National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for normal seasonal temperatures

  1. Seasonal cycle dependence of temperature fluctuations in the atmosphere. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, B.F.

    1994-08-01

    The correlation statistics of meteorological fields have been of interest in weather forecasting for many years and are also of interest in climate studies. A better understanding of the seasonal variation of correlation statistics can be used to determine how the seasonal cycle of temperature fluctuations should be simulated in noise-forced energy balance models. It is shown that the length scale does have a seasonal dependence and will have to be handled through the seasonal modulation of other coefficients in noise-forced energy balance models. The temperature field variance and spatial correlation fluctuations exhibit seasonality with fluctuation amplitudes larger in the winter hemisphere and over land masses. Another factor contributing to seasonal differences is the larger solar heating gradient in the winter.

  2. Needle age and season influence photosynthetic temperature response and total annual carbon uptake in mature Picea mariana trees

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Anna M.; Warren, Jeffrey; Hanson, Paul J.; Childs, Joanne; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-07-28

    Using seasonal- and cohort-specific photosynthetic temperature response functions, we quantified the physiological significance of maintaining multiple foliar cohorts in mature (~40-45 year old) Picea mariana trees in an ombrotrophic Sphagnum-bog, northern Minnesota, USA. We measured photosynthetic capacity, foliar respiration (Rd), biochemistry and morphology to estimate annual carbon (C) uptake by cohort, season and canopy position. Temperature response of key photosynthetic parameters at 25 C (i.e., light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation (Asat), light-saturated rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax), light-saturated electron transport rate (Jmax)) were clearly dependent on season and were generally less responsive in younger needles. Temperature optimums range between 18.7-23.7, 31.3-38.3 and 28.7-36.7 C for Asat, Vcmax and Jmax respectively. Current-year (Y0) foliage had lower photosynthetic capacities compared to one-year-old (Y1) and two-year-old (Y2) foliage. As Y0 needles matured, values of Asat, Vcmax, Jmax, foliar LMA and nitrogen increased. Values of Vcmax, Jmax and Rd were related to foliar nitrogen but only in the youngest (Y0) cohort. Foliar ontogeny affected photosynthetic capacity more than growth temperature. Morphological and physiological cohort differences were reflected by their annual contribution to modeled C uptake, with a ~36% lower estimated annual C uptake by Y0 needles (LAI 0.52 m2m-2) compared to Y1&2 cohorts (LAI 0.67 m2m-2). Collectively, these results illustrate the physiological and ecological significance of characterizing multiple foliar cohorts during bud break and throughout the growth season, and for cumulative C uptake model estimates.

  3. Needle age and season influence photosynthetic temperature response and total annual carbon uptake in mature Picea mariana trees

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jensen, Anna M.; Warren, Jeffrey; Hanson, Paul J.; Childs, Joanne; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-01-01

    Using seasonal- and cohort-specific photosynthetic temperature response functions, we quantified the physiological significance of maintaining multiple foliar cohorts in mature (~40-45 year old) Picea mariana trees in an ombrotrophic Sphagnum-bog, northern Minnesota, USA. We measured photosynthetic capacity, foliar respiration (Rd), biochemistry and morphology to estimate annual carbon (C) uptake by cohort, season and canopy position. Temperature response of key photosynthetic parameters at 25 C (i.e., light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation (Asat), light-saturated rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax), light-saturated electron transport rate (Jmax)) were clearly dependent on season and were generally less responsive in younger needles. Temperature optimums range between 18.7-23.7,more » 31.3-38.3 and 28.7-36.7 C for Asat, Vcmax and Jmax respectively. Current-year (Y0) foliage had lower photosynthetic capacities compared to one-year-old (Y1) and two-year-old (Y2) foliage. As Y0 needles matured, values of Asat, Vcmax, Jmax, foliar LMA and nitrogen increased. Values of Vcmax, Jmax and Rd were related to foliar nitrogen but only in the youngest (Y0) cohort. Foliar ontogeny affected photosynthetic capacity more than growth temperature. Morphological and physiological cohort differences were reflected by their annual contribution to modeled C uptake, with a ~36% lower estimated annual C uptake by Y0 needles (LAI 0.52 m2m-2) compared to Y1&2 cohorts (LAI 0.67 m2m-2). Collectively, these results illustrate the physiological and ecological significance of characterizing multiple foliar cohorts during bud break and throughout the growth season, and for cumulative C uptake model estimates.« less

  4. Seasonal trend of photosynthetic parameters and stomatal conductance of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) under prolonged summer drought and high temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, L; Baldocchi, DD

    2003-09-01

    OAK-B135 Understanding seasonal changes in photosynthetic parameters and stomatal conductance is crucial for modeling long-term carbon uptake and energy fluxes of ecosystems. Gas exchange measurements of CO{sub 2} and light response curves on blue oak leaves (Quercus douglasii H. & A.) were conducted weekly throughout the growing season to study the seasonality of photosynthetic capacity (V{sub cmax}) and Ball-Berry slope (m) under prolonged summer drought and high temperature. A leaf photosynthetic model was used to determine V{sub cmax}. There was a pronounced seasonal pattern in V{sub cmax}. The maximum value of V{sub cmax}, 127 {micro}molm{sup -2} s{sup -1},was reached shortly after leaf expansion in early summer, when air temperature was moderate and soil water availability was high. Thereafter, V{sub cmax} declined as the soil water profile became depleted and the trees experienced extreme air temperatures, exceeding 40 C. The decline in V{sub cmax} was gradual in midsummer, however, despite extremely low predawn leaf water potentials ({Psi}{sub pd}, {approx} -4.0 MPa). Overall, temporal changes in V{sub cmax} were well correlated with changes in leaf nitrogen content. During spring leaf development, high rates of leaf dark respiration (R{sub d}, 5-6 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) were observed. Once a leaf reached maturity, R{sub d} remained low, around 0.5 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. In contrast to the strong seasonality of V{sub cmax}, m and marginal water cost per unit carbon gain ({partial_derivative}E/{partial_derivative}A) were relatively constant over the season, even when leaf {Psi}{sub pd} dropped to -6.8 MPa. The constancy of {partial_derivative}E/{partial_derivative}A suggests that stomata behaved optimally under severe water-stress conditions. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of modeling carbon and water vapor exchange between ecosystems and the atmosphere.

  5. Pressure and concentration dependences of the autoignition temperature for normal butane + air mixtures in a closed vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandraratna, M.R.; Griffiths, J.F. . School of Chemistry)

    1994-12-01

    The condition at which autoignition occurs in lean premixed n-butane + air mixtures over the composition range 0.2%--2.5% n-butane by volume (0.06 < [phi] < 0.66) were investigated experimentally. Total reactant pressure from 0.1 to 0.6 MPa (1--6 atm) were studied in a spherical, stainless-steel, closed vessel (0.5 dm[sup 3]). There is a critical transition from nonignition to ignition, at pressures above 0.1 MPa, as the mixture is enriched in the vicinity of 1% fuel vapor by volume. There is also a region of multiplicity, which exhibits three critical temperatures at a given composition. Chemical analyses show that partially oxygenated components,including many o-heterocyclic compounds, are important products of the lean combustion of butane at temperatures up to 800 K. The critical conditions for autoignition are discussed with regard to industrial ignition hazards, especially in the context of the autoignition temperature of alkanes given by ASTM or BS tests. The differences between the behavior of n-butane and the higher n-alkanes are explained. The experimental results are also used as a basis for testing a reduced kinetic model to represent the oxidation and autoignition of n-butane or other alkanes.

  6. Energy Risk Predictions for the 2015 Hurricane Season (June 2015) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Risk Predictions for the 2015 Hurricane Season (June 2015) Energy Risk Predictions for the 2015 Hurricane Season (June 2015) This presentation is from a DOE-NASEO webinar held June 23, 2015, on forecasting energy infrastructure risk for the 2015 hurricane season. A variety of sources predict a below-normal season, with hurricane intensity lower than the 1981-2010 averages. The presentation includes an overview of hurricane season classification, historic impacts, and

  7. 2015 Open Season

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Open Season which will run from Monday, November 9, 2015 through Monday, December 14, 2015.  During the annual Open Season period employees can enroll, change, or cancel an existing enrollment in...

  8. Normal and refractory concretes for LMFBR applications. Volume 1. Review of literature on high-temperature behavior of portland cement and refractory concretes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazant, Z.P.; Chern, J.C.; Abrams, M.S.; Gillen, M.P.

    1982-06-01

    The extensive literature on the properties and behavior at elevated temperature of portland cement concrete and various refractory concretes was reviewed to collect in concise form the physical and chemical properties of castable refractory concretes and of conventional portland cement concretes at elevated temperature. This survey, together with an extensive bibliography of source documents, is presented in Volume 1. A comparison was made of these properties, the relative advantages of the various concretes was evaluated for possible liquid metal fast breeder reactor applications, and a selection was made of several materials of interest for such applications. Volume 2 concludes with a summary of additional knowledge needed to support such uses of these materials together with recommendations on research to provide that knowledge.

  9. OPEN SEASON CHECK LIST

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FSAFEDS brochure https:www.fsafeds.comGEMFSAFEDSFormsOPM- FSA-OVTF-10-031.pdf Talk to an FSAFEDS representative Open Season benefits fair Contact your agency HR staff...

  10. Preparing for Hurricane Season

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hurricane season in the Atlantic begins today and will last through November 30. As the lead Federal agency responsible for coordinating the response to major energy disruptions, the Department of Energy works closely with other Federal agencies, State, local and tribal governments, and our partners in the private sector to prepare for all types of disasters – including hurricanes and other severe weather.

  11. Four seasons of giving

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kurt's Column Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue:May 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Four seasons of giving We value a culture of giving and appreciate our employees' on-going volunteerism throughout Northern New Mexico and even nationwide. January 1, 2013 dummy image Read our archives. Contacts Editor Linda Anderman Email Community Programs Office Kurt Steinhaus Email We value a culture of giving and appreciate our

  12. Year Global Normal Irradiance Direct Normal Irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Year Global Normal Irradiance Direct Normal Irradiance (TMY3 = 6.7) Global Horizontal Irradiance** (TMY3 = 5.43) Latitude Tilt Irradiance** Diffuse Horizontal Irradiance (TMY3 = 1.46) Peak GNI (1-hr avg) Peak DNI (1-hr avg) Peak GHI (1-hr avg) Peak Lat.Tilt (1-hr avg) TMY2 8.8 6.7 5.6 6.4 1.6 - - - - 2015 8.26 6.58 5.29 6.07 1.34 1167 1067 1090 1208 2014 8.85 7.10 5.54 6.40 1.28 1176 1083 1098 1196 2013 8.82 7.23 5.59 6.63 1.24 1192 1076 1093 1182 2012 9.17 7.41 5.69 6.65 1.21 1177 1080 1091

  13. Leveraging Seasonal Opportunities for Marketing Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Seasonal Opportunities for Marketing Energy Efficiency Leveraging Seasonal Opportunities for Marketing Energy Efficiency Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call ...

  14. Forest phenology and a warmer climate - Growing season extension in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    relation to climatic provenance (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Forest phenology and a warmer climate - Growing season extension in relation to climatic provenance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Forest phenology and a warmer climate - Growing season extension in relation to climatic provenance Predicting forest responses to warming climates relies on assumptions about niche and temperature sensitivity that remain largely untested. Observational studies have

  15. A Woman of All Seasons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Woman of All Seasons Pittsburgh, Pa. - Lilas Soukup, a 35-year employee at NETL, has been recognized by the Pittsburgh Federal Executive Board (FEB) as the 2013 Woman of the Year....

  16. Four Seasons Windpower, LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Seasons Windpower, LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Four Seasons Windpower, LLC Address: 1697 Wilbur Road Place: Medina, Ohio Zip: 44256 Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product:...

  17. Normal Conducting CLIC Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Erk

    2006-01-03

    The CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) multi-lateral study group based at CERN is studying the technology for an electron-positron linear collider with a centre-of-mass energy up to 5 TeV. In contrast to the International Linear Collider (ILC) study which has chosen to use super-conducting cavities with accelerating gradients in the range of 30-40 MV/m to obtain centre-of-mass collision energies of 0.5-1 TeV, the CLIC study aims to use a normal-conducting system based on two-beam technology with gradients of 150 MV/m. It is generally accepted that this change in technology is not only necessary but the only viable choice for a cost-effective multi-TeV collider. The CLIC study group is studying the technology issues of such a machine, and is in particular developing state-of-the-art 30 GHz molybdenum-iris accelerating structures and power extraction and transfer structures (PETS). The accelerating structure has a new geometry which includes fully-profiled RF surfaces optimised to minimize surface fields, and hybrid damping using both iris slots and radial waveguides. A newly-developed structure-optimisation procedure has been used to simultaneously balance surface fields, power flow, short and long-range transverse wakefields, RF-to-beam efficiency and the ratio of luminosity to input power. The slotted irises allow a simple structure fabrication by high-precision high-speed 3D milling of just four pieces, and an even easier bolted assembly in a vacuum chamber.

  18. Temperature-profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    Temperature profiles at elevated temperature conditions are monitored by use of an elongated device having two conductors spaced by the minimum distance required to normally maintain an open circuit between them. The melting point of one conductor is selected at the elevated temperature being detected, while the melting point of the other is higher. As the preselected temperature is reached, liquid metal will flow between the conductors creating short circuits which are detectable as to location.

  19. Temperature profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Temperature profiles at elevated temperature conditions are monitored by use of an elongated device having two conductors spaced by the minimum distance required to normally maintain an open circuit between them. The melting point of one conductor is selected at the elevated temperature being detected, while the melting point of the other is higher. As the preselected temperature is reached, liquid metal will flow between the conductors, creating short circuits which are detectable as to location.

  20. Active hurricane season expected to shut-in higher amount of oil and natural gas production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Active hurricane season expected to shut-in higher amount of oil and natural gas production An above-normal 2013 hurricane season is expected to cause a median production loss of about 19 million barrels of U.S. crude oil and 46 billion cubic feet of natural gas production in the Gulf of Mexico, according to the new forecast from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. That's about one-third more than the amount of oil and gas production knocked offline during last year's hurricane season.

  1. Q2 Q3 Season Q2 Q3 Season Q2 Q3 Season

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Q2 Q3 Season Q2 Q3 Season Q2 Q3 Season Nominal Prices (dollars per gallon) WTI Crude Oil (Spot) a 1.38 1.11 1.24 0.99 1.00 1.00 -28.1 -9.8 -19.8 Brent Crude Oil Price (Spot) 1.47 1.20 1.33 1.00 1.00 1.00 -32.1 -16.7 -25.1 U.S. Refiner Average Crude Oil Cost 1.37 1.14 1.25 0.97 0.98 0.97 -29.3 -14.0 -22.3 Wholesale Gasoline Price b 2.01 1.84 1.93 1.53 1.46 1.50 -23.9 -20.9 -22.4 Wholesale Diesel Fuel Price b 1.89 1.61 1.75 1.31 1.36 1.34 -30.6 -15.5 -23.5 Regular Gasoline Retail Price c 2.67 2.60

  2. New Particle-Hunting Season at CERN's LHC Begins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Particle-Hunting Season at CERN's LHC Begins

  3. Leveraging Seasonal Opportunities for Marketing Energy Efficiency |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Seasonal Opportunities for Marketing Energy Efficiency Leveraging Seasonal Opportunities for Marketing Energy Efficiency Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Leveraging Seasonal Opportunities for Marketing Energy Efficiency, call slides and discussion summary. PDF icon Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents & Publications Hit the Road: Applying Lessons from National Campaigns to a Local Context (201) Strengthening the Front

  4. Microsoft Word - Heating Oil Season.docx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    4-2015 Heating Oil Season Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve Trigger Mechanism (Cents per Gallon, Except Where Noted) Week Residential Heating Oil Price Average Brent Spot Price...

  5. Leveraging Seasonal Opportunities for Marketing Energy Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Residential Network Member) Anna Joyce Gayle, Project Manager of Zappling ... 15 Examples & Lessons Learned: Energy Vibe Anna Gayle Seasonal Campaign Examples: Energy ...

  6. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Seasonal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the seasonal variation of land cover which is dominated by the agricultural land use, primarily winter wheat production. http:gi.ssec.wisc.eduairsknutesonindex.html...

  7. Photoperiodic Regulation of the Seasonal Pattern of Photosynthetic Capacity and the Implications for Carbon Cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauerle, William L.; Oren, Ram; Way, Danielle A.; Qian, Song S.; Stoy, Paul C.; Thornton, Peter E; Bowden, Joseph D.; Hoffman, Forrest M; Reynolds, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Although temperature is an important driver of seasonal changes in photosynthetic physiology, photoperiod also regulates leaf activity. Climate change will extend growing seasons if temperature cues predominate, but photoperiod-controlled species will show limited responsiveness to warming. We show that photoperiod explains more seasonal variation in photosynthetic activity across 23 tree species than temperature. Although leaves remain green, photosynthetic capacity peaks just after summer solstice and declines with decreasing photoperiod, before air temperatures peak. In support of these findings, saplings grown at constant temperature but exposed to an extended photoperiod maintained high photosynthetic capacity, but photosynthetic activity declined in saplings experiencing a naturally shortening photoperiod; leaves remained equally green in both treatments. Incorporating a photoperiodic correction of photosynthetic physiology into a global-scale terrestrial carbon-cycle model significantly improves predictions of seasonal atmospheric CO{sub 2} cycling, demonstrating the benefit of such a function in coupled climate system models. Accounting for photoperiod-induced seasonality in photosynthetic parameters reduces modeled global gross primary production 2.5% ({approx}4 PgC y{sup -1}), resulting in a >3% ({approx}2 PgC y{sup -1}) decrease of net primary production. Such a correction is also needed in models estimating current carbon uptake based on remotely sensed greenness. Photoperiod-associated declines in photosynthetic capacity could limit autumn carbon gain in forests, even if warming delays leaf senescence.

  8. High temperature measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2,000.degree. C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  9. α -cluster asymptotic normalization coefficients for nuclear...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    -cluster asymptotic normalization coefficients for nuclear astrophysics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: -cluster asymptotic normalization coefficients for nuclear ...

  10. Normalized cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

    1997-06-10

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3{prime} noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 4 figs.

  11. Normalized cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  12. Normalized Elution Time Prediction Utility

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-02-17

    This program is used to compute the predicted normalized elution time (NET) for a list of peptide sequences. It includes the Kangas/Petritis neural network trained model, the Krokhin hydrophobicity model, and the Mant hydrophobicity model. In addition, it can compute the predicted strong cation exchange (SCX) fraction (on a 0 to 1 scale) in which a given peptide will appear.

  13. ARM - Lesson Plans: Reason for the Seasons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    three observations explain why we experience night and day; why the relative lengths of day and night vary from place to place and from time to time; and why we have seasons on...

  14. The seasonal cycle of satellite chlorophyll fluorescence observations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: The seasonal cycle of satellite ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The seasonal cycle of satellite chlorophyll ...

  15. Influence of drought on growing season carbon and water cycling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Influence of drought on growing season carbon and water cycling with changing land cover ... Title: Influence of drought on growing season carbon and water cycling with changing land ...

  16. Beijing Four Seasons Solar Power Technology Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Beijing Four Seasons Solar Power Technology Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Beijing Four Seasons Solar Power Technology Co Ltd Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China...

  17. NOVA Making Stuff Season 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leombruni, Lisa; Paulsen, Christine Andrews

    2014-12-12

    Over the course of four weeks in fall 2013, 11.7 million Americans tuned in to PBS to follow host David Pogue as he led them in search of engineering and scientific breakthroughs poised to change our world. Levitating trains, quantum computers, robotic bees, and bomb-detecting plantsthese were just a few of the cutting-edge innovations brought into the living rooms of families across the country in NOVAs four-part series, Making Stuff: Faster, Wilder, Colder, and Safer. Each of the four one-hour programs gave viewers a behind-the-scenes look at novel technologies poised to change our worldshowing them how basic research and scientific discovery can hold the keys to transforming how we live. Making Stuff Season 2 (MS2) combined true entertainment with educational value, creating a popular and engaging series that brought accessible science into the homes of millions. NOVAs goal to engage the public with such technological innovation and basic research extended beyond the broadcast series, including a variety of online, educational, and promotional activities: original online science reporting, web-only short-form videos, a new online quiz-game, social media engagement and promotion, an educational outreach toolkit for science educators to create their own makerspaces, an online community of practice, a series of nationwide Innovation Cafs, educator professional development, a suite of teacher resources, an Idealab, participation in national conferences, and specialized station relation and marketing. A summative evaluation of the MS2 project indicates that overall, these activities helped make a significant impact on the viewers, users, and participants that NOVA reached. The final evaluation conducted by Concord Evaluation Group (CEG) confidently concluded that the broadcast, website, and outreach activities were successful at achieving the projects intended impacts. CEG reported that the MS2 series and website content were successful in raising awareness and sparking interest in innovation, and increased public awareness that basic research leads to technological innovation; this interest was also sustained over a six month period. Efforts to create an online community of practice were also successful: the quality of collaboration increased, and community members felt supported while using Maker pedagogy. These findings provide clear evidence that large-scale science media projects like MS2 are an effective means of moving the needle on attitudes about and excitement for science. NOVAs broadcast audience and ratings have always indicated that a large portion of the population is interested in and engages with educational science media on a weekly basis. Yet these evaluation results provide the empirical evidence that beyond being capable of attracting, maintaining, and growing a dedicated group of citizens interested in science, these showswith their diverse content provided on a variety of media channelsare capable of sparking new interest in science, raising public awareness of the importance of science, and maintaining and growing that interest over time. In a country where approximately a quarter of the population doesnt know the earth rotates around the sun,1 roughly half still dont accept evolution,2 and about 20% dont think climate change is happening,3 the importance of these findings cannot be overstated. The success of MS2 suggests that large-scale media projects dedicated to and linked by coverage of scientific big ideas are an effective means of shifting public opinion onand improving understanding ofscience. REFERENCES 1, 2 National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Indicators (2014). Chapter 7: Science and Technology: Public Attitudes and Understanding. 3 Leiserowitz, A., Maibach, E., Roser-Renouf, C., Feinberg, G., & Rosenthal, S. (2014) Climate change in the American mind: April, 2014. Yale University and George Mason University. New Haven, CT: Yale Project on Climate Change Communication.

  18. Cascaded target normal sheath acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, W. P.; Shen, B. F.; Zhang, X. M.; Wang, X. F.; Xu, J. C.; Zhao, X. Y.; Yu, Y. H.; Yi, L. Q.; Shi, Y.; Zhang, L. G.; Xu, T. J.; Xu, Z. Z.

    2013-11-15

    A cascaded target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) scheme is proposed to simultaneously increase energy and improve energy spread of a laser-produced mono-energetic proton beam. An optimum condition that uses the maximum sheath field to accelerate the center of the proton beam is theoretically found and verified by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. An initial 10 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 21 MeV with energy spread decreased from 5% to 2% under the optimum condition during the process of the cascaded TNSA. The scheme opens a way to scale proton energy lineally with laser energy.

  19. Nebraska Preparing for the Upcoming Heating Season

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    N E B R A S K A Nebraska "Preparing for the Upcoming Heating Season" E N E R G Y O F F I C ... and local levels N E B R A S K A E N E R G Y O F F I C E Agency - http:...

  20. High-temperature-measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-01-27

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2000/sup 0/C) is described. The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensonally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  1. Smart Grid Week: Hurricane Season and the Department's Efforts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Week: Hurricane Season and the Department's Efforts to Make the Grid More Resilient to Power Outages Smart Grid Week: Hurricane Season and the Department's Efforts to Make the Grid ...

  2. Reduce Waste and Save Energy this Holiday Season

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reduce waste and save energy this holiday season whether you're shopping, eating, partying, decorating, or wrapping.

  3. Temperature System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Soil Water and Temperature System  SWATS In the realm of global climate modeling, numerous variables affect the state of the atmosphere and climate. One important area is soil moisture and temperature. The ARM Program uses several types of instruments to gather soil moisture information. An example is the soil water and temperature system (SWATS) (Figure 1). A SWATS is located at each of 21 extended facility sites within the CART site boundary. Each system is configured to measure soil

  4. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband direct normal irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband direct normal irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4mum, that comes ...

  5. Vortices in normal part of proximity system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kogan, V. G.

    2015-05-26

    It is shown that the order parameter ? induced in the normal part of superconductor-normal-superconductor proximity system is modulated in the magnetic field differently from vortices in bulk superconductors. Whereas ? turns zero at vortex centers, the magnetic structure of these vortices differs from that of Abrikosov's.

  6. Vortices in normal part of proximity system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kogan, V. G.

    2015-05-26

    It is shown that the order parameter Δ induced in the normal part of superconductor-normal-superconductor proximity system is modulated in the magnetic field differently from vortices in bulk superconductors. Whereas Δ turns zero at vortex centers, the magnetic structure of these vortices differs from that of Abrikosov's.

  7. Andreev current for low temperature thermometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faivre, T. Pekola, J. P.; Golubev, D. S.

    2015-05-04

    We demonstrate experimentally that disorder enhanced Andreev current in a tunnel junction between a normal metal and a superconductor provides a method to measure electronic temperature, specifically at temperatures below 200 mK when aluminum is used. This Andreev thermometer has some advantages over conventional quasiparticle thermometers: For instance, it does not conduct heat and its reading does not saturate until at lower temperatures. Another merit is that the responsivity is constant over a wide temperature range.

  8. Seasonal and multiannual roost use by Rafinesque's Big-eared Bats in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loeb, Susan, C.; Zarnoch, Stanley, J.

    2011-12-01

    Little is known about factors affecting year-round use of roosts by Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) or the long-term fidelity of this species to anthropogenic or natural roosts. The objectives of this study were to test whether seasonal use of roosts by Rafinesque's big-eared bats varied with roost type and environmental conditions within and among seasons and to document multiannual use of natural and anthropogenic structures by this species. We inspected 4 bridges, 1 building, and 59 tree roosts possessing basal cavity openings; roosts were inspected at least once per week from May through October in every year from 2005 through 2008 and once a month from November through April in every year from 2005 through 2009. We found that use of anthropogenic roosts was significantly greater than the use of tree roosts in summer but that the use of structure types did not differ in other seasons. There was significant seasonal variation in use of anthropogenic and tree roosts. Anthropogenic roost use was higher in summer than in all other seasons. There was no significant difference in tree use among spring, summer, and fall, but use in winter was significantly lower in 2 years of the study. Overall use of anthropogenic and tree roosts was positively related to minimum temperature, but the relationship between use of roosts and minimum temperature varied among seasons. Bats showed multiannual fidelity ({ge} 4 years) to all anthropogenic roosts and to some tree roosts, but fidelity of bats to anthropogenic roosts was greater and more consistent than to tree roosts. Our data indicate that Rafinesque's big-eared bats responded differently to environmental conditions among seasons; thus, a variety of structure types and characteristics are necessary for conservation of these bats. We suggest long-term protection of roost structures of all types is necessary for conservation of Rafinesque's big-eared bats in the southeast Coastal Plain.

  9. Seasonality in the Natural Gas Balancing Item: Historical Trends and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Corrective Measures Analysis > Seasonality in the Natural Gas Balancing Item: Historical Trends and Corrective Measures Seasonality in the Natural Gas Balancing Item: Historical Trends and Corrective Measures Released: June 4, 2010 Download Full Report (PDF) This special report examines an underlying cause of the seasonal pattern in the balancing item published in the Natural Gas Monthly. Research finds that a significant portion of data collected on EIA’s primary monthly natural gas

  10. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband direct normal irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband direct normal irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in broad bands of wavelengths ...

  11. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave spectral direct normal irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    direct normal irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave...

  12. BPA revises policy for managing seasonal power oversupply

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    policy-for-managing-seasonal-power-oversupply Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects...

  13. Strategies for Aligning Program Demand with Contractor's Seasonal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategies for Aligning Program Demand with Contractor's Seasonal Fluctuations Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Workforce Peer Exchange Call: Strategies for Aligning Program ...

  14. Strategies for Aligning Program Demand with Contractor's Seasonal Fluctuations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Workforce Peer Exchange Call: Strategies for Aligning Program Demand with Contractor’s Seasonal Fluctuations, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, June 7, 2012.

  15. USES OF HYPERTHERMAL ATOMIC BEAM FOR LOW TEMPERATURE DIAMOND GROWTH |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab USES OF HYPERTHERMAL ATOMIC BEAM FOR LOW TEMPERATURE DIAMOND GROWTH Growing films on substrates normally normally requires high temperature (~1000° C) films to be deposited on low temperature substrates (<100° C) without sacrificing the quality of the film. An example is growing diamond films with large micrometer sized grains below 100° C. Reducing the growth temperature requires finding ways of selectively providing energy to the growing film to enhance

  16. Forest phenology and a warmer climate - Growing season extension in relation to climatic provenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunderson, Carla A; Edwards, Nelson T; Walker, Ashley V; O'Hara, Keiran H; Campion, Christina M; Hanson, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    Predicting forest responses to warming climates relies on assumptions about niche and temperature sensitivity that remain largely untested. Observational studies have related current and historical temperatures to phenological shifts, but experimental evidence is sparse, particularly for autumn responses. A five-year field experiment exposed four deciduous forest species from contrasting climates (Liquidambar styraciflua, Quercus rubra, Populus grandidentata, and Betula alleghaniensis) to air temperatures 2 and 4 C above ambient controls. Impacts of year-round warming on bud burst (BB), senescence and abscission were evaluated in relation to thermal provenance. Leaves emerged earlier in all species, by an average of 6-9 days at +2 and +4 C. Magnitude of advance varied with species and year, but was larger for the first 2 C increment than the second. The effect of warming increased with early BB, favoring Liquidambar, from the warmest climate, but even BB in northern species advanced, despite temperatures well beyond those of the realized niche. Treatment differences in BB were poorly explained by temperature sums, which increased with treatment. In autumn, chlorophyll was retained an average of 4 and 7 days longer in +2 and +4 C treatments, and abscission delayed by 8 and 13 days. Species differences in autumn responses were marginally significant. Growing seasons in the warmer atmospheres were 6 - 28 days longer, with the least impact in Quercus. Results are compared with a 16-year record of canopy onset and offset in a nearby upland deciduous forest, where BB showed similar responsiveness to spring temperatures (2 - 4 days C-1). Offset dates in the stand tracked August-September temperatures, except when late summer drought caused premature senescence. The common garden-like experimental approach provides evidence that warming alone extends the growing season, at both ends, even if stand-level impacts are complicated by other environmental factors.

  17. Seasonality of soil CO2 efflux in a temperate forest: Biophysical effects of snowpack and spring freezethaw cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Chuankuan; Han, Yi; Chen, Jiquan; Wang, Xingchang; Zhang, Quanzhi; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin

    2013-08-15

    Changes in characteristics of snowfall and spring freezethaw-cycle (FTC) events under the warming climate make it critical to understand biophysical controls on soil CO2 efflux (RS) in seasonally snow-covered ecosystems. We conducted a snow removal experiment and took year-round continuous automated measurements of RS, soil temperature (T5) and soil volumetric water content at the 5 cm depth (W5) with a half-hour interval in a Chinese temperate forest in 20102011. Our objectives were to: (1) develop statistical models to describe the seasonality of RS in this forest; (2) quantify the contribution of seasonal RS to the annual budget; (3) examine biophysical effects of snowpack on RS; and (4) test the hypothesis that an FTC-induced enhancement of RS is jointly driven by biological and physical processes.

  18. A simple correlation to predict the hydrate quadruple point temperature for LPG mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yousif, M.H.

    1997-12-31

    A simple correlation to predict the hydrate upper quadruple point temperature, T{sub Q2B} for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) mixtures was developed. It was developed for use as a part of a modeling and control system for a LPG pipeline in Russia. For performance reasons, a simple hydrate prediction correlation was required that could be incorporated into the real-time and predictive pipeline simulation models. The operating company required both real time and predictive simulation tools be developed to assist in preventing hydrate blockages while minimizing the use of methanol. In this particular pipeline, LPG fluid moves through the pipeline as a single phase liquid above its bubble point pressure. Because of the very low flow rates, the trace amount of water present in the LPG drops out and creates water pools at low points in the pipeline. The pipeline pressure and seasonal temperatures are conducive for hydrate formation in these pools. Methanol and monoethylene glycol (MEG) are injected in the pipeline to help prevent hydrate formation. The newly developed correlation predicts the hydrate quadruple point temperature using only the composition and the molecular weight of the LPG mixture while retaining an accuracy comparable to the statistical thermodynamic models throughout the range of normal operating conditions.

  19. Computing Instantaneous Frequency by normalizing Hilbert Transform

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Norden E.

    2005-05-31

    This invention presents Normalized Amplitude Hilbert Transform (NAHT) and Normalized Hilbert Transform(NHT), both of which are new methods for computing Instantaneous Frequency. This method is designed specifically to circumvent the limitation set by the Bedorsian and Nuttal Theorems, and to provide a sharp local measure of error when the quadrature and the Hilbert Transform do not agree. Motivation for this method is that straightforward application of the Hilbert Transform followed by taking the derivative of the phase-angle as the Instantaneous Frequency (IF) leads to a common mistake made up to this date. In order to make the Hilbert Transform method work, the data has to obey certain restrictions.

  20. Normal butane/iso-butane separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volles, W.K.; Cusher, N.A.

    1986-08-26

    This patent describes an improved pressure swing adsorption process for the separation of iso-butane from normal butane in an adsorption system having at least three adsorbent beds, each bed of which undergoes, on a cyclic basis and a processing sequence comprising: introducing a feed gas mixture of iso-butane and normal butane at an upper adsorption pressure to the feed end of the bed capable of selectively adsorbing normal butane as the more selectivity adsorbable component of the gas mixture. The iso-butane as the less readily adsorbable component passes through the bed and is discharged from the discharge end. The feed gas introduction is continued as a normal butane adsorption front is formed in the bed and passes through the bed from the feed end and breaks through at the discharge end of the bed, a portion of the iso-butane effluent stream thus discharged being diverted for passage as purge gas to another bed in the system; and countercurrently depressurizing the bed with release of gas from the feed end.

  1. Beamline Temperatures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperatures Energy: 3.0000 GeV Current: 497.0950 mA Date: 16-May-2016 02:53:04 Beamline Temperatures Energy 3.0000 GeV Current 497.1 mA 16-May-2016 02:53:04 LN:MainTankLevel 168.9 in LN:MainTankPress 60.0 psi SPEAR-BL:B120HeFlow 13.4 l/min SPEAR-BL:B131HeFlow 22.7 l/min BL 2 BL02:M0_LCW 31.5 ℃ BL 4-1 BL04-1:BasePlate -13.0 ℃ BL04-1:Bottom1 54.0 ℃ BL04-1:Bottom2 55.0 ℃ BL04-1:Lower 32.0 ℃ BL04-1:Moly 64.0 ℃ BL04-1:ChinGuard1 31.0 ℃ BL04-1:ChinGuard2 31.0 ℃ BL04-1:FirstXtalA

  2. Temperature environment for 9975 packages stored in KAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daugherty, W. L.

    2015-09-10

    Plutonium materials are stored in the K Area Complex (KAC) in shipping packages, typically the 9975 shipping package. In order to estimate realistic degradation rates for components within the shipping package (i.e. the fiberboard overpack and O-ring seals), it is necessary to understand actual facility temperatures, which can vary daily and seasonally. Relevant facility temperature data available from several periods throughout its operating history have been reviewed. The annual average temperature within the Crane Maintenance Area has ranged from approximately 70 to 74 °F, although there is significant seasonal variation and lesser variation among different locations within the facility. The long-term average degradation rate for 9975 package components is very close to that expected if the component were to remain continually at the annual average temperature. This result remains valid for a wide range of activation energies (which describes the variation in degradation rate as the temperature changes), if the activation energy remains constant over the seasonal range of component temperatures. It is recommended that component degradation analyses and service life estimates incorporate these results. Specifically, it is proposed that future analyses assume an average facility ambient air temperature of 94 °F. This value is bounding for all packages, and includes margin for several factors such as increased temperatures within the storage arrays, the addition of more packages in the future, and future operational changes.

