Sample records for normal radiation dni

  1. Comparison of Direct Normal Irradiance Derived from Silicon and Thermopile Global Hemispherical Radiation Detectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating solar applications utilize direct normal irradiance (DNI) radiation, a measurement rarely available. The solar concentrator industry has begun to deploy numerous measurement stations to prospect for suitable system deployment sites. Rotating shadowband radiometers (RSR) using silicon photodiodes as detectors are typically deployed. This paper compares direct beam estimates from RSR to a total hemispherical measuring radiometer (SPN1) multiple fast thermopiles. These detectors simultaneously measure total and diffuse radiation from which DNI can be computed. Both the SPN1 and RSR-derived DNI are compared to DNI measured with thermopile pyrheliometers. Our comparison shows that the SPN1 radiometer DNI estimated uncertainty is somewhat greater than, and on the same order as, the RSR DNI estimates for DNI magnitudes useful to concentrator technologies.

  2. SciTech Connect: Effect of radiation on normal hematopoiesis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of radiation on normal hematopoiesis and on viral induced cancer of the hematopoietic system. Technical progress report, August 1, 1973--July 31, 1974 Citation Details...

  3. Insolation data manual and direct normal solar radiation data manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Insolation Data Manual presents monthly averaged data which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service (NWS) stations, principally in the United States. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24--25 years of data, generally from 1952--1975, and listed for each location. Insolation values represent monthly average daily totals of global radiation on a horizontal surface and are depicted using the three units of measurement: kJ/m{sup 2} per day, Btu/ft{sup 2} per day and langleys per day. Average daily maximum, minimum and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3 C (65 F). For each station, global {bar K}{sub T} (cloudiness index) values were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. Global {bar K}{sub T} is an index of cloudiness and indicates fractional transmittance of horizontal radiation, from the top of the atmosphere to the earth's surface. The second section of this volume presents long-term monthly and annual averages of direct normal solar radiation for 235 NWS stations, including a discussion of the basic derivation process. This effort is in response to a generally recognized need for reliable direct normal data and the recent availability of 23 years of hourly averages for 235 stations. The relative inaccessibility of these data on microfiche further justifies reproducing at least the long-term averages in a useful format. In addition to a definition of terms and an overview of the ADIPA model, a discussion of model validation results is presented.

  4. Pelvic Normal Tissue Contouring Guidelines for Radiation Therapy: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Panel Atlas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gay, Hiram A., E-mail: hgay@radonc.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Barthold, H. Joseph [Commonwealth Hematology and Oncology, Weymouth, MA (United States); Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (Israel); O'Meara, Elizabeth [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bosch, Walter R. [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); El Naqa, Issam [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Al-Lozi, Rawan [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Rosenthal, Seth A. [Radiation Oncology Centers, Radiological Associates of Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (United States); Lawton, Colleen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Lee, W. Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Sandler, Howard [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Zietman, Anthony [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Myerson, Robert [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Dawson, Laura A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Willett, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Kachnic, Lisa A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Jhingran, Anuja [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Portelance, Lorraine [University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Ryu, Janice [Radiation Oncology Centers, Radiological Associates of Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (United States); and others

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To define a male and female pelvic normal tissue contouring atlas for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials. Methods and Materials: One male pelvis computed tomography (CT) data set and one female pelvis CT data set were shared via the Image-Guided Therapy QA Center. A total of 16 radiation oncologists participated. The following organs at risk were contoured in both CT sets: anus, anorectum, rectum (gastrointestinal and genitourinary definitions), bowel NOS (not otherwise specified), small bowel, large bowel, and proximal femurs. The following were contoured in the male set only: bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles, and penile bulb. The following were contoured in the female set only: uterus, cervix, and ovaries. A computer program used the binomial distribution to generate 95% group consensus contours. These contours and definitions were then reviewed by the group and modified. Results: The panel achieved consensus definitions for pelvic normal tissue contouring in RTOG trials with these standardized names: Rectum, AnoRectum, SmallBowel, Colon, BowelBag, Bladder, UteroCervix, Adnexa{sub R}, Adnexa{sub L}, Prostate, SeminalVesc, PenileBulb, Femur{sub R}, and Femur{sub L}. Two additional normal structures whose purpose is to serve as targets in anal and rectal cancer were defined: AnoRectumSig and Mesorectum. Detailed target volume contouring guidelines and images are discussed. Conclusions: Consensus guidelines for pelvic normal tissue contouring were reached and are available as a CT image atlas on the RTOG Web site. This will allow uniformity in defining normal tissues for clinical trials delivering pelvic radiation and will facilitate future normal tissue complication research.

  5. Synchrotron radiation damage observations in normal incidence copper mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Melendez, J.; Colbert, J.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water-cooled copper mirrors used at near-normal incidence on two beam lines at the NSLS are observed to undergo severe degradation upon exposure to the direct SR beam. These mirrors are used on beam lines designed to utilize radiation in the wavelength regions longer than 100 nm and are coated with a uv reflection-enhancing coating, consisting of one or more bilayers of aluminum with a MgF/sub 2/ overcoat. Beamline performance degrades very rapidly following installation of a new set of mirrors. Analysis of the mirror surfaces by various non-destructive techniques indicates severe degradation of the coating and surface along the central strip where most of the x-ray power is absorbed from the beam. In one case where the mirror had three bilayer coatings, the outer coating layer has disappeared along the central strip. Rutherford backscatter measurements indicate compositional changes between layers and confirm the existence of a carbon deposit on the surface. Thermal modeling suggests that most of the damage is caused by direct photon interaction, since the temperature rise in the energy deposition region is small.

  6. Surface Radiation from GOES: A Physical Approach; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Models to compute Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) have been in development over the last 3 decades. These models can be classified as empirical or physical, based on the approach. Empirical models relate ground based observations with satellite measurements and use these relations to compute surface radiation. Physical models consider the radiation received from the earth at the satellite and create retrievals to estimate surface radiation. While empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation for the solar energy industry the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from NOAA that computes GHI using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the GOES satellites. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and uses those properties in a radiative transfer model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, University of Wisconsin and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a 4 km GHI and DNI product every 30 minutes. This paper presents an outline of the methodology and a comprehensive validation using high quality ground based solar data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) (http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/surfrad/sitepage.html) and Integrated Surface Insolation Study (ISIS) http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/isis/isissites.html), the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Sun Spot One (SS1) stations.

  7. Integral radiation dose to normal structures with conformal external beam radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aoyama, Hidefumi [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States) and Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)]. E-mail: hao@radi.med.hokudai.ac.jp; Westerly, David Clark [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mackie, Thomas Rockwell [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); TomoTherapy Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Olivera, Gustavo H. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); TomoTherapy Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Bentzen, Soren M. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Patel, Rakesh R. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Jaradat, Hazim [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tome, Wolfgang A. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ritter, Mark A. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mehta, Minesh P. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Background: This study was designed to evaluate the integral dose (ID) received by normal tissue from intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five radiation treatment plans including IMRT using a conventional linac with both 6 MV (6MV-IMRT) and 20 MV (20MV-IMRT), as well as three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) using 6 MV (6MV-3DCRT) and 20 MV (20MV-3DCRT) and IMRT using tomotherapy (6MV) (Tomo-IMRT), were created for 5 patients with localized prostate cancer. The ID (mean dose x tissue volume) received by normal tissue (NTID) was calculated from dose-volume histograms. Results: The 6MV-IMRT resulted in 5.0% lower NTID than 6MV-3DCRT; 20 MV beam plans resulted in 7.7%-11.2% lower NTID than 6MV-3DCRT. Tomo-IMRT NTID was comparable to 6MV-IMRT. Compared with 6MV-3DCRT, 6MV-IMRT reduced IDs to the rectal wall and penile bulb by 6.1% and 2.7%, respectively. Tomo-IMRT further reduced these IDs by 11.9% and 16.5%, respectively. The 20 MV did not reduce IDs to those structures. Conclusions: The difference in NTID between 3DCRT and IMRT is small. The 20 MV plans somewhat reduced NTID compared with 6 MV plans. The advantage of tomotherapy over conventional IMRT and 3DCRT for localized prostate cancer was demonstrated in regard to dose sparing of rectal wall and penile bulb while slightly decreasing NTID as compared with 6MV-3DCRT.

  8. Improved Methodology to Measure Normal Incident Solar Radiation with a Multi-Pyranometer Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltazar, J.C.; Sun, Y.; Haberl, J.

    ESL-PA-13-11-02 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Energy Procedia 00 (2013) 000–000 www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia 2013 ISES Solar World Congress Improved Methodology to Measure Normal... Incident Solar Radiation with a Multi-Pyranometer Array Juan-Carlos Baltazar*, Yifu Sun, Jeff Haberl Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M Engineering Experiment Station, The Texas A&M University System College Station, TX 77845, U.S.A. Abstract...

  9. Static jaw collimation settings to minimize radiation dose to normal brain tissue during stereotactic radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Eun Young, E-mail: eyhan@uams.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Zhang Xin; Yan Yulong; Sharma, Sunil; Penagaricano, Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Moros, Eduardo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Corry, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is performed by using a linear accelerator with an add-on micromultileaf collimator (mMLC). In our clinical setting, static jaws are automatically adapted to the furthest edge of the mMLC-defined segments with 2-mm (X jaw) and 5-mm (Y jaw) margin and the same jaw values are applied for all beam angles in the treatment planning system. This additional field gap between the static jaws and the mMLC allows additional radiation dose to normal brain tissue. Because a radiosurgery procedure consists of a single high dose to the planning target volume (PTV), reduction of unnecessary dose to normal brain tissue near the PTV is important, particularly for pediatric patients whose brains are still developing or when a critical organ, such as the optic chiasm, is near the PTV. The purpose of this study was to minimize dose to normal brain tissue by allowing minimal static jaw margin around the mMLC-defined fields and different static jaw values for each beam angle or arc. Dose output factors were measured with various static jaw margins and the results were compared with calculated doses in the treatment planning system. Ten patient plans were randomly selected and recalculated with zero static jaw margins without changing other parameters. Changes of PTV coverage, mean dose to predefined normal brain tissue volume adjacent to PTV, and monitor units were compared. It was found that the dose output percentage difference varied from 4.9-1.3% for the maximum static jaw opening vs. static jaw with zero margins. The mean dose to normal brain tissue at risk adjacent to the PTV was reduced by an average of 1.9%, with negligible PTV coverage loss. This dose reduction strategy may be meaningful in terms of late effects of radiation, particularly in pediatric patients. This study generated clinical knowledge and tools to consistently minimize dose to normal brain tissue.

  10. Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling of Radiation-Induced Hypothyroidism After Head-and-Neck Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakhshandeh, Mohsen [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, Bijan, E-mail: bhashemi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahdavi, Seied Rabi Mehdi [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nikoofar, Alireza; Vasheghani, Maryam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hafte-Tir Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hafte-Tir Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan [Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To determine the dose-response relationship of the thyroid for radiation-induced hypothyroidism in head-and-neck radiation therapy, according to 6 normal tissue complication probability models, and to find the best-fit parameters of the models. Methods and Materials: Sixty-five patients treated with primary or postoperative radiation therapy for various cancers in the head-and-neck region were prospectively evaluated. Patient serum samples (tri-iodothyronine, thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], free tri-iodothyronine, and free thyroxine) were measured before and at regular time intervals until 1 year after the completion of radiation therapy. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the patients' thyroid gland were derived from their computed tomography (CT)-based treatment planning data. Hypothyroidism was defined as increased TSH (subclinical hypothyroidism) or increased TSH in combination with decreased free thyroxine and thyroxine (clinical hypothyroidism). Thyroid DVHs were converted to 2 Gy/fraction equivalent doses using the linear-quadratic formula with {alpha}/{beta} = 3 Gy. The evaluated models included the following: Lyman with the DVH reduced to the equivalent uniform dose (EUD), known as LEUD; Logit-EUD; mean dose; relative seriality; individual critical volume; and population critical volume models. The parameters of the models were obtained by fitting the patients' data using a maximum likelihood analysis method. The goodness of fit of the models was determined by the 2-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Ranking of the models was made according to Akaike's information criterion. Results: Twenty-nine patients (44.6%) experienced hypothyroidism. None of the models was rejected according to the evaluation of the goodness of fit. The mean dose model was ranked as the best model on the basis of its Akaike's information criterion value. The D{sub 50} estimated from the models was approximately 44 Gy. Conclusions: The implemented normal tissue complication probability models showed a parallel architecture for the thyroid. The mean dose model can be used as the best model to describe the dose-response relationship for hypothyroidism complication.

  11. Normal Liver Tissue Density Dose Response in Patients Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Liver Metastases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howells, Christopher C.; Stinauer, Michelle A.; Diot, Quentin; Westerly, David C.; Schefter, Tracey E.; Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Miften, Moyed, E-mail: Moyed.Miften@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate the temporal dose response of normal liver tissue for patients with liver metastases treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Ninety-nine noncontrast follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans of 34 patients who received SBRT between 2004 and 2011 were retrospectively analyzed at a median of 8 months post-SBRT (range, 0.7-36 months). SBRT-induced normal liver tissue density changes in follow-up CT scans were evaluated at 2, 6, 10, 15, and 27 months. The dose distributions from planning CTs were mapped to follow-up CTs to relate the mean Hounsfield unit change ({Delta}HU) to dose received over the range 0-55 Gy in 3-5 fractions. An absolute density change of 7 HU was considered a significant radiographic change in normal liver tissue. Results: Increasing radiation dose was linearly correlated with lower post-SBRT liver tissue density (slope, -0.65 {Delta}HU/5 Gy). The threshold for significant change (-7 {Delta}HU) was observed in the range of 30-35 Gy. This effect did not vary significantly over the time intervals evaluated. Conclusions: SBRT induces a dose-dependent and relatively time-independent hypodense radiation reaction within normal liver tissue that is characterized by a decrease of >7 HU in liver density for doses >30-35 Gy.

  12. SU-E-J-190: Characterization of Radiation Induced CT Number Changes in Tumor and Normal Lung During Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, C; Liu, F; Tai, A; Gore, E; Johnstone, C; Li, X [Medical College of Wisconsin Milwaukee WI (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To measure CT number (CTN) changes in tumor and normal lung as a function of radiation therapy (RT) dose during the course of RT delivery for lung cancer using daily IGRT CT images and single respiration phase CT images. Methods: 4D CT acquired during planning simulation and daily 3D CT acquired during daily IGRT for 10 lung cancer cases randomly selected in terms of age, caner type and stage, were analyzed using an in-house developed software tool. All patients were treated in 2 Gy fractions to primary tumors and involved nodal regions. Regions enclosed by a series of isodose surfaces in normal lung were delineated. The obtained contours along with target contours (GTVs) were populated to each singlephase planning CT and daily CT. CTN in term of Hounsfield Unit (HU) of each voxel in these delineated regions were collectively analyzed using histogram, mean, mode and linear correlation. Results: Respiration induced normal lung CTN change, as analyzed from single-phase planning CTs, ranged from 9 to 23 (±2) HU for the patients studied. Normal lung CTN change was as large as 50 (±12) HU over the entire treatment course, was dose and patient dependent and was measurable with dose changes as low as 1.5 Gy. For patients with obvious tumor volume regression, CTN within the GTV drops monotonically as much as 10 (±1) HU during the early fractions with a total dose of 20 Gy delivered. The GTV and CTN reductions are significantly correlated with correlation coefficient >0.95. Conclusion: Significant RT dose induced CTN changes in lung tissue and tumor region can be observed during even the early phase of RT delivery, and may potentially be used for early prediction of radiation response. Single respiration phase CT images have dramatically reduced statistical noise in ROIs, making daily dose response evaluation possible.

  13. Improved Methodology to Measure Normal Incident Solar Radiation with a Multi-Pyranometer Array 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltazar, J.C.; Sun, Y.; Haberl, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at different tilt and azimuth angles, and that can be used to estimate the normal incident component without the tracking devices that require more detailed installation and maintenance.. The array’s sensors are of the photovoltaic type, which require both... for photovoltaic-type solar sensor, and using similar approach, a number of solutions for switching schemes was presented by Miloslaw [7]. However, those methods still cannot provide high accuracy for the whole estimation period and the methods still present...

  14. DNI-predictability_paper

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration wouldDECOMPOSITION OF CALCIUM SULFATE: A REVIEWThis rcportJ

  15. Normal shock solutions to the viscous shock layer equations including thermal, chemical, thermodynamic, and radiative nonequilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mott, David Ray

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    term (Eq. (12)) density relaxation time inelastic energy exchange term (Eq. (12)) Subscripts and Superscripts b b c cal e f 1 i initial J P r s tr v V backward reaction boundary center, as in X, calibration constant electron... such experiments vital in the verification of nonequilibrium chemical and radiation models. PUMPING ASSEMBLT CDAxIAL CABLE HousING L ? --I r- 2sTDPFARAb )'V& DRIVER HIGHPRESSURE DIAPHRAGM TRANSITION SECTION Cl~ ALUMINUM TUBE TUBE t2OFTI TUBE I 10 F...

  16. Regional Normal Lung Tissue Density Changes in Patients Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Lung Tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diot, Quentin, E-mail: quentin.diot@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Kavanagh, Brian; Schefter, Tracey; Gaspar, Laurie; Stuhr, Kelly; Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To describe regional lung tissue density changes in normal lung tissue of patients with primary and metastatic lung tumors who received stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 179 post-SBRT follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans of 62 patients who received SBRT between 2003 and 2009 were studied. Median prescription dose was 54 Gy (range, 30-60 Gy) in 3 to 5 fractions. SBRT-induced lung density changes on post-SBRT follow-up CT were evaluated at approximately 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months after treatment. Dose-response curves (DRC) were generated for SBRT-induced lung damage by averaging CT number (HU) changes for regions of the lungs receiving the same dose at 5-Gy intervals. Results: For all follow-up interval periods, CT numbers linearly increased with dose until 35 Gy and were constant thereafter. For 3, 18, 24, and 30 months, the rate of relative electron density increase with dose was approximately 0.24% per Gy. At 6 months, the rate was also similar below 20 Gy but then rose to 0.6% per Gy above this threshold. After 6 months, DRCs were mostly time-independent. When split between patients treated with 3 fractions of 12 to 20 Gy (median, 20 Gy; average tumor volume, 12 {+-} 16 cm{sup 3}) and with >3 fractions of 6 to 12.5 Gy (median, 9 Gy; average tumor volume, 30 {+-} 40 cm{sup 3}), DRCs differed significantly. In both cases, CT changes at 3, 18, 24, and 30 months were identical to those of the population DRC; however, patients who received >3 fractions showed 6-month CT changes that were more than twice those for the group that received 3 fractions. Conclusions: This analysis of SBRT-induced normal lung density changes indicates that lung normal tissue has more pronounced self-limited acute effects than late effects. Differences in acute CT changes following treatments in 3 fractions were considerably less than for treatments in >3 fractions.

  17. The prostaglandin E{sub 1} analog, misoprostol, a normal tissue protector, does not protect four murine tumors in vivo from radiation injury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, W.R.; Zhen, W.; Geng, L. [Loyola Univ. Chicago and Hines Veterans Administration Medical Centers, Hines, IL (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The clinical development of radioprotectors, such as misoprostol, to protect normal tissue during cancer treatment must proceed with the assurance that tumors are not protected similarly or significantly. To provide data on this critical question, radiation-induced growth delay with or without the presence of misoprostol was measured in four murine tumors grown in the flanks of mice: the Lewis lung carcinoma, M-5076 ovarian sarcoma, FSA and NFSA. The effect of misoprostol on the tumor control dose (TCD{sub 50}) of radiation was measured in FSA-bearing mice with or without prior treatment with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, indomethacin. Misoprostol did not influence the in vivo growth of any of the four tumors, nor did it protect any of the tumors from radiation-induced growth delay. Likewise, there was no increase in the radiation TCD{sub 50} to treat the FSA in vivo in control or indomethacin-treated tumor-bearing mice. To measure any possible influence of tumor burden on the protective effect of miso-prostol on normal tissue in mice, the protective effect of misoprostol on the survival of intestinal clonogenic cells was measured in M-5076-bearing mice and found to be the same as in non-tumor-bearing mice. These data suggest that misoprostol protects normal tissue in mice without protecting at least four experimental murine tumors. The data support the contention that misoprostol can achieve therapeutic gain by protecting normal tissues without protecting tumors. 44 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. US/French Joint Research Program regarding the behavior of polymer base materials subjected to beta radiation. Volume 1. Phase-1 normalization results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyant, F.J.; Buckalew, W.H.; Chenion, J.; Carlin, F.; Gaussens, G.; Le Tutour, P.; Le Meur, M.

    1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the ongoing multi-year joint NRC/CEA international cooperative test program to investigate the dose-damage equivalence of gamma and beta radiation on polymer base materials, dosimetry and ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) specimens were exchanged, irradiated, and evaluated for property changes at research facilities in the US (Sandia National Laboratories) and France (Compagnie ORIS Industrie). The purpose of this Phase-1 test series was to normalize and cross-correlate the results obtained by one research center to the other, in terms of exposure (1.0 MeV accelerated electrons and /sup 60/Co gammas) and postirradiation testing (ultimate elongation and tensile strength, hardness, and density) techniques. The dosimetry and material specimen results indicate good agreement between the two countries regarding the exposure conditions and postirradiation evaluation techniques employed.

  19. Normal Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    User

    NORMAL DlSTRlBUTION TABLE. Entries represent the area under the standardized normal distribution from -w to z, Pr(Z

  20. The dosimetric impact of daily setup error on target volumes and surrounding normal tissue in the treatment of prostate cancer with intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Algan, Ozer, E-mail: oalgan@ouhsc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Jamgade, Ambarish; Ali, Imad; Christie, Alana; Thompson, J. Spencer; Thompson, David; Ahmad, Salahuddin; Herman, Terence [Department of Radiation Oncology, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of daily setup error and interfraction organ motion on the overall dosimetric radiation treatment plans. Twelve patients undergoing definitive intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments for prostate cancer were evaluated in this institutional review board-approved study. Each patient had fiducial markers placed into the prostate gland before treatment planning computed tomography scan. IMRT plans were generated using the Eclipse treatment planning system. Each patient was treated to a dose of 8100 cGy given in 45 fractions. In this study, we retrospectively created a plan for each treatment day that had a shift available. To calculate the dose, the patient would have received under this plan, we mathematically 'negated' the shift by moving the isocenter in the exact opposite direction of the shift. The individualized daily plans were combined to generate an overall plan sum. The dose distributions from these plans were compared with the treatment plans that were used to treat the patients. Three-hundred ninety daily shifts were negated and their corresponding plans evaluated. The mean isocenter shift based on the location of the fiducial markers was 3.3 {+-} 6.5 mm to the right, 1.6 {+-} 5.1 mm posteriorly, and 1.0 {+-} 5.0 mm along the caudal direction. The mean D95 doses for the prostate gland when setup error was corrected and uncorrected were 8228 and 7844 cGy (p < 0.002), respectively, and for the planning target volume (PTV8100) was 8089 and 7303 cGy (p < 0.001), respectively. The mean V95 values when patient setup was corrected and uncorrected were 99.9% and 87.3%, respectively, for the PTV8100 volume (p < 0.0001). At an individual patient level, the difference in the D95 value for the prostate volume could be >1200 cGy and for the PTV8100 could approach almost 2000 cGy when comparing corrected against uncorrected plans. There was no statistically significant difference in the D35 parameter for the surrounding normal tissue except for the dose received by the penile bulb and the right hip. Our dosimetric evaluation suggests significant underdosing with inaccurate target localization and emphasizes the importance of accurate patient setup and target localization. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of intrafraction organ motion, rotation, and deformation on doses delivered to target volumes.

  1. RADIATION SENSITIVITY & PROCESSING OF DNA DAMAGE FOLLOWING LOW DOSES OF GAMMA-RAY ALPHA PARTICLES & HZE IRRADIATION OF NORMAL DSB REPAIR DEFICIENT CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Neil, Peter

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) predominates in the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) over homologous recombination (HR). NHEJ occurs throughout the cell cycle whereas HR occurs in late S/G2 due to the requirement of a sister chromatid (Rothkamm et al, Mol Cell Biol 23 5706-15 [2003]). To date evidence obtained with DSB repair deficient cells using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis has revealed the major pathway throughout all phases of the cell cycle for processing high dose induced DSBs is NHEJ (Wang et al, Oncogene 20 2212-24 (2001); Pluth et al, Cancer Res. 61 2649-55 [2001]). These findings however were obtained at high doses when on average >> 20-30 DSBs are formed per cell. The contribution of the repair pathways (NHEJ and HR) induced in response to DNA damage during the various phases of the cell cycle may depend upon the dose (the level of initial DSBs) especially since low levels of DSBs are induced at low dose. To date, low dose studies using NHEJ and HR deficient mutants have not been carried out to address this important question with radiations of different quality. The work presented here leads us to suggest that HR plays a relatively minor role in the repair of radiation-induced prompt DSBs. SSBs lead to the induction of DSBs which are associated specifically with S-phase cells consistent with the idea that they are formed at stalled replication forks in which HR plays a major role in repair. That DNA-PKcs is in some way involved in the repair of the precursors to replication-induced DSB remains an open question. Persistent non-DSB oxidative damage also leads to an increase in RAD51 positive DSBs. Both simple and complex non-DSB DNA damage may therefore contribute to indirect DSBs induced by ionising radiation at replication forks.

  2. Alpha/Beta Ratio for Normal Lung Tissue as Estimated From Lung Cancer Patients Treated With Stereotactic Body and Conventionally Fractionated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheenstra, Alize E.H.; Rossi, Maddalena M.G.; Belderbos, José S.A.; Damen, Eugène M.F.; Lebesque, Joos V.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob, E-mail: j.sonke@nki.nl

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To estimate the ?/? ratio for which the dose-dependent lung perfusion reductions for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and conventionally fractionated radiation therapy (CFRT) are biologically equivalent. Methods and Materials: The relations between local dose and perfusion reduction 4 months after treatment in lung cancer patients treated with SBRT and CFRT were scaled according to the linear-quadratic model using ?/? ratios from 0 Gy to ? Gy. To test for which ?/? ratio both treatments have equal biological effect, a 5-parameter logistic model was optimized for both dose–effect relationships simultaneously. Beside the ?/? ratio, the other 4 parameters were d{sub 50}, the steepness parameter k, and 2 parameters (M{sub SBRT} and M{sub CFRT}) representing the maximal perfusion reduction at high doses for SBRT and CFRT, respectively. Results: The optimal fitted model resulted in an ?/? ratio of 1.3 Gy (0.5-2.1 Gy), M{sub SBRT} = 42.6% (40.4%-44.9%), M{sub CFRT} = 66.9% (61.6%-72.1%), d{sub 50} = 35.4 Gy (31.5-9.2 Gy), and k = 2.0 (1.7-2.3). Conclusions: An equal reduction of lung perfusion in lung cancer was observed in SBRT and CFRT if local doses were converted by the linear-quadratic model with an ?/? ratio equal to 1.3 Gy (0.5-2.1 Gy)

  3. ccsd00003444, Jordan Normal and Rational Normal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that the characteristic polynomial can be fully factorized (see e.g. Fortuna-Gianni for rational normal forms

  4. Radiation: Radiation Control (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It is the policy of the state to encourage the constructive uses of radiation and to control its harmful effects. This section contains regulations pertaining to the manufacture, use,...

  5. DIRECT NORMAL IRRADIANCE FOR CSP BASED ON SATELLITE IMAGES OF METEOSAT SECOND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    Ertragsprognose Solarthermischer Kraftwerke ­ standardization of yield prognosis for solar thermal power plants) are needed for the planning of a solar thermal power plant at a given site. Direct solar irradiance is highly). As for concentrating solar power (CSP) the frequency distribution of DNI is of special importance, special attention

  6. Laser-induced differential normalized fluorescence method for cancer diagnosis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, T.; Panjehpour, M.; Overholt, B.F.

    1996-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample. 5 figs.

  7. Laser-induced differential normalized fluorescence method for cancer diagnosis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan (Knoxville, TN); Panjehpour, Masoud (Knoxville, TN); Overholt, Bergein F. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample.

  8. Asymptotic normalization coefficients, spectroscopic factors, and direct radiative capture rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhamedzhanov, AM; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Tribble, Robert E.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and proton p, is given by IAp B ~r!5~A11 !1/2^wA~zA!wp~zp!uwB~zA ,zp ;r!& 5 ( lBmlB jBm jB ^JAM A jBm jBuJBM B& 3^JpM plBmlBu jBm jB&i lBY lBmlB~r?!IAp lB jB B ~r !. ~1! For each nucleus w represents the bound state wave function with z being a set... and the microscopic RGM. In the simple one-channel RGM, the overlap function is given by IAp B(RGM )~r!5^A@wA~zA!wp~zp!d~r82r!#uA 3@wA~zA!wp~zp!d~r2r8!xAp~r!#& 5E drK~r,r!xAp~r!, ~8! where A denotes antisymmetrization between nucleons of nuclei A and p, xAp...

  9. On Normal Numbers Veronica Becher

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figueira, Santiago

    ends with all zeros; hence, q is not simply normal to base b. 3/23 #12;The problem is still open Theorem (Borel 1909) Almost all real numbers are absolutely normal. Problem (Borel 1909) Give an example transducers. Huffman 1959 calls them lossless compressors. A direct proof of the above theorem Becher

  10. Normal matter storage of antiprotons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, L.J.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various simple issues connected with the possible storage of anti p in relative proximity to normal matter are discussed. Although equilibrium storage looks to be impossible, condensed matter systems are sufficiently rich and controllable that nonequilibrium storage is well worth pursuing. Experiments to elucidate the anti p interactions with normal matter are suggested. 32 refs.

  11. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HULBERT,S.L.; WILLIAMS,G.P.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synchrotron radiation is a very bright, broadband, polarized, pulsed source of light extending from the infrared to the x-ray region. It is an extremely important source of Vacuum Ultraviolet radiation. Brightness is defined as flux per unit area per unit solid angle and is normally a more important quantity than flux alone particularly in throughput limited applications which include those in which monochromators are used. It is well known from classical theory of electricity and magnetism that accelerating charges emit electromagnetic radiation. In the case of synchrotron radiation, relativistic electrons are accelerated in a circular orbit and emit electromagnetic radiation in a broad spectral range. The visible portion of this spectrum was first observed on April 24, 1947 at General Electric's Schenectady facility by Floyd Haber, a machinist working with the synchrotron team, although the first theoretical predictions were by Lienard in the latter part of the 1800's. An excellent early history with references was presented by Blewett and a history covering the development of the utilization of synchrotron radiation was presented by Hartman. Synchrotron radiation covers the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the infrared region through the visible, ultraviolet, and into the x-ray region up to energies of many 10's of kilovolts. If the charged particles are of low mass, such as electrons, and if they are traveling relativistically, the emitted radiation is very intense and highly collimated, with opening angles of the order of 1 milliradian. In electron storage rings there are three possible sources of synchrotron radiation; dipole (bending) magnets; wigglers, which act like a sequence of bending magnets with alternating polarities; and undulators, which are also multi-period alternating magnet systems but in which the beam deflections are small resulting in coherent interference of the emitted light.

  12. Danger radiations

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Le conférencier Mons.Hofert parle des dangers et risques des radiations, le contrôle des zones et les précautions à prendre ( p.ex. film badge), comment mesurer les radiations etc.

  13. Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, T

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: • Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) • Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) • Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) • Upwelling shortwave (reflected) • Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) • Upwelling longwave (surface infrared)

  14. Normalized cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

    1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3{prime} noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 4 figs.

  15. Normalized cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soares, Marcelo B. (New York, NY); Efstratiadis, Argiris (Englewood, NJ)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  16. General Polarization Matrix of Electromagnetic Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muhammet Ali Can; Alexander S. Shumovsky

    2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A general form of the polarization matrix valid for any type of electromagnetic radiation (plane waves, multipole radiation etc.) is defined in terms of a certain bilinear form in the field-strength tensor. The quantum counterpart is determined as an operator matrix with normal-ordered elements with respect to the creation and annihilation operators. The zero-point oscillations (ZPO) of polarization are defined via difference between the anti-normal and normal ordered operator polarization matrices. It is shown that ZPO of the multipole field are stronger than those described by the model of plane waves and are concentrated in a certain neighborhood of a local source.

