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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal irradiance ghi" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Honduras from SUNY Honduras from SUNY Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Zip file contains year-site specific files including time series of global, direct and diffuse irradiance (Purpose): The time series are useful for performing site specific simulation of customized solar energy systems (Supplemental Information): Each file's name identifies year and location, by listing Country_City_latitude-longitude_year, e.g., EL_SALVADOR_San_Salvador_13.75-89.15_98.out is for the city of San Salvador, in El Salvador, latitude 13.75 degrees, longitude -89.15 degrees, year 1998. The content of each file includes A one line header, listing latitude, longitude and ground elevation in meters,Hourly records including, year, month, day, time (GMT), global irradiance, direct irradiance and

2

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nicaragua from SUNY Nicaragua from SUNY Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Zip file contains year-site specific files including time series of global, direct and diffuse irradiance (Purpose): The time series are useful for performing site specific simulation of customized solar energy systems (Supplemental Information): Each file's name identifies year and location, by listing Country_City_latitude-longitude_year, e.g., EL_SALVADOR_San_Salvador_13.75-89.15_98.out is for the city of San Salvador, in El Salvador, latitude 13.75 degrees, longitude -89.15 degrees, year 1998. The content of each file includes A one line header, listing latitude, longitude and ground elevation in meters,Hourly records including, year, month, day, time (GMT), global irradiance, direct irradiance and

3

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Guatemala from SUNY Guatemala from SUNY Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Zip file contains year-site specific files including time series of global, direct and diffuse irradiance (Purpose): The time series are useful for performing site specific simulation of customized solar energy systems (Supplemental Information): Each file's name identifies year and location, by listing Country_City_latitude-longitude_year, e.g., EL_SALVADOR_San_Salvador_13.75-89.15_98.out is for the city of San Salvador, in El Salvador, latitude 13.75 degrees, longitude -89.15 degrees, year 1998. The content of each file includes A one line header, listing latitude, longitude and ground elevation in meters,Hourly records including, year, month, day, time (GMT), global irradiance, direct irradiance and

4

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cuba sites from SUNY Cuba sites from SUNY Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Zip file contains year-site specific files including time series of global, direct and diffuse irradiance (Purpose): The time series are useful for performing site specific simulation of customized solar energy systems (Supplemental Information): Each file's name identifies year and location, by listing Country_City_latitude-longitude_year, e.g., EL_SALVADOR_San_Salvador_13.75-89.15_98.out is for the city of San Salvador, in El Salvador, latitude 13.75 degrees, longitude -89.15 degrees, year 1998. The content of each file includes A one line header, listing latitude, longitude and ground elevation in meters,Hourly records including, year, month, day, time (GMT), global irradiance, direct irradiance and

5

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

El Salvador sites from SUNY El Salvador sites from SUNY Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Zip file contains year-site specific files including time series of global, direct and diffuse irradiance (Purpose): The time series are useful for performing site specific simulation of customized solar energy systems (Supplemental Information): Each file's name identifies year and location, by listing Country_City_latitude-longitude_year, e.g., EL_SALVADOR_San_Salvador_13.75-89.15_98.out is for the city of San Salvador, in El Salvador, latitude 13.75 degrees, longitude -89.15 degrees, year 1998. The content of each file includes A one line header, listing latitude, longitude and ground elevation in meters,Hourly records including, year, month, day, time (GMT), global irradiance, direct irradiance and

6

Solar: hourly global horizontal (GHI) and direct normal (DNI) data for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nepal from DLR Nepal from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Hourly time series of GHI and DNI for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003 for selected sites in Nepal. The hourly data are stored in ASCII files for each station. Please read the documentation file for additional information. (Purpose): For the selected sites, the hourly time series can be used for the simulation of Photovoltaic (PV)-systems or Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)-systems. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI GEF GHI hourly data Nepal NREL solar SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download data (zip, 1.2 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

7

Solar: hourly global horizontal (GHI) and direct normal (DNI) data for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ethiopia from DLR Ethiopia from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Hourly time series of GHI and DNI for the years 2000, 2001 and 2002 for selected sites in Ethiopia. The hourly data are stored in ASCII files for each station. Please read the documentation file for additional information. (Purpose): For the selected sites, the hourly time series can be used for the simulation of Photovoltaic (PV)-systems or Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)-systems. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI GHI hourly data solar SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download data (zip, 2.1 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

8

Solar: hourly global horizontal (GHI) and direct normal (DNI) data for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenya from DLR Kenya from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Hourly time series of GHI and DNI for the years 2000, 2001 and 2002 for selected sites in Kenya. The hourly data are stored in ASCII files for each station. Please read the documentation file for additional information. (Purpose): For the selected sites, the hourly time series can be used for the simulation of Photovoltaic (PV)-systems or Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)-systems. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI GEF GHI hourly data Kenya solar SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download data (zip, 3.9 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

9

Solar: hourly global horizontal (GHI) and direct normal (DNI) data for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sri Lanka sites from DLR Sri Lanka sites from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Hourly time series of GHI and DNI for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003 for selected sites in Sri Lanka. The hourly data are stored in ASCII files for each station. Please read the documentation file for additional information. (Purpose): For the selected sites, the hourly time series can be used for the simulation of Photovoltaic (PV)-systems or Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)-systems. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI GHI hourly data solar Sri Lanka SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download data (zip, 368.2 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment

10

Solar: hourly global horizontal (GHI) and direct normal (DNI) data for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

China sites from DLR China sites from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Hourly time series of GHI and DNI for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003 for selected sites in China. The hourly data are stored in ASCII files for each station. Please read the documentation file for additional information. (Purpose): For the selected sites, the hourly time series can be used for the simulation of Photovoltaic (PV)-systems or Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)-systems. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords China DLR DNI GEF GHI solar SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Data (zip, 953.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

11

Solar: hourly global horizontal (GHI) and direct normal (DNI) data for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ghana from DLR Ghana from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Hourly time series of GHI and DNI for the years 2000, 2001 and 2002 for selected sites in Ghana. The hourly data are stored in ASCII files for each station. Please read the documentation file for additional information. (Purpose): For the selected sites, the hourly time series can be used for the simulation of Photovoltaic (PV)-systems or Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)-systems. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI Ghana GHI hourly data solar SWERA TILT TMY UNEP Data application/zip icon ghanaDLRtimeseries_103.zip (zip, 2.7 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment

12

Solar: hourly global horizontal (GHI) and direct normal (DNI) data for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bangladesh sites from DLR Bangladesh sites from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Hourly time series of GHI and DNI for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003 for selected sites in Bangladesh. The hourly data are stored in ASCII files for each station. Please read the documentation file for additional information. (Purpose): For the selected sites, the hourly time series can be used for the simulation of Photovoltaic (PV)-systems or Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)-systems. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords Bangladesh DLR DNI GHI hourly data solar SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Data (zip, 1.2 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment

13

direct normal irradiance | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

normal irradiance normal irradiance Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. Source NREL Date Released July 31st, 2006 (8 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords direct normal irradiance DNI GEF GHI GIS global horizontal irradiance insolation latitutde tilt irradiance NASA NREL South America SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile and Cell Maps (zip, 13.9 MiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 3.5 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

14

DNI GHI | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

DNI GHI DNI GHI Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Zip file contains year-site specific files including time series of global, direct and diffuse irradiance (Purpose): The time series are useful for performing site specific simulation of customized solar energy systems Source Richard Perez Date Released June 30th, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 07th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DNI GHI hourly data Nicaragua solar SUNY SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Data (zip, 3 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 01/01/1998 - 12/31/2002 License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL) Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote

15

GHI | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GHI GHI Dataset Summary Description Developed by NREL and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency, this geographic toolkit that allows users to relate the renewable energy resource (solar and wind) data to other geographic data, such as land use, protected areas, elevation, etc. The GsT was completely redesigned and re-released in November 2010 to provide a more modern, easier-to-use interface with considerably faster analytical querying capabilities. The revised version of the Geospatial Toolkit for Turkey is available using the following link: http://www.nrel.gov/international/downloads/gst_turkey.exe Source GeoModel Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated July 06th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords DNI GeoModel GHI GIS GsT NREL solar SWERA TILT Turkey

16

Definition: Direct normal irradiance | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Direct normal irradiance the amount of solar radiation received per unit area by a surface perpendicular (normal) to the rays...

17

Definition: Direct normal irradiance | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

normal irradiance normal irradiance (Redirected from Definition:DNI) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Direct normal irradiance the amount of solar radiation received per unit area by a surface perpendicular (normal) to the rays that come in a straight line from the direction of the sun at its current position in the sky.[1] Also Known As DNI Related Terms Solar radiation, Irradiance, Concentrating solar power, Global horizontal irradiance References ↑ http://www.3tier.com/en/support/glossary/#dni Retrie LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. ved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Direct_normal_irradiance&oldid=423379" Category: Definitions What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link

18

Solar: annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km resolution  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km resolution global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km resolution for Cuba from SUNY Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal flat-plate solar collectors for Cuba (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a horizontal flat-plate solar collector, such as a Photovoltaic (PV) solar panel. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 10 km by 10 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as kilowatt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from the State University of New York's (SUNY) GOES satellite solar model. This model uses information on hourly satellite observed visible irradiance, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total of the normal or beam insolation falling on a tracking concentrator pointed

19

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband direct normal irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

normal irradiance normal irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband direct normal irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in broad bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4{mu}m, that comes directly from the Sun without being scattered or absorbed in the atmosphere, passes through a unit area perpendicular to the direction from the Sun. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments

20

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ethiopia from DLR Ethiopia from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) for Ethiopia for the years 2000, 2001 and 2002. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the documentation file for additional information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR Ethiopia GEF GHI GIS solar SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 2.8 MiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 5.6 MiB)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal irradiance ghi" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nepal from DLR Nepal from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) for Nepal for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR GEF GHI GIS Nepal solar SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 593.8 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 1.2 MiB)

22

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sri Lanka from DLR Sri Lanka from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) for Sri Lanka for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR GHI GIS solar Sri Lanka SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 296.1 KiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 153.7 KiB)

23

Solar: monthly global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km resolution for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bangladesh from DLR Bangladesh from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) for Bangladesh for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords Bangladesh DLR GEF GHI GIS solar SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 916.5 KiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 479.3 KiB)

24

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

West China from DLR West China from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) for China for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords China CRED CREIA DLR GHI GIS solar SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 4.4 MiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 8.9 MiB)

25

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ghana from DLR Ghana from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) for Ghana for the years 2000, 2001 and 2002. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the documentation file for additional information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR Ghana GHI GIS solar SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 504 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 1 MiB)

26

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenya from DLR Kenya from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) for Kenya for the years 2000, 2001 and 2002. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the documentation file for additional information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR GEF GHI GIS Kenya NREL solar SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 1.3 MiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 2.5 MiB)

27

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal irradiance GIS...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

>
Direct Normal Irradiance (kWhm2day)
NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008)
22-year Monthly & Annual Average...

28

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ghana from NREL Ghana from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. Each container file contains up to 30 yearly files for one station, plus the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) file for the selected station, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): The intended use of these data files is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. The yearly data may be suitable for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a

29

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sri Lanka from NREL Sri Lanka from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. Each container file contains up to 30 yearly files for one station, plus the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) file for the selected station, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): The intended use of these data files is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. The yearly data may be suitable for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a

30

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Brazil from NREL Brazil from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. Each container file contains up to 30 yearly files for one station, plus the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) file for the selected station, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): The intended use of these data files is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. The yearly data may be suitable for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a

31

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Central America from NREL Central America from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. Each container file contains up to 30 yearly files for one station, plus the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) file for the selected station, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): The intended use of these data files is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. The yearly data may be suitable for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a

32

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cuba from NREL Cuba from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. Each container file contains up to 30 yearly files for one station, plus the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) file for the selected station, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): The intended use of these data files is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. The yearly data may be suitable for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a location, if enough years of data are present. The TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year.. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years.

33

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nepal from NREL Nepal from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. Each container file contains up to 30 yearly files for one station, plus the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) file for the selected station, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): The intended use of these data files is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. The yearly data may be suitable for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a location, if enough years of data are present. The TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year.. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years.

34

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenya from NREL Kenya from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. Each container file contains up to 30 yearly files for one station, plus the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) file for the selected station, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): The intended use of these data files is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. The yearly data may be suitable for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a location, if enough years of data are present. The TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year.. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years.

35

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

China from NREL China from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. Each container file contains up to 30 yearly files for one station, plus the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) file for the selected station, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): The intended use of these data files is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. The yearly data may be suitable for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a location, if enough years of data are present. The TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years.

36

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ethiopia from NREL Ethiopia from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. Each container file contains up to 30 yearly files for one station, plus the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) file for the selected station, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): The intended use of these data files is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. The yearly data may be suitable for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a

37

Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bangladesh stations from NREL Bangladesh stations from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. Each container file contains up to 30 yearly files for one station, plus the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) file for the selected station, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): The intended use of these data files is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. The yearly data may be suitable for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a location, if enough years of data are present. The TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year.. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years.