  3. Fall: Energy Saving Changes with the Season | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fall: Energy Saving Changes with the Season Fall: Energy Saving Changes with the Season October 18, 2011 - 6:42am Addthis Andrea Spikes Former Communicator at DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory I'm sure you've noticed the change in seasons by now. Fall brings cooler weather, and with it my thoughts turn to warm things like putting blankets on the couch, enjoying my fireplace, and adjusting my thermostat (as little as possible, of course). One thing we did over the weekend is we insulated

  4. Department of Energy Prepares for Hurricane Season | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Prepares for Hurricane Season Department of Energy Prepares for Hurricane Season May 30, 2006 - 10:50am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Director of the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) Kevin Kolevar today outlined a number of steps that the department is taking to prepare for hurricane season in the United States. Last year, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita knocked out electricity to a large portion of the Gulf Coast and damaged a number of oil

  5. Normal Conducting RF Cavity for MICE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, D.; DeMello, A.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Summers, D.

    2010-05-23

    Normal conducting RF cavities must be used for the cooling section of the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), currently under construction at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK. Eight 201-MHz cavities are needed for the MICE cooling section; fabrication of the first five cavities is complete. We report the cavity fabrication status including cavity design, fabrication techniques and preliminary low power RF measurements.

  6. ARM - Field Campaign - Warm-Season Data Assimilation and ISS...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Warm-Season Data Assimilation and ISS Test 1993.06.01 - 1993.06.30 Lead Scientist : Dave Parsons Data Availability Complete...

  7. Natural Aerosols Explain Seasonal and Spatial Patterns of Southern Ocean

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cloud Albedo (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Natural Aerosols Explain Seasonal and Spatial Patterns of Southern Ocean Cloud Albedo Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Natural Aerosols Explain Seasonal and Spatial Patterns of Southern Ocean Cloud Albedo Small particles called aerosols act as nucleation sites for cloud drop formation, affecting clouds and cloud properties - ultimately influencing the cloud dynamics, lifetime, water path and areal extent that determine the

  8. The seasonal cycle of satellite chlorophyll fluorescence observations and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    its relationship to vegetation phenology and ecosystem-atmosphere carbon exchange (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: The seasonal cycle of satellite chlorophyll fluorescence observations and its relationship to vegetation phenology and ecosystem-atmosphere carbon exchange Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The seasonal cycle of satellite chlorophyll fluorescence observations and its relationship to vegetation phenology and

  9. DOE Prepares for the 2007 Hurricane Season | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Prepares for the 2007 Hurricane Season DOE Prepares for the 2007 Hurricane Season May 30, 2007 - 1:25pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today outlined a number of steps that the Department is taking to strengthen its hurricane response system in the United States. Since Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005, DOE has made operational and administrative improvements, including coordination between federal, state and local leaders, deployment of trained staff, and

  10. Energy Resources for Hurricane Season | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hurricane Season Energy Resources for Hurricane Season This aerial photo of New Orleans from August 29, 2005, shows a flooded neighborhood with a roadway going down into flood waters. Photo courtesy of FEMA/Jocelyn Augustino This aerial photo of New Orleans from August 29, 2005, shows a flooded neighborhood with a roadway going down into flood waters. Photo courtesy of FEMA/Jocelyn Augustino Find helpful resources for incorporating energy into disaster planning, response, and rebuilding.

  11. Energy Resources for Tornado Season | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tornado Season Energy Resources for Tornado Season The aftermath of a tornado in Greensburg, Kansas. | Photo courtesy of Federal Emergency Mgmt. Agency, NREL 16290 The aftermath of a tornado in Greensburg, Kansas. | Photo courtesy of Federal Emergency Mgmt. Agency, NREL 16290 Find helpful resources for incorporating energy into disaster planning, response, and rebuilding. Sustainable Transportation Alternative Fueling Station Locator U.S. Department of Energy Find alternative fueling stations

  12. Cloud and Precipitation Fields Around Darwin in the Transition Season

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Precipitation Fields Around Darwin in the Transition Season P. T. May Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre Melbourne, 3001, Victoria, Australia Introduction An interesting, and very relevant question, for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is how cloud characteristics and their seasonal and diurnal variation changes across the tropics. In particular, how does he cloud field around the new SRCS site compare with nearby regions. Thus, the aim of this study is to look at the

  13. Seasonal trends in photosynthesis and electron transport during the Mediterranean summer drought in leaves of deciduous oaks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Osuna, Jessica L.; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Kobayashi, Hideki; Dawson, Todd E.

    2015-04-08

    The California Mediterranean savanna has harsh summer conditions with minimal soil moisture, high temperature, high incoming solar radiation and little or no precipitation. Deciduous blue oaks, Quercus douglasii Hook. and Arn., are winter-deciduous obligate phreatophytes, transpiring mostly groundwater throughout the summer drought. Our objective for this work is to fully characterize the seasonal trends of photosynthesis in blue oaks as well as the mechanistic relationships between leaf structure and function.

  14. Columbia River Basin Seasonal Volumes and Statistics, 1928-1989. 1990 Level Modified Streamflows Computed Seasonal Volumes 61-Year Statistics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.G. Crook Company

    1993-04-01

    This report was prepared by the A.G. Crook Company, under contract to Bonneville Power Administration, and provides statistics of seasonal volumes and streamflow for 28 selected sites in the Columbia River Basin.

  15. Plasmoid Formation in Current Sheet with Finite Normal Magnetic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Plasmoid Formation in Current Sheet with Finite Normal Magnetic Component Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Plasmoid Formation in Current Sheet with Finite Normal Magnetic ...

  16. Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel Assembly. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel...

  17. Guidance on Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization in an ESPC Guidance on Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization in an ESPC Document explains how to use estimated ...

  18. Overview Report: Normal and Emergency Operation Visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2011-05-01

    This is an overview report to document and illustrate methods used in a project entitled “Normal and Emergency Operations Visualization” for a utility company, conducted in 2009-2010 timeframe with funding from the utility company and the U.S. Department of Energy. The original final report (about 180 pages) for the project is not available for distribution because it alludes to findings that assessed the design of an operational system that contained proprietary information; this abridged version contains descriptions of methods and some findings to illustrate the approach used, while avoiding discussion of sensitive or proprietary information. The client has approved this abridged version of the report for unlimited distribution to give researchers and collaborators the benefit of reviewing the research concepts and methods that were applied in this study.

  19. Cruising to Energy Savings This Summer Driving Season | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Cruising to Energy Savings This Summer Driving Season Cruising to Energy Savings This Summer Driving Season May 11, 2010 - 7:30am Addthis Eric Barendsen Energy Technology Program Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy My dad is obsessed with fuel efficiency. I joked with him on a recent road trip that when he retires, he'll have more time to pursue his dream career as a fuel-economy promoter. Well guess what, I just found the treasure trove of information on

  20. Analysis of temperatures and water levels in wells to estimatealluvial aquifer hydraulic conductivities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Grace W.; Jasperse, James; Seymour, Donald; Constantz, Jim

    2003-06-19

    Well water temperatures are often collected simultaneously with water levels; however, temperature data are generally considered only as a water quality parameter and are not utilized as an environmental tracer. In this paper, water levels and seasonal temperatures are used to estimate hydraulic conductivities in a stream-aquifer system. To demonstrate this method, temperatures and water levels are analyzed from six observation wells along an example study site, the Russian River in Sonoma County, California. The range in seasonal ground water temperatures in these wells varied from <0.28C in two wells to {approx}88C in the other four wells from June to October 2000. The temperature probes in the six wells are located at depths between 3.5 and 7.1 m relative to the river channel. Hydraulic conductivities are estimated by matching simulated ground water temperatures to the observed ground water temperatures. An anisotropy of 5 (horizontal to vertical hydraulic conductivity) generally gives the best fit to the observed temperatures. Estimated conductivities vary over an order of magnitude in the six locations analyzed. In some locations, a change in the observed temperature profile occurred during the study, most likely due to deposition of fine-grained sediment and organic matter plugging the streambed. A reasonable fit to this change in the temperature profile is obtained by decreasing the hydraulic conductivity in the simulations. This study demonstrates that seasonal ground water temperatures monitored in observation wells provide an effective means of estimating hydraulic conductivities in alluvial aquifers.

  1. Geochemical Evidence of the Seasonality, Affinity and Pigmenation of Solenopora jurassica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barden, Holly E.; Behnsen, Julia; Bergmann, Uwe; Leng, Melanie J.; Manning, Phillip L.; Withers, Philip J.; Wogelius, Roy A.; van Dongen, Bart E.; Silva, Lucas C. R.

    2015-09-14

    Solenopora jurassica is a fossil calcareous alga that functioned as an important reef-building organism during the Palaeozoic. It is of significant palaeobiological interest due to its distinctive but poorly understood pink and white banding. Though widely accepted as an alga there is still debate over its taxonomic affinity, with recent work arguing that it should be reclassified as a chaetetid sponge. The banding is thought to be seasonal, but there is no conclusive evidence for this. Other recent work has, however demonstrated the presence of a unique organic boron-containing pink/red pigment in the pink bands of S. jurassica. We present new geochemical evidence concerning the seasonality and pigmentation of S. jurassica. Seasonal growth cycles are demonstrated by X-ray radiography, which shows differences in calcite density, and by varying δ13C composition of the bands. Temperature variation in the bands is difficult to constrain accurately due to conflicting patterns arising from Mg/Ca molar ratios and δ18O data. Fluctuating chlorine levels indicate increased salinity in the white bands, when combined with the isotope data this suggests more suggestive of marine conditions during formation of the white band and a greater freshwater component (lower chlorinity) during pink band precipitation (δ18O). Increased photosynthesis is inferred within the pink bands in comparison to the white, based on δ13C. Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (Py-GCMS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) show the presence of tetramethyl pyrrole, protein moieties and carboxylic acid groups, suggestive of the presence of the red algal pigment phycoerythrin. This is consistent with the pink colour of S. jurassica. As phycoerythrin is only known to occur in algae and cyanobacteria, and no biomarker evidence of bacteria or sponges was detected we conclude S. jurassica is most likely an alga. Pigment analysis may be a reliable classification method for fossil algae.

  2. Geochemical Evidence of the Seasonality, Affinity and Pigmenation of Solenopora jurassica

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barden, Holly E.; Behnsen, Julia; Bergmann, Uwe; Leng, Melanie J.; Manning, Phillip L.; Withers, Philip J.; Wogelius, Roy A.; van Dongen, Bart E.; Silva, Lucas C. R.

    2015-09-14

    Solenopora jurassica is a fossil calcareous alga that functioned as an important reef-building organism during the Palaeozoic. It is of significant palaeobiological interest due to its distinctive but poorly understood pink and white banding. Though widely accepted as an alga there is still debate over its taxonomic affinity, with recent work arguing that it should be reclassified as a chaetetid sponge. The banding is thought to be seasonal, but there is no conclusive evidence for this. Other recent work has, however demonstrated the presence of a unique organic boron-containing pink/red pigment in the pink bands of S. jurassica. We presentmore » new geochemical evidence concerning the seasonality and pigmentation of S. jurassica. Seasonal growth cycles are demonstrated by X-ray radiography, which shows differences in calcite density, and by varying δ13C composition of the bands. Temperature variation in the bands is difficult to constrain accurately due to conflicting patterns arising from Mg/Ca molar ratios and δ18O data. Fluctuating chlorine levels indicate increased salinity in the white bands, when combined with the isotope data this suggests more suggestive of marine conditions during formation of the white band and a greater freshwater component (lower chlorinity) during pink band precipitation (δ18O). Increased photosynthesis is inferred within the pink bands in comparison to the white, based on δ13C. Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (Py-GCMS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) show the presence of tetramethyl pyrrole, protein moieties and carboxylic acid groups, suggestive of the presence of the red algal pigment phycoerythrin. This is consistent with the pink colour of S. jurassica. As phycoerythrin is only known to occur in algae and cyanobacteria, and no biomarker evidence of bacteria or sponges was detected we conclude S. jurassica is most likely an alga. Pigment analysis may be a reliable classification method for fossil algae.« less

  3. Forecasting the 2013–2014 influenza season using Wikipedia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hickmann, Kyle S.; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Priedhorsky, Reid; Generous, Nicholas; Hyman, James M.; Deshpande, Alina; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Salathé, Marcel

    2015-05-14

    Infectious diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world; thus, forecasting their impact is crucial for planning an effective response strategy. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), seasonal influenza affects 5% to 20% of the U.S. population and causes major economic impacts resulting from hospitalization and absenteeism. Understanding influenza dynamics and forecasting its impact is fundamental for developing prevention and mitigation strategies. We combine modern data assimilation methods with Wikipedia access logs and CDC influenza-like illness (ILI) reports to create a weekly forecast for seasonal influenza. The methods are appliedmore » to the 2013-2014 influenza season but are sufficiently general to forecast any disease outbreak, given incidence or case count data. We adjust the initialization and parametrization of a disease model and show that this allows us to determine systematic model bias. In addition, we provide a way to determine where the model diverges from observation and evaluate forecast accuracy. Wikipedia article access logs are shown to be highly correlated with historical ILI records and allow for accurate prediction of ILI data several weeks before it becomes available. The results show that prior to the peak of the flu season, our forecasting method produced 50% and 95% credible intervals for the 2013-2014 ILI observations that contained the actual observations for most weeks in the forecast. However, since our model does not account for re-infection or multiple strains of influenza, the tail of the epidemic is not predicted well after the peak of flu season has passed.« less

  4. Forecasting the 2013–2014 influenza season using Wikipedia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickmann, Kyle S.; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Priedhorsky, Reid; Generous, Nicholas; Hyman, James M.; Deshpande, Alina; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Salathé, Marcel

    2015-05-14

    Infectious diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world; thus, forecasting their impact is crucial for planning an effective response strategy. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), seasonal influenza affects 5% to 20% of the U.S. population and causes major economic impacts resulting from hospitalization and absenteeism. Understanding influenza dynamics and forecasting its impact is fundamental for developing prevention and mitigation strategies. We combine modern data assimilation methods with Wikipedia access logs and CDC influenza-like illness (ILI) reports to create a weekly forecast for seasonal influenza. The methods are applied to the 2013-2014 influenza season but are sufficiently general to forecast any disease outbreak, given incidence or case count data. We adjust the initialization and parametrization of a disease model and show that this allows us to determine systematic model bias. In addition, we provide a way to determine where the model diverges from observation and evaluate forecast accuracy. Wikipedia article access logs are shown to be highly correlated with historical ILI records and allow for accurate prediction of ILI data several weeks before it becomes available. The results show that prior to the peak of the flu season, our forecasting method produced 50% and 95% credible intervals for the 2013-2014 ILI observations that contained the actual observations for most weeks in the forecast. However, since our model does not account for re-infection or multiple strains of influenza, the tail of the epidemic is not predicted well after the peak of flu season has passed.

  5. Status of High Power Tests of Normal Conducting Short Standing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Status of High Power Tests of Normal Conducting Short Standing Wave Structures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Status of High Power Tests of Normal Conducting Short Standing ...

  6. Variable temperature seat climate control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karunasiri, Tissa R.; Gallup, David F.; Noles, David R.; Gregory, Christian T.

    1997-05-06

    A temperature climate control system comprises a variable temperature seat, at least one heat pump, at least one heat pump temperature sensor, and a controller. Each heat pump comprises a number of Peltier thermoelectric modules for temperature conditioning the air in a main heat exchanger and a main exchanger fan for passing the conditioned air from the main exchanger to the variable temperature seat. The Peltier modules and each main fan may be manually adjusted via a control switch or a control signal. Additionally, the temperature climate control system may comprise a number of additional temperature sensors to monitor the temperature of the ambient air surrounding the occupant as well as the temperature of the conditioned air directed to the occupant. The controller is configured to automatically regulate the operation of the Peltier modules and/or each main fan according to a temperature climate control logic designed both to maximize occupant comfort during normal operation, and minimize possible equipment damage, occupant discomfort, or occupant injury in the event of a heat pump malfunction.

  7. Differential temperature integrating diagnostic method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doss, James D.; McCabe, Charles W.

    1976-01-01

    A method and device for detecting the presence of breast cancer in women by integrating the temperature difference between the temperature of a normal breast and that of a breast having a malignant tumor. The breast-receiving cups of a brassiere are each provided with thermally conductive material next to the skin, with a thermistor attached to the thermally conductive material in each cup. The thermistors are connected to adjacent arms of a Wheatstone bridge. Unbalance currents in the bridge are integrated with respect to time by means of an electrochemical integrator. In the absence of a tumor, both breasts maintain substantially the same temperature, and the bridge remains balanced. If the tumor is present in one breast, a higher temperature in that breast unbalances the bridge and the electrochemical cells integrate the temperature difference with respect to time.

  8. Normal ground state of dense relativistic matter in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorbar, E. V.; Miransky, V. A.; Shovkovy, I. A.

    2011-04-15

    The properties of the ground state of relativistic matter in a magnetic field are examined within the framework of a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The main emphasis of this study is the normal ground state, which is realized at sufficiently high temperatures and/or sufficiently large chemical potentials. In contrast to the vacuum state, which is characterized by the magnetic catalysis of chiral symmetry breaking, the normal state is accompanied by the dynamical generation of the chiral shift parameter {Delta}. In the chiral limit, the value of {Delta} determines a relative shift of the longitudinal momenta (along the direction of the magnetic field) in the dispersion relations of opposite chirality fermions. We argue that the chirality remains a good approximate quantum number even for massive fermions in the vicinity of the Fermi surface and, therefore, the chiral shift is expected to play an important role in many types of cold dense relativistic matter, relevant for applications in compact stars. The qualitative implications of the revealed structure of the normal ground state on the physics of protoneutron stars are discussed. A noticeable feature of the {Delta} parameter is that it is insensitive to temperature when T<<{mu}{sub 0}, where {mu}{sub 0} is the chemical potential, and increases with temperature for T>{mu}{sub 0}. The latter implies that the chiral shift parameter is also generated in the regime relevant for heavy ion collisions.

  9. New season of colloquia begins at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab New season of colloquia begins at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory By Raphael Rosen September 15, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook The new colloquium committee. From left to right: Mike Mardenfeld, David Mikkelsen, Committee Administrator Carol Ann Austin, Brent Stratton (Photo by Elle Starkman) The new colloquium committee. From left to right: Mike Mardenfeld, David Mikkelsen, Committee Administrator Carol Ann Austin, Brent Stratton Just as

  10. Impact of the 2008 Hurricane Season on the Natural Gas Industry

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season and its impacts on the natural gas industry

  11. High Temperature ESP Monitoring

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of the High Temperature ESP Monitoring project is to develop a down-hole monitoring system to be used in wells with bottom hole temperature up to 300 °C for measuring motor temperature; pump discharge pressure; and formation temperature and pressure.

  12. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, John P.

    1992-08-04

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  13. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, John P.

    1992-01-01

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  14. High temperature furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borkowski, Casimer J.

    1976-08-03

    A high temperature furnace for use above 2000.degree.C is provided that features fast initial heating and low power consumption at the operating temperature. The cathode is initially heated by joule heating followed by electron emission heating at the operating temperature. The cathode is designed for routine large temperature excursions without being subjected to high thermal stresses. A further characteristic of the device is the elimination of any ceramic components from the high temperature zone of the furnace.

  15. Genome Wide Evaluation of Normal Human Tissue in Response to...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Wide Evaluation of Normal Human Tissue in Response to Controlled, In vivo Low-Dose Low LET Ionizing Radiation Exposure: Pathways and Mechanisms Final Report, September 2013 Rocke,...

  16. Dating of major normal fault systems using thermochronology-...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dating of major normal fault systems using thermochronology- An example from the Raft River detachment, Basin and Range, western United States Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  17. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and ...

  18. Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel Assembly. McConnell, Paul E.; Wauneka, Robert; Saltzstein, Sylvia J.; Sorenson, Ken B. Abstract not provided. Sandia...

  19. Enzymatic temperature change indicator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klibanov, Alexander M.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    1989-01-21

    A temperature change indicator is described which is composed of an enzyme and a substrate for that enzyme suspended in a solid organic solvent or mixture of solvents as a support medium. The organic solvent or solvents are chosen so as to melt at a specific temperature or in a specific temperature range. When the temperature of the indicator is elevated above the chosen, or critical temperature, the solid organic solvent support will melt, and the enzymatic reaction will occur, producing a visually detectable product which is stable to further temperature variation.

  20. Superconductor-normal-superconductor with distributed Sharvin point contacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcomb, Matthew J.; Little, William A.

    1994-01-01

    A non-linear superconducting junction device comprising a layer of high transient temperature superconducting material which is superconducting at an operating temperature, a layer of metal in contact with the layer of high temperature superconducting material and which remains non-superconducting at the operating temperature, and a metal material which is superconducting at the operating temperature and which forms distributed Sharvin point contacts with the metal layer.

  1. Bibliography of the seasonal thermal energy storage library

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prater, L.S.; Casper, G.; Kawin, R.A.

    1981-08-01

    The Main Listing is arranged alphabetically by the last name of the first author. Each citation includes the author's name, title, publisher, publication date, and where applicable, the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) number or other document number. The number preceding each citation is the identification number for that document in the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) Library. Occasionally, one or two alphabetic characters are added to the identification number. These alphabetic characters indicate that the document is contained in a collection of papers, such as the proceedings of a conference. An Author Index and an Identification Number Index are included. (WHK)

  2. Laser-induced differential normalized fluorescence method for cancer diagnosis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, T.; Panjehpour, M.; Overholt, B.F.

    1996-12-03

    An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample. 5 figs.

  3. Laser-induced differential normalized fluorescence method for cancer diagnosis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Panjehpour, Masoud; Overholt, Bergein F.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample.

  4. ARM - Measurement - Virtual temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Virtual temperature The virtual temperature Tv T(1 + rvepsilon), where rv is...

  5. High temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1982-01-01

    A high temperature sensor includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1,000 to 2,000 K.). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

  6. Experimental Modeling of VHTR Plenum Flows during Normal Operation and Pressurized Conduction Cooldown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn E McCreery; Keith G Condie

    2006-09-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is the leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Project in the U.S. which has the goal of demonstrating the production of emissions free electricity and hydrogen by 2015. The present document addresses experimental modeling of flow and thermal mixing phenomena of importance during normal or reduced power operation and during a loss of forced reactor cooling (pressurized conduction cooldown) scenario. The objectives of the experiments are, 1), provide benchmark data for assessment and improvement of codes proposed for NGNP designs and safety studies, and, 2), obtain a better understanding of related phenomena, behavior and needs. Physical models of VHTR vessel upper and lower plenums which use various working fluids to scale phenomena of interest are described. The models may be used to both simulate natural convection conditions during pressurized conduction cooldown and turbulent lower plenum flow during normal or reduced power operation.

  7. A comparison of spent fuel shipping cask response to 10 CFR 71 normal conditions and realistic hot day extremes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manson, S.J.; Gianoulakis, S.E.

    1994-02-01

    The structural properties of spent nuclear fuel shipping containers vary as a function of the cask wall temperature. An analysis is performed to determine the effect of a realistic, though bounding, hot day environment on the thermal behavior of spent fuel shipping casks. These results are compared to those which develop under a steady-state application of the prescribed normal thermal conditions of 10CFR71. The completed analysis revealed that the majority of wall temperatures, for a wide variety of spent fuel shipping cask configurations, fall well below those predicted by using the steady-state application of the regulatory boundary conditions. It was found that maximum temperatures at the cask surface occasionally lie above temperatures predicted under the regulatory condition. This is due to the conservative assumptions present in the ambient conditions used. The analysis demonstrates that diurnal temperature variations which penetrate the cask wall have maxima substantially less than the corresponding temperatures obtained when applying the steady-state regulatory boundary conditions. Therefore, it is certain that vital cask components and the spent fuel itself will not exceed the temperatures calculated by use of the steady-state interpretation of the 10CFR71 normal conditions.

  8. INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seong W. Lee

    2003-09-01

    During this reporting period, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement literature, the ultrasonic application and its background study in cleaning application, and spray coating process are completed. The gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted. Four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied to analyze the test data. The analysis shows that all four factors are significant to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator (cold model). The regression analysis for the case with the normalized room temperature shows that linear model fits the temperature data with 82% accuracy (18% error). The regression analysis for the case without the normalized room temperature shows 72.5% accuracy (27.5% error). The nonlinear regression analysis indicates a better fit than that of the linear regression. The nonlinear regression model's accuracy is 88.7% (11.3% error) for normalized room temperature case, which is better than the linear regression analysis. The hot model thermocouple sleeve design and fabrication are completed. The gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication are completed. The system tests of the gasifier simulator (hot model) have been conducted and some modifications have been made. Based on the system tests and results analysis, the gasifier simulator (hot model) has met the proposed design requirement and the ready for system test. The ultrasonic cleaning method is under evaluation and will be further studied for the gasifier simulator (hot model) application. The progress of this project has been on schedule.

  9. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, Dan Michael

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

  10. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, D.M.

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

  11. Anomalous negative electrocaloric effect in a relaxor/normal ferroelectric

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    polymer blend with controlled nano- and meso-dipolar couplings (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Anomalous negative electrocaloric effect in a relaxor/normal ferroelectric polymer blend with controlled nano- and meso-dipolar couplings Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on April 5, 2017 Title: Anomalous negative electrocaloric effect in a relaxor/normal ferroelectric polymer blend with controlled nano- and meso-dipolar couplings Authors: Qian,

  12. Off-Normal Patterned Etching Through Suspended Membranes. (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Off-Normal Patterned Etching Through Suspended Membranes. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Off-Normal Patterned Etching Through Suspended Membranes. Abstract not provided. Authors: Burckel, David Bruce ; Jarecki, Robert L., ; Resnick, Paul James ; Henry, Michael David ; Finnegan, Patrick Sean Publication Date: 2014-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1140777 Report Number(s): SAND2014-0767C 498657 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource

  13. Plasmoid Formation in Current Sheet with Finite Normal Magnetic Component

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Plasmoid Formation in Current Sheet with Finite Normal Magnetic Component Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Plasmoid Formation in Current Sheet with Finite Normal Magnetic Component Authors: Zhu, P. ; Raeder, J. Publication Date: 2013-06-07 OSTI Identifier: 1102825 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review Letters Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 110; Journal Issue: 23; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007 Publisher:

  14. Normal to inverse transition in martian spinel: Understanding the interplay

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    between chromium, vanadium, and iron valence state partitioning through a crystal-chemical lens. (Conference) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Conference: Normal to inverse transition in martian spinel: Understanding the interplay between chromium, vanadium, and iron valence state partitioning through a crystal-chemical lens. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Normal to inverse transition in martian spinel: Understanding the interplay between chromium, vanadium, and

  15. Normal to inverse transition in martian spinel: Understanding the interplay

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    between chromium, vanadium, and iron valence state partitioning through a crystal-chemical lens. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Normal to inverse transition in martian spinel: Understanding the interplay between chromium, vanadium, and iron valence state partitioning through a crystal-chemical lens. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Normal to inverse transition in martian spinel: Understanding the interplay between chromium, vanadium, and iron valence state partitioning through

  16. Normal Force and Drag Force in Magnetorheological Finishing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miao, C.; Shafrir, S.N.; Lambropoulos, J.C.; Jacobs, S.D.

    2010-01-13

    The material removal in magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is known to be controlled by shear stress, tau, which equals drag force, Fd, divided by spot area, As. However, it is unclear how the normal force, Fn, affects the material removal in MRF and how the measured ratio of drag force to normal force Fd/Fn, equivalent to coefficient of friction, is related to material removal. This work studies, for the first time for MRF, the normal force and the measured ratio Fd/Fn as a function of material mechanical properties. Experimental data were obtained by taking spots on a variety of materials including optical glasses and hard ceramics with a spot-taking machine (STM). Drag force and normal force were measured with a dual load cell. Drag force decreases linearly with increasing material hardness. In contrast, normal force increases with hardness for glasses, saturating at high hardness values for ceramics. Volumetric removal rate decreases with normal force across all materials. The measured ratio Fd/Fn shows a strong negative linear correlation with material hardness. Hard materials exhibit a low coefficient of friction. The volumetric removal rate increases with the measured ratio Fd/Fn which is also correlated with shear stress, indicating that the measured ratio Fd/Fn is a useful measure of material removal in MRF.

  17. Magnetic nanoparticle temperature estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, John B.; Rauwerdink, Adam M.; Hansen, Eric W.

    2009-05-15

    The authors present a method of measuring the temperature of magnetic nanoparticles that can be adapted to provide in vivo temperature maps. Many of the minimally invasive therapies that promise to reduce health care costs and improve patient outcomes heat tissue to very specific temperatures to be effective. Measurements are required because physiological cooling, primarily blood flow, makes the temperature difficult to predict a priori. The ratio of the fifth and third harmonics of the magnetization generated by magnetic nanoparticles in a sinusoidal field is used to generate a calibration curve and to subsequently estimate the temperature. The calibration curve is obtained by varying the amplitude of the sinusoidal field. The temperature can then be estimated from any subsequent measurement of the ratio. The accuracy was 0.3 deg. K between 20 and 50 deg. C using the current apparatus and half-second measurements. The method is independent of nanoparticle concentration and nanoparticle size distribution.

  18. High-temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    A high temperature sensor is described which includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1000 to 2000/sup 0/K). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

  19. High temperature refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steyert, Jr., William A.

    1978-01-01

    A high temperature magnetic refrigerator which uses a Stirling-like cycle in which rotating magnetic working material is heated in zero field and adiabatically magnetized, cooled in high field, then adiabatically demagnetized. During this cycle said working material is in heat exchange with a pumped fluid which absorbs heat from a low temperature heat source and deposits heat in a high temperature reservoir. The magnetic refrigeration cycle operates at an efficiency 70% of Carnot.

  20. Automatic temperature adjustment apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaplin, James E.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for increasing the efficiency of a conventional central space heating system is disclosed. The temperature of a fluid heating medium is adjusted based on a measurement of the external temperature, and a system parameter. The system parameter is periodically modified based on a closed loop process that monitors the operation of the heating system. This closed loop process provides a heating medium temperature value that is very near the optimum for energy efficiency.

  1. Automatic coke oven heating control system at Burns Harbor for normal and repair operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battle, E.T.; Chen, K.L.

    1997-12-31

    An automatic heating control system for coke oven batteries was developed in 1985 for the Burns Harbor No. 1 battery and reported in the 1989 Ironmaking Conference Proceedings. The original system was designed to maintain a target coke temperature at a given production level under normal operating conditions. Since 1989, enhancements have been made to this control system so that it can also control the battery heating when the battery is under repair. The new control system has improved heating control capability because it adjusts the heat input to the battery in response to anticipated changes in the production schedule. During a recent repair of this 82 oven battery, the pushing schedule changed from 102 ovens/day to 88 ovens/day, then back to 102 ovens/day, then to 107 ovens/day. During this repair, the control system was able to maintain the coke temperature average standard deviation at 44 F, with a maximum 75 F.

  2. State of Maine residential heating oil survey 2001-02 season summary [SHOPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elder, Betsy

    2002-05-22

    This, as the title implies, is a summary report of the price trends for heating oil, propane and kerosene heating fuels for the heating season.

  3. Seasonality in the Natural Gas Balancing Item: Historical Trends and Corrective Measures

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    This special report examines an underlying cause of the seasonal pattern in the balancing item published in the Natural Gas Monthly.

  4. Temperature and RH Targets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented by Vishal O Mittal of the Florida Solar Energy Center at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, San Francisco, September 14, 2006.

  5. High-Temperature Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Software Computations Uncertainty Quantification Stochastic About CRF Transportation Energy Consortiums Engine Combustion Heavy Duty Heavy Duty Low-Temperature & Diesel Combustion ...

  6. Low temperature cryoprobe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1989-01-01

    A portable, hand held probe usable within a small confine to produce a point source of nitrogen or helium at a relatively constant temperature of 77 degrees Kelvin.

  7. Temperature and productivity

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... and performance of office work under combined exposure to temperature, noise and air pollution. PhD Thesis. International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of ...

  8. Low Temperature Proton Conductivity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Tom Zawodzinski to DOE's Fuel Cell Operations at Sub-Freezing Temperatures Workshop held February 1-5, 2005 in Phoenix, Arizona.

  9. Effect of seasonal changes in quantities of biowaste on full scale anaerobic digester performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Illmer, P. Gstraunthaler, G.

    2009-01-15

    A 750,000 l digester located in Roppen/Austria was studied over a 2-year period. The concentrations and amounts of CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S and several other process parameters like temperature, retention time, dry weight and input of substrate were registered continuously. On a weekly scale the pH and the concentrations of NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N and volatile fatty acids (acetic, butyric, iso-butyric, propionic, valeric and iso-valeric acid) were measured. The data show a similar pattern of seasonal gas production over 2 years of monitoring. The consumption of VFA and not the hydrogenotrophic CH{sub 4} production appeared to be the limiting factor for the investigated digestion process. Whereas the changes in pH and the concentrations of most VFA did not correspond with changes in biogas production, the ratio of acetic to propionic acid and the concentration of H{sub 2} appeared to be useful indicators for reactor performance. However, the most influential factors for the anaerobic digestion process were the amount and the quality of input material, which distinctly changed throughout the year.

  10. Challenges in the Development of High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton; Carl Stoots

    2013-10-01

    Advanced reactor designs offer potentially significant improvements over currently operating light water reactors including improved fuel utilization, increased efficiency, higher temperature operation (enabling a new suite of non-electric industrial process heat applications), and increased safety. As with most technologies, these potential performance improvements come with a variety of challenges to bringing advanced designs to the marketplace. There are technical challenges in material selection and thermal hydraulic and power conversion design that arise particularly for higher temperature, long life operation (possibly >60 years). The process of licensing a new reactor design is also daunting, requiring significant data collection for model verification and validation to provide confidence in safety margins associated with operating a new reactor design under normal and off-normal conditions. This paper focuses on the key technical challenges associated with two proposed advanced reactor concepts: the helium gas cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) and the molten salt cooled Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR).

  11. ARM - Word Seek: Temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperature Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Word Seek: Temperature

  12. Fiber optic temperature sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabold, D.

    1995-12-01

    Our fiber optic temperature measurement sensor and system is a major improvement over methods currently in use in most industrial processes, and it delivers all of the attributes required simplicity, accuracy, and cost efficiency-to help improve all of these processes. Because temperature is a basic physical attribute of nearly every industrial and commercial process, our system can eventually result in significant improvements in nearly every industrial and commercial process. Many finished goods, and the materials that go into them, are critically dependent on the temperature. The better the temperature measurement, the better quality the goods will be and the more economically they can be produced. The production and transmission of energy requires the monitoring of temperature in motors, circuit breakers, power generating plants, and transmission line equipment. The more reliable and robust the methods for measuring these temperature, the more available, stable, and affordable the supply of energy will become. The world is increasingly realizing the threats to health and safety of toxic or otherwise undesirable by products of the industrial economy in the environment. Cleanup of such contamination often depends on techniques that require the constant monitoring of temperature in extremely hazardous environments, which can damage most conventional temperature sensors and which are dangerous for operating personnel. Our system makes such monitoring safer and more economical.