  17. Evaluating Solar Resource Data Obtained from Multiple Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar radiation resource measurements from radiometers are used to predict and evaluate the performance of photovoltaic and concentrating solar power systems, validate satellite-based models for estimating solar resources, and advance research in solar forecasting and climate change. This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances (GHI) and direct normal irradiances (DNI). These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband irradiometers, and a pyranometer with a shading ring deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference GHI and DNI.

  18. Radiative ?(1S) decays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baringer, Philip S.

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    — wW~ ii~ ~ + v~ 1''&WV'' V 0.20 0.45 0.70 ~y ~ EBFA~ 0.95 l.20 FIG. 4. Energy spectrum (normalized to beam energy) for Y~y2(h+h ) event candidates, with continuum data and ex- pected background from Y~m 2(h +h ) overplotted. 40 30— ~ 20— LLI IO— hl...PHYSICAL REVIEW 0 VOLUME 41, NUMBER 5 Radiative T(lS) decays 1 MARCH 1990 R. Fulton, M. Hempstead, T. Jensen, D. R. Johnson, H. Kagan, R. Kass, F. Morrow, and J. Whitmore Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 W.-Y. Chen, J. Dominick, R. L. Mc...

  19. Radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fultz, Brent T. (Berkeley, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and X-rays generated in backscatter Mossbauer effect spectroscopy and X-ray spectrometry, which has a large "window" for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  20. Radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fultz, B.T.

    1980-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and x-rays generated in backscatter Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and x-ray spectrometry, which has a large window for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  1. Recap Weak Normal EC Strong Normal EC Robustness Combined with WCT Equivalence Class Testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mousavi, Mohammad

    Recap Weak Normal EC Strong Normal EC Robustness Combined with WCT Equivalence Class Testing: Equivalence Class Testing #12;Recap Weak Normal EC Strong Normal EC Robustness Combined with WCT Outline Recap Weak Normal EC Strong Normal EC Robustness Combined with WCT Mousavi: Equivalence Class Testing #12

  2. RADIATION SAFETY TRAINING MANUAL Radiation Safety Office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibille, Etienne

    protection and the potential risks of ionizing radiation. Radiation Safety Office personnel provide.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 II. OVERVIEW OF REGULATIONS, PROTECTION STANDARDS, AND RADIATION SAFETY ORGANIZATION.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 V. BASIC RADIATION PROTECTION PRINCIPLES

  3. Synchrotron radiation from massless charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gal'tsov, D V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Classical radiation power from an accelerated massive charge diverges in the zero-mass limit, while some general arguments suggest that strictly massless charge does not not radiate at all. On the other hand, the regularized classical radiation reaction force, though looking odd, is non-zero and finite. To clarify this controversy, we consider radiation problem in massless scalar quantum electrodynamics in the external magnetic field. In this framework, synchrotron radiation is found to be non-zero, finite, and essentially quantum. Its spectral distribution is calculated using Schwinger's proper time technique for {\\em ab initio} massless particle of zero spin. Provided $E^2\\gg eH$, the maximum in the spectrum is shown to be at $\\hbar \\omega=E/3$, and the average photon energy is $4E/9$. The normalized spectrum is universal, depending neither on $E$ nor on $H$. Quantum nature of radiation makes classical radiation reaction equation meaningless for massless charge. Our results are consistent with the view (sup...

  4. Radiation Safety

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Radiation Protection Regulations: The Federal Regulation

  5. LSU School of Dentistry Laser Safety : Clinical SAFETY PROCEDURES FOR LASER (NON-IONIZING) RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -IONIZING) RADIATION 1. PURPOSE This procedure sets forth the Louisiana State University (LSU) System non-ionizing radiation safety policy and procedural requirements of the program. The use of the term non-ionizing radiation in this document is defined as meaning non-ionizing radiation produced as a result of normal

  6. Solar Radiometric Data Quality Assessment of SIRS, SKYRAD and GNDRAD Measurements (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Stoffel, T.; Reda, I.; Wilcox, S.; Kutchenreiter, M.; Gotseff, P.; Anderberg, M.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar radiation is the driving force for the earth's weather and climate. Understanding the elements of this dynamic energy balance requires accurate measurements of broadband solar irradiance. Since the mid-1990's the ARM Program has deployed pyrheliometers and pyranometers for the measurement of direct normal irradiance (DNI), global horizontal irradiance (GHI), diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI), and upwelling shortwave (US) radiation at permanent and mobile field research sites. This poster summarizes the basis for assessing the broadband solar radiation data available from the SIRS, SKYRAD, and GNDRAD measurement systems and provides examples of data inspections.

  7. Indirect methods of determination of the asymptotic normalization coefficients and their application for nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarmukhamedov, R. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, 100214 Tashkent (Uzbekistan)

    2014-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The basic methods of the determination of asymptotic normalization coefficient for A+a?B of astrophysical interest are briefly presented. The results of the application of the specific asymptotic normalization coefficients derived within these methods for the extrapolation of the astrophysical S factors to experimentally inaccessible energy regions (E ? 25 keV) for the some specific radiative capture A(a,?)B reactions of the pp-chain and the CNO cycle are presented.

  8. Cool covered sky-splitting spectrum-splitting FK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Chaves, Julio; Falicoff, Waqidi; Hernandez, Maikel; Sorgato, Simone [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid (Spain); Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid, Spain and Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain); Buljan, Marina [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Placing a plane mirror between the primary lens and the receiver in a Fresnel Köhler (FK) concentrator gives birth to a quite different CPV system where all the high-tech components sit on a common plane, that of the primary lens panels. The idea enables not only a thinner device (a half of the original) but also a low cost 1-step manufacturing process for the optics, automatic alignment of primary and secondary lenses, and cell/wiring protection. The concept is also compatible with two different techniques to increase the module efficiency: spectrum splitting between a 3J and a BPC Silicon cell for better usage of Direct Normal Irradiance DNI, and sky splitting to harvest the energy of the diffuse radiation and higher energy production throughout the year. Simple calculations forecast the module would convert 45% of the DNI into electricity.

  9. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    1983-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

  10. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

  11. Turing's normal numbers: towards randomness Veronica Becher

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    presumably in 1938 Alan Turing gave an algorithm that produces real numbers normal to every integer base- putable normal numbers, and this result should be attributed to Alan Turing. His manuscript entitled "A

  12. Gravitational Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernard F Schutz

    2000-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravity is one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and it is the dominant force in most astronomical systems. In common with all other phenomena, gravity must obey the principles of special relativity. In particular, gravitational forces must not be transmitted or communicated faster than light. This means that when the gravitational field of an object changes, the changes ripple outwards through space and take a finite time to reach other objects. These ripples are called gravitational radiation or gravitational waves. This article gives a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational radiation, including technical material suitable for non-specialist scientists.

  13. Radiation Protection Act (Pennsylvania)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act combines the radiation safety provisions of The Atomic Energy Development and Radiation Control Act and the Environmental Radiation Protection Act, and empowers the Department of...

  14. SPACE WEATHER, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Log-normal Kalman filter for assimilating1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghil, Michael

    data assimilation methods that are based on least-squares mini-14 mization of normally distributed-space density data in the radiation belts2 D. Kondrashov, 1 M. Ghil 1,3 and Y. Shprits, 1,3 D. Kondrashov Los Angeles, CA 90095-1565, U.S.A. (dkon- dras@atmos.ucla.edu) 1 Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic

  15. Astrophysical S factor for C-13(p,gamma)N-14 and asymptotic normalization coefficients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhamedzhanov, AM; Azhari, A.; Burjan, V.; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Kroha, V.; Sattarov, A.; Tang, X.; Trache, L.; Tribble, Robert E.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We reanalyze the C-13(p,gamma)N-14 radiative capture reaction within the R-matrix approach. The low-energy astrophysical S factor has important contributions from both resonant and onresonant captures. The normalization of the nonresonant component...

  16. Diffusion Tensor Imaging in the Assessment of Normal-Appearing Brain Tissue Damage in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang,Tianzi

    (including medulla oblongata, cerebral peduncle, internal capsule and optic radiation), in corpus callosum Damage in Relapsing Neuromyelitis Optica C.S. Yu F.C. Lin K.C. Li T.Z. Jiang C.Z. Zhu W. Qin H. Sun P. Chan BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Normal-appearing brain tissue (NABT) damage was established in multiple

  17. For the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory Page C.1 6/20/2011 Appendix C: Vocabulary The following cell or module Global Irradiance (GHI) Total solar radiation on a horizontal surface Direct Normal

  18. Lambda hyperonic effect on the normal driplines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Samanta; P. Roy Chowdhury; D. N. Basu

    2008-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A generalized mass formula is used to calculate the neutron and proton drip lines of normal and lambda hypernuclei treating non-strange and strange nuclei on the same footing. Calculations suggest existence of several bound hypernuclei whose normal cores are unbound. Addition of Lambda or, Lambda-Lambda hyperon(s) to a normal nucleus is found to cause shifts of the neutron and proton driplines from their conventional limits.

  19. Evaluation of Radiation Impacts of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage (SNFS-2) of Chernobyl NPP - 13495

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paskevych, Sergiy; Batiy, Valiriy; Sizov, Andriy [Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 36 a Kirova str. Chornobyl, Kiev region, 07200 (Ukraine)] [Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 36 a Kirova str. Chornobyl, Kiev region, 07200 (Ukraine); Schmieman, Eric [Battelle Memorial Institute, PO Box 999 MSIN K6-90, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)] [Battelle Memorial Institute, PO Box 999 MSIN K6-90, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation effects are estimated for the operation of a new dry storage facility for spent nuclear fuel (SNFS-2) of Chernobyl NPP RBMK reactors. It is shown that radiation exposure during normal operation, design and beyond design basis accidents are minor and meet the criteria for safe use of radiation and nuclear facilities in Ukraine. (authors)

  20. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  1. Estimation of the Parameters of Skew Normal Distribution by Approximating the Ratio of the Normal Density and Distribution Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dey, Debarshi

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2 1.2 Normal Distribution and Simple Linear5 1.3 Skew Normal Distribution andthe Standard Normal Density and Distribution Functions 3.1

  2. Radiation dosimeters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoelsher, James W. (Pullman, WA); Hegland, Joel E. (Pullman, WA); Braunlich, Peter F. (Pullman, WA); Tetzlaff, Wolfgang (Pullman, WA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation dosimeters and dosimeter badges. The dosimeter badges include first and second parts which are connected to join using a securement to produce a sealed area in which at least one dosimeter is held and protected. The badge parts are separated to expose the dosimeters to a stimulating laser beam used to read dose exposure information therefrom. The badge is constructed to allow automated disassembly and reassembly in a uniquely fitting relationship. An electronic memory is included to provide calibration and identification information used during reading of the dosimeter. Dosimeter mounts which reduce thermal heating requirements are shown. Dosimeter constructions and production methods using thin substrates and phosphor binder-layers applied thereto are also taught.

  3. Polylogarithmic representation of radiative and thermodynamic properties of thermal radiation in a given spectral range: II. Real-body radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisenko, Anatoliy I

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The general analytical expressions for the thermal radiative and thermodynamic properties of a real-body are obtained in a finite range of frequencies at different temperatures. The frequency dependence of the spectral emissivity is represented as a power series. The Stefan-Boltzmann law, total energy density, number density of photons, Helmholtz free energy density, internal energy density, enthalpy density, entropy density, heat capacity at constant volume, pressure, and total emissivity are expressed in terms of the polylogarithm functions. The general expressions for the thermal radiative and thermodynamic functions are applied for the study of thermal radiation of liquid and solid zirconium carbide. These functions are calculated using experimental data for the frequency dependence of the normal spectral emissivity in the visible-near infrared range at the melting (freezing) point. The gaps between the thermal radiative and thermodynamic functions of liquid and solid zirconium carbide are observed. The g...

  4. Unilateral radiation pneumonitis in sheep: Physiological changes and bronchoalveolar lavage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tillman, B.F.; Loyd, J.E.; Malcolm, A.W.; Holm, B.A.; Brigham, K.L. (Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (USA))

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation pneumonitis is a life-threatening result of therapeutic thoracic irradiation, yet its mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied the effects of unilateral lung irradiation (3,000 rad) in sheep from the immediate response to the later development of radiation pneumonitis. We defined radiation pneumonitis by its diagnostic clinical feature, radiographic infiltration of the irradiated zone with a straight margin corresponding to the radiation port. The immediate response in the few hours after irradiation was characterized by cough, labored respiration, hypoxemia (arterial PO{sub 2} decreased 19 Torr), mild pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary arterial pressure increased 20%), and lymphopenia. Hemodynamics and gas exchange returned to normal by day 2 but became abnormal again before or during radiation pneumonitis at 32 +/- 2 days. Respiratory distress, hypoxemia, and pulmonary hypertension recurred during radiation pneumonitis. Bronchoalveolar lavage during radiation pneumonitis contained increased neutrophils (19 +/- 4%, control = 7%), increased protein (0.27 +/- 0.1 g/dl, control = 0.12 +/- 0.03), and severely impaired ability to lower surface tension. Alveolar macrophages from both lungs during unilateral radiation pneumonitis exhibited impaired generation of superoxide after phorbol myristate (only a 30% increase). Normal control alveolar macrophages increased superoxide production after stimulation greater than 400%. We conclude that unilateral lung irradiation in sheep causes a mild immediate response followed by radiation pneumonitis at 1 mo. Unilateral radiation pneumonitis in this model is associated with ipsilateral neutrophilic alveolitis, increased bronchoalveolar lavage protein, and impaired surfactant function, as well as bilateral functional abnormalities of alveolar macrophages.

  5. environmental management radiation protection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    EHS environmental management biosafety radiation protection industrial hygiene safety Working: Biosafety, Environmental Management, Industrial Hygiene, Radiation Protection and Safety. Each specialized Management Program, Industrial Hygiene, Radiation Protection Program, and the Safety Program. (http

  6. DETECTORS FOR RADIATION DOSIMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. Price, "Nuclear Radiation Detection" (2nd ed. , New York:4) G. F. Knoll, "Radiation Detection and Measurement" (NewSons, Inc. from "Radiation Detection and Measurement," G. F.

  7. Courses on Synchrotron Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation The following is an incomplete list of courses on Synchrotron Radiation. For additional courses, check lightsources.org. XAFS School The APS XAFS School...

  8. Solar radiation resource assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bulletin discusses the following: introduction; Why is solar radiation resource assessment important Understanding the basics; the solar radiation resource assessment project; and future activities.

  9. Radiation Control (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Health is responsible for regulating radiation and radioactive materials in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although the Department's Radiation Control Program primarily focuses on...

  10. Thermal analysis of the horizontal shipping container for normal conditions of transport with solar insolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stumpfl, E.; Feldman, M.R.; Anderson, J.C.

    1993-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal analysis of the horizontal shipping container (HSC) was performed to determine the temperatures at the outer surface of the inner container during normal conditions of transport with incident solar radiation. There are two methods by which this analysis can be performed: (1) it can be run as a steady-state problem where it is assumed that the incident solar radiation is applied to the package 24 hours per day, or (2) it can be run as a cyclic transient problem where the incident solar radiation is applied for 12 hours per day and the other 12 hours there is assumed to be no incident solar radiation. The steady-state method was initially attempted, but the temperatures determined from this analysis were judged to be significantly higher than one would find in the cyclic case. Thus, it was deemed necessary to perform a transient analysis to determine a more realistic temperature distribution within the HSC during normal conditions of transport. The heat transfer code HEATING 7.1 was used to perform these calculations. HEATING 7.1 is a heat conduction code capable of handling radiation, convection (forced and natural), and heat flux boundary conditions. Heat generation within a material is also possible with HEATING 7.1 but was not used in any of the models presented here. The models used here are one-dimensional in the radial direction.

  11. Dept. Computaci on. Universidade da Coru~na Apellidos: Nombre: DNI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barreiro, Alvaro

    ) psicofuncionalismo 1 #12; (c) funcionalismo gen#19;erico 5. (1.5 puntos) (a) Siendo PCog el conjunto de procesos

  12. File:NREL-bhutan-10kmsolar-dni.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdf Jump to:ar-80m.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File Filedni.pdf Jump to:

  13. Differentiated state of normal and malignant cells or how to define a normal cell in culture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bissell, M.J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Described are cytological techniques to differentiate malignant and normal cells in culture. Emphasis is placed upon cell function and gene expression for determinative procedures. (DLS)

  14. Computing Instantaneous Frequency by normalizing Hilbert Transform

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Norden E.

    2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention presents Normalized Amplitude Hilbert Transform (NAHT) and Normalized Hilbert Transform(NHT), both of which are new methods for computing Instantaneous Frequency. This method is designed specifically to circumvent the limitation set by the Bedorsian and Nuttal Theorems, and to provide a sharp local measure of error when the quadrature and the Hilbert Transform do not agree. Motivation for this method is that straightforward application of the Hilbert Transform followed by taking the derivative of the phase-angle as the Instantaneous Frequency (IF) leads to a common mistake made up to this date. In order to make the Hilbert Transform method work, the data has to obey certain restrictions.

  15. Alloy nanoparticle synthesis using ionizing radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nenoff, Tina M. (Sandia Park, NM); Powers, Dana A. (Albuquerque, NM); Zhang, Zhenyuan (Durham, NC)

    2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of forming stable nanoparticles comprising substantially uniform alloys of metals. A high dose of ionizing radiation is used to generate high concentrations of solvated electrons and optionally radical reducing species that rapidly reduce a mixture of metal ion source species to form alloy nanoparticles. The method can make uniform alloy nanoparticles from normally immiscible metals by overcoming the thermodynamic limitations that would preferentially produce core-shell nanoparticles.

  16. A Harmonic Approach for Calculating Daily Temperature Normals Constrained by2 Homogenized Monthly Temperature Normals3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 1 A Harmonic Approach for Calculating Daily Temperature Normals Constrained by2 Homogenized a constrained harmonic technique that forces the daily30 temperature normals to be consistent with the monthly, or harmonic even though the annual march of temperatures for some locations can be highly asymmetric. Here, we

  17. Normality: A Consistency Condition for Concurrent Objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garg, Vijay

    Normality: A Consistency Condition for Concurrent Objects Vijay K. GARG \\Lambda Michel RAYNAL ECE for concurrent objects (objects shared by con­ current processes) that exploits the semantics of abstract data types. It provides the illusion that each operation applied by concurrent processes takes effect

  18. Abstract. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Transformation of a normal cell to a malignant one

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abstract. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Transformation of a normal regulators of growth. Biomarkers associated with cancer were examined in human breast epithelial cells transformed by high-LET radiation in the presence of 17Ã?-estradiol. An established cancer model was used

  19. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Michael I. (Dublin, CA)

    2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  20. Measurement and analysis of near ultraviolet solar radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehos, M.S.; Pacheco, K.A.; Link, H.F.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The photocatalytic detoxification of organic contaminants is currently being investigated by a number of laboratories, universities, and institutions throughout the world. The photocatalytic oxidation process requires that contaminants come in contact with a photocatalyst such as titanium dioxide, under illumination of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in order for the decomposition reaction to take place. Researches from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories are currently investigating the use of solar energy as a means of driving this photocatalytic process. Measurements of direct-normal and global-horizontal ultraviolet (280--385 nm) and full-spectrum (280--4000 nm) solar radiation taken in Golden, Colorado over a one-year period are analyzed, and comparisons are made with data generated from a clear-sky solar radiation model (BRITE) currently in use for predicting the performance of solar detoxification processes. Analysis of the data indicates a ratio of global-horizontal ultraviolet to full-spectrum radiation of 4%--6% that is weakly dependent on air mass. Conversely, data for direct-normal ultraviolet radiation indicate a much large dependence on air mass, with a ratio of approximately 5% at low air mass to 1% at higher at masses. Results show excellent agreement between the measured data and clear-sky predictions for both the ultraviolet and the full-spectrum global-horizontal radiation. For the direct-normal components, however, the tendency is for the clear-sky model to underpredict the measured that. Averaged monthly ultraviolet radiation available for the detoxification process indicates that the global-horizontal component of the radiation exceeds the direct-normal component throughout the year. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Doppler effect in the oscillator radiation process in the medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekdar Gevorgian; Valeri Vardanyan

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the radiation process of the charged particle passing through an external periodic field in a dispersive medium. In the optical range of spectrum we will consider two cases: first, the source has not eigenfrequency, and second, the source has eigenfrequency. In the first case, when the Cherenkov radiation occurs, the non-zero eigenfrequency produces a paradox for Doppler effect. It is shown that the absence of the eigenfrequency solves the paradox known in the literature. The question whether the process is normal (i.e. hard photons are being radiated under the small angles) or anomalous depends on the law of the medium dispersion. When the source has an eigenfrequency the Doppler effects can be either normal or anomalous. In the X-ray range of the oscillator radiation spectrum we have two photons radiated under the same angle- soft and hard. In this case the radiation obeys to so-called complicated Doppler effect, i.e. in the soft photon region we have anomalous Doppler effect and in the hard photon region we have normal Doppler effect.

  2. Radiation Protection Guidance Hospital Staff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Mark A.

    Page 1 Radiation Protection Guidance For Hospital Staff Prepared for Stanford ..................................................................................................................... 17 The Basic Principles of Radiation Protection........................................................... 17 Protection against Radiation Exposure

  3. Control of normal chirality at hexagonal interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haraldsen, Jason T [ORNL; Fishman, Randy Scott [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the net chirality created by the Dzyaloshinkii-Moriya interaction (DMI) at the boundary between hexagonal layers of magnetic and non-magnetic materials. It is shown that another mechanism besides elastic torsion is required to understand the change in chirality observed in Dy/Y multilayers during field-cooling. The paper shows that due to the overlap between magnetic and non-magnetic atoms, interfacial steps may produce a DMI normal to the interface in magnetic heterostructures.

  4. Maryland Radiation Act (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The policy of the state is to provide for the constructive use of radiation and control radiation emissions. This legislation authorizes the Department of the Environment to develop comprehensive...

  5. WI Radiation Protection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute seeks to regulate radioactive materials, to encourage the constructive uses of radiation, and to prohibit and prevent exposure to radiation in amounts which are or may be detrimental...

  6. Radiation protection at CERN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Silari, Marco; Streit-Bianchi, Marilena; Theis, Christian; Vincke, Heinz; Vincke, Helmut

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper gives a brief overview of the general principles of radiation protection legislation; explains radiological quantities and units, including some basic facts about radioactivity and the biological effects of radiation; and gives an overview of the classification of radiological areas at CERN, radiation fields at high-energy accelerators, and the radiation monitoring system used at CERN. A short section addresses the ALARA approach used at CERN.

  7. RADIONUCLIDE RADIATION PROTECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Healy, Kevin Edward

    RADIONUCLIDE AND RADIATION PROTECTION DATA HANDBOOK 2002 D. Delacroix* J. P. Guerre** P. Leblanc'Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, France ISBN 1 870965 87 6 RADIATION PROTECTION DOSIMETRY Vol. 98 No 1, 2002 Published by Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;RADIONUCLIDE AND RADIATION PROTECTION DATA HANDBOOK 2nd Edition (2002

  8. Radiation Processing -an overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of radiation · Facilities ­ Gamma ­ electrons ­ X-ray ­ Safety · Sterilisation of medical devices · Food irradiation · Material modification #12;3 Content ­ Part 2 · Environmental applications · Other applications Radiation · Energy in the form of waves or moving subatomic particles Irradiation · Exposure to radiation

  9. Reliability of Quantitative Ultrasonic Assessment of Normal-Tissue Toxicity in Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshida, Emi J.; Chen Hao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Torres, Mylin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Andic, Fundagul [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Liu Haoyang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Chen Zhengjia [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Department of Statistics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Sun, Xiaoyan [Department of Statistics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Curran, Walter J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Liu Tian, E-mail: tliu34@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: We have recently reported that ultrasound imaging, together with ultrasound tissue characterization (UTC), can provide quantitative assessment of radiation-induced normal-tissue toxicity. This study's purpose is to evaluate the reliability of our quantitative ultrasound technology in assessing acute and late normal-tissue toxicity in breast cancer radiotherapy. Method and Materials: Our ultrasound technique analyzes radiofrequency echo signals and provides quantitative measures of dermal, hypodermal, and glandular tissue toxicities. To facilitate easy clinical implementation, we further refined this technique by developing a semiautomatic ultrasound-based toxicity assessment tool (UBTAT). Seventy-two ultrasound studies of 26 patients (720 images) were analyzed. Images of 8 patients were evaluated for acute toxicity (<6 months postradiotherapy) and those of 18 patients were evaluated for late toxicity ({>=}6 months postradiotherapy). All patients were treated according to a standard radiotherapy protocol. To assess intraobserver reliability, one observer analyzed 720 images in UBTAT and then repeated the analysis 3 months later. To assess interobserver reliability, three observers (two radiation oncologists and one ultrasound expert) each analyzed 720 images in UBTAT. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to evaluate intra- and interobserver reliability. Ultrasound assessment and clinical evaluation were also compared. Results: Intraobserver ICC was 0.89 for dermal toxicity, 0.74 for hypodermal toxicity, and 0.96 for glandular tissue toxicity. Interobserver ICC was 0.78 for dermal toxicity, 0.74 for hypodermal toxicity, and 0.94 for glandular tissue toxicity. Statistical analysis found significant changes in dermal (p < 0.0001), hypodermal (p = 0.0027), and glandular tissue (p < 0.0001) assessments in the acute toxicity group. Ultrasound measurements correlated with clinical Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) toxicity scores of patients in the late toxicity group. Patients with RTOG Grade 1 or 2 had greater ultrasound-assessed toxicity percentage changes than patients with RTOG Grade 0. Conclusion: Early and late radiation-induced effects on normal tissue can be reliably assessed using quantitative ultrasound.

  10. Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science March 30-April 2, 2012; San Francisco...

  11. TERSat: Trapped Energetic Radiation Satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clements, Emily B.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation damage caused by interactions with high-energy particles in the Van Allen Radiation Belts is a leading

  12. NORMALITY VERSUS COUNTABLE PARACOMPACTNESS IN PERFECT SPACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wage, M. L.; Fleissner, William G.; Reed, G. M.

    1976-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    spaces, Proc. Topology Conf. (Memphis State Univ., 1975) (to appear). 3. H. Cook, Cartesian products and continuous semi-metrics, Proc. Conf. on Topology (1967), Arizona State Univ., Tempe, Ariz., 1968, pp. 5 8 - 6 3 . MR 38 #5152. 4. C. H. Dowker.... Pittsburgh Internat. Conf., 1972), Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 378, Springer-Verlag, Berlin and New York, 1974, pp. 243-247. MR 49 #1457. 9. A. J. Ostaszewski, On countably compact, perfectly normal spaces, J. London Math. Soc. (to appear). 10. C. W...

  13. Normal, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRoseConcerns Jump to:NeppelsourceNormal, Illinois: Energy Resources

  14. Radiative torques on interstellar grains; 1, superthermal spinup

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Draine, B T; Weingartner, Joseph C

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Irregular dust grains are subject to radiative torques when irradiated by interstellar starlight. It is shown how these radiative torques may be calculated using the discrete dipole approximation. Calculations are carried out for one irregular grain geometry, and three different grain sizes. It is shown that radiative torques can play an important dynamical role in spinup of interstellar dust grains, resulting in rotation rates which may exceed even those expected from H_2 formation on the grain surface. Because the radiative torque on an interstellar grain is determined by the overall grain geometry rather than merely the state of the grain surface, the resulting superthermal rotation is expected to be long-lived. By itself, long-lived superthermal rotation would permit grain alignment by normal paramagnetic dissipation on the "Davis-Greenstein" timescale. However, radiative torques arising from anisotropy of the starlight background can act directly to alter the grain alignment on much shorter timescales, a...

  15. The Infrared Spectral Energy Distribution of Normal Star-Forming Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel A. Dale; George Helou; Alessandra Contursi; Nancy A. Silbermann; Sonali Kolhatkar

    2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new phenomenological model for the spectral energy distribution of normal star-forming galaxies between 3 and 1100 microns. A sequence of realistic galaxy spectra are constructed from a family of dust emission curves assuming a power law distribution of dust mass over a wide range of interstellar radiation fields. For each interstellar radiation field heating intensity we combine emission curves for large and very small grains and aromatic feature carriers. The model is constrained by IRAS and ISOCAM broadband photometric and ISOPHOT spectrophotometric observations for our sample of 69 normal galaxies; the model reproduces well the empirical spectra and infrared color trends. These model spectra allow us to determine the infrared energy budget for normal galaxies, and in particular to translate far-infrared fluxes into total (bolometric) infrared fluxes. The 20 to 42 micron range appears to show the most significant growth in relative terms as the activity level increases, suggesting that the 20-42 micron continuum may be the best dust emission tracer of current star formation in galaxies. The redshift dependence of infrared color-color diagrams and the far-infrared to radio correlation for galaxies are also explored.

  16. Local asymptotic normality in quantum statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madalin Guta; Anna Jencova

    2007-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The theory of local asymptotic normality for quantum statistical experiments is developed in the spirit of the classical result from mathematical statistics due to Le Cam. Roughly speaking, local asymptotic normality means that the family varphi_{\\theta_{0}+ u/\\sqrt{n}}^{n} consisting of joint states of n identically prepared quantum systems approaches in a statistical sense a family of Gaussian state phi_{u} of an algebra of canonical commutation relations. The convergence holds for all "local parameters" u\\in R^{m} such that theta=theta_{0}+ u/sqrt{n} parametrizes a neighborhood of a fixed point theta_{0}\\in Theta\\subset R^{m}. In order to prove the result we define weak and strong convergence of quantum statistical experiments which extend to the asymptotic framework the notion of quantum sufficiency introduces by Petz. Along the way we introduce the concept of canonical state of a statistical experiment, and investigate the relation between the two notions of convergence. For reader's convenience and completeness we review the relevant results of the classical as well as the quantum theory.

  17. The effects of radiation on spermatogenesis in the albino rat as determined by semen analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawson, Rommon Loy

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AND ANIMAL RESTRAINT 10 V. EffECTS OF VARIOUS LEVELS OF ACUTE AND CHRONIC RADIATION ON SPERM VOLUME, TOTAL SPERM COUNT, PER CENT MOTILITY, PER CENT LIVE AND NORMAL SPERM, AND PER CENT ABNORMAL SPERM. . . . . . . . . . . . 17 VI. DISCUSSION..., and Probes 14 6. Complete Equipment Used 14 7. Collecting Platform 8. Animal in Collecting Position. 15 9. Effect of Radiation on Weight Changes (Acute). 23 10. Effect of Radiation on Packed Cell Volume (Acute) 11. Removing Copulation Plug from Glans...

  18. Methods for implementing microbeam radiation therapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dilmanian, F. Avraham; Morris, Gerard M.; Hainfeld, James F.

    2007-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of performing radiation therapy includes delivering a therapeutic dose such as X-ray only to a target (e.g., tumor) with continuous broad beam (or in-effect continuous) using arrays of parallel planes of radiation (microbeams/microplanar beams). Microbeams spare normal tissues, and when interlaced at a tumor, form a broad-beam for tumor ablation. Bidirectional interlaced microbeam radiation therapy (BIMRT) uses two orthogonal arrays with inter-beam spacing equal to beam thickness. Multidirectional interlaced MRT (MIMRT) includes irradiations of arrays from several angles, which interleave at the target. Contrast agents, such as tungsten and gold, are administered to preferentially increase the target dose relative to the dose in normal tissue. Lighter elements, such as iodine and gadolinium, are used as scattering agents in conjunction with non-interleaving geometries of array(s) (e.g., unidirectional or cross-fired (intersecting) to generate a broad beam effect only within the target by preferentially increasing the valley dose within the tumor.

