solar minimum (f 1) and maximum...Measurements (ACREM) project] and an IC(14...measurement below a lineal energy, y, of 0.6 keV microm1......

M. Takada; B. J. Lewis; M. Boudreau; H. Al Anid; L. G. I. Bennett

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

38Name ________________________________ Solar Proton Events can cause satellite damage and produce harmful radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the solar panels 10% larger to they produce 4900 watts at launch. By the end of 2004, the power will have. the sun lets loose with a powerful burst of energy similar to a solar flare, but potentially far more38Name ________________________________ Solar Proton Events can cause satellite damage and produce

275

Water-trickle type solar collector with a massive concrete slab for heat storage and radiation (TMU solar system I)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental results are reported for a simple open type solar collector - a water-trickle type collector - used in combination with a massive concrete slab for energy storage. This relatively low cost system was installed on a typical Japanese house in Yokohama City and measurements were made of the interior temperature. The system showed considerable promise for application in Japan.

Ito, N. (Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Japan); Matsuda, K.; Ishii, A.; Osawa, H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Solar Radiative Heating in First Year Sea Ice M.J. McGuinness 1 , K.A. Landman 2 , H.J. Trodahl 3 , A.E. Pantoja 3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar Radiative Heating in First Year Sea Ice M.J. McGuinness 1 , K.A. Landman 2 , H.J. Trodahl 3 ice show daily oscillations consistent with heating by solar radiation. We present and solve a heat for solar power absorption based on Monte Carlo scatter­ ing simulations of penetrating photons. We observe

277

Proceedings of Eurosun 2004, published by PSE GmbH, Freiburg, Germany, pp. (3) 916-920, 2004 HelioClim: a long-term database on solar radiation for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- tions, urban air quality studies, sizing of space borne sensors, solar energy engineering or evenClim: a long-term database on solar radiation for Europe and Africa S. Cros, M. Albuisson, M. Lefèvre, C-series of solar radiation data. Daily irradiation values are available over Europe, Africa and Atlantic Ocean

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

278

Forecasting of preprocessed daily solar radiation time series using neural networks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we present an application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in the renewable energy domain. We particularly look at the Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) network which has been the most used of ANNs architectures both in the renewable energy domain and in the time series forecasting. We have used a MLP and an ad hoc time series pre-processing to develop a methodology for the daily prediction of global solar radiation on a horizontal surface. First results are promising with nRMSE {proportional_to} 21% and RMSE {proportional_to} 3.59 MJ/m{sup 2}. The optimized MLP presents predictions similar to or even better than conventional and reference methods such as ARIMA techniques, Bayesian inference, Markov chains and k-Nearest-Neighbors. Moreover we found that the data pre-processing approach proposed can reduce significantly forecasting errors of about 6% compared to conventional prediction methods such as Markov chains or Bayesian inference. The simulator proposed has been obtained using 19 years of available data from the meteorological station of Ajaccio (Corsica Island, France, 41 55'N, 8 44'E, 4 m above mean sea level). The predicted whole methodology has been validated on a 1.175 kWc mono-Si PV power grid. Six prediction methods (ANN, clear sky model, combination..) allow to predict the best daily DC PV power production at horizon d + 1. The cumulated DC PV energy on a 6-months period shows a great agreement between simulated and measured data (R{sup 2} > 0.99 and nRMSE < 2%). (author)

Paoli, Christophe; Muselli, Marc; Nivet, Marie-Laure [University of Corsica, CNRS UMR SPE, Corte (France); Voyant, Cyril [University of Corsica, CNRS UMR SPE, Corte (France); Hospital of Castelluccio, Radiotherapy Unit, Ajaccio (France)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

279

Users manual for SERI QC software assessing the quality of solar radiation data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This manual describes the procedures and software for assessing the quality of solar radiation data. This does not constitute quality control because quality control must take place during the preparations for data collection (selection, calibration, and installation of instruments), during the measurement process, and during the transmission (if any) and recording of the numerical values. Once the data are recorded, only quality assessment can be performed. If quality assessment is performed in real time or soon after the measurement process is completed, it can provide input to control the quality of future measurements. Furthermore, quality assessment can be used for quality control if data judged to be bad are deleted and/or modified. We do not subscribe to these actions because the deletion or modification of data destroys information that might be useful to the user. For example, if an instrument has gone through a gradual failure and all of the data that fail quality assessment criteria are deleted or modified, the user of the data may not be able to detect what was happening and will not question the accuracy of other data collected before the instrument completely failed. Therefore, the SERI QC procedures and software do not delete or modify data. Instead, flags are set to inform the user of any departure of the data from expected values. These flags indicate the magnitude and direction of such departures. For the flags to communicate as much information as possible, this manual attempts to identify and explain the probable causes of various flags. However, we cannot overemphasize the following: Flags only indicate that data do or do not fall within expected ranges. This does not mean that the data that the data are or are not valid.

none,

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Total Radiation in Canada. Solar Energy ~, p.153. Threlkeld,Solar Energy Society Joint Conference, Vol. 4, p.281, Winnipeg, Canada.

Berdahl, P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal solar radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Solar Kit Lessons  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solar Kit Lessons Middle School Curriculum Created by Northeast Sustainable Energy Association (NESEA) Click on the links below to take you to the Chapter heading: Solar Cell Inquiry Sunshine Timer Parts of a Solar Panel Part 1 Parts of a Solar Panel Part 2 Build a Simple Ammeter Solar-Powered Battery Charger Positioning Solar Panels 1 Positioning Solar Panels 2 Properties of Solar Radiation: Reflection, Transmission, and Absorption Properties of Solar Radiation: Direct and Diffuse Light Power Maximum: An Electrical Determination Calibration Curve for a Radiation Meter Solarize a Toy Solar Cells as Control Devices Solar-Powered Electrolysis of Water and the Hydrogen Economy Solar Kit Lesson #1 Solar Cell Inquiry TEACHER INFORMATION LEARNING OUTCOME

282

Using the Microsoft Kinect for Patient Size Estimation and Radiation Dose Normalization: Proof of Concept and Initial Validation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Monitoring patients' imaging-related radiation is currently a hot topic, but there ... are many obstacles to accurate, patient-specific dose estimation. While some, such as easier access to dose data and paramete...

Tessa S. Cook; Gregory Couch; Timothy J. Couch; Woojin Kim

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Three-dimensional CFD analysis for simulating the greenhouse effect in solar chimney power plants using a two-band radiation model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The greenhouse effect in the solar collector has a fundamental role to produce the upward buoyancy force in solar chimney power plant systems. This study underlines the importance of the greenhouse effect on the buoyancy-driven flow and heat transfer characteristics through the system. For this purpose, a three-dimensional unsteady model with the RNG k? turbulence closure was developed, using computational fluid dynamics techniques. In this model, to solve the radiative transfer equation the discrete ordinates (DO) radiation model was implemented, using a two-band radiation model. To simulate radiation effects from the sun's rays, the solar ray tracing algorithm was coupled to the calculation via a source term in the energy equation. Simulations were carried out for a system with the geometry parameters of the Manzanares power plant. The effects of the solar insolation and pressure drop across the turbine on the flow and heat transfer of the system were considered. Based on the numerical results, temperature profile of the ground surface, thermal collector efficiency and power output were calculated and the results were validated by comparing with experimental data of this prototype power plant. Furthermore, enthalpy rise through the collector and energy loss from the chimney outlet between 1-band and two-band radiation model were compared. The analysis showed that simulating the greenhouse effect has an important role to accurately predict the characteristics of the flow and heat transfer in solar chimney power plant systems.

Ehsan Gholamalizadeh; Man-Hoe Kim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Long range heliostat target using array of normal incidence pyranometers to evaluate a beam of solar radiation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Various technologies described herein pertain to evaluating a beam reflected by a heliostat. A portable target that has an array of sensors mounted thereupon is configured to capture the beam reflected by the heliostat. The sensors in the array output measured values indicative of a characteristic of the beam reflected by the heliostat. Moreover, a computing device can generate and output data corresponding to the beam reflected by the heliostat based on the measured values indicative of the characteristic of the beam received from the sensors in the array.

Ghanbari, Cheryl M; Ho, Clifford K; Kolb, Gregory J

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

285

Effects of solar radiation on dissolved organic matter cycling in a ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Jun 11, 1996 ... Solar UVR has been found to inhibit both phytoplankton and bacterioplankton activity ..... parison to a Gulf of Mexico sample, which had a 45% lower concentration of .... There is sufficient energy in wavelengths of sunlight 400.

2000-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

286

Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thin-film solar cells based on silicon have emerged as an alternative to standard thick wafers technology, but they are less efficient, because of incomplete absorption of sunlight, and non-radiative recombinations. In this paper, we focus on the case of crystalline silicon (c-Si) devices, and we present a full analytic electro-optical model for p-n junction solar cells with Lambertian light trapping. This model is validated against numerical solutions of the drift-diffusion equations. We use this model to investigate the interplay between light trapping, and bulk and surface recombination. Special attention is paid to surface recombination processes, which become more important in thinner devices. These effects are further amplified due to the textures required for light trapping, which lead to increased surface area. We show that c-Si solar cells with thickness of a few microns can overcome 20% efficiency and outperform bulk ones when light trapping is implemented. The optimal device thickness in presence of light trapping, bulk and surface recombination, is quantified to be in the range of 1080??m, depending on the bulk quality. These results hold, provided the effective surface recombination is kept below a critical level of the order of 100?cm/s. We discuss the possibility of meeting this requirement, in the context of state-of-the-art techniques for light trapping and surface passivation. We show that our predictions are within the capability of present day silicon technologies.

Bozzola, A., E-mail: angelo.bozzola@unipv.it; Kowalczewski, P.; Andreani, L. C. [Physics Department, University of Pavia and CNISM, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)

2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

287

The Radiated Energy Budget of Chromospheric Plasma in a Major Solar Flare Deduced From Multi-Wavelength Observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents measurements of the energy radiated by the lower solar atmosphere, at optical, UV, and EUV wavelengths, during an X-class solar flare (SOL2011-02-15T01:56) in response to an injection of energy assumed to be in the form of nonthermal electrons. Hard X-ray observations from RHESSI were used to track the evolution of the parameters of the nonthermal electron distribution to reveal the total power contained in flare accelerated electrons. By integrating over the duration of the impulsive phase, the total energy contained in the nonthermal electrons was found to be $>2\\times10^{31}$ erg. The response of the lower solar atmosphere was measured in the free-bound EUV continua of H I (Lyman), He I, and He II, plus the emission lines of He II at 304\\AA\\ and H I (Ly$\\alpha$) at 1216\\AA\\ by SDO/EVE, the UV continua at 1600\\AA\\ and 1700\\AA\\ by SDO/AIA, and the WL continuum at 4504\\AA, 5550\\AA, and 6684\\AA, along with the Ca II H line at 3968\\AA\\ using Hinode/SOT. The summed energy detected by these in...

Milligan, Ryan O; Dennis, Brian R; Hudson, Hugh S; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Allred, Joel C; Chamberlin, Phillip C; Ireland, Jack; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Study on the radiation flux and temperature distributions of the concentratorreceiver system in a solar dish/Stirling power facility  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Uniform heater temperature and high opticalthermal efficiency are crucial for the reliable and economical operation of a Solar Dish/Stirling engine facility. The Monte-Carlo ray-tracing method is utilized to predict the radiation flux distributions of the concentratorreceiver system. The ray-tracing method is first validated by experiment, then the radiation flux profiles on the solar receiver surface for faceted real concentrator and ideal paraboloidal concentrator, irradiated by Xe-arc lamps and real sun, for different aperture positions and receiver shapes are analyzed, respectively. The resulted radiation flux profiles are subsequently transferred to a CFD code as boundary conditions to numerically simulate the fluid flow and conjugate heat transfer in the receiver cavity by coupling the radiation, natural convection and heat conduction together, and the CFD method is also validated through experiment. The results indicate that a faceted concentrator in combination with a solar simulator composed of 12 Xe-arc lamps is advantageous to drive the solar Stirling engine for all-weather indoor tests. Based on the simulation results, a solar receiver-Stirling heater configuration is designed to achieve a considerably uniform temperature distribution on the heater head tubes while maintaining a high efficiency of 60.7%.

Zhigang Li; Dawei Tang; Jinglong Du; Tie Li

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Lefvre M., Cros S., Albuisson M., Wald L., 2003. Developing a database using Meteosat data for the de-livery of solar radiation assessments at ground level. In Proceedings of the 23rd EARSeL Annual Symposium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, oceanogra- phy and limnology applications, urban air quality studies, sizing of space borne sensors, solar for the de- livery of solar radiation assessments at ground level. In Proceedings of the 23rd EARSeL Annual, Rotterdam, Netherlands, pp. 485-489. Developing a database using METEOSAT data for the delivery of solar

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

290

Solar electric systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electricity from solar sources is the subject. The state-of-the-art of photovoltaics, wind energy and solar thermal electric systems is presented and also a broad range of solar energy activities throughout the Arab world is covered. Contents, abridged: Solar radiation fundamentals. Basic theory solar cells. Solar thermal power plants. Solar energy activities at the scientific research council in Iraq. Solar energy program at Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research. Prospects of solar energy for Egypt. Non-conventional energy in Syria. Wind and solar energies in Sudan. Index.

Warfield, G.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Note: Calibration of EBT3 radiochromic film for measuring solar ultraviolet radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solar (UVA + UVB) exposure was assessed using the Gafchromic EBT3 film. The coloration change was represented by the net reflective optical density (Net ROD). Through calibrations against a UV-tube lamp, operational relationships were obtained between Net ROD and the (UVA + UVB) exposures (in J?cm{sup ?2} or J?m{sup ?2}). The useful range was from ?0.2 to ?30 J?cm{sup ?2}. The uniformity of UV irradiation was crucial for an accurate calibration. For solar exposures ranging from 2 to 11 J?cm{sup ?2}, the predicted Net ROD agreed with the recorded values within 9%, while the predicted exposures agreed with the recorded values within 15%.