  13. High Temperature ESP Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack Booker; Brindesh Dhruva

    2011-06-20

    The objective of the High Temperature ESP Monitoring project was to develop a downhole monitoring system to be used in wells with bottom hole well temperatures up to 300C for measuring motor temperature, formation pressure, and formation temperature. These measurements are used to monitor the health of the ESP motor, to track the downhole operating conditions, and to optimize the pump operation. A 220 C based High Temperature ESP Monitoring system was commercially released for sale with Schlumberger ESP motors April of 2011 and a 250 C system with will be commercially released at the end of Q2 2011. The measurement system is now fully qualified, except for the sensor, at 300 C.

  14. High temperature probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swan, Raymond A.

    1994-01-01

    A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

  15. Normal conditions of transport thermal analysis and testing of a Type B drum package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerrell, J.W.; Alstine, M.N. van; Gromada, R.J.

    1995-11-01

    Increasing the content limits of radioactive material packagings can save money and increase transportation safety by decreasing the total number of shipments required to transport large quantities of material. The contents of drum packages can be limited by unacceptable containment vessel pressures and temperatures due to the thermal properties of the insulation. The purpose of this work is to understand and predict the effects of insulation properties on containment system performance. The type B shipping container used in the study is a double containment fiberboard drum package. The package is primarily used to transport uranium and plutonium metals and oxides. A normal condition of transport (NCT) thermal test was performed to benchmark an NCT analysis of the package. A 21 W heater was placed in an instrumented package to simulate the maximum source decay heat. The package reached thermal equilibrium 120 hours after the heater was turned on. Testing took place indoors to minimize ambient temperature fluctuations. The thermal analysis of the package used fiberboard properties reported in the literature and resulted in temperature significantly greater than those measured during the test. Details of the NCT test will be described and transient temperatures at key thermocouple locations within the package will be presented. Analytical results using nominal fiberboard properties will be presented. Explanations of the results and the attempt to benchmark the analysis will be presented. The discovery that fiberboard has an anisotropic thermal conductivity and its effect on thermal performance will also be discussed.

  16. Weight Loss Regime for Massive Low Temperature Electrons | The Ames

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Weight Loss Regime for Massive Low Temperature Electrons A compound made out of ytterbium (Yb), platinum (Pt), and bismuth (Bi) offers researchers the opportunity to watch the birth of magnetic behavior by applying small changes in magnetic field or temperature. Despite the electrons having effective masses of nearly 10,000 times their normal mass when YbPtBi becomes magnetic, researchers have been able to monitor its quantum oscillations, key for determining important electronic

  17. New measurement of the α asymptotic normalization coefficient...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    that dominates the C 13 ( , n ) O 16 reaction rate at temperatures relevant for the s ... Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review C Additional Journal ...

  18. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1998-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to appropriate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. This invention also provides normalized cDNA libraries generated by the above-described method and uses of the generated libraries.

  19. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

    1998-11-03

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3` noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to appropriate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. This invention also provides normalized cDNA libraries generated by the above-described method and uses of the generated libraries. 19 figs.

  20. Optical based tactile shear and normal load sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salisbury, Curt Michael

    2015-06-09

    Various technologies described herein pertain to a tactile sensor that senses normal load and/or shear load. The tactile sensor includes a first layer and an optically transparent layer bonded together. At least a portion of the first layer is made of optically reflective material. The optically transparent layer is made of resilient material (e.g., clear silicone rubber). The tactile sensor includes light emitter/light detector pair(s), which respectively detect either normal load or shear load. Light emitter(s) emit light that traverses through the optically transparent layer and reflects off optically reflective material of the first layer, and light detector(s) detect and measure intensity of reflected light. When a normal load is applied, the optically transparent layer compresses, causing a change in reflected light intensity. When shear load is applied, a boundary between optically reflective material and optically absorptive material is laterally displaced, causing a change in reflected light intensity.

  1. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1996-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  2. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

    1996-01-09

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form. The method comprises: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3` noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 4 figs.

  3. Nonlinear normal modes modal interactions and isolated resonance curves

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kuether, Robert J.; Renson, L.; Detroux, T.; Grappasonni, C.; Kerschen, G.; Allen, M. S.

    2015-05-21

    The objective of the present study is to explore the connection between the nonlinear normal modes of an undamped and unforced nonlinear system and the isolated resonance curves that may appear in the damped response of the forced system. To this end, an energy balance technique is used to predict the amplitude of the harmonic forcing that is necessary to excite a specific nonlinear normal mode. A cantilever beam with a nonlinear spring at its tip serves to illustrate the developments. Furthermore, the practical implications of isolated resonance curves are also discussed by computing the beam response to sine sweepmore » excitations of increasing amplitudes.« less

  4. Nonlinear normal modes modal interactions and isolated resonance curves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuether, Robert J.; Renson, L.; Detroux, T.; Grappasonni, C.; Kerschen, G.; Allen, M. S.

    2015-05-21

    The objective of the present study is to explore the connection between the nonlinear normal modes of an undamped and unforced nonlinear system and the isolated resonance curves that may appear in the damped response of the forced system. To this end, an energy balance technique is used to predict the amplitude of the harmonic forcing that is necessary to excite a specific nonlinear normal mode. A cantilever beam with a nonlinear spring at its tip serves to illustrate the developments. Furthermore, the practical implications of isolated resonance curves are also discussed by computing the beam response to sine sweep excitations of increasing amplitudes.

  5. Closeness to spheres of hypersurfaces with normal curvature bounded below

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borisenko, A A; Drach, K D

    2013-11-30

    For aRiemannian manifold M{sup n+1} and acompact domain ??M{sup n+1} bounded by ahypersurface ?? with normal curvature bounded below, estimates are obtained in terms of the distance from O to ?? for the angle between the geodesic line joining afixed interior point O in ? to apoint on ?? and the outward normal to the surface. Estimates for the width of aspherical shell containing such ahypersurface are also presented. Bibliography: 9 titles.

  6. Temperature-sensitive optrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring temperature and for generating optical signals related to temperature. Light from a fiber optic is directed to a material whose fluorescent response varies with ambient temperature. The same fiber optic delivering the excitation beam also collects a portion of the fluorescent emission for analysis. Signal collection efficiency of the fiber optic is enhanced by requiring that the fluorescent probe material be in the shape of an oblong parabolically tapered solid. Reproducibility is enhanced by using Raman backscatter to monitor excitation beam fluctuations, and by using measurements of fluorescence lifetime.

  7. Temperature-sensitive optrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1985-09-24

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring temperature and for generating optical signals related to temperature. Light from a fiber optic is directed to a material whose fluorescent response varies with ambient temperature. The same fiber optic delivering the excitation beam also collects a portion of the fluorescent emission for analysis. Signal collection efficiency of the fiber optic is enhanced by requiring that the fluorescent probe material be in the shape of an oblong parabolically tapered solid. Reproducibility is enhanced by using Raman backscatter to monitor excitation beam fluctuations, and by using measurements of fluorescence lifetime. 10 figs.

  8. A comparison of spent fuel shipping cask response to 10 CFR 71 normal conditions and realistic hot day extremes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manson, S.J.; Gianoulakis, S.E.

    1994-04-01

    An examination of the effect of a realistic (though conservative) hot day environment on the thermal transient behavior of spent fuel shipping casks is made. These results are compared to those that develop under the prescribed normal thermal condition of 10 CFR 71. Of specific concern are the characteristics of propagating thermal waves, which are set up by diurnal variations of temperature and insolation in the outdoor environment. In order to arrive at a realistic approximation of these variations on a conservative hot day, actual temperature and insolation measurements have been obtained from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) for representatively hot and high heat flux days. Thus, the use of authentic meteorological data ensures the realistic approach sought. Further supporting the desired realism of the modeling effort is the use of realistic cask configurations in which multiple laminations of structural, shielding, and other materials are expected to attenuate the propagating thermal waves. The completed analysis revealed that the majority of wall temperatures, for a wide variety of spent fuel shipping cask configurations, fall well below those predicted by enforcement of the regulatory environmental conditions of 10 CFR 71. It was found that maximum temperatures at the cask surface occasionally lie above temperatures predicted under the prescribed regulatory conditions. However, the temperature differences are small enough that the normal conservative assumptions that are made in the course of typical cask evaluations should correct for any potential violations. The analysis demonstrates that diurnal temperature variations that penetrate the cask wall all have maxima substantially less than the corresponding regulatory solutions. Therefore it is certain that vital cask components and the spent fuel itself will not exceed the temperatures calculated by use of the conditions of 10 CFR 71.

  9. Low Temperature Scaling of the Susceptibility of Ni Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, X. H.; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Fan, J.; Jin, Y. R.; Su, S. K.; Zhang, D. L.

    2008-03-01

    Measurement of low field ac susceptibility of Ni thin films over the temperature range 5-300K reveals a surprising power law scaling. The temperature dependent part of the normalized susceptibility, $\\chi_\\parallel/M_S-\\chi_{\\rm rot}/M_S$, where $\\chi_\\parallel$ is the initial susceptibility for in-plane magnetization, $\\chi_{\\rm rot}$ is the domain rotation contribution, and $M_S$ is the saturation magnetization, scales with the nonlinear reduced temperature as $t^{-2}$ over the entire temperature range, where $t=(T-T_C)/(T+T_C)$ and $T_C$ is the Curie temperature. Thickness and reduced temperature dependences are completely decoupled. This result implies that domain wall motion does not contribute to the low field susceptibility.

  10. Temperature | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    C Property:Combustion Intake Air Temperature F Property:FirstWellTemp G Property:GeochemReservoirTemp Property:GeofluidTemp M Property:MeanReservoirTemp R...

  11. Penrose Well Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopherson, Karen

    2013-03-15

    Penrose Well Temperatures Geothermal waters have been encountered in several wells near Penrose in Fremont County, Colorado. Most of the wells were drilled for oil and gas exploration and, in a few cases, production. This ESRI point shapefile utilizes data from 95 wells in and around the Penrose area provided by the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) database at http://cogcc.state.co.us/ . Temperature data from the database were used to calculate a temperature gradient for each well. This information was then used to estimate temperatures at various depths. Projection: UTM Zone 13 NAD27 Extent: West -105.224871 East -105.027633 North 38.486269 South 38.259507 Originators: Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) Karen Christopherson

  12. Low temperature cryoprobe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sungaila, Z.F.

    1988-04-12

    A portable, hand held probe usable within a small confine to produce a point source of nitrogen or helium at a relatively constant temperatures of 77 degrees Kelvin, is discussed. 3 figs.

  13. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Peter Johnson

    2010-01-08

    Like astronomers tweaking images to gain a more detailed glimpse of distant stars, physicists at Brookhaven National Laboratory have found ways to sharpen images of the energy spectra in high-temperature superconductors ? materials that carry electrical c

  14. The electronic structure of heavy fermions: Narrow temperature independent bands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arko, A.J.; Joyce, J.J.; Smith, J.L.; Andrews, A.B.

    1996-08-01

    The electronic structure of both Ce and U heavy fermions appears to consist of extremely narrow temperature independent bands. There is no evidence from photoemission for a collective phenomenon normally referred to as the Kondo resonance. In uranium compounds a small dispersion of the bands is easily measurable.

  15. Microwaving of normally opaque and semi-opaque substances

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1990-07-17

    Disclosed is a method of heating small particles using microwave radiation which are not normally capable of being heated by microwaves. The surfaces of the particles are coated with a material which is transparent to microwave radiation in order to cause microwave coupling to the particles and thus accomplish heating of the particles.

  16. Deep Borehole Disposal Remediation Costs for Off-Normal Outcomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finger, John T.; Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-08-17

    This memo describes rough-order-of-magnitude (ROM) cost estimates for a set of off-normal (accident) scenarios, as defined for two waste package emplacement method options for deep borehole disposal: drill-string and wireline. It summarizes the different scenarios and the assumptions made for each, with respect to fishing, decontamination, remediation, etc.

  17. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  18. Low temperature reactive bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    The joining technique requires no external heat source and generates very little heat during joining. It involves the reaction of thin multilayered films deposited on faying surfaces to create a stable compound that functions as an intermediate or braze material in order to create a high strength bond. While high temperatures are reached in the reaction of the multilayer film, very little heat is generated because the films are very thin. It is essentially a room temperature joining process.

  19. Temperature measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.; Bible, Don W.; Sohns, Carl W.

    1999-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

  20. High Temperature Aqueous Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accurate knowledge of aqueous chemistry at high temperatures and pressures is important in many applications including nuclear waste disposal and energy extraction. Sandia's Defense Waste Management Programs is equipped with a state-of-the-art hydrothermal experimental system that allows us to obtain high quality kinetic and equilibrium data at temperatures and pressures of interest up to 600 o C and 1,000 bars (100 MPa). This state-of-the-art hydrothermal experimental system includes the

  1. ARM - Temperature Converter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CalculatorsTemperature Converter Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Temperature Converter The Fahrenheit scale, invented by German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736), is based on 32 °F for the freezing point of water and 212 °F for the boiling point of water. The

  2. Environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change. Volume II, Part 8. Impacts of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels on agricultural growing seasons and crop water use efficiencies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newman, J. E.

    1982-09-01

    The researchable areas addressed relate to the possible impacts of climate change on agricultural growing seasons and crop adaptation responses on a global basis. The research activities proposed are divided into the following two main areas of investigation: anticipated climate change impacts on the physical environmental characteristics of the agricultural growing seasons and, the most probable food crop responses to the possible changes in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ levels in plant environments. The main physical environmental impacts considered are the changes in temperature, or more directly, thermal energy levels and the growing season evapotranspiration-precipitation balances. The resulting food crop, commercial forest and rangeland species response impacts addressed relate to potential geographical shifts in agricultural growing seasons as determined by the length in days of the frost free period, thermal energy changes and water balance changes. In addition, the interaction of possible changes in plant water use efficiencies during the growing season in relationship to changing atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations, is also considered under the scenario of global warming due to increases in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration. These proposed research investigations are followed by adaptive response evaluations.

  3. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Boatner, L.A.; Gillies, G.T.

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO{sub 4}:Dy{sub x},Eu{sub y} wherein: 0.1 wt % {<=} x {<=} 20 wt % and 0.1 wt % {<=} y {<=} 20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopant. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions. 2 figs.

  4. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, Stephen W.; Cates, Michael R.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Gillies, George T.

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.y) wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  5. Temperature profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, R.D.

    1983-10-11

    Disclosed is a temperature profile detector shown as a tubular enclosure surrounding an elongated electrical conductor having a plurality of meltable conductive segments surrounding it. Duplicative meltable segments are spaced apart from one another along the length of the enclosure. Electrical insulators surround these elements to confine molten material from the segments in bridging contact between the conductor and a second electrical conductor, which might be the confining tube. The location and rate of growth of the resulting short circuits between the two conductors can be monitored by measuring changes in electrical resistance between terminals at both ends of the two conductors. Additional conductors and separate sets of meltable segments operational at differing temperatures can be monitored simultaneously for measuring different temperature profiles. 8 figs.

  6. High temperature lubricating process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, R.W.; Shell, T.E.

    1979-10-04

    It has been difficult to provide adequate lubrication for load bearing, engine components when such engines are operating in excess of about 475/sup 0/C. The present invention is a process for providing a solid lubricant on a load bearing, solid surface, such as in an engine being operated at temperatures in excess of about 475/sup 0/C. The process comprises contacting and maintaining the following steps: a gas phase is provided which includes at least one component reactable in a temperature dependent reaction to form a solid lubricant; the gas phase is contacted with the load bearing surface; the load bearing surface is maintained at a temperature which causes reaction of the gas phase component and the formation of the solid lubricant; and the solid lubricant is formed directly on the load bearing surface. The method is particularly suitable for use with ceramic engines.

  7. High temperature lubricating process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Robert W.; Shell, Thomas E.

    1982-01-01

    It has been difficult to provide adaquate lubrication for load bearing, engine components when such engines are operating in excess of about 475.degree. C. The present invention is a process for providing a solid lubricant on a load bearing, solid surface (14), such as in an engine (10) being operated at temperatures in excess of about 475.degree. C. The process comprises contacting and maintaining steps. A gas phase (42) is provided which includes at least one component reactable in a temperature dependent reaction to form a solid lubricant. The gas phase is contacted with the load bearing surface. The load bearing surface is maintained at a temperature which causes reaction of the gas phase component and the formation of the solid lubricant. The solid lubricant is formed directly on the load bearing surface. The method is particularly suitable for use with ceramic engines.

  8. Procedure for normalization of cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonaldo, M.D.; Soares, M.B.

    1997-12-30

    This invention provides a method to normalize a cDNA library constructed in a vector capable of being converted to single-stranded circles and capable of producing complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles comprising: (a) converting the cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles; (c) hybridizing the single-stranded circles converted in step (a) with complementary nucleic acid molecules of step (b) to produce partial duplexes to an appropriate Cot; (e) separating the unhybridized single-stranded circles from the hybridized single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 1 fig.

  9. Procedure for normalization of cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonaldo, Maria DeFatima; Soares, Marcelo Bento

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a cDNA library constructed in a vector capable of being converted to single-stranded circles and capable of producing complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles comprising: (a) converting the cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles; (c) hybridizing the single-stranded circles converted in step (a) with complementary nucleic acid molecules of step (b) to produce partial duplexes to an appropriate Cot; (e) separating the unhybridized single-stranded circles from the hybridized single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  10. A comparison of normal and worst case cement plant emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodford, J.; Gossman, D.; Johnson, N.

    1996-12-31

    Lone Star Industries, Inc. in Cape Girardeau, Missouri conducted a trial burn in October, 1995. Two metals emissions test days were conducted. One of the test days was a worst case metals spiking day and one of the test days was a normal emissions day. This paper examines and compares the emissions from these two test days. Much has been made of metals emissions from hazardous waste burning cement kilns, but for the most part, this has been due to the worst case metals emissions data that became available from the 1992 BIF compliance testing performed and reported by 24 cement plants. By comparison, very little data exists on normal cement kiln emissions. This paper provides one comparison.

  11. B-2 Bomber During In-flight Refueling Normal Heart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Bomber During In-flight Refueling Normal Heart Image Technology to Detect Concealed Nuclear Material in Trucks and Cargo Containers Single Abnormality Possible Heart Attack Disc Drive Computer Chip MP3 Player Protein Structure Energy Research Energy Security As part of the nation's energy security strategy, there is renewed focus on nuclear energy. It is critical that fuel elements and the construction materials for new reactors be well characterized. LAN- SCE is developing the Materials Test

  12. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1994-01-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

  13. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

  14. Reservoir Temperature Estimator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-12-08

    The Reservoir Temperature Estimator (RTEst) is a program that can be used to estimate deep geothermal reservoir temperature and chemical parameters such as CO2 fugacity based on the water chemistry of shallower, cooler reservoir fluids. This code uses the plugin features provided in The Geochemist’s Workbench (Bethke and Yeakel, 2011) and interfaces with the model-independent parameter estimation code Pest (Doherty, 2005) to provide for optimization of the estimated parameters based on the minimization of themore » weighted sum of squares of a set of saturation indexes from a user-provided mineral assemblage.« less

  15. Fluorescent temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Gary A [Los Alamos, NM; Baker, Sheila N [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-03-03

    The present invention is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  16. Temperature determination using pyrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Breiland, William G.; Gurary, Alexander I.; Boguslavskiy, Vadim

    2002-01-01

    A method for determining the temperature of a surface upon which a coating is grown using optical pyrometry by correcting Kirchhoff's law for errors in the emissivity or reflectance measurements associated with the growth of the coating and subsequent changes in the surface thermal emission and heat transfer characteristics. By a calibration process that can be carried out in situ in the chamber where the coating process occurs, an error calibration parameter can be determined that allows more precise determination of the temperature of the surface using optical pyrometry systems. The calibration process needs only to be carried out when the physical characteristics of the coating chamber change.

  17. Low temperature reactive bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Bionta, R.M.

    1995-01-17

    The joining technique is disclosed that requires no external heat source and generates very little heat during joining. It involves the reaction of thin multilayered films deposited on faying surfaces to create a stable compound that functions as an intermediate or braze material in order to create a high strength bond. While high temperatures are reached in the reaction of the multilayer film, very little heat is generated because the films are very thin. It is essentially a room temperature joining process. 5 figures.

  18. Ch. VII, Temperature, heat flow maps and temperature gradient...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Report: Ch. VII, Temperature, heat flow maps and temperature gradient holes Author T. G. Zacharakis Editor T. G. Zacharakis Published Colorado Geological Survey in Cooperation...

  19. Temperature, heat flow maps and temperature gradient holes |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to library Report: Temperature, heat flow maps and temperature gradient holes Author T. G. Zacharakis Organization Colorado Geological Survey in Cooperation with the U.S....

  20. Temperature differential detection device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Girling, Peter M.

    1986-01-01

    A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions.

  1. Temperature differential detection device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Girling, P.M.

    1986-04-22

    A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions. 2 figs.

  2. Is the assumption of normality or log-normality for continuous response data critical for benchmark dose estimation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Kan; Gift, Jeffrey S.; Setzer, R. Woodrow

    2013-11-01

    Continuous responses (e.g. body weight) are widely used in risk assessment for determining the benchmark dose (BMD) which is used to derive a U.S. EPA reference dose. One critical question that is not often addressed in doseresponse assessments is whether to model the continuous data as normally or log-normally distributed. Additionally, if lognormality is assumed, and only summarized response data (i.e., mean standard deviation) are available as is usual in the peer-reviewed literature, the BMD can only be approximated. In this study, using the hybrid method and relative deviation approach, we first evaluate six representative continuous doseresponse datasets reporting individual animal responses to investigate the impact on BMD/BMDL estimates of (1) the distribution assumption and (2) the use of summarized versus individual animal data when a log-normal distribution is assumed. We also conduct simulation studies evaluating model fits to various known distributions to investigate whether the distribution assumption has influence on BMD/BMDL estimates. Our results indicate that BMDs estimated using the hybrid method are more sensitive to the distribution assumption than counterpart BMDs estimated using the relative deviation approach. The choice of distribution assumption has limited impact on the BMD/BMDL estimates when the within dose-group variance is small, while the lognormality assumption is a better choice for relative deviation method when data are more skewed because of its appropriateness in describing the relationship between mean and standard deviation. Additionally, the results suggest that the use of summarized data versus individual response data to characterize log-normal distributions has minimal impact on BMD estimates. - Highlights: We investigate to what extent the distribution assumption can affect BMD estimates. Both real data analysis and simulation study are conducted. BMDs estimated using hybrid method are more sensitive to distribution assumption. Summarized continuous data are adequate for BMD estimation.

  3. Hardening and Resiliency: U.S. Energy Industry Response to Recent Hurricane Seasons- August 2010

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In an effort to better understand what actions the energy industry has taken in response to the 2005 and 2008 hurricane seasons, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and...

  4. Seasonal and inter-annual variability in 13C composition of ecosystem...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Seasonal and inter-annual variability in 13C composition of ecosystem carbon fluxes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  5. Program listing for heat-pump seasonal-performance model (SPM). [CNHSPM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    The computer program CNHSPM is listed which predicts heat pump seasonal energy consumption (including defrost, cyclic degradation, and supplementary heat) using steady state rating point performance and binned weather data. (LEW)

  6. Agricultural green revolution as a driver of increasing atmospheric CO2 seasonal amplitude

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Ning; Zhao, Fang; Collatz, George; Kalnay, Eugenia; Salawitch, Ross J.; West, Tristram O.; Guanter, Luis

    2014-11-20

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) record displays a prominent seasonal cycle that arises mainly from changes in vegetation growth and the corresponding CO2 uptake during the boreal spring and summer growing seasons and CO2 release during the autumn and winter seasons. The CO2 seasonal amplitude has increased over the past five decades, suggesting an increase in Northern Hemisphere biospheric activity. It has been proposed that vegetation growth may have been stimulated by higher concentrations of CO2 as well as by warming in recent decades, but such mechanisms have been unable to explain the full range and magnitude of the observed increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude. Here we suggest that the intensification of agriculture (the Green Revolution, in which much greater crop yield per unit area was achieved by hybridization, irrigation and fertilization) during the past five decades is a driver of changes in the seasonal characteristics of the global carbon cycle. Our analysis of CO2 data and atmospheric inversions shows a robust 15 per cent long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude from 1961 to 2010, punctuated by large decadal and interannual variations. Using a terrestrial carbon cycle model that takes into account high-yield cultivars, fertilizer use and irrigation, we find that the long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude arises from two major regions: the mid-latitude cropland between 256N and 606N and the high-latitude natural vegetation between 506N and 706 N. The long-term trend of seasonal amplitude increase is 0.311 ± 0.027 percent per year, of which sensitivity experiments attribute 45, 29 and 26 per cent to land-use change, climate variability and change, and increased productivity due to CO2 fertilization, respectively. Vegetation growth was earlier by one to two weeks, as measured by the mid-point of vegetation carbon uptake, and took up 0.5 petagrams more carbon in July, the height of the growing season, during 2001–2010 than in 1961–1970, suggesting that human land use and management contribute to seasonal changes in the CO2 exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere.

  7. ARM - Measurement - Sea surface temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sea surface temperature The temperature of sea water near the surface. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  8. High Temperature Membrane Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The High Temperature Membrane Working Group consists of government, industry, and university researchers interested in developing high temperature membranes for fuel cells.

  9. ARM - Measurement - Surface skin temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    surface skin temperature, from an IR thermometer measuring the narrowband radiating temperature of the ground surface in its field of view. Categories Radiometric, Surface...

  10. Field Test of Boiler Primary Loop Temperature Controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glanville, P.; Rowley, P.; Schroeder, D.; Brand, L.

    2014-09-01

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and, in some cases, return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential.

  11. Field Test of Boiler Primary Loop Temperature Controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glanville, P.; Rowley, P.; Schroeder, D.; Brand, L.

    2014-09-01

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and in some cases return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential. PARR installed and monitored the performance of one type of ALM controller, the M2G from Greffen Systems, at multifamily sites in the city of Chicago and its suburb Cary, IL, both with existing OTR control. Results show that energy savings depend on the degree to which boilers are over-sized for their load, represented by cycling rates. Also savings vary over the heating season with cycling rates, with greater savings observed in shoulder months. Over the monitoring period, over-sized boilers at one site showed reductions in cycling and energy consumption in line with prior laboratory studies, while less over-sized boilers at another site showed muted savings.

  12. Zero Temperature Hope Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rozsnyai, B F

    2002-07-26

    The primary purpose of the HOPE code is to calculate opacities over a wide temperature and density range. It can also produce equation of state (EOS) data. Since the experimental data at the high temperature region are scarce, comparisons of predictions with the ample zero temperature data provide a valuable physics check of the code. In this report we show a selected few examples across the periodic table. Below we give a brief general information about the physics of the HOPE code. The HOPE code is an ''average atom'' (AA) Dirac-Slater self-consistent code. The AA label in the case of finite temperature means that the one-electron levels are populated according to the Fermi statistics, at zero temperature it means that the ''aufbau'' principle works, i.e. no a priory electronic configuration is set, although it can be done. As such, it is a one-particle model (any Hartree-Fock model is a one particle model). The code is an ''ion-sphere'' model, meaning that the atom under investigation is neutral within the ion-sphere radius. Furthermore, the boundary conditions for the bound states are also set at the ion-sphere radius, which distinguishes the code from the INFERNO, OPAL and STA codes. Once the self-consistent AA state is obtained, the code proceeds to generate many-electron configurations and proceeds to calculate photoabsorption in the ''detailed configuration accounting'' (DCA) scheme. However, this last feature is meaningless at zero temperature. There is one important feature in the HOPE code which should be noted; any self-consistent model is self-consistent in the space of the occupied orbitals. The unoccupied orbitals, where electrons are lifted via photoexcitation, are unphysical. The rigorous way to deal with that problem is to carry out complete self-consistent calculations both in the initial and final states connecting photoexcitations, an enormous computational task. The Amaldi correction is an attempt to address this problem by distorting the outer part of the self-consistent potential in such a way that in the final state after photoexcitation or photoionization the newly occupied orbital sees the hole left in the initial state. This is very important to account for the large number of Rydberg states in the case of low densities. In the next Section we show calculated photoabsorptions compared with experimental data in figures with some rudimentary explanations.

  13. Localized temperature stability of low temperature cofired ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Steven Xunhu

    2013-11-26

    The present invention is directed to low temperature cofired ceramic modules having localized temperature stability by incorporating temperature coefficient of resonant frequency compensating materials locally into a multilayer LTCC module. Chemical interactions can be minimized and physical compatibility between the compensating materials and the host LTCC dielectrics can be achieved. The invention enables embedded resonators with nearly temperature-independent resonance frequency.

  14. Normal waves in media with light-induced anisotropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burov, L.I.; Gancherenok, I.I.

    1986-03-01

    The structure of normal waves for arbitrary directions of light beams is studied within the framework of standard nonlinear-polarization spectroscopy. A connection is found between the polarization of these waves and the polarization of the intense field and the mechanism for the creation of the induced anisotropy. The feasibility of the spectroscopic application of these results is considered, and a method is proposed for the use of a noncollinear pump. Analysis of the possibility of achieving dual-mode lasing with orthogonal mode polarization is made based on the formalism developed.

  15. Electromagnetic fluctuations and normal modes of a drifting relativistic plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruyer, C.; Gremillet, L.; Bénisti, D.; Bonnaud, G.

    2013-11-15

    We present an exact calculation of the power spectrum of the electromagnetic fluctuations in a relativistic equilibrium plasma described by Maxwell-Jüttner distribution functions. We consider the cases of wave vectors parallel or normal to the plasma mean velocity. The relative contributions of the subluminal and supraluminal fluctuations are evaluated. Analytical expressions of the spatial fluctuation spectra are derived in each case. These theoretical results are compared to particle-in-cell simulations, showing a good reproduction of the subluminal fluctuation spectra.

  16. Engine Cylinder Temperature Control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilkenny, Jonathan Patrick; Duffy, Kevin Patrick

    2005-09-27

    A method and apparatus for controlling a temperature in a combustion cylinder in an internal combustion engine. The cylinder is fluidly connected to an intake manifold and an exhaust manifold. The method and apparatus includes increasing a back pressure associated with the exhaust manifold to a level sufficient to maintain a desired quantity of residual exhaust gas in the cylinder, and varying operation of an intake valve located between the intake manifold and the cylinder to an open duration sufficient to maintain a desired quantity of fresh air from the intake manifold to the cylinder, wherein controlling the quantities of residual exhaust gas and fresh air are performed to maintain the temperature in the cylinder at a desired level.

  17. HIGH TEMPERATURE THERMOCOUPLE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eshayu, A.M.

    1963-02-12

    This invention contemplates a high temperature thermocouple for use in an inert or a reducing atmosphere. The thermocouple limbs are made of rhenium and graphite and these limbs are connected at their hot ends in compressed removable contact. The rhenium and graphite are of high purity and are substantially stable and free from diffusion into each other even without shielding. Also, the graphite may be thick enough to support the thermocouple in a gas stream. (AEC)

  18. High-Temperature Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperature Materials - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  19. High Temperature Membrane Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation provides an overview of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

  20. Normal and abnormal evolution of argon metastable density in high-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, B. H.; Kim, J. H.; You, S. J.

    2015-05-15

    A controversial problem on the evolution of Ar metastable density as a function of electron density (increasing trend versus decreasing trend) was resolved by discovering the anomalous evolution of the argon metastable density with increasing electron density (discharge power), including both trends of the metastable density [Daltrini et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061504 (2008)]. Later, by virtue of an adequate physical explanation based on a simple global model, both evolutions of the metastable density were comprehensively understood as part of the abnormal evolution occurring at low- and high-density regimes, respectively, and thus the physics behind the metastable evolution has seemed to be clearly disclosed. In this study, however, a remarkable result for the metastable density behavior with increasing electron density was observed: even in the same electron density regime, there are both normal and abnormal evolutions of metastable-state density with electron density depending on the measurement position: The metastable density increases with increasing electron density at a position far from the inductively coupled plasma antenna but decreases at a position close to the antenna. The effect of electron temperature, which is spatially nonuniform in the plasma, on the electron population and depopulation processes of Argon metastable atoms with increasing electron density is a clue to understanding the results. The calculated results of the global model, including multistep ionization for the argon metastable state and measured electron temperature, are in a good agreement with the experimental results.

  1. High temperature detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, James O. (Los Alamos, NM); Dinegar, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A detonator assembly is provided which is usable at high temperatures about 300.degree. C. A detonator body is provided with an internal volume defining an anvil surface. A first acceptor explosive is disposed on the anvil surface. A donor assembly having an ignition element, an explosive material, and a flying plate, are placed in the body effective to accelerate the flying plate to impact the first acceptor explosive on the anvil for detonating the first acceptor explosive. A second acceptor explosive is eccentrically located in detonation relationship with the first acceptor explosive to thereafter effect detonation of a main charge.

  2. Drexel University Temperature Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. L. Davis; D. L. Knudson; J. L. Rempe; B. M. Chase

    2014-09-01

    This document summarizes background information and presents results related to temperature measurements in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) Drexel University Project 31091 irradiation. The objective of this test was to assess the radiation performance of new ceramic materials for advanced reactor applications. Accordingly, irradiations of transition metal carbides and nitrides were performed using the Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) in the B-7 position and in static capsules inserted into the A-3 and East Flux Trap Position 5 locations of the ATR.

  3. Thermionic converter temperature controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaner, Benjamin J. (McMurray, PA); Wolf, Joseph H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Johnson, Robert G. R. (Trafford, PA)

    2001-04-24

    A method and apparatus for controlling the temperature of a thermionic reactor over a wide range of operating power, including a thermionic reactor having a plurality of integral cesium reservoirs, a honeycomb material disposed about the reactor which has a plurality of separated cavities, a solid sheath disposed about the honeycomb material and having an opening therein communicating with the honeycomb material and cavities thereof, and a shell disposed about the sheath for creating a coolant annulus therewith so that the coolant in the annulus may fill the cavities and permit nucleate boiling during the operation of the reactor.

  4. Phenomenology of electrostatically charged droplet combustion in normal gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Eric K.; Koch, Jeremy A.; Kyritsis, Dimitrios C.

    2008-08-15

    Experimental findings are provided on the effect of electrostatically charging a fuel on single-burning droplet combustion in normal gravity. It was established that significant modification of the flame morphology and the droplet burning time could be achieved, solely by the droplet charge, without the application of external electric fields. Negative charging of the droplets of mixtures of isooctane with either ethanol or a commercially available anti-static additive generated intense motion of the flame and abbreviated the droplet burning time by as much as 40% for certain blend compositions. Positive charging of the droplets generated almost spherical flames, because electrostatic attraction toward the droplets countered the effect of buoyancy. By comparing combustion of droplets of the same conductivity but different compositions, coupling of electrostatics with combustion chemistry was established. (author)

  5. Mineral density volume gradients in normal and diseased human tissues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djomehri, Sabra I.; Candell, Susan; Case, Thomas; Browning, Alyssa; Marshall, Grayson W.; Yun, Wenbing; Lau, S. H.; Webb, Samuel; Ho, Sunita P.; Aikawa, Elena

    2015-04-09

    Clinical computed tomography provides a single mineral density (MD) value for heterogeneous calcified tissues containing early and late stage pathologic formations. The novel aspect of this study is that, it extends current quantitative methods of mapping mineral density gradients to three dimensions, discretizes early and late mineralized stages, identifies elemental distribution in discretized volumes, and correlates measured MD with respective calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) and Ca to zinc (Zn) elemental ratios. To accomplish this, MD variations identified using polychromatic radiation from a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) benchtop unit were correlated with elemental mapping obtained from a microprobe X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using synchrotron monochromatic radiation. Digital segmentation of tomograms from normal and diseased tissues (N=5 per group; 40-60 year old males) contained significant mineral density variations (enamel: 2820-3095mg/cc, bone: 570-1415mg/cc, cementum: 1240-1340mg/cc, dentin: 1480-1590mg/cc, cementum affected by periodontitis: 1100-1220mg/cc, hypomineralized carious dentin: 345-1450mg/cc, hypermineralized carious dentin: 1815-2740mg/cc, and dental calculus: 1290-1770mg/cc). A plausible linear correlation between segmented MD volumes and elemental ratios within these volumes was established, and Ca/P ratios for dentin (1.49), hypomineralized dentin (0.32-0.46), cementum (1.51), and bone (1.68) were observed. Furthermore, varying Ca/Zn ratios were distinguished in adapted compared to normal tissues, such as in bone (855-2765) and in cementum (595-990), highlighting Zn as an influential element in prompting observed adaptive properties. Hence, results provide insights on mineral density gradients with elemental concentrations and elemental footprints that in turn could aid in elucidating mechanistic processes for pathologic formations.