  19. Resonant normal form and asymptotic normal form behavior in magnetic bottle Hamiltonians

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Efthymiopoulos; M. Harsoula; G. Contopoulos

    2015-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider normal forms in `magnetic bottle' type Hamiltonians of the form $H=\\frac{1}{2}(\\rho^2_\\rho+\\omega^2_1\\rho^2) +\\frac{1}{2}p^2_z+hot$ (second frequency $\\omega_2$ equal to zero in the lowest order). Our main results are: i) a novel method to construct the normal form in cases of resonance, and ii) a study of the asymptotic behavior of both the non-resonant and the resonant series. We find that, if we truncate the normal form series at order $r$, the series remainder in both constructions decreases with increasing $r$ down to a minimum, and then it increases with $r$. The computed minimum remainder turns to be exponentially small in $\\frac{1}{\\Delta E}$, where $\\Delta E$ is the mirror oscillation energy, while the optimal order scales as an inverse power of $\\Delta E$. We estimate numerically the exponents associated with the optimal order and the remainder's exponential asymptotic behavior. In the resonant case, our novel method allows to compute a `quasi-integral' (i.e. truncated formal integral) valid both for each particular resonance as well as away from all resonances. We applied these results to a specific magnetic bottle Hamiltonian. The non resonant normal form yields theorerical invariant curves on a surface of section which fit well the empirical curves away from resonances. On the other hand the resonant normal form fits very well both the invariant curves inside the islands of a particular resonance as well as the non-resonant invariant curves. Finally, we discuss how normal forms allow to compute a critical threshold for the onset of global chaos in the magnetic bottle.

  20. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

  1. The Normal/Bloomington Amtrak passenger station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, C.E. [Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The new Normal/Bloomington, Illinois Amtrak railroad passenger station was completed in 1990. A number of energy conservation technologies have been combined to provide for efficient railroad operations, passenger comfort, and a pleasing atmosphere. Passive solar heating, shading, and the building`s thermal efficiency have substantially reduced the amount of energy required for space conditions. The use of daylighting high efficiency fluorescent and high pressure sodium lighting as well as electronic load management have reduced energy requirements for lighting more than 70%. A stand-alone PV system provides energy for a portion of the building`s electrical requirement. An average monthly output of 147 kWh accounts for approximately 7.5% of the total electrical load. Overall, this station requires less than 25% of the energy required by a recently built `typical` station of similar size in a similar climate.

  2. Overview Report: Normal and Emergency Operation Visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is an overview report to document and illustrate methods used in a project entitled “Normal and Emergency Operations Visualization” for a utility company, conducted in 2009-2010 timeframe with funding from the utility company and the U.S. Department of Energy. The original final report (about 180 pages) for the project is not available for distribution because it alludes to findings that assessed the design of an operational system that contained proprietary information; this abridged version contains descriptions of methods and some findings to illustrate the approach used, while avoiding discussion of sensitive or proprietary information. The client has approved this abridged version of the report for unlimited distribution to give researchers and collaborators the benefit of reviewing the research concepts and methods that were applied in this study.

  3. Solar radiation intensity calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Randolph Steven

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SOLAR RADIATION INTENSITY CALCULATIONS A Thesis by RANDOLPH STEVEN LEVINE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partia'l fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978 Major Subject...: Physics SOLAR RADIATION INTENSITY CALCULATIONS A Thesis by RANDOLPH STEVEN LEVINE Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member) ( member) (Head of Department) December 1978 f219 037 ABSTRACT Solar Radiation...

  4. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Upton, NY 11973, USA Abstract Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) effects in bunch compressors are analyzed. Schemes for reducing the CSR effects are presented. 1 INTRODUCTION...

  5. Atomic Radiation (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This article states permissible levels of radiation in unrestricted areas, environmental standards for uranium fuel cycle and information about notification of incidents.

  6. Radiation Hazards Program (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Health, set allowable radiation standards and mitigation practices, as well as procedures for the transportation of hazardous material.

  7. Rotating bubble membrane radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Brent J. (West Richland, WA); Coomes, Edmund P. (West Richland, WA)

    1988-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

  8. Light trapping for emission from a photovoltaic cell under normally incident monochromatic illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeda, Yasuhiko, E-mail: takeda@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Iizuka, Hideo; Mizuno, Shintaro; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Ichikawa, Tadashi; Ito, Hiroshi; Kajino, Tsutomu [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Inc., 41-1, Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Ichiki, Akihisa; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi [Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We have theoretically demonstrated a new light-trapping mechanism to reduce emission from a photovoltaic (PV) cell used for a monochromatic light source, which improves limiting conversion efficiency determined by the detailed balance. A multilayered bandpass filter formed on the surface of a PV cell has been found to prevent the light generated inside by radiative recombination from escaping the cell, resulting in a remarkable decrease of the effective solid angle for the emission. We have clarified a guide to design a suitable configuration of the bandpass filter and achieved significant reduction of the emission. The resultant gain in monochromatic conversion efficiency in the radiative limit due to the optimally designed 18-layerd bandpass filters is as high as 6% under normally incident 1064?nm illumination of 10 mW/cm{sup 2?}??1?kW/cm{sup 2}, compared with the efficiency for the perfect anti-reflection treatment to the surface of a conventional solar cell.

  9. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, E.J.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent.

  10. Towards an Understanding of the Mid-Infrared Surface Brightness of Normal Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel A. Dale; George Helou; Nancy A. Silbermann; Alessandra Contursi; Sangeeta Malhotra; Robert H. Rubin

    1999-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a mid-infrared color and surface brightness analysis of IC 10, NGC 1313, and NGC 6946, three of the nearby galaxies studied under the Infrared Space Observatory Key Project on Normal Galaxies. Images with < 9 arcsecond (170 pc) resolution of these nearly face-on, late-type galaxies were obtained using the LW2 (6.75 mu) and LW3 (15 mu) ISOCAM filters. Though their global I_nu(6.75 mu)/I_nu(15 mu) flux ratios are similar and typical of normal galaxies, they show distinct trends of this color ratio with mid-infrared surface brightness. We find that I_nu(6.75 mu)/I_nu(15 mu) ~< 1 only occurs for regions of intense heating activity where the continuum rises at 15 micron and where PAH destruction can play an important role. The shape of the color-surface brightness trend also appears to depend, to the second-order, on the hardness of the ionizing radiation. We discuss these findings in the context of a two-component model for the phases of the interstellar medium and suggest that star formation intensity is largely responsible for the mid-infrared surface brightness and colors within normal galaxies, whereas differences in dust column density are the primary drivers of variations in the mid-infrared surface brightness between the disks of normal galaxies.

  11. Normalizing Weather Data to Calculate Energy Savings Peer Exchange...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Normalizing Weather Data to Calculate Energy Savings Peer Exchange Call Normalizing Weather Data to Calculate Energy Savings Peer Exchange Call February 26, 2015 3:00PM to 4:3...

  12. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    for increased protection from ionizing radiation for declared pregnant radiation workers. The radiation doseCOLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program Medical Center - T: 212-305-0303 F: 212 regulations of the Rules of the City of New York, Article 175, Radiation Control, there is a requirement

  13. Radiobiology of normal rat lung in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiger, Jingli Liu

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary cancer radiation therapy that utilizes biochemical tumor cell targeting and provides a mixed field of high and low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation with differing ...

  14. Computation of Hermite and Smith Normal Forms of Matrices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Storjohann, Arne

    Computation of Hermite and Smith Normal Forms of Matrices; Abstract We study the problem of computing Hermite and Smith normal forms of ma- trices over. One first result is a fast Las Vegas probabilistic algorithm to compute the * *Smith normal form

  15. Computation of Hermite and Smith Normal Forms of Matrices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Storjohann, Arne

    Computation of Hermite and Smith Normal Forms of Matrices by Arne Storjohann A thesis presented the problem of computing Hermite and Smith normal forms of ma­ trices over principal ideal domains. The main probabilistic algorithm to compute the Smith normal form of a polynomial matrix for those cases where pre

  16. EIGENVALUES AND THE SMITH NORMAL FORM Joseph J. Rushanan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rushanan, Joe J.

    EIGENVALUES AND THE SMITH NORMAL FORM Joseph J. Rushanan The MITRE Corporation, M/S E025, Bedford, MA 01730 Abstract. Results are shown that compare the Smith Normal Form (SNF) over the integers and its Smith Normal Form (SNF) over the integers. Our goals are more general than those results

  17. Lyapunov Exponents and Uniform Weak Normally Repelling Invariant Sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Hal

    Lyapunov Exponents and Uniform Weak Normally Repelling Invariant Sets Paul Leonard Salceanu and Hal repelling in directions normal to the boundary in which M resides provided all normal Lyapunov exponents that Lyapunov exponents can be used to establish the requisite repelling properties for both discrete

  18. Radiation-resistant microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An isolated and purified bacterium is provided which was isolated from a high-level radioactive waste site of mixed waste. The isolate has the ability to degrade a wide variety of organic contaminants while demonstrating high tolerance to ionizing radiation. The organism is uniquely suited to bioremediation of a variety or organic contaminants while in the presence of ionizing radiation.

  19. Nonclassicality of Thermal Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lars M. Johansen

    2004-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    It is demonstrated that thermal radiation of small occupation number is strongly nonclassical. This includes most forms of naturally occurring radiation. Nonclassicality can be observed as a negative weak value of a positive observable. It is related to negative values of the Margenau-Hill quasi-probability distribution.

  20. Radiative Flux Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Long, Chuck [NOAA

    The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and measurements are then used in various ways to infer cloud macrophysical properties.

  1. Radiation-resistant microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An isolated and purified bacterium is provided which was isolated from a high-level radioactive waste site of mixed waste. The isolate has the ability to degrade a wide variety of organic contaminants while demonstrating high tolerance to ionizing radiation. The organism is uniquely suited to bioremediation of a variety or organic contaminants while in the presence of ionizing radiation.

  2. Radiation detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Franks, Larry A. (Santa Barbara, CA); Lutz, Stephen S. (Santa Barbara, CA); Lyons, Peter B. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation detection system including a radiation-to-light converter and fiber optic wave guides to transmit the light to a remote location for processing. The system utilizes fluors particularly developed for use with optical fibers emitting at wavelengths greater than about 500 nm and having decay times less than about 10 ns.

  3. Nuclear radiation actuated valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Schively, Dixon P. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

  4. Fractal Fluctuations and Statistical Normal Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Selvam

    2008-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamical systems in nature exhibit selfsimilar fractal fluctuations and the corresponding power spectra follow inverse power law form signifying long-range space-time correlations identified as self-organized criticality. The physics of self-organized criticality is not yet identified. The Gaussian probability distribution used widely for analysis and description of large data sets underestimates the probabilities of occurrence of extreme events such as stock market crashes, earthquakes, heavy rainfall, etc. The assumptions underlying the normal distribution such as fixed mean and standard deviation, independence of data, are not valid for real world fractal data sets exhibiting a scale-free power law distribution with fat tails. A general systems theory for fractals visualizes the emergence of successively larger scale fluctuations to result from the space-time integration of enclosed smaller scale fluctuations. The model predicts a universal inverse power law incorporating the golden mean for fractal fluctuations and for the corresponding power spectra, i.e., the variance spectrum represents the probabilities, a signature of quantum systems. Fractal fluctuations therefore exhibit quantum-like chaos. The model predicted inverse power law is very close to the Gaussian distribution for small-scale fluctuations, but exhibits a fat long tail for large-scale fluctuations. Extensive data sets of Dow Jones index, Human DNA, Takifugu rubripes (Puffer fish) DNA are analysed to show that the space/time data sets are close to the model predicted power law distribution.

  5. RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuanlin

    RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR RADIATION PROTECTION AT TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY................................................................................................................I-1 B. Radiation Protection Program...............................................................................I-3 D. Radiation Safety Management

  6. Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Aihua

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    V. Ramanathan (2008), Solar radiation budget and radiativeV. Ramanathan (2008), Solar radiation budget and radiativeapproximation for solar radiation in the NCAR Community

  7. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program Medical Center - T: 212-305-0303 F: 212 Psychiatric Institute Radiation Safety Office (Please complete this form within 24 hours and send a copy to your supervisor and The Radiation Safety Office) Your Name

  8. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program Medical Center - T: 212-305-0303 F: 212: _______________ * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Radiation Safety Office Approval: ______________________ Date: ________________________ Waste containers in place: Yes ___ No ___ Radiation signage on door: Yes ___ No ___ Room monitoring: Dates

  9. Radiation Safety (Revised March 2010)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Mark A.

    to Workers; Inspections 27 10 CFR Part 20Standards for Protection Against Radiation 28 10 CFR Part 35Radiation Safety Manual (Revised March 2010) Updated December 2012 Stanford University, Stanford California #12; #12; Radiation Safety Manual (Revised March 2010) Updated

  10. Florida Radiation Protection Act (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Public Health is responsible for administering a statewide radiation protection program. The program is designed to permit development and utilization of sources of radiation for...

  11. The Intense Radiation Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Marklund; P. K. Shukla; B. Eliasson

    2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new dispersion relation for photons that are nonlinearly interacting with a radiation gas of arbitrary intensity due to photon-photon scattering. It is found that the photon phase velocity decreases with increasing radiation intensity, it and attains a minimum value in the limit of super-intense fields. By using Hamilton's ray equations, a self-consistent kinetic theory for interacting photons is formulated. The interaction between an electromagnetic pulse and the radiation gas is shown to produce pulse self-compression and nonlinear saturation. Implications of our new results are discussed.

  12. Composition for radiation shielding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield has a depleted urum core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container.

  13. Miniaturized radiation chirper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umbarger, C. John (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure relates to a miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers.

  14. Derivation of the Blackbody Radiation Spectrum from a Natural Maximum-Entropy Principle Involving Casimir Energies and Zero-Point Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timothy H. Boyer

    2002-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    By numerical calculation, the Planck spectrum with zero-point radiation is shown to satisfy a natural maximum-entropy principle whereas alternative choices of spectra do not. Specifically, if we consider a set of conducting-walled boxes, each with a partition placed at a different location in the box, so that across the collection of boxes the partitions are uniformly spaced across the volume, then the Planck spectrum correspond to that spectrum of random radiation (having constant energy kT per normal mode at low frequencies and zero-point energy (1/2)hw per normal mode at high frequencies) which gives maximum uniformity across the collection of boxes for the radiation energy per box. The analysis involves Casimir energies and zero-point radiation which do not usually appear in thermodynamic analyses. For simplicity, the analysis is presented for waves in one space dimension.

  15. Portal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kruse, Lyle W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portal radiation monitor combines 0.1% FAR with high sensitivity to special nuclear material. The monitor utilizes pulse shape discrimination, dynamic compression of the photomultiplier output and scintillators sized to maintain efficiency over the entire portal area.

  16. The Gravitational Cherenkov Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Ignatov

    2001-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An example of discontinuity of the energy-momentum tensor moving at superluminal velocity is discussed. It is shown that the gravitational Mach cone is formed. The power spectrum of the corresponding Cherenkov radiation is evaluated.

  17. Radiation from Accelerated Branes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohab Abou-Zeid; Miguel S. Costa

    2000-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiation emitted by accelerated fundamental strings and D-branes is studied within the linear approximation to the supergravity limit of string theory. We show that scalar, gauge field and gravitational radiation is generically emitted by such branes. In the case where an external scalar field accelerates the branes, we derive a Larmor-type formula for the emitted scalar radiation and study the angular distribution of the outgoing energy flux. The classical radii of the branes are calculated by means of the corresponding Thompson scattering cross sections. Within the linear approximation, the interaction of the external scalar field with the velocity fields of the branes gives a contribution to the observed gauge field and gravitational radiation.

  18. Adaptive multigroup radiation diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Richard B., Sc. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the development and implementation of an algorithm for dramatically increasing the accuracy and reliability of multigroup radiation diffusion simulations at low group counts. This is achieved by ...

  19. Ionizing radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

  20. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

  1. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

  2. Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Pengcheng

    Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users for Physics 461 & 462 Protocol Title: Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users Drafted By: Chris Millsaps, RSS Reviewers: ZB, TU, GS Purpose: To provide basic radiation safety training to the users of x-ray producing

  3. Radiation Safety Manual Dec 2012 Page 1 RADIATION SAFETY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grishok, Alla

    of External and Internal Doses E. Reports and Notices to Workers Chapter VII: Radiation ProtectionRadiation Safety Manual ­ Dec 2012 Page 1 RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL For Columbia University NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital New York State Psychiatric Institute Barnard College December 2012 #12;Radiation Safety Manual

  4. Method of enhancing radiation response of radiation detection materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a method of increasing radiation response of a radiation detection material for a given radiation signal by first pressurizing the radiation detection material. Pressurization may be accomplished by any means including mechanical and/or hydraulic. In this application, the term "pressure" includes fluid pressure and/or mechanical stress.

  5. NREL Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project: Status and outlook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renne, D.; Riordan, C.; Maxwell, E.; Stoffel, T.; Marion, B.; Rymes, M.; Wilcox, S.; Myers, D.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of NREL's Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project during fiscal year 1991. Currently, the primary focus of the SRRAP is to produce a 1961--1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base, providing hourly values of global horizontal, diffuse, and direct normal solar radiation at approximately 250 sites around the United States. Because these solar radiation quantities have been measured intermittently at only about 50 of these sites, models were developed and applied to the majority of the stations to provide estimates of these parameters. Although approximately 93% of the data base consists of modeled data this represents a significant improvement over the SOLMET/ERSATZ 1952--1975 data base. The magnitude and importance of this activity are such that the majority of SRRAP human and financial in many other activities, which are reported here. These include the continued maintenance of a solar radiation monitoring network in the southeast United States at six Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU's), the transfer of solar radiation resource assessment technology through a variety of activities, participation in international programs, and the maintenance and operation of NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. 17 refs.

  6. Radiative Transitions in Charmonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jozef Dudek; Robert Edwards; David Richards

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The form factors for the radiative transitions between charmonium mesons are investigated. We employ an anisotropic lattice using a Wilson gauge action, and domain-wall fermion action. We extrapolate the form factors to Q{sup 2} = 0, corresponding to a real photon, using quark-model-inspired functions. Finally, comparison is made with photocouplings extracted from the measured radiative widths, where known. Our preliminary results find photocouplings commensurate with these experimentally extracted values.

  7. Radiative Processes Working Group

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Radiation Protection Regulations: The

  8. Radiation analysis devices, radiation analysis methods, and articles of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roybal, Lyle Gene

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation analysis devices include circuitry configured to determine respective radiation count data for a plurality of sections of an area of interest and combine the radiation count data of individual of sections to determine whether a selected radioactive material is present in the area of interest. An amount of the radiation count data for an individual section is insufficient to determine whether the selected radioactive material is present in the individual section. An article of manufacture includes media comprising programming configured to cause processing circuitry to perform processing comprising determining one or more correction factors based on a calibration of a radiation analysis device, measuring radiation received by the radiation analysis device using the one or more correction factors, and presenting information relating to an amount of radiation measured by the radiation analysis device having one of a plurality of specified radiation energy levels of a range of interest.

  9. Gravitational Tunneling Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario Rabinowitz

    2002-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The isolated black hole radiation of both Hawking and Zel'dovich are idealized abstractions as there is always another body to distort the potential. This is considered with respect to both gravitational tunneling, and black hole "no-hair" theorems. The effects of a second body are to lower the gravitational barrier of a black hole and to give the barrier a finite rather than infinite width so tha a particle can escape by tunneling (as in field emission) or over the top of the lowered barrier (as in Schottky emission). Thus radiation may be emitted from black holes in a process differing from that of Hawking radiation, P SH, which has been undetected for over 24 years. The radiated power from a black hole derived here is PR e ^2__ PSH, where e ^2__ is he ransmission probability for radiation through the barrier. This is similar to electric field emission of electrons from a metal in that the emission can in principle be modulated and beamed. The temperature and entropy of black holes are reexamined. Miniscule black holes herein may help explain the missing mass of the universe, accelerated expansion of the universe, and anomalous rotation of spiral galaxies. A gravitational interference effect for black hole radiation similar to the Aharonov-Bohm effect is also examined.

  10. Packet personal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, James E. (Knoxville, TN)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiation events, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible "chirp". The rate of the "chirps" is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field.

  11. Working With Radiation For Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    working with radiation The radiation badge is not a protective device It cannot shield you from ­ Negative Exponential Protection From Radiation #12;18 Time Distance Shielding Basic Principles #121 Working With Radiation For Research Thomas Cummings Junior Physicist Environmental Health

  12. Radiation Safety Annual Refresher Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Radiation Safety Annual Refresher Training Radiation Protection Division Department of Environmental Health & Safety #12;Topics in Radiation Safety (applicable RPD Manual sections indicated) User;Topics in Radiation Safety (applicable RPD Manual sections indicated) User and Non-user topics Types

  13. allowing normal bone: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    assays. Correlations of fluoride levels between normal bone near the Nancy Medina; Chester W. Douglass; Gary M. Whitford; Robert N. Hoover; Thomas R. Fears 6 Differential...

  14. Data Collection and Normalization for the Development of Cost...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This chapter discusses considerations for data collection and normalization. g4301-1chp19.pdf -- PDF Document, 21 KB Writer: John Makepeace Subjects: Administration Management...

  15. asymptotical normalization coefficients: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    zeilbergtokhniotSameSexMarriages Zeilberger, Doron 114 Journal of Multivariate Analysis 74, 49 68 (2000) Asymptotic Normality of Posterior Distributions for...

  16. asymptotically normal estimators: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    first order inclusion probabilities, H Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 160 Journal of Multivariate Analysis 74, 49 68 (2000) Asymptotic Normality of Posterior Distributions for...

  17. asymptotic normalization coefficients: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    zeilbergtokhniotSameSexMarriages Zeilberger, Doron 114 Journal of Multivariate Analysis 74, 49 68 (2000) Asymptotic Normality of Posterior Distributions for...

  18. astrophysics asymptotic normalization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    www.math.rutgers.eduzeilbergtokhniotSameSexMarriages Zeilberger, Doron 74 Journal of Multivariate Analysis 74, 49 68 (2000) Asymptotic Normality of Posterior Distributions for...

  19. asymptotic normalization coefficient: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    zeilbergtokhniotSameSexMarriages Zeilberger, Doron 114 Journal of Multivariate Analysis 74, 49 68 (2000) Asymptotic Normality of Posterior Distributions for...

  20. B-2 Bomber During In-flight Refueling Normal Heart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Bomber During In-flight Refueling Normal Heart Image Technology to Detect Concealed Nuclear Material in Trucks and Cargo Containers Single Abnormality Possible Heart Attack Disc...

  1. Log-normal distribution for correlators in lattice QCD?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas DeGrand

    2012-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Many hadronic correlators used in spectroscopy calculations in lattice QCD simulations appear to show a log-normal distribution at intermediate time separations.

  2. adjacent normal skin: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    tangential mechanics SAI mechanoreceptor depth actuator strain energy density James Biggs; Mandayam A. Srinivasan 5 Expression and function of small RNAs in normal and...

  3. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Demonstration of Approach and Results of Used Fuel Performance Characterization Used...

  4. DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. As an indicator of the overall amount of radiation dose received during the conduct of operations at DOE, the report includes information on collective total effective dose (TED). The TED is comprised of the effective dose (ED) from external sources, which includes neutron and photon radiation, and the internal committed effective dose (CED), which results from the intake of radioactive material into the body. The collective ED from photon exposure decreased by 23% between 2011 and 2012, while the neutron dose increased by 5%. The internal dose components of the collective TED decreased by 7%. Over the past 5-year period, 99.99% of the individuals receiving measurable TED have received doses below the 2 roentgen equivalent in man (rems) (20 millisievert [mSv]) TED administrative control level (ACL), which is well below the DOE regulatory limit of 5 rems (50 mSv) TED annually. The occupational radiation exposure records show that in 2012, DOE facilities continued to comply with DOE dose limits and ACLs and worked to minimize exposure to individuals. The DOE collective TED decreased 17.1% from 2011 to 2012. The collective TED decreased at three of the five sites with the largest collective TED. u Idaho Site – Collective dose reductions were achieved as a result of continuing improvements at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) through the planning of drum movements that reduced the number of times a container is handled; placement of waste containers that created highradiation areas in a centralized location; and increased worker awareness of high-dose rate areas. In addition, Idaho had the largest decrease in the total number of workers with measurable TED (1,143 fewer workers). u Hanford Site (Hanford) – An overall reduction of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and Transuranic (TRU) retrieval activities resulted in collective dose reductions. u Savannah River Site (SRS) – Reductions were achieved through ALARA initiatives employed site wide. The Solid Waste Management Facility used extended specialty tools, cameras and lead shield walls to facilitate removal of drums. These tools and techniques reduce exposure time through improved efficiency, increase distance from the source of radiation by remote monitoring, shield the workers to lower the dose rate, and reduce the potential for contamination and release of material through repacking of waste. Overall, from 2011 to 2012, there was a 19% decrease in the number of workers with measurable dose. Furthermore, due to a slight decrease in both the DOE workforce (7%) and monitored workers (10%), the ratio of workers with measurable doses to monitored workers decreased to 13%. Another primary indicator of the level of radiation exposure covered in this report is the average measurable dose, which normalizes the collective dose over the population of workers who actually received a measurable dose. The average measurable TED in

  5. Radiation delivery system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sorensen, Scott A. (Overland Park, KS); Robison, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Craig M. V. (Jemez Springs, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation delivery system and method are described. The system includes a treatment configuration such as a stent, balloon catheter, wire, ribbon, or the like, a portion of which is covered with a gold layer. Chemisorbed to the gold layer is a radiation-emitting self-assembled monolayer or a radiation-emitting polymer. The radiation delivery system is compatible with medical catheter-based technologies to provide a therapeutic dose of radiation to a lesion following an angioplasty procedure.

  6. Radiation Protection and Safety Training | Environmental Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnicalPurchase, Delivery, andSmartRadiation EffectsProtection

  7. Remote radiation dosimetry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlich, P.F.; Tetzlaff, W.; Hegland, J.E.; Jones, S.C.

    1991-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via a transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission. 8 figures.

  8. Packet personal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, J.E.

    1988-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiatonevents, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible ''chirp''. The rate of the ''chirps'' is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field. 2 figs.

  9. Explicit Expressions for Moments of Log Normal Order Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sidorov, Nikita

    Explicit Expressions for Moments of Log Normal Order Statistics Saralees Nadarajah First version: 31 December 2006 Research Report No. 23, 2006, Probability and Statistics Group School of Mathematics, The University of Manchester #12;Explicit Expressions for Moments of Log Normal Order Statistics by Saralees

  10. Numerical algorithms for the computation of the Smith normal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seberry, Jennifer

    Numerical algorithms for the computation of the Smith normal form of integral matrices C of the Smith normal form of integral matrices are described. More specifically, the com­ pound matrix method of the algorithms. AMS Subject Classification: Primary 65F30, Secondary 15A21, 15A36. Key words and phrases: Smith

  11. Oil production models with normal rate curves Dudley Stark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stark, Dudley

    Oil production models with normal rate curves Dudley Stark School of Mathematical Sciences Queen;Abstract The normal curve has been used to fit the rate of both world and U.S.A. oil production sizes are lognormally distributed, and the starting time of the production of a field is approximately

  12. Normalized k-means clustering of hyper-rectangles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Normalized k-means clustering of hyper-rectangles Marie Chavent Math´ematiques Appliqu´ees de-rectangles and their use in two normalized k-means clustering algorithms. Keywords: Interval data, Standardization [Diday, 1988], [Bock and Diday, 2000]. Several works on k-means clustering of interval data sets have

  13. New Equipartition Results for Normal Mode Energies of Anharmonic Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henry, Bruce Ian

    New Equipartition Results for Normal Mode Energies of Anharmonic Chains B.I. Henry 1 and T. Szeredi 2;3 Date: 26 September 1995 The canonical and micro­canonical distribution of energy among. If the inter­particle potential is an even function then energy is distributed uniformly among the normal modes

  14. Coherent Nuclear Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. I. Yukalov; E. P. Yukalova

    2004-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The main part of this review is devoted to the comprehensive description of coherent radiation by nuclear spins. The theory of nuclear spin superradiance is developed and the experimental observations of this phenomenon are considered. The intriguing problem of how coherence develops from initially incoherent quantum fluctuations is analysed. All main types of coherent radiation by nuclear spins are discussed, which are: free nuclear induction, collective induction, maser generation, pure superradiance, triggered superradiance, pulsing superradiance, punctuated superradiance, and induced emission. The influence of electron-nuclear hyperfine interactions and the role of magnetic anisotropy are studied. Conditions for realizing spin superradiance by magnetic molecules are investigated. The possibility of nuclear matter lasing, accompanied by pion or dibaryon radiation, is briefly touched.

  15. Pediatric radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halperin, E.C.; Kun, L.E.; Constine, L.S.; Tarbell, N.J.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This text covers all aspects of radiation therapy for treatment of pediatric cancer. The book describes the proper use of irradiation in each of the malignancies of childhood, including tumors that are rarely encountered in adult practice. These include acute leukemia; supratentorial brain tumors; tumors of the posterior fossa of the brain and spinal canal; retinoblastoma and optic nerve glioma; neuroblastoma; Hodgkin's disease; malignant lymphoma; Ewing's sarcoma; osteosarcoma; rhabdomyosarcoma; Desmoid tumor; Wilms' tumor; liver and biliary tumors; germ cell and stromal cell tumors of the gonads; endocrine, aerodigestive tract, and breast tumors; Langerhans' cell histiocytosis; and skin cancer and hemangiomas. For each type of malignancy, the authors describe the epidemiology, common presenting signs and symptoms, staging, and proper diagnostic workup. Particular attention is given to the indications for radiation therapy and the planning of a course of radiotherapy, including the optimal radiation dose, field size, and technique.

  16. Composition for radiation shielding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition for use as a radiation shield is disclosed. The shield has a depleted uranium core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container. 2 figs.

  17. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

    1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

  18. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, James E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

  19. Wireless passive radiation sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

    2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

  20. Radiation.cdr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnicalPurchase, Delivery, andSmartRadiationRadiation Safety Work

  1. Physics-Based GOES Satellite Product for Use in NREL's National Solar Radiation Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, M.; Habte, A.; Gotseff, P.; Weekley, A.; Lopez, A.; Molling, C.; Heidinger, A.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), University of Wisconsin, and National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration are collaborating to investigate the integration of the Satellite Algorithm for Shortwave Radiation Budget (SASRAB) products into future versions of NREL's 4-km by 4-km gridded National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB). This paper describes a method to select an improved clear-sky model that could replace the current SASRAB global horizontal irradiance and direct normal irradiances reported during clear-sky conditions.

  2. Impact of Aerosols on Atmospheric Attenuation Loss in Central Receiver Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, M.; Wagner, M. J.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric attenuation loss between the heliostat field and receiver has been recognized as a significant source of loss in Central Receiver Systems. In clear sky situations, extinction of Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) is primarily by aerosols in the atmosphere. When aerosol loading is high close to the surface the attenuation loss between heliostat and receivers is significantly influenced by the amount of aerosols present on a particular day. This study relates measured DNI to aerosol optical depths close to the surface of the earth. The model developed in the paper uses only measured DNI to estimate the attenuation between heliostat and receiver in a central receiver system. The requirement that only a DNI measurement is available potentially makes the model a candidate for widespread use.

  3. Local microwave background radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domingos Soares

    2014-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

  4. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  5. Thermostatic Radiator Valve Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, Jordan [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Ansanelli, Eric [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large stock of multifamily buildings in the Northeast and Midwest are heated by steam distribution systems. Losses from these systems are typically high and a significant number of apartments are overheated much of the time. Thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs) are one potential strategy to combat this problem, but have not been widely accepted by the residential retrofit market.

  6. Three Dimensional Radiative Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Abel

    2000-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative Transfer (RT) effects play a crucial role in the thermal history of the intergalactic medium. Here I discuss recent advances in the development of numerical methods that introduce RT to cosmological hydrodynamics. These methods can also readily be applied to time dependent problems on interstellar and galactic scales.

  7. Radiation detector spectrum simulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolf, M.A.; Crowell, J.M.

    1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source generates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith to generate several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

  8. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agouridis, D.C.