Chun, S. L. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Yu, P. K. N., E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

292

By Asher Tubman for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory Page F.1 6/20/2011 Appendix F: Review of PV Panels Labs These kits were used for the first year of a two IB physics class, the distance of a light from the panel and the brightness of the small light bulbs, there was a variety

Oregon, University of

293

Using Satellite Ocean Color Data to Derive an Empirical Model for the Penetration Depth of Solar Radiation (Hp) in the Tropical Pacific Ocean  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation (Hp) in the Tropical Pacific Ocean RONG-HUA ZHANG State Key Laboratory of Satellite OceanUsing Satellite Ocean Color Data to Derive an Empirical Model for the Penetration Depth of Solar Environment Dynamics, Second Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Hangzhou, Zhejiang

Chen, .Dake

294

An alternative methodology to treat solar radiation data for the optical efficiency estimate of different types of collectors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An alternative methodology to calculate the yearly optical efficiency of a generic solar power collector/converter for any chosen location is here proposed. The innovation is in considering the yearly direct normal irradiation (DNI) not as a series of temporal data with hourly or minute resolution, but rather, as a map of physical positions assumed by the sun during the year in the sky vault. A MATLAB suite was developed to convert the temporal DNI information, which is usually available for a chosen location, into spatial DNI information. The suite allows creating a yearly direct solar irradiation density map as function of a generic pair of independent angular coordinates (e.g., azimuth and zenith). The yearly DNI density map can then easily be multiplied by the collector efficiency map to obtain its yearly optical efficiency. The main advantages of the proposed approach compared to conventional temporal ones are (i) reduced magnitude of computational effort, and (ii) ease in conducting collector optical optimization. The approach is tested on three casesa generic flat collector and two linear collectorsto show its generality and potentialities. The developed methodology is applied to optimize the yearly optical efficiency of a linear Fresnel collector with different orientations and mirror layouts.

Marco Binotti; Giampaolo Manzolini; Guangdong Zhu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Solar Radiometric Data Quality Assessment of SIRS, SKYRAD and GNDRAD Measurements (Poster)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solar radiation is the driving force for the earth's weather and climate. Understanding the elements of this dynamic energy balance requires accurate measurements of broadband solar irradiance. Since the mid-1990's the ARM Program has deployed pyrheliometers and pyranometers for the measurement of direct normal irradiance (DNI), global horizontal irradiance (GHI), diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI), and upwelling shortwave (US) radiation at permanent and mobile field research sites. This poster summarizes the basis for assessing the broadband solar radiation data available from the SIRS, SKYRAD, and GNDRAD measurement systems and provides examples of data inspections.

Habte, A.; Stoffel, T.; Reda, I.; Wilcox, S.; Kutchenreiter, M.; Gotseff, P.; Anderberg, M.

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

An Improved Multipyranometer Array for the Measurement of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

array (MPA). The earliest work on an MPA related device for measuring diffuse sky radiation was performed in Finland by M. H2milllien et al. (1985). Further development on the MPA was performed in several countries including the United States where...

Munger, B.; Haberl, J. S.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

VALIDATION OF SHORT AND MEDIUM TERM OPERATIONAL SOLAR RADIATION FORECASTS IN THE US  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and medium term forecasts (up to seven days ahead) from numerical weather prediction models [1]. Forecasts radiation forecasting. One approach relies on numerical weather prediction (NWP) models which can be global modeling of the atmosphere. NWP models cannot, at this stage of their development, predict the exact

Perez, Richard R.

298

ESTIMATING GROUND-LEVEL SOLAR RADIATION AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION IN PUERTO RICO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REMOTE SENSING Eric. W. Harmsen1 , John Mecikalski2 , Vanessa Acaron3 and Jayson Maldonado3 1 Department insolation, other meteorological variables (e.g., net radiation, soil heat flux, air temperature dew point remote sensing product. As a practical example of the use of the methodology, the Hargraeves-Samani ETo

Gilbes, Fernando

299

Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation Kevin E. Trenberth1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reducing cloud cover and increasing radiative emissions from higher temperatures. Instead the main warming in energy- related quantities provide a new perspective on issues important for climate change. As water vapor is the dominant greenhouse gas, it results in a positive feedback and roughly doubles

Fasullo, John

300

Tethered balloon-based soundings of ozone, aerosols, and solar radiation near Mexico City during MIRAGE-MEX  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A tethered balloon sampling system was used to measure vertical profiles of ozone, particles, and solar radiation in the atmospheric boundary layer on the northern edge of Mexico City, in March 2006 as part of the Megacity Impact on Regional and Global Environment-Mexico experiment. Several commercial sensors, designed for surface applications, were deployed on a tethered balloon platform. Profiles indicate that for these 3 scalars the boundary layer (surface up to 700m) was well mixed in the period 10:0016:00 LST. Good agreement was observed for median surface and balloon ozone and particle number concentrations. For most profiles, the surface deposition of ozone was not significant compared to median profile concentrations. Particle number concentration (0.3, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0?m) also showed little variation with attitude. Radiatprofiles showed a monotonic increase in diffuse radiation from the maximum altitude of profiles to the surface. Consequently, it was inferred that surface measurements of these likely were representative of lower boundary layer values during this time period.

J.P. Greenberg; A.B. Guenther; A. Turnipseed

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal solar radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Prediction of radiation-induced liver disease by Lyman normal-tissue complication probability model in three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for primary liver carcinoma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To describe the probability of RILD by application of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman normal-tissue complication (NTCP) model for primary liver carcinoma (PLC) treated with hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 109 PLC patients treated by 3D-CRT were followed for RILD. Of these patients, 93 were in liver cirrhosis of Child-Pugh Grade A, and 16 were in Child-Pugh Grade B. The Michigan NTCP model was used to predict the probability of RILD, and then the modified Lyman NTCP model was generated for Child-Pugh A and Child-Pugh B patients by maximum-likelihood analysis. Results: Of all patients, 17 developed RILD in which 8 were of Child-Pugh Grade A, and 9 were of Child-Pugh Grade B. The prediction of RILD by the Michigan model was underestimated for PLC patients. The modified n, m, TD{sub 5} (1) were 1.1, 0.28, and 40.5 Gy and 0.7, 0.43, and 23 Gy for patients with Child-Pugh A and B, respectively, which yielded better estimations of RILD probability. The hepatic tolerable doses (TD{sub 5}) would be MDTNL of 21 Gy and 6 Gy, respectively, for Child-Pugh A and B patients. Conclusions: The Michigan model was probably not fit to predict RILD in PLC patients. A modified Lyman NTCP model for RILD was recommended.

Xu ZhiYong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Cancer Hospital, Shanghai (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Liang Shixiong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Cancer Hospital, Shanghai (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); Zhu Ji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Cancer Hospital, Shanghai (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhu Xiaodong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); Zhao Jiandong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Cancer Hospital, Shanghai (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Lu Haijie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); Yang Yunli [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); Chen Long [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); Wang Anyu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning (China); Fu Xiaolong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Cancer Hospital, Shanghai (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Jiang Guoliang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Cancer Hospital, Shanghai (China) and Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)]. E-mail: jianggl@21cn.com

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Normal-Appearing White Matter as Biomarker for Radiation-Induced Late Delayed Cognitive Decline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To determine whether early assessment of cerebral white matter degradation can predict late delayed cognitive decline after radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Ten patients undergoing conformal fractionated brain RT participated in a prospective diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging study. Magnetic resonance imaging studies were acquired before RT, at 3 and 6 weeks during RT, and 10, 30, and 78 weeks after starting RT. The diffusivity variables in the parahippocampal cingulum bundle and temporal lobe white matter were computed. A quality-of-life survey and neurocognitive function tests were administered before and after RT at the magnetic resonance imaging follow-up visits. Results: In both structures, longitudinal diffusivity ({lambda}{sub Double-Vertical-Line }) decreased and perpendicular diffusivity ({lambda}{sub Up-Tack }) increased after RT, with early changes correlating to later changes (p < .05). The radiation dose correlated with an increase in cingulum {lambda}{sub Up-Tack} at 3 weeks, and patients with >50% of cingula volume receiving >12 Gy had a greater increase in {lambda}{sub Up-Tack} at 3 and 6 weeks (p < .05). The post-RT changes in verbal recall scores correlated linearly with the late changes in cingulum {lambda}{sub Double-Vertical-Line} (30 weeks, p < .02). Using receiver operating characteristic curves, early cingulum {lambda}{sub Double-Vertical-Line} changes predicted for post-RT changes in verbal recall scores (3 and 6 weeks, p < .05). The neurocognitive test scores correlated significantly with the quality-of-life survey results. Conclusions: The correlation between early diffusivity changes in the parahippocampal cingulum and the late decline in verbal recall suggests that diffusion tensor imaging might be useful as a biomarker for predicting late delayed cognitive decline.

Chapman, Christopher H., E-mail: chchap@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Nagesh, Vijaya [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sundgren, Pia C. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiology, Skane University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Buchtel, Henry [Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Chenevert, Thomas L. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Junck, Larry [Department of Neurology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S.; Tsien, Christina I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Cao, Yue [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

SOLAR ENERGY PROGRAM: CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Flowers, "Comparison of Solar Radiation Sensors from Variousquality sensors and will be moved to locations where solarThis sensor has been carefully tested by the Solar Radiation

Authors, Various

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

been heated at solar collection tower, at the temperatureIn the receiver tower, the collected solar radiation heatsfocus and send solar radiation to a receiver tower.

Roshandell, Melina

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Photovoltaic solar concentrator module  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This invention consists of a planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation which includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor.

Chiang, C.J.

1991-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

306

The Atacama Surface Solar Maximum  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar radiation reaching the earth's surface is one of the major drivers of climate dynamics. By setting the surface energy balance, downwelling solar radiation indirectly heats the atmosphere and controls the hydrological cycle. Besides its critical ...

Roberto Rondanelli; Alejandra Molina; Mark Falvey

307

Solar radiation effects on evaporative losses of floating roof storage tanks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There are 40 storage tanks in the Khark Island for storing crude oil. Considering the hot summers of the island, light hydrocarbons vaporise and vented to the atmosphere. This process causes environmental pollution and also affects the quality of the crude oil besides the economic detriment. Therefore, crude oil evaporation loss associated with the storage tank is an important issue which should be carefully investigated to identify the potential means of its reduction. The aim of the present work is to determine the evaporative losses from external floating storage tanks and to study the absorptivity effects of their exterior surface paint on the losses due to the solar irradiation. The API standards along with the thermal analysis of the tank have been employed to evaluate the tank temperature variations and the evaporative losses of a typical tank based on the actual ambient conditions of the Khark Island. The results show that the paints with low absorptivity can reduce the evaporative losses significantly. Furthermore, experimental data has been provided to validate the calculated tank temperature variations, and reasonable agreements have been found. [Received: April 10, 2010; Accepted: May 31, 2010

Mahmood Farzaneh-Gord; Amin Nabati; Hamid Niazmand

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Parabolic Trough Solar Technology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Parabolic trough (solar) collectors (PTCs) are technical devices to collect the energy in form of solar radiation and convert it typically into thermal energy at temperature ranges of 150500C at industrial s...

Dr.-Ing. Eckhard Lpfert

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Parabolic Trough Solar Technology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Parabolic trough (solar) collectors (PTCs) are technical devices to collect the energy in form of solar radiation and convert it typically into thermal energy at temperature ranges of 150500C at industrial s...

Dr.-Ing. Eckhard Lpfert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Aspects of Solar Drying  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For the economical utilization of solar energy for drying it is necessary to coordinate ... the drying purposes with the specific characteristic of solar radiation /e.g. small power demand;...

L. Imre

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Solar Dynamics Observatory/ Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar Dynamics Observatory/ EVE Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment Frequently Asked and model solar extreme ultraviolet irradiance variations due to solar flares, solar rotation, and solar and structure of the Sun. What is solar variability? Solar radiation varies on all time scales ranging from

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

312

Dropouts of the outer electron radiation belt in response to solar wind stream interfaces: global positioning system observations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...epoch plots of both solar wind and magnetospheric...67 SIs. In each panel the superposed epoch...The lower three panels give the solar wind radial velocity...Superposed epoch plots of solar wind and magnetospheric...table-2. In each panel the superposed epoch...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

SciTech Connect: Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

is placed on solar energy. Activities for the student include a study of the greenhouse effect, solar gain for home heating, measuring solar radiation, and the construction of...

314

Petrovay: Solar physics The solar cycle ACTIVE REGIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Petrovay: Solar physics The solar cycle ACTIVE REGIONS Large scale (up to 100 Mm) anomalies in the structure and radiation of the solar atmosphere. Photosphere : AR = cluster of strong magnetic flux tubes of facular points. Filamentary structure due to supergranulation. #12;Petrovay: Solar physics The solar cycle

Petrovay, Kristóf

315

Petrovay: Solar physics Solar wind and heliosphere THE SOLAR WIND AND THE HELIOSPHERE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Petrovay: Solar physics Solar wind and heliosphere THE SOLAR WIND AND THE HELIOSPHERE 1951: First proposal of solar corpuscular radiation by Biermann, to explain slight deviation of comets' ion tails from radial (aberration effect). 1958: Parker's supersonic wind model 1962: Mariner-2 detects solar wind. v

Petrovay, Kristóf

316

The potential of different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques in daily global solar radiation modeling based on meteorological data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objective of present study is to predict daily global solar radiation (GSR) on a horizontal surface, based on meteorological variables, using different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques. Daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation, and wind speed values between 2002 and 2006 for Dezful city in Iran (32 16'N, 48 25'E), are used in this study. In order to consider the effect of each meteorological variable on daily GSR prediction, six following combinations of input variables are considered: (I)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and relative humidity as inputs and daily GSR as output. (II)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (III)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (IV)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and evaporation as inputs and daily GSR as output. (V)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. (VI)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks are applied for daily GSR modeling based on six proposed combinations. The measured data between 2002 and 2005 are used to train the neural networks while the data for 214 days from 2006 are used as testing data. The comparison of obtained results from ANNs and different conventional GSR prediction (CGSRP) models shows very good improvements (i.e. the predicted values of best ANN model (MLP-V) has a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) about 5.21% versus 10.02% for best CGSRP model (CGSRP 5)). (author)

Behrang, M.A.; Assareh, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Dezful Branch (Iran); Ghanbarzadeh, A.; Noghrehabadi, A.R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz (Iran)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

317

Direct normal irradiance related definitions and applications: The circumsolar issue  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The direct irradiance received on a plane normal to the sun, called direct normal irradiance (DNI), is of particular relevance to concentrated solar technologies, including concentrating solar thermal plants and concentrated photovoltaic systems. Following various standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the DNI definition is related to the irradiance from a small solid angle of the sky, centered on the position of the sun. Half-angle apertures of pyrheliometers measuring DNI have varied over time, up to ?10. The current recommendation of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for this half-angle is 2.5. Solar concentrating collectors have an angular acceptance function that can be significantly narrower, especially for technologies with high concentration ratios. The disagreement between the various interpretations of DNI, from the theoretical definition used in atmospheric physics and radiative transfer modeling to practical definitions corresponding to specific measurements or conversion technologies is significant, especially in the presence of cirrus clouds or large concentration of aerosols. Under such sky conditions, the circumsolar radiationi.e. the diffuse radiation coming from the vicinity of the suncontributes significantly to the DNI ground measurement, although some concentrating collectors cannot utilize the bulk of it. These issues have been identified in the EU-funded projects MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate-Interim Implementation) and SFERA (Solar Facilities for the European Research Area), and have been discussed within a panel of international experts in the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) program of the International Energy Agencys (IEAs) Task 46 Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting. In accordance with these discussions, the terms of reference related to DNI are specified here. The important role of circumsolar radiation is evidenced, and its potential contribution is evaluated for typical atmospheric conditions. For thorough analysis of performance of concentrating solar systems, it is recommended that, in addition to the conventional DNI related to 2.5 half-angle of todays pyrheliometers, solar resource data sets also report the sunshape, the circumsolar contribution or the circumsolar ratio (CSR).