  6. Mineral density volume gradients in normal and diseased human tissues

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Djomehri, Sabra I.; Candell, Susan; Case, Thomas; Browning, Alyssa; Marshall, Grayson W.; Yun, Wenbing; Lau, S. H.; Webb, Samuel; Ho, Sunita P.; Aikawa, Elena

    2015-04-09

    Clinical computed tomography provides a single mineral density (MD) value for heterogeneous calcified tissues containing early and late stage pathologic formations. The novel aspect of this study is that, it extends current quantitative methods of mapping mineral density gradients to three dimensions, discretizes early and late mineralized stages, identifies elemental distribution in discretized volumes, and correlates measured MD with respective calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) and Ca to zinc (Zn) elemental ratios. To accomplish this, MD variations identified using polychromatic radiation from a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) benchtop unit were correlated with elemental mapping obtained from a microprobe X-raymore » fluorescence (XRF) using synchrotron monochromatic radiation. Digital segmentation of tomograms from normal and diseased tissues (N=5 per group; 40-60 year old males) contained significant mineral density variations (enamel: 2820-3095mg/cc, bone: 570-1415mg/cc, cementum: 1240-1340mg/cc, dentin: 1480-1590mg/cc, cementum affected by periodontitis: 1100-1220mg/cc, hypomineralized carious dentin: 345-1450mg/cc, hypermineralized carious dentin: 1815-2740mg/cc, and dental calculus: 1290-1770mg/cc). A plausible linear correlation between segmented MD volumes and elemental ratios within these volumes was established, and Ca/P ratios for dentin (1.49), hypomineralized dentin (0.32-0.46), cementum (1.51), and bone (1.68) were observed. Furthermore, varying Ca/Zn ratios were distinguished in adapted compared to normal tissues, such as in bone (855-2765) and in cementum (595-990), highlighting Zn as an influential element in prompting observed adaptive properties. Hence, results provide insights on mineral density gradients with elemental concentrations and elemental footprints that in turn could aid in elucidating mechanistic processes for pathologic formations.« less

  7. Soil temperature, soil moisture and thaw depth, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sloan, V.L.; J.A. Liebig; M.S. Hahn; J.B. Curtis; J.D. Brooks; A. Rogers; C.M. Iversen; R.J. Norby

    2014-01-10

    This dataset consists of field measurements of soil properties made during 2012 and 2013 in areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) weekly measurements of thaw depth, soil moisture, presence and depth of standing water, and soil temperature made during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons (June - September) and ii) half-hourly measurements of soil temperature logged continuously during the period June 2012 to September 2013.

  8. Soil temperature, soil moisture and thaw depth, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sloan, V.L.; J.A. Liebig; M.S. Hahn; J.B. Curtis; J.D. Brooks; A. Rogers; C.M. Iversen; R.J. Norby

    This dataset consists of field measurements of soil properties made during 2012 and 2013 in areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) weekly measurements of thaw depth, soil moisture, presence and depth of standing water, and soil temperature made during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons (June - September) and ii) half-hourly measurements of soil temperature logged continuously during the period June 2012 to September 2013.

  9. Low temperature methanol process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Hare, T.E.; Sapienza, R.S.; Mahajan, D.; Skaperdas, G.T.

    1986-06-01

    The world's abundant natural gas resources could provide methanol in fuel quantities to the utility system. Natural gas liquefaction is the current major option available for international export transport of natural gas. Gas production is on the increase and international trade even more so, with LNG making most progress. The further penetration of natural gas into distant markets can be substantially increased by a new methanol synthesis process under development. The new methanol process is made possible by the discovery of a catalyst that drops synthesis temperatures from about 275/sup 0/C to about 100/sup 0/C. Furthermore, the new catalyst is a liquid phase system, which permits the synthesis reaction to proceed at fully isothermal conditions. Therefore, the new low temperature liquid catalyst can convert synthesis gas completely to methanol in a single pass through the methanol synthesis reactor. This characteristic leads to a further major improvement in the methanol plant. Atmospheric nitrogen can be tolerated in the synthesis gas, and still the volume of gas fed to the reactor can be smaller than the volume of gas that must be fed to the reactor when accommodating the very low conversions furnished by the best of currently available catalysts. The energy disadvantage of the methanol option must be balanced against the advantage of a much lower capital investment requirement made possible by the new BNL synthesis. Preliminary estimates show that methanol conversion and shipping require an investment for liquefaction to methanol, and shipping liquefied methanol that can range from 35 to 50% of that needed for the LNG plant and LNG shipping fleet.

  10. Seasonal thermal energy storage program. Progress report, January 1980-December 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minor, J.E.

    1981-05-01

    The objectives of the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) Program is to demonstrate the economic storage and retrieval of energy on a seasonal basis, using heat or cold available from waste sources or other sources during a surplus period to reduce peak period demand, reduce electric utilities peaking problems, and contribute to the establishment of favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems for commercialization of the technology. Aquifers, ponds, earth, and lakes have potential for seasonal storage. The initial thrust of the STES Program is toward utilization of ground-water systems (aquifers) for thermal energy storage. Program plans for meeting these objectives, the development of demonstration programs, and progress in assessing the technical, economic, legal, and environmental impacts of thermal energy storage are described. (LCL)

  11. Performance of active solar space-heating systems, 1980-1981 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welch, K.; Kendall, P.; Pakkala, P.; Cramer, M.

    1981-01-01

    Data are provided on 32 solar heating sites in the National Solar Data Network (NSDN). Of these, comprehensive data are included for 14 sites which cover a range of system types and solar applications. A brief description of the remaining sites is included along with system problems experienced which prevented comprehensive seasonal analyses. Tables and discussions of individual site parameters such as collector areas, storage tank sizes, manufacturers, building dimensions, etc. are provided. Tables and summaries of 1980-1981 heating season data are also provided. Analysis results are presented in graphic form to highlight key summary information. Performance indices are graphed for two major groups of collectors - liquid and air. Comparative results of multiple NSDN systems' operation for the 1980-1981 heating season are summarized with discussions of specific cases and conclusions which may be drawn from the data. (LEW)

  12. Direct normal irradiance related definitions and applications: The circumsolar issue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanc, P.; Espinar, B.; Geuder, N.; Gueymard, C.; Meyer, R.; Pitz-Paal, R.; Reinhardt, B.; Renne, D.; Segupta, M.; Wald, L.; Wilbert, S.

    2014-10-21

    The direct irradiance received on a plane normal to the sun, called direct normal irradiance (DNI), is of particular relevance to concentrated solar technologies, including concentrating solar thermal plants and concentrated photovoltaic systems. Following various standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the DNI definition is related to the irradiance from a small solid angle of the sky, centered on the position of the sun. Half-angle apertures of pyrheliometers measuring DNI have varied over time, up to ≈10°. The current recommendation of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for this half-angle is 2.5°. Solar concentrating collectors have an angular acceptance function that can be significantly narrower, especially for technologies with high concentration ratios. The disagreement between the various interpretations of DNI, from the theoretical definition used in atmospheric physics and radiative transfer modeling to practical definitions corresponding to specific measurements or conversion technologies is significant, especially in the presence of cirrus clouds or large concentration of aerosols. Under such sky conditions, the circumsolar radiation—i.e. the diffuse radiation coming from the vicinity of the sun—contributes significantly to the DNI ground measurement, although some concentrating collectors cannot utilize the bulk of it. These issues have been identified in the EU-funded projects MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate-Interim Implementation) and SFERA (Solar Facilities for the European Research Area), and have been discussed within a panel of international experts in the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) program of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) Task 46 “Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting”. In accordance with these discussions, the terms of reference related to DNI are specified here. The important role of circumsolar radiation is evidenced, and its potential contribution is evaluated for typical atmospheric conditions. Thus, thorough analysis of performance of concentrating solar systems, it is recommended that, in addition to the conventional DNI related to 2.5° half-angle of today’s pyrheliometers, solar resource data sets also report the sunshape, the circumsolar contribution or the circumsolar ratio (CSR).

  13. Direct normal irradiance related definitions and applications: The circumsolar issue

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Blanc, P.; Espinar, B.; Geuder, N.; Gueymard, C.; Meyer, R.; Pitz-Paal, R.; Reinhardt, B.; Renne, D.; Segupta, M.; Wald, L.; et al

    2014-10-21

    The direct irradiance received on a plane normal to the sun, called direct normal irradiance (DNI), is of particular relevance to concentrated solar technologies, including concentrating solar thermal plants and concentrated photovoltaic systems. Following various standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the DNI definition is related to the irradiance from a small solid angle of the sky, centered on the position of the sun. Half-angle apertures of pyrheliometers measuring DNI have varied over time, up to ≈10°. The current recommendation of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for this half-angle is 2.5°. Solar concentrating collectors have an angular acceptancemore » function that can be significantly narrower, especially for technologies with high concentration ratios. The disagreement between the various interpretations of DNI, from the theoretical definition used in atmospheric physics and radiative transfer modeling to practical definitions corresponding to specific measurements or conversion technologies is significant, especially in the presence of cirrus clouds or large concentration of aerosols. Under such sky conditions, the circumsolar radiation—i.e. the diffuse radiation coming from the vicinity of the sun—contributes significantly to the DNI ground measurement, although some concentrating collectors cannot utilize the bulk of it. These issues have been identified in the EU-funded projects MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate-Interim Implementation) and SFERA (Solar Facilities for the European Research Area), and have been discussed within a panel of international experts in the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) program of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) Task 46 “Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting”. In accordance with these discussions, the terms of reference related to DNI are specified here. The important role of circumsolar radiation is evidenced, and its potential contribution is evaluated for typical atmospheric conditions. Thus, thorough analysis of performance of concentrating solar systems, it is recommended that, in addition to the conventional DNI related to 2.5° half-angle of today’s pyrheliometers, solar resource data sets also report the sunshape, the circumsolar contribution or the circumsolar ratio (CSR).« less

  14. Intercomparison of the seasonal cycle in 200 hPa kinetic energy in AMIP GCM simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, J.S.

    1996-10-01

    The 200 hPa kinetic energy is represented by means of the spherical harmonic components for the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) simulations, the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis and the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast Reanalysis (ERA). The data used are the monthly mean wind fields from 1979 to 1988. The kinetic energy is decomposed into the divergent (DKE) and rotational (RKE) components and emphasis is placed on examining the former. The two reanalysis data sets show reasonable agreement that is best for the rotational kinetic energy. The largest difference in the divergent kinetic energy occurs during the northern summer. As might be expected, the two analyses are closet in regions where there are sufficient observations such that the effect of the model used in the assimilation cycle are minimized. The observed RKE show only a slight seasonal cycle with a maximum occuring during the northern winter. The DKE, on the other hand, has a very pronounced seasonal cycle with maxima at the solsticial seasons and minima during the equinoctial seasons. The model results show a very large spread in the magnitudes of the RKE and DKE although the models all evince a seasonal variation in phase with that observed. The median values of the seasonal cycle of RKE and DKE for the models are usually superior to those of any individual model. Results are also presented for simulation following the AMIP protocol but using updated versions of the original AMIP entries. In most cases these new integrations show better agreement with the observations.

  15. Buying an Appliance this Holiday Season? ENERGY STAR Products will Save You

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Money and Energy All Year! | Department of Energy an Appliance this Holiday Season? ENERGY STAR Products will Save You Money and Energy All Year! Buying an Appliance this Holiday Season? ENERGY STAR Products will Save You Money and Energy All Year! December 12, 2012 - 11:40am Addthis When shopping for appliances or electronics for the holidays, look for the ENERGY STAR® and EnergyGuide labels. | Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL 22090. When shopping for appliances or electronics for the

  16. 'Tis the Season for Giving the Gift of Energy Savings | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy 'Tis the Season for Giving the Gift of Energy Savings 'Tis the Season for Giving the Gift of Energy Savings November 27, 2013 - 10:00am Addthis Giving energy-efficient gifts is an easy way to save money and energy year-round. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/nano Giving energy-efficient gifts is an easy way to save money and energy year-round. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/nano Christina Stowers Communications Specialist in the Weatherization and Intergovernmental

  17. Influence of drought on growing season carbon and water cycling with

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    changing land cover (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Influence of drought on growing season carbon and water cycling with changing land cover Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on July 28, 2017 Title: Influence of drought on growing season carbon and water cycling with changing land cover Authors: Logan, K. E. ; Brunsell, N. A. Publication Date: 2015-11-01 OSTI Identifier: 1249824 Grant/Contract Number: AC02-05CH11231 Type: Publisher's Accepted

  18. EnergySavers.gov: A New Season, a New URL for the Consumer's Guide |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy EnergySavers.gov: A New Season, a New URL for the Consumer's Guide EnergySavers.gov: A New Season, a New URL for the Consumer's Guide April 3, 2009 - 5:47pm Addthis Allison Casey Senior Communicator, NREL If you're a regular visitor to EERE's Consumer's Guide to Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, you may have noticed some changes this week. The site has moved to EnergySavers.gov and is now called "Energy Savers." The same in-depth information is still

  19. Cut Gas Costs This Holiday Traveling Season with Three Easy Tips |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Cut Gas Costs This Holiday Traveling Season with Three Easy Tips Cut Gas Costs This Holiday Traveling Season with Three Easy Tips November 26, 2013 - 9:23am Addthis Turning off your engine while waiting in the parking lot is a great way to save money on gas. | Photo courtesy of Kristy Keel-Blackmon, NREL/21196. Turning off your engine while waiting in the parking lot is a great way to save money on gas. | Photo courtesy of Kristy Keel-Blackmon, NREL/21196. Jason

  20. Battery system with temperature sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  1. First-principles binary diffusion coefficients for H, H2 and four normal alkanes + N2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jasper, Ahren W.; Kamarchik, Eugene; Miller, James A.; Klippenstein, Stephen J.

    2014-09-30

    Collision integrals related to binary (dilute gas) diffusion are calculated classically for six species colliding with N2. The most detailed calculations make no assumptions regarding the complexity of the potential energy surface, and the resulting classical collision integrals are in excellent agreement with previous semiclassical results for H + N2 and H2 + N2 and with recent experimental results for C n H2n+2 + N2, n = 2–4. The detailed classical results are used to test the accuracy of three simplifying assumptions typically made when calculating collision integrals: (1) approximating the intermolecular potential as isotropic, (2) neglecting the internal structuremore » of the colliders (i.e., neglecting inelasticity), and (3) employing unphysical R–12 repulsive interactions. The effect of anisotropy is found to be negligible for H + N2 and H2 + N2 (in agreement with previous quantum mechanical and semiclassical results for systems involving atomic and diatomic species) but is more significant for larger species at low temperatures. For example, the neglect of anisotropy decreases the diffusion coefficient for butane + N2 by 15% at 300 K. The neglect of inelasticity, in contrast, introduces only very small errors. Approximating the repulsive wall as an unphysical R–12 interaction is a significant source of error at all temperatures for the weakly interacting systems H + N2 and H2 + N2, with errors as large as 40%. For the normal alkanes in N2, which feature stronger interactions, the 12/6 Lennard–Jones approximation is found to be accurate, particularly at temperatures above –700 K where it predicts the full-dimensional result to within 5% (although with somewhat different temperature dependence). Overall, the typical practical approach of assuming isotropic 12/6 Lennard–Jones interactions is confirmed to be suitable for combustion applications except for weakly interacting systems, such as H + N2. For these systems, anisotropy and inelasticity can safely be neglected but a more detailed description of the repulsive wall is required for quantitative predictions. Moreover, a straightforward approach for calculating effective isotropic potentials with realistic repulsive walls is described. An analytic expression for the calculated diffusion coefficient for H + N2 is presented and is estimated to have a 2-sigma error bar of only 0.7%.« less

  2. High temperature interfacial superconductivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bozovic, Ivan; Logvenov, Gennady; Gozar, Adrian Mihai

    2012-06-19

    High-temperature superconductivity confined to nanometer-scale interfaces has been a long standing goal because of potential applications in electronic devices. The spontaneous formation of a superconducting interface in bilayers consisting of an insulator (La.sub.2CuO.sub.4) and a metal (La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xCuO.sub.4), neither of which is superconducting per se, is described. Depending upon the layering sequence of the bilayers, T.sub.c may be either .about.15 K or .about.30 K. This highly robust phenomenon is confined to within 2-3 nm around the interface. After exposing the bilayer to ozone, T.sub.c exceeds 50 K and this enhanced superconductivity is also shown to originate from a 1 to 2 unit cell thick interfacial layer. The results demonstrate that engineering artificial heterostructures provides a novel, unconventional way to fabricate stable, quasi two-dimensional high T.sub.c phases and to significantly enhance superconducting properties in other superconductors. The superconducting interface may be implemented, for example, in SIS tunnel junctions or a SuFET.

  3. Statistics of particle time-temperature histories.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewson, John C.; Lignell, David O.; Sun, Guangyuan

    2014-10-01

    Particles in non - isothermal turbulent flow are subject to a stochastic environment tha t produces a distribution of particle time - temperature histories. This distribution is a function of the dispersion of the non - isothermal (continuous) gas phase and the distribution of particles relative to that gas phase. In this work we extend the one - dimensional turbulence (ODT) model to predict the joint dispersion of a dispersed particle phase and a continuous phase. The ODT model predicts the turbulent evolution of continuous scalar fields with a model for the cascade of fluctuations to smaller sc ales (the 'triplet map') at a rate that is a function of the fully resolved one - dimens ional velocity field . Stochastic triplet maps also drive Lagrangian particle dispersion with finite Stokes number s including inertial and eddy trajectory - crossing effect s included. Two distinct approaches to this coupling between triplet maps and particle dispersion are developed and implemented along with a hybrid approach. An 'instantaneous' particle displacement model matches the tracer particle limit and provide s an accurate description of particle dispersion. A 'continuous' particle displacement m odel translates triplet maps into a continuous velocity field to which particles respond. Particles can alter the turbulence, and modifications to the stochastic rate expr ession are developed for two - way coupling between particles and the continuous phase. Each aspect of model development is evaluated in canonical flows (homogeneous turbulence, free - shear flows and wall - bounded flows) for which quality measurements are ava ilable. ODT simulations of non - isothermal flows provide statistics for particle heating. These simulations show the significance of accurately predicting the joint statistics of particle and fluid dispersion . Inhomogeneous turbulence coupled with the in fluence of the mean flow fields on particles of varying properties alter s particle dispersion. The joint particle - temperature dispersion leads to a distribution of temperature histories predicted by the ODT . Predictions are shown for the lower moments an d the full distributions of the particle positions, particle - observed gas temperatures and particle temperatures. An analysis of the time scales affecting particle - temperature interactions covers Lagrangian integral time scales based on temperature autoco rrelations, rates of temperature change associated with particle motion relative to the temperature field and rates of diffusional change of temperatures. These latter two time scales have not been investigated previously; they are shown to be strongly in termittent having peaked distributions with long tails. The logarithm of the absolute value of these time scales exhibits a distribution closer to normal. A cknowledgements This work is supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) under their Counter - Weapons of Mass Destruction Basic Research Program in the area of Chemical and Biological Agent Defeat under award number HDTRA1 - 11 - 4503I to Sandia National Laboratories. The authors would like to express their appreciation for the guidance provi ded by Dr. Suhithi Peiris to this project and to the Science to Defeat Weapons of Mass Destruction program.

  4. Hot Pot Contoured Temperature Gradient Map

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    Temperature gradient contours derived from Oski temperature gradient hole program and from earlier published information.

  5. Hot Pot Contoured Temperature Gradient Map

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Temperature gradient contours derived from Oski temperature gradient hole program and from earlier published information.

  6. Modeling pore corrosion in normally open gold- plated copper connectors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Moffat, Harry K.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Enos, David George; Serna, Lysle M.; Sorensen, Neil Robert

    2008-09-01

    The goal of this study is to model the electrical response of gold plated copper electrical contacts exposed to a mixed flowing gas stream consisting of air containing 10 ppb H{sub 2}S at 30 C and a relative humidity of 70%. This environment accelerates the attack normally observed in a light industrial environment (essentially a simplified version of the Battelle Class 2 environment). Corrosion rates were quantified by measuring the corrosion site density, size distribution, and the macroscopic electrical resistance of the aged surface as a function of exposure time. A pore corrosion numerical model was used to predict both the growth of copper sulfide corrosion product which blooms through defects in the gold layer and the resulting electrical contact resistance of the aged surface. Assumptions about the distribution of defects in the noble metal plating and the mechanism for how corrosion blooms affect electrical contact resistance were needed to complete the numerical model. Comparisons are made to the experimentally observed number density of corrosion sites, the size distribution of corrosion product blooms, and the cumulative probability distribution of the electrical contact resistance. Experimentally, the bloom site density increases as a function of time, whereas the bloom size distribution remains relatively independent of time. These two effects are included in the numerical model by adding a corrosion initiation probability proportional to the surface area along with a probability for bloom-growth extinction proportional to the corrosion product bloom volume. The cumulative probability distribution of electrical resistance becomes skewed as exposure time increases. While the electrical contact resistance increases as a function of time for a fraction of the bloom population, the median value remains relatively unchanged. In order to model this behavior, the resistance calculated for large blooms has been weighted more heavily.

  7. Persistent Fe moments in the normal state of the pressure-induced...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the normal state of the pressure-induced superconductor Ca0.67Sr0.33Fe2As2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Persistent Fe moments in the normal state of the ...

  8. The accuracy of climate models' simulated season lengths and the effectiveness of grid scale correction factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winterhalter, Wade E.

    2011-09-01

    Global climate change is expected to impact biological populations through a variety of mechanisms including increases in the length of their growing season. Climate models are useful tools for predicting how season length might change in the future. However, the accuracy of these models tends to be rather low at regional geographic scales. Here, I determined the ability of several atmosphere and ocean general circulating models (AOGCMs) to accurately simulate historical season lengths for a temperate ectotherm across the continental United States. I also evaluated the effectiveness of regional-scale correction factors to improve the accuracy of these models. I found that both the accuracy of simulated season lengths and the effectiveness of the correction factors to improve the model's accuracy varied geographically and across models. These results suggest that regional specific correction factors do not always adequately remove potential discrepancies between simulated and historically observed environmental parameters. As such, an explicit evaluation of the correction factors' effectiveness should be included in future studies of global climate change's impact on biological populations.

  9. The accuracy of climate models' simulated season lengths and the effectiveness of grid scale correction factors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Winterhalter, Wade E.

    2011-09-01

    Global climate change is expected to impact biological populations through a variety of mechanisms including increases in the length of their growing season. Climate models are useful tools for predicting how season length might change in the future. However, the accuracy of these models tends to be rather low at regional geographic scales. Here, I determined the ability of several atmosphere and ocean general circulating models (AOGCMs) to accurately simulate historical season lengths for a temperate ectotherm across the continental United States. I also evaluated the effectiveness of regional-scale correction factors to improve the accuracy of these models. I foundmore » that both the accuracy of simulated season lengths and the effectiveness of the correction factors to improve the model's accuracy varied geographically and across models. These results suggest that regional specific correction factors do not always adequately remove potential discrepancies between simulated and historically observed environmental parameters. As such, an explicit evaluation of the correction factors' effectiveness should be included in future studies of global climate change's impact on biological populations.« less

  10. Status of Natural Gas Pipeline System Capacity Entering the 2000-2001 Heating Season

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    This special report looks at the capabilities of the national natural gas pipeline network in 2000 and provides an assessment of the current levels of available capacity to transport supplies from production areas to markets throughout the United States during the upcoming heating season. It also examines how completion of currently planned expansion projects and proposed new pipelines would affect the network.

  11. Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I.

    2013-09-11

    The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 'Radiation Thermometry'. The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

  12. Spin and charge pseudogaps following Kondo effect in the normal state of the underdoped cuprates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mojumder, M.A.

    1999-10-30

    A study of experimental results on various parameters of underdoped cuprates in the normal state combined with analytic calculation of Hall parameters assuming a two-channel Kondo model for the system leads to the conclusion that the spin and charge pseudogaps are, respectively, a Kondo hybridization gap and an incipient d-wave superconducting gap. The former occurs due to resonant scattering of doped holes by the magnetic Cu{sup 2+} ions while the latter occurs due to incoherent Cooper pairing of Kondo-compensated quasi-itinerant Cu d-orbitals via exchange of spin excitations. The author comments on the essential similarity of the high-T{sub c} and heavy fermion superconductors and a certain crossover at lower temperatures from the two-channel to the one-channel Kondo model. An expression has been derived for the Kondo contribution to the spectral function of the charge pseudogap. The author believes this work unravels the long-standing conundrum of the high-T{sub c} cuprates.

  13. Method of and apparatus for determining deposition-point temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansure, Arthur J.; Spates, James J.; Martin, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    Acoustic-wave sensor apparatus and method for analyzing a normally liquid petroleum-based composition for monitoring deposition-point temperature. The apparatus includes at least one acoustic-wave device such as SAW, QCM, FPM, TSM or APM type devices in contact with the petroleum-based composition for sensing or detecting the surface temperature at which deposition occurs and/or rate of deposition as a function of temperature by sensing an accompanying change in frequency, phase shift, damping voltage or damping current of an electrical oscillator to a known calibrated condition. The acoustic wave device is actively cooled to monitor the deposition of constituents such as paraffins by determining the point at which solids from the liquid composition begin to form on the acoustic wave device. The acoustic wave device can be heated to melt or boil off the deposits to reset the monitor and the process can be repeated.

  14. Method of and apparatus for determining deposition-point temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansure, A.J.; Spates, J.J.; Martin, S.J.

    1998-10-27

    Acoustic-wave sensor apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing a normally liquid petroleum-based composition for monitoring deposition-point temperature. The apparatus includes at least one acoustic-wave device such as SAW, QCM, FPM, TSM or APM type devices in contact with the petroleum-based composition for sensing or detecting the surface temperature at which deposition occurs and/or rate of deposition as a function of temperature by sensing an accompanying change in frequency, phase shift, damping voltage or damping current of an electrical oscillator to a known calibrated condition. The acoustic wave device is actively cooled to monitor the deposition of constituents such as paraffins by determining the point at which solids from the liquid composition begin to form on the acoustic wave device. The acoustic wave device can be heated to melt or boil off the deposits to reset the monitor and the process can be repeated. 5 figs.

  15. Hole Burning Imaging Studies of Cancerous and Analogous Normal Ovarian Tissues Utilizing Organelle Specific Dyes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satoshi Matsuzaki

    2004-12-19

    Presented in this dissertation is the successful demonstration that nonphotochemical hole burning (NPWB) imaging can be used to study in vitro tissue cellular systems for discerning differences in cellular ultrastructures due to cancer development. This has been accomplished with the surgically removed cancerous ovarian and analogous normal peritoneal tissues from the same patient and the application of a fluorescent mitochondrion specific dye, Molecular Probe MitoFluor Far Red 680 (MF680), commonly known as rhodamine 800, that has been proven to exhibit efficient NPHB. From the results presented in Chapters 4 and 5 , and Appendix B, the following conclusions were made: (1) fluorescence excitation spectra of MF680 and confocal microscopy images of thin sliced tissues incubated with MF680 confirm the site-specificity of the probe molecules in the cellular systems. (2) Tunneling parameters, {lambda}{sub 0} and {sigma}{sub {lambda}}, as well as the standard hole burning parameters (namely, {gamma} and S), have been determined for the tissue samples by hole growth kinetics (HGK) analyses. Unlike the preliminary cultured cell studies, these parameters have not shown the ability to distinguish tissue cellular matrices surrounding the chromophores. (3) Effects of an external electric (Stark) field on the nonphotochemical holes have been used to determine the changes in permanent dipole moment (f{Delta}{mu}) for MF680 in tissue samples when burn laser polarization is parallel to the Stark field. Differences are detected between f{Delta}{mu}s in the two tissue samples, with the cancerous tissue exhibiting a more pronounced change (1.35-fold increase) in permanent dipole moment change relative to the normal analogs. It is speculated that the difference may be related to differences in mitochondrial membrane potentials in these tissue samples. (4) In the HGK mode, hole burning imaging (HBI) of cells adhered to coverslips and cooled to liquid helium temperatures in the complete absence of cryopreservatives, shows the ability to distinguish between carcinoma and analogous normal cells on the single-cell level. In future applications, this system has the potential to be used with smears of tissue samples for single-layer HBI analysis. These conclusions demonstrate that HBI has the potential of providing detailed information about localized intracellular environments and for detecting changes in the physical characteristics (e.g., electrical properties) of cells which constitute the in vitro tissue samples. For the latter, the long-term goal will be to develop NPHB into a diagnostic technique for the early detection of cancer by exploiting the physical differences between normal and cancerous cells and tissues. Moreover, because of the aforementioned HBI's capability to detect cellular anomalies, it has the potential of being used in conjunction with studies involving photodynamic therapy, assuming the chromophore is carefully selected.

  16. Sensors for low temperature application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henderson, Timothy M.; Wuttke, Gilbert H.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus for low temperature sensing which uses gas filled micro-size hollow glass spheres that are exposed in a confined observation area to a low temperature range (Kelvin) and observed microscopically to determine change of state, i.e., change from gaseous state of the contained gas to condensed state. By suitable indicia and classification of the spheres in the observation area, the temperature can be determined very accurately.

  17. Actinide Thermodynamics at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friese, Judah I.; Rao, Linfeng; Xia, Yuanxian; Bachelor, Paula P.; Tian, Guoxin

    2007-11-16

    The postclosure chemical environment in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is expected to experience elevated temperatures. Predicting migration of actinides is possible if sufficient, reliable thermodynamic data on hydrolysis and complexation are available for these temperatures. Data are scarce and scattered for 25 degrees C, and nonexistent for elevated temperatures. This collaborative project between LBNL and PNNL collects thermodynamic data at elevated temperatures on actinide complexes with inorganic ligands that may be present in Yucca Mountain. The ligands include hydroxide, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate and carbonate. Thermodynamic parameters of complexation, including stability constants, enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity of complexation, are measured with a variety of techniques including solvent extraction, potentiometry, spectrophotometry and calorimetry

  18. ARM - Measurement - Soil surface temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Systems SOIL : Soil Measurement from the SGP SWATS : Soil Water and Temperature System MET : Surface Meteorological Instrumentation External Instruments ETA : Eta Model Runs...

  19. Low temperature material bonding technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Foote, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-02-12

    A method of performing a lower temperature bonding technique to bond together two mating pieces of glass includes applying a sodium silicate aqueous solution between the two pieces.

  20. Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EnergyWater History Water Monitoring & Treatment Technology Decision Models for ... Twitter Google + Vimeo GovDelivery SlideShare Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion Home...

  1. Low Temperature Material Bonding Technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Foote, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-10-10

    A method of performing a lower temperature bonding technique to bond together two mating pieces of glass includes applying a sodium silicate aqueous solution between the two pieces.

  2. Establishment of warm-season native grasses and forbs on drastically disturbed lands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, S.

    1998-12-31

    Establishment of warm-season native grasses and forbs (WSNGs) has been viewed by landowners, agronomists, natural resource managers and reclamation specialists as being too expensive and difficult, especially for reclamation, which requires early stand closure and erosion control. Natural resource managers have learned a great deal about establishing WSNGs since the implementation of the 1985 Farm Bill`s Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Reclamation specialists must begin to use this information to improve reclamation success. Quality control of seed equipment and planting methods has been proven to be the crucial first step in successful establishment. Seedling germination, growth and development of WSNGs are different from that of introduced cool-season grasses and legumes. Specialized seed drills and spring planting periods are essential. Because shoot growth lags far behind root growth the first two seasons, WSNGs often are rejected for reclamation use. Usually, the rejection is based on preconceived notions that bare ground will erode and on reclamation specialists` desire for a closed, uniform, grassy lawn. WSNG`s extensive root systems inhibit rill and gully erosion by the fall of the first season. Planting a weakly competitive, short-lived nurse crop such as perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) at low rates with the WSNG mixture can reduce first-season sheet and rill erosion problems and give an appearance of a closed stand. Benefits of WSNGs in soil building and their acid-tolerance make them ideal species for reclamation of drastically disturbed lands. WSNGs and forbs enhance wildlife habitat and promote natural succession and the invasion of the reclamation site by other native species, particularly hardwood trees, increasing diversity and integrating the site into the local ecosystem. This is perhaps their most important attribute. Most alien grasses and legumes inhibit natural succession, slowing the development of a stable mine soil ecosystem. This paper outlines one successful methodology to establish warm-season grasses and forbs on abandoned mine lands in Missouri. The methodology can be successfully adapted for reclamation of all drastically disturbed lands including Title V lands under the Surface Mining Control Reclamation Act of 1977 (PL95-87) to promote ecosystem diversity and stability.

  3. A Seasonal Perspective on Regional Air Quality in CentralCalifornia - Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harley, Robert A.; Brown, Nancy J.; Tonse, Shaheen R.; Jin, Ling

    2006-12-01

    Central California spans a wide variety of urban, agricultural, and natural terrain, including the San Francisco Bay area, the Central Valley, and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Population within this region is growing rapidly, and there are persistent, serious air pollution problems including fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) and ozone. Summertime photochemical air pollution is the focus of the present study, which represents a first phase in the development and application of a modeling capability to assess formation and transport of ozone and its precursors within Central California over an entire summer season. This contrasts with past studies that have examined pollutant dynamics for a few selected high-ozone episodes each lasting 3-5 days. The Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) has been applied to predict air pollutant formation and transport in Central California for a 15-day period beginning on July 24, 2000. This period includes a 5-day intensive operating period (July 29 to August 2) from the Central California Ozone Study (CCOS). Day-specific meteorological conditions were modeled by research collaborators at NOAA using a mesoscale meteorological model (MM5). Pollutant emissions within the study domain were based on CARB emission inventory estimates, with additional efforts conducted as part of this research to capture relevant emissions variability including (1) temperature and sunlight-driven changes in biogenic VOC, (2) weekday/weekend and diurnal differences in light-duty (LD) and heavy-duty (HD) motor vehicle emissions, (3) effects of day-specific meteorological conditions on plume rise from point sources such as power plants. We also studied the effects of using cleaner pollutant inflow boundary conditions, lower than indicated during CCOS aircraft flights over the Pacific Ocean, but supported by other surface, ship-based, balloon and aircraft sampling studies along the west coast. Model predictions were compared with measured concentrations for O{sub 3}, NO{sub x}, NO{sub y}, and CO at about 100 ground observation stations within the CCOS domain. Comparisons were made both for time series and for statistically aggregated metrics, to assess model performance over the whole modeling domain and for the individual air basins within the domain. The model tends to over-predict ozone levels along the coast where observed levels are generally low. Inland performance in the San Joaquin Valley is generally better. Model-measurement agreement for night-time ozone is improved by evaluating the sum of predicted O{sub 3} + NO{sub 2} against observations; this removes from the comparison the effect of any ozone titration that may occur. A variety of diagnostic simulations were conducted to investigate the causes for differences between predictions and observations. These included (1) enhanced deposition of O{sub 3} to the ocean, (2) reduced vertical mixing over the ocean, (3) attenuation of sunlight by coastal stratus, (4) the influence of surface albedo on photochemistry, and (5) the effects of observation nudging on wind fields. Use of advanced model probing tools such as process analysis and sensitivity analysis is demonstrated by diagnosing model sensitivity to boundary conditions and to weekday-weekend emission changes.