    1980-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  9. Nominal effective radiation doses delivered during clinical trials of boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capala, J.; Diaz, A.Z.; Chanana, A.D.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary system that, in theory, should selectively deliver lethal, high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation to tumor cells dispersed within normal tissues. It is based on the nuclear reaction 10-B(n, {alpha})7-Li, which occurs when the stable nucleus of boron-10 captures a thermal neutron. Due to the relatively high cross-section of the 10-B nucleus for thermal neutron capture and short ranges of the products of this reaction, tumor cells in the volume exposed to thermal neutrons and containing sufficiently high concentration of 10-B would receive a much higher radiation dose than the normal cells contained within the exposed volume. Nevertheless, radiation dose deposited in normal tissue by gamma and fast neutron contamination of the neutron beam, as well as neutron capture in nitrogen, 14-N(n,p)14-C, hydrogen, 1-H(n,{gamma})2-H, and in boron present in blood and normal cells, limits the dose that can be delivered to tumor cells. It is, therefore, imperative for the success of the BNCT the dosed delivered to normal tissues be accurately determined in order to optimize the irradiation geometry and to limit the volume of normal tissue exposed to thermal neutrons. These are the major objectives of BNCT treatment planning.

  10. A FUSION METHOD FOR CREATING SUB-HOURLY DNI-BASED TMY FROM LONG-TERM SATELLITE-BASED AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , Marroco Abstract In order to correctly perform Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plant electric energy output study of a Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plant, the industry usually performs electric energy output-TERM GROUND-BASED IRRADIATION DATA Etienne WEY 1 , Claire THOMAS 1 , Philippe BLANC 2 , Bella ESPINAR 2

  11. Radiation Characteristics of Glass Containing Gas Bubbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent; Viskanta, Raymond

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    B. L. Drolen, “Thermal radiation in particulate media withRadiation Characteristics of Glass Containing Gas Bubblesthermophysical properties and radiation characteristics of

  12. Radiation damage evolution in ceramics. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation damage evolution in ceramics. Radiation damage evolution in ceramics. Abstract: A review is presented of recent results on radiation damage production, defect...

  13. Preliminary radiation shielding design for BOOMERANG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donahue, Richard J.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary Radiation Shielding Design for BOOMERANG R. J.2003 Abstract Preliminary radiation shielding speci?cationsElectron Photon Stray Radiation from a High Energy Electron

  14. Terahertz radiation from laser accelerated electron bunches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NUMBER 5 MAY 2004 Terahertz radiation from laser acceleratedand millimeter wave radiation from laser acceleratedNo. 5, May 2004 Terahertz radiation from laser accelerated

  15. Meeting Report--NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Straume, Tore

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ionizing radiation. In: Advances in Medical Physics (A. B.for medical management of radiation casualties. ADVANCES INMedical Center presented the radiation oncology perspective on biomarkers. Advances

  16. Nanoscale Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide....

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide. Nanoscale Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide. Abstract: Radiation tolerance is determined by how effectively the...

  17. Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Pengcheng

    Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for Sealed Source Users for Physics 461 Protocol Title: Training for Sealed Source Users Drafted By: Chris Millsaps, RSS Reviewers: ZB, TU, GS Purpose: To provide basic radiation safety training to the users of sealed sources located

  18. Pacific Northwest Solar Radiation Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Pacific Northwest Solar Radiation Data UO SOLAR MONITORING LAB Physics Department -- Solar Energy Center 1274 University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon 97403-1274 April 1, 1999 #12;Hourly solar radiation data

  19. RADIATION DAMAGE OF GERMANIUM DETECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pehl, Richard H.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the high-energy proton damage than was the planar detector.as far as radiation damage is concerned. Unfortunately, some28-29, 1978 LBL-7967 RADIATION DAMAGE OF GERMANIUM DETECTORS

  20. DOE Radiation Records Contacts List

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE radiation records contact list for individuals to obtain records of occupational exposure directly from a DOE site.

  1. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, L.H.

    1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  2. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  3. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, L.H.

    1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  4. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  5. NCSRNCSR ""DEMOKRITOSDEMOKRITOS"" INSTITUTE OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY & RADIATION PROTECTIONINSTITUTE OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY & RADIATION PROTECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PROTECTIONINSTITUTE OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY & RADIATION PROTECTION ·· ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORYENVIRONMENTAL·· NCSRNCSR ""DEMOKRITOSDEMOKRITOS"" ·· INSTITUTE OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY & RADIATION

  6. NORMALITY OF NILPOTENT VARIETIES IN E6 ERIC SOMMERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sommers, Eric

    NORMALITY OF NILPOTENT VARIETIES IN E6 ERIC SOMMERS ABSTRACT. We determine which nilpotent orbits for a careful reading of the paper leading to its improvement. 1 #12;2 ERIC SOMMERS Our proof is direct

  7. Paducah and Portsmouth Off-Specification Enriched and Normal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enriched and Normal UF 6 Inventory 1 3B refers to a 30B cylinder size and 4A refers to a 48A size cylinder. Table 1 PORTS Enriched Inventory Container ID Sample Transfer Gross lbs...

  8. Stone-Cech remainder which make continuous images normal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleissner, William G.; Levy, Ronnie

    1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , it is not necessary that every intermediate space Z be normal; it is enough to require that countably compact intermediate spaces be normal. 2. Proposition. If ßX\\X is sequential and Y is Tychonov, then P\\X is closed in ßX\\X. Hence, Y is normal. Proof. Suppose that q... , Clßx,x(Bn) is not compact. Since Clßx(Bn) is compact, we may choose distinct xn e Clßx(Bn) n X. Then {xln : n e to} and {x2n+x : n e to} axe disjoint closed subsets of X, both of whose closures in ßX contain p . This contradicts the normality of X. o...

  9. Characteristics of Wind Turbines Under Normal and Fault Conditions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Parsons, B.; Ellis, A.

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the characteristics of a variable-speed wind turbine connected to a stiff or weak grid under normal and fault conditions and the role of reactive power compensation.

  10. Normality of Monte Carlo criticality eigenfunction decomposition coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toth, B. E.; Martin, W. R. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Griesheimer, D. P. [Bechtel Bettis, Inc., P.O. Box 79, West Mifflin, PA 15122 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A proof is presented, which shows that after a single Monte Carlo (MC) neutron transport power method iteration without normalization, the coefficients of an eigenfunction decomposition of the fission source density are normally distributed when using analog or implicit capture MC. Using a Pearson correlation coefficient test, the proof is corroborated by results from a uniform slab reactor problem, and those results also suggest that the coefficients are normally distributed with normalization. The proof and numerical test results support the application of earlier work on the convergence of eigenfunctions under stochastic operators. Knowledge of the Gaussian shape of decomposition coefficients allows researchers to determine an appropriate level of confidence in the distribution of fission sites taken from a MC simulation. This knowledge of the shape of the probability distributions of decomposition coefficients encourages the creation of new predictive convergence diagnostics. (authors)

  11. Proving Termination of Normalization Functions for Conditional Expressions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haddadi, Hamed

    Boyer and Moore have discussed a recursive function that puts con- ditional expressions software correctness) Keywords: Boyer/Moore Theorem Prover, LCF, total correctness, well 12 1 #12; 1 A normalization function Boyer

  12. Stirling numbers of graphs, and the normal ordering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayfield, John

    Stirling numbers of graphs, and the normal ordering problem Galvin earned his PhD in mathematics correlations in discrete random structures. The Stirling number of the second kind ${n \\brace k}$ counts

  13. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program Medical Center - T: 212-305-0303 F: 212-305-0318 rso-clinical@columbia by more than 50 percent. #12;COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program Medical Center - T: 212 ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ #12;COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program Medical Center - T: 212-305-0303 F: 212-305-0318 rso-clinical@columbia

  14. 6, 52315250, 2006 Radiative properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the short- wave (SW) and longwave (LW) cloud radiative effects (CRE), but the impact is small: 0.02 W m-2 tests are conducted to evaluate the impact that5 such an over-layer would have on the radiative effects, terrestrial) radiation. The SW "albedo" effect brings about cooling and the LW "greenhouse" effect warming

  15. Use of Normalized Radial Basis Function in Hydrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cotar, Anton; Brilly, Mitja [Chair of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Jamova 2, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article we will present a use of normalized radial basis function in hydrology for prediction of missing river Reka runoff data. The method is based on multidimensional normal distribution, where standard deviation is first optimized and later the whole prediction process is learned on existing data [5]. We can conclude, that the method works very well for middle ranges of data, but not so well for extremes because of its interpolating nature.

  16. Evaluation of Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances. These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband radiometers, and a pyranometer with fixed internal shading and are all deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. Data from 32 global horizontal irradiance and 19 direct normal irradiance radiometers are presented. The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances.

  17. Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Response and Normal Tissue Regeneration After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy to Liver Metastases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stinauer, Michelle A., E-mail: Michelle.Stinauer@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Diot, Quentin; Westerly, David C.; Schefter, Tracey E.; Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To characterize changes in standardized uptake value (SUV) in positron emission tomography (PET) scans and determine the pace of normal tissue regeneration after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for solid tumor liver metastases. Methods and Materials: We reviewed records of patients with liver metastases treated with SBRT to {>=}40 Gy in 3-5 fractions. Evaluable patients had pretreatment PET and {>=}1 post-treatment PET. Each PET/CT scan was fused to the planning computed tomography (CT) scan. The maximum SUV (SUV{sub max}) for each lesion and the total liver volume were measured on each PET/CT scan. Maximum SUV levels before and after SBRT were recorded. Results: Twenty-seven patients with 35 treated liver lesions were studied. The median follow-up was 15.7 months (range, 1.5-38.4 mo), with 5 PET scans per patient (range, 2-14). Exponential decay curve fitting (r=0.97) showed that SUV{sub max} declined to a plateau of 3.1 for controlled lesions at 5 months after SBRT. The estimated SUV{sub max} decay half-time was 2.0 months. The SUV{sub max} in controlled lesions fluctuated up to 4.2 during follow-up and later declined; this level is close to 2 standard deviations above the mean normal liver SUV{sub max} (4.01). A failure cutoff of SUV{sub max} {>=}6 is twice the calculated plateau SUV{sub max} of controlled lesions. Parenchymal liver volume decreased by 20% at 3-6 months and regenerated to a new baseline level approximately 10% below the pretreatment level at 12 months. Conclusions: Maximum SUV decreases over the first months after SBRT to plateau at 3.1, similar to the median SUV{sub max} of normal livers. Transient moderate increases in SUV{sub max} may be observed after SBRT. We propose a cutoff SUV{sub max} {>=}6, twice the baseline normal liver SUV{sub max}, to score local failure by PET criteria. Post-SBRT values between 4 and 6 would be suspicious for local tumor persistence or recurrence. The volume of normal liver reached nadir 3-6 months after SBRT and regenerated within the next 6 months.

  18. Terahertz radiation mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanke, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Allen, S. James (Santa Barbara, CA); Lee, Mark (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A terahertz radiation mixer comprises a heterodyned field-effect transistor (FET) having a high electron mobility heterostructure that provides a gatable two-dimensional electron gas in the channel region of the FET. The mixer can operate in either a broadband pinch-off mode or a narrowband resonant plasmon mode by changing a grating gate bias of the FET. The mixer can beat an RF signal frequency against a local oscillator frequency to generate an intermediate frequency difference signal in the microwave region. The mixer can have a low local oscillator power requirement and a large intermediate frequency bandwidth. The terahertz radiation mixer is particularly useful for terahertz applications requiring high resolution.

  19. National Ambient Radiation Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dziuban, J.; Sears, R.

    2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently developed a searchable database and website for the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS) data. This site contains nationwide radiation monitoring data for air particulates, precipitation, drinking water, surface water and pasteurized milk. This site provides location-specific as well as national information on environmental radioactivity across several media. It provides high quality data for assessing public exposure and environmental impacts resulting from nuclear emergencies and provides baseline data during routine conditions. The database and website are accessible at www.epa.gov/enviro/. This site contains (1) a query for the general public which is easy to use--limits the amount of information provided, but includes the ability to graph the data with risk benchmarks and (2) a query for a more technical user which allows access to all of the data in the database, (3) background information on ER AMS.

  20. Time encoded radiation imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik; Kiff, Scott

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The various technologies presented herein relate to detecting nuclear material at a large stand-off distance. An imaging system is presented which can detect nuclear material by utilizing time encoded imaging relating to maximum and minimum radiation particle counts rates. The imaging system is integrated with a data acquisition system that can utilize variations in photon pulse shape to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray interactions. Modulation in the detected neutron count rates as a function of the angular orientation of the detector due to attenuation of neighboring detectors is utilized to reconstruct the neutron source distribution over 360 degrees around the imaging system. Neutrons (e.g., fast neutrons) and/or gamma-rays are incident upon scintillation material in the imager, the photons generated by the scintillation material are converted to electrical energy from which the respective neutrons/gamma rays can be determined and, accordingly, a direction to, and the location of, a radiation source identified.

  1. Radiation shielding composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quapp, William J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm.sup.3 and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile.

  2. Semiconductor radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patt, Bradley E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Iwanczyk, Jan S. (Los Angeles, CA); Tull, Carolyn R. (Orinda, CA); Vilkelis, Gintas (Westlake Village, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor radiation detector is provided to detect x-ray and light photons. The entrance electrode is segmented by using variable doping concentrations. Further, the entrance electrode is physically segmented by inserting n+ regions between p+ regions. The p+ regions and the n+ regions are individually biased. The detector elements can be used in an array, and the p+ regions and the n+ regions can be biased by applying potential at a single point. The back side of the semiconductor radiation detector has an n+ anode for collecting created charges and a number of p+ cathodes. Biased n+ inserts can be placed between the p+ cathodes, and an internal resistor divider can be used to bias the n+ inserts as well as the p+ cathodes. A polysilicon spiral guard can be implemented surrounding the active area of the entrance electrode or surrounding an array of entrance electrodes.

  3. General Relativistic Radiative Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Knop; P. H. Hauschildt; E. Baron

    2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a general method to calculate radiative transfer including scattering in the continuum as well as in lines in spherically symmetric systems that are influenced by the effects of general relativity (GR). We utilize a comoving wavelength ansatz that allows to resolve spectral lines throughout the atmosphere. The used numerical solution is an operator splitting (OS) technique that uses a characteristic formal solution. The bending of photon paths and the wavelength shifts due to the effects of GR are fully taken into account, as is the treatment of image generation in a curved spacetime. We describe the algorithm we use and demonstrate the effects of GR on the radiative transport of a two level atom line in a neutron star like atmosphere for various combinations of continuous and line scattering coefficients. In addition, we present grey continuum models and discuss the effects of different scattering albedos on the emergent spectra and the determination of effective temperatures and radii of neutron star atmospheres.

  4. Radiation shielding composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quapp, William J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm.sup.3 and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile.

  5. Radiation shielding composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quapp, W.J.; Lessing, P.A.

    1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition is disclosed for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm{sup 3} and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile. 5 figs.

  6. Multilayer radiation shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Urbahn, John Arthur (Saratoga Springs, NY); Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon (Niskayuna, NY)

    2009-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A power generation system including: a generator including a rotor including a superconductive rotor coil coupled to a rotatable shaft; a first prime mover drivingly coupled to the rotatable shaft; and a thermal radiation shield, partially surrounding the rotor coil, including at least a first sheet and a second sheet spaced apart from the first sheet by centripetal force produced by the rotatable shaft. A thermal radiation shield for a generator including a rotor including a super-conductive rotor coil including: a first sheet having at least one surface formed from a low emissivity material; and at least one additional sheet having at least one surface formed from a low emissivity material spaced apart from the first sheet by centripetal force produced by the rotatable shaft, wherein each successive sheet is an incrementally greater circumferential arc length and wherein the centripetal force shapes the sheets into a substantially catenary shape.

  7. Handheld CZT radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murray, William S.; Butterfield, Kenneth B.; Baird, William

    2004-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A handheld CZT radiation detector having a CZT gamma-ray sensor, a multichannel analyzer, a fuzzy-logic component, and a display component is disclosed. The CZT gamma-ray sensor may be a coplanar grid CZT gamma-ray sensor, which provides high-quality gamma-ray analysis at a wide range of operating temperatures. The multichannel analyzer categorizes pulses produce by the CZT gamma-ray sensor into channels (discrete energy levels), resulting in pulse height data. The fuzzy-logic component analyzes the pulse height data and produces a ranked listing of radioisotopes. The fuzzy-logic component is flexible and well-suited to in-field analysis of radioisotopes. The display component may be a personal data assistant, which provides a user-friendly method of interacting with the detector. In addition, the radiation detector may be equipped with a neutron sensor to provide an enhanced mechanism of sensing radioactive materials.

  8. Training For Radiation Emergencies, First Responder Operations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Training For Radiation Emergencies, First Responder Operations - Instructors Guide Training For Radiation Emergencies, First Responder Operations - Instructors Guide COURSE...

  9. POLARIZATION OF THE COSMIC BACKGROUND RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lubin, Philip Lubin

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a 45° angle. Radiation whose electric field (polarization)radiation field, it can be uniquely characterized by its electric

  10. Global aspects of radiation memory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Winicour

    2014-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravitational radiation has a memory effect represented by a net change in the relative positions of test particles. Both the linear and nonlinear sources proposed for this radiation memory are of the "electric" type, or E mode, as characterized by the even parity of the polarization pattern. Although "magnetic" type, or B mode, radiation memory is mathematically possible, no physically realistic source has been identified. There is an electromagnetic counterpart to radiation memory in which the velocity of charged particles obtain a net "kick". Again, the physically realistic sources of electromagnetic radiation memory that have been identified are of the electric type. In this paper, a global null cone description of the electromagnetic field is applied to establish the non-existence of B mode radiation memory and the non-existence of E mode radiation memory due to a bound charge distribution.

  11. Method for microbeam radiation therapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slatkin, D.N.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Spanne, P.O.

    1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed of performing radiation therapy on a patient, involving exposing a target, usually a tumor, to a therapeutic dose of high energy electromagnetic radiation, preferably X-ray radiation. The dose is in the form of at least two non-overlapping microbeams of radiation, each microbeam having a width of less than about 1 millimeter. Target tissue exposed to the microbeams receives a radiation dose during the exposure that exceeds the maximum dose that such tissue can survive. Non-target tissue between the microbeams receives a dose of radiation below the threshold amount of radiation that can be survived by the tissue, and thereby permits the non-target tissue to regenerate. The microbeams may be directed at the target from one direction, or from more than one direction in which case the microbeams overlap within the target tissue enhancing the lethal effect of the irradiation while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. No Drawings

  12. Thermal loading considerations for synchrotron radiation mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holdener, F.R.; Berglin, E.J.; Fuchs, B.A.; Humpal, H.H.; Karpenko, V.P.; Martin, R.W.; Tirsell, K.G.

    1986-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Grazing incidence mirrors used to focus synchrotron radiation beams through small distant apertures have severe optical requirements. The surface distortion due to heat loading of the first mirror in a bending magnet beam line is of particular concern when a large fraction of the incident beam is absorbed. In this paper we discuss mirror design considerations involved in minimizing the thermal/mechanical loading on vertically deflecting first surface mirrors required for SPEAR synchrotron radiation beam lines. Topics include selection of mirror material and cooling method, the choice of SiC for the substrate, optimization of the thickness, and the design of the mirror holder and cooling mechanism. Results obtained using two-dimensional, finite-element thermal/mechanical distortion analysis are presented for the case of a 6/sup 0/ grazing incidence SiC mirror absorbing up to 260 W at Beam Line VIII on the SPEAR ring. Test descriptions and results are given for the material used to thermally couple this SiC mirror to a water-cooled block. The interface material is limited to applications for which the equivalent normal heat load is less than 20 W/cm/sup 2/.

  13. Hawking radiation for a scalar field conformally coupled to an AdS black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Valtancoli

    2015-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The decomposition in normal modes of a scalar field conformally coupled to an AdS black hole leads to a Heun equation with simple coefficients thanks to conformal invariance. By applying the Damour-Ruffini method we can relate the critical exponent of the radial part at the horizon surface to the Hawking radiation of scalar particles.

  14. Radiative Torques on Interstellar Grains: I. Superthermal Spinup

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. T. Draine; Joseph C. Weingartner

    1996-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Irregular dust grains are subject to radiative torques when irradiated by interstellar starlight. It is shown how these radiative torques may be calculated using the discrete dipole approximation. Calculations are carried out for one irregular grain geometry, and three different grain sizes. It is shown that radiative torques can play an important dynamical role in spinup of interstellar dust grains, resulting in rotation rates which may exceed even those expected from H_2 formation on the grain surface. Because the radiative torque on an interstellar grain is determined by the overall grain geometry rather than merely the state of the grain surface, the resulting superthermal rotation is expected to be long-lived. By itself, long-lived superthermal rotation would permit grain alignment by normal paramagnetic dissipation on the "Davis-Greenstein" timescale. However, radiative torques arising from anisotropy of the starlight background can act directly to alter the grain alignment on much shorter timescales, and are therefore central to the process of interstellar grain alignment. Radiative torques depend strongly on the grain size, measured by a_eff, the radius of a sphere of equal volume. In diffuse clouds, radiative torques dominate the torques due to H2 formation for a_eff=0.2micron grains, but are relatively unimportant for a_eff0.1 micron grains in diffuse clouds are aligned, while there is little alignment of a_eff superthermal rotation within quiescent dark clouds, but can be very effective in star-forming regions such as the M17 molecular cloud.

  15. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

    1998-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3` noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to appropriate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. This invention also provides normalized cDNA libraries generated by the above-described method and uses of the generated libraries. 19 figs.

  16. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soares, Marcelo B. (New York, NY); Efstratiadis, Argiris (Englewood, NJ)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to appropriate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. This invention also provides normalized cDNA libraries generated by the above-described method and uses of the generated libraries.

  17. Radiation imaging apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anger, Hal O. (Berkeley, CA); Martin, Donn C. (Berkeley, CA); Lampton, Michael L. (Berkeley, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation imaging system using a charge multiplier and a position sensitive anode in the form of periodically arranged sets of interconnected anode regions for detecting the position of the centroid of a charge cloud arriving thereat from the charge multiplier. Various forms of improved position sensitive anodes having single plane electrode connections are disclosed. Various analog and digital signal processing systems are disclosed, including systems which use the fast response of microchannel plates, anodes and preamps to perform scintillation pulse height analysis digitally.

  18. Radiation Field on Superspace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. F. Gonzalez-Diaz

    1994-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the dynamics of multiwormhole configurations within the framework of the Euclidean Polyakov approach to string theory, incorporating a modification to the Hamiltonian which makes it impossible to interpret the Coleman Alpha parameters of the effective interactions as a quantum field on superspace, reducible to an infinite tower of fields on space-time. We obtain a Planckian probability measure for the Alphas that allows $\\frac{1}{2}\\alpha^{2}$ to be interpreted as the energy of the quanta of a radiation field on superspace whose values may still fix the coupling constants.

  19. Solar radiation intensity calculations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Randolph Steven

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , radiation per unit area per unit time, on a flat-plate collector is given by: I = I cos B (2. 1a) where I is the solar constant. insolation received at one astro- nomical unit from the sun. Since clear sky conditions are assumed I o w i 1 1 b e a.... INSOLATION EQUATIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS Page III. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES APPENDIX VITA 25 47 48 52 Vi LIST OF TABLES TABLE I. Optimal Inclination for Ap=O, No Checks for Ip &0 and a Time Independent Solar Constant. II. Optimal...

  20. Radiation imaging apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anger, H.O.; Martin, D.C.; Lampton, M.L.

    1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation imaging system using a charge multiplier and a position sensitive anode in the form of periodically arranged sets of interconnected anode regions for detecting the position of the centroid of a charge cloud arriving thereat from the charge multiplier. Various forms of improved position sensitive anodes having single plane electrode connections are disclosed. Various analog and digital signal processing systems are disclosed, including systems which use the fast response of microchannel plates, anodes and preamps to perform scintillation pulse height analysis digitally. 15 figs.

  1. Radiation Emergency Procedure Demonstrations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnicalPurchase, Delivery, andSmartRadiation Effects

  2. Radiation Safety Test

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnicalPurchase, Delivery, andSmartRadiation

  3. Radiation Control Program and Radiation Control Act (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute authorizes the state to implement a regulatory program for sources of radiation, and contains rules for the Department, licensing and registration, and taxation of radioactive materials.

  4. Virtual Gamma Ray Radiation Sources through Neutron Radiative Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Wilde, Raymond Keegan

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The countrate response of a gamma spectrometry system from a neutron radiation source behind a plane of moderating material doped with a nuclide of a large radiative neutron capture cross-section exhibits a countrate response analogous to a gamma radiation source at the same position from the detector. Using a planar, surface area of the neutron moderating material exposed to the neutron radiation produces a larger area under the prompt gamma ray peak in the detector than a smaller area of dimensions relative to the active volume of the gamma detection system.

  5. Defining the normal turbine inflow within a wind park environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, N.D.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This brief paper discusses factors that must be considered when defining the {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} (as opposed to {open_quotes}extreme{close_quotes}) loading conditions seen in wind turbines operating within a wind park environment. The author defines the {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} conditions to include fatigue damage accumulation as a result of: (1) start/stop cycles, (2) emergency shutdowns, and (3) the turbulence environment associated with site and turbine location. He also interprets {open_quotes}extreme{close_quotes} loading conditions to include those events that can challenge the survivability of the turbine.

  6. Defining the normal turbine inflow within a wind park environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, N.D.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This brief paper discusses factors that must be considered when defining the [open quotes]normal[close quotes] (as opposed to [open quotes]extreme[close quotes]) loading conditions seen in wind turbines operating within a wind park environment. The author defines the [open quotes]normal[close quotes] conditions to include fatigue damage accumulation as a result of: (1) start/stop cycles, (2) emergency shutdowns, and (3) the turbulence environment associated with site and turbine location. He also interprets [open quotes]extreme[close quotes] loading conditions to include those events that can challenge the survivability of the turbine.

  7. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soares, Marcelo B. (New York, NY); Efstratiadis, Argiris (Englewood, NJ)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  8. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

    1996-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form. The method comprises: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3` noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 4 figs.

  9. RADIATIVE RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR INSTABILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacquet, Emmanuel [Laboratoire de Mineralogie et Cosmochimie de Museum (LMCM), CNRS and Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, UMR 7202, 57 rue Cuvier, 75005 Paris (France); Krumholz, Mark R., E-mail: ejacquet@mnhn.fr, E-mail: krumholz@ucolick.org [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform analytic linear stability analyses of an interface separating two stratified media threaded by a radiation flux, a configuration relevant in several astrophysical contexts. We develop a general framework for analyzing such systems and obtain exact stability conditions in several limiting cases. In the optically thin, isothermal regime, where the discontinuity is chemical in nature (e.g., at the boundary of a radiation pressure-driven H II region), radiation acts as part of an effective gravitational field, and instability arises if the effective gravity per unit volume toward the interface overcomes that away from it. In the optically thick 'adiabatic' regime where the total (gas plus radiation) specific entropy of a Lagrangian fluid element is conserved, for example at the edge of radiation pressure-driven bubble around a young massive star, we show that radiation acts like a modified equation of state and derive a generalized version of the classical Rayleigh-Taylor stability condition.

  10. Radiator Labs | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Radiation Protection Regulations: TheCompetition » Radiator Labs

  11. Split SUSY Radiates Flavor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew Baumgart; Daniel Stolarski; Thomas Zorawski

    2014-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative flavor models where the hierarchies of Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixings are explained via loop corrections are elegant ways to solve the SM flavor puzzle. Here we build such a model in the context of Mini-Split Supersymmetry (SUSY) where both flavor and SUSY breaking occur at a scale of 1000 TeV. This model is consistent with the observed Higgs mass, unification, and WIMP dark matter. The high scale allows large flavor mixing among the sfermions, which provides part of the mechanism for radiative flavor generation. In the deep UV, all flavors are treated democratically, but at the SUSY breaking scale, the third, second, and first generation Yukawa couplings are generated at tree level, one loop, and two loops, respectively. Save for one, all the dimensionless parameters in the theory are O(1), with the exception being a modest and technically natural tuning that explains both the smallness of the bottom Yukawa coupling and the largeness of the Cabibbo angle.

  12. Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasky, Hilda B [ORNL] [ORNL; Bass, Bennett Richard [ORNL] [ORNL; Williams, Paul T [ORNL] [ORNL; Phillips, Rick [ORNL] [ORNL; Erickson, Marjorie A [ORNL] [ORNL; Kirk, Mark T [ORNL] [ORNL; Stevens, Gary L [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project (REAP), which is being conducted by the Probabilistic Integrity Safety Assessment (PISA) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under funding from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission s (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, aims to provide an archival source of information about the effect of neutron radiation on the properties of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. Specifically, this project is an effort to create an Internet-accessible RPV steel embrittlement database. The project s website, https://reap.ornl.gov, provides information in two forms: (1) a document archive with surveillance capsule(s) reports and related technical reports, in PDF format, for the 104 commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States, with similar reports from other countries; and (2) a relational database archive with detailed information extracted from the reports. The REAP project focuses on data collected from surveillance capsule programs for light-water moderated, nuclear power reactor vessels operated in the United States, including data on Charpy V-notch energy testing results, tensile properties, composition, exposure temperatures, neutron flux (rate of irradiation damage), and fluence, (Fast Neutron Fluence a cumulative measure of irradiation for E>1 MeV). Additionally, REAP contains data from surveillance programs conducted in other countries. REAP is presently being extended to focus on embrittlement data analysis, as well. This paper summarizes the current status of the REAP database and highlights opportunities to access the data and to participate in the project.

  13. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON RADIATION CARCINOGENESIS IN HUMAN POPULATIONS FOLLOWING ACUTE EXPOSURE: NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND MEDICAL RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EXPOSURE: NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND MEDICAL RADIATION . Jacobexposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Sinceto nuclear explo ions or medical radiation, describes the

  14. Radiation Safety Work Control Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Safety Work Control Form (see instructions on pg-3) Rev. May 2014 Area: Form : Date: Preliminary Applicability Screen: (a) Will closing the beam line injection stoppers...

  15. Inverse problem for Bremsstrahlung radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voss, K.E.; Fisch, N.J.

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For certain predominantly one-dimensional distribution functions, an analytic inversion has been found which yields the velocity distribution of superthermal electrons given their Bremsstrahlung radiation. 5 refs.

  16. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.

    1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resistance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation. 4 figures.

  17. Radiating Levi-Civita Spacetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozgur Delice

    2005-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper has been withdrawn by the author, See J.Krishna Rao, J. Phys. A: Gen. Phys., 4, 17 (1971) for radiating Levi-Civita metric.

  18. Scintillator Waveguide For Sensing Radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bliss, Mary (West Richland, WA); Craig, Richard A. (West Richland, WA); Reeder; Paul L. (Richland, WA)

    2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an apparatus for detecting ionizing radiation, having: a waveguide having a first end and a second end, the waveguide formed of a scintillator material wherein the therapeutic ionizing radiation isotropically generates scintillation light signals within the waveguide. This apparatus provides a measure of radiation dose. The apparatus may be modified to permit making a measure of location of radiation dose. Specifically, the scintillation material is segmented into a plurality of segments; and a connecting cable for each of the plurality of segments is used for conducting scintillation signals to a scintillation detector.

  19. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, Peter B. (Los Alamos, NM); Looney, Larry D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resitance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation.

  20. Quality Services: Radiation (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations establish standards for protection against ionizing radiation resulting from the disposal and discharge of radioactive material to the environment. The regulations apply to any...