38

Solar: annual and seasonal average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

global horizontal (GHI) GIS data global horizontal (GHI) GIS data (contours) for Brazil from INPE and LABSOLAR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Annual and seasonal mean of Global Horizontal Solar Radiation in kWh/m2/day based on data from 1995 to 2002 (Purpose): To provide a set of consistent, reliable, verifiable, and accessible global data sets for international and in-country investors and other stakeholders (Supplemental Information): The cross-calibration process worked with data from 3 ground stations: Caicó (located in the Northeast of Brazil), Florianópolis (located in the South) and Balbina (located in Amazonia). These data have been used for validation and comparison of radiation transfer models operated in SWERA to estimate the incidence of solar radiation on the surface of the country from satellite images

39

TRENDS IN DIRECT NORMAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE IN OREGON FROM 1979-2003 Laura Riihimaki  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TRENDS IN DIRECT NORMAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE IN OREGON FROM 1979-2003 Laura Riihimaki Frank Vignola of trends in direct normal irradiance from three sites around Oregon over a period of 25 years. An overall. Changes in clear noon values are also examined. This article analyzes direct normal data unlike other

Oregon, University of

40

A method for estimating direct normal solar irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment  

SciTech Connect

In order to investigate a potential use of concentrating solar power technologies and select an optimum site for these technologies, it is necessary to obtain information on the geographical distribution of direct normal solar irradiation over an area of interest. In this work, we have developed a method for estimating direct normal irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment. The method starts with the estimation of global irradiation on a horizontal surface from MTSAT-1R satellite data and other ground-based ancillary data. Then a satellite-based diffuse fraction model was developed and used to estimate the diffuse component of the satellite-derived global irradiation. Based on this estimated global and diffuse irradiation and the solar radiation incident angle, the direct normal irradiation was finally calculated. To evaluate its performance, the method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation at seven pyrheliometer stations in Thailand. It was found that values of monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation from the measurements and those estimated from the proposed method are in reasonable agreement, with a root mean square difference of 16% and a mean bias of -1.6%, with respect to mean measured values. After the validation, this method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation over Thailand by using MTSAT-1R satellite data for the period from June 2005 to December 2008. Results from the calculation were displayed as hourly and yearly irradiation maps. These maps reveal that the direct normal irradiation in Thailand was strongly affected by the tropical monsoons and local topography of the country. (author)

Janjai, Serm [Solar Energy Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal irradiance ghi" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

File:NREL-bhutan-10kmsolar-ghi.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ghi.pdf ghi.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Bhutan - Annual Global Horizontal Solar Radiation Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixels. Full resolution ‎(1,650 × 1,275 pixels, file size: 306 KB, MIME type: application/pdf) Title Bhutan - Annual Global Horizontal Solar Radiation Description Bhutan - Annual Global Horizontal Solar Radiation Sources National Renewable Energy Laboratory Authors Donna Heimiller Related Technologies Solar, Solar-GHI, Solar-10km Creation Date 2008-12-08 Extent International Countries Bhutan UN Region Southern Asia File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 15:51, 14 December 2010 Thumbnail for version as of 15:51, 14 December 2010 1,650 × 1,275 (306 KB) MapBot (Talk | contribs) Automated upload from NREL's "mapsearch" data

42

Accumulation of DNA Double-Strand Breaks in Normal Tissues After Fractionated Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: There is increasing evidence that genetic factors regulating the recognition and/or repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are responsible for differences in radiosensitivity among patients. Genetically defined DSB repair capacities are supposed to determine patients' individual susceptibility to develop adverse normal tissue reactions after radiotherapy. In a preclinical murine model, we analyzed the impact of different DSB repair capacities on the cumulative DNA damage in normal tissues during the course of fractionated irradiation. Material and Methods: Different strains of mice with defined genetic backgrounds (SCID{sup -/-} homozygous, ATM{sup -/-} homozygous, ATM{sup +/-}heterozygous, and ATM{sup +/+}wild-type mice) were subjected to single (2 Gy) or fractionated irradiation (5 x 2 Gy). By enumerating gammaH2AX foci, the formation and rejoining of DSBs were analyzed in organs representative of both early-responding (small intestine) and late-responding tissues (lung, kidney, and heart). Results: In repair-deficient SCID{sup -/-} and ATM{sup -/-}homozygous mice, large proportions of radiation-induced DSBs remained unrepaired after each fraction, leading to the pronounced accumulation of residual DNA damage after fractionated irradiation, similarly visible in early- and late-responding tissues. The slight DSB repair impairment of ATM{sup +/-}heterozygous mice was not detectable after single-dose irradiation but resulted in a significant increase in unrepaired DSBs during the fractionated irradiation scheme. Conclusions: Radiation-induced DSBs accumulate similarly in acute- and late-responding tissues during fractionated irradiation, whereas the whole extent of residual DNA damage depends decisively on the underlying genetically defined DSB repair capacity. Moreover, our data indicate that even minor impairments in DSB repair lead to exceeding DNA damage accumulation during fractionated irradiation and thus may have a significant impact on normal tissue responses in clinical radiotherapy.

Ruebe, Claudia E., E-mail: claudia.ruebe@uks.e [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Fricke, Andreas; Wendorf, Juliane; Stuetzel, Annika; Kuehne, Martin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Ong, Mei Fang [Institute of Medical Biometrics, Epidemiology and Medical Informatics, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Lipp, Peter [Institute for Molecular Cell Biology, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Ruebe, Christian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

43

Comparison of Model Estimated and Measured Direct-Normal Solar Irradiance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct-normal solar irradiance (DNSI), the total energy in the solar spectrum incident in unit time on a unit area at the earth's surface perpendicular to the direction to the Sun, depends only on atmospheric extinction of solar energy without regard to the details of the extinction - whether absorption or scattering. Here we report a set of closure experiments performed in north-central Oklahoma in April 1996, under cloud-free conditions, wherein measured atmospheric composition and aerosol optical thickness are input to a radiative transfer model, MODTRAN-3, to estimate DNSI, which is then compared with measured values obtained with normal incidence pyrheliometers and absolute cavity radiometers. Uncertainty in aerosol optical thickness (AOT) dominates the uncertainty in DNSI calculation. AOT measured by an independently calibrated sunphotometer and a rotating Direct-Normal Solar Irradiance - A Closure Experiment, Halthore et al. 2 shadow-band radiometer agree to within the uncerta...