P. Blanc; B. Espinar; N. Geuder; C. Gueymard; R. Meyer; R. Pitz-Paal; B. Reinhardt; D. Renn; M. Sengupta; L. Wald; S. Wilbert

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

The dosimetric impact of daily setup error on target volumes and surrounding normal tissue in the treatment of prostate cancer with intensity-modulated radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of daily setup error and interfraction organ motion on the overall dosimetric radiation treatment plans. Twelve patients undergoing definitive intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments for prostate cancer were evaluated in this institutional review board-approved study. Each patient had fiducial markers placed into the prostate gland before treatment planning computed tomography scan. IMRT plans were generated using the Eclipse treatment planning system. Each patient was treated to a dose of 8100 cGy given in 45 fractions. In this study, we retrospectively created a plan for each treatment day that had a shift available. To calculate the dose, the patient would have received under this plan, we mathematically 'negated' the shift by moving the isocenter in the exact opposite direction of the shift. The individualized daily plans were combined to generate an overall plan sum. The dose distributions from these plans were compared with the treatment plans that were used to treat the patients. Three-hundred ninety daily shifts were negated and their corresponding plans evaluated. The mean isocenter shift based on the location of the fiducial markers was 3.3 {+-} 6.5 mm to the right, 1.6 {+-} 5.1 mm posteriorly, and 1.0 {+-} 5.0 mm along the caudal direction. The mean D95 doses for the prostate gland when setup error was corrected and uncorrected were 8228 and 7844 cGy (p < 0.002), respectively, and for the planning target volume (PTV8100) was 8089 and 7303 cGy (p < 0.001), respectively. The mean V95 values when patient setup was corrected and uncorrected were 99.9% and 87.3%, respectively, for the PTV8100 volume (p < 0.0001). At an individual patient level, the difference in the D95 value for the prostate volume could be >1200 cGy and for the PTV8100 could approach almost 2000 cGy when comparing corrected against uncorrected plans. There was no statistically significant difference in the D35 parameter for the surrounding normal tissue except for the dose received by the penile bulb and the right hip. Our dosimetric evaluation suggests significant underdosing with inaccurate target localization and emphasizes the importance of accurate patient setup and target localization. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of intrafraction organ motion, rotation, and deformation on doses delivered to target volumes.

Algan, Ozer, E-mail: oalgan@ouhsc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Jamgade, Ambarish; Ali, Imad; Christie, Alana; Thompson, J. Spencer; Thompson, David; Ahmad, Salahuddin; Herman, Terence [Department of Radiation Oncology, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Extremely Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation Causes Activation of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway and Enhances Proliferation of Normal Human Diploid Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...stimulative effect of low-dose irradiation. These results indicate that a limited range of low-dose ionizing radiation differentially activates...indicate that a limited range of low-dose ionizing radiation differentially activates...

Keiji Suzuki; Seiji Kodama; and Masami Watanabe

2001-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

320

A water-trickle type solar collector with a massive concrete slab for heat storage and radiation /TMU solar system I/  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental results are reported for a simple open type solar collector - a water trickle type collector - used in combination with a massive concrete slab for energy storage. This relatively low cost system was installed on a typical Japanese house in Yokohama City and measurements were made of the interior temperature. The system showed considerable promise for application in Japan.

Ito, N. (Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan); Matsuda, K. (Kyushu Institute of Design, Kyushu, Japan); Ishii, A. (Ministry of Construction, Building Research Institute, Japan)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal solar radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Solar system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An improved solar heat collecting system is described comprising: a collecting means having upper and lower end caps; means for supporting the collecting means in a position generally perpendicular to ambit solar radiation and to permit periodic adjustment thereof; the support means including a base, a first support bar pivotally secured to the base and extending parallel to the ground, and a first support member extending perpendicular from the first support bar to the lower end cap. The support means also includes a second support bar pivotally secured to the base and extending generally parallel to the first support bar, a support leg having a lower portion that extends perpendicularly from the second support bar, an intermediate leg portion slidingly mounted on the lower leg portion and an upper leg portion pivotally secured to the intermediate leg portion, and a second support member extending perpendicularly from the upper leg portion to the upper end cap; lens means disposed above the collecting means for concentrating solar radiation on the collecting means; a pair of reflector means mounted below and on opposite sides of the radiation shadow of the lens means for concentrating solar radiation on the collecting means; mounting means for mounting the lens means and the reflector means. The mounting means includes first and second bracket means rotatively mounted respectively to the first and second support members. A pair of radially extending U-shaped reflector mounts have opposite ends secured to respective bracket means, and a pair of radially extending lens supports secured to respective bracket means; and means for rotating the mounting means and associated lens mean and reflector means to track the source of solar radiation whereby an improved, highly efficient solar heat collecting system is provided.

Gregory, S.T.

1987-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

322

Solar selective absorption coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

Mahoney, Alan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, F. Edward (Horseheads, NY)

2003-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

323

Solar selective absorption coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

Mahoney, Alan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, F. Edward (Horseheads, NY)

2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

324

Surface Radiation from GOES: A Physical Approach; Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Models to compute Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) have been in development over the last 3 decades. These models can be classified as empirical or physical, based on the approach. Empirical models relate ground based observations with satellite measurements and use these relations to compute surface radiation. Physical models consider the radiation received from the earth at the satellite and create retrievals to estimate surface radiation. While empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation for the solar energy industry the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from NOAA that computes GHI using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the GOES satellites. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and uses those properties in a radiative transfer model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, University of Wisconsin and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a 4 km GHI and DNI product every 30 minutes. This paper presents an outline of the methodology and a comprehensive validation using high quality ground based solar data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) (http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/surfrad/sitepage.html) and Integrated Surface Insolation Study (ISIS) http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/isis/isissites.html), the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Sun Spot One (SS1) stations.

Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor. 5 figs.

Chiang, C.J.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Solar Lakes and Solar Energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... It is worth estimating the magnitude of the energy that can be extracted from the stable layer of such a lake. Por presented ... the depth of 125 cm as the top of that layer. Now the fraction of solar radiation which penetrates unabsorbed below a water layer 125 cm thick2 is about 30 per ...

J. NEUMANN

1968-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

327

Solar collector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A solar collector is disclosed which is tiltable about a horizontal axis so as to vary the angle at which solar radiation is received by the collector. The solar collector, which uses air as the heat transfer medium, has connected to it a pair of fixed, well-insulated air transfer passages which penetrate through into the interior of the collector at the lateral sides thereof aligned with the horizontal axis about which the collector is pivoted. The air transfer passages are insulated and are gasketed to the sides of the collector so as to improve the efficiency of the solar energy system by avoiding losses of heat from the heat transfer fluid during transfer of the fluid from the collector to the space being heated.

Stevenson, S.

1981-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

328

Evaluating Solar Resource Data Obtained from Multiple Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solar radiation resource measurements from radiometers are used to predict and evaluate the performance of photovoltaic and concentrating solar power systems, validate satellite-based models for estimating solar resources, and advance research in solar forecasting and climate change. This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances (GHI) and direct normal irradiances (DNI). These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband irradiometers, and a pyranometer with a shading ring deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference GHI and DNI.

Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Atlas Brasileiro de Energia Solar (Brazilian Atlas of Solar Energy) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Atlas Brasileiro de Energia Solar (Brazilian Atlas of Solar Energy) Atlas Brasileiro de Energia Solar (Brazilian Atlas of Solar Energy) Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): The Brazilian Atlas of Solar Energy is divided into five distinct sections. The first section describes the methodology used to obtain the solar radiation data and to produce the solar maps. The second section contains information on the confidence levels of the methodology employed, obtained by comparing solar estimates provided by BRASIL- SR model with estimates provided by other models and ground data. The third section presents the maps of various solar radiation components (global, direct, diffuse, tilted plane, and PAR). The fourth section analyzes the temporal and spatial variations and trends of solar energy resources and, (Purpose): The Brazilian Atlas of Solar Energy is designed to supply for a portion of the demand for information

330

Solar Energy Market Forecast | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Solar Energy Market Forecast Solar Energy Market Forecast Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Solar Energy Market Forecast Agency/Company /Organization: United States Department of Energy Sector: Energy Focus Area: Solar Topics: Market analysis, Technology characterizations Resource Type: Publications Website: giffords.house.gov/DOE%20Perspective%20on%20Solar%20Market%20Evolution References: Solar Energy Market Forecast[1] Summary " Energy markets / forecasts DOE Solar America Initiative overview Capital market investments in solar Solar photovoltaic (PV) sector overview PV prices and costs PV market evolution Market evolution considerations Balance of system costs Silicon 'normalization' Solar system value drivers Solar market forecast Additional resources"

331

Solar Rights | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Solar Rights Solar Rights Solar Rights < Back Eligibility Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Solar Heating Buying & Making Electricity Swimming Pool Heaters Water Heating Program Info State North Carolina Program Type Solar/Wind Access Policy Provider North Carolina Department of Commerce Cities and counties in North Carolina generally may not adopt ordinances prohibiting the installation of "a solar collector that gathers solar radiation as a substitute for traditional energy for water heating, active space heating and cooling, passive heating, or generating electricity for residential property."* However, city and county ordinances may prohibit the installation of solar-energy collectors that are visible from the

332

The Difference of Thermal Energy Transmitted to the Earth by Radiation from different Parts of the Solar Surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... that the rays projected from the north pole of the sun transmit a perceptibly greater energy to the actinometers than the rays from the opposite pole. Subsequent observation; having positively ... difference of zenith distance of the opposite poles of the sun, my table of maximum solar intensity for given zenith distances (prepared from data collected during a series of years) ...

J. ERICSSON

1875-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

333

The Difference of Thermal Energy transmitted to the Earth by Radiation from different parts of the Solar Surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... 1. Previous to undertaking a systematic investigation of the mechanical properties of solar heat, I examined thoroughly the merits of Laplace's famous demonstration relating to the ... the absorptive power of the sun's atmosphere, proving that only one-twelfth of the energy developed by the sun is transmitted to the earth. The demonstration being based on ...

J. ERICSSON

1876-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

334

Solar retorting of oil shale  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Incoming Solar and Infrared Radiation Derived from METEOSAT: Impact on the Modeled Land Water and Energy Budget over France  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF) project radiation fluxes, derived from the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) geostationary satellite, were used in the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA) ...

D. Carrer; S. Lafont; J.-L. Roujean; J.-C. Calvet; C. Meurey; P. Le Moigne; I. F. Trigo

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Passive solar design handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Passive Solar Design Handbook, Volume Three updates Volume Two by presenting extensive new data on the optimum mix of conservation and solar direct gain, sunspaces, thermal storage walls, and solar radiation. The direct gain, thermal storage wall, and solar radiation data are greatly expanded relative to the Volume 2 coverage. The needed flexibility to analyze a variety of system designs is accommodated by the large number of reference designs to be encompassed - 94 in contrast to 6 in Volume two - and the large amount of sensitivity data for direct gain and sunspace systems - approximately 1100 separate curves.

Jones, R.W.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Solar Neutrinos  

DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

The prospect of studying the solar energy generation process directly by observing the solar neutrino radiation has been discussed for many years. The main difficulty with this approach is that the sun emits predominantly low energy neutrinos, and detectors for observing low fluxes of low energy neutrinos have not been developed. However, experimental techniques have been developed for observing neutrinos, and one can foresee that in the near future these techniques will be improved sufficiently in sensitivity to observe solar neutrinos. At the present several experiments are being designed and hopefully will be operating in the next year or so. We will discuss an experiment based upon a neutrino capture reaction that is the inverse of the electron-capture radioactive decay of argon-37. The method depends upon exposing a large volume of a chlorine compound, removing the radioactive argon-37 and observing the characteristic decay in a small low-level counter.

Davis, R. Jr.; Harmer, D. S.

1964-12-00T23:59:59.000Z

338

Evaluating Solar Radiation Attenuation Models to Assess the Effects of Climate and Geographical Location on the Heliostat Field Efficiency in Brazil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Most of the solar power plants using a central receiver which are currently in operation are installed in the Sun Belt region, specifically above the Tropic of Cancer. These plants are located in regions characterized by a dry summers and a yearly sum of Direct Normal Irradiation (DNI) of over 2300 kWh/m2. These regions include the Mojave Desert (semi-arid climate) and Andaluca in southern Spain (Mediterranean and semi-arid climate). Potential locations for installing such plants in Brazil, identified in previous studies, are the So Francisco river basin and the Sobradinho area in the Northeast Region of the country. These locations are characterized by high humidity levels and yearly DNI values ranging from 1800 to 2300 kWh/m2, which is in clear contrast with the dry and desert climates where the solar tower projects currently in operation are located. Besides the combined effects of climate and the inter-tropicalization of the site, based on the solar angles and atmospheric attenuation, the potential locations in Brazil provide a small variation between the monthly averages DNI values. In this paper, the effects of these particularities on the performance of a heliostat field are assessed. For instance, the effects of the atmospheric water vapor and aerosol concentration on the optical performance of the heliostat field are analyzed. The results suggest that, for the same DNI level, the heliostat field in Brazil should be 4% larger due to the effect of the water vapor concentration in the atmosphere. This is an important finding, which shows that the current models for calculating the attenuation between the heliostat and the receiver need to be reviewed and compared with experimental observations and validated for the conditions prevailing at potential locations in Brazil.