  1. Variable ventilation induces endogenous surfactant release in normal guinea pigs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutchen, Kenneth

    Variable ventilation induces endogenous surfactant release in normal guinea pigs Stephen P. Arold,1. Alencar, Kenneth R. Lutchen, and Edward P. Ingenito. Variable ventilation induces endogenous surfactant.00036.2003.--Variable or noisy ventilation, which includes random breath-to-breath variations in tidal

  2. PAS kinase is required for normal cellular energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutter, Jared

    PAS kinase is required for normal cellular energy balance Huai-Xiang Hao*, Caleb M. Cardon*, Wojtek, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 Edited by Steven L. McKnight, University in a cell-autonomous manner to maintain cellular energy homeostasis and is a potential therapeutic target

  3. Rigid Shape Interpolation Using Normal Equations William Baxter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Rigid Shape Interpolation Using Normal Equations William Baxter OLM Digital, Inc. Pascal Barla INRIA Bordeaux University Ken-ichi Anjyo OLM Digital, Inc. Figure 1: Rigid Morphing with large rotations works well and is a very practical way e-mail: baxter@olm.co.jp e-mail: pascal.barla@labri.fr e

  4. Auditory Responses in Normal-Hearing, Noise-Exposed Ears

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stamper, Greta

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    ....................................................................................... 29 Influence of ABR Recording Electrode ......................................................................................... 31 ABR Wave V Amplitude... membrane electrode (Ferguson and Ferraro, 1989; Schwartz et al., 1994; Hall, 2007b; Gaddam and Ferraro, 2008). Variability is commonly seen in ABR response amplitude, even in normal-hearing ears (Schwartz et al., 1994). In light of the recent animal data...

  5. RADIO PROCEDURES DURING NORMAL OPERATING CONDITIONS CALLING AND COMMUNICATING TECHNIQUES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brody, James P.

    RADIO PROCEDURES DURING NORMAL OPERATING CONDITIONS CALLING AND COMMUNICATING TECHNIQUES The secret are going to say. Many people with radios have a tendency to talk and/or repeat too much. Say what you need until it is second nature. Practicing proper day-to-day radio procedures will make emergency radio

  6. Determination of normalized magnetic eigenfields in microwave cavities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helsing, Johan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The magnetic field integral equation for axially symmetric cavities with perfectly conducting surfaces is discretized according to a high-order convergent Fourier--Nystr\\"om scheme. The resulting solver is used to determine eigenwavenumbers and normalized magnetic eigenfields to very high accuracy in the entire computational domain.

  7. Water-Energy Shortages in the West: The New Normal?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Junshan

    Water-Energy Shortages in the West: The New Normal? Tuesday, November 19, 2013 12:00 - 1:30 p, Kristen Averyt, director of the Western Water Assessment, a NOAA program based at CIRES, will discuss the connections between climate science and decision- making across the West , in particular, the water

  8. CONCENTRATED SOLID SOLUTIONS OF NORMAL METALS By H. JONES,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    637. CONCENTRATED SOLID SOLUTIONS OF NORMAL METALS By H. JONES, Imperial College. Department and Heine [1] in the light of the new knowledge of the Fermi surface revealed by experi- ments alloys is reviewed in the light of modern work on the nature of the Fermi surfaces in the noble metals

  9. Proving Termination of Normalization Functions for Conditional Expressions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haddadi, Hamed

    Computer Laboratory University of Cambridge 3 June 1985 Boyer and Moore have discussed a recursive function: Boyer/Moore Theorem Prover, LCF, total correctness, well-founded relations. #12;Contents 1 Conclusions 12 1 #12;1 A normalization function Boyer and Moore have published a machine-assisted proof

  10. Computational Model for Forced Expiration from Asymmetric Normal Lungs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutchen, Kenneth

    Computational Model for Forced Expiration from Asymmetric Normal Lungs ADAM G. POLAK 1 losses along the airway branches. Calculations done for succeeding lung volumes result in the semidynamic to the choke points, characteristic differences of lung regional pressures and volumes, and a shape

  11. A Prospective Cohort Study on Radiation-induced Hypothyroidism: Development of an NTCP Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boomsma, Marjolein J.; Bijl, Hendrik P.; Christianen, Miranda E.M.C.; Beetz, Ivo; Chouvalova, Olga; Steenbakkers, Roel J.H.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Laan, Bernard F.A.M. van der [Department of Otorhinolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R. [Department of Endocrinology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Department of Endocrinology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Oosting, Sjoukje F. [Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Schilstra, Cornelis [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A., E-mail: j.a.langendijk@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To establish a multivariate normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model for radiation-induced hypothyroidism. Methods and Materials: The thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level of 105 patients treated with (chemo-) radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer was prospectively measured during a median follow-up of 2.5 years. Hypothyroidism was defined as elevated serum TSH with decreased or normal free thyroxin (T4). A multivariate logistic regression model with bootstrapping was used to determine the most important prognostic variables for radiation-induced hypothyroidism. Results: Thirty-five patients (33%) developed primary hypothyroidism within 2 years after radiation therapy. An NTCP model based on 2 variables, including the mean thyroid gland dose and the thyroid gland volume, was most predictive for radiation-induced hypothyroidism. NTCP values increased with higher mean thyroid gland dose (odds ratio [OR]: 1.064/Gy) and decreased with higher thyroid gland volume (OR: 0.826/cm{sup 3}). Model performance was good with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.85. Conclusions: This is the first prospective study resulting in an NTCP model for radiation-induced hypothyroidism. The probability of hypothyroidism rises with increasing dose to the thyroid gland, whereas it reduces with increasing thyroid gland volume.

  12. Long range heliostat target using array of normal incidence pyranometers to evaluate a beam of solar radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghanbari, Cheryl M; Ho, Clifford K; Kolb, Gregory J

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Various technologies described herein pertain to evaluating a beam reflected by a heliostat. A portable target that has an array of sensors mounted thereupon is configured to capture the beam reflected by the heliostat. The sensors in the array output measured values indicative of a characteristic of the beam reflected by the heliostat. Moreover, a computing device can generate and output data corresponding to the beam reflected by the heliostat based on the measured values indicative of the characteristic of the beam received from the sensors in the array.

  13. A filter for compensation of the angular dependence of LiF: Mg,Ti(TLD-100) for beta radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akabani Hneide, Gamal

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . INTRODUCTION Since the intmduction of thermoluminescent (TL) techniques in radiation dosimetry, the phosphor lithium fluorid has ieceived considerable attention. Because of its approximate tissue equivalence and useful dosimetric properties, namely, high... thermoluminescent dosimeter. For personnel dosimetry puxposes the angular and energy dependence are important factors to be considered to assess the dose under normal wearing conditions. The normal pxocedute for calibrating a TL dosimeter is by using...

  14. Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network operated from November 1985 through December 1996. The six-station network provided 5-minute averaged measurements of global and diffuse horizontal solar irradiance. The data were processed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to improve the assessment of the solar radiation resources in the southeastern United States. Three of the stations also measured the direct-normal solar irradiance with a pyrheliometer mounted in an automatic sun tracker. All data are archived in the Standard Broadband Format (SBF) with quality-assessment indicators. Monthly data summaries and plots are also available for each month. In January 1997 the HBCU sites became part of the CONFRRM solar monitoring network.

  15. 60. LUNG .13 NORMAL VARIANT .31 BENIGN NEOPI,J.SM, CYST, 6l. RIGHT .131 NORMAL VARIANT, OTHER NEOPLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    [ ~;{(, (1) Lungs 60. LUNG .13 NORMAL VARIANT .31 BENIGN NEOPI,J.SM, CYST, 6l. RIGHT .131 IN LUNG BRONCHI .221 SARCOIDOSIS, 672. SUPERIOR ADENOPATHY MEDIASTINUN .222 SARCOIDOSIS, 673 68. MORE THAN 1 LUNG PLRA, MEDIAST. , LOCATION (GNRLIZED) 69. OTHER-(LUNG, PLRA, MEDIAST

  16. Simulation of neutron radiation damage in silicon semiconductor devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shadid, John Nicolas; Hoekstra, Robert John; Hennigan, Gary Lee; Castro, Joseph Pete Jr.; Fixel, Deborah A.

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A code, Charon, is described which simulates the effects that neutron damage has on silicon semiconductor devices. The code uses a stabilized, finite-element discretization of the semiconductor drift-diffusion equations. The mathematical model used to simulate semiconductor devices in both normal and radiation environments will be described. Modeling of defect complexes is accomplished by adding an additional drift-diffusion equation for each of the defect species. Additionally, details are given describing how Charon can efficiently solve very large problems using modern parallel computers. Comparison between Charon and experiment will be given, as well as comparison with results from commercially-available TCAD codes.

  17. General Operational Procedure for Pedestrian Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belooussov, Andrei V. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This document outlines the basic conduct of operation (CONOPS) for a pedestrian radiation portal monitor (RPM), provided that the CONOPS is not facility or RPM specific and that it is based on a general understanding of a pedestrian RPM operation. The described CONOPS for a pedestrian RPM is defined by: (1) RPM design and operational characteristics, (2) type of pedestrian traffic, and (3) goal for RPM installation. Pedestrian RPMs normally are deployed for the continuous monitoring of individuals passing through point of control to detect the unauthorized traffic of radioactive/nuclear materials. RPMs generally are designed to detect gamma- and neutron-emitting materials.

  18. Hawking radiation and Quasinormal modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SangChul Yoon

    2005-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The spectrum of Hawking radiation by quantum fields in the curved spacetime is continuous, so the explanation of Hawking radiation using quasinormal modes can be suspected to be impossible. We find that quasinormal modes do not explain the relation between the state observed in a region far away from a black hole and the short distance behavior of the state on the horizon.

  19. Radiation trapping in coherent media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. B. Matsko; I. Novikova; M. O. Scully; G. R. Welch

    2001-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the effective decay rate of Zeeman coherence, generated in a Rb87 vapor by linearly polarized laser light, increases significantly with the atomic density. We explain this phenomenon as the result of radiation trapping. Our study shows that radiation trapping must be taken into account to fully understand many electromagnetically induced transparency experiments with optically thick media.

  20. Review Article RADIATION SHIELDING TECHNOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shultis, J. Kenneth

    Review Article RADIATION SHIELDING TECHNOLOGY J. Kenneth Shultis and Richard E. Faw* Abstract Physics Society INTRODUCTION THIS IS a review of the technology of shielding against the effects to the review. The first treats the evolution of radiation-shielding technology from the beginning of the 20th

  1. SciTech Connect: Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel Assembly. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel...

  2. Low-Oxygen Induction of Normally Cryptic psbA Genes in Cyanobacteria...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxygen Induction of Normally Cryptic psbA Genes in Cyanobacteria. Low-Oxygen Induction of Normally Cryptic psbA Genes in Cyanobacteria. Abstract: Microarray analysis indicated...

  3. The physics of non-thermal radiation in microquasars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Bosch-Ramon

    2008-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Microquasars are binary systems that harbor a normal star and a compact object (black-hole or neutron star), and show relativistic outflows (or jets). The matter that forms these jets is of likely stellar origin, previously expelled from the star and trapped in the potential well of the compact object. This matter is accreted by the compact object, forming a disk due to its angular momentum, and is eventually ejected in the form of a bipolar outflow (the jets), which generates radio emission and could also be a very high-energy emitter. To study and understand the radiation from microquasars, there is a set of elements that can play a major role and are to be taken into account: the photons and the expelled matter from the star in the case of high-mass systems; the accreted matter radiation; the jet; the magnetic field carried by the jet or filling the binary system; and the medium surrounding the microquasar at large scales (~pc). In this lecture, we consider these elements of the microquasar scenario and briefly describe the physical conditions and processes involved in the production of non-thermal radiation from radio to gamma-rays. The required energetics, particle acceleration and transport, several radiative mechanisms, and the impact of different photon absorption processes, are discussed.

  4. Use of diamond-turned mirrors for synchrotron radiation (SR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howells, M.R.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The diamond turning technique has great interest for users of synchrotron radiation because of its ability to produce surfaces of arbitrary shape. It also has the advantage of being well adapted to producing metal optics. These are of interest because they lend themselves to water cooling and hence represent one approach to the problem of high synchrotron radiation power loadings on optical surfaces. The optical figure produced by diamond turning is generally adequate for synchrotron radiation applications. The main difficulty centers around the question of smoothness. Diamond turned surfaces must receive a final polish after machining before they are sufficiently smooth for use with ultra-violet or x-ray radiation. The manufacturing stages can be carried out by various groups in the optics industry and the National Synchrotron Light Source has procured a considerable number of mirrors and is having them polished for use on the vuv storage ring. At the time of writing one mirror has been completed and evaluated and we give the results for this and discuss the indications for the future. The important measurement of the r.m.s. height of the surface roughness has given a value of 3 +- 0.9A using total integrated scatter of visible light at normal incidence.

  5. Synchrotron radiation based beam diagnostics at the Fermilab Tevatron

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thurman-Keup, R.; Cheung, H. W.K.; Hahn, A.; Hurh, P.; Lorman, E.; Lundberg, C.; Meyer, T.; Miller, D.; Pordes, S.; Valishev, A.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synchrotron radiation has been used for many years as a beam diagnostic at electron accelerators. It is not normally associated with proton accelerators as the intensity of the radiation is too weak to make detection practical. However, if one utilizes the radiation originating near the edge of a bending magnet, or from a short magnet, the rapidly changing magnetic field serves to enhance the wavelengths shorter than the cutoff wavelength, which for more recent high energy proton accelerators such as Fermilab's Tevatron, tends to be visible light. This paper discusses the implementation at the Tevatron of two devices. A transverse beam profile monitor images the synchrotron radiation coming from the proton and antiproton beams separately and provides profile data for each bunch. A second monitor measures the low-level intensity of beam in the abort gaps which poses a danger to both the accelerator's superconducting magnets and the silicon detectors of the high energy physics experiments. Comparisons of measurements from the profile monitor to measurements from the flying wire profile systems are presented as are a number of examples of the application of the profile and abort gap intensity measurements to the modelling of Tevatron beam dynamics.

  6. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

  7. Gravitational Radiation From Cosmological Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arthur Kosowsky; Andrew Mack; Tinatin Kahniashvili

    2002-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An injection of energy into the early Universe on a given characteristic length scale will result in turbulent motions of the primordial plasma. We calculate the stochastic background of gravitational radiation arising from a period of cosmological turbulence, using a simple model of isotropic Kolmogoroff turbulence produced in a cosmological phase transition. We also derive the gravitational radiation generated by magnetic fields arising from a dynamo operating during the period of turbulence. The resulting gravitational radiation background has a maximum amplitude comparable to the radiation background from the collision of bubbles in a first-order phase transition, but at a lower frequency, while the radiation from the induced magnetic fields is always subdominant to that from the turbulence itself. We briefly discuss the detectability of such a signal.

  8. Transition Radiation in QCD matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magdalena Djordjevic

    2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions a finite size QCD medium is created. In this paper we compute radiative energy loss to zeroth order in opacity by taking into account finite size effects. Transition radiation occurs on the boundary between the finite size medium and the vacuum, and we show that it lowers the difference between medium and vacuum zeroth order radiative energy loss relative to the infinite size medium case. Further, in all previous computations of light parton radiation to zeroth order in opacity, there was a divergence caused by the fact that the energy loss is infinite in the vacuum and finite in the QCD medium. We show that this infinite discontinuity is naturally regulated by including the transition radiation.

  9. Radiation Reaction in Quantum Vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keita Seto

    2014-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    From the development of the electron theory by H. A. Lorentz in 1906, many authors have tried to reformulate this model named "radiation reaction". P. A. M. Dirac derived the relativistic-classical electron model in 1938, which is now called the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac model. But this model has the big difficulty of the run-away solution. Recently, this equation has become important for ultra-intense laser-electron (plasma) interactions. Therefore, it is desirable to stabilize this model of the radiation reaction for estimations. Via my recent research, I found a stabilized model of radiation reaction in quantum vacuum. This leads us to an updated Fletcher-Millikan's charge to mass ratio including radiation, de/dm, derived as the 4th order tensor measure. In this paper, I will discuss the latest update of the model and the ability of the equation of motion with radiation reaction in quantum vacuum via photon-photon scatterings.

  10. Dosimetric Analysis of Radiation-induced Gastric Bleeding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Mary, E-mail: maryfeng@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Normolle, Daniel [Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Pan, Charlie C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Dawson, Laura A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Amarnath, Sudha [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ensminger, William D. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S.; Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Radiation-induced gastric bleeding has been poorly understood. In this study, we described dosimetric predictors for gastric bleeding after fractionated radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The records of 139 sequential patients treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for intrahepatic malignancies were reviewed. Median follow-up was 7.4 months. The parameters of a Lyman normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model for the occurrence of {>=}grade 3 gastric bleed, adjusted for cirrhosis, were fitted to the data. The principle of maximum likelihood was used to estimate parameters for NTCP models. Results: Sixteen of 116 evaluable patients (14%) developed gastric bleeds at a median time of 4.0 months (mean, 6.5 months; range, 2.1-28.3 months) following completion of RT. The median and mean maximum doses to the stomach were 61 and 63 Gy (range, 46-86 Gy), respectively, after biocorrection of each part of the 3D dose distributions to equivalent 2-Gy daily fractions. The Lyman NTCP model with parameters adjusted for cirrhosis predicted gastric bleed. Best-fit Lyman NTCP model parameters were n=0.10 and m=0.21 and with TD{sub 50} (normal) = 56 Gy and TD{sub 50} (cirrhosis) = 22 Gy. The low n value is consistent with the importance of maximum dose; a lower TD{sub 50} value for the cirrhosis patients points out their greater sensitivity. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the Lyman NTCP model has utility for predicting gastric bleeding and that the presence of cirrhosis greatly increases this risk. These findings should facilitate the design of future clinical trials involving high-dose upper abdominal radiation.

  11. Measurement of normal contact stiffness of fractal rough surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chongpu Zhai; Sébastien Bevand; Yixiang Gan; Dorian Hanaor; Gwénaëlle Proust; Bruno Guelorget; Delphine Retraint

    2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effects of roughness and fractality on the normal contact stiffness of rough surfaces. Samples of isotropically roughened aluminium surfaces are considered. The roughness and fractal dimension were altered through blasting using different sized particles. Subsequently, surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) was applied to the surfaces in order to modify the surface at the microscale. The surface topology was characterised by interferometry based profilometry. The normal contact stiffness was measured through nanoindentation with a flat tip utilising the partial unloading method. We focus on establishing the relationships between surface stiffness and roughness, combined with the effects of fractal dimension. The experimental results, for a wide range of surfaces, showed that the measured contact stiffness depended very closely on surfaces' root mean squared (RMS) slope and their fractal dimension, with correlation coefficients of around 90\\%, whilst a relatively weak correlation coefficient of 57\\% was found between the contact stiffness and RMS roughness.

  12. Procedure for normalization of cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonaldo, Maria DeFatima (New York, NY); Soares, Marcelo Bento (New York, NY)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a method to normalize a cDNA library constructed in a vector capable of being converted to single-stranded circles and capable of producing complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles comprising: (a) converting the cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles; (c) hybridizing the single-stranded circles converted in step (a) with complementary nucleic acid molecules of step (b) to produce partial duplexes to an appropriate Cot; (e) separating the unhybridized single-stranded circles from the hybridized single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  13. Procedure for normalization of cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonaldo, M.D.; Soares, M.B.

    1997-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a method to normalize a cDNA library constructed in a vector capable of being converted to single-stranded circles and capable of producing complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles comprising: (a) converting the cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles; (c) hybridizing the single-stranded circles converted in step (a) with complementary nucleic acid molecules of step (b) to produce partial duplexes to an appropriate Cot; (e) separating the unhybridized single-stranded circles from the hybridized single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 1 fig.

  14. Quasi-Degenerate Neutrino Masses with Normal and Inverted Hierarchy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francis, Ng K

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of CP-phases on the three absolute quasi-degenerate Majorana neutrino (QDN) masses are stud-ied with neutrino mass matrices obeying {\\mu} - {\\tau} symmetry for normal as well as inverted hierarchical mass patterns. We have made further investigations on 1) the prediction of solar mixing angle which lies below tri-bimaximal mixing value in consistent with neutrino oscillation observational data, 2) the prediction on absolute neutrino mass parameter (mee) in 0{\

  15. Radiation events in astronomical CCD images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    268. 10. “On the Rates of Radiation Events in CCD’s (Excerpt23 Jan 2002 LBNL-49316 Radiation events in astronomical CCDof depleted silicon to ionizing radiation is a nuisance to

  16. High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ager III, J.W.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. F. Geisz, “Superior radiation resistance of In 1-x Ga x Nand H. Itoh, “Proton radiation analysis of multi-junction56326 High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells Final

  17. Radiation power and linewidth of a semifluxon-based Josephson oscillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paramonov, M.; Fominsky, M. Yu.; Koshelets, V. P. [Kotel'nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics RAS, Mokhovaya 11, 125009 Moscow (Russian Federation); Neumeier, B.; Koelle, D.; Kleiner, R.; Goldobin, E. [Physikalisches Institut and Center for Collective Quantum Phenomena in LISA, Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a high-frequency generator operating at ?200?GHz based on flipping a semifluxon in a Josephson junction of moderate normalized length. The semifluxon spontaneously appears at the ? discontinuity of the Josephson phase artificially created by means of two tiny current injectors. The radiation is detected by an on-chip detector (tunnel junction). The estimated radiation power (at the detector) is ?8?nW and should be compared with the dc power of ?100?nW consumed by the generator. The measured radiation linewidth, as low as 1.1?MHz, is typical for geometrical (Fiske) resonances, although we tried to suppress such resonances by placing well-matched microwave transformers at its both ends. Making use of a phase-locking feedback loop, we are able to reduce the radiation linewidth to less than 1?Hz measured relative to the reference oscillator and defined just by the resolution of our measurement setup.

  18. A frequency-domain transient stability criterion for normal contingencies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marceau, R.J.; Rizzi, J.C. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering] [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Mailhot, R. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)] [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a previous paper, a simple frequency-domain stability criterion was proposed for networks near the stability limit subjected to a 3-phase fault with no loss of line. The criterion can be summarized as follows: if a system is stable, the phase angle of the Fourier transform of a network`s transient voltage response exhibits a clockwise polar plot behavior at all buses (i.e. for increasing frequency); if the system is unstable, it exhibits a counterclockwise behavior in at least one location. Though these results are of interest, the criterion would be of greater practical use in mechanizing dynamic security analysis if it could be extended to the types of contingencies actually used in security analysis, namely normal contingencies. Normal contingencies are commonly defined as the loss of any element in a power system, either spontaneously or preceded by a fault, and such changes in topology impact post-contingency steady-state voltages in addition to their transient behavior. The present paper shows how such cases can be treated, thereby extending the applicable range of the criterion to normal contingencies.

  19. Surface tension with Normal Curvature in Curved Space-Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Himanshu kumar; Sharf Alam; Suhail Ahmad

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With an aim to include the contribution of surface tension in the action of the boundary, we define the tangential pressure in terms of surface tension and Normal curvature in a more naturally geometric way. First, we show that the negative tangential pressure is independent of the four-velocity of a very thin hyper-surface. Second, we relate the 3-pressure of a surface layer to the normal curvature and the surface tension. Third, we relate the surface tension to the energy of the surface layer. Four, we show that the delta like energy flows across the hyper-surface will be zero for such a representation of intrinsic 3-pressure. Five, for the weak field approximation and for static spherically symmetric configuration, we deduce the classical Kelvin's relation. Six, we write a modified action for the boundary having contributions both from surface tension and normal curvature of the surface layer. Also we propose a method to find the physical action assuming a reference background, where the background is not flat.

  20. Radiation-induced lung injury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosiello, R.A.; Merrill, W.W. (Yale Univ. Medical Center, New Haven, CT (USA))

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of radiation therapy is limited by the occurrence of the potentially fatal clinical syndromes of radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Radiation pneumonitis usually becomes clinically apparent from 2 to 6 months after completion of radiation therapy. It is characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, and alveolar infiltrates on chest roentgenogram and may be difficult to differentiate from infection or recurrent malignancy. The pathogenesis is uncertain, but appears to involve both direct lung tissue toxicity and an inflammatory response. The syndrome may resolve spontaneously or may progress to respiratory failure. Corticosteroids may be effective therapy if started early in the course of the disease. The time course for the development of radiation fibrosis is later than that for radiation pneumonitis. It is usually present by 1 year following irradiation, but may not become clinically apparent until 2 years after radiation therapy. It is characterized by the insidious onset of dyspnea on exertion. It most often is mild, but can progress to chronic respiratory failure. There is no known successful treatment for this condition. 51 references.

  1. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1974 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Seventh Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for AEC & AEC Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and its contractor employees during 1974.

  2. ORISE: REAC/TS Radiation Accident Registries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accident Registries The Radiation Emergency Assistance CenterTraining Site (REACTS) at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) maintains a number of radiation...

  3. ORISE: REAC/TS Radiation Treatment Medications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Treatment Medications The Radiation Emergency Assistance CenterTraining Site (REACTS) is a valuable resource in the use of drug therapies to treat radiation exposure. REACTS...

  4. 10 CFR 835- Occupational Radiation Protection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The rules in this part establish radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of DOE activities.

  5. Hybrid Radiator Cooling System | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiator Cooling System Technology available for licensing: Hybrid radiator cooling system uses conventional finned air cooling under most driving conditions that would be...

  6. Standards for Protection Against Radiation (Michigan)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This rule establishes standards for protection against radiation hazards. In addition to complying with requirements set forth, every reasonable effort should be made to maintain radiation levels...

  7. Radiation detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riedel, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Wintenberg, Alan L. (Knoxville, TN); Clonts, Lloyd G. (Knoxville, TN); Cooper, Ronald G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A preamplifier circuit for processing a signal provided by a radiation detector includes a transimpedance amplifier coupled to receive a current signal from a detector and generate a voltage signal at its output. A second amplification stage has an input coupled to an output of the transimpedance amplifier for providing an amplified voltage signal. Detector electronics include a preamplifier circuit having a first and second transimpedance amplifier coupled to receive a current signal from a first and second location on a detector, respectively, and generate a first and second voltage signal at respective outputs. A second amplification stage has an input coupled to an output of the transimpedance amplifiers for amplifying the first and said second voltage signals to provide first and second amplified voltage signals. A differential output stage is coupled to the second amplification stage for receiving the first and second amplified voltage signals and providing a pair of outputs from each of the first and second amplified voltage signals. Read out circuitry has an input coupled to receive both of the pair of outputs, the read out circuitry having structure for processing each of the pair of outputs, and providing a single digital output having a time-stamp therefrom.

  8. Physics of collisionless scrape-off-layer plasma during normal and off-normal Tokamak operating conditions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, I.

    1999-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure of a collisionless scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasma in tokamak reactors is being studied to define the electron distribution function and the corresponding sheath potential between the divertor plate and the edge plasma. The collisionless model is shown to be valid during the thermal phase of a plasma disruption, as well as during the newly desired low-recycling normal phase of operation with low-density, high-temperature, edge plasma conditions. An analytical solution is developed by solving the Fokker-Planck equation for electron distribution and balance in the SOL. The solution is in good agreement with numerical studies using Monte-Carlo methods. The analytical solutions provide an insight to the role of different physical and geometrical processes in a collisionless SOL during disruptions and during the enhanced phase of normal operation over a wide range of parameters.

  9. Actively driven thermal radiation shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Norman W. (Livermore, CA); Cork, Christopher P. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Becker, John A. (Alameda, CA); Knapp, David A. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal radiation shield for cooled portable gamma-ray spectrometers. The thermal radiation shield is located intermediate the vacuum enclosure and detector enclosure, is actively driven, and is useful in reducing the heat load to mechanical cooler and additionally extends the lifetime of the mechanical cooler. The thermal shield is electrically-powered and is particularly useful for portable solid-state gamma-ray detectors or spectrometers that dramatically reduces the cooling power requirements. For example, the operating shield at 260K (40K below room temperature) will decrease the thermal radiation load to the detector by 50%, which makes possible portable battery operation for a mechanically cooled Ge spectrometer.

  10. Radiation-induced Genomic Instability and Radiation Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varnum, Susan M.; Sowa, Marianne B.; Kim, Grace J.; Morgan, William F.

    2013-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The obvious relationships between reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammatory type responses and reactive chemokines and cytokines suggests a general stress response induced by ionizing radiation most likely leads to the non-targeted effects described after radiation exposure. We argue that true bystander effects do not occur in the radiation therapy clinic. But there is no question that effects outside the target volume do occur. These “out of field effects” are considered very low dose effects in the context of therapy. So what are the implications of non-targeted effects on radiation sensitivity? The primary goal of therapy is to eradicate the tumor. Given the genetic diversity of the human population, lifestyle and environment factors it is likely some combination of these will influence patient outcome. Non-targeted effects may contribute to a greater or lesser extent. But consider the potential situation involving a partial body exposure due to a radiation accident or radiological terrorism. Non-targeted effects suggest that the tissue at risk for demonstrating possible detrimental effects of radiation exposure might be greater than the volume actually irradiated.

  11. Energy Flow in Interjet Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carola F. Berger; Tibor Kucs; George Sterman

    2002-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the distribution of transverse energy, Q_Omega, radiated into an arbitrary interjet angular region, Omega, in high-p_T two-jet events. Using an approximation that emphasizes radiation directly from the partons that undergo the hard scattering, we find a distribution that can be extrapolated smoothly to Q_Omega=Lambda_QCD, where it vanishes. This method, which we apply numerically in a valence quark approximation, provides a class of predictions on transverse energy radiated between jets, as a function of jet energy and rapidity, and of the choice of the region Omega in which the energy is measured. We discuss the relation of our approximation to the radiation from unobserved partons of intermediate energy, whose importance was identified by Dasgupta and Salam.

  12. Georgia Radiation Control Act (Georgia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Georgia Radiation Control Act is designed to prevent any associated harmful effects upon the environment or the health and safety of the public through the institution and maintenance of a...

  13. Texas Radiation Control Act (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It is the policy of the state to institute and maintain a regulatory program for radiation sources that is compatible with federal standards and regulatory programs, and, to the degree possible,...

  14. Ionizing Radiation Injury (South Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation applies to employers that have more than one employee who engages in activities which involve the presence of ionizing radiation. Employers with less than three employees can...

  15. Survivable pulse power space radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mims, J.; Buden, D.; Williams, K.

    1988-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometerorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length. 5 figs.

  16. MULTI-POINT RADIATION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofstetter, K; Donna Beals, D; Ken Odell, K; Robert Eakle, R; Russell Huffman, R; Larry Harpring, L

    2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A unique radiation monitor has been developed for performing wide-area field surveys for radiation sources. This device integrates the real-time output of multiple radiation detectors into a hand-held personal computer (e.g., a PDA) containing an intuitive graphical user interface. An independent hardware module supplies high voltage to the detectors and contains a rapid sampling system for transferring the detector count rates through an interface to the PDA. The imbedded firmware can be changed for various applications using a programmable memory card. As presently configured, the instrument contains a series of Geiger-Mueller (GM) tubes in a flexible detector string. This linear array of multiple sensors can be used by US Coast Guard and Customs container inspection personnel to measure radiation intensity in stacks of transport containers where physical access is impeded.

  17. Using Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget dataUsing Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget data to evaluate global models and radiative processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cloud cover r.p.allan@reading.ac.uk© University of Reading 20108 #12;Radiative bias: climate models estimate radiative effect of contrail cirrus:contrail cirrus: LW ~ 40 Wm-2 SW up to 80 Wm-2 rUsing Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget dataUsing Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget data

  18. NREL Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project: Status and outlook. FY 1991 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renne, D.; Riordan, C.; Maxwell, E.; Stoffel, T.; Marion, B.; Rymes, M.; Wilcox, S.; Myers, D.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of NREL`s Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project during fiscal year 1991. Currently, the primary focus of the SRRAP is to produce a 1961--1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base, providing hourly values of global horizontal, diffuse, and direct normal solar radiation at approximately 250 sites around the United States. Because these solar radiation quantities have been measured intermittently at only about 50 of these sites, models were developed and applied to the majority of the stations to provide estimates of these parameters. Although approximately 93% of the data base consists of modeled data this represents a significant improvement over the SOLMET/ERSATZ 1952--1975 data base. The magnitude and importance of this activity are such that the majority of SRRAP human and financial in many other activities, which are reported here. These include the continued maintenance of a solar radiation monitoring network in the southeast United States at six Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU`s), the transfer of solar radiation resource assessment technology through a variety of activities, participation in international programs, and the maintenance and operation of NREL`s Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. 17 refs.