  4. Ultra High Temperature | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ultra High Temperature Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Sanyal Temperature Classification: Ultra High Temperature Dictionary.png Ultra High...

  5. Low Temperature/Coproduced/Geopressured Subprogram Overview ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low TemperatureCoproducedGeopressured Subprogram Overview Low TemperatureCoproducedGeopressured Subprogram Overview This overview of GTP's Low TemperatureCoproduced...

  6. High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program High Temperature ... the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program ...

  7. Low Temperature Geothermal Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Geothermal Energy Low Temperature Geothermal Energy Presented at the Technology Planning Workshop for Low-Temperature, Coproduced, and Geopressured Geothermal ...

  8. Pion dynamics at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toublan, D.

    1997-11-01

    The pion decay constant and mass are computed at low temperature within chiral perturbation theory to two loops. The effects of the breaking of Lorentz symmetry by the thermal equilibrium state are discussed. The validity of the Gell-Mann{endash}Oakes{endash}Renner relation at finite temperature is examined. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    A high temperature turbine engine includes a hybrid ceramic/metallic rotor member having ceramic/metal joint structure. The disclosed joint is able to endure higher temperatures than previously possible, and aids in controlling heat transfer in the rotor member.

  10. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station. Interim report, 1992 cooling season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  11. Notes on power of normality tests of error terms in regression models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Střelec, Luboš

    2015-03-10

    Normality is one of the basic assumptions in applying statistical procedures. For example in linear regression most of the inferential procedures are based on the assumption of normality, i.e. the disturbance vector is assumed to be normally distributed. Failure to assess non-normality of the error terms may lead to incorrect results of usual statistical inference techniques such as t-test or F-test. Thus, error terms should be normally distributed in order to allow us to make exact inferences. As a consequence, normally distributed stochastic errors are necessary in order to make a not misleading inferences which explains a necessity and importance of robust tests of normality. Therefore, the aim of this contribution is to discuss normality testing of error terms in regression models. In this contribution, we introduce the general RT class of robust tests for normality, and present and discuss the trade-off between power and robustness of selected classical and robust normality tests of error terms in regression models.

  12. Hardening and Resiliency: U.S. Energy Industry Response to Recent Hurricane Seasons

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Hardening and Resiliency U.S. Energy Industry Response to Recent Hurricane Seasons Infrastructure Security and Energy Restoration Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability U.S. Department of Energy August 2010 OE/ISER Final Report 8/16/10 i For Further Information This report was prepared by the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability under the direction of Patricia Hoffman, Assistant Secretary, and William Bryan, Deputy Assistant Secretary. Specific questions about

  13. Understanding Seasonal Effects of WEC Operation using the SNL-SWAN Wave

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Model Application Seasonal Effects of WEC Operation using the SNL-SWAN Wave Model Application - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization

  14. Seasonal variation in sea turtle density and abundance in the southeast Florida current and surrounding waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bovery, Caitlin M.; Wyneken, Jeanette

    2015-12-30

    Assessment and management of sea turtle populations is often limited by a lack of available data pertaining to at-sea distributions at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. Assessing the spatial and temporal distributions of marine turtles in an open system poses both observational and analytical challenges due to the turtles’ highly migratory nature. Surface counts of marine turtles in waters along the southern part of Florida’s east coast were made in and adjacent to the southeast portion of the Florida Current using standard aerial surveys during 2011 and 2012 to assess their seasonal presence. This area is of particular concern for sea turtles as interest increases in offshore energy developments, specifically harnessing the power of the Florida Current. While it is understood that marine turtles use these waters, here we evaluate seasonal variation in sea turtle abundance and density over two years. Density of sea turtles observed within the study area ranged from 0.003 turtles km-2 in the winter of 2011 to 0.064 turtles km-2 in the spring of 2012. As a result, this assessment of marine turtles in the waters off southeast Florida quantifies their in-water abundance across seasons in this area to establish baselines and inform future management strategies of these protected species.

  15. Seasonal characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the city of Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2009-07-15

    Management of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a significant environmental problem, especially in fast-growing cities. The amount of waste generated increases each year and this makes it difficult to create solutions which due to the increase in waste generation year after year and having to identify a solution that will have minimum impact on the environment. To determine the most sustainable waste management strategy for Chihuahua, it is first necessary to identify the nature and composition of the city's urban waste. The MSW composition varied considerably depending on many factors, the time of year is one of them. Therefore, as part of our attempt to implement an integral waste management system in the city of Chihuahua, we conducted a study of the characteristics of MSW composition for the different seasons. This paper analyzes and compares the findings of the study of the characterization and the generation of solid waste from households at three different socio-economic levels in the city over three periods (April and August, 2006 and January, 2007). The average weight of waste generated in Chihuahua, taking into account all three seasons, was 0.592 kg capita{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Our results show that the lowest income groups generated the least amount of waste. We also found that less waste was generated during the winter season. The breakdown for the composition of the waste shows that organic waste accounts for the largest proportion (45%), followed by paper (17%) and others (16%)

  16. Seasonal variation in sea turtle density and abundance in the southeast Florida current and surrounding waters

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bovery, Caitlin M.; Wyneken, Jeanette

    2015-12-30

    Assessment and management of sea turtle populations is often limited by a lack of available data pertaining to at-sea distributions at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. Assessing the spatial and temporal distributions of marine turtles in an open system poses both observational and analytical challenges due to the turtles’ highly migratory nature. Surface counts of marine turtles in waters along the southern part of Florida’s east coast were made in and adjacent to the southeast portion of the Florida Current using standard aerial surveys during 2011 and 2012 to assess their seasonal presence. This area is of particular concern formore » sea turtles as interest increases in offshore energy developments, specifically harnessing the power of the Florida Current. While it is understood that marine turtles use these waters, here we evaluate seasonal variation in sea turtle abundance and density over two years. Density of sea turtles observed within the study area ranged from 0.003 turtles km-2 in the winter of 2011 to 0.064 turtles km-2 in the spring of 2012. As a result, this assessment of marine turtles in the waters off southeast Florida quantifies their in-water abundance across seasons in this area to establish baselines and inform future management strategies of these protected species.« less

  17. Hot wire thermal conductivity measurements in high temperature refractories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dils, R.R.; Allen, J.D.; Richmond, J.C.; McNeil, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    In the hot wire thermal conductivity test, a wire embedded in the material to be tested is heated with constant power input, and the temperature is measured at short time intervals. The thermal conductivity is computed from the known power input to the wire and the measured rate of increase in the wire temperature after about 700 s of heating. A finite-difference computer simulation of the hot wire test was developed to evaluate the effects of several variables in the properties of the materials tested and in the test procedures on the measured thermal conductivity. Equations relating the radiant heat transfer in a material to its optical properties were developed and a radiant heat transfer component was developed for the finite-difference simulation. Equations were derived to compute the spectral optical properties of a test material from the measured spectral normal-hemispherical transmittance of a sample of the material of known thickness that is thin enough to have a measurable transmittance over the wavelength range of about 500 to 20,000 nm, and the spectral near-normal hemispherical reflectance of a sample of the material thick enough to be completely opaque, over the same wavelength range. The optical extinction coefficient, and the ratio of the scattering coefficient, to the absorption coefficient, of MinK 2000 and K3000 brick were evaluated from their measured spectral transmittances and reflectances, and used to compute the radiant heat transfer component in these materials. The hot wire test measures an average thermal conductivity for all directions away from the wire in a plane normal to the wire. Extensive tests were made of MinK 2000 and K3000, and the measured values are compared to the guarded hot plate thermal conductivity, which is unidirectional normal to the face of a brick. 67 references, 31 figures, 23 tables.

  18. Research Initiative Will Demonstrate Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research Initiative Will Demonstrate Low Temperature Geothermal Electrical Power Generation Systems Using Oilfield Fluids Research Initiative Will Demonstrate Low Temperature ...

  19. Aqua Farms International Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Farms International Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Aqua Farms International Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  20. Flint Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Flint Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Flint...

  1. Sunnybrook Farms Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sunnybrook Farms Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Sunnybrook Farms Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  2. Bigfork Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bigfork Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Bigfork Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  3. Crook's Greenhouse Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Crook's Greenhouse Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Crook's Greenhouse Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  4. Duckwater Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Duckwater Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Duckwater Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Duckwater Sector...

  5. Castlevalley Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Castlevalley Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Castlevalley Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  6. Jackson Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Jackson Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Jackson...

  7. Fish Producers Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Fish Producers Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Fish Producers...

  8. Method for measuring surface temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Gary A.; Baker, Sheila N.; McCleskey, T. Mark

    2009-07-28

    The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  9. The Effect of Elevated Temperature on Concrete Materials and Structures - a Literature Review.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naus, Dan J

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this limited study was to provide an overview of the effects of elevated temperature on the behavior of concrete materials and structures. In meeting this objective the effects of elevated temperatures on the properties of ordinary Portland cement concrete constituent materials and concretes are summarized. The effects of elevated temperature on high-strength concrete materials are noted and their performance compared to normal strength concretes. A review of concrete materials for elevated-temperature service is presented. Nuclear power plant and general civil engineering design codes are described. Design considerations and analytical techniques for evaluating the response of reinforced concrete structures to elevated-temperature conditions are presented. Pertinent studies in which reinforced concrete structural elements were subjected to elevated temperatures are described.

  10. Ar-40/Ar-39 Age Constraints for the Jaramillo Normal Subchron...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    oxygen isotope, climate record calibration of the astronomical timescale proposed by Johnson (1982) and Shackleton et al. (1990). Ar-40Ar-39 ages of a normally magnetized...

  11. Pentose fermentation of normally toxic lignocellulose prehydrolysate with strain of Pichia stipitis yeast using air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, Jr., Fred A.; Nguyen, Quang A.

    2002-01-01

    Strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis NPw9 (ATCC PTA-3717) useful for the production of ethanol using oxygen for growth while fermenting normally toxic lignocellulosic prehydrolysates.

  12. Guidance on Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization in an ESPC

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Document explains how to use estimated energy rates and normalized weather data in determining an energy service company's (ESCO's) payments under a Federal energy savings performance contract (ESPC).

  13. High temperature structural insulating material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, W.Y.

    1984-07-27

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800/sup 0/C), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m/sup 0/C), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800/sup 0/C, a diameter within the range of 20-200 ..mu..m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2 to 4 ..mu..m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  14. High temperature structural insulating material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Wayne Y.

    1987-01-01

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800.degree. C.), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m.degree. C.), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800.degree. C., a diameter within the range of 20-200 .mu.m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2-4 .mu.m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  15. Moderate Temperature | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    temperature level. Thus, reservoirs in the 190 to 230C range should have liquid water as the mobile fluid phase, and as such, this class is reasonably well constrained....

  16. Investigating the Effects of Temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Investigating the Effects of Temperature on Power Output Objective: Students will use concepts learned in class to explore the many variables that effect the efficiency of solar panels in regards to power output. Materials: * PV Array or Solar Panel * 2 Multimeter * Frozen Ice Packs * Low Power DC Bulb * Halogen Lamp (500 Watts) * 4 or 5 Alligator clip wires * Timer Investigative Question: How does the power output change as the temperature of the PV system changes. Procedure: 1) Attach the

  17. High temperature current mirror amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patterson, III, Raymond B.

    1984-05-22

    A high temperature current mirror amplifier having biasing means in the transdiode connection of the input transistor for producing a voltage to maintain the base-collector junction reversed-biased and a current means for maintaining a current through the biasing means at high temperatures so that the base-collector junction of the input transistor remained reversed-biased. For accuracy, a second current mirror is provided with a biasing means and current means on the input leg.

  18. Black hole temperature: Minimal coupling vs conformal coupling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fazel, Mohamadreza; Mirza, Behrouz; Mansoori, Seyed Ali Hosseini

    2014-05-15

    In this article, we discuss the propagation of scalar fields in conformally transformed spacetimes with either minimal or conformal coupling. The conformally coupled equation of motion is transformed into a one-dimensional Schrdinger-like equation with an invariant potential under conformal transformation. In a second stage, we argue that calculations based on conformal coupling yield the same Hawking temperature as those based on minimal coupling. Finally, it is conjectured that the quasi normal modes of black holes are invariant under conformal transformation.

  19. Method of low temperature operation of an electrochemical cell array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, P.; Ruka, R.J.; Bratton, R.J.

    1994-04-26

    A method is described for operating an electrochemical cell generator apparatus containing a generator chamber containing an array of cells having interior and exterior electrodes with solid electrolyte between the electrodes, where a hot gas contacts the outside of the cells and the generating chamber normally operates at over 850 C, where N[sub 2] gas is fed to contact the interior electrode of the cells in any case when the generating chamber temperature drops for whatever reason to within the range of from 550 C to 800 C, to eliminate cracking within the cells. 2 figures.

  20. Method of low temperature operation of an electrochemical cell array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Prabhakar; Ruka, Roswell J.; Bratton, Raymond J.

    1994-01-01

    In the method of operating an electrochemical cell generator apparatus containing a generator chamber (20) containing an array of cells (12) having interior and exterior electrodes with solid electrolyte between the electrodes, where a hot gas (F) contacts the outside of the cells (12) and the generating chamber normally operates at over 850.degree. C., where N.sub.2 gas is fed to contact the interior electrode of the cells (12) in any case when the generating chamber (20) temperature drops for whatever reason to within the range of from 550.degree. C. to 800.degree. C., to eliminate cracking within the cells (12).

  1. Temperature sensors for OTEC applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seren, L.; Panchal, C.B.; Rote, D.M.

    1984-05-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) applications require accurate measurement of temperatures in the 0 to 30/sup 0/C range. This report documents an experimental examination of commercially available quartz-crystal thermometers and thermistors. Three fixed-point baths were used for temperature measurements: the distilled-water/distilled-ice-water slurry, the triple-point-of-water cell, and the gallium melting-point cell. The temperature of carefully prepared ice-water slurries was verified routinely as 0.001 +- 0.003/sup 0/C. Quartz-crystal probes proved accurate to about 1 to 2 mK, with drift errors of the same order over a few days. Bead- and disk-type thermistor probes were found to be about equally stable with time in the 0 to 30/sup 0/C range. The overall probable error of using thermistors was found to be +-4 mK. A solid-block temperature bath suitable for on-site calibrations in OTEC work was used in the temperature-sweeping mode. Various polynomial fits were examined for the purpose of thermistor calibration; fits of order two and higher yielded about equally accurate calculated temperatures.

  2. High temperature thermometric phosphors for use in a temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Boatner, L.A.; Gillies, G.T.

    1998-03-24

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO{sub 4}:Dy{sub (x)},Eu{sub (y)}, wherein: 0.1 wt %{<=}x{<=}20 wt % and 0.1 wt %{<=}y{<=}20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopant. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions. 2 figs.

  3. High temperature thermometric phosphors for use in a temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, Stephen W.; Cates, Michael R.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Gillies, George T.

    1998-01-01

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.(y), wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  4. Apparatus and method for high temperature viscosity and temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Shah, Vimal; Costley, R. Daniel; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2001-01-01

    A probe for measuring the viscosity and/or temperature of high temperature liquids, such as molten metals, glass and similar materials comprises a rod which is an acoustical waveguide through which a transducer emits an ultrasonic signal through one end of the probe, and which is reflected from (a) a notch or slit or an interface between two materials of the probe and (b) from the other end of the probe which is in contact with the hot liquid or hot melt, and is detected by the same transducer at the signal emission end. To avoid the harmful effects of introducing a thermally conductive heat sink into the melt, the probe is made of relatively thermally insulative (non-heat-conductive) refractory material. The time between signal emission and reflection, and the amplitude of reflections, are compared against calibration curves to obtain temperature and viscosity values.

  5. Hydrogen permeation behavior through F82H at high temperature (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Hydrogen permeation behavior through F82H at high temperature Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogen permeation behavior through F82H at high temperature F82H is a primary candidate of structural material and coolant pipe material in a blanket of a fusion reactor. Understanding tritium permeation behavior through F82H is important. In a normal operation of a fusion reactor, the temperature of F82H will be controlled below 550 C. degrees because it is

  6. Low to moderate temperature nanolaminate heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eckels, J. Del; Nunes, Peter J.; Simpson, Randall L.; Hau-Riege, Stefan; Walton, Chris; Carter, J. Chance; Reynolds, John G.

    2011-01-11

    A low to moderate temperature heat source comprising a high temperature energy source modified to output low to moderate temperatures wherein the high temperature energy source modified to output low to moderate temperatures is positioned between two thin pieces to form a close contact sheath. In one embodiment the high temperature energy source modified to output low to moderate temperatures is a nanolaminate multilayer foil of reactive materials that produces a heating level of less than 200.degree. C.

  7. Calculation of grain boundary normals directly from 3D microstructure images

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lieberman, E. J.; Rollett, A. D.; Lebensohn, R. A.; Kober, E. M.

    2015-03-11

    The determination of grain boundary normals is an integral part of the characterization of grain boundaries in polycrystalline materials. These normal vectors are difficult to quantify due to the discretized nature of available microstructure characterization techniques. The most common method to determine grain boundary normals is by generating a surface mesh from an image of the microstructure, but this process can be slow, and is subject to smoothing issues. A new technique is proposed, utilizing first order Cartesian moments of binary indicator functions, to determine grain boundary normals directly from a voxelized microstructure image. In order to validate the accuracymore » of this technique, the surface normals obtained by the proposed method are compared to those generated by a surface meshing algorithm. Specifically, the local divergence between the surface normals obtained by different variants of the proposed technique and those generated from a surface mesh of a synthetic microstructure constructed using a marching cubes algorithm followed by Laplacian smoothing is quantified. Next, surface normals obtained with the proposed method from a measured 3D microstructure image of a Ni polycrystal are used to generate grain boundary character distributions (GBCD) for Σ3 and Σ9 boundaries, and compared to the GBCD generated using a surface mesh obtained from the same image. Finally, the results show that the proposed technique is an efficient and accurate method to determine voxelized fields of grain boundary normals.« less

  8. Calculation of grain boundary normals directly from 3D microstructure images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lieberman, E. J.; Rollett, A. D.; Lebensohn, R. A.; Kober, E. M.

    2015-03-11

    The determination of grain boundary normals is an integral part of the characterization of grain boundaries in polycrystalline materials. These normal vectors are difficult to quantify due to the discretized nature of available microstructure characterization techniques. The most common method to determine grain boundary normals is by generating a surface mesh from an image of the microstructure, but this process can be slow, and is subject to smoothing issues. A new technique is proposed, utilizing first order Cartesian moments of binary indicator functions, to determine grain boundary normals directly from a voxelized microstructure image. In order to validate the accuracy of this technique, the surface normals obtained by the proposed method are compared to those generated by a surface meshing algorithm. Specifically, the local divergence between the surface normals obtained by different variants of the proposed technique and those generated from a surface mesh of a synthetic microstructure constructed using a marching cubes algorithm followed by Laplacian smoothing is quantified. Next, surface normals obtained with the proposed method from a measured 3D microstructure image of a Ni polycrystal are used to generate grain boundary character distributions (GBCD) for Σ3 and Σ9 boundaries, and compared to the GBCD generated using a surface mesh obtained from the same image. Finally, the results show that the proposed technique is an efficient and accurate method to determine voxelized fields of grain boundary normals.

  9. Factors affecting breeding season survival of Red-Headed Woodpeckers in South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilgo, John, C.; Vukovich, Mark

    2011-11-18

    Red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) populations have declined in the United States and Canada over the past 40 years. However, few demographic studies have been published on the species and none have addressed adult survival. During 2006-2007, we estimated survival probabilities of 80 radio-tagged red-headed woodpeckers during the breeding season in mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests in South Carolina. We used known-fate models in Program MARK to estimate survival within and between years and to evaluate the effects of foliar cover (number of available cover patches), snag density treatment (high density vs. low density), and sex and age of woodpeckers. Weekly survival probabilities followed a quadratic time trend, being lowest during mid-summer, which coincided with the late nestling and fledgling period. Avian predation, particularly by Cooper's (Accipiter cooperii) and sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus), accounted for 85% of all mortalities. Our best-supported model estimated an 18-week breeding season survival probability of 0.72 (95% CI = 0.54-0.85) and indicated that the number of cover patches interacted with sex of woodpeckers to affect survival; females with few available cover patches had a lower probability of survival than either males or females with more cover patches. At the median number of cover patches available (n = 6), breeding season survival of females was 0.82 (95% CI = 0.54-0.94) and of males was 0.60 (95% CI = 0.42-0.76). The number of cover patches available to woodpeckers appeared in all 3 of our top models predicting weekly survival, providing further evidence that woodpecker survival was positively associated with availability of cover. Woodpecker survival was not associated with snag density. Our results suggest that protection of {ge}0.7 cover patches per ha during vegetation control activities in mature pine forests will benefit survival of this Partners In Flight Watch List species.

  10. Integrated Emissivity And Temperature Measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poulsen, Peter

    2005-11-08

    A multi-channel spectrometer and a light source are used to measure both the emitted and the reflected light from a surface which is at an elevated temperature relative to its environment. In a first method, the temperature of the surface and emissivity in each wavelength is calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and the measurement of the incident and reflected light. In the second method, the reflected light is measured from a reference surface having a known reflectivity and the same geometry as the surface of interest and the emitted and the reflected light are measured for the surface of interest. These measurements permit the computation of the emissivity in each channel of the spectrometer and the temperature of the surface of interest.

  11. 2010 Dry and 2009 - 2010 Wet Season Branchiopod Survey Report, Site 300

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dexter, W

    2011-03-14

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) requested that Condor Country Consulting, Inc. (CCCI) perform wet season surveys and manage the dry season sampling for listed branchiopods in two ponded locations within the Site 300 Experimental Test Site. Site 300 is located in Alameda and San Joaquin Counties, located between the Cities of Livermore and Tracy. The two pool locations have been identified for possible amphibian enhancement activities in support of the Compensation Plan for impacts tied to the Building 850 soil clean-up project. The Building 850 project design resulted in formal consultation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) as an amendment (File 81420-2009-F-0235) to the site-wide Biological Opinion (BO) (File 1-1-02-F-0062) in the spring of 2009 and requires mitigation for the California tiger salamander (AMCA, Ambystoma californiense) and California red-legged frog (CRLF, Rana draytonii) habitat loss. Both pools contain breeding AMCA, but do not produce metamorphs due to limited hydroperiod. The pool to the southeast (Pool BC-FS-2) is the preferred site for amphibian enhancement activities, and the wetland to northwest (Pool OA-FS-1) is the alternate location for enhancement. However, prior to enhancement, LLNL has been directed by USFWS (BO Conservation Measure 17 iii) to 'conduct USFWS protocol-level branchiopod surveys to determine whether listed brachiopod species are present within the compensation area.' CCCI conducted surveys for listed branchiopods in the 2009-2010 wet season to determine the presence of federally-listed branchiopods at the two pools (previous surveys with negative findings were performed by CCCI in 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 onsite). Surveys were conducted to partially satisfy the survey requirements of the USFWS 'Interim Survey Guidelines to Permittees for Recovery Permits under Section 10(a)(1)(A) of the Endangered Species Act for the Listed Vernal Pool Branchiopods' ('Guidelines, USFWS 1996 and BO Conservation Measure 17 iii). The dry sampling (included as an Appendix D) followed the wet season surveys in the summer of 2010.

  12. Coral reef bleaching and sea surface temperature anomalies: 1991-1996 global patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goreau, T.J.; Hayes, R.L.; Strong, A.

    1997-12-31

    Global spatio-temporal patterns of mass coral reef bleaching during the first half of the 1990s continued to show the strong temperature correlations which first became established in the 1980s. Satellite sea surface temperature data and field observations were used to track thermal bleaching events in real time. Most bleaching events followed warm season sea surface temperature anomalies of around +1 degree celsius above historical means. Global bleaching patterns appear to have been strongly affected by worldwide cooling which followed eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991. High water temperatures and mass coral reef bleaching took place in the Caribbean, Indian Ocean, and South Pacific in 1991, but there were few thermal anomalies or bleaching events in 1992 and 1993, years which were markedly cooler worldwide. Following the settling of Mount Pinatubo aerosols and resumption of global warming trends, extensive ocean thermal hot spots and bleaching events resumed in the South Pacific, South Atlantic, and Indian Oceans in 1994. Bleaching again took place in hot spots in the Indian Ocean and Caribbean in 1995, and in the South Atlantic, Caribbean, South Pacific, North Pacific, and Persian Gulf in 1996. Coral reefs worldwide are now very close to their upper temperature tolerance limits. This sensitivity, and the fact that the warmest ecosystems have no source of immigrant species pre-adapted to warmer conditions, may make coral reef ecosystems the first to be severely impacted if global temperatures and sea levels remain at current values or increase further.

  13. Thermal disconnect for high-temperature batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jungst, Rudolph George; Armijo, James Rudolph; Frear, Darrel Richard

    2000-01-01

    A new type of high temperature thermal disconnect has been developed to protect electrical and mechanical equipment from damage caused by operation at extreme temperatures. These thermal disconnects allow continuous operation at temperatures ranging from 250.degree. C. to 450.degree. C., while rapidly terminating operation at temperatures 50.degree. C. to 150.degree. C. higher than the continuous operating temperature.

  14. Crystal face temperature determination means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nason, D.O.; Burger, A.

    1994-11-22

    An optically transparent furnace having a detection apparatus with a pedestal enclosed in an evacuated ampule for growing a crystal thereon is disclosed. Temperature differential is provided by a source heater, a base heater and a cold finger such that material migrates from a polycrystalline source material to grow the crystal. A quartz halogen lamp projects a collimated beam onto the crystal and a reflected beam is analyzed by a double monochromator and photomultiplier detection spectrometer and the detected peak position in the reflected energy spectrum of the reflected beam is interpreted to determine surface temperature of the crystal. 3 figs.

  15. High temperature superconductor current leads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1995-06-20

    An electrical lead is disclosed having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths. 9 figs.

  16. High temperature superconductor current leads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R.; Poeppel, Roger B.

    1995-01-01

    An electrical lead having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths.

  17. High temperature current mirror amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patterson, R.B. III.

    1984-05-22

    Disclosed is a high temperature current mirror amplifier having biasing means in the transdiode connection of the input transistor for producing a voltage to maintain the base-collector junction reversed-biased and a current means for maintaining a current through the biasing means at high temperatures so that the base-collector junction of the input transistor remained reversed-biased. For accuracy, a second current mirror is provided with a biasing means and current means on the input leg. 2 figs.

  18. Modified normal-phase ion-pair chromatographic methods for the facile separation and purification of imidazolium-based ionic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, ND; Schenkel, MR; Robertson, LA; Noble, RD; Gin, DL

    2012-07-04

    lmidazolium- and oligo(imidazolium)-based ionic organic compounds are important in the design of room-temperature ionic liquid materials; however, the chromatographic analysis and separation of such compounds are often difficult. A convenient and inexpensive method for effective thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis and column chromatography separation of imidazolium-based ionic compounds is presented. Normal-phase ion-pair TLC is used to effectively analyze homologous mixtures of these ionic compounds. Subsequent separation of the mixtures is performed using ion-pair flash chromatography on normal-phase silica gel, yielding high levels of recovery. This method also results in a complete exchange of the counter anion on the imidazolium compounds to the anion of the ion-pair reagent. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of Negligible Creep, Off-Normal Welding and Heat Treatment of Gr91 Steel for Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Weiju; Terry, Totemeier

    2006-10-01

    Two different topics of Grade 91 steel are investigated for Gen IV nuclear reactor pressure vessel application. On the first topic, negligible creep of Grade 91 is investigated with the motivation to design the reactor pressure vessel in negligible creep regime and eliminate costly surveillance programs during the reactor operation. Available negligible creep criteria and creep strain laws are reviewed, and new data needs are evaluated. It is concluded that modifications of the existing criteria and laws, together with their associated parameters, are needed before they can be reliably applied to Grade 91 for negligible creep prediction and reactor pressure vessel design. On the second topic, effects of off-normal welding and heat treatment on creep behavior of Grade 91 are studied with the motivation to better define the control over the parameters in welding and heat treatment procedures. The study is focused on off-normal austenitizing temperatures and improper cooling after welding but prior to post-weld heat treatment.

  20. Density- and wavefunction-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ? 20

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael, J. Robert; Volkov, Anatoliy

    2015-03-01

    The widely used pseudoatom formalism in experimental X-ray charge-density studies makes use of real spherical harmonics when describing the angular component of aspherical deformations of the atomic electron density in molecules and crystals. The analytical form of the density-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonic functions for up to l ? 7 and the corresponding normalization coefficients were reported previously by Paturle & Coppens. It was shown that the analytical form for normalization coefficients is available primarily forl ? 4. Only in very special cases it is possible to derive an analytical representation of the normalization coefficients for 4 < l ? 7. In most cases for l > 4 the density normalization coefficients were calculated numerically to within seven significant figures. In this study we review the literature on the density-normalized spherical harmonics, clarify the existing notations, use the PaturleCoppens method in the Wolfram Mathematicasoftware to derive the Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ? 20 and determine the density normalization coefficients to 35 significant figures, and computer-generate a Fortran90 code. The article primarily targets researchers who work in the field of experimental X-ray electron density, but may be of some use to all who are interested in Cartesian spherical harmonics.

  1. Density- and wavefunction-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ≤ 20

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Michael, J. Robert; Volkov, Anatoliy

    2015-03-01

    The widely used pseudoatom formalism in experimental X-ray charge-density studies makes use of real spherical harmonics when describing the angular component of aspherical deformations of the atomic electron density in molecules and crystals. The analytical form of the density-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonic functions for up to l ≤ 7 and the corresponding normalization coefficients were reported previously by Paturle & Coppens. It was shown that the analytical form for normalization coefficients is available primarily forl ≤ 4. Only in very special cases it is possible to derive an analytical representation of the normalization coefficients for 4 < l ≤ 7.more » In most cases for l > 4 the density normalization coefficients were calculated numerically to within seven significant figures. In this study we review the literature on the density-normalized spherical harmonics, clarify the existing notations, use the Paturle–Coppens method in the Wolfram Mathematicasoftware to derive the Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ≤ 20 and determine the density normalization coefficients to 35 significant figures, and computer-generate a Fortran90 code. The article primarily targets researchers who work in the field of experimental X-ray electron density, but may be of some use to all who are interested in Cartesian spherical harmonics.« less

  2. Density- and wavefunction-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ≤ 20

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael, J. Robert; Volkov, Anatoliy

    2015-03-01

    The widely used pseudoatom formalism in experimental X-ray charge-density studies makes use of real spherical harmonics when describing the angular component of aspherical deformations of the atomic electron density in molecules and crystals. The analytical form of the density-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonic functions for up to l ≤ 7 and the corresponding normalization coefficients were reported previously by Paturle & Coppens. It was shown that the analytical form for normalization coefficients is available primarily forl ≤ 4. Only in very special cases it is possible to derive an analytical representation of the normalization coefficients for 4 < l ≤ 7. In most cases for l > 4 the density normalization coefficients were calculated numerically to within seven significant figures. In this study we review the literature on the density-normalized spherical harmonics, clarify the existing notations, use the Paturle–Coppens method in the Wolfram Mathematicasoftware to derive the Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ≤ 20 and determine the density normalization coefficients to 35 significant figures, and computer-generate a Fortran90 code. The article primarily targets researchers who work in the field of experimental X-ray electron density, but may be of some use to all who are interested in Cartesian spherical harmonics.

  3. High temperature two component explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mars, James E.; Poole, Donald R.; Schmidt, Eckart W.; Wang, Charles

    1981-01-01

    A two component, high temperature, thermally stable explosive composition comprises a liquid or low melting oxidizer and a liquid or low melting organic fuel. The oxidizer and fuel in admixture are incapable of substantial spontaneous exothermic reaction at temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K. At temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K., the oxidizer and fuel in admixture have an activation energy of at least about 40 kcal/mol. As a result of the high activation energy, the preferred explosive compositions are nondetonable as solids at ambient temperature, and become detonable only when heated beyond the melting point. Preferable oxidizers are selected from alkali or alkaline earth metal nitrates, nitrites, perchlorates, and/or mixtures thereof. Preferred fuels are organic compounds having polar hydrophilic groups. The most preferred fuels are guanidinium nitrate, acetamide and mixtures of the two. Most preferred oxidizers are eutectic mixtures of lithium nitrate, potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate, of sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and of potassium nitrate, calcium nitrate and sodium nitrate.

  4. High temperature electronic gain device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCormick, J. Byron; Depp, Steven W.; Hamilton, Douglas J.; Kerwin, William J.

    1979-01-01

    An integrated thermionic device suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments. Cathode and control electrodes are deposited on a first substrate facing an anode on a second substrate. The substrates are sealed to a refractory wall and evacuated to form an integrated triode vacuum tube.

  5. Catalysts for low temperature oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toops, Todd J.; Parks, III, James E.; Bauer, John C.

    2016-03-01

    The invention provides a composite catalyst containing a first component and a second component. The first component contains nanosized gold particles. The second component contains nanosized platinum group metals. The composite catalyst is useful for catalyzing the oxidation of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, and other pollutants at low temperatures.

  6. Temperature controlled high voltage regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiaro, Jr., Peter J. (Clinton, TN); Schulze, Gerald K. (Knoxville, TN)

    2004-04-20

    A temperature controlled high voltage regulator for automatically adjusting the high voltage applied to a radiation detector is described. The regulator is a solid state device that is independent of the attached radiation detector, enabling the regulator to be used by various models of radiation detectors, such as gas flow proportional radiation detectors.

  7. Low-temperature magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1983-05-26

    The invention relates to magnetic refrigeration and more particularly to low temperature refrigeration between about 4 and about 20 K, with an apparatus and method utilizing a belt of magnetic material passed in and out of a magnetic field with heat exchangers within and outside the field operably disposed to accomplish refrigeration.

  8. Low-temperature magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A.

    1985-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a low temperature 4 to 20 K. refrigeration apparatus and method utilizing a ring of magnetic material moving through a magnetic field. Heat exchange is accomplished in and out of the magnetic field to appropriately utilize the device to execute Carnot and Stirling cycles.

  9. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi.

    1989-10-03

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  10. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1989-01-01

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed.

  11. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    A high temperature turbine engine includes a rotor portion having axially stacked adjacent ceramic rotor parts. A ceramic/ceramic joint structure transmits torque between the rotor parts while maintaining coaxial alignment and axially spaced mutually parallel relation thereof despite thermal and centrifugal cycling.