Rangasayi Halthore; Schwartz; S. E.; Michalsky; J. J.; Anderson; G. P.; Gail P. Anderson; Ferrare R. A.; ten Brink H. M; Holben B. N.; Harry M. Ten Brink

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal irradiance GIS data at  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

irradiance GIS data at irradiance GIS data at one-degree resolution of the World from NASA/SSE Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Direct Normal Irradiance (kWh/m^2/day)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005) Parameter: Direct Normal Radiation (kWh/m^2/day) Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/ Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections online Note 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; positive values are north and east. Boundaries of the -90/-180 region are -90 to -89 (south) and -180 to -179 (west). The last region, 89/180, is bounded by 89 to 90 (north) and 179 to 180 (east). The mid-point of the region is +0.5 added to the the Lat/Lon value. These data are

45

Comparison of Direct Normal Irradiance Derived from Silicon and Thermopile Global Hemispherical Radiation Detectors: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Concentrating solar applications utilize direct normal irradiance (DNI) radiation, a measurement rarely available. The solar concentrator industry has begun to deploy numerous measurement stations to prospect for suitable system deployment sites. Rotating shadowband radiometers (RSR) using silicon photodiodes as detectors are typically deployed. This paper compares direct beam estimates from RSR to a total hemispherical measuring radiometer (SPN1) multiple fast thermopiles. These detectors simultaneously measure total and diffuse radiation from which DNI can be computed. Both the SPN1 and RSR-derived DNI are compared to DNI measured with thermopile pyrheliometers. Our comparison shows that the SPN1 radiometer DNI estimated uncertainty is somewhat greater than, and on the same order as, the RSR DNI estimates for DNI magnitudes useful to concentrator technologies.

Myers, D. R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Comparison of model estimated and measured direct-normal solar irradiance  

SciTech Connect

Direct-normal solar irradiance (DNSI), the energy in the solar spectrum incident in unit time at the Earth{close_quote}s surface on a unit area perpendicular to the direction to the Sun, depends only on atmospheric extinction of solar energy without regard to the details of the extinction, whether absorption or scattering. Here we report a set of closure experiments performed in north central Oklahoma in April 1996 under cloud-free conditions, wherein measured atmospheric composition and aerosol optical thickness are input to a radiative transfer model, MODTRAN 3, to estimate DNSI, which is then compared with measured values obtained with normal incidence pyrheliometers and absolute cavity radiometers. Uncertainty in aerosol optical thickness (AOT) dominates the uncertainty in DNSI calculation. AOT measured by an independently calibrated Sun photometer and a rotating shadow-band radiometer agree to within the uncertainties of each measurement. For 36 independent comparisons the agreement between measured and model-estimated values of DNSI falls within the combined uncertainties in the measurement (0.3{endash}0.7{percent}) and model calculation (1.8{percent}), albeit with a slight average model underestimate ({minus}0.18{plus_minus}0.94){percent}; for a DNSI of 839Wm{sup {minus}2} this corresponds to {minus}1.5{plus_minus}7.9Wm{sup {minus}2}. The agreement is nearly independent of air mass and water-vapor path abundance. These results thus establish the accuracy of the current knowledge of the solar spectrum, its integrated power, and the atmospheric extinction as a function of wavelength as represented in MODTRAN 3. An important consequence is that atmospheric absorption of short-wave energy is accurately parametrized in the model to within the above uncertainties. {copyright} 1997 American Geophysical Union

Halthore, R.N.; Schwartz, S.E. [Department of Applied Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York (United States)] [Department of Applied Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York (United States); Michalsky, J.J. [Atmospheric Sciences Research Center, State University of New York at Albany (United States)] [Atmospheric Sciences Research Center, State University of New York at Albany (United States); Anderson, G.P. [Phillips Laboratory/Geophysics Directorate, Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts (United States)] [Phillips Laboratory/Geophysics Directorate, Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts (United States); Ferrare, R.A. [Hughes STX Corporation, Lanham, Maryland (United States)] [Hughes STX Corporation, Lanham, Maryland (United States); Holben, B.N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland (United States)] [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland (United States); Ten Brink, H.M. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, ECN, Petten (Netherlands)] [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, ECN, Petten (Netherlands)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Prediction and measurement of direct-normal solar irradiance: A closure experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Direct-normal solar irradiance (DNSI), the total energy in the solar spectrum incident on a plane perpendicular to the Sun`s direction on a unit area at the earth`s surface in unit time, depends only on the atmospheric extinction of sunlight without regard to the details of extinction--whether absorption or scattering. Here the authors describe a set of closure experiments performed in north-central Oklahoma, wherein measured atmospheric composition is input to a radiative transfer model, MODTRAN-3, to predict DNSI, which is then compared to measured values. Thirty six independent comparisons are presented; the agreement between predicted and measured values falls within the combined uncertainties in the prediction (2%) and measurement (0.2%) albeit with a slight bias ({approximately} 1% overprediction) that is independent of the solar zenith angle. Thus these results establish the adequacy of current knowledge of the solar spectrum and atmospheric extinction as embodied in MODTRAN-3 for use in climate models. An important consequence is the overwhelming likelihood that the atmospheric clear-sky absorption is accurately described to within comparable uncertainties.

Halthore, R.N.; Schwartz, S.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Michalsky, J.J. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States); Anderson, G.P. [Hanscomb AFB (United States); Ferrare, R.A. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center; Ten Brink, H.M. [Energy Research Inst. (Netherlands)

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Intra-hour Direct Normal Irradiance solar forecasting using genetic programming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

E. Ruano, Prediction of the solar radiation evolution usingComputation of beam solar radiation at normal incidencein estimating global solar radiation, Solar Energy, vol.

Queener, Benjamin Daniel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Intra-hour Direct Normal Irradiance solar forecasting using genetic programming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Intra-hour Direct NormalChair University of California, San Diego iii TABLE OFRPS, Technical report, California Independent System

Queener, Benjamin Daniel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Synthesis of anti-and syn-Diol Epoxides of trans-3,4-Dihydroxy-3,4-dihydrobenzo[ghi]fluoranthene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, England, 1991. (2) Szeliga, J.; Dipple. A. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 1998, 11, 1-11. (3) Dipple, A.; Khan, Q. A the preparation of anti- and syn-3,4-dihydroxy-5,5a-epoxy-3,4,5,5a-tetrahydrobenzo- [ghi]fluoranthene (2 and 3-region PAHs but are general to those derived from other nonplanar PAHs, such as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a

Cho, Bongsup P.