  19. Radiation-Associated Liver Injury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Charlie C., E-mail: cpan@umich.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO (United States); Dawson, Laura A. [Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Das, Shiva K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO (United States); Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The liver is a critically important organ that has numerous functions including the production of bile, metabolism of ingested nutrients, elimination of many waste products, glycogen storage, and plasma protein synthesis. The liver is often incidentally irradiated during radiation therapy (RT) for tumors in the upper- abdomen, right lower lung, distal esophagus, or during whole abdomen or whole body RT. This article describes the endpoints, time-course, and dose-volume effect of radiation on the liver.

  20. Cataractogenic effects of proton radiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyzar, James Ronald

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the cyclotron would induce cataracts in the exposed eye (1). In 1949 the National Research Council's Committee on Ophthalmology delegated an investigational team to Japan to study the occurrence of radiation cataracts among atom bomb survivors. This team... for the most part to ophthalmological circles arousing little interest in other elements of the scien- tific world (13) . In the decade of the 1940's conditions arose which were to vastly change research into the area of radiation damage. These conditions...

  1. Ghost Imaging with Blackbody Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yangjian Cai; Shiyao Zhu

    2004-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a theoretical study of ghost imaging by using blackbody radiation source. A Gaussian thin lens equation for the ghost imaging, which depends on both paths, is derived. The dependences of the visibility and quality of the image on the transverse size and temperature of the blackbody are studied. The main differences between the ghost imaging by using the blackbody radiation and by using the entangled photon pairs are image-forming equation, and the visibility and quality of the image

  2. Angular Ordering in Gluon Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jong B. Choi; Byeong S. Choi; Su K. Lee

    2002-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The assumption of angular ordering in gluon radiation is essential to obtain quantitative results concerning gluonic behaviors. In order to prove the validity of this assumption, we have applied our momentum space flux-tube formalism to check out the angular dependences of gluon radiation. We have calculated the probability amplitudes to get new gluon, and have found that the new gluon is generally expected to have the maximum amplitude when it is produced between the momentum directions of the last two partons.

  3. Solar Radiation and Asteroidal Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jozef Klacka

    2000-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Effects of solar wind and solar electromagnetic radiation on motion of asteroids are discussed. The results complete the statements presented in Vokrouhlick\\'{y} and Milani (2000). As for the effect of electromagnetic radiation, the complete equation of motion is presented to the first order in $v/c$ -- the shape of asteroid (spherical body is explicitly presented) and surface distribution of albedo should be taken into account. Optical quantities must be calculated in proper frame of reference.

  4. In-Ground Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, Kathleen R.; Stromswold, David C.; Woodring, Mitchell L.; Ely, James H.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Caggiano, Joseph A.; Hensley, Walter K.

    2006-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Vertically oriented radiation detectors may not provide sufficient screening in rail or aviation applications. Railcars can be heavily shielded on the sides, reducing the sensitivity of vertically mounted monitors. For aviation, the distance required for wingspan clearance reduces a vertical detector’s coverage of the fuselage. To surmount these, and other, challenging operational and sensitivity issues, we have investigated the use of in-ground radiation detectors. (PIET-43741-TM-605).

  5. Radiation Protection | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Radiation Protection Regulations: The Federal Regulation governing

  6. SRS reactor control rod cooling without normal forced convection cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.C. (SAIC, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Easterling, T.C. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an analytical study of the coolability of the control rods in the Savannah River site (SRS) K production reactor under conditions of loss of normal forced convection cooling. The study was performed as part of the overall safety analysis of the reactor supporting its restart. The analysis addresses the buoyancy-driven boiling flow over the control rods that occurs when forced cooling is lost. The objective of the study was to demonstrate that the control rods will remain cooled (i.e., no melting) at powers representative of those anticipated for restart of the reactor.

  7. Fitting Parton Distribution Data with Multiplicative Normalization Uncertainties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The NNPDF Collaboration; Richard D. Ball; Luigi Del Debbio; Stefano Forte; Alberto Guffanti; Jose I. Latorre; Juan Rojo; Maria Ubiali

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the generic problem of performing a global fit to many independent data sets each with a different overall multiplicative normalization uncertainty. We show that the methods in common use to treat multiplicative uncertainties lead to systematic biases. We develop a method which is unbiased, based on a self--consistent iterative procedure. We demonstrate the use of this method by applying it to the determination of parton distribution functions with the NNPDF methodology, which uses a Monte Carlo method for uncertainty estimation.

  8. The normal levels of immunoglobulins of the mare's uterus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergeron, Helene

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    [IgG, IgA, IgG(T)) were prepared. The plates were kept at 4 C in a moist chamber for at least 24 hours before being used. 32 Table 3 ? Approximate final concentration of antisera against horse IgG, IgA and IgG(T) after dilution Antrserum (against...) Charle L. d (Head of Department) August 1984 The Normal Levels of Immunoglobulins of the Mare's Uterus (August, 1984) Helene Bergeron, D. M. V. , Universite de Montreal, Quebec, Canada Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. John M. Bowen The levels...

  9. High-accuracy measurements of the normal specular reflectance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voarino, Philippe; Piombini, Herve; Sabary, Frederic; Marteau, Daniel; Dubard, Jimmy; Hameury, Jacques; Filtz, Jean Remy

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The French Laser Megajoule (LMJ) is designed and constructed by the French Commissariata l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Its amplifying section needs highly reflective multilayer mirrors for the flash lamps. To monitor and improve the coating process, the reflectors have to be characterized to high accuracy. The described spectrophotometer is designed to measure normal specular reflectance with high repeatability by using a small spot size of 100 {mu}m. Results are compared with ellipsometric measurements. The instrument can also perform spatial characterization to detect coating nonuniformity.

  10. Termination of a Major Normal Fault | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolar JumpTennessee/Wind Resources < Tennessee Jump to:TensasNormal

  11. Apex or Salient of Normal Fault | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcatAntrim County, Michigan: EnergySalient of Normal Fault Jump to:

  12. Self-renewal of pulmonary alveolar macrophages: evidence from radiation chimera studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarling, J.D.; Lin, H.S.; Hsu, S.

    1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation-induced chimeric mice were used to study the origin of pulmonary alveolar macrophages. Unlike in other studies, these radiation chimeras were prepared by using a special fractionated irradiation regimen to minimize the killing of alveolar macrophage colony-forming cells, putative local stem cells. For this study CBA mice with or without T6 chromosome marker were used. Under this experimental condition, the majority of alveolar macrophages in mitosis are of host origin even after 45 weeks. These data suggest that alveolar macrophages are a self-renewing population under normal steady-state conditions.

  13. Radiation transport analyses in support of the SNS Target Station Neutron Beam Line Shutters Title I Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, T.M.; Pevey, R.E.; Lillie, R.A.; Johnson, J.O.

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed radiation transport analysis of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) shutters is important for the construction of the SNS because of its impact on conventional facility design, normal operation of the facility, and maintenance operations. Thus far the analysis of the SNS shutter travel gaps has been completed. This analysis was performed using coupled Monte Carlo and multi-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations.

  14. Denoising solar radiation data using coiflet wavelets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul, E-mail: samsul-ariffin@petronas.com.my; Janier, Josefina B., E-mail: josefinajanier@petronas.com.my; Muthuvalu, Mohana Sundaram, E-mail: mohana.muthuvalu@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Information Technology, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia); Hasan, Mohammad Khatim, E-mail: khatim@ftsm.ukm.my [Jabatan Komputeran Industri, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Sulaiman, Jumat, E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my [Program Matematik dengan Ekonomi, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Beg Berkunci 2073, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia); Ismail, Mohd Tahir [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM Minden, Penang (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Signal denoising and smoothing plays an important role in processing the given signal either from experiment or data collection through observations. Data collection usually was mixed between true data and some error or noise. This noise might be coming from the apparatus to measure or collect the data or human error in handling the data. Normally before the data is use for further processing purposes, the unwanted noise need to be filtered out. One of the efficient methods that can be used to filter the data is wavelet transform. Due to the fact that the received solar radiation data fluctuates according to time, there exist few unwanted oscillation namely noise and it must be filtered out before the data is used for developing mathematical model. In order to apply denoising using wavelet transform (WT), the thresholding values need to be calculated. In this paper the new thresholding approach is proposed. The coiflet2 wavelet with variation diminishing 4 is utilized for our purpose. From numerical results it can be seen clearly that, the new thresholding approach give better results as compare with existing approach namely global thresholding value.

  15. Western University Nuclear Radiation Safety Inspection Checklist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinnamon, Gordon J.

    May 2012 Western University Nuclear Radiation Safety Inspection Checklist Permit Holder to nuclear substances or radiation devices is restricted to authorized radiation users listed on the permit radiation labs whenever unsealed nuclear substances are used in these designated locations. 1.7(d

  16. Dynamical instability of collapsing radiating fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharif, M., E-mail: msharif.math@pu.edu.pk; Azam, M., E-mail: azammath@gmail.com [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics (Pakistan)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We take the collapsing radiative fluid to investigate the dynamical instability with cylindrical symmetry. We match the interior and exterior cylindrical geometries. Dynamical instability is explored at radiative and non-radiative perturbations. We conclude that the dynamical instability of the collapsing cylinder depends on the critical value {gamma} < 1 for both radiative and nonradiative perturbations.

  17. Liquid cooled fiber thermal radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, B.L.

    1985-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation-to-thermal receiver apparatus for collecting radiation and converting it to thermal energy is disclosed. The invention includes a fibrous mat material which captures radiation striking the receiver. Captured radiation is removed from the fibrous mat material by a transparent fluid within which the material is bathed.

  18. Quantum Properties of Cavity Cerenkov Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, J; Gao, Ju; Shen, Fang

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cerenkov radiation from cavities have been analyzed by quantum electrodynamic theory. Analytical expressions of some basic radiation properties including Einstein's $A$ and $B$ coefficients are derived and shown to be directly modified by the cavities. Coherent and incoherent radiations are analyzed with the aim of generating THz radiation from the devices.

  19. Special Clinical Staff Training Specialized Radiation Safety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Chris I.

    Special Clinical Staff Training Specialized Radiation Safety Training Courses for: Nurses these training courses by contacting the Radiation Safety Training Office at 496-2255. Radiation Safety for Clinical Center Employees A great introduction to radiation and radioactive material for new Clinical

  20. International Conference Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation SRI `94

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains abstracts for the international conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  1. Solar Radiation and Meteorological Data Support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homes, Christopher C.

    Solar Radiation and Meteorological Data Support for the Long Island Solar Farm and NSERCand NSERC-9 2011March 8 9, 2011 #12;LISF Solar Radiation and Meteorological Sensor Network ·· Technology Needs on intermittent source of solar radiationintermittent source of solar radiation #12;LISF Solar Radiation

  2. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Reporting Guide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Instructions for preparing occupational exposure data for submittal to the Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) repository.

  3. INFORMATION SURFING FOR RADIATION MAP BUILDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    technology in radiation detection is not well suited for the type of scenario described. Currently, searching

  4. Radiation Shielding for Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santoro, R.T.

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation shielding requirements for fusion reactors present different problems than those for fission reactors and accelerators. Fusion devices, particularly tokamak reactors, are complicated by geometry constraints that complicate disposition of fully effective shielding. This paper reviews some of these shielding issues and suggested solutions for optimizing the machine and biological shielding. Radiation transport calculations are essential for predicting and confirming the nuclear performance of the reactor and, as such, must be an essential part of the reactor design process. Development and optimization of reactor components from the first wall and primary shielding to the penetrations and containment shielding must be carried out in a sensible progression. Initial results from one-dimensional transport calculations are used for scoping studies and are followed by detailed two- and three-dimensional analyses to effectively characterize the overall radiation environment. These detail model calculations are essential for accounting for the radiation leakage through ports and other penetrations in the bulk shield. Careful analysis of component activation and radiation damage is cardinal for defining remote handling requirements, in-situ replacement of components, and personnel access at specific locations inside the reactor containment vessel. Radiation shielding requirements for fusion reactors present different problems than those for fission reactors and accelerators. Fusion devices, particularly tokamak reactors, are complicated by geometry constraints that complicate disposition of fully effective shielding. This paper reviews some of these shielding issues and suggested solutions for optimizing the machine and biological shielding. Radiation transport calculations are essential for predicting and confirming the nuclear performance of the reactor and, as such, must be an essential part of the reactor design process. Development and optimization of reactor components from the first wall and primary shielding to the penetrations and containment shielding must be carried out in a sensible progression. Initial results from one-dimensional transport calculations are used for scoping studies and are followed by detailed two- and three-dimensional analyses to effectively characterize the overall radiation environment. These detail model calculations are essential for accounting for the radiation leakage through ports and other penetrations in the bulk shield. Careful analysis of component activation and radiation damage is cardinal for defining remote handling requirements, in-situ replacement of components, and personnel access at specific locations inside the reactor containment vessel.

  5. Radiative acceleration and transient, radiation-induced electric fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Zampieri; R. Turolla; L. Foschini; A. Treves

    2003-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiative acceleration of particles and the electrostatic potential fields that arise in low density plasmas hit by radiation produced by a transient, compact source are investigated. We calculate the dynamical evolution and asymptotic energy of the charged particles accelerated by the photons and the radiation-induced electric double layer in the full relativistic, Klein-Nishina regime. For fluxes in excess of $10^{27}$ ${\\rm erg} {\\rm cm}^{-2} {\\rm s}^{-1}$, the radiative force on a diluted plasma ($n\\la 10^{11}$ cm$^{-3}$) is so strong that electrons are accelerated rapidly to relativistic speeds while ions lag behind owing to their larger inertia. The ions are later effectively accelerated by the strong radiation-induced double layer electric field up to Lorentz factors $\\approx 100$, attainable in the case of negligible Compton drag. The asymptotic energies achieved by both ions and electrons are larger by a factor 2--4 with respect to what one could naively expect assuming that the electron-ion assembly is a rigidly coupled system. The regime we investigate may be relevant within the framework of giant flares from soft gamma-repeaters.

  6. RADIATION SAFETY OFFICE Campus Radiation Safety Manual UNIVERSITY OF NEW ORLEANS Previous Revision: May 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, X. Rong

    SAFETY OFFICER AND RADIATION PROTECTION STAFF The Radiation Safety Officer has the responsibilityRADIATION SAFETY OFFICE Campus Radiation Safety Manual UNIVERSITY OF NEW ORLEANS Previous Revision radiation safety program will be conducted in such a manner that exposure to faculty, staff, students

  7. 30. Radioactivity and radiation protection 1 30. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    30. Radioactivity and radiation protection 1 30. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION Revised;2 30. Radioactivity and radiation protection caused by different radiation types R weighted with so radiation in a volume element of a specified material divided by the mass of this volume element. · Kerma, K

  8. Surface Power Radiative Cooling Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd [Environmental Effects Branch, EM50, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, AL 35812 (United States)

    2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Terrestrial nuclear power plants typically maintain their temperature through convective cooling, such as water and forced air. However, the space environment is a vacuum environment, typically 10-8 Torr pressure, therefore in proposed missions to the lunar surface, power plants would have to rely on radiative cooling to remove waste heat. Also, the Martian surface has a very tenuous atmosphere (e.g. {approx}5 Torr CO2), therefore, the main heat transfer method on the Martian surface is also radiative. Because of the lack of atmosphere on the Moon and the tenuous atmosphere on Mars, surface power systems on both the Lunar and Martian surface must rely heavily on radiative heat transfer. Because of the large temperature swings on both the lunar and the Martian surfaces, trying to radiate heat is inefficient. In order to increase power system efficiency, an effort is underway to test various combinations of materials with high emissivities to demonstrate their ability to survive these degrading atmospheres to maintain a constant radiator temperature improving surface power plant efficiency. An important part of this effort is the development of a unique capability that would allow the determination of a materials emissivity at high temperatures. A description of the test capability as well as initial data is presented.

  9. Radiation in molecular dynamic simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glosli, J; Graziani, F; More, R; Murillo, M; Streitz, F; Surh, M

    2008-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Hot dense radiative (HDR) plasmas common to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and stellar interiors have high temperature (a few hundred eV to tens of keV), high density (tens to hundreds of g/cc) and high pressure (hundreds of Megabars to thousands of Gigabars). Typically, such plasmas undergo collisional, radiative, atomic and possibly thermonuclear processes. In order to describe HDR plasmas, computational physicists in ICF and astrophysics use atomic-scale microphysical models implemented in various simulation codes. Experimental validation of the models used to describe HDR plasmas are difficult to perform. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the many-body interactions of plasmas is a promising approach to model validation but, previous work either relies on the collisionless approximation or ignores radiation. We present a new numerical simulation technique to address a currently unsolved problem: the extension of molecular dynamics to collisional plasmas including emission and absorption of radiation. The new technique passes a key test: it relaxes to a blackbody spectrum for a plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium. This new tool also provides a method for assessing the accuracy of energy and momentum exchange models in hot dense plasmas. As an example, we simulate the evolution of non-equilibrium electron, ion, and radiation temperatures for a hydrogen plasma using the new molecular dynamics simulation capability.

  10. Statistical Inference for Models with Intractable Normalizing Constants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Ick Hoon

    2011-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    be calculated by S1(y) = X 1?inormalizing constant ratio R(?t, ?) = ?(?)/?(?t) by bRm(?t,yt, ?) = 1 m mX i=1 g(y(t)i , ?) g(y(t)i , ?t) . 4. Calculate the Monte Carlo MH ratio r...

  11. Hard Sphere Dynamics for Normal and Granular Fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James W. Dufty; Aparna Baskaran

    2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluid of N smooth, hard spheres is considered as a model for normal (elastic collisions) and granular (inelastic collisions) fluids. The potential energy is discontinuous for hard spheres so the pairwise forces are singular and the usual forms of Newtonian and Hamiltonian mechanics do not apply. Nevertheless, particle trajectories in the N particle phase space are well defined and the generators for these trajectories can be identified. The first part of this presentation is a review of the generators for the dynamics of observables and probability densities. The new results presented in the second part refer to applications of these generators to the Liouville dynamics for granular fluids. A set of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the generator for this Liouville dynamics is identified in a special "stationary representation". This provides a class of exact solutions to the Liouville equation that are closely related to hydrodynamics for granular fluids.

  12. The Properties of Normal Conducting Cathodes in FZD Superconducting Gun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang, R; Buettig, H; Janssen, D; Justus, M; Lehnert, U; Michel, P; Murcek, P; Schamlott, A; Schneider, Ch; Schurig, R; Staufenbiel, F; Teichert, J

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The superconducting radio frequency photoinjector (SRF photoinjector) is one of the latest applications of SC technology in the accelerator field. Since superconducting cathodes with high QE are not available up to now, normal conducting cathode material is the main choice for the SRF photoinjectors. However, the compatibility between the cathode and the cavity is one of the challenges for this concept. The SRF gun with Cs2Te cathode has been successfully operated under the collaboration of BESSY, DESY, FZD, and MBI. In this paper, some experience gained in the gun commissioning will be concluded. The results of the properties of Cs2Te photocathode in the cavity will be presented, such as the Q.E., the life time, the dark current and the thermal emittance.

  13. Tunneling from super- to normal-deformed minima in nuclei.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khoo, T. L.

    1998-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An excited minimum, or false vacuum, gives rise to a highly elongated superdeformed (SD) nucleus. A brief review of superdeformation is given, with emphasis on the tunneling from the false to the true vacuum, which occurs in the feeding and decay of SD bands. During the feeding process the tunneling is between hot states, while in the decay it is from a cold to a hot state. The {gamma} spectra connecting SD and normal-deformed (ND) states provide information on several physics issues: the decay mechanism; the spin/parity quantum numbers, energies and microscopic structures of SD bands; the origin of identical SD bands; the quenching of pairing with excitation energy; and the chaoticity of excited ND states at 2.5-5 MeV. Other examples of tunneling in nuclei, which are briefly described, include the possible role of tunneling in {Delta}I = 4 bifurcation in SD bands, sub-barrier fusion and proton emitters.

  14. Phenomenology of electrostatically charged droplet combustion in normal gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Eric K.; Koch, Jeremy A.; Kyritsis, Dimitrios C. [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental findings are provided on the effect of electrostatically charging a fuel on single-burning droplet combustion in normal gravity. It was established that significant modification of the flame morphology and the droplet burning time could be achieved, solely by the droplet charge, without the application of external electric fields. Negative charging of the droplets of mixtures of isooctane with either ethanol or a commercially available anti-static additive generated intense motion of the flame and abbreviated the droplet burning time by as much as 40% for certain blend compositions. Positive charging of the droplets generated almost spherical flames, because electrostatic attraction toward the droplets countered the effect of buoyancy. By comparing combustion of droplets of the same conductivity but different compositions, coupling of electrostatics with combustion chemistry was established. (author)

  15. Normal modes analysis of the microscopic dynamics in hard discs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carolina Brito; Matthieu Wyart

    2008-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We estimate numerically the normal modes of the free energy in a glass of hard discs. We observe that, near the glass transition or after a rapid quench deep in the glass phase, the density of states (i) is characteristic of a marginally stable structure, in particular it di splays a frequency scale $\\omega^*\\sim p^{1/2}$, where $p$ is the pressure and (ii) gives a faithful representation of the short-time dyn amics. This brings further evidences that the boson peak near the glass transition corresponds to the relaxation of marginal modes of a we akly-coordinated structure, and implies that the mean square displacement in the glass phase is anomalously large and goes as $ \\sim p^{-3/2}$, a prediction that we check numerically.

  16. Fermi Normal Coordinates and Fermion Curvature Couplings in General Relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anshuman Dey; Abhisek Samanta; Tapobrata Sarkar

    2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We study gravitational curvature effects in circular and radial geodesics in static, spherically symmetric space-times, using Fermi normal coordinates. We first set up these coordinates in the general case, and then use this to study effective magnetic fields due to gravitational curvature in the exterior and interior Schwarzschild, Janis-Newman-Winicour, and Bertrand space-times. We show that these fields can be large for specific parameter values in the theories, and thus might have observational significance. We discuss the qualitative differences of the magnetic field for vacuum space-times and for those seeded by matter. We estimate the magnitude of these fields in realistic galactic scenarios and discuss their possible experimental relevance. Gravitational curvature corrections to the Hydrogen atom spectrum for these space-times are also discussed briefly.

  17. Cubic AlGaN/GaN Hetero-Junction Field-Effect Transistors with Normally-on and Normally-off

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    As, Donat Josef

    Cubic AlGaN/GaN Hetero-Junction Field-Effect Transistors with Normally-on and Normally-effect transistors (HFETs) in GaN technology. HFET structures were fabricated of non-polar cubic AlGaN/GaN hetero insulation of 3C-SiC was realized by Ar+ implantation before c-AlGaN/GaN growth. HFETs with normally

  18. Ultraviolet-radiation-curable paints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grosset, A M; Su, W F.A.; Vanderglas, E

    1981-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In product finishing lines, ultraviolet radiation curing of paints on prefabricated structures could be more energy efficient than curing by natural gas fired ovens, and could eliminate solvent emission. Diffuse ultraviolet light can cure paints on three dimensional metal parts. In the uv curing process, the spectral output of radiation sources must complement the absorption spectra of pigments and photoactive agents. Photosensitive compounds, such as thioxanthones, can photoinitiate unsaturated resins, such as acrylated polyurethanes, by a free radical mechanism. Newly developed cationic photoinitiators, such as sulfonium or iodonium salts (the so-called onium salts) of complex metal halide anions, can be used in polymerization of epoxy paints by ultraviolet light radiation. One-coat enamels, topcoats, and primers have been developed which can be photoinitiated to produce hard, adherent films. This process has been tested in a laboratory scale unit by spray coating these materials on three-dimensional objects and passing them through a tunnel containing uv lamps.

  19. Contrasting the direct radiative effect and direct radiative forcing of aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heald, Colette L.

    The direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosols, which is the instantaneous radiative impact of all atmospheric particles on the Earth's energy balance, is sometimes confused with the direct radiative forcing (DRF), which ...

  20. THE EFFECT OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION ON THE ACCURACY OF PYRHELIOMETER MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, D.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    r Presented at the Solar Radiation workshop of Solar Rising,MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION D. Grether, D.Diffuse, and Total Solar Radiation," Solar Energy, vol. 4,

  1. Black hole quasi-normal modes: the "electrons" of quantum gravity? Implications for the black hole information puzzle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corda, Christian

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some recent important results on black hole (BH) quantum physics concerning the BH effective state and the natural correspondence between Hawking radiation and BH quasi-normal modes (QNMs) are reviewed, clarified and refined. Such a correspondence permits to naturally interpret QNMs as quantum levels in a semi-classical model. This is a model of BH somewhat similar to the historical semi-classical model of the structure of a hydrogen atom introduced by Bohr in 1913. In a certain sense, QNMs represent the "electron" which jumps from a level to another one and the absolute values of the QNMs frequencies "triggered" by emissions (Hawking radiation) and absorption of particles represent the energy "shells" of the "gravitational hydrogen atom". Important consequences on the BH information puzzle are discussed. In fact, it is shown that the time evolution of this "Bohr-like BH model" obeys to a time dependent Schr\\"odinger equation which permits the final BH state to be a pure quantum state instead of a mixed one. ...

  2. Radiation in Lorentz violating electrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Montemayor; L. F. Urrutia

    2004-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Synchrotron radiation is analyzed in the classical effective Lorentz invariance violating model of Myers-Pospelov. Within the full far-field approximation we compute the electric and magnetic fields, the angular distribution of the power spectrum and the total emitted power in the m-th harmonic, as well as the polarization. We find the appearance of rather unexpected and large amplifying factors, which go together with the otherwise negligible naive expansion parameter. This opens up the possibility of further exploring Lorentz invariance violations by synchrotron radiation measurements in astrophysical sources where these amplifying factors are important.

  3. 1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database.

  4. Radiation Safety Work Control Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnicalPurchase, Delivery, andSmartRadiationRadiation Safety Work

  5. Radiator Labs | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnicalPurchase, Delivery, andSmartRadiationRadiation Safety

  6. The NCI Radiation Research Program: Grant portfolio and radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    models (89 animals no human subject material, 21 use both) ­ 109 utilize rodent models ­ 2 have canine and R37s). Of those that utilize radiation: · 6 use tissue culture models only · 110 utilize animal subjects · 39 use human subjects or human subject materials only. #12;Dose and Dosimetry · The majority

  7. Measurement of Radiation Damage on Silica Aerogel Cerenkov Radiator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belle Preprint; Sahu Wang; M. Z. Wang; R. Suda; R. Enomoto; K. C. Peng; C. H. Wang; I. Adachi; M. Amami

    We measured the radiation damage on silica aerogel Cerenkov radiators originally developed for the B-factory experiment at KEK. Refractive index of the aerogel samples ranged from 1.012 to 1.028. The samples were irradiated up to 9.8 MRad of equivalent dose. Measurements of transmittance and refractive index were carried out and these samples were found to be radiation hard. Deteriorations in transparency and changes of refractive index were observed to be less than 1.3% and 0.001 at 90% confidence level, respectively. Prospects of using aerogels under high-radiation environment are discussed. 1 Introduction Silica aerogels(aerogels) are a colloidal form of glass, in which globules of silica are connected in three dimensional networks with siloxan bonds. They are solid, very light, transparent and their refractive index can be controlled in the production process. Many high energy and nuclear physics experiments have used aerogels instead of pressurized gas for their Cerenkov coun...

  8. Individualized Radical Radiotherapy of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Based on Normal Tissue Dose Constraints: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baardwijk, Angela van [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW Research Institute, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands)], E-mail: angela.vanbaardwijk@maastro.nl; Bosmans, Geert; Boersma, Liesbeth; Wanders, Stofferinus; Dekker, Andre [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW Research Institute, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Dingemans, Anne Marie C. [Department of Pulmonology, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Bootsma, Gerben [Department of Pulmonology, Atrium Medical Centre, Heerlen (Netherlands); Geraedts, Wiel [Department of Pulmonology, Maasland Hospital, Sittard (Netherlands); Pitz, Cordula [Department of Pulmonology, Sint Laurentius Hospital, Roermond (Netherlands); Simons, Jean [Department of Pulmonology, Sint Jans Gasthuis, Weert (Netherlands); Lambin, Philippe; Ruysscher, Dirk de [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW Research Institute, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Local recurrence is a major problem after (chemo-)radiation for non-small-cell lung cancer. We hypothesized that for each individual patient, the highest therapeutic ratio could be achieved by increasing total tumor dose (TTD) to the limits of normal tissues, delivered within 5 weeks. We report first results of a prospective feasibility trial. Methods and Materials: Twenty-eight patients with medically inoperable or locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, World Health Organization performance score of 0-1, and reasonable lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second > 50%) were analyzed. All patients underwent irradiation using an individualized prescribed TTD based on normal tissue dose constraints (mean lung dose, 19 Gy; maximal spinal cord dose, 54 Gy) up to a maximal TTD of 79.2 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions twice daily. No concurrent chemoradiation was administered. Toxicity was scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events criteria. An {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan was performed to evaluate (metabolic) response 3 months after treatment. Results: Mean delivered dose was 63.0 {+-} 9.8 Gy. The TTD was most often limited by the mean lung dose (32.1%) or spinal cord (28.6%). Acute toxicity generally was mild; only 1 patient experienced Grade 3 cough and 1 patient experienced Grade 3 dysphagia. One patient (3.6%) died of pneumonitis. For late toxicity, 2 patients (7.7%) had Grade 3 cough or dyspnea; none had severe dysphagia. Complete metabolic response was obtained in 44% (11 of 26 patients). With a median follow-up of 13 months, median overall survival was 19.6 months, with a 1-year survival rate of 57.1%. Conclusions: Individualized maximal tolerable dose irradiation based on normal tissue dose constraints is feasible, and initial results are promising.

  9. SPEECH-CODING AND TRAINING-INDUCED PLASTICITY IN AUDITORY CORTEX OF NORMAL AND DYSLEXIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilgard, Michael P.

    SPEECH-CODING AND TRAINING-INDUCED PLASTICITY IN AUDITORY CORTEX OF NORMAL AND DYSLEXIA MODEL RATS anymore... #12;SPEECH-CODING AND TRAINING-INDUCED PLASTICITY IN AUDITORY CORTEX OF NORMAL AND DYSLEXIA

  10. A Phase I Clinical and Pharmacology Study Using Amifostine as a Radioprotector in Dose-escalated Whole Liver Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Mary, E-mail: maryfeng@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Smith, David E. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Normolle, Daniel P. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Knol, James A. [Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Pan, Charlie C.; Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Lu Zheng; Feng, Meihua R.; Chen Jun [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ensminger, William [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Diffuse intrahepatic tumors are difficult to control. Whole-liver radiotherapy has been limited by toxicity, most notably radiation-induced liver disease. Amifostine is a prodrug free-radical scavenger that selectively protects normal tissues and, in a preclinical model of intrahepatic cancer, systemic amifostine reduced normal liver radiation damage without compromising tumor effect. We hypothesized that amifostine would permit escalation of whole-liver radiation dose to potentially control microscopic disease. We also aimed to characterize the pharmacokinetics of amifostine and its active metabolite WR-1065 to optimize timing of radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: We conducted a radiation dose-escalation trial for patients with diffuse, intrahepatic cancer treated with whole-liver radiation and intravenous amifostine. Radiation dose was assigned using the time-to-event continual reassessment method. A companion pharmacokinetic study was performed. Results: Twenty-three patients were treated, with a maximum dose of 40 Gy. Using a logistical regression model, compared with our previously treated patients, amifostine increased liver tolerance by 3.3 {+-} 1.1 Gy (p = 0.007) (approximately 10%) with similar response rates. Peak concentrations of WR-1065 were 25 {mu}M with an elimination half-life of 1.5 h; these levels are consistent with radioprotective effects of amifostine in patients. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate for the first time that amifostine is a normal liver radioprotector. They further suggest that it may be useful to combine amifostine with fractionated or stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with focal intrahepatic cancer.