JM Cardemil; AR Starke; VK Scariot; IL. Grams; S Colle

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Eurotherm Seminar N81 Reactive Heat Transfer in Porous Media, Ecole des Mines d'Albi, France June 4-6, 2007 ET81-1 HEAT TRANSFER BY SIMULTANEOUS RADIATION-CONDUCTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a packed bed reactor for gasifying coal in mixed control using concentrated solar radiation is proposed], Taylor et al. [3], Belghit et al. [4]). A moving bed reactor, for gasifying coconut charcoal with CO2 the radiative exchange in the porous medium. Case's normal-mode expansion technique [6] is used to obtain

Boyer, Edmond

340

Development of Simplified Calculations for a Multipyranometer Array for the Measurement of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Finland by M. HW1'aien et al. (1985). Further development on the MPA was performed in several countries ineluding the United States where Perez (1986) presented a method for deriving beam radiation from a series of vertically mounted pyranometers...

Munger, B. K.; Haberl, J. S.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal solar radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

The Use of Two-Stream Approximations for the Parameterization of Solar Radiative Energy Fluxes through Vegetation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two-stream approximations have been used widely and for a long time in the field of radiative transfer through vegetation in various contexts and in the last 10 years also to model the hemispheric reflectance of vegetated surfaces in numerical ...

Joachim H. Josepoh; Jean Laquinta; Bernard Pinty

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Solar Resource Assessment for Sri Lanka and Maldives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The countries of Sri Lanka and the Maldives lie within the equatorial belt, a region where substantial solar energy resources exist throughout much of the year in adequate quantities for many applications, including solar water heating, solar electricity, and desalination. The extent of solar resources in Sri Lanka has been estimated in the past based on a study of the daily total direct sunshine hours recorded at a number of weather and agricultural stations throughout the country. These data have been applied to the well-known Angstrom relationship in order to obtain an estimate of the distribution of monthly average daily total solar resources at these stations. This study is an effort in improve on these estimates in two ways: (1) to apply a gridded cloud cover database at a 40-km resolution to produce updated monthly average daily total estimates of all solar resources (global horizontal, DNI, and diffuse) for the country, and (2) to input hourly or three-hourly cloud cover observations made at nine weather stations in Sri Lanka and two in the Maldives into a solar model that produces estimates of hourly solar radiation values of the direct normal, global, and diffuse resource covering the length of the observational period. Details and results of these studies are summarized in this report.

Renne, D.; George, R.; Marion, B.; Heimiller, D.; Gueymard, C.

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Parameterization of daily solar irradiance variability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effects of solar systems operation can be compared only under very similar weather conditions. Diagnostics of the solar systems requires unequivocal determination of solar irradiation. Development of a method for precise identification of solar radiation day time profile is needed, as the methods used so far in the cloud cover determination are not satisfactory. The paper presents two optional methods, developed by the authors, for identification of the solar radiation profile. Advantages and disadvantages of the methods are also specified.

D. Czekalski; A. Chochowski; P. Obstawski

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

RADIATION SENSITIVITY & PROCESSING OF DNA DAMAGE FOLLOWING LOW DOSES OF GAMMA-RAY ALPHA PARTICLES & HZE IRRADIATION OF NORMAL DSB REPAIR DEFICIENT CELLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) predominates in the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) over homologous recombination (HR). NHEJ occurs throughout the cell cycle whereas HR occurs in late S/G2 due to the requirement of a sister chromatid (Rothkamm et al, Mol Cell Biol 23 5706-15 [2003]). To date evidence obtained with DSB repair deficient cells using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis has revealed the major pathway throughout all phases of the cell cycle for processing high dose induced DSBs is NHEJ (Wang et al, Oncogene 20 2212-24 (2001); Pluth et al, Cancer Res. 61 2649-55 [2001]). These findings however were obtained at high doses when on average >> 20-30 DSBs are formed per cell. The contribution of the repair pathways (NHEJ and HR) induced in response to DNA damage during the various phases of the cell cycle may depend upon the dose (the level of initial DSBs) especially since low levels of DSBs are induced at low dose. To date, low dose studies using NHEJ and HR deficient mutants have not been carried out to address this important question with radiations of different quality. The work presented here leads us to suggest that HR plays a relatively minor role in the repair of radiation-induced prompt DSBs. SSBs lead to the induction of DSBs which are associated specifically with S-phase cells consistent with the idea that they are formed at stalled replication forks in which HR plays a major role in repair. That DNA-PKcs is in some way involved in the repair of the precursors to replication-induced DSB remains an open question. Persistent non-DSB oxidative damage also leads to an increase in RAD51 positive DSBs. Both simple and complex non-DSB DNA damage may therefore contribute to indirect DSBs induced by ionising radiation at replication forks.

O'Neil, Peter

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

345

SOLAR-BLIND PYROMETRIC TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT UNDER CONCENTRATED SOLAR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solar thermal applications. As contact thermometry is often not appropriate in the presence of high;Introduction In high temperature solar thermal applications, where key components are driven near reflections1,2 . The distinction between the emitted thermal and the reflected solar radiation becomes

346

Parameterization of solar flare dose  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A critical aspect of missions to the Moon or Mars is the safety and health of the crew. Radiation in space is a hazard for astronauts, especially high-energy radiation following certain types of solar flares. A solar flare event can be very...

Lamarche, Anne Helene

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Advances in solar cell technology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The advances in solar cell efficiency radiation tolerance and cost over the last decade are reviewed. Potential performance of thin?film solar cells in space are discussed and the cost and the historical trends in production capability of the photovoltaics industry considered with respect to the requirements of satellite solar power systems.

Geoffrey A. Landis; Sheila G. Bailey

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Solar Influences on Climate Professor Joanna Haigh  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar Influences on Climate Professor Joanna Haigh Executive Summary The Sun provides the energy to be much smaller than those due to increasing greenhouse gases. What are the sources of variation in solar radiation? There are two main sources of variation in solar radiation. First, there are internal stellar

Rosso, Lula

349

Rigollier C., Bauer O., Wald L., 2000. On the clear sky model of the 4th European Solar Radiation Atlas with respect to the Heliosat method. Solar Energy, 68(1), 33-48.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atlas with respect to the Heliosat method. Solar Energy, 68(1), 33-48. Copyright Ecole des Mines de in "Solar Energy 68, 1 (2000) 33-48" #12;The clear sky model of the ESRA Copyright Ecole des Mines de Paris are instrumental in several applications in solar energy. Of particular interest to the authors is the assessment

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

350

Radiation Incident on Tilted Collectors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For solar energy system design purposes, observations of solar radiation on a horizontal surface must be converted to values on a tilted energy collector. An empirical conversion relationship, introduced by Liu and Jordan (1960) and based on ...

P. J. Robinson

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption solar cooling Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

will introduce the theory of radiative transfer; the second part Summary: to greenhouse effect and solar radiation 6. Radiative heating and cooling a. The Chapman layer b....

352

direct normal irradiance | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

normal irradiance normal irradiance Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. Source NREL Date Released July 31st, 2006 (8 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords direct normal irradiance DNI GEF GHI GIS global horizontal irradiance insolation latitutde tilt irradiance NASA NREL South America SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile and Cell Maps (zip, 13.9 MiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 3.5 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

353

Spectrally selective surface coatings for energy efficiency and solar applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The radiative properties of surfaces emittance transmittance reflectance and absorptance are considered as they relate to photothermal conversion of solar radiation. (AIP)

C. G. Granqvist

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Solar activity and global sea-surface temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......variations in incoming solar radiation. A physical...small varia- tions in the solar energy output (0.1%) can...consortium. SOHO is a project of international cooperation...between ESA and NASA.) The solar model produced smaller......

Rasmus E Benestad

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Evaluation of numerical weather prediction for intra-day solar forecasting in the continental United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

andvalidation. SolarEnergy. 73:5,307? Perez,R. ,usingsatellitedata. SolarEnergy67:1?3,139?150. solarradiation. SolarEnergy ManagementforElectricity

Mathiesen, Patrick; Kleissl, Jan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Ch.2 Solar Energy to Earth and the Seasons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Light year is a unit of distance!!! #12;Our Solar System #12;Earth's orbit Earth's orbit around energy is radiant energy (i.e., radiant light and heat) from the Sun. #12;How is solar energy created Southern lights Northern lights #12;Learning Objective Three: Solar Radiation #12; Solar radiation

Pan, Feifei

357

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Solar Energy to Earth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The unit is Joule (J). · Solar energy is radiant energy (i.e., radiant light and heat) from the Sun% solar radiation Solar radiation consists of: 1. Gamma rays, X-rays, UV (8%) 2. Visible light (47%) 3© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Solar Energy to Earth and the Seasons #12;© 2015 Pearson

Pan, Feifei

358

Solar Energy Resource Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Solar Energy Resource Basics Solar Energy Resource Basics Solar Energy Resource Basics August 21, 2013 - 11:40am Addthis Solar radiation, often called the solar resource, is a general term for the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the sun. Solar radiation can be captured and turned into useful forms of energy, such as heat and electricity, using a variety of technologies. However, the technical feasibility and economical operation of these technologies at a specific location depends on the available solar resource. Basic Principles Every location on Earth receives sunlight at least part of the year. The amount of solar radiation that reaches any one spot on the Earth's surface varies according to: Geographic location Time of day Season Local landscape Local weather. Because the Earth is round, the sun strikes the surface at different

359

Efficiency of combined solar photothermal plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The efficiency of a combined solar photothermal plant for electric and thermal energy ... evaluated with account for the daily variation of solar radiation and atmospheric temperature. It is shown ... utilize add...

M. N. Tursunov; A. Komilov; Sh. I. Klychev; S. M. Mukhammadiyev

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Solar Steam Reforming of Methane Program Proposals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Concentration of solar radiation to provide a high temperature heat source is principally relatively simple. This can be seen in the fact that the costs of highly concentrated solar heat are not higher tha...

U. Leuchs

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal solar radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Solar Energy Climatology of North Carolina  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A solar energy climatology for North Carolina was developed using radiation data from the six SOLMET stations in the state. The climatology provides information needed to design solar powered space and water heating systems, and evaluate their ...

Peter J. Robinson; William E. Easterling

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Information theory and solar energy collection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Information theory is applied to the problem of solar radiation collection. We find that the optimum solar concentrator corresponds to a perfect imaging system, i.e., one that images...

Patera, R P; Robertson, H S

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Do You Have a Solar Water Heater?  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Earlier this week, Ernie wrote about theeconomics of getting a solar water heater. As Ernie explained, a solar water heater is more expensive than a normal water heater, but depending on your area...

364

Potential of Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) in Zimbabwe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study seeks to assess the potential of utilizing Concentrated Solar Power for electricity generation in Zimbabwe. Data from 26 meteorological stations which are widely distributed around the country was used to map the distribution of solar radiation. Geographic information systems were employed to locate sites with potential for installing concentrating solar power plants. Areas with good potential were identified by using the following assessment factors: direct normal irradiance (DNI), proximity to transmission lines and water bodies, flatness of the area and the vulnerability of vegetation and wild life. After considering all the assessment factors, a total area of 250000km2 was found to be suitable. If only 10% of the suitable land area is used and the technology with the least efficiency (810%) is adopted, about 71.4GW can be generated. The projected power generation is about thirty times the current power demand of the country.

S. Ziuku; L. Seyitini; B. Mapurisa; D. Chikodzi; Koen van Kuijk

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Solar access: it's the law  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The contents of the California Solar Rights Act and the California Solar Shade Control Act which may have an impact on the way in which development, particularly housing, is designed and constructed in California, are reviewed. The Solar Rights Act establishes the state government of California as supporting and encouraging solar energy implementation at the local level. The law sets parameters for establishing solar easements, amends the Solar Tax Credit to include costs of easements, prohibits ordinances and private covenants which restrict solar systems, and requires communities to consider passive solar and natural heating and cooling opportunities in new construction. The Solar Rights Act is binding on all charter cities, and is thus applicable to all California cities and counties. The Solar Shade Control Act prohibits the blockage of solar radiation by vegetation to solar collectors which meet certain specific qualifications. Owners of property with unlawful vegetation are subject to criminal charges and fines of up to $500 per day of continued infraction. However, cities and counties may elect to exempt themselves from provisions of the Solar Shade Control Act. This manuscript explains solar access concepts, interprets the legal language of the laws for lay readers, and offers specific planning and design guidelines for use by developers, planners, and government officials in reviewing or developing plans to ensure solar access to structures. Twenty-four illustrations, a glossary, and several practical appendices are offered to assist the reader in understanding and complying with the laws.

Thayer, R.L. Jr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Intensity enhancement of O VI ultraviolet emission lines in solar spectra due to opacity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Opacity is a property of many plasmas, and it is normally expected that if an emission line in a plasma becomes optically thick, its intensity ratio to that of another transition that remains optically thin should decrease. However, radiative transfer calculations undertaken both by ourselves and others predict that under certain conditions the intensity ratio of an optically thick to thin line can show an increase over the optically thin value, indicating an enhancement in the former. These conditions include the geometry of the emitting plasma and its orientation to the observer. A similar effect can take place between lines of differing optical depth. Previous observational studies have focused on stellar point sources, and here we investigate the spatially-resolved solar atmosphere using measurements of the I(1032 A)/I(1038 A) intensity ratio of O VI in several regions obtained with the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (...

Keenan, F P; Madjarska, M S; Rose, S J; Bowler, L A; Britton, J; McCrink, L; Mathioudakis, M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Utilization of solar energy in cold climate.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Solar radiation is a source of life on the Earth. The sun heats the atmosphere and the surface of our planet. Because of the sun (more)

Tazeeva, Elena

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Milestones of Solar Conversion and Photovoltaics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Seventh century BC: In ancient Egypt the houses were built so that the solar radiation could be collected during the day and used during the night.

V. Petrova-Koch

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Multi-objective optimization of solar tower heliostat fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multi-objective optimization of solar tower heliostat fields Pascal Richter, Martin Frank and Erika Introduction Solar tower plants generate electric power from sunlight by focusing concentrated solar radiation electricity. Fig. 1 Solar tower plant PS10, 11 MW in Andalusia, Spain. [Source: flickr] Solar tower plants

Ábrahám, Erika

370

E-Print Network 3.0 - abscopal radiation effects Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

will introduce the theory of radiative transfer; the second part Summary: to greenhouse effect and solar radiation 6. Radiative heating and cooling a. The Chapman layer b....