  12. SU-E-T-168: Evaluation of Normal Tissue Damage in Head and Neck Cancer Treatments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ai, H; Zhang, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate normal tissue toxicity in patients with head and neck cancer by calculating average survival fraction (SF) and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for normal tissue cells. Methods: 20 patients with head and neck cancer were included in this study. IMRT plans were generated using EclipseTM treatment planning system by dosimetrist following clinical radiotherapy treatment guidelines. The average SF for three different normal tissue cells of each concerned structure can be calculated from dose spectrum acquired from differential dose volume histogram (DVH) using linear quadratic model. The three types of normal tissues include radiosensitive, moderately radiosensitive and radio-resistant that represents 70%, 50% and 30% survival fractions, respectively, for a 2-Gy open field. Finally, EUDs for three types of normal tissue of each structure were calculated from average SF. Results: The EUDs of the brainstem, spinal cord, parotid glands, brachial plexus and etc were calculated. Our analysis indicated that the brainstem can absorb as much as 14.3% of prescription dose to the tumor if the cell line is radiosensitive. In addition, as much as 16.1% and 18.3% of prescription dose were absorbed by the brainstem for moderately radiosensitive and radio-resistant cells, respectively. For the spinal cord, the EUDs reached up to 27.6%, 35.0% and 42.9% of prescribed dose for the three types of radiosensitivities respectively. Three types of normal cells for parotid glands can get up to 65.6%, 71.2% and 78.4% of prescription dose, respectively. The maximum EUDs of brachial plexsus were calculated as 75.4%, 76.4% and 76.7% of prescription for three types of normal cell lines. Conclusion: The results indicated that EUD can be used to quantify and evaluate the radiation damage to surrounding normal tissues. Large variation of normal tissue EUDs may come from variation of target volumes and radiation beam orientations among the patients.

  13. Preliminary survey and evaluation of nonaquifer thermal energy storage concepts for seasonal storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blahnik, D.E.

    1980-11-01

    Thermal energy storage enables the capture and retention of heat energy (or cold) during one time period for use during another. Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) involves a period of months between the input and recovery of energy. The purpose of this study was to make a preliminary investigation and evaluation of potential nonaquifer STES systems. Current literature was surveyed to determine the state of the art of thermal energy storage (TES) systems such as hot water pond storage, hot rock storage, cool ice storage, and other more sophisticated concepts which might have potential for future STES programs. The main energy sources for TES principally waste heat, and the main uses of the stored thermal energy, i.e., heating, cooling, and steam generation are described. This report reviews the development of sensible, latent, and thermochemical TES technologies, presents a preliminary evaluation of the TES methods most applicable to seasonal storage uses, outlines preliminary conclusions drawn from the review of current TES literature, and recommends further research based on these conclusions. A bibliography of the nonaquifer STES literature review, and examples of 53 different TES concepts drawn from the literature are provided. (LCL)

  14. Monitoring seasonal and annual wetland changes in a freshwater marsh with SPOT HRV data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1989-12-31

    Eleven dates of SPOT HRV data along with near-concurrent vertical aerial photographic and phenological data for 1987, 1988, and 1989 were evaluated to determine seasonal and annual changes in a 400-hectare, southeastern freshwater marsh. Early April through mid-May was the best time to discriminate among the cypress (Taxodium distichum)/water tupelo (Nyssa acquatica) swamp forest and the non-persistent (Ludwigia spp.) and persistent (Typha spp.) stands in this wetlands. Furthermore, a ten-fold decrease in flow rate from 11 cubic meters per sec (cms) in 1987 to one cms in 1988 was recorded in the marsh followed by a shift to drier wetland communities. The Savannah River Site (SRS), maintained by the US Department of Energy, is a 777 km{sup 2} area located in south central South Carolina. Five tributaries of the Savannah River run southwest through the SRS and into the floodplain swamp of the Savannah River. This paper describes the use of SPOT HRV data to monitor seasonal and annual trends in one of these swamp deltas, Pen Branch Delta, during a three-year period, 1987--1989.

  15. Monitoring seasonal and annual wetland changes in a freshwater marsh with SPOT HRV data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Eleven dates of SPOT HRV data along with near-concurrent vertical aerial photographic and phenological data for 1987, 1988, and 1989 were evaluated to determine seasonal and annual changes in a 400-hectare, southeastern freshwater marsh. Early April through mid-May was the best time to discriminate among the cypress (Taxodium distichum)/water tupelo (Nyssa acquatica) swamp forest and the non-persistent (Ludwigia spp.) and persistent (Typha spp.) stands in this wetlands. Furthermore, a ten-fold decrease in flow rate from 11 cubic meters per sec (cms) in 1987 to one cms in 1988 was recorded in the marsh followed by a shift to drier wetland communities. The Savannah River Site (SRS), maintained by the US Department of Energy, is a 777 km{sup 2} area located in south central South Carolina. Five tributaries of the Savannah River run southwest through the SRS and into the floodplain swamp of the Savannah River. This paper describes the use of SPOT HRV data to monitor seasonal and annual trends in one of these swamp deltas, Pen Branch Delta, during a three-year period, 1987--1989.

  16. Fuel cell system logic for differentiating between rapid and normal shutdown commands

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keskula, Donald H.; Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2000-01-01

    A method of controlling the operation of a fuel cell system wherein each shutdown command for the system is subjected to decision logic which determines whether the command should be a normal shutdown command or rapid shutdown command. If the logic determines that the shutdown command should be a normal shutdown command, then the system is shutdown in a normal step-by-step process in which the hydrogen stream is consumed within the system. If the logic determines that the shutdown command should be a rapid shutdown command, the hydrogen stream is removed from the system either by dumping to atmosphere or routing to storage.

  17. Litchfield Correctional Center District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Litchfield Correctional Center District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Litchfield Correctional Center District Heating Low Temperature...

  18. Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

  19. Accelerated Laboratory Tests Using Simultaneous UV, Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laboratory Tests Using Simultaneous UV, Temperature, and Moisture for PV Encapsulants, Frontsheets, and Backsheets Accelerated Laboratory Tests Using Simultaneous UV, Temperature, ...

  20. Gone Fishing Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gone Fishing Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Gone Fishing Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Gone Fishing...

  1. Room Temperature Dispenser Photocathode Using Elemental Cesium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Room Temperature Dispenser Photocathode Using Elemental Cesium Room Temperature Dispenser Photocathode Using Elemental Cesium Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) researchers have...

  2. Hyder Valley Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Valley Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hyder Valley Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Hyder Valley Sector...

  3. Countryman Well Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

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    Countryman Well Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Countryman Well Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Countryman...

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    Express Farms Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Express Farms Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Express Farms...

  6. Hyder Ranch Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hyder Ranch Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hyder Ranch Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Hyder Ranch Sector...

  7. Manzanita Estates District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Manzanita Estates District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Manzanita Estates District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  8. Opline Farms Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Opline Farms Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Opline Farms Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Opline Farms...

  9. Liskey Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

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  10. Summer Lake Aquaculture Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal...

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    Summer Lake Aquaculture Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Summer Lake Aquaculture Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

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    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Marana Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Marana Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Marana Sector Geothermal...

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    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name The Greenhouse Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility The Greenhouse Sector...

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  15. Safford Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open...

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    Safford Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Safford Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Safford Sector Geothermal...

  16. Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Lower Water Heating Temperature Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature Addthis Project Level Easy Energy Savings 12-30 annually for each 10F reduction Time to ...

  17. High-Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program...

  18. Warm Springs Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal...

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    Warm Springs Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

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  20. Advanced Low Temperature Absorption Chiller Module Integrated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Temperature Absorption Chiller Module Integrated with a CHP System at a Distributed Data Center - Presentation by Exergy Partners Corp., June 2011 Advanced Low Temperature ...

  1. Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste ...

  2. Lakeview Residences Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

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    Lakeview Residences Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Lakeview Residences Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  3. Oregon Trail Mushrooms Industrial Low Temperature Geothermal...

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    Mushrooms Industrial Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Oregon Trail Mushrooms Industrial Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Oregon...

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  5. Temperature effects on airgun signatures (Journal Article) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Search Title: Temperature effects on airgun signatures Experiments in an 850 liter water tank were performed in order to study temperature effects on airgun signatures, and to...

  6. Extremely Low Temperature | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Extremely Low Temperature: No definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition Sanyal Temp Classification This temperature scheme was developed by Sanyal in...

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    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization Manufacturing Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization Presented at the NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Manufacturing R&D ...

  8. Nichinghsiang Fish Farm Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal...

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  9. Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group, May 25, 2004 in Philadelphia, PA.

  10. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory and HTML User Program Success Stories ...

  11. ARM - Lesson Plans: Air Density and Temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Air Density and Temperature Objective The objective of this activity is to investigate the effect of temperature on the density of air. ...

  12. Operating Experience Level 3, Dangers of Objects Falling into Normally Occupied Areas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Operating Experience Level 3 (OE-3) document provides information about a safety concern related to the dangers of items falling from heights into spaces normally occupied by workers at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities.

  13. Method for distinguishing normal and transformed cells using G1 kinase inhibitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crissman, H.A.; Gadbois, D.M.; Tobey, R.A.; Bradbury, E.M.

    1993-02-09

    A G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitor is applied in a low concentration to a population of normal and transformed mammalian cells. The concentration of G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitor is selected to reversibly arrest normal mammalian cells in the G[sub 1] cell cycle without arresting growth of transformed cells. The transformed cells may then be selectively identified and/or cloned for research or diagnostic purposes. The transformed cells may also be selectively killed by therapeutic agents that do not affect normal cells in the G[sub 1] phase, suggesting that such G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitors may form an effective adjuvant for use with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy for optimizing the killing dose of chemotherapeutic agents while minimizing undesirable side effects on normal cells.

  14. Method for distinguishing normal and transformed cells using G1 kinase inhibitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crissman, Harry A.; Gadbois, Donna M.; Tobey, Robert A.; Bradbury, E. Morton

    1993-01-01

    A G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitor is applied in a low concentration to a population of normal and transformed mammalian cells. The concentration of G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitor is selected to reversibly arrest normal mammalian cells in the G.sub.1 cell cycle without arresting growth of transformed cells. The transformed cells may then be selectively identified and/or cloned for research or diagnostic purposes. The transformed cells may also be selectively killed by therapeutic agents that do not affect normal cells in the G.sub.1 phase, suggesting that such G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitors may form an effective adjuvant for use with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy for optimizing the killing dose of chemotherapeutic agents while minimizing undesirable side effects on normal cells.

  15. Blood Vessel Normalization in the Hamster Oral Cancer Model for Experimental Cancer Therapy Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ana J. Molinari; Romina F. Aromando; Maria E. Itoiz; Marcela A. Garabalino; Andrea Monti Hughes; Elisa M. Heber; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; David W. Nigg; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint

    2012-07-01

    Normalization of tumor blood vessels improves drug and oxygen delivery to cancer cells. The aim of this study was to develop a technique to normalize blood vessels in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Tumor-bearing hamsters were treated with thalidomide and were compared with controls. Results: Twenty eight hours after treatment with thalidomide, the blood vessels of premalignant tissue observable in vivo became narrower and less tortuous than those of controls; Evans Blue Dye extravasation in tumor was significantly reduced (indicating a reduction in aberrant tumor vascular hyperpermeability that compromises blood flow), and tumor blood vessel morphology in histological sections, labeled for Factor VIII, revealed a significant reduction in compressive forces. These findings indicated blood vessel normalization with a window of 48 h. Conclusion: The technique developed herein has rendered the hamster oral cancer model amenable to research, with the potential benefit of vascular normalization in head and neck cancer therapy.

  16. Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel Assembly

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report describes a test of an instrumented surrogate PWR fuel assembly on a truck trailer conducted to simulate normal conditions of truck transport.   The purpose of the test was to measure...

  17. Normal Modes of Black Hole Accretion Disks (Technical Report) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Technical Report: Normal Modes of Black Hole Accretion Disks Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Normal Modes of Black Hole Accretion Disks × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also

  18. High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony E. Hechanova, Ph.D.

    2008-09-30

    The UNLV Research Foundation assembled a research consortium for high temperature heat exchanger design and materials compatibility and performance comprised of university and private industry partners under the auspices of the US DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in October 2003. The objectives of the consortium were to conduct investigations of candidate materials for high temperature heat exchanger componets in hydrogen production processes and design and perform prototypical testing of heat exchangers. The initial research of the consortium focused on the intermediate heat exchanger (located between the nuclear reactor and hydrogen production plan) and the components for the hydrogen iodine decomposition process and sulfuric acid decomposition process. These heat exchanger components were deemed the most challenging from a materials performance and compatibility perspective

  19. Crystal face temperature determination means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nason, Donald O.; Burger, Arnold

    1994-01-01

    An optically transparent furnace (10) having a detection apparatus (29) with a pedestal (12) enclosed in an evacuated ampule (16) for growing a crystal (14) thereon. Temperature differential is provided by a source heater (20), a base heater (24) and a cold finger (26) such that material migrates from a polycrystalline source material (18) to grow the crystal (14). A quartz halogen lamp (32) projects a collimated beam (30) onto the crystal (14) and a reflected beam (34) is analyzed by a double monochromator and photomultiplier detection spectrometer (40) and the detected peak position (48) in the reflected energy spectrum (44) of the reflected beam (34) is interpreted to determine surface temperature of the crystal (14).

  20. Influence of Transcontinental arch on Cretaceous listric-normal faulting, west flank, Denver basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, T.L.

    1983-08-01

    Seismic studies along the west flank of the Denver basin near Boulder and Greeley, Colorado illustrate the interrelationship between shallow listric-normal faulting in the Cretaceous and deeper basement-controlled faulting. Deeper fault systems, primarily associated with the Transcontinental arch, control the styles and causative mechanisms of listric-normal faulting that developed in the Cretaceous. Three major stratigraphic levels of listric-normal faulting occur in the Boulder-Greeley area. These tectonic sensitive intervals are present in the following Cretaceous formations: Laramie-Fox Hills-upper Pierre, middle Pierre Hygiene zone, and the Niobrara-Carlile-Greenhorn. Documentation of the listric-normal fault style reveals a Wattenberg high, a horst block or positive feature of the greater Transcontinental arch, was active in the east Boulder-Greeley area during Cretaceous time. Paleotectonic events associated with the Wattenberg high are traced through analysis of the listric-normal fault systems that occur in the area. These styles are important to recognize because of their stratigraphic and structural influence on Cretaceous petroleum reservoir systems in the Denver basin. Similar styles of listric-normal faulting occur in the Cretaceous in many Rocky Mountain foreland basins.

  1. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carruthers, William D.; Boyd, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    A high temperature ceramic/metallic turbine engine includes a metallic housing which journals a rotor member of the turbine engine. A ceramic disk-like shroud portion of the engine is supported on the metallic housing portion and maintains a close running clearance with the rotor member. A ceramic spacer assembly maintains the close running clearance of the shroud portion and rotor member despite differential thermal movements between the shroud portion and metallic housing portion.

  2. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carruthers, William D.; Boyd, Gary L.

    1993-01-01

    A high temperature ceramic/metallic turbine engine includes a metallic housing which journals a rotor member of the turbine engine. A ceramic disk-like shroud portion of the engine is supported on the metallic housing portion and maintains a close running clearance with the rotor member. A ceramic spacer assembly maintains the close running clearance of the shroud portion and rotor member despite differential thermal movements between the shroud portion and metallic housing portion.

  3. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carruthers, William D.; Boyd, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature ceramic/metallic turbine engine includes a metallic housing which journals a rotor member of the turbine engine. A ceramic disk-like shroud portion of the engine is supported on the metallic housing portion and maintains a close running clearance with the rotor member. A ceramic spacer assembly maintains the close running clearance of the shroud portion and rotor member despite differential thermal movements between the shroud portion and metallic housing portion.

  4. Battery system with temperature sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Steven J; Trester, Dale B

    2014-02-04

    A battery system includes a platform having an aperture formed therethrough, a flexible member having a generally planar configuration and extending across the aperture, wherein a portion of the flexible member is coextensive with the aperture, a cell provided adjacent the platform, and a sensor coupled to the flexible member and positioned proximate the cell. The sensor is configured to detect a temperature of the cell.

  5. Overview of low temperature sensitization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, M.J.; McCright, R.D.

    1983-12-01

    A review of the literature on low temperature sensitization (LTS) has been conducted to determine if LTS-related microstructural changes can occur in Type 304L stainless steel within the times and temperatures associated with nuclear waste storage. It was found that Type 304L stainless steel is susceptible to sensitization and LTS, and that cold work plays an important role in determining the rate of LTS. Severely cold worked Type 304L stainless steel would clearly develop LTS-related microstructural changes within the times and temperatures associated with nuclear waste storage. These changes could lead to increased susceptibility to corrosion. Significant improvements in the long-term resistance to sensitization, LTS and corrosion can be achieved by modest changes in alloy composition and fabrication practices. Therefore, Type 304L would not be the preferred alloy of construction for nuclear waste storage canisters. The final qualification of an alternate canister alloy should involve corrosion experiments on actual canisters. Suggestions for alternate canister alloys are 316L, 316LN, 316ELC, 347, and XM-19. 47 references, 4 figures.

  6. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Xiaonan; Sheldon, Peter

    1998-01-01

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  7. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

    1998-01-27

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  8. Two-Meter Temperature Surveys for Geothermal Exploration Project...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    years the Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy has made progress toward developing methods and corrections aimed at eliminating these effects. Seasonal drift, albedo,...

  9. Observation of seasonal variation of atmospheric multiple-muon events in the MINOS near and far detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, P.

    2015-06-09

    We report the first observation of seasonal modulations in the rates of cosmic ray multiple-muon events at two underground sites, the MINOS Near Detector with an overburden of 225 mwe, and the MINOS Far Detector site at 2100 mwe. Thus, at the deeper site, multiple-muon events with muons separated by more than 8 m exhibit a seasonal rate that peaks during the summer, similar to that of single-muon events. In contrast and unexpectedly, the rate of multiple-muon events with muons separated by less than 5–8 m, and the rate of multiple-muon events in the smaller, shallower Near Detector, exhibit a seasonal rate modulation that peaks in the winter.

  10. Observation of seasonal variation of atmospheric multiple-muon events in the MINOS Near and Far Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, P.; Bishai, M.; Diwan, M. V.; Isvan, Z.; Ling, J.; Viren, B.

    2015-06-09

    We report the first observation of seasonal modulations in the rates of cosmic ray multiple-muon events at two underground sites, the MINOS Near Detector with an overburden of 225 mwe, and the MINOS Far Detector site at 2100 mwe. At the deeper site, multiple-muon events with muons separated by more than 8 m exhibit a seasonal rate that peaks during the summer, similar to that of single-muon events. Conversely, the rate of multiple-muon events with muons separated by less than 5–8 m, and the rate of multiple-muon events in the smaller, shallower Near Detector, exhibit a seasonal rate modulation that peaks in the winter.

  11. Observation of seasonal variation of atmospheric multiple-muon events in the MINOS Near and Far Detectors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Adamson, P.; Bishai, M.; Diwan, M. V.; Isvan, Z.; Ling, J.; Viren, B.

    2015-06-09

    We report the first observation of seasonal modulations in the rates of cosmic ray multiple-muon events at two underground sites, the MINOS Near Detector with an overburden of 225 mwe, and the MINOS Far Detector site at 2100 mwe. At the deeper site, multiple-muon events with muons separated by more than 8 m exhibit a seasonal rate that peaks during the summer, similar to that of single-muon events. Conversely, the rate of multiple-muon events with muons separated by less than 5–8 m, and the rate of multiple-muon events in the smaller, shallower Near Detector, exhibit a seasonal rate modulation thatmore » peaks in the winter.« less

  12. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angel, S. Michael; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1988-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for remotely monitoring temperature. Both method and apparatus employ a temperature probe material having an excitation-dependent emission line whose fluorescence intensity varies directly with temperature whenever excited by light having a first wavelength and whose fluorescence intensity varies inversely with temperature whenever excited by light having a second wavelength. Temperature is measured by alternatively illuminating the temperature probe material with light having the first wavelength and light having the second wavelength, monitoring the intensity of the successive emissions of the excitation-dependent emission line, and relating the intensity ratio of successive emissions to temperature.

  13. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angel, S.M.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1986-04-22

    A method and apparatus are provided for remotely monitoring temperature. Both method and apparatus employ a temperature probe material having an excitation-dependent emission line whose fluorescence intensity varies directly with temperature whenever excited by light having a first wavelength and whose fluorescence intensity varies inversely with temperature whenever excited by light having a second wavelength. Temperature is measured by alternatively illiminating the temperature probe material with light having the first wavelength and light having the second wavelength, monitoring the intensity of the successive emissions of the excitation-dependent emission line, and relating the intensity ratio of successive emissions to temperature. 3 figs.

  14. Fuel processor temperature monitoring and control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keskula, Donald H.; Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2002-01-01

    In one embodiment, the method of the invention monitors one or more of the following conditions: a relatively low temperature value of the gas stream; a relatively high temperature value of the gas stream; and a rate-of-change of monitored temperature. In a preferred embodiment, the rate of temperature change is monitored to prevent the occurrence of an unacceptably high or low temperature condition. Here, at least two temperatures of the recirculating gas stream are monitored over a period of time. The rate-of-change of temperature versus time is determined. Then the monitored rate-of-change of temperature is compared to a preselected rate-of-change of value. The monitoring of rate-of-change of temperature provides proactive means for preventing occurrence of an unacceptably high temperature in the catalytic reactor.

  15. Seasonal thermal energy storage in unsaturated soils: Model development and field validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, C.; Nir, Aharon, Tsang, Chin-Fu

    1991-06-01

    This report summarizes ten years of activity carried out at the Earth Sciences Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBI) in the subject of seasonal storage of thermal energy in unsaturated soils. The objectives of the work were to make a conceptual study of this type of storage, to offer guidelines for planning and evaluation of the method, to produce models and simulation for an actual field experiment, to participate in an on-line data analysis of experimental results. and to evaluate the results in terms of the validation of the concept, models and the experimental techniques. The actual field experiments were performed in Beer-Sheva, Israel. Details of engineering and field operations are not included in this report.

  16. Aquifer thermal energy storage reference manual: seasonal thermal energy storage program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prater, L.S.

    1980-01-01

    This is the reference manual of the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) Program, and is the primary document for the transfer of technical information of the STES Program. It has been issued in preliminary form and will be updated periodically to include more technical data and results of research. As the program progresses and new technical data become available, sections of the manual will be revised to incorporate these data. This primary document contains summaries of: the TRW, incorporated demonstration project at Behtel, Alaska, Dames and Moore demonstration project at Stony Brook, New York, and the University of Minnesota demonstration project at Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota; the technical support programs including legal/institutional assessment; economic assessment; environmental assessment; field test facilities; a compendia of existing information; numerical simulation; and non-aquifer STES concepts. (LCL)

  17. Sensitive response of a model of symbiotic ecosystem to seasonal periodic drive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rekker, A.; Lumi, N.; Mankin, R.

    2014-11-12

    A symbiotic ecosysytem (metapopulation) is studied by means of the stochastic Lotka-Volterra model with generalized Verhulst self-regulation. The effect of variable environment on the carrying capacities of populations is taken into account as an asymmetric dichotomous noise and as a deterministic periodic stimulus. In the framework of the mean-field theory an explicit self-consistency equation for the system in the long-time limit is presented. Also, expressions for the probability distribution and for the moments of the population size are found. In certain cases the mean population size exhibits large oscillations in time, even if the amplitude of the seasonal environmental drive is small. Particularly, it is shown that the occurrence of large oscillations of the mean population size can be controlled by noise parameters (such as amplitude and correlation time) and by the coupling strength of the symbiotic interaction between species.

  18. Seasonal food habits of the coyote in the South Carolina coastal plain.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrecengost, J. D.; Kilgo, J. C.; Mallard, D.; Ray, H. Scott; Miller, K. V.

    2008-07-01

    Abstract - Spatial and temporal plasticity in Canis latrans (coyote) diets require regional studies to understand the ecological role of this omnivorous canid. Because coyotes have recently become established in South Carolina, we investigated their food habits by collecting 415 coyote scats on the Savannah River Site in western South Carolina from May 2005-July 2006. Seasonally available soft mast was the most common food item in 12 of the 15 months we sampled. Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) was the most common food item during December (40%) and March (37%). During May-June, fruits of Prunus spp. and Rubus spp. were the most commonly occurring food items. Fawns were the most common mammalian food item during May and June of both years despite low deer density.

  19. PHOTOMETRY OF VARIABLE STARS FROM DOME A, ANTARCTICA: RESULTS FROM THE 2010 OBSERVING SEASON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Lingzhi; Zhu, Zonghong; Macri, Lucas M.; Wang, Lifan; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Lawrence, Jon S.; Luong-Van, Daniel; Storey, John W. V.; Cui, Xiangqun; Feng, Long-Long; Gong, Xuefei; Liu, Qiang; Shang, Zhaohui; Yang, Huigen; Yang, Ji; Yuan, Xiangyan; Zhou, Xu; Zhu, Zhenxi; Pennypacker, Carl R.; York, Donald G.

    2013-12-01

    We present results from a season of observations with the Chinese Small Telescope ARray, obtained over 183 days of the 2010 Antarctic winter. We carried out high-cadence time-series aperture photometry of 9125 stars with i ∼< 15.3 mag located in a 23 deg{sup 2} region centered on the south celestial pole. We identified 188 variable stars, including 67 new objects relative to our 2008 observations, thanks to broader synoptic coverage, a deeper magnitude limit, and a larger field of view. We used the photometric data set to derive site statistics from Dome A. Based on two years of observations, we find that extinction due to clouds at this site is less than 0.1 and 0.4 mag during 45% and 75% of the dark time, respectively.

  20. The global climate for December 1990-February 1991: Strong temperature and precipitation contrasts over North America and Eurasia; mixed ENSO conditions in the tropics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chelliah, M. )

    1993-07-01

    During most of the December 1990-February 1991 season sharp transcontinental temperature anomaly contrasts were evident in North America, Eurasia, and Australia. Large-scale atmospheric precipitations are more difficult to characterize. In the equatorial tropics there was some evidence of conditions similar to ENSO near the date line, but an almost complete failure of other ENSO components to appear in the east Pacific and in the tropical atmospheric circulation. 12 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  1. First-principles binary diffusion coefficients for H, H{sub 2}, and four normal alkanes + N{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasper, Ahren W. Kamarchik, Eugene; Miller, James A.; Klippenstein, Stephen J.

    2014-09-28

    Collision integrals related to binary (dilute gas) diffusion are calculated classically for six species colliding with N{sub 2}. The most detailed calculations make no assumptions regarding the complexity of the potential energy surface, and the resulting classical collision integrals are in excellent agreement with previous semiclassical results for H + N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} + N{sub 2} and with recent experimental results for C{sub n}H{sub 2n+2} + N{sub 2}, n = 24. The detailed classical results are used to test the accuracy of three simplifying assumptions typically made when calculating collision integrals: (1) approximating the intermolecular potential as isotropic, (2) neglecting the internal structure of the colliders (i.e., neglecting inelasticity), and (3) employing unphysical R{sup ?12} repulsive interactions. The effect of anisotropy is found to be negligible for H + N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} + N{sub 2} (in agreement with previous quantum mechanical and semiclassical results for systems involving atomic and diatomic species) but is more significant for larger species at low temperatures. For example, the neglect of anisotropy decreases the diffusion coefficient for butane + N{sub 2} by 15% at 300 K. The neglect of inelasticity, in contrast, introduces only very small errors. Approximating the repulsive wall as an unphysical R{sup ?12} interaction is a significant source of error at all temperatures for the weakly interacting systems H + N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} + N{sub 2}, with errors as large as 40%. For the normal alkanes in N{sub 2}, which feature stronger interactions, the 12/6 LennardJones approximation is found to be accurate, particularly at temperatures above ?700 K where it predicts the full-dimensional result to within 5% (although with somewhat different temperature dependence). Overall, the typical practical approach of assuming isotropic 12/6 LennardJones interactions is confirmed to be suitable for combustion applications except for weakly interacting systems, such as H + N{sub 2}. For these systems, anisotropy and inelasticity can safely be neglected but a more detailed description of the repulsive wall is required for quantitative predictions. A straightforward approach for calculating effective isotropic potentials with realistic repulsive walls is described. An analytic expression for the calculated diffusion coefficient for H + N{sub 2} is presented and is estimated to have a 2-sigma error bar of only 0.7%.

  2. Seasonal Juvenile Salmonid Presence and Migratory Behavior in the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Welch, Ian D.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.

    2009-04-30

    To facilitate preparing Biological Assessments of proposed channel maintenance projects, the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to consolidate and synthesize available information about the use of the lower Columbia River and estuary by juvenile anadromous salmonids. The information to be synthesized included existing published documents as well as data from five years (2004-2008) of acoustic telemetry studies conducted in the Columbia River estuary using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System. For this synthesis, the Columbia River estuary includes the section of the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam at river kilometer (Rkm) 235 downstream to the mouth where it enters the Pacific Ocean. In this report, we summarize the seasonal salmonid presence and migration patterns in the Columbia River estuary based on information from published studies as well as relevant data from acoustic telemetry studies conducted by NOAA Fisheries and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) between 2004 and 2008. Recent acoustic telemetry studies, conducted using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS; developed by the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers), provided information on the migratory behavior of juvenile steelhead (O. mykiss) and Chinook salmon in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the Pacific Ocean. In this report, Section 2 provides a summary of information from published literature on the seasonal presence and migratory behavior of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River estuary and plume. Section 3 presents a detailed synthesis of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead migratory behavior based on use of the JSATS between 2004 and 2008. Section 4 provides a discussion of the information summarized in the report as well as information drawn from literature reviews on potential effects of channel maintenance activities to juvenile salmonids rearing in or migrating through the Columbia River estuary and plume.

  3. Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jager, Yetta

    2011-11-01

    The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

  4. A method for estimating direct normal solar irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janjai, Serm

    2010-09-15

    In order to investigate a potential use of concentrating solar power technologies and select an optimum site for these technologies, it is necessary to obtain information on the geographical distribution of direct normal solar irradiation over an area of interest. In this work, we have developed a method for estimating direct normal irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment. The method starts with the estimation of global irradiation on a horizontal surface from MTSAT-1R satellite data and other ground-based ancillary data. Then a satellite-based diffuse fraction model was developed and used to estimate the diffuse component of the satellite-derived global irradiation. Based on this estimated global and diffuse irradiation and the solar radiation incident angle, the direct normal irradiation was finally calculated. To evaluate its performance, the method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation at seven pyrheliometer stations in Thailand. It was found that values of monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation from the measurements and those estimated from the proposed method are in reasonable agreement, with a root mean square difference of 16% and a mean bias of -1.6%, with respect to mean measured values. After the validation, this method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation over Thailand by using MTSAT-1R satellite data for the period from June 2005 to December 2008. Results from the calculation were displayed as hourly and yearly irradiation maps. These maps reveal that the direct normal irradiation in Thailand was strongly affected by the tropical monsoons and local topography of the country. (author)

  5. SCALING OF THE SUPERFLUID DENSITY IN HIGH-TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HOMES, C.C.

    2005-10-24

    A scaling relation N{sub c} {approx} 4.4{sigma}{sub dc}T{sub c} has been observed parallel and perpendicular to the copper-oxygen planes in the high-temperature superconductors; N{sub c} is the spectral weight and {sigma}{sub dc} is the dc conductivity just above the critical temperature T{sub c}. In addition, Nb and Pb also fall close to the this scaling line. The application of the Ferrell-Glover-Tinkham sum rule to the BCS optical properties of Nb above and below T{sub c} yields N{sub c} {approx} 8.1{sigma}{sub dc}T{sub c} when the normal-state scattering rate is much greater than the superconducting energy gap (1/{tau} > 2{Delta}, the ''dirty'' limit). This result implies that the high-temperature superconductors may be in the dirty limit. The superconductivity perpendicular to the planes is explained by the Josephson effect, which again yields N{sub c} {approx} 8.1{sigma}{sub dc}T{sub c} in the BCS formalism. The similar forms for the scaling relation in these two directions suggests that in some regime the dirty limit and the Josephson effect may be viewed as equivalent.

  6. Changes in diurnal temperature range and national cereal yields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobell, D

    2007-04-26

    Models of yield responses to temperature change have often considered only changes in average temperature (Tavg), with the implicit assumption that changes in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) can safely be ignored. The goal of this study was to evaluate this assumption using a combination of historical datasets and climate model projections. Data on national crop yields for 1961-2002 in the 10 leading producers of wheat, rice, and maize were combined with datasets on climate and crop locations to evaluate the empirical relationships between Tavg, DTR, and crop yields. In several rice and maize growing regions, including the two major nations for each crop, there was a clear negative response of yields to increased DTR. This finding reflects a nonlinear response of yields to temperature, which likely results from greater water and heat stress during hot days. In many other cases, the effects of DTR were not statistically significant, in part because correlations of DTR with other climate variables and the relatively short length of the time series resulted in wide confidence intervals for the estimates. To evaluate whether future changes in DTR are relevant to crop impact assessments, yield responses to projected changes in Tavg and DTR by 2046-2065 from 11 climate models were estimated. The mean climate model projections indicated an increase in DTR in most seasons and locations where wheat is grown, mixed projections for maize, and a general decrease in DTR for rice. These mean projections were associated with wide ranges that included zero in nearly all cases. The estimated impacts of DTR changes on yields were generally small (<5% change in yields) relative to the consistently negative impact of projected warming of Tavg. However, DTR changes did significantly affect yield responses in several cases, such as in reducing US maize yields and increasing India rice yields. Because DTR projections tend to be positively correlated with Tavg, estimates of yields under extreme warming scenarios were particularly affected by including DTR (up to 10%). Finally, based on the relatively poor performance of climate models in reproducing the magnitude of past DTR trends, it is possible that future DTR changes and associated yield responses will exceed the ranges considered here.

  7. University of Illinois Temperature Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. L. Davis; D. L. Knudson; J. L. Rempe; B. M. Chase

    2014-09-01

    This document summarizes background information and presents results related to temperature measurements in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) University of Illinois Project 29609 irradiation. The objective of this test was to assess the radiation performance of ferritic alloys for advanced reactor applications. The FeCr-based alloy system is considered the lead alloy system for a variety of advanced reactor components and applications. Irradiations of FeCr alloy samples were performed using the Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) in the B-7 position and in a static capsule in the A-11 position of the ATR.

  8. High temperature sealed electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valentin Chung, Brice Hoani; Burke, Paul J.; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2015-10-06

    A cell for high temperature electrochemical reactions is provided. The cell includes a container, at least a portion of the container acting as a first electrode. An extension tube has a first end and a second end, the extension tube coupled to the container at the second end forming a conduit from the container to said first end. A second electrode is positioned in the container and extends out of the container via the conduit. A seal is positioned proximate the first end of the extension tube, for sealing the cell.

  9. Distinct p53 genomic binding patterns in normal and cancer-derived human cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botcheva K.; McCorkle S. R.; McCombie W. R.; Dunn J. J.; Anderson C. W.

    2011-12-15

    We report here genome-wide analysis of the tumor suppressor p53 binding sites in normal human cells. 743 high-confidence ChIP-seq peaks representing putative genomic binding sites were identified in normal IMR90 fibroblasts using a reference chromatin sample. More than 40% were located within 2 kb of a transcription start site (TSS), a distribution similar to that documented for individually studied, functional p53 binding sites and, to date, not observed by previous p53 genome-wide studies. Nearly half of the high-confidence binding sites in the IMR90 cells reside in CpG islands, in marked contrast to sites reported in cancer-derived cells. The distinct genomic features of the IMR90 binding sites do not reflect a distinct preference for specific sequences, since the de novo developed p53 motif based on our study is similar to those reported by genome-wide studies of cancer cells. More likely, the different chromatin landscape in normal, compared with cancer-derived cells, influences p53 binding via modulating availability of the sites. We compared the IMR90 ChIPseq peaks to the recently published IMR90 methylome1 and demonstrated that they are enriched at hypomethylated DNA. Our study represents the first genome-wide, de novo mapping of p53 binding sites in normal human cells and reveals that p53 binding sites reside in distinct genomic landscapes in normal and cancer-derived human cells.

  10. Low temperature n-butane oxidation skeletal mechanism, based on multilevel approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strelkova, M.I.; Sukhanov, L.P.; Kirillov, I.A.; Safonov, A.A.; Umanskiy, S.Ya.; Potapkin, B.V.; Pasman, H.J.; Tentner, A.M.