  11. Enhanced radiation detectors using luminescent materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vardeny, Zeev V. (Holladay, UT); Jeglinski, Stefan A. (Durham, NC); Lane, Paul A. (Sheffield, GB)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation detecting device comprising a radiation sensing element, and a layer of luminescent material to expand the range of wavelengths over which the sensing element can efficiently detect radiation. The luminescent material being selected to absorb radiation at selected wavelengths, causing the luminescent material to luminesce, and the luminescent radiation being detected by the sensing element. Radiation sensing elements include photodiodes (singly and in arrays), CCD arrays, IR detectors and photomultiplier tubes. Luminescent materials include polymers, oligomers, copolymers and porphyrines, Luminescent layers include thin films, thicker layers, and liquid polymers.

  12. Imaging of normal and pathologic joint synovium using nonlinear optical microscopy as a potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    , and gout at 3.0 million. Arthritis can result in irreversible destruction and loss of normal articular

  13. Analysis of radiation measurement data of the BUSS cask

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Tang, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) is a Type-B packaging developed for shipping nonfissile, special-form radioactive materials to facilities such as sewage, food, and medical-product irradiators. The primary purpose of the BUSS cask is to provide shielding and confinement, as well as impact, puncture, and thermal protection for its certified special-form contents under both normal transport and hypothetical accident conditions. A BUSS cask that contained 16 CsCl capsules (2.723 {times} 10{sup 4} TBq total activity) was recently subjected to radiation survey measurements at a Westinghouse Hanford facility, which provided data that could be used to validate computer codes. Two shielding analysis codes, MICROSHIELD (User`s Manual 1988) and SAS4 (Tan 1993), that are used at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate the safety of packaging of radioactive materials during transportation, have been selected for analysis of radiation data obtained from the BUSS cask. MICROSHIELD, which performs only gamma radiation shielding calculation, is based on a point-kernel model with idealized geometry, whereas SAS4 is a control module in the SCALE code system (1995) that can perform three-dimensional Monte Carlo shielding calculation for photons and neutrons, with built-in procedures for cross-section data processing and automated variance reduction. The two codes differ in how they model the details of the physics of gamma photon attenuation in materials, and this difference is reflected in the associated engineering cost of the analysis. One purpose of the analysis presented in this paper, therefore, is to examine the effects of the major modeling assumptions in the two codes on calculated dose rates, and to use the measured dose rates for comparison. The focus in this paper is on analysis of radiation dose rates measured on the general body of the cask and away from penetrations.

  14. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory 1991 activity report. Facility developments January 1991--March 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantwell, K.; St. Pierre, M. [eds.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    SSRL is a national facility supported primarily by the Department of Energy for the utilization of synchrotron radiation for basic and applied research in the natural sciences and engineering. It is a user-oriented facility which welcomes proposals for experiments from all researchers. The synchrotron radiation is produced by the 3.5 GeV storage ring, SPEAR, located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). SPEAR is a fully dedicated synchrotron radiation facility which operates for user experiments 7 to 9 months per year. SSRL currently has 24 experimental stations on the SPEAR storage ring. There are 145 active proposals for experimental work from 81 institutions involving approximately 500 scientists. There is normally no charge for use of beam time by experimenters. This report summarizes the activity at SSRL for the period January 1, 1991 to December 31, 1991 for research. Facility development through March 1992 is included.

  15. Modeling and Generating Daily Changes in Market Variables Using A Multivariate Mixture of Normal Distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jin

    Distributions Jin Wang Department of Mathematics and Computer Science Valdosta State University Valdosta, GA 31698-0040 January 28, 2000 Abstract The mixture of normal distributions provides a useful extension of the normal distribution for modeling of daily changes in market variables with fatter-than-normal tails

  16. REPORT NO. 8 radiation hazards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RADIATION COUNCIL MEMBERS SECRETARY OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE (CHAIRMAN) SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE.P.O'NEILL DEPARTMENT OF LABOR A.B.PARK DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE R.G.STOTT DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR J.G.TERRILL, JR.L.ANDREWS PUERTO RICO NUCLEAR CENTER V.P.BOND BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY G.W. CASARETT UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER

  17. QCD Radiation off Heavy Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torbjörn Sjöstrand

    2000-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An algorithm for an improved description of final-state QCD radiation is introduced. It is matched to the first-order matrix elements for gluon emission in a host of decays, for processes within the Standard Model and the Minimal Supersymmetric extension thereof.

  18. Hawking radiation in moving plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. C. Garcia de Andrade

    2005-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Bi-metricity and Hawking radiation are exhibit in non-relativistic moving magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) plasma medium generating two Riemannian effective spacetimes. The first metric is a flat metric although the speed of "light" is given by a time dependent signal where no Hawking radiation or effective black holes are displayed. This metric comes from a wave equation which the scalar function comes from the scalar potential of the background velocity of the fluid and depends on the perturbation of the magnetic background field. The second metric is an effective spacetime metric which comes from the perturbation of the background MHD fluid. This Riemann metric exhibits a horizon and Hawking radiation which can be expressed in terms of the background constant magnetic field. The effective velocity is given Alfven wave velocity of plasma physics. The effective black hole found here is analogous to the optical black hole in moving dielectrics found by De Lorenci et al [Phys. Rev. D (2003)] where bi-metricity and Hawking radiation in terms of the electric field are found.

  19. Radiation and Health Thormod Henriksen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Tom Henning

    of radioactivity from reactor accidents and fallout from nuclear explosions in the atmosphere. These subjects wereRadiation and Health by Thormod Henriksen and Biophysics group at UiO #12;Preface The present book is an update and extension of three previous books from groups of scientists at the University of Oslo

  20. Gravitational Radiation in Noncommutative Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Jahan; N. Sadeghnezhad

    2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The gravitational radiation power of a binary system in a noncommutative space is derived and it's rate of the period decrease is calculated to first order in noncommutativity parameter. By comparing the theoretical results with the observational data of the binary pulsar PSR 1913+16, we find a bound on the noncommutativity parameter.

  1. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1984-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  2. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H. (Oakland, CA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid state radiative heat pump (10, 50, 70) operable at room temperature (300.degree. K.) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of charge carriers as compared to thermal equilibrium. In one form of the invention (10, 70) an infrared semiconductor photodiode (21, 71) is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention (50), a homogeneous semiconductor (51) is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation through the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-reflection layer (19) is coated into the active surface (13) of the semiconductor (11), the anti-reflection layer (19) having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor (11). In the second method, a passive layer (75) is spaced from the active surface (73) of the semiconductor (71) by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler (91) with a paraboloid reflecting surface (92) is in contact with the active surface (13, 53) of the semiconductor (11, 51), the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  3. W. FIFTH AVE. RADIATION LAB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    W. FIFTH AVE. NASA SPACE RADIATION LAB 958 ENERGY EFFICIENCY & CONSERVATION DIVISION THOMSON RD. E WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITY INSTRUMENTATION 901906 750 801 701 703 815 933 912 923 925 911 938 939 902 197 Matter Physics & Materials Science Dept. 480 J5 Medical Research Center 490 H7 National Synchrotron Light

  4. FABRICATION TECHNIQUES FOR REVERSE ELECTRODE COAXIAL GERMANIUM NUCLEAR RADIATION DETECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, W.L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COAXIAL GERMANIUM NUCLEAR RADIATION DETECTORS W.L. Hansenon Semiconductor Nuclear Radiation Detectors", IEEE Trans.COAXIAL GERMANIUM NUCLEAR RADIATION DETECTORS LBL-10726 W.

  5. PROTECTIVE SURFACE COATINGS ON SEMICONDUCTOR NUCLEAR RADIATION DETECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, W.L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ON SEMICONDUCTOR NUCLEAR RADIATION DETECTORS W. L. Hansen,COATINGS ON SEMICONDUCTOR NUCLEAR RADIATION DETECTORS* W. L.the use of germanium nuclear radiation detec­ tors, a new

  6. CIRCE: A dedicated storage ring for coherent THz synchrotron radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-power terahertz radiation from relativistic electrons",coherent THz synchrotron radiation: Measuring the Josephsonof coherent synchrotron radiation from the NSLS VUV ring",

  7. Cherenkov Radiation from Jets in Heavy-ion Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koch, Volker; Majumder, Abhijit; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wiley & Son, Inc. Cherenkov radiation leads to energy lossLBNL-58447 Cherenkov Radiation from Jets in Heavjion Nuclearthe occurrence of Cherenkov radiation in dense matter is

  8. Betatron radiation from electron beams in plasma focusing channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esarey, E.; Catravas, P.; Leemans, W.P.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Betatron Radiation from Electron Beams in Plasma FocusingAbstract. Spontaneous radiation emitted from an electronfrequency of spontaneous radiation is a strong function of

  9. DESCRIPTION OF A SPECTRAL ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION MONITORING NETWORK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    spectral atmospheric radiation data. The large cylindricalexisting integrated net radiation data is of impor- tance,infrared radiation intensities. The data is permanently

  10. Deriving cloud velocity from an array of solar radiation measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bosch, J.L.; Zheng, Y.; Kleissl, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    medium term operational solar radiation forecasts in the US.term forecasting of solar radiation: a statistical approachterm forecasting of solar radiation based on satellite data.

  11. automated radiation targeting: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diffraction radiation (ODR) as a diagnostic tool has increased Sen, Tanaji 9 Radiation damage of the ILC positron source target CERN Preprints Summary: The radiation damage of the...

  12. Direct-Normal Solar Irradiance -A Closure Experiment, Halthore et al. 1 Comparison of Model Estimated and Measured Direct-Normal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    ). This is the energy in the solar spectrum falling per unit time on a unit area of a surface oriented normal to the Sun Direct-normal solar irradiance (DNSI), the total energy in the solar spectrum incident in unit time extinction of solar energy without regard to the details of the extinction - whether absorption or scattering

  13. Radiation Detection Computational Benchmark Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaver, Mark W.; Casella, Andrew M.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Ben S.

    2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling forms an important component of radiation detection development, allowing for testing of new detector designs, evaluation of existing equipment against a wide variety of potential threat sources, and assessing operation performance of radiation detection systems. This can, however, result in large and complex scenarios which are time consuming to model. A variety of approaches to radiation transport modeling exist with complementary strengths and weaknesses for different problems. This variety of approaches, and the development of promising new tools (such as ORNL’s ADVANTG) which combine benefits of multiple approaches, illustrates the need for a means of evaluating or comparing different techniques for radiation detection problems. This report presents a set of 9 benchmark problems for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, identifying appropriate tools for classes of problems, and testing and guiding the development of new methods. The benchmarks were drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for scenarios which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22. From a technical perspective, the benchmarks were chosen to span a range of difficulty and to include gamma transport, neutron transport, or both and represent different important physical processes and a range of sensitivity to angular or energy fidelity. Following benchmark identification, existing information about geometry, measurements, and previous calculations were assembled. Monte Carlo results (MCNP decks) were reviewed or created and re-run in order to attain accurate computational times and to verify agreement with experimental data, when present. Benchmark information was then conveyed to ORNL in order to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations. The results of those ADVANTG calculations were then sent to PNNL for compilation. This is a report describing the details of the selected Benchmarks and results from various transport codes.

  14. The dust mass in z > 6 normal star forming galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mancini, Mattia; Graziani, Luca; Valiante, Rosa; Dayal, Pratika; Maio, Umberto; Ciardi, Benedetta; Hunt, Leslie K

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We interpret recent ALMA observations of z > 6 normal star forming galaxies by means of a semi-numerical method, which couples the output of a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation with a chemical evolution model which accounts for the contribution to dust enrichment from supernovae, asymptotic giant branch stars and grain growth in the interstellar medium. We find that while stellar sources dominate the dust mass of small galaxies, the higher level of metal enrichment experienced by galaxies with Mstar > 10^9 Msun allows efficient grain growth, which provides the dominant contribution to the dust mass. Even assuming maximally efficient supernova dust production, the observed dust mass of the z = 7.5 galaxy A1689-zD1 requires very efficient grain growth. This, in turn, implies that in this galaxy the average density of the cold and dense gas, where grain growth occurs, is comparable to that inferred from observations of QSO host galaxies at similar redshifts. Although plausible, the upper limits on the dust ...

  15. Rap G protein signal in normal and disordered lymphohematopoiesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minato, Nagahiro, E-mail: minato@imm.med.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Rap proteins (Rap1, Rap2a, b, c) are small molecular weight GTPases of the Ras family. Rap G proteins mediate diverse cellular events such as cell adhesion, proliferation, and gene activation through various signaling pathways. Activation of Rap signal is regulated tightly by several specific regulatory proteins including guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase-activating proteins. Beyond cell biological studies, increasing attempts have been made in the past decade to define the roles of Rap signal in specific functions of normal tissue systems as well as in cancer. In the immune and hematopoietic systems, Rap signal plays crucial roles in the development and function of essentially all lineages of lymphocytes and hematopoietic cells, and importantly, deregulated Rap signal may lead to unique pathological conditions depending on the affected cell types, including various types of leukemia and autoimmunity. The phenotypical studies have unveiled novel, even unexpected functional aspects of Rap signal in cells from a variety of tissues, providing potentially important clues for controlling human diseases, including malignancy.

  16. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1977 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Tenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1977.

  17. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1978 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Eleventh Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1978.

  18. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1984 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Seventeenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1984.

  19. MEASUREMENT OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION - STATUS REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, D.F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    15, 1976. "Circumsolar Radiation Data for Central Receiverdata on the instantaneous values of circum- solar radiation andradiation over the course of a day, month or year; and 3) detailed data

  20. Performance Evaluation of Undulator Radiation at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuyu Liu, Geoffrey Krafft, Guimei Wang

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of undulator radiation (UR) at CEBAF with a 3.5 m helical undulator is evaluated and compared with APS undulator-A radiation in terms of brilliance, peak brilliance, spectral flux, flux density and intensity distribution.

  1. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1976 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Ninth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1976.

  2. Radiation Damage in Nanostructured Metallic Films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Kaiyuan

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    with favorable microstructures and to investigate their response to radiation. The goals of this thesis are to study the radiation responses of several nanostructured metallic thin film systems, including Ag/Ni multilayers, nanotwinned Ag and nanocrystalline Fe...

  3. Radiation Damage in Nanostructured Metallic Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Kaiyuan

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    with favorable microstructures and to investigate their response to radiation. The goals of this thesis are to study the radiation responses of several nanostructured metallic thin film systems, including Ag/Ni multilayers, nanotwinned Ag and nanocrystalline Fe...

  4. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1975 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Eighth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for ERDA & ERDA Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and its contractor employees during 1975.

  5. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1985 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Eighteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1985.

  6. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Solar Radiation Atlas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NREL

    1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This atlas provides a record of monthly mean solar radiation generated by a Climatological Solar Radiation model, using quasi-climatological inputs of cloud cover, aerosol optical depth, precipitable water vapor, ozone, surface albedo, and atmospheric pressure.

  7. Integrated nuclear radiation detector and monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biehl, B.L.; Lieberman, S.I.

    1982-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery powered device which can continuously monitor and detect nuclear radiation utilizing fully integrated circuitry and which is provided with an alarm which alerts persons when the radiation level exceeds a predetermined threshold.

  8. DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure November 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Analysis

    2011-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses radiation protection and dose reporting requirements, presents the 2010 occupational radiation dose data trended over the past 5 years, and includes instructions to submit successful ALARA projects.

  9. Smith Purcell radiation from femtosecond electron bunches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Korbly, Stephen E

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present theoretical and experimental results from a Smith-Purcell radiation experiment using the electron beam from a 17 GHz high gradient accelerator. Smith- Purcell radiation occurs when a charged particle travels ...

  10. Cellular telephone-based radiation detection instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craig, William W. (Pittsburg, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  11. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1981 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fourteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1981.

  12. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1986 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Nineteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1986.

  13. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1980 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Thirteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1980.

  14. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1979 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Twelfth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1979.

  15. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1982 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fifteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1982.

  16. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1983 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Sixteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1983.

  17. Tobacco Smoking During Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer Is Associated With Unfavorable Outcome

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allen M., E-mail: allen.chen@ucdmc.ucdavis.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Chen, Leon M.; Vaughan, Andrew; Sreeraman, Radhika [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Lau, Derick H. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of California Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Stuart, Kerri; Purdy, James A.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of continued cigarette smoking among patients undergoing radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer by comparing the clinical outcomes among active smokers and quitters. Methods and Materials: A review of medical records identified 101 patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck who continued to smoke during radiation therapy. Each active smoker was matched to a control patient who had quit smoking before initiation of radiation therapy. Matching was based on tobacco history (pack-years), primary site, age, sex, Karnofsky Performance Status, disease stage, radiation dose, chemotherapy use, year of treatment, and whether surgical resection was performed. Outcomes were compared by use of Kaplan-Meier analysis. Normal tissue effects were graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for the Treatment of Cancer toxicity criteria. Results: With a median follow-up of 49 months, active smokers had significantly inferior 5-year overall survival (23% vs. 55%), locoregional control (58% vs. 69%), and disease-free survival (42% vs. 65%) compared with the former smokers who had quit before radiation therapy (p < 0.05 for all). These differences remained statistically significant when patients treated by postoperative or definitive radiation therapy were analyzed separately. The incidence of Grade 3 or greater late complications was also significantly increased among active smokers compared with former smokers (49% vs. 31%, p = 0.01). Conclusions: Tobacco smoking during radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer is associated with unfavorable outcomes. Further studies analyzing the biologic and molecular reasons underlying these differences are planned.

  18. CRAD, Environmental Radiation Protection- December 7, 2009

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Environmental Radiation Protection, Inspection Criteria, Approach, and Lines of Inquiry (HSS CRAD 64-36, Rev. 0)

  19. All conformally flat pure radiation metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Brian Edgar; Garry Ludwig

    1996-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The complete class of conformally flat, pure radiation metrics is given, generalising the metric recently given by Wils.

  20. Optimization of radiation protection: a bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, G.R.; Khan, T.A.; Sullivan, S.G.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a bibliography of radiation protection optimization documents. Abstracts, an author index, and a subject index are provided.

  1. Radiation issues for the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harward, E.D. (ed.)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    These proceedings are organized under the following categories: Radiation Control: New Issues; Exploring the Use of a De Minimus Concept in Radiation Protection; Evolving Radiation Protection Standards; Occupational Radiation Protection: Are We Doing Enough; and Emergency Planning: the Potassium Iodide Issue. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 22 papers for the Energy Data Base (EDB) and for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA); 6 of the papers are included in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA). Three papers were processed earlier.

  2. 1991-2005 National Solar Radiation Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, S.

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the purpose, benefit, and features of the newly updated National Solar Radiation Database.

  3. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  4. Modeling radiation characteristics of semitransparent media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    and Viskanta8 have proposed a model for the effective radiation characteristics of glass foams. Their analysis

  5. MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, Donald

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cloud transient studies); Sandia, Albuquerque (input to performance calculation program Helios); SERI (analysis of effect of circumsolar radiation

  6. Appendix F. Radiation Appendix F. Radiation F-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    . For example, cosmic radiation; radon in air; potassium in food and water; and uranium, thorium, and radium-138 138 Cs 32.2 min Technetium-99 99 Tc 2.13E+5 years Cobalt-58 58 Co 70.80 days Thorium-228 228 Th 1.9132 years Cobalt-60 60 Co 5.271 years Thorium-230 230 Th 7.54E+4 years Curium-242 242 Cm 163.2 days Thorium

  7. Appendix F: Radiation Appendix F: Radiation F-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    and water; and uranium, thorium, and radium in the earth's crust are all sources of radiation. The following.13E+5 years Cobalt-60 60 Co 5.271 years Thorium-228 228 Th 1.9132 years Curium-242 242 Cm 163.2 days Thorium-230 230 Th 7.54E+4 years Curium-244 244 Cm 18.11 years Thorium-232 232 Th 1.405E+10 years Iodine

  8. Appendix F. Radiation Appendix F. Radiation F-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    . For example, cosmic radiation; radon in air; potassium in food and water; and uranium, thorium, and radium Thorium-228 228 Th 1.9132 years Cobalt-60 60 Co 5.271 years Thorium-230 230 Th 7.54E+4 years Curium-242 242 Cm 163.2 days Thorium-232 232 Th 1.405E+10 years Curium-244 244 Cm 18.11 years Thorium-234 234 Th

  9. RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR SCRAP METAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR SCRAP METAL: PRELIMINARY COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS Prepared for: Radiation Protection Division Office of Air and Radiation U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Prepared from nuclear facilities. Upon their completion, EPA plans to release the preliminary draft regulations

  10. Thermal radiation from an accretion disk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. V. Prigara

    2004-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An effect of stimulated radiation processes on thermal radiation from an accretion disk is considered. The radial density waves triggering flare emission and producing quasi-periodic oscillations in radiation from an accretion disk are discussed. It is argued that the observational data suggest the existence of the weak laser sources in a two-temperature plasma of an accretion disk.

  11. Wormholes supported by pure ghost radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sean A. Hayward

    2002-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Traversible wormhole space-times are found as static, spherically symmetric solutions to the Einstein equations with ingoing and outgoing pure ghost radiation, i.e. pure radiation with negative energy density. Switching off the radiation causes the wormhole to collapse to a Schwarzschild black hole.

  12. Radiation Protection Surveys in Clinical Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    Radiation Protection Surveys in Clinical Areas Procedure: 7.521 Created: 4/23/2014 Version: 1 as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) it is necessary to perform routine radiation protection surveys minute (DPM) or below. Results should be recorded in DPM. a. Survey Areas #12;Radiation Protection

  13. 7, 499535, 2007 Solar radiation during

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 499­535, 2007 Solar radiation during a total solar eclipse C. Emde and B. Mayer Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Simulation of solar radiation during a total solar eclipse: a challenge­535, 2007 Solar radiation during a total solar eclipse C. Emde and B. Mayer Title Page Abstract Introduction

  14. Density Functional Theory Models for Radiation Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Density Functional Theory Models for Radiation Damage S.L. Dudarev EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association and informative as the most advanced experimental techniques developed for the observation of radiation damage investigation and assessment of radiation damage effects, offering new insight into the origin of temperature

  15. Radiation Safety Edward O'Connell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /Bureau of Environmental Radiation Protection (BERP) · Regulatory Compliance ­ State Sanitary 16 · Required Radiation to cause ionization depends on the energy #12;Radiation Can Cause Ionization #12;Units of Measurements millirem per year. · At 50,000 feet, the dose rate is about 1 millirem per hour. · There are areas

  16. 30. Radioactivity and radiation protection 1 30. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    30. Radioactivity and radiation protection 1 30. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION Revised for the 2012 edition (pdg.lbl.gov) February 16, 2012 14:08 #12;2 30. Radioactivity and radiation protection radiation in a volume element of a specified material divided by the mass of this volume element. · Kerma, K

  17. 33. Radioactivity and radiation protection 1 33. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    33. Radioactivity and radiation protection 1 33. RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION Revised://pdg.lbl.gov) June 18, 2012 16:20 #12;2 33. Radioactivity and radiation protection tissue caused by different radiation in a volume element of a specified material divided by the mass of this volume element. · Kerma, K

  18. RADIATION CONTROL GUIDE rev 12/99 1-1 RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Dapeng Oliver

    RADIATION CONTROL GUIDE rev 12/99 1-1 CHAPTER 1 RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAM I. INTRODUCTION In view of increased utilization of ionizing and nonionizing radiation at the University of Florida, a university-wide radiation control program was established in September, l960. The primary responsibilities

  19. RADIATION CONTROL GUIDE 2/97 3-1 RADIATION PRODUCING DEVICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Dapeng Oliver

    the device. This proposal should point out radiation safety precautions which will be taken to protectRADIATION CONTROL GUIDE 2/97 3-1 CHAPTER 3 RADIATION PRODUCING DEVICES I. AUTHORIZATION TO USE RADIATION PRODUCING DEVICES All devices and apparatus capable of producing ionizing and nonionizing

  20. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the following topics: Composition of Accelerator Radiation Fields; Shielding of Electrons and Photons at Accelerators; Shielding of Hadrons at Accelerators; Low Energy Prompt Radiation Phenomena; Induced Radioactivity at Accelerators; Topics in Radiation Protection Instrumentation at Accelerators; and Accelerator Radiation Protection Program Elements.

  1. Normal and lateral Casimir forces between deformed plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emig, Thorsten; Hanke, Andreas; Golestanian, Ramin; Kardar, Mehran [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Strasse 77, D-50937 Cologne (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan 45195-159 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Casimir force between macroscopic bodies depends strongly on their shape and orientation. To study this geometry dependence in the case of two deformed metal plates, we use a path-integral quantization of the electromagnetic field which properly treats the many-body nature of the interaction, going beyond the commonly used pairwise summation (PWS) of van der Waals forces. For arbitrary deformations we provide an analytical result for the deformation induced change in the Casimir energy, which is exact to second order in the deformation amplitude. For the specific case of sinusoidally corrugated plates, we calculate both the normal and the lateral Casimir forces. The deformation induced change in the Casimir interaction of a flat and a corrugated plate shows an interesting crossover as a function of the ratio of the mean plate distance H to the corrugation length {lambda}: For {lambda}<>H. The amplitude of the lateral force between two corrugated plates which are out of registry is shown to have a maximum at an optimal wavelength of {lambda}{approx_equal}2.5 H. With increasing H/{lambda} > or approx. 0.3 the PWS approach becomes a progressively worse description of the lateral force due to many-body effects. These results may be of relevance for the design and operation of novel microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and other nanoscale devices.

  2. Modeling pore corrosion in normally open gold- plated copper connectors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Moffat, Harry K.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Enos, David George; Serna, Lysle M.; Sorensen, Neil Robert

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this study is to model the electrical response of gold plated copper electrical contacts exposed to a mixed flowing gas stream consisting of air containing 10 ppb H{sub 2}S at 30 C and a relative humidity of 70%. This environment accelerates the attack normally observed in a light industrial environment (essentially a simplified version of the Battelle Class 2 environment). Corrosion rates were quantified by measuring the corrosion site density, size distribution, and the macroscopic electrical resistance of the aged surface as a function of exposure time. A pore corrosion numerical model was used to predict both the growth of copper sulfide corrosion product which blooms through defects in the gold layer and the resulting electrical contact resistance of the aged surface. Assumptions about the distribution of defects in the noble metal plating and the mechanism for how corrosion blooms affect electrical contact resistance were needed to complete the numerical model. Comparisons are made to the experimentally observed number density of corrosion sites, the size distribution of corrosion product blooms, and the cumulative probability distribution of the electrical contact resistance. Experimentally, the bloom site density increases as a function of time, whereas the bloom size distribution remains relatively independent of time. These two effects are included in the numerical model by adding a corrosion initiation probability proportional to the surface area along with a probability for bloom-growth extinction proportional to the corrosion product bloom volume. The cumulative probability distribution of electrical resistance becomes skewed as exposure time increases. While the electrical contact resistance increases as a function of time for a fraction of the bloom population, the median value remains relatively unchanged. In order to model this behavior, the resistance calculated for large blooms has been weighted more heavily.

  3. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the first chapter, terminology, physical and radiological quantities, and units of measurement used to describe the properties of accelerator radiation fields are reviewed. The general considerations of primary radiation fields pertinent to accelerators are discussed. The primary radiation fields produced by electron beams are described qualitatively and quantitatively. In the same manner the primary radiation fields produced by proton and ion beams are described. Subsequent chapters describe: shielding of electrons and photons at accelerators; shielding of proton and ion accelerators; low energy prompt radiation phenomena; induced radioactivity at accelerators; topics in radiation protection instrumentation at accelerators; and accelerator radiation protection program elements.

  4. Quantum radiation at finite temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ralf Schützhold; Günter Plunien; Gerhard Soff

    2001-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the phenomenon of quantum radiation - i.e. the conversion of (virtual) quantum fluctuations into (real) particles induced by dynamical external conditions - for an initial thermal equilibrium state. For a resonantly vibrating cavity a rather strong enhancement of the number of generated particles (the dynamical Casimir effect) at finite temperatures is observed. Furthermore we derive the temperature corrections to the energy radiated by a single moving mirror and an oscillating bubble within a dielectric medium as well as the number of created particles within the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. Possible implications and the relevance for experimental tests are addressed. PACS: 42.50.Lc, 03.70.+k, 11.10.Ef, 11.10.Wx.

  5. Radiation source with shaped emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kubiak, Glenn D.; Sweatt, William C.

    2003-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Employing a source of radiation, such as an electric discharge source, that is equipped with a capillary region configured into some predetermined shape, such as an arc or slit, can significantly improve the amount of flux delivered to the lithographic wafers while maintaining high efficiency. The source is particularly suited for photolithography systems that employs a ringfield camera. The invention permits the condenser which delivers critical illumination to the reticle to be simplified from five or more reflective elements to a total of three or four reflective elements thereby increasing condenser efficiency. It maximizes the flux delivered and maintains a high coupling efficiency. This architecture couples EUV radiation from the discharge source into a ring field lithography camera.

  6. Has Hawking radiation been measured?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. G. Unruh

    2014-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    It is argued that Hawking radiation has indeed been measured and shown to posses a thermal spectrum, as predicted. This contention is based on three separate legs. The first is that the essential physics of the Hawking process for black holes can be modelled in other physical systems. The second is the white hole horizons are the time inverse of black hole horizons, and thus the physics of both is the same. The third is that the quantum emission, which is the Hawking process, is completely determined by measurements of the classical parameters of a linear physical system. The experiment conducted in 2010 fulfills all of these requirements, and is thus a true measurement of Hawking radiation.

  7. Plasma Panel Based Radiation Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, Dr. Peter S. [Integrated Sensors, LLC; Varner Jr, Robert L [ORNL; Ball, Robert [University of Michigan; Beene, James R [ORNL; Ben Moshe, M. [Tel Aviv University; Benhammou, Yan [Tel Aviv University; Chapman, J. Wehrley [University of Michigan; Etzion, E [Tel Aviv University; Ferretti, Claudio [University of Michigan; Bentefour, E [Ion Beam Applications; Levin, Daniel S. [University of Michigan; Moshe, M. [Tel Aviv University; Silver, Yiftah [Tel Aviv University; Weaverdyck, Curtis [University of Michigan; Zhou, Bing [University of Michigan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The plasma panel sensor (PPS) is a gaseous micropattern radiation detector under current development. It has many operational and fabrication principles common to plasma display panels (PDPs). It comprises a dense matrix of small, gas plasma discharge cells within a hermetically sealed panel. As in PDPs, it uses non-reactive, intrinsically radiation-hard materials such as glass substrates, refractory metal electrodes, and mostly inert gas mixtures. We are developing these devices primarily as thin, low-mass detectors with gas gaps from a few hundred microns to a few millimeters. The PPS is a high gain, inherently digital device with the potential for fast response times, fine position resolution (< 50 m RMS) and low cost. In this paper we report here on prototype PPS experimental results in detecting betas, protons and cosmic muons, and we extrapolate on the PPS potential for applications including detection of alphas, heavy-ions at low to medium energy, thermal neutrons and X-rays.

  8. Radiation-hardened polymeric films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Hughes, R.C.; Kepler, R.G.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1984-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10/sup 15/ to 10/sup 21/ molecules of dopant/cm/sup 3/. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

  9. Environmental radiation detection via thermoluminescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, S.D.

    1993-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The method and apparatus of the present invention relate to cryogenically cooling a thermoluminescent material, exposing it to a low level of radiation (less than about 1 R) while it is at the cooled temperature, warming the thermoluminescent material to room temperature'' and counting the photons emitted during heating. Sufficient sensitivity is achieved without exposing the thermoluminescent material to ultraviolet light thereby simplifying the measurements.

  10. Radiation-hardened polymeric films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jr., Charles (Albuquerque, NM); Hughes, Robert C. (Albuquerque, NM); Kepler, R. Glen (Albuquerque, NM); Kurtz, Steven R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10.sup.15 to 10.sup.21 molecules of dopant/cm.sup.3. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

  11. Cataractogenic effects of proton radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyzar, James Ronald

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    vulnerable organs, created an urgent need for investigation of proton radiation cataracto- genesis. In a statistical analysis of collected data on solar proton events taking into consideration possible shield- ing and mission duration, an investigator... energy group to a high of 74 for the 20 Mev proton energy group. As previously stated, the maximum possible numerical value was 400. The mean values for degree of lens opacities for the controls and the five dosage subgroups within the 10 Mev, 20 Mev...