371

Optical waveguide solar energy system for lunar material processing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the study on the optical waveguide (OW) solar energy system for lunar material processing. In the OW solar energy system, solar radiation is collected by the concentrator which transfers the concentrated solar radiation to the OW transmission line consisting of low-loss optical fibers and related optical components. The OW line transmits the high intensity solar radiation to the thermal reactor of the lunar materials processing plant. Based on the results discussed in this paper the authors conclude that the OW solar energy system is a viable concept which can effectively utilize solar energy for lunar material processing.

Nakamura, T.; Senior, C.L. [Physical Sciences, Inc., Andover, MA (United States); Shoji, J.M.; Waldron, R.D. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Division

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Solar Powered Classroom  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A group of fourth graders in Durham, North Carolina, are showing America the way to a clean energy future. They are installing solar panels on their classroom roof for a project that goes above and beyond a normal day in school. From researching solar panel installation, to generating funds for the project via Kickstarter, these are students who put their plans into action. Their accomplishments go beyond the classroom and stress the importance of getting people of all ages involved in renewable energy.

none

2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

373

Solar Powered Classroom  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

A group of fourth graders in Durham, North Carolina, are showing America the way to a clean energy future. They are installing solar panels on their classroom roof for a project that goes above and beyond a normal day in school. From researching solar panel installation, to generating funds for the project via Kickstarter, these are students who put their plans into action. Their accomplishments go beyond the classroom and stress the importance of getting people of all ages involved in renewable energy.

none

2013-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

374

Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dispersion of solar energy production sites could mitigatesolar radiation can lead to substantial energy production.production of 100 grid connected PV systems distributed over the area of Germany, Solar Energy,

Lave, Matthew S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Quantum Solar Energy Conversion and Application to Organic Solar Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When studying the limits of solar energy conversion, either by thermal or quantum processes, the sun has traditionally been treated as a blackbody (thermal equilibrium) radiator with surface temperature 5 800 ...

Gottfried H. Bauer; Peter Wrfel

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Solar abundance problem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The chemical composition of the Sun is among the most important quantities in astrophysics. Solar abundances are needed for modelling stellar atmospheres, stellar structure and evolution, population synthesis, and galaxies as a whole. The solar abundance problem refers to the conflict of observed data from helioseismology and the predictions made by stellar interior models for the Sun, if these models use the newest solar chemical composition obtained with 3D and NLTE models of radiative transfer. Here we take a close look at the problem from observational and theoretical perspective. We also provide a list of possible solutions, which have yet to be tested.

Bergemann, Maria

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Failure and Redemption of Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR)/Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) Cloud Screening: Contrasting Algorithm Performance at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Southern Great Plains (SGP) Sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Well-known cloud-screening algorithms, which are designed to remove cloud-contaminated aerosol optical depths (AOD) from AOD measurements, have shown great performance at many middle-to-low latitude sites around the world. However, they may occasionally fail under challenging observational conditions, such as when the sun is low (near the horizon) or when optically thin clouds with small spatial inhomogeneity occur. Such conditions have been observed quite frequently at the high-latitude Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites. A slightly modified cloud-screening version of the standard algorithm is proposed here with a focus on the ARM-supported Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) and Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) data. The modified version uses approximately the same techniques as the standard algorithm, but it additionally examines the magnitude of the slant-path line of sight transmittance and eliminates points when the observed magnitude is below a specified threshold. Substantial improvement of the multi-year (1999-2012) aerosol product (AOD and its Angstrom exponent) is shown for the NSA sites when the modified version is applied. Moreover, this version reproduces the AOD product at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, which was originally generated by the standard cloud-screening algorithms. The proposed minor modification is easy to implement and its application to existing and future cloud-screening algorithms can be particularly beneficial for challenging observational conditions.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Flynn, Connor J.; Koontz, Annette S.; Sivaraman, Chitra; Barnard, James C.

2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

378

Analyzing Surface Solar Flux Data in Oregon for Changes Due to Aerosols Laura D. Riihimaki1, Frank E. Vignola1, Charles N. Long2, James A. Coakley Jr.3 1 University of Oregon Solar Radiation Monitoring Lab 2 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 3 Oregon State University, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

76 76 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 100 150 200 250 Direct Normal Irradiance (W/m 2 ) Eugene Hermiston Burns 3. All-sky direct normal irradiance increases 5% per decade Eppley NIP Conclusions Annual average all-sky total and direct normal irradiance measurements show an overall increase in Oregon between 1980 and 2007. Two measurement sites show statistically significant increases in clear- sky direct normal irradiance in background periods before and after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo [6] (1987- 2008), consistent with the hypothesis that a reduction in anthropogenic aerosols may contribute to the increase in surface irradiance. References 1. Long, C.N. and T. P. Ackerman, 2000: J. Geophys. Res., 105(D12), 15,609-15,626. 2. Long, C.N., and K.L. Gaustad, 2004: Atmospheric Radiation

379

E-Print Network 3.0 - adaheli solar mission Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Conversion and Utilization 14 National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ultra-Light, Low-Cost Solar Concentrator Offers Summary: , solar power high radiation...

380

E-Print Network 3.0 - alingap solar cell Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory Summary: an electrical current when illuminated by light- also called a solar cell Photovoltaic Module A group... produced when plotting...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal solar radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Forbush decrease effects on radiation dose received on-board aeroplanes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......information provided by the US FAA to promote radiation safety for air carrier crew members. Radiat...Cosmic Radiation Humans Monte Carlo Method Radiation Dosage Radiation Monitoring methods Software Solar Activity...

P. Lantos

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Pacific Northwest Solar Radiation Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: fev@darkwing.uoregon.edu BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION Bonneville Power Administration George Darr

Oregon, University of

383

Solar sky radiation estimation techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Empirical correlations suggested by various authors, for estimating monthly mean daily diffuse irradiation, are compared statistically to test their applicability to the southern African region. The correlations are compared by calculating root mean square error, mean bias error and mean percentage error. The correlations suggested by Gopinathan and Gladius Lewis are found to be most accurate for the southern African region. Equations suggested by Iqbal give poor results and cannot be employed for the region.

Gopinathan, K.K. (National Univ. of Lesotho, Roma (South Africa))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Influence of Extraterrestrial Radiation on Radiation Portal Monitors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cosmic radiation and solar flares can be a major source of background radiation at the Earths surface. This paper examines the relationship between extraterrestrial radiation and the detectable background in radiation portal monitors used for homeland security applications. Background radiation data from 13 radiation portal monitor facilities are examined and compared against external sources of data related to extraterrestrial radiation, including measurements at neutron monitors located at 53 cosmic-ray observatories around the Earth, four polar orbiting satellites, three geostationary satellites, ground-based geomagnetic field data from observatories around the Earth, a solar magnetic index, solar radio flux data, and sunspot activity data. Four-years (January 2003 through December 2006) of data are used in this study, which include the latter part of Solar Cycle 23 as solar activity was on the decline. The analysis shows a significant relationship between some extraterrestrial radiation and the background detected in the radiation portal monitors. A demonstrable decline is shown in the average gamma ray and neutron background at the radiation portal monitors as solar activity declined over the period of the study.

Keller, Paul E.; Kouzes, Richard T.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Beam Solar Irradiation Assessment for Sonora, Mexico  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Located in north western Mexico, the State of Sonora has an excellent quality solar resource, with the highest solar irradiation levels in the country. In less than 1% of its vast arid territory, it receives enough solar power to satisfy the energy demand of the entire country. In spite of its huge solar potential, there has been little work on the measurement of solar radiation in this area. At a few locations, global solar radiation has been measured for some years. Also there have been some works reporting evaluation of solar irradiation based on empirical models or satellite images. Because of the very small amount of precipitation on most of its territory, Sonora is ideal for the implementation of concentrated solar power (CSP). Beam solar radiation data is necessary for the sizing and assessment of CSP plants. Unfortunately, very little information is available on this solar radiation component for Sonora. The present work reports on the results of recent measurements of beam and solar global radiation for the area of the city of Hermosillo, in the center of the state. The obtained results are compared with other available information obtained by indirect methods, such as satellite based or empirical climate data based models. The yearly available energy as well as the utilizable energy for certain irradiance levels is evaluated.

C.A. Arancibia-Bulnes; R. Pen-Anaya; D. Riveros-Rosas; J.J. Quiones; R.E. Cabanillas; C.A. Estrada

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

World Symposium on Applied Solar Energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...water. The pump converts solar energy into mechanical...on the "Economics of solar energy," J. Hobson...operate with intermittent solar energy. However, 10...daily bread. Some recent developments with selec-tive surfaces...and a poor emitter of thermal radiations. Sunlight...

Guy Benveniste; Merritt L. Kastens

1956-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

387

Method for processing silicon solar cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystalline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation. 2 figs.

Tsuo, Y.S.; Landry, M.D.; Pitts, J.R.

1997-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

388

Solar Easements  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

New Jersey law provides for the creation of solar easements to ensure that proper sunlight is available to those who operate solar-energy systems. The term "solar energy device" is not defined by...

389

Solar Easements  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Virginia's solar easement law is similar to those in effect in other states. The Virginia Solar Easements Act of 1978 allows property owners to create binding solar easements for the purpose of...

390

Solar Heating and Cooling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...radiation during good weather are not very high, and...Atmospheric Administration weather ser-vice measures total...largely to experi-mental operation of 3-ton LiBr-H2O...a million solar water heaters are in use in these countries...air House heating load Cold air return 'S T~rgeo...

John A. Duffie; William A. Beckman

1976-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

391

The Solar Spoon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... too. In particular it is normally assumed that the solar core remains unmixed because the Schwarzschild criterion for convective stability5-6 is satisfied. Although Opik has suggested that diffusion of ... of a main sequence star the thermonuclear generation of energy has negligible effect on the Schwarzschild criterion, because the timescale for generating energy is very much greater than the growth ...

F. W. W. DILKE; D. O. GOUGH

1972-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

II. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Since 1977 the University of Oregon Solar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of utilities headed by the Eugene Water and Electric Board initiated the Re- gional Solar Radiation Monitoring2 II. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Since 1977 the University of Oregon Solar Monitoring Laboratory has operated a solar radiation monitoring network in the Pacific Northwest. The number of stations participat

Oregon, University of

393

Community Shared Solar with Solarize  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

An overview of the concept behind The Solarize Guidebook, which offers neighborhoods a plan for getting volume discounts when making group purchases of rooftop solar energy systems.

394

Performance Study of Thermoelectric Solar-Assisted Heat Pump with Reflectors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The simultaneous conversion of solar radiation into thermal and electrical energy in a thermoelectric (TE) solar-assisted heat pump is, for the purposes of ... plate reflectors have been mounted on a TE solar col...

C. Lertsatitthanakorn; S. Soponronnarit

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Disinfection of Contaminated Water by Using Solar Irradiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...times in the continuous solar disinfection unit for...and processed in the solar disinfection unit at...comments. Funding for this project was provided in part...Water disinfection by solar radiation. Assessment...contaminated water with solar energy. Appl. Environ. Microbiol...

Laurie F. Caslake; Daniel J. Connolly; Vilas Menon; Catriona M. Duncanson; Ricardo Rojas; Javad Tavakoli

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessing radiation feedbacks Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

content from the whole quarter Summary: . Overview 2. Solar radiation and the Greenhouse effect 3. Forcings and feedbacks 4. Who's responsible 5... . Overview 2. Solar...

397

New Results on Standard Solar Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe the current status of solar modelling and focus on the problems originated with the introduction of solar abundance determinations with low CNO abundance values. We use models computed with solar abundance compilations obtained during the last decade, including the newest published abundances by Asplund and collaborators. Results presented here make focus both on helioseismic properties and the models as well as in the neutrino fluxes predictions. We also discuss changes in radiative opacities to restore agreement between helioseismology, solar models, and solar abundances and show the effect of such modifications on solar neutrino fluxes.

Aldo M. Serenelli

2009-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

398

X-RAY EMISSION FROM PLANETS AND COMETS: RELATIONSHIP WITH SOLAR X-RAYS AND SOLAR WIND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the occurrence of solar X-ray flare, when light travel time delay is accounted, suggesting that X-rays fromX-RAY EMISSION FROM PLANETS AND COMETS: RELATIONSHIP WITH SOLAR X-RAYS AND SOLAR WIND ANIL BHARDWAJ Flight center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA Scattering of solar X-ray radiation mainly produces the non

?stgaard, Nikolai

399

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

(Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Boston Massachusetts: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency &...

400

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 71 (2002) 261271 Photoelectric behavior of nanocrystalline TiO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 71 (2002) 261­271 Photoelectric behavior of nanocrystalline Ti 100101, People's Republic of China e Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at Institute of High Energy Physics. A sandwich-type solar cell fabricated by this dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 film generated 6:1 mA cm?2

Huang, Yanyi

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal solar radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

High-efficiency third-generation silicon solar cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results of investigating third-generation matrix silicon solar cells with an efficiency of more than 25% during conversion of concentrated solar radiation are given. Electrical and optical characteristics ......

D. S. Strebkov; V. I. Polyakov

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Some Basic Aspects on Solar Chemistry and Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown that concentrated solar radiation is relatively cheap at power levels...th...and higher. This forms the basis to look into solar thermal chemistry for storage and transportation. R + D-areas of...

P. Kesselring

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Wind Solar Hybrid Systems in Tunisia: An Optimization Protocol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, potentials, state-of-the-art and development of hybrid wind-solar plants in the eastern-North Africa zone ... adopted: the protocol exploits data -such as solar radiation and cumulative mean wind sp...

Karemt Boubaker; Andrea Colantoni

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Simulation Calculation on Solar Chimney Power Plant System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is unpractical to establish a Solar Chimney Power Plant System (SCPPS) used to ... flow field of the SCPPS which caused by solar radiation intensity have been analyzed. The calculated ... as well as the differ...

HuiLan Huang; Hua Zhang; Yi Huang; Feng Lu

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

CLM prescribes all solar absorption to occur in the top-most snow layer. However, our SNow, ICe, and Aerosol Radiative model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CLM prescribes all solar absorption to occur in the top-most snow layer. However, our SNow, ICe at the surface and strong thermal insulation by the snow. Thus energy deposition beneath the surface layer can. Albedo decrease over the Tibetan Plateau indicates less snow cover, caused by sub-surface melt and ice

Zender, Charles

406

Solar ultraviolet-B radiation and vitamin D: a cross-sectional population-based study using data from the 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Blood samples collected from individuals aged 12 to 79?years sampled across Canada were analyzed for 25(OH)D (n?=?4,398). Solar UV-B irradiance was calculated for the ... evaluate the association between 25(OH)D ...