51

global horizontal irradiance | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

horizontal irradiance horizontal irradiance Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Global Horizontal IrradianceNASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005) Parameter: Insolation Incident On A Horizontal Surface (kWh/m^2/day) Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/ Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections online Note 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated April 01st, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords GHI GIS global horizontal irradiance NASA solar

52

Converging Stereotactic Radiotherapy Using Kilovoltage X-Rays: Experimental Irradiation of Normal Rabbit Lung and Dose-Volume Analysis With Monte Carlo Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To validate the feasibility of developing a radiotherapy unit with kilovoltage X-rays through actual irradiation of live rabbit lungs, and to explore the practical issues anticipated in future clinical application to humans through Monte Carlo dose simulation. Methods and Materials: A converging stereotactic irradiation unit was developed, consisting of a modified diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scanner. A tiny cylindrical volume in 13 normal rabbit lungs was individually irradiated with single fractional absorbed doses of 15, 30, 45, and 60 Gy. Observational CT scanning of the whole lung was performed every 2 weeks for 30 weeks after irradiation. After 30 weeks, histopathologic specimens of the lungs were examined. Dose distribution was simulated using the Monte Carlo method, and dose-volume histograms were calculated according to the data. A trial estimation of the effect of respiratory movement on dose distribution was made. Results: A localized hypodense change and subsequent reticular opacity around the planning target volume (PTV) were observed in CT images of rabbit lungs. Dose-volume histograms of the PTVs and organs at risk showed a focused dose distribution to the target and sufficient dose lowering in the organs at risk. Our estimate of the dose distribution, taking respiratory movement into account, revealed dose reduction in the PTV. Conclusions: A converging stereotactic irradiation unit using kilovoltage X-rays was able to generate a focused radiobiologic reaction in rabbit lungs. Dose-volume histogram analysis and estimated sagittal dose distribution, considering respiratory movement, clarified the characteristics of the irradiation received from this type of unit.

Kawase, Takatsugu [Department of Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan); Kunieda, Etsuo [Department of Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan)], E-mail: kunieda-mi@umin.ac.jp; Deloar, Hossain M. [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan); Oncology Service, Medical Physics and Bioengineering Department, Christchurch Hospital, Christchurch (New Zealand); Tsunoo, Takanori [Department of Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan); Seki, Satoshi [Department of Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Oku, Yohei [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Saitoh, Hidetoshi [Division of Radiological Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Kimiaki [Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan); Ogawa, Eileen N. [Department of Anesthesiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ishizaka, Akitoshi [Department of Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kameyama, Kaori [Division of Diagnostic Pathology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kubo, Atsushi [Department of Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Electric-Field Enhancement by Nodular Defects in Multilayer Coatings Irradiated at Normal and 45 (degree) Incidence  

SciTech Connect

The standing-wave electric-field profile within multilayer coatings is significantly perturbated by a nodular defect. The intensity, which is proportional to the electric field squared, is increased in the high index material by {>=}3x at normal incidence and {>=}12x at 45 degrees incidence angle. Therefore it is not surprising that nodular defects are initiation sites of laser-induced damage. In this study, the impact of reflectance-band centering and incident angle are explored for a 1 {micro}m diameter nodular defect seed overcoated with a 24 layer high-reflector constructed of quarter-wave thick alternating layers of hafnia and silica. The modeling was performed using a three-dimensional finite-element analysis code.

Stolz, C J; Genin, F Y; Pistor,T V

2003-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

54

Validation of the NSRDB-SUNY global horizontal irradiance in California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite derived global horizontal solar irradiance (GHI) from the SUNY modeled dataset in the National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) was compared to measurements from 27 weather stations in California during the years 1998-2005. The statistics of spatial and temporal differences between the two datasets were analyzed and related to meteorological phenomena. Overall mean bias errors (MBE) of the NSRDB-SUNY indicated a GHI overprediction of 5%, which is smaller than the sensor accuracy of ground stations. However, at coastal sites, year-round systematic positive MBEs in the NSRDB-SUNY data up to 18% were observed and monthly MBEs increased up to 54% in the summer months during the morning. These differences were explained by a tendency for the NSRDB-SUNY model to overestimate GHI under cloudy conditions at the coast during summer mornings. A persistent positive evening MBE which was independent of site location and cloudiness occurred at all stations and was explained by an error in the time-shifting method applied in the NSRDB-SUNY. A correction method was derived for these two errors to improve the accuracy of the NSRDB-SUNY data in California. (author)

Nottrott, Anders; Kleissl, Jan [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego (United States)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

55

Definition: Global horizontal irradiance | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Normal Irradiance (DNI) and Diffuse Horizontal Irradiance (DIF).1 Related Terms DNI, Solar radiation, Concentrating solar power, Photovoltaics References http:...

56

Global horizontal irradiance clear sky models : implementation and analysis.  

SciTech Connect

Clear sky models estimate the terrestrial solar radiation under a cloudless sky as a function of the solar elevation angle, site altitude, aerosol concentration, water vapor, and various atmospheric conditions. This report provides an overview of a number of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) clear sky models from very simple to complex. Validation of clear-sky models requires comparison of model results to measured irradiance during clear-sky periods. To facilitate validation, we present a new algorithm for automatically identifying clear-sky periods in a time series of GHI measurements. We evaluate the performance of selected clear-sky models using measured data from 30 different sites, totaling about 300 site-years of data. We analyze the variation of these errors across time and location. In terms of error averaged over all locations and times, we found that complex models that correctly account for all the atmospheric parameters are slightly more accurate than other models, but, primarily at low elevations, comparable accuracy can be obtained from some simpler models. However, simpler models often exhibit errors that vary with time of day and season, whereas the errors for complex models vary less over time.

Stein, Joshua S.; Hansen, Clifford W.; Reno, Matthew J.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Production of High Resolution Irradiance Data for Central America and Cuba  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Production of High Resolution Irradiance Data for Central America and Cuba Production of High Resolution Irradiance Data for Central America and Cuba Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): The main object of the SUNY task for SWERA is to prepare high resolution global irradiance (GHI) and direct irradiance (DNI) data sets for the countries of Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua.Much of our initial effort focused on building up the satellite data tx_metadatatool, and in strengthening and validating the models capable of converting that data into ground surface irradiances. Three research articles, acknowledging all or partial funding from UNEP & SWERA have been published on this subject. (Purpose): SWERA documentation Source SUNY Albany Date Released July 31st, 2003 (11 years ago) Date Updated August 29th, 2003 (11 years ago)

58

Production of high Resoulution Irradiance Data for Central America and Cuba  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

DRAFT REPORT - JULY 2003 DRAFT REPORT - JULY 2003 Production of high Resolution Irradiance Data For Central America and Cuba Prepared by Richard Perez ASRC, the University at Albany (SUNY) For United Nations Environmental Program Solar Energy and Wind Resource Assessment (SWERA) Deliverable for July, 2003 The main objective of the SUNY task for SWERA is to prepare high resolution global irradiance (GHI) and direct irradiance (DNI) data sets for the countries of Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. Much of our initial effort focused on building up the satellite data archive, and in strengthening and validating the models capable of converting that data into ground surface irradiances. Three research articles, acknowledging all or partial funding

59

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband direct normal irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Incidence Multifilter Radiometer External Instruments USDARAD : US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Radiation Monitoring Data Field Campaign Instruments AOD : Aerosol Optical...