  12. Environmental radiation detection via thermoluminescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The method and apparatus of the present invention relate to cryogenically cooling a thermoluminescent material, exposing it to a low level of radiation (less than about 1 R) while it is at the cooled temperature, warming the thermoluminescent material to "room temperature", and counting the photons emitted during heating. Sufficient sensitivity is achieved without exposing the thermoluminescent material to ultraviolet light thereby simplifying the measurements.

  13. Local Approach to Hawking Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ari Peltola

    2008-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider an approach to the Hawking effect which is free of the asymptotic behavior of the metric or matter fields, and which is not confined to one specific metric configuration. As a result, we find that for a wide class of spacetime horizons there exists an emission of particles out of the horizon. As expected, the energy distribution of the radiating particles turns out to be thermal.

  14. Radiation from SU(3) monopole scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick Irwin

    2000-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy radiated during the scattering of SU(3) monopoles is estimated as a function of their asymptotic velocity v. In a typical scattering process the total energy radiated is of order v^3 as opposed to v^5 for SU(2) monopoles. For charge (1,1) monopoles the dipole radiation produced is estimated for all geodesics on the moduli space. For charge (2,1) monopoles the dipole radiation is estimated for the axially symmetric geodesic. The power radiated appears to diverge in the massless limit. The implications of this for the case of non-Abelian unbroken symmetry are discussed.

  15. Matter Wave Radiation Leading to Matter Teleportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yong-Yi Huang

    2015-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept of matter wave radiation is put forward, and its equation is established for the first time. The formalism solution shows that the probability density is a function of displacement and time. A free particle and a two-level system are reinvestigated considering the effect of matter wave radiation. Three feasible experimental designs, especially a modified Stern-Gerlach setup, are proposed to verify the existence of matter wave radiation. Matter wave radiation effect in relativity has been formulated in only a raw formulae, which offers another explanation of Lamb shift. A possible mechanics of matter teleportation is predicted due to the effect of matter wave radiation.

  16. Dissecting Soft Radiation with Factorization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iain W. Stewart; Frank J. Tackmann; Wouter J. Waalewijn

    2015-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An essential part of high-energy hadronic collisions is the soft hadronic activity that underlies the primary hard interaction. It includes soft radiation from the primary hard partons, secondary multiple parton interactions (MPI), and factorization-violating effects. The invariant mass spectrum of the leading jet in $Z$+jet and $H$+jet events is directly sensitive to these effects, and we use a QCD factorization theorem to predict its dependence on the jet radius $R$, jet $p_T$, jet rapidity, and partonic process for both the perturbative and nonperturbative components of primary soft radiation. We prove that the nonperturbative contributions involve only odd powers of $R$, and the linear $R$ term is universal for quark and gluon jets. The hadronization model in PYTHIA8 agrees well with these properties. The perturbative soft initial state radiation (ISR) has a contribution that depends on the jet area in the same way as the underlying event, but this degeneracy is broken by dependence on the jet $p_T$. The size of this soft ISR contribution is proportional to the color state of the initial partons, yielding the same positive contribution for $gg\\to Hg$ and $gq\\to Zq$, but a negative interference contribution for $q\\bar q\\to Z g$. Hence, measuring these dependencies allows one to separate hadronization, soft ISR, and MPI contributions in the data.

  17. DarkLight radiation backgrounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalantarians, N. [Department of Physics, Hampton University, Hampton VA 23668 (United States); Collaboration: DarkLight Collaboration

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-on, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW CW beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, field emission inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation.

  18. Photon rockets and gravitational radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Damour

    1994-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The absence of gravitational radiation in Kinnersley's ``photon rocket'' solution of Einstein's equations is clarified by studying the mathematically well-defined problem of point-like photon rockets in Minkowski space (i.e. massive particles emitting null fluid anisotro\\-pically and accelerating because of the recoil). We explicitly compute the (uniquely defined) {\\it linearized} retarded gravitational waves emitted by such objects, which are the coherent superposition of the gravitational waves generated by the motion of the massive point-like rocket and of those generated by the energy-momentum distribution of the photon fluid. In the special case (corresponding to Kinnersley's solution) where the anisotropy of the photon emission is purely dipolar we find that the gravitational wave amplitude generated by the energy-momentum of the photons exactly cancels the usual $1/r$ gravitational wave amplitude generated by the accelerated motion of the rocket. More general photon anisotropies would, however, generate genuine gravitational radiation at infinity. Our explicit calculations show the compatibility between the non-radiative character of Kinnersley's solution and the currently used gravitational wave generation formalisms based on post-Minkowskian perturbation theory.

  19. Meeting Report--NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straume, Tore; Amundson, Sally A,; Blakely, William F.; Burns, Frederic J.; Chen, Allen; Dainiak, Nicholas; Franklin, Stephen; Leary, Julie A.; Loftus, David J.; Morgan, William F.; Pellmar, Terry C.; Stolc, Viktor; Turteltaub, Kenneth W.; Vaughan, Andrew T.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A summary is provided of presentations and discussions from the NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop held September 27-28, 2007, at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California. Invited speakers were distinguished scientists representing key sectors of the radiation research community. Speakers addressed recent developments in the biomarker and biotechnology fields that may provide new opportunities for health-related assessment of radiation-exposed individuals, including for long-duration space travel. Topics discussed include the space radiation environment, biomarkers of radiation sensitivity and individual susceptibility, molecular signatures of low-dose responses, multivariate analysis of gene expression, biomarkers in biodefense, biomarkers in radiation oncology, biomarkers and triage following large-scale radiological incidents, integrated and multiple biomarker approaches, advances in whole-genome tiling arrays, advances in mass-spectrometry proteomics, radiation biodosimetry for estimation of cancer risk in a rat skin model, and confounding factors. Summary conclusions are provided at the end of the report.

  20. Calibration method for video and radiation imagers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Mark F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fabris, Lorenzo (Knoxville, TN); Gee, Timothy F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Goddard, Jr., James S. (Knoxville, TN); Karnowski, Thomas P. (Knoxville, TN); Ziock, Klaus-peter (Clinton, TN)

    2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The relationship between the high energy radiation imager pixel (HERIP) coordinate and real-world x-coordinate is determined by a least square fit between the HERIP x-coordinate and the measured real-world x-coordinates of calibration markers that emit high energy radiation imager and reflect visible light. Upon calibration, a high energy radiation imager pixel position may be determined based on a real-world coordinate of a moving vehicle. Further, a scale parameter for said high energy radiation imager may be determined based on the real-world coordinate. The scale parameter depends on the y-coordinate of the moving vehicle as provided by a visible light camera. The high energy radiation imager may be employed to detect radiation from moving vehicles in multiple lanes, which correspondingly have different distances to the high energy radiation imager.

  1. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

  2. Evaluation of commercial ADC radiation tolerance for accelerator experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kai Chen; Hucheng Chen; James Kierstead; Helio Takai; Sergio Rescia; Xueye Hu; Hao Xu; Joseph Mead; Francesco Lanni; Marena Minelli

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Electronic components used in high energy physics experiments are subjected to a radiation background composed of high energy hadrons, mesons and photons. These particles can induce permanent and transient effects that affect the normal device operation. Ionizing dose and displacement damage can cause chronic damage which disable the device permanently. Transient effects or single event effects are in general recoverable with time intervals that depend on the nature of the failure. The magnitude of these effects is technology dependent with feature size being one of the key parameters. Analog to digital converters are components that are frequently used in detector front end electronics, generally placed as close as possible to the sensing elements to maximize signal fidelity. We report on radiation effects tests conducted on 17 commercially available analog to digital converters and extensive single event effect measurements on specific twelve and fourteen bit ADCs that presented high tolerance to ionizing dose. Mitigation strategies for single event effects (SEE) are discussed for their use in the large hadron collider environment.

  3. RSSC ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE OF RADIATION CONTROL PROGRAM / 072011 1-1 ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE OF RADIATION CONTROL PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    ............................................................ 1-13 III. Radiation Detection Instrumentation and Safety Equipment............................................... 1-13 A. Radiation Detection Instruments (Survey Meters

  4. Astrophysical S factor for the radiative capture (12)N(p,gamma)(13)O determined from the (14)N((12)N,(13)O)(13)C proton transfer reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banu, A.; Al-Abdullah, T.; Fu, C.; Gagliardi, Carl A.; McCleskey, M.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Tabacaru, G.; Trache, L.; Tribble, Robert E.; Zhai, Y.; Carstoiu, F.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cross section of the radiative proton capture reaction on the drip line nucleus (12)N was investigated using the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) method. We have used the (14)N((12)N,(13)O)(13)C proton transfer reaction at 12 Me...

  5. Measurements and modeling of soot formation and radiation in microgravity jet diffusion flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ku, J.C.; Tong, L. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Greenberg, P.S. [NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States). Microgravity Combustion Branch

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a computational and experimental study for soot formation and radiative heat transfer in jet diffusion flames under normal gravity (1-g) and microgravity (0-g) conditions. Instantaneous soot volume fraction maps are measured using a full-field imaging absorption technique developed by the authors. On modeling, the authors have coupled flame structure and soot formation models with detailed radiation transfer calculations. Favre-averaged boundary layer equations with a k-e-g turbulence model are used to predict the flow field, and a conserved scalar approach with an assumed {beta}-pdf are used to predict gaseous species mole fraction. Scalar transport equations are used to describe soot volume fraction and number density distributions, with formation and oxidation terms modeled by one-step rate equations and thermophoretic effects included. An energy equation is included to couple flame structure and radiation analyses through iterations, neglecting turbulence-radiation interactions. The YIX solution for a finite cylindrical enclosure is used for radiative heat transfer calculations. The spectral absorption coefficient for soot aggregates is calculated from the Rayleigh solution using complex refractive index data from a Drude-Lorentz model. The exponential-wide-band model is used to calculate the spectral absorption coefficient for H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}. Predicted soot volume fraction and temperature results agree well with published data for a normal gravity co-flow laminar flames and turbulent jet flames. Predicted soot volume fraction results also agree with the data for 1-g and 0-g laminar jet flames as well as 1-g turbulent jet flames.

  6. Radiation Increases Invasion of Gene-Modified Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zielske, Steven P., E-mail: szielske@med.umich.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Livant, Donna L.; Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells in the bone marrow that have been found to migrate to tumors, suggesting a potential use for cancer gene therapy. MSCs migrate to sites of tissue damage, including normal tissues damaged by radiation. In this study, we investigated the effect of tumor radiotherapy on the localization of lentivirus-transduced MSCs to tumors. Methods and Materials: MSCs were labeled with a lipophilic dye to investigate their migration to colon cancer xenografts. Subsequently, the MSCs were transduced with a lentiviral vector to model gene therapy and mark the infused MSCs. LoVo tumor xenografts were treated with increasing radiation doses to assess the effect on MSC localization, which was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. MSC invasion efficiency was determined in an invasion assay. Results: MSCs migrated to tumor xenografts of various origins, with few cells found in normal tissues. A lentiviral vector efficiently transduced MSCs in the presence, but not the absence, of hexadimethrine bromide (Polybrene). When LoVo tumors were treated with increasing radiation doses, more MSCs were found to migrate to them than to untreated tumors. Irradiation increased MSC localization in HT-29 and MDA-MB-231, but not UMSCC1, xenografts. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression in tumors did not correlate with the basal levels of MSC infiltration; however, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 was modestly elevated in irradiated tumors. Media from irradiated LoVo cells stimulated MSC invasion into basement membranes. Conclusion: These findings suggest that radiation-induced injury can be used to target MSCs to tumors, which might increase the effectiveness of MSC cancer gene therapy. The production of tumor-derived factors in response to radiation stimulates MSC invasion.

  7. Tribological degradation of fluorocarbon coated silicon microdevice surfaces in normal and sliding contact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krim, Jacqueline

    Tribological degradation of fluorocarbon coated silicon microdevice surfaces in normal and sliding degradation of the contact interface of a fluorocarbon monolayer-coated polycrystalline silicon microdevice

  8. Pentose fermentation of normally toxic lignocellulose prehydrolysate with strain of Pichia stipitis yeast using air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, Jr., Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Nguyen, Quang A. (Golden, CO)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis NPw9 (ATCC PTA-3717) useful for the production of ethanol using oxygen for growth while fermenting normally toxic lignocellulosic prehydrolysates.

  9. Dose-dependent misrejoining of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in human fibroblasts: Experimental and theoretical study for high and low LET radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rydberg, Bjorn; Cooper, Brian; Cooper, Priscilla K.; Holley, William; Chatterjee, Aloke

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S. Kim, and R. M. Myers. Radiation hybrid mapping: a somaticformulation of dual radiation action. Radiat. Res. 75: 471-High-Linear Energy Transfer Radiation in Human Fibroblasts.

  10. Quasi-normal modes: the "electrons" of black holes as "gravitational atoms"? Implications for the black hole information puzzle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Corda

    2015-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Some recent important results on black hole (BH) quantum physics concerning the BH effective state and the natural correspondence between Hawking radiation and BH quasi-normal modes (QNMs) are reviewed, clarified and refined. Such a correspondence permits to naturally interpret QNMs as quantum levels in a semi-classical model. This is a model of BH somewhat similar to the historical semi-classical model of the structure of a hydrogen atom introduced by Bohr in 1913. In a certain sense, QNMs represent the "electron" which jumps from a level to another one and the absolute values of the QNMs frequencies "triggered" by emissions (Hawking radiation) and absorption of particles represent the energy "shells" of the "gravitational hydrogen atom". Important consequences on the BH information puzzle are discussed. In fact, it is shown that the time evolution of this "Bohr-like BH model" obeys to a time dependent Schr\\"odinger equation which permits the final BH state to be a pure quantum state instead of a mixed one. Thus, information comes out in BH evaporation, in agreement with the assumption by 't Hooft that Schr\\"oedinger equations can be used universally for all dynamics in the universe. We also show that, in addition, our approach solves the entanglement problem connected with the information paradox. We emphasize that Bohr model is an approximated model of the hydrogen atom with respect to the valence shell atom model of full quantum mechanics. In the same way, we expect the Bohr-like BH model to be an approximated model with respect to the definitive, but at the present time unknown, BH model arising from a full quantum gravity theory.

  11. Black hole quasi-normal modes: the "electrons" of quantum gravity? Implications for the black hole information puzzle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Corda

    2015-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Some recent important results on black hole (BH) quantum physics concerning the BH effective state and the natural correspondence between Hawking radiation and BH quasi-normal modes (QNMs) are reviewed, clarified and refined. Such a correspondence permits to naturally interpret QNMs as quantum levels in a semi-classical model. This is a model of BH somewhat similar to the historical semi-classical model of the structure of a hydrogen atom introduced by Bohr in 1913. In a certain sense, QNMs represent the "electron" which jumps from a level to another one and the absolute values of the QNMs frequencies "triggered" by emissions (Hawking radiation) and absorption of particles represent the energy "shells" of the "gravitational hydrogen atom". Important consequences on the BH information puzzle are discussed. In fact, it is shown that the time evolution of this "Bohr-like BH model" obeys to a time dependent Schr\\"odinger equation which permits the final BH state to be a pure quantum state instead of a mixed one. Thus, information comes out in BH evaporation, in agreement with the assumption by 't Hooft that Schr\\"oedinger equations can be used universally for all dynamics in the universe. We also show that, in addition, our approach solves the entanglement problem connected with the information paradox. We emphasize that Bohr model is an approximated model of the hydrogen atom with respect to the valence shell atom model of full quantum mechanics. In the same way, we expect the Bohr-like BH model to be an approximated model with respect to the definitive, but at the present time unknown, BH model arising from a full quantum gravity theory. If the analogy between electron and QNMs is correct, this could be the first, important step for the realization of a new approach to quantum gravity that we could call "QNMs quantum gravity".

  12. Quasi-normal modes: the "electrons" of black holes as "gravitational atoms"? Implications for the black hole information puzzle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Corda

    2015-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Some recent important results on black hole (BH) quantum physics concerning the BH effective state and the natural correspondence between Hawking radiation and BH quasi-normal modes (QNMs) are reviewed, clarified and refined. Such a correspondence permits to naturally interpret QNMs as quantum levels in a semi-classical model. This is a model of BH somewhat similar to the historical semi-classical model of the structure of a hydrogen atom introduced by Bohr in 1913. In a certain sense, QNMs represent the "electron" which jumps from a level to another one and the absolute values of the QNMs frequencies "triggered" by emissions (Hawking radiation) and absorption of particles represent the energy "shells" of the "gravitational hydrogen atom". Important consequences on the BH information puzzle are discussed. In fact, it is shown that the time evolution of this "Bohr-like BH model" obeys to a time dependent Schr\\"odinger equation which permits the final BH state to be a pure quantum state instead of a mixed one. Thus, information comes out in BH evaporation, in agreement with the assumption by 't Hooft that Schr\\"oedinger equations can be used universally for all dynamics in the universe. We also show that, in addition, our approach solves the entanglement problem connected with the information paradox. We emphasize that Bohr model is an approximated model of the hydrogen atom with respect to the valence shell atom model of full quantum mechanics. In the same way, we expect the Bohr-like BH model to be an approximated model with respect to the definitive, but at the present time unknown, BH model arising from a full quantum gravity theory.

  13. Radiation effects in the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begay, F.; Rosen, L.; Petersen, D.F.; Mason, C.; Travis, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Yazzie, A. [Navajo Nation, Window Rock, AZ (United States). Dept. of History; Isaac, M.C.P.; Seaborg, G.T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Leavitt, C.P. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the Navajo possess substantial resource wealth-coal, gas, uranium, water-this potential wealth has been translated into limited permanent economic or political power. In fact, wealth or potential for wealth has often made the Navajo the victims of more powerful interests greedy for the assets under limited Navajo control. The primary focus for this education workshop on the radiation effects in the environment is to provide a forum where scientists from the nuclear science and technology community can share their knowledge toward the advancement and diffusion of nuclear science and technology issues for the Navajo public. The scientists will make an attempt to consider the following basic questions; what is science; what is mathematics; what is nuclear radiation? Seven papers are included in this report: Navajo view of radiation; Nuclear energy, national security and international stability; ABC`s of nuclear science; Nuclear medicine: 100 years in the making; Radon in the environment; Bicarbonate leaching of uranium; and Computational methods for subsurface flow and transport. The proceedings of this workshop will be used as a valuable reference materials in future workshops and K-14 classrooms in Navajo communities that need to improve basic understanding of nuclear science and technology issues. Results of the Begay-Stevens research has revealed the existence of strange and mysterious concepts in the Navajo Language of nature. With these research results Begay and Stevens prepared a lecture entitled The Physics of Laser Fusion in the Navajo language. This lecture has been delivered in numerous Navajo schools, and in universities and colleges in the US, Canada, and Alaska.

  14. Solid-state radiation-emitting compositions and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott (Albuquerque, NM); Walko, Robert J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation, wherein a first substance functions as a source of exciting radiation, and a second substance interacts with the exciting radiation to provide a second radiation. The compositions comprise a porous substrate which is loaded with: a source of exciting radiation, a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with the exciting radiation, or both. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with both a source of exciting radiation, such as tritium, and a component capable of interacting with the exciting radiation, e.g., a phosphor, to produce radiation of a second energy.

  15. Solid-state radiation-emitting compositions and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashley, C.S.; Brinker, C.J.; Reed, S.; Walko, R.J.

    1992-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation, wherein a first substance functions as a source of exciting radiation, and a second substance interacts with the exciting radiation to provide a second radiation. The compositions comprise a porous substrate which is loaded with: a source of exciting radiation, a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with the exciting radiation, or both. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with both a source of exciting radiation, such as tritium, and a component capable of interacting with the exciting radiation, e.g., a phosphor, to produce radiation of a second energy. 4 figs.

  16. Radiative feedback from ionized gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. C. O. Glover

    2007-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    H2 formation in metal-free gas occurs via the intermediate H- or H2+ ions. Destruction of these ions by photodissociation therefore serves to suppress H2 formation. In this paper, I highlight the fact that several processes that occur in ionized primordial gas produce photons energetic enough to photodissociate H- or H2+ and outline how to compute the photodissociation rates produced by a particular distribution of ionized gas. I also show that there are circumstances of interest, such as during the growth of HII regions around the first stars, in which this previously overlooked form of radiative feedback is of considerable importance.

  17. Radiative transfer in molecular lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Asensio Ramos; J. Trujillo Bueno; J. Cernicharo

    2001-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The highly convergent iterative methods developed by Trujillo Bueno and Fabiani Bendicho (1995) for radiative transfer (RT) applications are generalized to spherical symmetry with velocity fields. These RT methods are based on Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel (GS), and SOR iteration and they form the basis of a new NLTE multilevel transfer code for atomic and molecular lines. The benchmark tests carried out so far are presented and discussed. The main aim is to develop a number of powerful RT tools for the theoretical interpretation of molecular spectra.

  18. SSRL- Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection245C Unlimited ReleaseWelcome ton n u aOct. 29,workshop onSSRL

  19. SSRL- Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection245C Unlimited ReleaseWelcome ton n u aOct. 29,workshop onSSRLMelvin

  20. SSRL- Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection245C Unlimited ReleaseWelcome ton n u aOct. 29,workshop

  1. SSRL- Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection245C Unlimited ReleaseWelcome ton n u aOct. 29,workshopW.E. Spicer

  2. Safety Around Sources of Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection245C Unlimited ReleaseWelcome ton nSafeguards andSafety Alerts Safety

  3. Radiation Emergency Medicine Fact Sheet

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnicalPurchase, Delivery, andSmartRadiation Effects Quality

  4. Gravitational Radiation from Gamma-Ray Bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsvi Piran

    2001-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most relativistic objects known so far, involving, on one hand an ultra-relativistic motion with a Lorentz factor $\\Gamma > 100$ and on the other hand an accreting newborn black hole. The two main routes leading to this scenario: binary neutron star mergers and Collapsar - the collapse of a rotating star to a black hole, are classical sources for gravitational radiation. Additionally one expect a specific a gravitational radiation pulse associated with the acceleration of the relativistic ejecta. I consider here the implication of the observed rates of GRBs to the possibility of detection of a gravitational radiation signal associated with a GRB. Unfortunately I find that, with currently planned detectors it is impossible to detect the direct gravitational radiation associated with the GRB. It is also quite unlikely to detect gravitational radiation associated with Collapsars. However, the detection of gravitational radiation from a neutron star merger associated with a GRB is likely.

  5. Discussion on spin-flip synchrotron radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. Bordovitsyn; V. S. Gushchina; A. N. Myagkii

    2001-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum spin-flip transitions are of great importance in the synchrotron radiation theory. For better understanding of the nature of this phenomenon, it is necessary to except the effects connected with the electric charge radiation from observation. This fact explains the suggested choice of the spin-flip radiation model in the form of radiation of the electric neutral Dirac-Pauli particle moving in the homogeneous magnetic field. It is known that in this case, the total radiation in the quantum theory is conditioned by spin-flip transitions. The idea is that spin-flip radiation is represented as a nonstationary process connected with spin precession. We shall shown how to construct a solution of the classical equation of the spin precession in the BMT theory having the exact solution of the Dirac-Pauli equation.Thus, one will find the connection of the quantum spin-flip transitions with classical spin precession.

  6. On the Bel radiative gravitational fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joan Josep Ferrando; Juan Antonio Sáez

    2012-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the concept of intrinsic radiative gravitational fields defined by Bel and we show that the three radiative types, N, III and II, correspond with the three following different physical situations: {\\it pure radiation}, {\\it asymptotic pure radiation} and {\\it generic} (non pure, non asymptotic pure) {\\it radiation}. We introduce the concept of {\\em observer at rest} with respect to the gravitational field and that of {\\em proper super-energy} of the gravitational field and we show that, for non radiative fields, the minimum value of the relative super-energy density is the proper super-energy density, which is acquired by the observers at rest with respect to the field. Several {\\it super-energy inequalities} are also examined.

  7. 11th International Conference of Radiation Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Topics discussed in the conference included the following: Radiation Physics, Radiation Chemistry and modelling--Radiation physics and dosimetry; Electron transfer in biological media; Radiation chemistry; Biophysical and biochemical modelling; Mechanisms of DNA damage; Assays of DNA damage; Energy deposition in micro volumes; Photo-effects; Special techniques and technologies; Oxidative damage. Molecular and cellular effects-- Photobiology; Cell cycle effects; DNA damage: Strand breaks; DNA damage: Bases; DNA damage Non-targeted; DNA damage: other; Chromosome aberrations: clonal; Chromosomal aberrations: non-clonal; Interactions: Heat/Radiation/Drugs; Biochemical effects; Protein expression; Gene induction; Co-operative effects; ``Bystander'' effects; Oxidative stress effects; Recovery from radiation damage. DNA damage and repair -- DNA repair genes; DNA repair deficient diseases; DNA repair enzymology; Epigenetic effects on repair; and Ataxia and ATM.

  8. Apparatus and method for detecting gamma radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sigg, R.A.

    1994-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A high efficiency radiation detector is disclosed for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation from small-volume, low-activity liquid samples with an overall uncertainty better than 0.7% (one sigma SD). The radiation detector includes a hyperpure germanium well detector, a collimator, and a reference source. The well detector monitors gamma radiation emitted by the reference source and a radioactive isotope or isotopes in a sample source. The radiation from the reference source is collimated to avoid attenuation of reference source gamma radiation by the sample. Signals from the well detector are processed and stored, and the stored data is analyzed to determine the radioactive isotope(s) content of the sample. Minor self-attenuation corrections are calculated from chemical composition data. 4 figures.

  9. Apparatus and method for detecting gamma radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sigg, Raymond A. (Martinez, GA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high efficiency radiation detector for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation from small-volume, low-activity liquid samples with an overall uncertainty better than 0.7% (one sigma SD). The radiation detector includes a hyperpure germanium well detector, a collimator, and a reference source. The well detector monitors gamma radiation emitted by the reference source and a radioactive isotope or isotopes in a sample source. The radiation from the reference source is collimated to avoid attenuation of reference source gamma radiation by the sample. Signals from the well detector are processed and stored, and the stored data is analyzed to determine the radioactive isotope(s) content of the sample. Minor self-attenuation corrections are calculated from chemical composition data.

  10. Optimizing Normal Tissue Sparing in Ion Therapy Using Calculated Isoeffective Dose for Ion Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remmes, Nicholas B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Herman, Michael G., E-mail: Herman.Michael@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Kruse, Jon J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To investigate how the selection of ion type affects the calculated isoeffective dose to the surrounding normal tissue as a function of both normal tissue and target tissue {alpha}/{beta} ratios. Methods and Materials: A microdosimetric biologic dose model was incorporated into a Geant4 simulation of parallel opposed beams of protons, helium, lithium, beryllium, carbon, and neon ions. The beams were constructed to give a homogeneous isoeffective dose to a volume in the center of a water phantom for target tissues covering a range of cobalt equivalent {alpha}/{beta} ratios of 1-20 Gy. Concomitant normal tissue isoeffective doses in the plateau of the ion beam were then compared for different ions across the range of normal tissue and target tissue radiosensitivities for a fixed isoeffective dose to the target tissue. Results: The ion type yielding the optimal normal tissue sparing was highly dependent on the {alpha}/{beta} ratio of both the normal and the target tissue. For carbon ions, the calculated isoeffective dose to normal tissue at a 5-cm depth varied by almost a factor of 5, depending on the {alpha}/{beta} ratios of the normal and target tissue. This ranges from a factor of 2 less than the isoeffective dose of a similar proton treatment to a factor of 2 greater. Conclusions: No single ion is optimal for all treatment scenarios. The heavier ions are superior in cases in which the {alpha}/{beta} ratio of the target tissue is low and the {alpha}/{beta} ratio of normal tissue is high, and protons are superior in the opposite circumstances. Lithium and beryllium appear to offer dose advantages similar to carbon, with a considerably lower normal tissue dose when the {alpha}/{beta} ratio in the target tissue is high and the {alpha}/{beta} ratio in the normal tissue is low.

  11. Instantaneous Power Radiated from Magnetic Dipole Moments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter D. Morley; Douglas J. Buettner

    2014-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the power radiated per unit solid angle of a moving magnetic dipole moment, and its instantaneous radiated power, both non-relativistically and relativistically. This is then applied to various interesting situations: solar neutrons, electron synchrotrons and cosmological Dirac neutrinos. Concerning the latter, we show that hypothesized early-universe Big Bang conditions allow for neutrino radiation cooling and provide an energy loss-mechanism for subsequent neutrino condensation.

  12. Energy radiated from a fluctuating selfdual string

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas Gustavsson

    2005-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the energy that is radiated from a fluctuating selfdual string in the large $N$ limit of $A_{N-1}$ theory using the AdS-CFT correspondence. We find that the radiated energy is given by a non-local expression integrated over the string world-sheet. We also make the corresponding computation for a charged string in six-dimensional classical electrodynamics, thereby generalizing the Larmor formula for the radiated energy from an accelerated point particle.

  13. Radiative Effects of Cloud Inhomogeneity and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Radiation Protection Regulations: The FederalRadiative Effects of

  14. Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Radiation Protection Regulations: The FederalRadiative Effects of

  15. Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Radiation Protection Regulations: The FederalRadiative Effects of

  16. Direct detector for terahertz radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanke, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Lee, Mark (Albuquerque, NM); Shaner, Eric A. (Albuquerque, NM); Allen, S. James (Santa Barbara, CA)

    2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A direct detector for terahertz radiation comprises a grating-gated field-effect transistor with one or more quantum wells that provide a two-dimensional electron gas in the channel region. The grating gate can be a split-grating gate having at least one finger that can be individually biased. Biasing an individual finger of the split-grating gate to near pinch-off greatly increases the detector's resonant response magnitude over prior QW FET detectors while maintaining frequency selectivity. The split-grating-gated QW FET shows a tunable resonant plasmon response to FIR radiation that makes possible an electrically sweepable spectrometer-on-a-chip with no moving mechanical optical parts. Further, the narrow spectral response and signal-to-noise are adequate for use of the split-grating-gated QW FET in a passive, multispectral terahertz imaging system. The detector can be operated in a photoconductive or a photovoltaic mode. Other embodiments include uniform front and back gates to independently vary the carrier densities in the channel region, a thinned substrate to increase bolometric responsivity, and a resistive shunt to connect the fingers of the grating gate in parallel and provide a uniform gate-channel voltage along the length of the channel to increase the responsivity and improve the spectral resolution.

  17. GENII. Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Suite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, B.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA, (United States)

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GENII was developed to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) into the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. GENII is a coupled system of seven programs and the associated data libraries that comprise the Hanford Dosimetry System (Generation II) to estimate potential radiation doses to individuals or populations from both routine and accidental releases of radionuclides to air or water and residual contamination from spills or decontamination operations. The GENII system includes interactive menu-driven programs to assist the user with scenario generation and data input,internal and external dose factor generators, and environmental dosimetry programs. The programs analyze environmental contamination resulting from both far-field and near-field scenarios. A far-field scenario focuses outward from a source, while a near-field scenario focuses in toward a receptor. GENII can calculate annual dose, committed dose, and accumulated dose from acute and chronic releases from ground or elevated sources to air or water and from initial contamination of soil or surfaces and can evaluate exposure pathways including direct exposure via water, soil, air, inhalation pathways, and ingestion pathways. In addition, GENII can perform 10,000 years migration analyses and can be used for retrospective calculations of potential radiation doses resulting from routine emissions and for prospective dose calculations for purposes such as siting facilities, environmental impact statements, and safety analysis reports.

  18. NNSA Holds Radiation Emergency Consequence Management Training...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Radiation Emergency Consequence Management Training in Israel | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile...

  19. Transport Test Problems for Radiation Detection Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaver, Mark W.; Miller, Erin A.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Benjamin S.

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report and deliverable for the project. It is a list of the details of the test cases for radiation detection scenarios.

  20. Radiation Safety Policy and Procedures Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RSPPC Meeting Minutes APS only Radiation Safety Policy and Procedures Committee Charter 1. Purpose The committee reviews functional changes to the Access Control Interlock System...