Jamie A Greenfield; Philip S Park; Ellie Farahani; Suneil Malik

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Solar Keymark Testing of Solar Thermal Products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Solar Keymark is the official CEN certification scheme for thermal solar collectors and factory made thermal solar systems. The Solar Keymark requires that the products fulfil the...

Harald Drck; Stephan Fischer

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

High Speed AB-Solar Sail  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Solar sail is a large thin film used to collect solar light pressure for moving of space apparatus. Unfortunately, the solar radiation pressure is very small about 9 mkN/sq.m at Earth's orbit. However, the light force significantly increases up to 0.2 - 0.35 N/sq.m near the Sun. The author offers his research on a new revolutionary highly reflective solar sail which flyby (after special maneuver) near Sun and attains velocity up to 400 km/sec and reaching far planets of the Solar system in short time or enable flights out of Solar system. New, highly reflective sail-mirror allows avoiding the strong heating of the solar sail. It may be useful for probes close to the Sun and Mercury and Venus. Key words: AB-solar sail, highly reflective solar sail, high speed propulsion.

Bolonkin, A

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

High Speed AB-Solar Sail  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Solar sail is a large thin film used to collect solar light pressure for moving of space apparatus. Unfortunately, the solar radiation pressure is very small about 9 mkN/sq.m at Earth's orbit. However, the light force significantly increases up to 0.2 - 0.35 N/sq.m near the Sun. The author offers his research on a new revolutionary highly reflective solar sail which flyby (after special maneuver) near Sun and attains velocity up to 400 km/sec and reaching far planets of the Solar system in short time or enable flights out of Solar system. New, highly reflective sail-mirror allows avoiding the strong heating of the solar sail. It may be useful for probes close to the Sun and Mercury and Venus. Key words: AB-solar sail, highly reflective solar sail, high speed propulsion.

A. Bolonkin

2007-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

410

Asymptotic normalization coefficients (nuclear vertex constants) for $p+^7Be\\to ^8B$ and the direct $^7Be(p,?)^8B$ astrophysical S-factors at solar energies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new analysis of the precise experimental astrophysical S-factors for the direct capture $^7Be(p,\\gamma)$ $^8B$ reaction [A.J.Junghans et al.Phys.Rev. C 68 (2003) 065803 and L.T. Baby et al. Phys.Rev. C 67 (2003) 065805] is carried out based on the modified two - body potential approach in which the direct astrophysical S-factor, $ {\\rm S_{17}(E)}$, is expressed in terms of the asymptotic normalization constants for $p+^7Be\\to ^8B$ and two additional conditions are involved to verify the peripheral character of the reaction under consideration. The Woods-Saxon potential form is used for the bound ($p+^7Be$)- state wave function and for the $p^7Be$- scattering wave function. New estimates are obtained for the $^{\\glqq}$indirectly measured\\grqq values of the asymptotic normalization constants (the nuclear vertex constants) for the $p+^7Be\\to ^8B$ and $S_{17}(E)$ at E$\\le$ 115 keV, including $E$=0. These values of $S_{17}(E)$ and asymptotic normalization constants have been used for getting information about the $^{\\glqq}$indirectly measured\\grqq values of the $s$ wave average scattering length and the $p$ wave effective range parameters for $p^7Be$- scattering.

S. B. Igamov; R. Yarmukhamedov

2008-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

411

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Solar spectrum...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solar spectrum: Uncertainties between current models and implications for atmospheric radiation modeling and remote sensing Trishchenko, Alexander Canada Centre for Remote Sensing...

412

Determination of the 3He+alpha\\to 7Be asymp. normalization coefficients (nucl. vertex constants) and their application for extrapolation of the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be astroph. S-factors to the solar energy region  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new analysis of the precise experimental astrophysical $S$-factors for the direct capture $^3He(\\alpha,\\gamma)^7{\\rm {Be}}$ reaction [B.S. Nara Singh et al., Phys.Rev.Lett. {\\bf 93} (2004) 262503; D. Bemmerer et al., Phys.Rev.Lett. {\\bf 97} (2006) 122502; F.Confortola et al., Phys.Rev. {\\bf C 75} (2007) 065803 and T.A.D.Brown et al., Phys.Rev. {\\bf C 76} (2007) 055801] populating to the ground and first excited states of $^7{\\rm Be}$ is carried out based on the modified two - body potential approach in which the direct astrophysical $S$-factor, $S_{34}(E)$, is expressed in terms of the asymptotic normalization constants for $^3{\\rm {He}}+\\alpha\\to ^7{\\rm {Be}}$ and two additional conditions are involved to verify the peripheral character of the reaction under consideration. The Woods--Saxon potential form is used for the bound ($\\alpha+^3{\\rm {He}}$)- state and the $^3{\\rm {He}}\\alpha$- scattering wave functions. New estimates are obtained for the "indirectly measured", values of the asymptotic normalization constants (the nuclear vertex constants) for $^3{\\rm {He}}+\\alpha\\to^7{\\rm {Be}}(g.s.)$ and $^3{\\rm {He}}+\\alpha\\to^7{\\rm {Be}}(0.429 MeV)$ as well as the astrophysical $S$-factors $S_{34}(E)$ at E$\\le$ 90 keV, including $E$=0. The values of asymptotic normalization constants have been used for getting information about the $\\alpha$-particle spectroscopic factors for the mirror ($^7Li^7{\\rm {Be}}$)-pair.

S. B. Igamov; K. I. Tursunmakhatov; R. Yarmukhamedov

2008-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

413

Solar Easements  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Idahos solar easement provisions allow for the access rights to sunlight for a solar energy device. The easement is transferred with the property title. Only a few Idaho communities have passed...

414

Solar Easements  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Alaska's solar easement provisions are similar to those in many other states. They do not create an automatic right to sunlight. Rather, they allow parties to voluntarily enter into solar...

415

Solar Easements  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Rhode Island allows property owners to establish solar easements in the same manner and with the same effect as a conveyance of an interest in real property. Solar easements must be created in...

416

Solar Easements  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Ohio's solar-easement provisions are similar to those in effect in other states. Ohio law allows property owners to create binding solar easements for the purpose of protecting and maintaining...

417

Solar Easements  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In determining that the use of solar energy "can help reduce the nation's reliance upon imported fuels," Georgia encourages the development of solar-energy systems. Accordingly, under Georgia's...

418

Siting Your Solar Water Heating System | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Siting Your Solar Water Heating System May 30, 2012 - 2:46pm Addthis Solar water heaters should be placed facing due south. Solar water heaters should be placed facing due south. Before you buy and install a solar water heating system, you need to first consider your site's solar resource, as well as the optimal orientation and tilt of your solar collector. The efficiency and design of a solar water heating system depends on how much of the sun's energy reaches your building site. Solar water heating systems use both direct and diffuse solar radiation. Even if you don't live in a climate that's warm and sunny most of the time -- like the southwestern United States -- your site still might have an adequate solar resource. If your building site has unshaded areas and

419

Siting Your Solar Water Heating System | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Siting Your Solar Water Heating System May 30, 2012 - 2:46pm Addthis Solar water heaters should be placed facing due south. Solar water heaters should be placed facing due south. Before you buy and install a solar water heating system, you need to first consider your site's solar resource, as well as the optimal orientation and tilt of your solar collector. The efficiency and design of a solar water heating system depends on how much of the sun's energy reaches your building site. Solar water heating systems use both direct and diffuse solar radiation. Even if you don't live in a climate that's warm and sunny most of the time -- like the southwestern United States -- your site still might have an adequate solar resource. If your building site has unshaded areas and

420

Solar energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... good book and certainly can be recommended as an introductory text for a course on solar ...solarenergy ...

D.O. Hall

1980-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal solar radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Radiation receiver  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

Hunt, A.J.

1983-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

422

Determination of the 3He+alpha\\to 7Be asymp. normalization coefficients (nucl. vertex constants) and their application for extrapolation of the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be astroph. S-factors to the solar energy region  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new analysis of the modern precise measured astrophysical $S$ factors for the direct capture $^3He(\\alpha,\\gamma)^7{\\rm {Be}}$ reaction [B.S. Nara Singh {\\it et al.}, Phys.Rev.Lett. {\\bf 93}, 262503 (2004); D. Bemmerer {\\it et al.}, Phys.Rev.Lett. {\\bf 97}, 122502 (2006); F.Confortola {\\it et al.}, Phys.Rev.C {\\bf 75}, 065803 (2007), T.A.D.Brown {\\it et al.}, Phys.Rev. C {\\bf 76}, 055801 (2007) and A Di Leva, {\\it et al.},Phys.Rev.Lett. {\\bf 102}, 232502 (2009)] populating to the ground and first excited states of $^7{\\rm Be}$ is carried out based on the modified two - body potential approach. New estimates are obtained for the $^{\\glqq}$indirectly determined\\grqq\\, values of the asymptotic normalization constants (the nuclear vertex constants) for $^3{\\rm {He}}+\\alpha\\to{\\rm {^7Be}}$(g.s.) and $^3{\\rm {He}}+\\alpha\\to{\\rm {^7Be}}$(0.429 MeV) as well as the astrophysical $S$ factors $S_{34}(E)$ at E$\\le$ 90 keV, including $E$=0. The values of asymptotic normalization constants have been used for getting information about the $\\alpha$-particle spectroscopic factors for the mirror (${\\rm{^7Li}}{\\rm {^7Be}}$)-pair.

S. B. Igamov; Q. I. Tursunmahatov; R. Yarmukhamedov

2009-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

423

Lowry Range Solar Station: Arapahoe County, Colorado (Data)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

A partnership with industry and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location. The solar measurement instrumentation is also accompanied by meteorological monitoring equipment to provide scientists with a complete picture of the solar power possibilities.

Yoder, M.; Andreas, A.

424

Central solar energy receiver  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

Drost, M. Kevin (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Shortwave and longwave radiative contributions to global warming under increasing CO2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology...Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge...enhancement of net absorbed solar radiation (ASR). A simple...balances the net absorbed solar radiation (ASR). In this...

Aaron Donohoe; Kyle C. Armour; Angeline G. Pendergrass; David S. Battisti

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Solar energy potential in Pakistan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In view of the growing needs of energy in Pakistan the efficient use and development of renewable energy sources has become a major issue in the country. This has brought the intention of several national and multinational companies to design and implement a major work plan for energy conservation and construction of renewable energy sources like wind mills and solar panels. Fortunately Pakistan is among those countries in which sun warms the surface throughout the year and therefore has a strong potential for solar power generation. This study was conducted to explore those areas which are most suitable for solar energy potential using fifty eight meteorological stations covering the whole country. Angstrom equation and Hargreaves formula was used to calculate monthly solar energy potential by utilizing monthly climatical data of bright sunshine hours mean maximum and minimum temperatures. The lowest solar radiation intensity 76.49?W/m2 observed at Cherat during December and highest 339.25?W/m2 at Gilgit. The average monthly solar radiation intensity remains 136.05 to 287.36?W/m2 in the country. The results indicate that the values of solar radiation intensity greater than 200?W/m2 were observed in the months: February to October in Sindh March to October in almost all regions of Balochistan April to September in NWFP Northern Areas and Kashmir regions while March to October in Punjab. For 10?h a day average solar radiation intensity ranges from 1500?W/m2/day to 2750?W/m2/day in Pakistan especially in southern Punjab Sindh and Balochistan regions throughout the year. In an area of 100 m2 45?MW to 83?MW power per month may be generated in the above mentioned regions.

Shahzada Adnan; Azmat Hayat Khan; Sajjad Haider; Rashed Mahmood

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Self-aligning solar collector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A self-aligning solar energy collector which maintains its attitude facing the sun during the sun's daily and seasonal changes. Tension cables hold the collector in position, and are positioned so as to be out of equilibrium when off-axis solar radiation heat one cable more than another. Self-alignment is in both horizontal and vertical planes. Multiple collectors are also disclosed in a ganged or masterslave relationship.

Vandenberg, L.B.

1982-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

428

Solar heat receiver  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A receiver is described for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

Hunt, A.J.; Hansen, L.J.; Evans, D.B.

1982-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

429

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Solar Rater  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solar Rater Solar Rater Solar Rater logo Solar Rater app for Android devices makes it easy to determine the solar energy potential for any location on Earth, and calculates the appropriate size for a photovoltaic (PV) system at that location. Key features include: Automatic location detection with GPS, Wi-Fi, or cell tower identification Automatic orientation detection measures the azimuth and pitch of solar panels Automatic magnetic declination conversion gives azimuth based on true north Automatic solar radiation determination based on location and orientation (model result) Outputs the appropriate size of a PV system in DC Watts Data can also be entered manually for offsite use Great teaching tool for novices Accurate results for solar energy professionals Outputs environmental benefits (e.g., greenhouse gas emissions,

430

Application of thermal treatment procedure for concrete with the help of solar energy to construction engineering practice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The experience of solar energy usage for concreting with the help of different solar radiation devices in Russian regions and in ... reported. Information about the cost efficiency of solar energy usage for thermal

N. I. Podgornov; D. D. Koroteev

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Solar Power  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solar Power Solar Power Project Opportunities Abound in the Region The WIPP site is receives abundant solar energy with 6-7 kWh/sq meter power production potential As the accompanying map of New Mexico shows, the WIPP site enjoys abundant year-round sunshine. With an average solar power production potential of 6-7 kWh/sq meter per day, one exciting project being studied for location at WIPP is a 30-50 MW Solar Power Tower: The American Solar Energy Society (ASES) is is a national trade association promoting solar energy as a clean source of electricity, and provides a comprehensive resource for additional information. DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy is also a comprehensive resource for more information on renewable energy.

432

Solar heater for swimming pools  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A solar heater for swimming pools is provided having one or more heating panels installable on a roof or the like and arranged to discharge into a pool equipped with an apron without need for disturbing or obstructing the apron. This is accomplished by the provision of an elevated bistable dumper adjacent the perimeter of the apron having a dispensing spout normally inclined upwardly but pivoting at intervals to discharge into the pool across the apron without obstructing it. Water to be heated is diverted from the pool filtering system to the solar heater via a pressure regulator and a solar responsive flow control.

Babcock, H.W.

1984-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

433

Abengoa Solar, Inc. (Mojave Solar) | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Solar, Inc. (Mojave Solar) Abengoa Solar, Inc. (Mojave Solar) Abengoa Solar, Inc. (Mojave Solar) Location: San Bernardino County, CA Eligibility: 1705 Snapshot In September 2011,...