    2010-04-15

    In order to reconcile an increasingly large deviation (order of magnitude) of the ignition delay time at decreasing initial temperature, computed using the prior art kinetic schemes, with the available experimental values, a new skeletal mechanism (54 species, 94 reactions) for low-temperature (500-800 K) ignition of n- butane in air based on ab initio calculations is developed. The skeletal mechanism obtained accurately reproduces n-butane combustion kinetics for the practically important ranges of pressure, temperature and fuel-air equivalence ratio, especially in the low-temperature range. The elaborated first principal skeletal chemical kinetic mechanism of n-butane oxidation was validated against available experimental results for normal and elevated initial pressure (1-15 atm) using the Chemical Work Bench code. A good agreement with experiments was shown. (author)

  11. Reactor Pressure Vessel Temperature Analysis for Prismatic and Pebble-Bed VHTR Designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. D. Gougar; C. B. Davis

    2006-04-01

    Analyses were performed to determine maximum temperatures in the reactor pressure vessel for two potential Very-High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs during normal operation and during a depressurized conduction cooldown accident. The purpose of the analyses was to aid in the determination of appropriate reactor vessel materials for the VHTR. The designs evaluated utilized both prismatic and pebble-bed cores that generated 600 MW of thermal power. Calculations were performed for fluid outlet temperatures of 900 and 950 °C, corresponding to the expected range for the VHTR. The analyses were performed using the RELAP5-3D and PEBBED-THERMIX computer codes. Results of the calculations were compared with preliminary temperature limits derived from the ASME pressure vessel code.

  12. Geothermal fracture stimulation technology. Volume II. High-temperature proppant testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Data were obtained from a newly built proppant tester, operated at actual geothermal temperatures. The short term test results show that most proppants are temperature sensitive, particularly at the higher closure stresses. Many materials have been tested using a standard short-term test, i.e., fracture-free sand, bauxite, and a resin-coated sand retained good permeability at the high fluid temperatures in brine over a range of closure stresses. The tests were designed to simulate normal closure stress ranges for geothermal wells which are estimated to be from 2000 to 6000 psi. Although the ultra high closure stresses in oil and gas wells need not be considered with present geothermal resources, there is a definite need for chemically inert proppants that will retain high permeability for long time periods in the high temperature formations.

  13. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harlan U. Anderson; Fatih Dogan; Vladimir Petrovsky

    2003-03-31

    This report represents a summary of the work carried out on this project which started October 1999 and ended March 2003. A list of the publications resulting from the work are contained in Appendix A. The most significant achievements are: (1) Dense nanocrystalline zirconia and ceria films were obtained at temperatures < 400 C. (2) Nanocrystalline films of both ceria and zirconia were characterized. (3) We showed that under anodic conditions 0.5 to 1 micron thick nanocrystalline films of Sc doped zirconia have sufficient electronic conductivity to prevent them from being useful as an electrolyte. (4) We have developed a process by which dense 0.5 to 5 micron thick dense films of either YSZ or ceria can be deposited on sintered porous substrates which serve as either the cathode or anode at temperatures as low as 400 C. (5) The program has provided the research to produce two PhD thesis for students, one is now working in the solid oxide fuel cell field. (6) The results of the research have resulted in 69 papers published, 3 papers submitted or being prepared for publication, 50 oral presentations and 3 patent disclosures.

  14. Spin Hall magnetoresistance at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uchida, Ken-ichi; Qiu, Zhiyong; Kikkawa, Takashi; Iguchi, Ryo; Saitoh, Eiji

    2015-02-02

    The temperature dependence of spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) in Pt/Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YIG) bilayer films has been investigated in a high temperature range from room temperature to near the Curie temperature of YIG. The experimental results show that the magnitude of the magnetoresistance ratio induced by the SMR monotonically decreases with increasing the temperature and almost disappears near the Curie temperature. We found that, near the Curie temperature, the temperature dependence of the SMR in the Pt/YIG film is steeper than that of a magnetization curve of the YIG; the critical exponent of the magnetoresistance ratio is estimated to be 0.9. This critical behavior of the SMR is attributed mainly to the temperature dependence of the spin-mixing conductance at the Pt/YIG interface.

  15. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, P.E.; Livingston, R.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1994-09-20

    A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe are disclosed. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped borosilicate glass, accurate to [+-]0.5 C over an operating temperature range of about [minus]196 C to 400 C; and a mixture of D[sub 2]O and H[sub 2]O, accurate to [+-]0.1 C over an operating range of about 5 C to 90 C. 13 figs.

  16. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, Patrick E.; Livingston, Ronald R.; Prather, William S.

    1994-01-01

    A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped boresilicate glass, accurate to .+-.0.5.degree. C. over an operating temperature range of about -196.degree. C. to 400.degree. C.; and a mixture of D.sub.2 O and H.sub.2 O, accurate to .+-.0.1.degree. C. over an operating range of about 5.degree. C. to 90.degree. C.

  17. Anisotropic shock sensitivity and detonation temperature of pentaerythritol tetranitrate single crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, C. S.; Holmes, N. C.; Souers, P. C.; Wu, C. J.; Ree, F. H.; Dick, J. J.

    2000-07-01

    Shock temperatures of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) single crystals have been measured by using a nanosecond time-resolved spectropyrometric system operated at six discrete wavelengths between 350 and 700 nm. The results show that the shock sensitivity of PETN is strongly dependent on the crystal orientation: Sensitive along the shock propagation normal to the (110) plane, but highly insensitive normal to the (100) plane. The detonation temperature of PETN is, however, independent from the crystal orientation and is determined to be 4140 ({+-}70) K. The time-resolved data yielding the detonation velocity 8.28 ({+-}0.10) mm/{mu}s can be interpreted in the context of a modified thermal explosion model. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  18. Baseline Concept Description of a Small Modular High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hans Gougar

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a description of generic small modular high temperature reactors (herein denoted as an smHTR), summarize their distinguishing attributes, and lay out the research and development (R&D) required for commercialization. The generic concepts rely heavily on the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor designs developed in the 1980s which were never built but for which pre-licensing or certification activities were conducted. The concept matured more recently under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, specifically in the areas of fuel and material qualification, methods development, and licensing. As all vendor-specific designs proposed under NGNP were all both small or medium-sized and modular by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Department of Energy (DOE) standards, the technical attributes, challenges, and R&D needs identified, addressed, and documented under NGNP are valid and appropriate in the context of Small Modular Reactor (SMR) applications. Although the term High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is commonly used to denote graphite-moderated, thermal spectrum reactors with coolant temperatures in excess of 650oC at the core outlet, in this report the historical term High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) will be used to distinguish the gas-cooled technology described herein from its liquid salt-cooled cousin. Moreover, in this report it is to be understood that the outlet temperature of the helium in an HTGR has an upper limit of 950 degrees C which corresponds to the temperature to which certain alloys are currently being qualified under DOEs ARC program. Although similar to the HTGR in just about every respect, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) may have an outlet temperature in excess of 950 degrees C and is therefore farther from commercialization because of the challenges posed to materials exposed to these temperatures. The VHTR is the focus of R&D under the Generation IV program and its specific R&D needs will be included in this report when appropriate for comparison. The distinguishing features of the HTGR are the refractory (TRISO) coated particle fuel, the low-power density, graphite-moderated core, and the high outlet temperature of the inert helium coolant. The low power density and fuel form effectively eliminate the possibility of core melt, even upon a complete loss of coolant pressure and flow. The graphite, which constitutes the bulk of the core volume and mass, provides a large thermal buffer that absorbs fission heat such that thermal transients occur over a timespan of hours or even days. As chemically-inert helium is already a gas, there is no coolant temperature or void feedback on the neutronics and no phase change or corrosion product that could degrade heat transfer. Furthermore, the particle coatings and interstitial graphite retain fission products such that the source terms at the plant boundary remain well below actionable levels under all anticipated nominal and off-normal operating conditions. These attributes enable the reactor to supply process heat to a collocated industrial plant with negligible risk of contamination and minimal dynamic coupling of the facilities (Figure 1). The exceptional retentive properties of coated particle fuel in a graphite matrix were first demonstrated in the DRAGON reactor, a European research facility that began operation in 1964.

  19. Baseline Concept Description of a Small Modular High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gougar, Hans D.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a description of generic small modular high temperature reactors (herein denoted as an smHTR), summarize their distinguishing attributes, and lay out the research and development (R&D) required for commercialization. The generic concepts rely heavily on the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor designs developed in the 1980s which were never built but for which pre-licensing or certification activities were conducted. The concept matured more recently under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, specifically in the areas of fuel and material qualification, methods development, and licensing. As all vendor-specific designs proposed under NGNP were all both ‘small’ or medium-sized and ‘modular’ by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Department of Energy (DOE) standards, the technical attributes, challenges, and R&D needs identified, addressed, and documented under NGNP are valid and appropriate in the context of Small Modular Reactor (SMR) applications. Although the term High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is commonly used to denote graphite-moderated, thermal spectrum reactors with coolant temperatures in excess of 650oC at the core outlet, in this report the historical term High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) will be used to distinguish the gas-cooled technology described herein from its liquid salt-cooled cousin. Moreover, in this report it is to be understood that the outlet temperature of the helium in an HTGR has an upper limit of 950 degrees C which corresponds to the temperature to which certain alloys are currently being qualified under DOE’s ARC program. Although similar to the HTGR in just about every respect, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) may have an outlet temperature in excess of 950 degrees C and is therefore farther from commercialization because of the challenges posed to materials exposed to these temperatures. The VHTR is the focus of R&D under the Generation IV program and its specific R&D needs will be included in this report when appropriate for comparison. The distinguishing features of the HTGR are the refractory (TRISO) coated particle fuel, the low-power density, graphite-moderated core, and the high outlet temperature of the inert helium coolant. The low power density and fuel form effectively eliminate the possibility of core melt, even upon a complete loss of coolant pressure and flow. The graphite, which constitutes the bulk of the core volume and mass, provides a large thermal buffer that absorbs fission heat such that thermal transients occur over a timespan of hours or even days. As chemically-inert helium is already a gas, there is no coolant temperature or void feedback on the neutronics and no phase change or corrosion product that could degrade heat transfer. Furthermore, the particle coatings and interstitial graphite retain fission products such that the source terms at the plant boundary remain well below actionable levels under all anticipated nominal and off-normal operating conditions. These attributes enable the reactor to supply process heat to a collocated industrial plant with negligible risk of contamination and minimal dynamic coupling of the facilities (Figure 1). The exceptional retentive properties of coated particle fuel in a graphite matrix were first demonstrated in the DRAGON reactor, a European research facility that began operation in 1964.

  20. Baseline Concept Description of a Small Modular High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hans Gougar

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a description of generic small modular high temperature reactors (herein denoted as an smHTR), summarize their distinguishing attributes, and lay out the research and development (R&D) required for commercialization. The generic concepts rely heavily on the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor designs developed in the 1980s which were never built but for which pre-licensing or certification activities were conducted. The concept matured more recently under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, specifically in the areas of fuel and material qualification, methods development, and licensing. As all vendor-specific designs proposed under NGNP were all both ‘small’ or medium-sized and ‘modular’ by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Department of Energy (DOE) standards, the technical attributes, challenges, and R&D needs identified, addressed, and documented under NGNP are valid and appropriate in the context of Small Modular Reactor (SMR) applications. Although the term High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is commonly used to denote graphite-moderated, thermal spectrum reactors with coolant temperatures in excess of 650oC at the core outlet, in this report the historical term High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) will be used to distinguish the gas-cooled technology described herein from its liquid salt-cooled cousin. Moreover, in this report it is to be understood that the outlet temperature of the helium in an HTGR has an upper limit of 950 degrees C which corresponds to the temperature to which certain alloys are currently being qualified under DOE’s ARC program. Although similar to the HTGR in just about every respect, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) may have an outlet temperature in excess of 950 degrees C and is therefore farther from commercialization because of the challenges posed to materials exposed to these temperatures. The VHTR is the focus of R&D under the Generation IV program and its specific R&D needs will be included in this report when appropriate for comparison. The distinguishing features of the HTGR are the refractory (TRISO) coated particle fuel, the low-power density, graphite-moderated core, and the high outlet temperature of the inert helium coolant. The low power density and fuel form effectively eliminate the possibility of core melt, even upon a complete loss of coolant pressure and flow. The graphite, which constitutes the bulk of the core volume and mass, provides a large thermal buffer that absorbs fission heat such that thermal transients occur over a timespan of hours or even days. As chemically-inert helium is already a gas, there is no coolant temperature or void feedback on the neutronics and no phase change or corrosion product that could degrade heat transfer. Furthermore, the particle coatings and interstitial graphite retain fission products such that the source terms at the plant boundary remain well below actionable levels under all anticipated nominal and off-normal operating conditions. These attributes enable the reactor to supply process heat to a collocated industrial plant with negligible risk of contamination and minimal dynamic coupling of the facilities (Figure 1). The exceptional retentive properties of coated particle fuel in a graphite matrix were first demonstrated in the DRAGON reactor, a European research facility that began operation in 1964.

  1. Comparing of Normal Stress Distribution in Static and Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kholdebarin, Alireza; Massumi, Ali; Davoodi, Mohammad; Tabatabaiefar, Hamid Reza

    2008-07-08

    It is important to consider the vertical component of earthquake loading and inertia force in soil-structure interaction analyses. In most circumstances, design engineers are primarily concerned about the analysis of behavior of foundations subjected to earthquake-induced forces transmitted from the bedrock. In this research, a single rigid foundation with designated geometrical parameters located on sandy-clay soil has been modeled in FLAC software with Finite Different Method and subjected to three different vertical components of earthquake records. In these cases, it is important to evaluate effect of footing on underlying soil and to consider normal stress in soil with and without footing. The distribution of normal stress under the footing in static and dynamic states has been studied and compared. This Comparison indicated that, increasing in normal stress under the footing caused by vertical component of ground excitations, has decreased dynamic vertical settlement in comparison with static state.

  2. WARM MOLECULAR HYDROGEN EMISSION IN NORMAL EDGE-ON GALAXIES NGC 4565 AND NGC 5907

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laine, Seppo; Appleton, Philip N.; Gottesman, Stephen T.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Garland, Catherine A. E-mail: apple@ipac.caltech.ed E-mail: mashby@cfa.harvard.ed

    2010-09-15

    We have observed warm molecular hydrogen in two nearby edge-on disk galaxies, NGC 4565 and NGC 5907, using the Spitzer high-resolution infrared spectrograph. The 0-0 S(0) 28.2 {mu}m and 0-0 S(1) 17.0 {mu}m pure rotational lines were detected out to 10 kpc from the center of each galaxy on both sides of the major axis, and in NGC 4565 the S(0) line was detected at r = 15 kpc on one side. This location is beyond the transition zone where diffuse neutral atomic hydrogen starts to dominate over cold molecular gas and marks a transition from a disk dominated by high surface-brightness far-infrared (far-IR) emission to that of a more quiescent disk. It also lies beyond a steep drop in the radio continuum emission from cosmic rays (CRs) in the disk. Despite indications that star formation activity decreases with radius, the H{sub 2} excitation temperature and the ratio of the H{sub 2} line and the far-IR luminosity surface densities, {Sigma}(L{sub H{sub 2}})/{Sigma}(L{sub TIR}), change very little as a function of radius, even into the diffuse outer region of the disk of NGC 4565. This suggests that the source of excitation of the H{sub 2} operates over a large range of radii and is broadly independent of the strength and relative location of UV emission from young stars. Although excitation in photodissociation regions is the most common explanation for the widespread H{sub 2} emission, CR heating or shocks cannot be ruled out. At r = 15 kpc in NGC 4565, outside the main UV- and radio-continuum-dominated disk, we derived a higher than normal H{sub 2} to 7.7 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission ratio, but this is likely due to a transition from mainly ionized PAH molecules in the inner disk to mainly neutral PAH molecules in the outer disk. The inferred mass surface densities of warm molecular hydrogen in both edge-on galaxies differ substantially, being 4(-60) M{sub sun} pc{sup -2} and 3(-50) M{sub sun} pc{sup -2} at r = 10 kpc for NGC 4565 and NGC 5907, respectively. The higher values represent very unlikely point-source upper limits. The point-source case is not supported by the observed emission distribution in the spectral slits. These mass surface densities cannot support the observed rotation velocities in excess of 200 km s{sup -1}. Therefore, warm molecular hydrogen cannot account for dark matter in these disk galaxies, contrary to what was implied by a previous Infrared Space Observatory study of the nearby edge-on galaxy NGC 891.

  3. Static jaw collimation settings to minimize radiation dose to normal brain tissue during stereotactic radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Eun Young; Zhang Xin; Yan Yulong; Sharma, Sunil; Penagaricano, Jose; Moros, Eduardo; Corry, Peter

    2012-01-01

    At University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is performed by using a linear accelerator with an add-on micromultileaf collimator (mMLC). In our clinical setting, static jaws are automatically adapted to the furthest edge of the mMLC-defined segments with 2-mm (X jaw) and 5-mm (Y jaw) margin and the same jaw values are applied for all beam angles in the treatment planning system. This additional field gap between the static jaws and the mMLC allows additional radiation dose to normal brain tissue. Because a radiosurgery procedure consists of a single high dose to the planning target volume (PTV), reduction of unnecessary dose to normal brain tissue near the PTV is important, particularly for pediatric patients whose brains are still developing or when a critical organ, such as the optic chiasm, is near the PTV. The purpose of this study was to minimize dose to normal brain tissue by allowing minimal static jaw margin around the mMLC-defined fields and different static jaw values for each beam angle or arc. Dose output factors were measured with various static jaw margins and the results were compared with calculated doses in the treatment planning system. Ten patient plans were randomly selected and recalculated with zero static jaw margins without changing other parameters. Changes of PTV coverage, mean dose to predefined normal brain tissue volume adjacent to PTV, and monitor units were compared. It was found that the dose output percentage difference varied from 4.9-1.3% for the maximum static jaw opening vs. static jaw with zero margins. The mean dose to normal brain tissue at risk adjacent to the PTV was reduced by an average of 1.9%, with negligible PTV coverage loss. This dose reduction strategy may be meaningful in terms of late effects of radiation, particularly in pediatric patients. This study generated clinical knowledge and tools to consistently minimize dose to normal brain tissue.

  4. Persistent Fe moments in the normal state of the pressure-induced

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    superconductor Ca0.67Sr0.33Fe2As2 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Persistent Fe moments in the normal state of the pressure-induced superconductor Ca0.67Sr0.33Fe2As2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Persistent Fe moments in the normal state of the pressure-induced superconductor Ca0.67Sr0.33Fe2As2 Authors: Jeffries, J R ; Butch, N P ; Lipp, M J ; Bradley, J A ; Kirshenbaum, K ; Saha, S R ; Paglione, J ; Kenney-Benson, C ; Xiao, Y ; Chow, P ; Evans, W J Publication Date:

  5. Persistent Fe moments in the normal-state collapsed-tetragonal phase of the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    pressure-induced superconductor Ca 0.67 Sr 0.33 Fe 2 As 2 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Persistent Fe moments in the normal-state collapsed-tetragonal phase of the pressure-induced superconductor Ca 0.67 Sr 0.33 Fe 2 As 2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Persistent Fe moments in the normal-state collapsed-tetragonal phase of the pressure-induced superconductor Ca 0.67 Sr 0.33 Fe 2 As 2 Authors: Jeffries, J. R. ; Butch, N. P. ; Lipp, M. J. ; Bradley, J. A. ;

  6. Measurement of the Target-Normal Single-Spin Asymmetry in Deep-Inelastic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scattering from the Reaction 3He{uparrow}(e,e')X (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Measurement of the Target-Normal Single-Spin Asymmetry in Deep-Inelastic Scattering from the Reaction 3He{uparrow}(e,e')X Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measurement of the Target-Normal Single-Spin Asymmetry in Deep-Inelastic Scattering from the Reaction 3He{uparrow}(e,e')X We report the first measurement of the target single-spin asymmetry in

  7. Beam-Normal Single-Spin Asymmetries in Electron Scattering | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Beam-Normal Single-Spin Asymmetries in Electron Scattering May 16, 2016 3:30PM to 4:30PM Presenter Buddhini Waidyawansa (PHY) Location Building 203, Room R150 Type Seminar Series Physics Division Seminar Abstract: A beam-normal single-spin asymmetry is generated by the scattering of transversely polarized electrons from unpolarized targets. This parity-conserving observable provides direct access to the imaginary part of the two-photon exchange amplitude. Because it can

  8. Status of High Power Tests of Normal Conducting Single-Cell Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolgashev, V.A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Higashi, Y.; Higo, T.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2011-11-04

    We report the results of ongoing high power tests of single-cell standing wave structures. These tests are part of an experimental and theoretical study of rf breakdown in normal conducting structures at 11.4 GHz. The goal of this study is to determine the maximum gradient possibilities for normal-conducting rf powered particle beam accelerators. The test setup consists of reusable mode launchers and short test structures powered by SLACs XL-4 klystron. The mode launchers and structures were manufactured at SLAC and KEK and tested at the SLAC klystron test laboratory.

  9. Faraday imaging at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Reichert, Patrick (Hayward, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid.

  10. Faraday imaging at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, L.A.; Reichert, P.

    1997-03-18

    A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid. 3 figs.

  11. High temperature control rod assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vollman, Russell E.

    1991-01-01

    A high temperature nuclear control rod assembly comprises a plurality of substantially cylindrical segments flexibly joined together in succession by ball joints. The segments are made of a high temperature graphite or carbon-carbon composite. The segment includes a hollow cylindrical sleeve which has an opening for receiving neutron-absorbing material in the form of pellets or compacted rings. The sleeve has a threaded sleeve bore and outer threaded surface. A cylindrical support post has a threaded shaft at one end which is threadably engaged with the sleeve bore to rigidly couple the support post to the sleeve. The other end of the post is formed with a ball portion. A hollow cylindrical collar has an inner threaded surface engageable with the outer threaded surface of the sleeve to rigidly couple the collar to the sleeve. the collar also has a socket portion which cooperates with the ball portion to flexibly connect segments together to form a ball and socket-type joint. In another embodiment, the segment comprises a support member which has a threaded shaft portion and a ball surface portion. The threaded shaft portion is engageable with an inner threaded surface of a ring for rigidly coupling the support member to the ring. The ring in turn has an outer surface at one end which is threadably engageably with a hollow cylindrical sleeve. The other end of the sleeve is formed with a socket portion for engagement with a ball portion of the support member. In yet another embodiment, a secondary rod is slidably inserted in a hollow channel through the center of the segment to provide additional strength. A method for controlling a nuclear reactor utilizing the control rod assembly is also included.

  12. High-temperature thermocouples and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rempe, Joy L.; Knudson, Darrell L.; Condie, Keith G.; Wilkins, S. Curt

    2011-01-18

    A high-temperature thermocouple and methods for fabricating a thermocouple capable of long-term operation in high-temperature, hostile environments without significant signal degradation or shortened thermocouple lifetime due to heat induced brittleness.

  13. Room temperature ferrimagnetism and ferroelectricity in strained...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Room temperature ferrimagnetism and ferroelectricity in strained, thin films of BiFe 0.5 Mn 0.5 O 3 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Room temperature ...

  14. Determining Outdoor CPV Cell Temperature: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, M.; Deline, C.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S.; Bosco, N.

    2011-07-01

    An accurate method is needed for determining cell temperature when measuring CPV modules outdoors. It has been suggested that cell temperature can be calculated though a procedure that shutters sunlight to the cells while measuring the transients in open-circuit voltage (Voc) and heat sink temperature. This paper documents application of this shutter procedure to multiple CPV modules at NREL. The challenges and limitations are presented along with an alternate approach to measuring CPV cell operating temperature.

  15. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lightweighting Materials Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory: Focus Lightweighting Materials 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells ...

  16. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory and HTML User Program Success Stories Materials Characterization ...

  17. High Temperature Superconductivity Partners | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Superconductivity Partners Map showing DOE's partnersstakeholders in the ... More Documents & Publications DOE Superconductivity Program Stakeholders DOE Provides up ...

  18. Oceanridge Fisheries Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Oceanridge Fisheries Sector Geothermal energy Type Aquaculture Location Mecca, California Coordinates 33.571692,...

  19. Arrowhead Fisheries Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Arrowhead Fisheries Sector Geothermal energy Type Aquaculture Location Susanville, California Coordinates...

  20. Dashun Fisheries Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Dashun Fisheries Sector Geothermal energy Type Aquaculture Location Mecca, California Coordinates 33.571692,...

  1. Pacific Aquafarms Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Pacific Aquafarms Sector Geothermal energy Type Aquaculture Location Niland, California Coordinates 33.2400366,...

  2. Tsuji Nurseries Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nurseries Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Tsuji Nurseries Sector Geothermal energy Type Greenhouse Location Susanville, California Coordinates...

  3. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1998-06-30

    An optical temperature measuring device utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to changes in temperature. The thermochromic material is sealed in a glass matrix which allows the temperature sensor to detect high temperatures without breakdown. Cuprous oxide and cadmium sulfide are among the semiconductor materials which provide the best results. The changes in color may be detected visually using a sensor chip and an accompanying color card. 8 figs.

  4. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1996-01-01

    An optical temperature measuring device utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to changes in temperature. The thermochromic material is sealed in a glass matrix which allows the temperature sensor to detect high temperatures without breakdown. Cuprous oxide and cadmium sulfide are among the semiconductor materials which provide the best results. The changes in color may be detected visually or by utilizing an optical fiber and an electrical sensing circuit.

  5. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1996-08-20

    An optical temperature measuring device utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to changes in temperature. The thermochromic material is sealed in a glass matrix which allows the temperature sensor to detect high temperatures without breakdown. Cuprous oxide and cadmium sulfide are among the semiconductor materials which provide the best results. The changes in color may be detected visually or by utilizing an optical fiber and an electrical sensing circuit. 7 figs.

  6. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1998-01-01

    An optical temperature measuring device utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to changes in temperature. The thermochromic material is sealed in a glass matrix which allows the temperature sensor to detect high temperatures without breakdown. Cuprous oxide and cadmium sulfide are among the semiconductor materials which provide the best results. The changes in color may be detected visually using a sensor chip and an accompanying color card.

  7. High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for Automotive

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Waste Heat Recovery: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program | Department of Energy lmp_06_wang.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Selection of a Wear-Resistant Tractor Drivetrain Material: Success stories at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program

  8. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ivanov, Ilia N; Geohegan, David Bruce

    2013-10-29

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  9. Agenda: High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Agenda for the High Temperature Membrane Working Group (HTMWG) meeting on May 18, 2009, in Arlington, Virginia

  10. Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog Input/Output Module Ambient Temperature Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark D. McKay

    2011-02-01

    Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog input/output Module Ambient Temperature Testing A series of three ambient temperature tests were conducted for the Water Power Calculator development using the INL Calibration Laboratorys Tenney Environmental Chamber. The ambient temperature test results demonstrate that the Moore Industries Temperature Input Modules, Analog Input Module and Analog Output Module, ambient temperature response meet or exceed the manufactures specifications

  11. Data Collection and Normalization for the Development of Cost Estimating Relationships

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Cost estimating relationships or parametric equations are mathematical statements that indicate that the cost is proportional to a physical commodity. Parametric estimating requires that the statistical analysis be performed on data points to correlate the cost drivers and other system parameters. This chapter discusses considerations for data collection and normalization.

  12. Evaluation of Geometrically Nonlinear Reduced Order Models with Nonlinear Normal Modes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kuether, Robert J.; Deaner, Brandon J.; Hollkamp, Joseph J.; Allen, Matthew S.

    2015-09-15

    Several reduced-order modeling strategies have been developed to create low-order models of geometrically nonlinear structures from detailed finite element models, allowing one to compute the dynamic response of the structure at a dramatically reduced cost. But, the parameters of these reduced-order models are estimated by applying a series of static loads to the finite element model, and the quality of the reduced-order model can be highly sensitive to the amplitudes of the static load cases used and to the type/number of modes used in the basis. Our paper proposes to combine reduced-order modeling and numerical continuation to estimate the nonlinearmore » normal modes of geometrically nonlinear finite element models. Not only does this make it possible to compute the nonlinear normal modes far more quickly than existing approaches, but the nonlinear normal modes are also shown to be an excellent metric by which the quality of the reduced-order model can be assessed. Hence, the second contribution of this work is to demonstrate how nonlinear normal modes can be used as a metric by which nonlinear reduced-order models can be compared. Moreover, various reduced-order models with hardening nonlinearities are compared for two different structures to demonstrate these concepts: a clamped–clamped beam model, and a more complicated finite element model of an exhaust panel cover.« less

  13. Solid state laser disk amplifer architecture: the normal-incidence stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dane, C. Brent; Albrecht, Georg F.; Rotter, Mark D.

    2005-01-25

    Normal incidence stack architecture coupled with the development of diode array pumping enables the power/energy per disk to be increased, a reduction in beam distortions by orders of magnitude, a beam propagation no longer restricted to only one direction of polarization, and the laser becomes so much more amendable to robust packaging.

  14. Evaluation of Geometrically Nonlinear Reduced Order Models with Nonlinear Normal Modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuether, Robert J.; Deaner, Brandon J.; Hollkamp, Joseph J.; Allen, Matthew S.

    2015-09-15

    Several reduced-order modeling strategies have been developed to create low-order models of geometrically nonlinear structures from detailed finite element models, allowing one to compute the dynamic response of the structure at a dramatically reduced cost. But, the parameters of these reduced-order models are estimated by applying a series of static loads to the finite element model, and the quality of the reduced-order model can be highly sensitive to the amplitudes of the static load cases used and to the type/number of modes used in the basis. Our paper proposes to combine reduced-order modeling and numerical continuation to estimate the nonlinear normal modes of geometrically nonlinear finite element models. Not only does this make it possible to compute the nonlinear normal modes far more quickly than existing approaches, but the nonlinear normal modes are also shown to be an excellent metric by which the quality of the reduced-order model can be assessed. Hence, the second contribution of this work is to demonstrate how nonlinear normal modes can be used as a metric by which nonlinear reduced-order models can be compared. Moreover, various reduced-order models with hardening nonlinearities are compared for two different structures to demonstrate these concepts: a clamped–clamped beam model, and a more complicated finite element model of an exhaust panel cover.

  15. High temperature superconducting fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.

    1997-02-04

    A fault current limiter for an electrical circuit is disclosed. The fault current limiter includes a high temperature superconductor in the electrical circuit. The high temperature superconductor is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter. 15 figs.

  16. High-Temperature Superconductivity Cable Demonstration Projects |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy High-Temperature Superconductivity Cable Demonstration Projects High-Temperature Superconductivity Cable Demonstration Projects A National Effort to Introduce New Technology into the Power Delivery Infrastructure PDF icon High-Temperature Superconductivity Cable Demonstration Projects More Documents & Publications HTS Cable Projects Superconductivity Program Overview Columbus HTS Power Cable

  17. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Optical thermometry is a growing technological field which exploits the ability of certain materials to change their optical properties with temperature. A subclass of such materials are those which change their color as a reversible and reproducible function of temperature. These materials are thermochromic. This invention is a composition to measure temperature utilizing thermochromic semiconductors.

  18. High temperature superconducting fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R.

    1997-01-01

    A fault current limiter (10) for an electrical circuit (14). The fault current limiter (10) includes a high temperature superconductor (12) in the electrical circuit (14). The high temperature superconductor (12) is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter (10).

  19. Mass transport around comets and its impact on the seasonal differences in water production rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubin, M.; Altwegg, K.; Thomas, N.; Fougere, N.; Combi, M. R.; Tenishev, V. M.; Le Roy, L.

    2014-06-20

    Comets are surrounded by a thin expanding atmosphere, and although the nucleus' gravity is small, some molecules and grains, possibly with the inclusion of ices, can get transported around the nucleus through scattering (atoms/molecules) and gravitational pull (grains). Based on the obliquity of the comet, it is also possible that volatile material and icy grains get trapped in regions, which are in shadow until the comet passes its equinox. When the Sun rises above the horizon and the surface starts to heat up, this condensed material starts to desorb and icy grains will sublimate off the surface, possibly increasing the comet's neutral gas production rate on the outbound path. In this paper we investigate the mass transport around the nucleus, and based on a simplified model, we derive the possible contribution to the asymmetry in the seasonal gas production rate that could arise from trapped material released from cold areas once they come into sunlight. We conclude that the total amount of volatiles retained by this effect can only contribute up to a few percent of the asymmetry observed in some comets.

  20. Passive solar/earth sheltered office/dormitory cooling season thermal performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, J.

    1984-01-01

    Continuous detailed hourly thermal performance measurements have been taken since February 1982 in and around an occupied, underground, 4000 ft/sup 2/ office/dormitory building at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This building has a number of energy saving features which have been analyzed relative to their performance in a southeastern US climate and with respect to overall commercial building performance. This analysis documents cooling season performance, as well as effects of earth contact, interior thermal mass, an economizer cycle and interface of an efficient building envelope with a central three-ton heat pump. The Joint Institute Dormitory obtains a cooling energy savings of about 30% compared with an energy-efficient, above-grade structure and has the potential to save as much as 50%. The proper installation of the overhand, interior thermal mass, massive supply duct system, and earth contact team up to prevent summertime overheating. From May through September, this building cost a total of $300 (at 5.7 cents/kWh) to cool and ventilate 24 hours per day. Besides thermal performance of the building envelope, extensive comfort data was taken illustrating that at least 90% of the occupants are comfortable all of the time according to the PMV measurements.

  1. Seasonally-managed wetland footprint delineation using Landsat ETM+ satellite imagery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Epshtein, O.

    2013-12-15

    One major challenge in water resource management is the estimation of evapotranspiration losses from seasonally managed wetlands. Quantifying these losses is complicated by the dynamic nature of the wetlands areal footprint during the periods of flood-up and drawdown. In this study we present a data-lean solution to this problem using an example application in the San Joaquin River Basin of California, USA. Through analysis of high-resolution (30 meter) Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) satellite imagery, we develop a metric for more fully capturing the extent of total flooded wetland area. The procedure is validated using year-long, continuously-logged field datasets at two separate wetlands within the study area. Based on this record, the proposed classification using a Landsat ETM+ Band 5 (mid-IR wavelength) to Band 2 (visible green wavelength) ratio improves estimates by 30-50% relative to previous attempts at wetland delineation. Requiring modest ancillary data, the results of our study provide a practical and efficient option for wetland management in data-sparse regions or un-gauged watersheds.

  2. Modeling the impediment of methane ebullition bubbles by seasonal lake ice

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Greene, S.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Archer, D.; Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Martinez-Cruz, K.

    2014-07-15

    Microbial methane (CH4) ebullition (bubbling) from anoxic lake sediments comprises a globally significant flux to the atmosphere, but ebullition bubbles in temperate and polar lakes can be trapped by winter ice cover and later released during spring thaw. This "ice-bubble storage" (IBS) constitutes a novel mode of CH4 emission. Before bubbles are encapsulated by downward-growing ice, some of their CH4 dissolves into the lake water, where it may be subject to oxidation. We present field characterization and a model of the annual CH4 cycle in Goldstream Lake, a thermokarst (thaw) lake in interior Alaska. We find that summertime ebullition dominatesmore » annual CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Eighty percent of CH4 in bubbles trapped by ice dissolves into the lake water column in winter, and about half of that is oxidized. The ice growth rate and the magnitude of the CH4 ebullition flux are important controlling factors of bubble dissolution. Seven percent of annual ebullition CH4 is trapped as IBS and later emitted as ice melts. In a future warmer climate, there will likely be less seasonal ice cover, less IBS, less CH4 dissolution from trapped bubbles, and greater CH4 emissions from northern lakes.« less

  3. Modeling the impediment of methane ebullition bubbles by seasonal lake ice

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Greene, S.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Archer, D.; Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Martinez-Cruz, K.