60

Solids irradiator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel facility for irradiation of solids embodying pathogens wherein solids are conveyed through an irradiation chamber in individual containers of an endless conveyor.

Morris, Marvin E. (Albuquerque, NM); Pierce, Jim D. (Albuquerque, NM); Whitfield, Willis J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal irradiance ghi" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Irradiation Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013 ... Materials and Fuels for the Current and Advanced Nuclear Reactors II: Irradiation Studies Sponsored by: TMS Structural Materials Division,...

62

ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF SOLIDS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is presented for altering physical properties of certain solids, such as enhancing the usefulness of solids, in which atomic interchange occurs through a vacancy mechanism, electron irradiation, and temperature control. In a centain class of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, diffusion or displacement of atoms occurs through a vacancy mechanism, i.e., an atom can only move when there exists a vacant atomic or lattice site in an adjacent position. In the process of the invention highenergy electron irradiation produces additional vacancies in a solid over those normally occurring at a given temperature and allows diffusion of the component atoms of the solid to proceed at temperatures at which it would not occur under thermal means alone in any reasonable length of time. The invention offers a precise way to increase the number of vacancies and thereby, to a controlled degree, change the physical properties of some materials, such as resistivity or hardness.

Damask, A.C.

1959-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Solar: monthly direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km resolution...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

visible irradiance, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total of the normal or beam...

64

Solar: annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km resolution...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

visible irradiance, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total of the normal or beam...

65

Irradiation subassembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An irradiation subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which includes a bundle of slender elongated irradiation -capsules or fuel elements enclosed by a coolant tube and having yieldable retaining liner between the irradiation capsules and the coolant tube. For a hexagonal bundle surrounded by a hexagonal tube the yieldable retaining liner may consist either of six segments corresponding to the six sides of the tube or three angular segments each corresponding in two adjacent sides of the tube. The sides of adjacent segments abut and are so cut that metal-tometal contact is retained when the volume enclosed by the retaining liner is varied and Springs are provided for urging the segments toward the center of the tube to hold the capsules in a closely packed configuration. (Official Gazette)

Seim, O.S.; Filewicz, E.C.; Hutter, E.

1973-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

66

Irradiation Performance - Nuclear Engineering Division (Argonne)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Testing > Materials Testing > Irradiation Performance Capabilities Materials Testing Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC) of Reactor Materials Corrosion Performance/Metal Dusting Irradiated Materials Overview Light Water Reactor Materials Other Current Activities Future Directions Steam Generator Tube Integrity Other Facilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Irradiation Performance Bookmark and Share The activities of the Irradiation Performance Section (IPS) are aimed at determining and assessing normal-operation and accident behavior of neutron-irradiated material throughout the life cycle of the materials. The conditions of interest are normal in-reactor operation, design-basis accidents, intermediate storage in pools and dry casks, and ultimate

67

High accuracy diffuse horizontal irradiance measurements without a shadowband  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The standard method for measuring diffuse horizontal irradiance uses a fixed shadowband to block direct solar radiation. This method requires a correction for the excess skylight blocked by the band, and this correction varies with sky conditions. Alternately, diffuse horizontal irradiance may be calculated from total horizontal and direct normal irradiance. This method is in error because of angular (cosine) response of the total horizontal pyranometer to direct beam irradiance. This paper describes an improved calculation of diffuse horizontal irradiance from total horizontal and direct normal irradiance using a predetermination of the angular response of the total horizontal pyranometer. We compare these diffuse horizontal irradiance calculations with measurements made with a shading-disk pyranometer that shields direct irradiance using a tracking disk. Results indicate significant improvement in most cases. Remaining disagreement most likely arises from undetected tracking errors and instrument leveling.

Schlemmer, J.A; Michalsky, J.J.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

68

Californium Neutron Irradiation Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Californium Neutron Irradiation Facility. Summary: ... Cf irradiation facility (Photograph by: Neutron Physics Group). Lead Organizational Unit: pml. Staff: ...

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

69

Climatic Temperature Normals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The published 195180 daily normals of maximum and minimum temperatures were prepared by interpolating between average monthly values. This study compares the published normal and 30-yr average daily temperatures in the eastern half of the United ...

Nathaniel B. Guttman; Marc S. Plantico

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Effects of the El Chichon Volcanic Cloud on Direct and Diffuse Solar Irradiances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Direct normal and diffuse solar irradiances and 500 nm aerosol optical depths measured at the University of Michigan departed far from normal on 26 October 1982, when it is concluded that the main stratospheric cloud from the El Chichon volcanic ...

C. Bruce Baker; William R. Kuhn; Edward Ryznar

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

OpenEI - hourly data  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

http:en.openei.orgdatasetstaxonomyterm4980 en Solar: hourly solar (direct normal (DNI), global horizontal (GHI), and diffuse) data for selected stations in Sri Lanka from...

72

Laser-induced differential normalized fluorescence method for cancer diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample.

Vo-Dinh, Tuan (Knoxville, TN); Panjehpour, Masoud (Knoxville, TN); Overholt, Bergein F. (Knoxville, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Documentation of high resolution solar resource assessment for Ghana  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ghana Ghana provided by DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Documentation of the satellite-based high resolution solar resource assessment for Ghana provided by DLR. The high resolution solar data (10kmx10km) provide country maps of the annual and monthly sums of hourly global horizontal and direct normal irradiance (GHI and DNI) for the year 2000, 2001 and 2002. Additionally, for selected sites hourly values of GHI and DNI are provided.The Documentation gives an overview about the used input data and used methodology, shows example maps and describes a comparison with ground data (if provided by the country) (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give projet developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. For the selected

74

Documentation of high resolution solar resource assessment for Sri Lanka  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sri Lanka Sri Lanka provided by DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Documentation of the satellite-based high resolution solar resource assessment for Sri Lanka provided by DLR. The high resolution solar data (10kmx10km) provide country maps of the annual and monthly sums of hourly global horizontal and direct normal irradiance (GHI and DNI) for the year 2000, 2002 and 2003. Additionally, for selected sites hourly values of GHI and DNI are provided.The Documentation gives an overview about the used input data and used methodology, shows example maps and describes a comparison with ground data (if provided by the country) (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. For the selected sites, the hourly time series can be used for the simulation of Photovoltaic (PV)-systems or Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)-systems.

75

Documentation of high resolution solar resource assessment (10km) for Kenya  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenya Kenya provided by DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Documentation of the satellite-based high resolution solar resource assessment for Kenya provided by DLR. The high resolution solar data (10kmx10km) provide country maps of the annual and monthly sums of hourly global horizontal and direct normal irradiance (GHI and DNI) for the year 2000, 2001 and 2002. Additionally, for selected sites hourly values of GHI and DNI are provided.The Documentation gives an overview about the used input data and used methodology, shows example maps and describes a comparison with ground data (if provided by the country) (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. For the selected sites, the hourly time series can be used for the simulation of Photovoltaic (PV)-systems or Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)-systems.