434

Solar structure without computers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We derive succinctly the equations of solar structure. We first present models of objects in hydrostatic equilibrium that fail as models of the sun in order to illustrate important physical requirements. Then by arguing physically that the pressure gradient can be matched to the simple function d P/d r=?k r e ?(r/a)2 we derive a complete analytic representation of the solar interior in terms of a one?parameter family of models. Two different conditions are then used to select the appropriate value of the parameter specifying the best model within the family: (1) the solar luminosity is equated to the thermonuclear power generated near the center and/or (2) the solar luminosity is equated to the radiative diffusion of energy from a central region. The two methods of selecting the parameter agree to within a few percent. The central conditions of the sun are well calculated by these analytic formulas all without aid of a computer. This is an original treatment yielding much the best description of the solar center to be found by methods of differential and integral calculus rendering it an excellent laboratory for applied calculus.

Donald D. Clayton

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Ultraviolet Radiation and Incidence of Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma among Hispanics in the United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...that the role of solar radiation in the...ours, did not find solar radiation to be a...either associated with solar radiation or not...stimulation of cutaneous production of vitamin D, is...markers, inhibit cell proliferation, and...to pesticides and organic solvents (11 , 51...

Shasa Hu; Fangchao Ma; Fernando Collado-Mesa; and Robert S. Kirsner

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Normal Curvature . . . Geodesic Curvature . . .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Normal Curvature . . . Geodesic Curvature . . . Home Page Title Page Page 683 of 711 Go Back Full quadratic form associated with a surface. #12;Normal Curvature . . . Geodesic Curvature . . . Home Page Title Page Page 684 of 711 Go Back Full Screen Close Quit The component g is called the geodesic

Gallier, Jean

437

Sandia National Laboratories: Solar Tower  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solar Thermal Test Facility * NSTTF * Renewable Energy * SAND2012-8086W * solar * Solar Energy * solar power * Solar Research * Solar Tower Comments are closed. Renewable...

438

Effects of ultraviolet radiation on trophic interactions not detected?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ambient solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation on periphyton and grazers in a ... As a result of varying solar angles, both eleva- ..... Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E9.

1999-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

439

Radiation Modeling In Fluid Flow Iain D. Boyd  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Collector #12;4 Fundamentals of Radiation (1) � All matter with non-zero temperature emits thermal radiation with energy flux given by the Stefan-Boltzmann Law: e.g., Sun: T=5800 K, total radiated power = 4 distribution (Planck spectrum) !q =T 4 W/m2 #12;5 Planck Radiation Spectrum #12;6 Solar Radiation Spectrum

Wang, Wei

440

Solar Physics A Journal for Solar and Solar-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. With society's increased dependence on space-based technology, much of which is at risk due to solar activity1 23 Solar Physics A Journal for Solar and Solar- Stellar Research and the Study of Solar-010-9653- x Solar Polar Fields During Cycles 21??? 23: Correlation with Meridional Flows #12;1 23 Your article

Padmanabhan, Janardhan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal solar radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Psoriasis and ultraviolet radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prevention and detection screening programs as a public health service in curtailing the ever-increasing incidence of all forms of skin cancer are reviewed. The effect of solar and artificial ultraviolet radiation on the general population and persons with psoriasis is examined. 54 refs.

Farber, E.M.; Nall, L. (Psoriasis Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Local microwave background radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

Domingos Soares

2014-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

443

Solar Decathlon  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

U.S. Department of Energy U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon Sara Farrar-Nagy National Renewable Energy Laboratory sara.farrar-nagy@nrel.gov, 303-384-7514 April 3, 2013 Solar Decathlon 2009 Solar Decathlon 2011 Solar Decathlon 2013 & XPO Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C. Irvine, California 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: How to provide workforce training, improve building science instruction, foster innovation in whole-building design, and

444

Solar Energy.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis is about Photovoltaic (PV) cells and its stresses in various directions by calculating the power generated using solar cells under different conditions to (more)

Bafana, Ramzi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Solar Mapper  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Interactive, online mapping tool providing access to spatial data related to siting utility-scale solar facilities in the southwestern United States.

446

Solar News  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

news Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable news Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Forrestal Building 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 en Energy Department Announces $19 Million to Drive Down Solar Soft Costs, Increase Hardware Efficiency http://energy.gov/eere/articles/energy-department-announces-19-million-drive-down-solar-soft-costs-increase-hardware solar-soft-costs-increase-hardware" class="title-link">Energy Department Announces $19 Million to Drive Down Solar Soft Costs, Increase Hardware Efficiency

447

Realistic Solar Surface Convection Simulations Robert F. Stein  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Realistic Solar Surface Convection Simulations Robert F. Stein Michigan State University, East free simulations with re­ alistic physics of convection near the solar surface. We summarize solar convection is non­local. It is driven from a thin surface thermal boundary layer where radiative

Stein, Robert

448

Accuray of Stellar Opacities and the Solar Abundance Problem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Accuray of Stellar Opacities and the Solar Abundance Problem Anil K. Pradhan and Sultana N. Nahar opacity" that might bear on the solar abundances issue. Keywords: Radiative transfer --- in astrophysics­LTE hydrodynamic models. The new abundances of C, N, O, Ne etc. are 30­40% lower than the 'standard' solar

Pradhan, Anil

449

PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOLAR 99 CONFERENCE  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

SOLAR 99 CONFERENCE SOLAR 99 CONFERENCE Including Proceedings of ASES Annual Conference Proceedings of 24 th National Passive Solar Conference Portland, Maine June 12 -16, 1999 Editors: R. Campbell-Howe B. Wilkins-Crowder American Solar Energy Society American Institute of Architects Committee on the Environment Printed on recycled paper HIGH-RESOLUTION MAPS OF SOLAR COLLECTOR PERFORMANCE USING A CLIMATOLOGICAL SOLAR RADIATION MODEL Raymond L. George National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Blvd. Golden, CO 80401 e-mail: ray george@nrel.gov ABSTRACT This paper will present a new methodology for producing estimates of the monthly and annual average performance of different types of flat-plate and concentrating solar collectors. The estimates are made on a uniform spatial grid

450

Active Solar Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Active Solar Heating Basics Active Solar Heating Basics Active Solar Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:23pm Addthis There are two basic types of active solar heating systems based on the type of fluid-either liquid or air-that is heated in the solar energy collectors. The collector is the device in which a fluid is heated by the sun. Liquid-based systems heat water or an antifreeze solution in a "hydronic" collector, whereas air-based systems heat air in an "air collector." Both of these systems collect and absorb solar radiation, then transfer the solar heat directly to the interior space or to a storage system, from which the heat is distributed. If the system cannot provide adequate space heating, an auxiliary or back-up system provides the additional heat. Liquid systems are more often used when storage is included, and are well

451

DOE Solar Decathlon: Solar Decathlon Videos  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Consumer Workshops Consumer Workshops Building Industry Workshops Technical Resources Sponsors Where Are the Houses Now? Quick Links Solar Decathlon Home Solar Decathlon 2011 Solar Decathlon 2009 Solar Decathlon 2007 Solar Decathlon 2005 Solar Decathlon 2002 Solar Decathlon 2011 Solar Decathlon Videos For video of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon 2011, see the collections listed below or visit the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon YouTube Channel. General Solar Decathlon Videos Watch these videos to learn about the Solar Decathlon competition and event. Solar Decathlon House Video Tours Learn about each of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon teams and their houses in these video tours. Solar Decathlon Team-Produced Videos Watch videos produced by the teams themselves for the Solar Decathlon

452

Solar energy conversion.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

If solar energy is to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels, we must have efficient ways to convert photons into electricity, fuel, and heat. The need for better conversion technologies is a driving force behind many recent developments in biology, materials, and especially nanoscience. The Sun has the enormous untapped potential to supply our growing energy needs. The barrier to greater use of the solar resource is its high cost relative to the cost of fossil fuels, although the disparity will decrease with the rising prices of fossil fuels and the rising costs of mitigating their impact on the environment and climate. The cost of solar energy is directly related to the low conversion efficiency, the modest energy density of solar radiation, and the costly materials currently required. The development of materials and methods to improve solar energy conversion is primarily a scientific challenge: Breakthroughs in fundamental understanding ought to enable marked progress. There is plenty of room for improvement, since photovoltaic conversion efficiencies for inexpensive organic and dye-sensitized solar cells are currently about 10% or less, the conversion efficiency of photosynthesis is less than 1%, and the best solar thermal efficiency is 30%. The theoretical limits suggest that we can do much better. Solar conversion is a young science. Its major growth began in the 1970s, spurred by the oil crisis that highlighted the pervasive importance of energy to our personal, social, economic, and political lives. In contrast, fossil-fuel science has developed over more than 250 years, stimulated by the Industrial Revolution and the promise of abundant fossil fuels. The science of thermodynamics, for example, is intimately intertwined with the development of the steam engine. The Carnot cycle, the mechanical equivalent of heat, and entropy all played starring roles in the development of thermodynamics and the technology of heat engines. Solar-energy science faces an equally rich future, with nanoscience enabling the discovery of the guiding principles of photonic energy conversion and their use in the development of cost-competitive new technologies.

Crabtree, G. W.; Lewis, N. S. (Materials Science Division); (California Inst. of Tech.)

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

XI. DIFFUSEGLOBAL CORRELATIONS: SEASONAL VARIATIONS Estimating the performance of a solar system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is measured on a horizontal surface and intensity on the tilted collector surface is calculated via a two39 XI. DIFFUSE­GLOBAL CORRELATIONS: SEASONAL VARIATIONS Estimating the performance of a solar system requires an accurate assessment of incident solar radiation. Ordinarily, solar radiation

Oregon, University of

454

Corrigenda for Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, Fourth Ed. J. A. Duffie and W. A. Beckman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Corrigenda for Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, Fourth Ed. J. A. Duffie and W. A. Beckman 2 Last Eqn on page Second Ti should be Ti-1 #12;Corrigenda for Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes "radiation on" to "radiation at solar noon on" Second equation Change G to Gb + Gd Six lines from bottom

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

455

RESEARCH ON THE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY MADE IN THE SOVIET UNION  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and 3o is the solar radiation near...basis of real solar radiation and...showed that for improving the efficiency...convection in the air. Experiments...with the help of solar energy.'1 22 The...ture, and the quality of the glass...

V. A. Baum

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Thermal efficiency of single-pass solar air collector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efficiency of a finned single-pass solar air collector was studied. This paper presents the experimental study to investigate the effect of solar radiation and mass flow rate on efficiency. The fins attached at the back of absorbing plate to improve the thermal efficiency of the system. The results show that the efficiency is increased proportional to solar radiation and mass flow rate. Efficiency of the collector archived steady state when reach to certain value or can be said the maximum performance.

Ibrahim, Zamry; Ibarahim, Zahari; Yatim, Baharudin [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz [Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

457

Solar Power  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of desert solar energy farm with 30 percent conversion...85 percent of the solar farm energy now reflected back...Washington, D.C. 20550. Wind Power Martin Wolf (19...counting the cost of the offshore platforms, would thus...15 billion. If these wind generators were placed...

Paul E. Damon

1974-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

458

Effects of solar XUV variations on the thermosphere and the variability of the photoionization efficiency parameter during the solar cycle 21  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Making use of the latest available semi-empirical atmospheric models, solar XUV radiations rates of photoionization and absorbed ... graphically presented showing the latitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle variati...

A. C. Balachandra Swamy

459

Cost Effectiveness for Solar Control Film for Residential Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and first week of October. Data for 16th September, without the solar control film and for 1st October, with solar control film are analyzed. Incidental and transmitted global solar radiations on the east and west windows for these two days are shown... for 16th Sep/ Ii for 1st Oct)* It for 1st Oct (2) The hourly average values of the incident radiation, the transmitted radiation without the film and the transmitted readjusted radiation for the east and the west glazing are shown in Figs 3 and 4...

Al-Taqi, H. H.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Alasseri, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

New Solar Composition: The Problem With Solar Models Revisited  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We construct updated solar models with different sets of solar abundances, including the most recent determinations by Asplund et al. (2009). The latter work predicts a larger ($\\sim 10%$) solar metallicity compared to previous measurements by the same authors but significantly lower ($\\sim 25%$) than the recommended value from a decade ago by Grevesse & Sauval (1998). We compare the results of our models with determinations of the solar structure inferred through helioseismology measurements. The model that uses the most recent solar abundance determinations predicts the base of the solar convective envelope to be located at $R_{\\rm CZ}= 0.724{\\rm R_\\odot}$ and a surface helium mass fraction of $Y_{\\rm surf}=0.231$. These results are in conflict with helioseismology data ($R_{\\rm CZ}= 0.713\\pm0.001{\\rm R_\\odot}$ and $Y_{\\rm surf}=0.2485\\pm0.0035$) at 5$-\\sigma$ and 11$-\\sigma$ levels respectively. Using the new solar abundances, we calculate the magnitude by which radiative opacities should be modified in order to restore agreement with helioseismology. We find that a maximum change of $\\sim 15%$ at the base of the convective zone is required with a smooth decrease towards the core, where the change needed is $\\sim 5%$. The required change at the base of the convective envelope is about half the value estimated previously. We also present the solar neutrino fluxes predicted by the new models. The most important changes brought about by the new solar abundances are the increase by $\\sim 10%$ in the predicted $^{13}$N and $^{15}$O fluxes that arise mostly due to the increase in the C and N abundances in the newly determined solar composition.

Aldo Serenelli; Sarbani Basu; Jason W. Ferguson; Martin Asplund

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal solar radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

NEW SOLAR COMPOSITION: THE PROBLEM WITH SOLAR MODELS REVISITED  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We construct updated solar models with different sets of solar abundances, including the most recent determinations by Asplund et al. The latter work predicts a larger (approx10%) solar metallicity compared to previous measurements by the same authors but significantly lower (approx25%) than the recommended value from a decade ago by Grevesse and Sauval. We compare the results of our models with determinations of the solar structure inferred through helioseismology measurements. The model that uses the most recent solar abundance determinations predicts the base of the solar convective envelope to be located at R {sub CZ} = 0.724 R{sub sun} and a surface helium mass fraction of Y{sub surf} = 0.231. These results are in conflict with helioseismology data (R{sub CZ} = 0.713 +- 0.001 R{sub sun} and Y{sub surf} = 0.2485 +- 0.0035) at 5sigma and 11sigma levels, respectively. Using the new solar abundances, we calculate the magnitude by which radiative opacities should be modified in order to restore agreement with helioseismology. We find that a maximum change of approx15% at the base of the convective zone is required with a smooth decrease toward the core, where the change needed is approx5%. The required change at the base of the convective envelope is about half the value estimated previously. We also present the solar neutrino fluxes predicted by the new models. The most important changes brought about by the new solar abundances are the increase by approx10% in the predicted {sup 13}N and {sup 15}O fluxes that arise mostly due to the increase in the C and N abundances in the newly determined solar composition.