    2014-12-08

    Microbial methane (CH4) ebullition (bubbling) from anoxic lake sediments comprises a globally significant flux to the atmosphere, but ebullition bubbles in temperate and polar lakes can be trapped by winter ice cover and later released during spring thaw. This "ice-bubble storage" (IBS) constitutes a novel mode of CH4 emission. Before bubbles are encapsulated by downward-growing ice, some of their CH4 dissolves into the lake water, where it may be subject to oxidation. We present field characterization and a model of the annual CH4 cycle in Goldstream Lake, a thermokarst (thaw) lake in interior Alaska. We find that summertime ebullition dominatesmore » annual CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Eighty percent of CH4 in bubbles trapped by ice dissolves into the lake water column in winter, and about half of that is oxidized. The ice growth rate and the magnitude of the CH4 ebullition flux are important controlling factors of bubble dissolution. Seven percent of annual ebullition CH4 is trapped as IBS and later emitted as ice melts. In a future warmer climate, there will likely be less seasonal ice cover, less IBS, less CH4 dissolution from trapped bubbles, and greater CH4 emissions from northern lakes.« less

  4. Recommendation and implementation of special seasonal flow releases to enhance sauger spawning in Watts Bar tailwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeager, B.; Shiao, Ming.

    1992-05-01

    In recent years sauger populations in Chickamauga Reservoir, as well as several other areas in the Tennessee River Valley, have suffered drastic declines in numbers. Based on field creel evaluations the fisherman harvest of sauger in Chickamauga Reservoir has declined from an estimated high of 66,000 fish caught in 1979 to 0 fish in 1989. The Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency began an aggressive effort in 1990 and 1991 to recover this population, as well as those of Ft. Loudon and Watts Bar Reservoirs, by stocking large numbers of fingerling sauger. This is however, only a short-term, stopgap measure. The decline in the population of Chickamauga Reservoir appears directly related to dramatically lower discharges from Watts Bar Dam during the recent drought. The primary factor affecting year-class strength (numbers of sauger successfully spawned in a year and reaching catchable size in subsequent years) is the amount of spawning habitat available in the month of April (the spawning season for sauger) at one particular site below Watts Bar Dam. This report documents studies aimed at optimizing sauger spawning in Chickamauga Reservoir.

  5. State Heating Oil & Propane Program. Final report 1997/98 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunton, G.

    1998-06-01

    The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1997/98 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program is funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used for water heating and cooking in areas of the state where natural gas is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity, and its perception as a clean heating fuel have all worked to increase the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold.

  6. N/sub 2/-driven LPG achieves miscibitity at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlisle, L.; Crawford, P.B.; Montes, M. Jr.; Reeves, S.

    1982-11-01

    Shows that miscibility can be achieved at very low pressures above the critical temperature of propane. One can calculate the critical pressure and temperature for a variety of fluids of practical interest in achieving miscibility between the miscible slug and driving gas when applying enhanced oil recovery programs. A study of the critical properties of normally available reservoir fluids indicates that one method of achieving miscibility at lower pressures, even at high reservoir temperatures, might be to use LPG slugs pushed by nitrogen. Table gives the oil recovery for different LPG slug sizes when operating at a reservoir pressure of 2,000 psig and a reservoir temperature of 250F. Diagram shows the approximate critical temperature loci for ternary systems made up of 3 components from the group nitrogen, methane, ethane, and propane. By finding the desired reservoir temperature and then estimating the critical pressure required, one may select compositions and operating pressures required to achieve critical slug-driving gas mixtures for use in enhanced oil recovery programs. When using CO/sub 2/ for miscibility, the miscibility pressure increases with temperature. Use of LPG slugs results in a substantial reduction in the pressure required for miscibility.

  7. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the worlds first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  8. Temperature monitoring device and thermocouple assembly therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimm, Noel P.; Bauer, Frank I.; Bengel, Thomas G.; Kothmann, Richard E.; Mavretish, Robert S.; Miller, Phillip E.; Nath, Raymond J.; Salton, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    A temperature monitoring device for measuring the temperature at a surface of a body, composed of: at least one first thermocouple and a second thermocouple; support members supporting the thermocouples for placing the first thermocouple in contact with the body surface and for maintaining the second thermocouple at a defined spacing from the body surface; and a calculating circuit connected to the thermocouples for receiving individual signals each representative of the temperature reading produced by a respective one of the first and second thermocouples and for producing a corrected temperature signal having a value which represents the temperature of the body surface and is a function of the difference between the temperature reading produced by the first thermocouple and a selected fraction of the temperature reading provided by the second thermocouple.

  9. Temperature and electrical memory of polymer fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Jinkai; Zakri, Ccile; Grillard, Fabienne; Neri, Wilfrid; Poulin, Philippe

    2014-05-15

    We report in this work studies of the shape memory behavior of polymer fibers loaded with carbon nanotubes or graphene flakes. These materials exhibit enhanced shape memory properties with the generation of a giant stress upon shape recovery. In addition, they exhibit a surprising temperature memory with a peak of generated stress at a temperature nearly equal to the temperature of programming. This temperature memory is ascribed to the presence of dynamical heterogeneities and to the intrinsic broadness of the glass transition. We present recent experiments related to observables other than mechanical properties. In particular nanocomposite fibers exhibit variations of electrical conductivity with an accurate memory. Indeed, the rate of conductivity variations during temperature changes reaches a well defined maximum at a temperature equal to the temperature of programming. Such materials are promising for future actuators that couple dimensional changes with sensing electronic functionalities.

  10. Low temperature sodium-beta battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C

    2013-11-19

    A battery that will operate at ambient temperature or lower includes an enclosure, a current collector within the enclosure, an anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, a cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, and a separator and electrolyte within the enclosure between the anode and the cathode. The anode is a sodium eutectic anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower. The cathode is a low melting ion liquid cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower.

  11. High temperature solar selective coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Cheryl E

    2014-11-25

    Improved solar collectors (40) comprising glass tubing (42) attached to bellows (44) by airtight seals (56) enclose solar absorber tubes (50) inside an annular evacuated space (54. The exterior surfaces of the solar absorber tubes (50) are coated with improved solar selective coatings {48} which provide higher absorbance, lower emittance and resistance to atmospheric oxidation at elevated temperatures. The coatings are multilayered structures comprising solar absorbent layers (26) applied to the meta surface of the absorber tubes (50), typically stainless steel, topped with antireflective Savers (28) comprising at least two layers 30, 32) of refractory metal or metalloid oxides (such as titania and silica) with substantially differing indices of refraction in adjacent layers. Optionally, at least one layer of a noble metal such as platinum can be included between some of the layers. The absorbent layers cars include cermet materials comprising particles of metal compounds is a matrix, which can contain oxides of refractory metals or metalloids such as silicon. Reflective layers within the coating layers can comprise refractory metal silicides and related compounds characterized by the formulas TiSi. Ti.sub.3SiC.sub.2, TiAlSi, TiAN and similar compounds for Zr and Hf. The titania can be characterized by the formulas TiO.sub.2, Ti.sub.3O.sub.5. TiOx or TiO.sub.xN.sub.1-x with x 0 to 1. The silica can be at least one of SiO.sub.2, SiO.sub.2x or SiO.sub.2xN.sub.1-x with x=0 to 1.

  12. Investigations into High Temperature Components and Packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Scudiere, M.B.; M.S. Chinthavali, M.S.; McCluskey, F.P.

    2007-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to document the work that was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of the development of high temperature power electronics and components with monies remaining from the Semikron High Temperature Inverter Project managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). High temperature electronic components are needed to allow inverters to operate in more extreme operating conditions as required in advanced traction drive applications. The trend to try to eliminate secondary cooling loops and utilize the internal combustion (IC) cooling system, which operates with approximately 105 C water/ethylene glycol coolant at the output of the radiator, is necessary to further reduce vehicle costs and weight. The activity documented in this report includes development and testing of high temperature components, activities in support of high temperature testing, an assessment of several component packaging methods, and how elevated operating temperatures would impact their reliability. This report is organized with testing of new high temperature capacitors in Section 2 and testing of new 150 C junction temperature trench insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBTs) in Section 3. Section 4 addresses some operational OPAL-GT information, which was necessary for developing module level tests. Section 5 summarizes calibration of equipment needed for the high temperature testing. Section 6 details some additional work that was funded on silicon carbide (SiC) device testing for high temperature use, and Section 7 is the complete text of a report funded from this effort summarizing packaging methods and their reliability issues for use in high temperature power electronics. Components were tested to evaluate the performance characteristics of the component at different operating temperatures. The temperature of the component is determined by the ambient temperature (i.e., temperature surrounding the device) plus the temperature increase inside the device due the internal heat that is generated due to conduction and switching losses. Capacitors and high current switches that are reliable and meet performance specifications over an increased temperature range are necessary to realize electronics needed for hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), fuel cell (FC) and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs). In addition to individual component level testing, it is necessary to evaluate and perform long term module level testing to ascertain the effects of high temperature operation on power electronics.

  13. Submicron particle mass concentrations and sources in the Amazonian wet season (AMAZE-08)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Q.; Farmer, D. K.; Rizzo, L. V.; Pauliqueivis, T.; Kuwata, Mikinori; Karl, Thomas G.; Guenther, Alex B.; Allan, James D.; Coe, H.; Andreae, M. O.; Poeschl, U.; Jiminez, J. L.; Artaxo, Paulo; Martin, Scot T.

    2015-01-01

    Real-time mass spectra of non-refractory component of submicron aerosol particles were recorded in a tropical rainforest in the central Amazon basin during the wet season of 2008, as a part of the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08). Organic components accounted on average for more than 80% of the non-refractory submicron particle mass concentrations during the period of measurements. Ammonium was present in sufficient quantities to halfway neutralize sulfate. In this acidic, isoprene-dominated, low-NOx environment the high-resolution mass spectra as well as mass closures with ion chromatography measurements did not provide evidence for significant contributions of organosulfate species, at least at concentrations above uncertainty levels. Positive-matrix factorization of the time series of particle mass spectra identified four statistical factors to account for the variance of the signal intensities of the organic constituents: a factor HOA having a hydrocarbon-like signature and identified as regional emissions of primary organic material, a factor OOA-1 associated with fresh production of secondary organic material by a mechanism of BVOC oxidation followed by gas-to-particle conversion, a factor OOA-2 consistent with reactive uptake of isoprene oxidation products, especially epoxydiols by acidic particles, and a factor OOA-3 associated with long range transport and atmospheric aging. The OOA-1, -2, and -3 factors had progressively more oxidized signatures. Diameter-resolved mass spectral markers also suggested enhanced reactive uptake of isoprene oxidation products to the accumulation mode for the OOA-2 factor, and such size partitioning can be indicative of in-cloud process. The campaign-average factor loadings were in a ratio of 1.1:1.0 for the OOA-1 compared to the OOA-2 pathway, suggesting the comparable importance of gas-phase compared to particle-phase (including cloud waters) production pathways of secondary organic material during the study period.

  14. Cooling season performance of an earth-sheltered office/dormitory building in Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, J.E.

    1984-07-01

    Detailed hourly measurements taken in and around an underground office-dormitory building for two summers document energy savings; whole building-component interface problems; and specific cooling contributions from earth contact, interior thermal mass, and an economizer. The Joint Institute Dormitory (JID) saves about 30% compared with well-built above-grade buildings in a climate typical of Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and has the potential to save as much as 50%. The detailed measurements, which include extensive thermal comfort data, indicate that at least 90% of the occupants are comfortable all of the time. The thermal performance measurements and analysis determine that the peak cooling requirement of this building is 50% less than that of well-built above-grade structures, permitting a cost savings on installed cooling capacity. The dominant building components contributing to the good thermal performance are the structural thermal mass, the earth-covered roof, and the earth contact provided by the bermed walls and slab floor. The 372-m/sup 2/ (4000 gross ft/sup 2/) building used about $300 (at 5.7 cents/kWh) to cool and ventilate from May through September. Eliminating a number of building design and construction anomalies could improve the whole-building performance and reduce the seasonal cooling cost another $85. Close examination of the thermal performance of this building revealed that a very efficient heat pump and thermally sound envelope do not necessarily produce otpimum performance without careful attention given to component interface details. 8 references, 24 figures, 12 tables.

  15. Linkages of Remote Sea Surface Temperatures and Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Activity Mediated by the African Monsoon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taraphdar, Sourav; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Hagos, Samson M.

    2015-01-28

    Warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in North Atlantic and Mediterranean (NAMED) can influence tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the tropical East Atlantic by modulating summer convection over western Africa. Analysis of 30 years of observations show that the NAMED SST is linked to a strengthening of the Saharan heat low and enhancement of moisture and moist static energy in the lower atmosphere over West Africa, which favors a northward displacement of the monsoonal front. These processes also lead to a northward shift of the African easterly jet that introduces an anomalous positive vorticity from western Africa to the main development region (50W20E; 10N20N) of Atlantic TC. By modulating multiple processes associated with the African monsoon, this study demonstrates that warm NAMED SST explains 8% of interannual variability of Atlantic TC frequency. Thus NAME SST may provide useful predictability for Atlantic TC activity on seasonal-to-interannual time scale.

  16. HIGH AVERAGE CURRENT LOW EMITTANCE BEAM EMPLOYING CW NORMAL CONDUCTING GUN.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHANG,X.; BEN-ZVI, I.; KEWISCH, J.; PAI, C.

    2007-06-25

    CW normal conducting guns usually do not achieve very high field gradient and waste much RF power at high field gradient compared to superconducting cavities. But they have less trapped modes and wakefields compared to the superconducting cavities due to their low Q. The external bucking coil can also be applied very close to the cathode to improve the beam quality. By using a low frequency gun with a recessed cathode and a carefully designed beam line we can get a high average current and a high quality beam with acceptable RF power loss on the cavity wall. This paper shows that the CW normal conducting gun can be a backup solution for those projects which need high peak and average current, low emittance electron beams such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) e-cooling project and Energy Recovery Linac (Em) project.

  17. Isotope effect in normal-to-local transition of acetylene bending modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Jianyi; Xu, Dingguo; Guo, Hua; Tyng, Vivian; Kellman, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The normal-to-local transition for the bending modes of acetylene is considered a prelude to its isomerization to vinylidene. Here, such a transition in fully deuterated acetylene is investigated using a full-dimensional quantum model. It is found that the local benders emerge at much lower energies and bending quantum numbers than in the hydrogen isotopomer HCCH. This is accompanied by a transition to a second kind of bending mode called counter-rotator, again at lower energies and quantum numbers than in HCCH. These transitions are also investigated using bifurcation analysis of two empirical spectroscopic fitting Hamiltonians for pure bending modes, which helps to understand the origin of the transitions semiclassically as branchings or bifurcations out of the trans and normal bend modes when the latter become dynamically unstable. The results of the quantum model and the empirical bifurcation analysis are in very good agreement.

  18. Induced supersolidity in a mixture of normal and hard-core bosons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, Tapan; Das, B. P.; Pai, Ramesh V.

    2010-01-01

    We present a scenario where a supersolid is induced in one of the components of a mixture of two species bosonic atoms where there are no long-range interactions. We study a system of normal and hard-core boson mixture with only the former possessing long-range interactions. We consider three cases: the first where the total density is commensurate and the other two where it is incommensurate to the lattice. By suitable choices of the densities of normal and hard-core bosons and the interaction strengths between them, we predict that the charge density wave and the supersolid orders can be induced in the hard-core species as a result of the competing interatomic interactions.

  19. Regulation of bcl-2 proto-oncogene expression during normal human lymphocyte proliferation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, J.C.; Tsujimoto, Y.; Alpers, J.D.; Croce, C.M.; Nowell, P.C.

    1987-06-05

    The bcl-2 and c-myc proto-oncogenes are brought into juxtaposition with the immuno-globulin heavy chain locus in particular B-cell lymphomas, resulting in high levels of constitutive accumulation of their messenger RNAs. Precisely how the products of the bcl-2 and c-myc genes contribute to tumorigenesis is unknown, but observations that c-myc expression is rapidly induced in nonneoplastic lymphocytes upon stimulation of proliferation raise the possibility that this proto-oncogene is involved in the control of normal cellular growth. In addition to c-myc, the bcl-2 proto-oncogene also was expressed in normal human B and T lymphocytes after stimulation with appropriate mitogens. Comparison of the regulation of the expression of these proto-oncogenes demonstrated marked differences and provided evidence that, in contrast to c-myc, levels of bcl-2 messenger RNA are regulated primarily though transcriptional mechanisms. 10 references, 3 figures.

  20. Isotope effect in normal-to-local transition of acetylene bending modes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ma, Jianyi; Xu, Dingguo; Guo, Hua; Tyng, Vivian; Kellman, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The normal-to-local transition for the bending modes of acetylene is considered a prelude to its isomerization to vinylidene. Here, such a transition in fully deuterated acetylene is investigated using a full-dimensional quantum model. It is found that the local benders emerge at much lower energies and bending quantum numbers than in the hydrogen isotopomer HCCH. This is accompanied by a transition to a second kind of bending mode called counter-rotator, again at lower energies and quantum numbers than in HCCH. These transitions are also investigated using bifurcation analysis of two empirical spectroscopic fitting Hamiltonians for pure bending modes, which helpsmore » to understand the origin of the transitions semiclassically as branchings or bifurcations out of the trans and normal bend modes when the latter become dynamically unstable. The results of the quantum model and the empirical bifurcation analysis are in very good agreement.« less

  1. FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION MODELS OF THE MITRAL VALVE: FUNCTION IN NORMAL AND PATHOLOGIC STATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunzelman, K. S.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Cochran, R. P.

    2007-08-29

    Successful mitral valve repair is dependent upon a full understanding of normal and abnormal mitral valve anatomy and function. Computational analysis is one such method that can be applied to simulate mitral valve function in order to analyze the roles of individual components, and evaluate proposed surgical repair. We developed the first three-dimensional, finite element (FE) computer model of the mitral valve including leaflets and chordae tendineae, however, one critical aspect that has been missing until the last few years was the evaluation of fluid flow, as coupled to the function of the mitral valve structure. We present here our latest results for normal function and specific pathologic changes using a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model. Normal valve function was first assessed, followed by pathologic material changes in collagen fiber volume fraction, fiber stiffness, fiber splay, and isotropic stiffness. Leaflet and chordal stress and strain, and papillary muscle force was determined. In addition, transmitral flow, time to leaflet closure, and heart valve sound were assessed. Model predictions in the normal state agreed well with a wide range of available in-vivo and in-vitro data. Further, pathologic material changes that preserved the anisotropy of the valve leaflets were found to preserve valve function. By contrast, material changes that altered the anisotropy of the valve were found to profoundly alter valve function. The addition of blood flow and an experimentally driven microstructural description of mitral tissue represent significant advances in computational studies of the mitral valve, which allow further insight to be gained. This work is another building block in the foundation of a computational framework to aid in the refinement and development of a truly noninvasive diagnostic evaluation of the mitral valve. Ultimately, it represents the basis for simulation of surgical repair of pathologic valves in a clinical and educational setting.

  2. SU-E-I-18: CT Scanner QA Using Normalized CTDI Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randazzo, M; Tambasco, M; Russell, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To create a ratio of weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDIw) data normalized to in-air measurements (CTDIair) as a function of beam quality to create a look-up table for frequent, rapid quality assurance (QA) checks of CTDI. Methods: The CTDIw values were measured according to TG-63 protocol using a pencil ionization chamber (Unfors Xi CT detector) and head and body Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms (16 and 32 cm diameter, respectively). Single scan dose profiles were measured at each clinically available energy (80,100,120,140 kVp) on three different CT scanners (two Siemens SOMATOM Definition Flash and one GE Optima), using a tube current of 400 mA, a one second rotation time, and the widest available beam width (32 × 0.6 mm and 16 × 1.25 mm, respectively). These values were normalized to CTDIair measurements using the same conditions as CTDIw. The ratios (expressed in cGy/R) were assessed for each scanner as a function of each energy's half value layer (HVL) paired with the phantom's appropriate bow tie filter measured in mmAl. Results: Normalized CTDI values vary linearly with HVL for both the head and body phantoms. The ratios for the two Siemens machines are very similar at each energy. Compared to the GE scanner, these values vary between 10–20% for each kVp setting. Differences in CTDIair contribute most to the deviation of the ratios across machines. Ratios are independent of both mAs and collimation. Conclusion: Look-up tables constructed of normalized CTDI values as a function of HVL can be used to derive CTDIw data from only three in-air measurements (one for CTDIair and two with added filtration for HVL) to allow for simple, frequent QA checks without CT phantom setup. Future investigations will involve comparing results with Monte Carlo simulations for validation.

  3. Analyzing the Contribution of Aerosols to an Observed Increase in Direct Normal Irradiance in Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riihimaki, Laura D.; Vignola, F.; Long, Charles N.

    2009-01-22

    Annual average total irradiance increases by 1-2% per decade at three mon- itoring stations in Oregon over the period from 1980 to 2007. Direct normal irradiance measurements increase by 5% per decade over the same time pe- riod. The measurements show no sign of a dimming before 1990. The impact of high concentrations of stratospheric aerosols following the volcanic erup- tions of El Chichon and Mt. Pinatubo are clearly seen in the measurements. Removing these years from the annual average all-sky time series reduces the trends in both total and direct normal irradiance. Clear-sky periods from this long direct normal time series are used in conjunction with radiative trans- fer calculations to test whether part of the increase could be caused by an- thropogenic aerosols. All three sites show relatively low clear-sky measure- ments before the eruption of El Chichon in 1982, suggesting higher aerosol loads during this period. After removing the periods most strongly impacted by volcanic eruptions, two of the sites show statistically signicant increases in clear-sky direct normal irradiance from 1987 to 2007. Radiative transfer calculations of the impact of volcanic aerosols and tropospheric water vapor indicate that only about 20% of that clear-sky increase between background aerosol periods before and after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo can be explained by these two factors. Thus, a statistically signicant clear-sky trend remains between 1987 and 2007 that is consistent with the hypothesis that at least some of the increase in surface irradiance could be caused by a reduction of anthropogenic aerosols. D

  4. High Temperature Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarau, Calin; Walker, Kara L.; Anderson, William G.

    2009-03-16

    In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling converter provides this cooling. If the Stirling engine stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) is under development to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling engine. The status of the ongoing effort in developing this technology is presented in this paper. An earlier, preliminary design had a radiator outside the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) casing, used NaK as the working fluid, and had the reservoir located on the cold side adapter flange. The revised design has an internal radiator inside the casing, with the reservoir embedded inside the insulation. A large set of advantages are offered by this new design. In addition to reducing the overall size and mass of the VCHP, simplicity, compactness and easiness in assembling the VCHP with the ASRG are significantly enhanced. Also, the permanently elevated temperatures of the entire VCHP allows the change of the working fluid from a binary compound (NaK) to single compound (Na). The latter, by its properties, allows higher performance and further mass reduction of the system. Preliminary design and analysis shows an acceptable peak temperature of the ASRG case of 140 deg. C while the heat losses caused by the addition of the VCHP are 1.8 W.

  5. Capacitor energy needed to induce transitions from the superconducting to the normal state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberhard, P.H.; Ross, R.R.

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a technique to turn a long length of superconducting wire normal by dumping a charged capacitor into it and justify some formulae needed in the design. The physical phenomenon is described. A formula for the energy to be stored in the capacitor is given. There are circumstances where the dc in an electrical circuit containing superconducting elements has to be turned off quickly and where the most convenient way to switch the current off is to turn a large portion or all of the superconducting wire normal. Such was the case of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) superconducting magnet as soon as a quench was detected. The technique used was the discharge of a capacitor into the coil center tap. It turned the magnet winding normal in ten milliseconds or so and provided an adequate quench protection. The technique of discharging a capacitor into a superconducting wire should have many other applications whenever a substantial resistance in a superconducting circuit has to be generated in that kind of time scale. The process involves generating a pulse of large currents in some part of the circuit and heating the wire up by ac losses until the value of the wire critical current is smaller than the dc current. Use of low inductance connections to the circuit is necessary. Then the dc gets turned off due to the resistance of the wire as in a magnet quench.

  6. Analysis of differential protein expression in normal and neoplastic human breast epithelial cell lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, K.; Chubb, C.; Huberman, E.; Giometti, C.S.

    1997-07-01

    High resolution two dimensional get electrophoresis (2DE) and database analysis was used to establish protein expression patterns for cultured normal human mammary epithelial cells and thirteen breast cancer cell lines. The Human Breast Epithelial Cell database contains the 2DE protein patterns, including relative protein abundances, for each cell line, plus a composite pattern that contains all the common and specifically expressed proteins from all the cell lines. Significant differences in protein expression, both qualitative and quantitative, were observed not only between normal cells and tumor cells, but also among the tumor cell lines. Eight percent of the consistently detected proteins were found in significantly (P < 0.001) variable levels among the cell lines. Using a combination of immunostaining, comigration with purified protein, subcellular fractionation, and amino-terminal protein sequencing, we identified a subset of the differentially expressed proteins. These identified proteins include the cytoskeletal proteins actin, tubulin, vimentin, and cytokeratins. The cell lines can be classified into four distinct groups based on their intermediate filament protein profile. We also identified heat shock proteins; hsp27, hsp60, and hsp70 varied in abundance and in some cases in the relative phosphorylation levels among the cell lines. Finally, we identified IMP dehydrogenase in each of the cell lines, and found the levels of this enzyme in the tumor cell lines elevated 2- to 20-fold relative to the levels in normal cells.

  7. Characterization of high-current, high-temperature superconductor current lead elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemann, R.C.; Evans, D.J.; Fisher, B.L.; Brockenborough, W.E.; Roberts, P.R.; Rodenbush, A.J.

    1996-08-01

    The refrigeration loads of current leads for superconducting magnets can be significantly reduced by using high-temperature superconductor (HTS) leads. An HTS conductor type that is well suited for this application is a laminated sintered stack of HTS powder-in-tube (PIT) tapes. The superconducting elements are normally characterized by their manufacturer by measuring critical currents at 77 K in self field. Additional characterization, which correlates electrical performance at 77 K and at lower temperatures with applied magnetic fields, provides the current lead designer and conductor element manufacturer with critical information. For HTS conductor elements comprising a laminated and sintered stack of Bi-2223 PIT tapes having an alloyed Ag sheath, this characterization uses variable applied fields and operating temperatures.

  8. Temperature detection in a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lacy, Benjamin; Kraemer, Gilbert; Stevenson, Christian

    2012-12-18

    A temperature detector includes a first metal and a second metal different from the first metal. The first metal includes a plurality of wires and the second metal includes a wire. The plurality of wires of the first metal are connected to the wire of the second metal in parallel junctions. Another temperature detector includes a plurality of resistance temperature detectors. The plurality of resistance temperature detectors are connected at a plurality of junctions. A method of detecting a temperature change of a component of a turbine includes providing a temperature detector include ing a first metal and a second metal different from the first metal connected to each other at a plurality of junctions in contact with the component; and detecting any voltage change at any junction.

  9. Calculation of variable-base degree-days and degree-nights from monthly average temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonderegger, R.; Cleary, P.; Dickinson, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Computerized Instrumented Residential Audit (CIRA), a micro-computer building energy analysis program developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, uses a monthly variable-base degree-day method to calculate heating and cooling loads. The method's unique feature is its ability to model thermostat setbacks and storage of solar gain. The program accomplishes this by dividing each day into two periods, ''average day'' (8 a.m. to 8 p.m.) and ''average night'' (8 p.m. to 8 a.m.), with different base temperatures. For each mode (heating or cooling) and for each period (day or night), the program reconstructs degree-days as a function of average monthly day or night temperature using three empirical coefficients specific to the location. A comparison is made between degree-days computed from hourly weather tapes and those predicted using this method. The root mean square error between predicted and actual degree days is typically between 3 and 12 degree-days per month. Tables of the coefficients are given for over 150 locations in the United States, computed from hourly dry-bulb temperatures on TRY and TMY tapes. Seasonal predictions of heating and cooling energy budgets using this method show good correspondence to the DOE-2 hourly simulation method.

  10. Optical temperature indicator using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    A reversible optical temperature indicator utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to various temperature levels. The thermochromic material is enclosed in an enamel which provides protection and prevents breakdown at higher temperatures. Cadmium sulfide is the preferred semiconductor material. The indicator may be utilized as a sign or in a striped arrangement to clearly provide a warning to a user. The various color responses provide multiple levels of alarm.

  11. Optical temperature indicator using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1996-01-01

    A reversible optical temperature indicator utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to various temperature levels. The thermochromic material is enclosed in an enamel which provides protection and prevents breakdown at higher temperatures. Cadmium sulfide is the preferred semiconductor material. The indicator may be utilized as a sign or in a striped arrangement to clearly provide a warning to a user. The various color responses provide multiple levels of alarm.

  12. Taking an engine`s temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, S.W.; Beshears, D.L.; Cates, M.R.; Noel, B.W.; Turley, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    Ceramic and ceramic-coated components will be of increasing importance in the advanced engines now under development. Ceramics enable engines to run at much higher temperatures than the superalloys in more conventional engines can. The two options for noncontact high-temperature measurements of ceramic components are pyrometry and phosphor thermometry. This article describes how when properly applied as a thin coating, thermally sensitive phosphors can monitor the temperature of ceramic surfaces inside an engine.

  13. Deep Trek High Temperature Electronics Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Ohme

    2007-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative research agreement between Honeywell and U.S. Department of Energy to develop high-temperature electronics. Objects of this development included Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) wafer process development for high temperature, supporting design tools and libraries, and high temperature integrated circuit component development including FPGA, EEPROM, high-resolution A-to-D converter, and a precision amplifier.

  14. Low-temperature geothermal database for Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, G.

    1994-11-01

    The goals of the low-temperature assessment project, performed by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) is aimed primarily at updating the inventory of the nation's low and moderate temperature geothermal resources. The study has begun in Oregon, where the areas of Paisley, Lakeview, Burns/Hines, Lagrande, and Vale were identified over 40 sites as having potential for direct heat utilization. Specifics sites are outlined, detailing water temperature, flow, and current uses of the sites.

  15. Static Temperature Survey | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2003. Estimation of static formation temperatures in geothermal wells. Energy conversion and management. 44(8):1343-1355. Page Area Activity Start Date Activity...

  16. Testing at Cryogenic Temperatures: Engineering, Materials, and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing - EpoxyGlass Composite CTD has characterized both metallic and compositepolymers through a wide range of temperatures Materials behave differently at cryogenic ...

  17. Quantitative Modeling of High Temperature Magnetization Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Shufeng

    2009-03-01

    Final Technical Report Project title: Quantitative Modeling of High Temperature Magnetization Dynamics DOE/Office of Science Program Manager Contact: Dr. James Davenport

  18. Pressure Temperature Log | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to reach equilibrium with the surrounding formation is going to provide the most accurate reservoir temperature (Blackwell, et al., 2010). Potential Pitfalls Fluids are being...

  19. Thermodynamic Advantages of Low Temperature Combustion Engines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermodynamic cycle simulation was used to evaluate low temperature combustion in systematic and sequential fashion to base engine design. PDF icon deer10caton.pdf More Documents ...

  20. High-temperature brazed ceramic joints

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jarvinen, Philip O.

    1986-01-01

    High-temperature joints formed from metallized ceramics are disclosed wherein the metal coatings on the ceramics are vacuum sputtered thereon.

  1. Geothermal Energy Production from Low Temperature Resources,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Energy Production from Low Temperature Resources, Coproduced Fluids from Oil and Gas Wells, and Geopressured Resources Jump to: navigation, search Geothermal ARRA Funded...

  2. Low-Temperature Geothermal Projects Nationwide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE Geothermal Technologies

    2013-04-01

    Poster of low-temperature and co-produced geothermal projects nationwide. This map poster summarizes completed, ongoing and proposed projects for FY14.

  3. Americulture Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Americulture Sector Geothermal energy Type Aquaculture Location Animas, New Mexico Coordinates 31.9489799, -108.8072777...

  4. Low Temperature Direct Use Aquaculture Geothermal Facilities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low Temperature Direct Use Aquaculture Geothermal Facilities Jump to: navigation, search Loading map... "format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":"ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYB...

  5. Low Temperature Direct Use Greenhouse Geothermal Facilities ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low Temperature Direct Use Greenhouse Geothermal Facilities Jump to: navigation, search Loading map... "format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":"ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBR...

  6. High-temperature superconductivity: A conventional conundrum...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: High-temperature superconductivity: A conventional conundrum Citation ... OSTI Identifier: 1245373 Report Number(s): BNL--111729-2016-JA Journal ID: ISSN 1745-2473; ...

  7. Edward's Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Technology's Geo-Heat Center Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleEdward%27sGreenhousesGreenhouseLowTemperatureGeothermalFacility&oldid305261" ...

  8. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -- Washington D.C. PDF icon lm028laracurzio2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory and...

  9. Hawaii Water Well Temperature and Hydraulic Head

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nicole Lautze

    2014-12-01

    .csv file consisting of the water well temperature and water table elevation for wells in the State of Hawaii. Data source, Hawaii Commission of Water Resources Management.

  10. Low Temperature Direct Use Industrial Geothermal Facilities ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low Temperature Direct Use Industrial Geothermal Facilities Jump to: navigation, search Loading map... "format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":"ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBR...

  11. Hydrothermal Convection Systems with Reservoir Temperatures greater...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems with Reservoir Temperatures greater than or equal to 90 degrees C Authors Brook, Mariner, Mabey, Swanson, Guffanti and Muffler Published Journal Assessment of...

  12. High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) - PSD Directorate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Collaborative Materials Research The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program is on hiatus due to federal budget reductions. However, research projects...

  13. Low Temperature Material Bonding Techniq Ue

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael; Foote, Robert S.

    2002-08-06

    A method of performing a lower temperature bonding technique to bond together two mating pieces of glass includes applying a sodium silicate aqueous solution between the two pieces.

  14. Relativistic Random Phase Approximation At Finite Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niu, Y. F.; Paar, N.; Vretenar, D.; Meng, J.

    2009-08-26

    The fully self-consistent finite temperature relativistic random phase approximation (FTRRPA) has been established in the single-nucleon basis of the temperature dependent Dirac-Hartree model (FTDH) based on effective Lagrangian with density dependent meson-nucleon couplings. Illustrative calculations in the FTRRPA framework show the evolution of multipole responses of {sup 132}Sn with temperature. With increased temperature, in both monopole and dipole strength distributions additional transitions appear in the low energy region due to the new opened particle-particle and hole-hole transition channels.

  15. Membranes and MEAs at Freezing Temperatures

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Phil Ross to DOE's Fuel Cell Operations at Sub-Freezing Temperatures Workshop held February 1-5, 2005 in Phoenix, Arizona.

  16. Low temperature proton conducting oxide devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Timothy R.; Payzant, Edward A.; Speakman, Scott A.; Greenblatt, Martha

    2008-08-19

    A device for conducting protons at a temperature below 550.degree. C. includes a LAMOX ceramic body characterized by an alpha crystalline structure.

  17. High Temperature Electrolysis for Efficient Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Electrolysis Project History and Background * INL served as the lead ... technology for continued development toward early deployment (based on the ...

  18. understanding the low-temperature combustion chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    low-temperature combustion chemistry - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home ... EnergyWater History Water Monitoring & Treatment Technology Decision Models for ...

  19. Heavy Duty Low-Temperature & Diesel Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low-Temperature & Diesel Combustion - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home ... EnergyWater History Water Monitoring & Treatment Technology Decision Models for ...

  20. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laboratory and HTML User Program Success Stories Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory and HTML User Program Success Stories 2012 DOE ...