76

Documentation of high resolution solar resource assessment (10km) for Nepal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nepal Nepal provided by DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Documentation of the satellite-based high resolution solar resource assessment for Nepal provided by DLR. The high resolution solar data (10kmx10km) provide country maps of the annual and monthly sums of hourly global horizontal and direct normal irradiance (GHI and DNI) for the year 2000, 2002 and 2003. Additionally, for selected sites hourly values of GHI and DNI are provided.The Documentation gives an overview about the used input data and used methodology, shows example maps and describes a comparison with ground data (if provided by the country) (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. For the selected sites, the hourly time series can be used for the simulation of Photovoltaic (PV)-systems or Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)-systems.

77

CRED | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CRED CRED Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Documentation of the satellite-based high resolution solar resource assessment for China provided by DLR. The high resolution solar data (10kmx10km) provide country maps of the annual and monthly sums of hourly global horizontal and direct normal irradiance (GHI and DNI) for the year 2000, 2002 and 2003. Additionally, for selected sites hourly values of GHI and DNI are provided. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 08th, 2004 (10 years ago) Keywords China CRED CREIA DLR documentation GEF solar SWERA UNEP Data application/pdf icon Download Report (pdf, 6.1 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

78

Documentation of high resolution solar resource assessment (10km) for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

for for Ethiopia provided by DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Documentation of the satellite-based high resolution solar resource assessment for Ethiopia provided by DLR. The high resolution solar data (10kmx10km) provide country maps of the annual and monthly sums of hourly global horizontal and direct normal irradiance (GHI and DNI) for the year 2000, 2001 and 2002. Additionally, for selected sites hourly values of GHI and DNI are provided.The Documentation gives an overview about the used input data and used methodology, shows example maps and describes a comparison with ground data (if provided by the country) (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. For the selected

79

CREIA | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CREIA CREIA Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Documentation of the satellite-based high resolution solar resource assessment for China provided by DLR. The high resolution solar data (10kmx10km) provide country maps of the annual and monthly sums of hourly global horizontal and direct normal irradiance (GHI and DNI) for the year 2000, 2002 and 2003. Additionally, for selected sites hourly values of GHI and DNI are provided. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 08th, 2004 (10 years ago) Keywords China CRED CREIA DLR documentation GEF solar SWERA UNEP Data application/pdf icon Download Report (pdf, 6.1 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

80

global horizontal | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

87 87 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142278787 Varnish cache server global horizontal Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Documentation of the satellite-based high resolution solar resource assessment for Ghana provided by DLR. The high resolution solar data (10kmx10km) provide country maps of the annual and monthly sums of hourly global horizontal and direct normal irradiance (GHI and DNI) for the year 2000, 2001 and 2002. Additionally, for selected sites hourly values of GHI and DNI are provided.The Documentation gives an overview about the used input data and used methodology, shows example maps and describes a comparison with ground data (if provided by the country)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal irradiance ghi" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Documentation of high resolution solar resource assessment (10km) for China  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

China China provided by DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Documentation of the satellite-based high resolution solar resource assessment for China provided by DLR. The high resolution solar data (10kmx10km) provide country maps of the annual and monthly sums of hourly global horizontal and direct normal irradiance (GHI and DNI) for the year 2000, 2002 and 2003. Additionally, for selected sites hourly values of GHI and DNI are provided.The Documentation gives an overview about the used input data and used methodology, shows example maps and describes a comparison with ground data (if provided by the country) (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. For the selected sites, the hourly time series can be used for the simulation of Photovoltaic (PV)-systems or Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)-systems.

82

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and...

83

Ion Irradiation Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 17, 2011 ... Materials Science Challenges for Nuclear Applications: Ion Irradiation Effects Sponsored by: MS&T Organization Program Organizers: Ram...

84

Irradiation Damage Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...R.L. Klueh, Effect of Neutron Irradiation on Properties of Steels, Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High-Performance Alloys,

85

Surface Radiation from GOES: A Physical Approach; Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Models to compute Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) have been in development over the last 3 decades. These models can be classified as empirical or physical, based on the approach. Empirical models relate ground based observations with satellite measurements and use these relations to compute surface radiation. Physical models consider the radiation received from the earth at the satellite and create retrievals to estimate surface radiation. While empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation for the solar energy industry the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from NOAA that computes GHI using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the GOES satellites. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and uses those properties in a radiative transfer model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, University of Wisconsin and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a 4 km GHI and DNI product every 30 minutes. This paper presents an outline of the methodology and a comprehensive validation using high quality ground based solar data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) (http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/surfrad/sitepage.html) and Integrated Surface Insolation Study (ISIS) http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/isis/isissites.html), the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Sun Spot One (SS1) stations.

Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

Bauer, Roger E. (Kennewick, WA); Straalsund, Jerry L. (Kennewick, WA); Chin, Bryan A. (Auburn, AL)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

The Effects of Ionizing Irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. The Effects of Ionizing Irradiation on Liquid, Dried, and Absorbed DNA Extracts ... Page 12. Study Shipped Land Carrier Irradiation ? ...

2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

88

Nano structuring of GaAs(100) surface using low energy ion irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Nanostructuring of semi insulating GaAs (100) has been observed after irradiation of 50 keV Ar{sup +} ion beam in a wide angular range of 0 deg. to 60 deg. with respect to surface normal. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analysis shows the formation of nano dots at smaller angle of irradiation. At higher angle of irradiation, self organized ripples were developed on the surface. The rms roughness estimated from the AFM analysis shows exponential growth with angle of irradiation. In the high frequency regime, PSD analysis suggests that surface morphology of the irradiated samples is governed by the surface diffusion and mass transport dominated processes.

Kumar, Tanuj; Khan, S. A.; Verma, S.; Kanjilal, D. [Inter-university Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi-110067 (India)

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

89

irradiance | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

irradiance irradiance Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Latitude Tilt Irradiance NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005) Parameter: Latitude Tilt Radiation (kWh/m^2/day) Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/ Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections online Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated April 01st, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords GIS global irradiance latitude mapping NASA renewable energy solar solar PV SWERA TILT UNEP Data text/csv icon Latitude Tilt Radiation (kWh/m^2/day) (csv, 11.8 MiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 5 MiB)

90

Normal matter storage of antiprotons  

SciTech Connect

Various simple issues connected with the possible storage of anti p in relative proximity to normal matter are discussed. Although equilibrium storage looks to be impossible, condensed matter systems are sufficiently rich and controllable that nonequilibrium storage is well worth pursuing. Experiments to elucidate the anti p interactions with normal matter are suggested. 32 refs.