Serenelli, Aldo M.; Asplund, Martin [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl Schwarzschild Str. 1, Garching D-85471 (Germany); Basu, Sarbani [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Ferguson, Jason W. [Department of Physics, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS 67260-0032 (United States)

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

462

Monolithic tandem solar cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is an object of the invention to provide a monolithic tandem photovoltaic solar cell which is highly radiation resistant and efficient; in which the energy bandgap of the lower subcell can be tailored for specific applications; solar cell comprising layers of InP and GaInAsP (or GaInAs), where said photovoltaic cell is useful, for example, in space power applications; having an improved power-to-mass ratio; in which subcells are lattice-matches; and are both two terminal and three terminal monolithic tandem photovoltaic solar cells. To achieve the foregoing and other objects and in accordance with the purpose of the present invention, as embodied and broadly described herein, the monolithic tandem photovoltaic solar cell may comprise; (a) an InP substrate having an upper surface; (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate; wherein the first subcell comprises GaInAs (which could include GaInAsP) and includes a homojunction; and (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell; wherein the second subcell comprises InP and includes a homojunction. The cell is described in detail. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Wanlass, M.W.

1989-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

463

Solar spectral variations and their influence on concentrator solar cell performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A comparative study is performed to quantify the difference in efficiency and spectral sensitivity between a tandem junction and its spectrum splitting parallel junction counterpart. Direct normal solar spectra in a ...

Broderick, Lirong Z.

464

Solar lighting | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

lighting lighting Jump to: navigation, search Introductory Facts About Solar Lights It is not just a normal light bulb.The solar light consists of a LED or Light Emitting Diode, which draw little power. Coupled with constantly recharging batteries, you will never run out of light! They will save the customer money. By Replacing all outdoor lighting with solar lights there is no need to plug in to the electrical system. The lights will automatically turn on at dusk and will be charged during the day. They help out the environment.Not only does not plugging in to the power system save money but also energy, therefore protecting the Earth. Easy to Install No wires necessary, just pop in the battery. They come in all designs Just because they are solar lights doesn't

465

Solar heated swimming pool  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A swimming pool construction incorporating solar heating means to heat the pool water to a desired level. The pool includes a surrounding safety fence supported by a plurality of fence supports which are hollow and which include internal passageways. The pool water is passed through the pool support passageways whereupon it absorbs heat from the sidewalls of the fence supports, the surfaces of which have been heated by solar radiation. The fence supports can be made of plastic or other materials, but preferably are dark for improved absorptivity. The pool water can be passed serially through each of the fence supports and suitable thermostat control means can be provided to limit the water temperature increase.

Pettit, F.M.

1984-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

466

Invariant Manifolds for the Station Keeping of Solar Sails Ariadna Farres, AJ  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Invariant Manifolds for the Station Keeping of Solar Sails Ariadna Farr´es, AJ Universitat de 2 / 45 inria-00585612,version1-14Apr2011 #12;Background What is a Solar Sail ? Solar Sails are a new concept of spacecraft propulsion that takes ad- vantage of the Solar radiation pressure to propel

Boyer, Edmond

467

Energy-based Control of a Distributed Solar Collector Tor A. Johansena  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy-based Control of a Distributed Solar Collector Field Tor A. Johansena Camilla Storaaa that the primary energy source, solar radiation, cannot be manipulated. The distributed solar collector eld may, Norway. Model-based control of the outlet temperature of a distributed solar col- lector eld is studied

Johansen, Tor Arne

468

Comparison of codes assessing galactic cosmic radiation exposure of aircraft crew  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......the galactic cosmic radiation. Results are provided...fully satisfactory for radiation protection purposes...Protection and Nuclear Safety, F-92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses...Computer Simulation Cosmic Radiation Europe Humans Occupational...instrumentation methods Software Solar Activity...

J. F. Bottollier-Depois; P. Beck; B. Bennett; L. Bennett; R. Btikofer; I. Clairand; L. Desorgher; C. Dyer; E. Felsberger; E. Flckiger; A. Hands; P. Kindl; M. Latocha; B. Lewis; G. Leuthold; T. Maczka; V. Mares; M. J. McCall; K. O'Brien; S. Rollet; W. Rhm; F. Wissmann

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Measurements of forbidden line radiation of Ar II (6. 99. mu. m) in W3 IRS 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Observations of the (Ar II) (6.99 ..mu..m) line flux in W3 IRS 1 are combined with previously obtained measurements of the (Ar III) (8.99 ..mu..m) line flux. The observed ratio of (Ar II)/(Ar III) is inconsistent with the calculated ratio for an H II region with the densities required by radio observations and with a central 40,000--45,000 K star with atmosphere as described by a Mihalas model. A solar effective UV radiation field is required; a dusty model we had previously invoked fits the observations. In addition we determine that the argon abundance is n(Ar)/n(H)roughly-equal8 x 10/sup -6/, a value about twice that usually adopted for normal solar abundance; however, there are uncertainties in the extinction and the model which do not allow us to preclude solar abundance.

Herter, T.; Pipher, J.L.; Helfer, H.L.; Willner, S.P.; Puetter, R.C.; Rudy, R.J.; Soifer, B.T.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Solar Energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The sun is the main source of all alternative energies on the earths surface. Wind energy, bioenergy, ocean energy, and hydro energy are derived from the sun. However,...solar energy refers to the energy that is...

Tushar K. Ghosh; Mark A. Prelas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Solar Blog  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden">

Using solar energy at home can help you save...

472

Solar energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Even in European latitudes, solar energy can contribute towards the saving of a considerable amount of energy steming fron exhaustible sources. In the domestic sector (heating and cooling) there is even some p...

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Solar Easements  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Maine allows for the creation of easements to ensure access to direct sunlight. Instruments creating a solar easement may include, but are not limited to, a description of the space affected by the...

474

Solar Easements  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Tennessee law allows for the creation of easements for the purpose of ensuring access to direct sunlight for solar energy systems. This statute also states that the "encouragement and protection of...

475

Solar Easements  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In Kentucky, solar easements may be obtained for the purpose of ensuring access to direct sunlight. Easements must be expressed in writing and will become an interest in real property that may be...

476

Detection of solar events  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A flux detection apparatus can include a radioactive sample having a decay rate capable of changing in response to interaction with a first particle or a field, and a detector associated with the radioactive sample. The detector is responsive to a second particle or radiation formed by decay of the radioactive sample. The rate of decay of the radioactive sample can be correlated to flux of the first particle or the field. Detection of the first particle or the field can provide an early warning for an impending solar event.

Fischbach, Ephraim; Jenkins, Jere

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

477

SJ Solar | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SJ Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: SJ Solar Place: San Jose, California Zip: 95131 Sector: Solar Product: Cell design firm for concentrated solar References: SJ Solar1...

478

Sandia National Laboratories: Solar Research  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solar Energy On February 3, 2011, in Solar Programs Photovoltaics Concentrating Solar Power Sunshine to Petrol Solar Publications Recent Solar Highlights Photovoltaics (PV)...

479

Sandia National Laboratories: Solar Furnace  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Test Facility * NSTTF * Parabolic Dish * Renewable Energy * SAND 2011-4654W * solar * Solar Energy * Solar Furnace * solar power * Solar Research Comments are closed. Renewable...

480

Solar disinfection: an approach for low-cost household water treatment technology in Southwestern Ethiopia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Disinfection of contaminated water using solar radiation (SODIS) is known to inactivate ... study was aiming to test the efficiency of solar disinfection using different water parameters as low-cost household wat...

Awrajaw Dessie; Esayas Alemayehu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal solar radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

On Solar Energy Disposition:A Perspective from Observation and Modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar energy disposition (SED) concerns the amount of solar radiation reflected to space, absorbed in the atmosphere, and absorbed at the surface. The state of knowledge on SED is examined by comparing eight datasets from surface and satellite ...

Zhanqing Li; Louis Moreau; Albert Arking

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Dynamic Exergy Analysis of a Solar Ejector Refrigeration System with Hot Water Storage Tank  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A dynamic model is proposed to use in investigating the exergy analysis of a solar ejector refrigeration system using R141, for office ... in Tehran. Classical hourly outdoor temperature and solar radiation model...

Hooman Golchoobian; Ali Behbahaninia

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Engineering the optical properties of luminescent solar concentrators at the molecular scale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Luminescent Solar Concentrators (LSCs) concentrate solar radiation onto photovoltaic (PV) cells using an inexpensive collector plate to absorb incoming photons and waveguide fluorescently re-emitted photons to PVs at the ...

Mulder, Carlijn Lucinde

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Document Normalization Revisited Abdur Chowdhury  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for fundamentally different document collections. We recomputed the normalization for the web track and obtainedDocument Normalization Revisited Abdur Chowdhury America Online Reston, Virginia chowdhury Pivoted Document Length Normalization has reached a point of stability where many researchers

Chowdhury, Abdur

485

Front contact solar cell with formed emitter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by an N-type silicon substrate and a P-type polysilicon emitter formed on the backside of the solar cell. An antireflection layer may be formed on a textured front surface of the silicon substrate. A negative polarity metal contact on the front side of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the substrate, while a positive polarity metal contact on the backside of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the polysilicon emitter. An external electrical circuit may be connected to the negative and positive metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell. The positive polarity metal contact may form an infrared reflecting layer with an underlying dielectric layer for increased solar radiation collection.

Cousins, Peter John

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

486

Front contact solar cell with formed emitter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by an N-type silicon substrate and a P-type polysilicon emitter formed on the backside of the solar cell. An antireflection layer may be formed on a textured front surface of the silicon substrate. A negative polarity metal contact on the front side of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the substrate, while a positive polarity metal contact on the backside of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the polysilicon emitter. An external electrical circuit may be connected to the negative and positive metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell. The positive polarity metal contact may form an infrared reflecting layer with an underlying dielectric layer for increased solar radiation collection.

Cousins, Peter John (Menlo Park, CA)

2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

487

NREL: Innovation Impact - Solar  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solar Energy Menu Home Home Solar Solar Wind Wind Analysis Analysis Bioenergy Bioenergy Buildings Buildings Transportation Transportation Manufacturing Manufacturing Energy Systems...

488

SOLAR MARKET POWERS SILICON  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

SOLAR MARKET POWERS SILICON ... Polysilicon shortages are boon to manufacturers, bane of solar energy industry ... Solar energy is a relatively new market for polysilicon manufacturers. ...

JEAN-FRA&CCEDIL;NOIS TREMBLAY

2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

489

Residential Solar Valuation Rates  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Residential Solar Valuation Rates Karl R. Rbago Rbago Energy LLC 1 The Ideal Residential Solar Tariff Fair to the utility and non-solar customers Fair compensation to...

490

Solar Deployment and Policy  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Solar Deployment and Policy Justin Baca Director of Research Solar Energy Industries Association About SEIA * Founded in 1974 * U.S. National Trade Association for Solar Energy *...

491

Sandia National Laboratories: solar  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solar Thermal Testing Facility Beam Profiling On November 2, 2012, in Concentrating Solar Power, News, Renewable Energy, Solar On Thursday, June 7, we began beam profiling...

492

Sandia National Laboratories: solar  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

heat can also be efficiently and cheaply stored to produce electricity when the sun ... Solar Energy On February 3, 2011, in Solar Programs Photovoltaics Concentrating Solar...

493

Sandia National Laboratories: solar  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in Concentrating Solar Power, Customers & Partners, Energy, News, Partnership, Renewable Energy, Solar Areva Solar is collaborating with Sandia National Laboratories on a new...

494

CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cycle air conditioning. Solar assisted heat pumps. Systemsheat source. COP for solar assisted heat pump (heat pumpcycle air conditioners, solar-assisted heat pumps, and some

Berdahl, P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conditioning. Solar assisted heat pumps. Systems with someheat source. COP for solar assisted heat pump (heat pumpconditioners, solar-assisted heat pumps, and some passive

Berdahl, P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

room )I I( I I ,i I CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL I. ! I ienergy resource. The California Solar Data Manual describestowards fulfilling California's solar data needs is the

Berdahl, P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Sandia National Laboratories: Solar  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for Download On March 13, 2014, in Energy, News, News & Events, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Solar, Solar Newsletter Sandia developed the Solar Glare Hazard Analysis Tool...

498

Solar powered desalination system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As a clean energy source, solar power is inexhaustible,renewables for energy sources, including solar power. Also,Requirements Energy Source Natural Gas Nuclear Solar Wind

Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Long-Period Solar Variability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Terrestrial climate records and historical observations of the Sun suggest that the Sun undergoes aperiodic oscillations in radiative output and size over time periods of centuries and millenia. Such behavior can be explained by the solar convective zone acting as a nonlinear oscillator, forced at the sunspot-cycle frequency by variations in heliomagnetic field strength. A forced variant of the Lorenz equations can generate a time series with the same characteristics as the solar and climate records. The timescales and magnitudes of oscillations that could be caused by this mechanism are consistent with what is known about the Sun and terrestrial climate.

GAUTHIER,JOHN H.

2000-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

500

Solar Energy Resource Assessment in Chile: Satellite Estimation and Ground Station Measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The progress from the last four years in solar energy resource assessment for Chile is reported, including measurements from a ground station network spanning from two to three years of data, and satellite estimations from the recently developed Chile-SR model including two full years of data. The model introduces different treatments for the meteorological variables and the effective cloud cover computations which allow estimation of the global horizontal irradiation on an hourly basis. The BRL model of diffuse radiation is then applied in order to estimate the diffuse fraction and diffuse irradiation, from which the Direct horizontal irradiation is then computed. Direct normal irradiation is computed by applying proper solar geometry corrections to the direct horizontal irradiation. The satellite estimation model was developed as an adaptation from Brazil-SR model, with an improved formulation for altitude-corrected atmospheric parameters, and a novel formulation for calculating effective cloud covers while at the same time detecting and differentiating it from snow covers and salt lakes. The model is validated by comparison with ground station data. The results indicate that there are high radiation levels throughout the country. In particular, northern Chile is endowed with one of the highest solar resources in the world, although the resource variability is higher than previously thought.

Rodrigo A. Escobar; Alberto Ortega; Cristin Corts; Alan Pinot; Enio Bueno Pereira; Fernando Ramos Martins; John Boland

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z