Campbell, L.J.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

normal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4202010 Cushman & Wakefield Marks 40 th Earth Day Celebrating New Milestones in Sustainability NEW YORK, April 22, 2010 -- Global real estate services firm Cushman & Wakefield...

92

Fuel or irradiation subassembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which incorporates a loose bundle of fuel or irradiation pins enclosed within an inner tube which in turn is enclosed within an outer coolant tube and includes a locking comb consisting of a head extending through one side of the inner sleeve and a plurality of teeth which extend through the other side of the inner sleeve while engaging annular undercut portions in the bottom portion of the fuel or irradiation pins to prevent movement of the pins.

Seim, O.S.; Hutter, E.

1975-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

93

FOOD IRRADIATION REACTOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An irradiation apparatus is described. It comprises a pressure vessel, a neutronic reactor active portion having a substantially greater height than diameter in the pressure vessel, an annular tank surrounding and spaced from the pressure vessel containing an aqueous indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution of approximately 600 grams per liter concentration, means for circulating separate coolants through the active portion and the space between the annular tank and the pressure vessel, radiator means adapted to receive the materials to be irradiated, and means for flowing the indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution through the radiator means.

Leyse, C.F.; Putnam, G.E.

1961-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Experimental plan for irradiation experiment HRB-21  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation experiment HRB-21 is the first in a series of test capsules that are designed to provide a fuel-performance data base to be used for the validation of modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) coated-particle fuel performance models under MHTGR normal operating conditions and specific licensing basis events. Capsule HRB-21 will contain an advanced TRISO-P UCO/ThO{sub 2} - coated-particle fuel system with demonstrated low defective-particle fraction ({le}5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}) and a heavy metal-contamination fraction ({le}1 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}) that meets MHTGR quality specifications. The coated particles and fuel compacts were fabricated in laboratory-scale facilities using MHTGR reference procedures at General Atomics (GA). Nearly 150,000 fissile and fertile particles will be irradiated in capsule HRB-21 at a mean volumetric fuel temperature of 975{degree}C and will achieve a peak fissile burnup of 26% fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA) while accumulating a fast neutron fluence of about 4.5 {times} 10{sup 25} neutrons/m{sup 2}. This experiment is a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The participants are the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), GA, and the Tokai Research Establishment. Capsule HRB-21 will contain the US MHTGR fuel specimens, and a companion capsule, HRB-22, will contain the JAERI fuel. The irradiation will take place in the removable beryllium reflector facility of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL. The performance of the fuel during irradiation will be closely monitored through on-line fission gas release measurements. Detailed postirradiation examination and conduction cooldown simulation testing will be performed on the irradiated fuel compacts from both the HRB-21 and HRB-22 capsules. 5 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

Goodin, D. T. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Kania, M. J.; Patton, B. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Solar Irradiance Variability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Sun has long been considered a constant star, to the extent that its total irradiance was termed the solar constant. It required radiometers in space to detect the small variations in solar irradiance on timescales of the solar rotation and the solar cycle. A part of the difficulty is that there are no other constant natural daytime sources to which the Sun's brightness can be compared. The discovery of solar irradiance variability rekindled a long-running discussion on how strongly the Sun affects our climate. A non-negligible influence is suggested by correlation studies between solar variability and climate indicators. The mechanism for solar irradiance variations that fits the observations best is that magnetic features at the solar surface, i.e. sunspots, faculae and the magnetic network, are responsible for almost all variations (although on short timescales convection and p-mode oscillations also contribute). In spite of significant progress important questions are still open. Thus there is a debat...

Solanki, Sami K

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

direct normal | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

normal normal Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): A map depicting model estimates of monthly average daily total radiation using inputs derived from satellite and surface observations of cloud cover, aerosol optical depth, precipitable water vapor, albedo, atmospheric pressure and ozone sampled at a 40km resolution. (Purpose): A visual depiction of solar energy resource for concentrating solar power systems. Source NREL Date Released December 11th, 2003 (10 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords Central America direct normal DNI map NREL solar SWERA UNEP Data application/pdf icon Download Map (pdf, 67.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below

97

Weather Normalization of Reliability Indices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Weather significantly increases variability of reliability indices. This project focuses on exploring statistical correlations between weather parameters and system performance indices using historical utility reliability data and weather data. Using this information, various approaches for normalizing utility performance indices for variability in weather can be developed.

2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

98

EFFECTS OF GAMMA IRRADIATION ON EPDM ELASTOMERS (REVISION 1)  

SciTech Connect

Two formulations of EPDM elastomer, one substituting a UV stabilizer for the normal antioxidant in this polymer, and the other the normal formulation, were synthesized and samples of each were exposed to gamma irradiation in initially pure deuterium gas to compare their radiation stability. Stainless steel containers having rupture disks were designed for this task. After 130 MRad dose of cobalt-60 radiation in the SRNL Gamma Irradiation Facility, a significant amount of gas was created by radiolysis; however the composition indicated by mass spectroscopy indicated an unexpected increase in the total amount deuterium in both formulations. The irradiated samples retained their ductility in a bend test. No change of sample weight, dimensions, or density was observed. No change of the glass transition temperature as measured by dynamic mechanical analysis was observed, and most of the other dynamic mechanical properties remained unchanged. There appeared to be an increase in the storage modulus of the irradiated samples containing the UV stabilizer above the glass transition, which may indicate hardening of the material by radiation damage. Revision 1 adds a comparison with results of a study of tritium exposed EPDM. The amount of gas produced by the gamma irradiation was found to be equivalent to about 280 days exposure to initially pure tritium gas at one atmosphere. The glass transition temperature of the tritium exposed EPDM rose about 10 ?C. over 280 days, while no glass transition temperature change was observed for gamma irradiated EPDM. This means that gamma irradiation in deuterium cannot be used as a surrogate for tritium exposure.

Clark, E.

2013-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

99

NREL: Dynamic Maps, GIS Data, and Analysis Tools - Solar Data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Last Updated Metadata KMZ Files Lower 48 and Hawaii DNI 10km Resolution 1998 to 2009 (Zip 9.6 MB) 09122012 Direct Normal.xml Direct Normal.kmz Lower 48 and Hawaii GHI 10km...

100

Gamma Irradiation | ORNL Neutron Sciences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gamma Irradiation Gamma Irradiation Gamma Irradiation Facility Gamma irradiation chamber Gamma irradiation chamber. The HFIR Gamma Irradiation Facility is an experimental facility designed to irradiate materials with gamma radiation from spent fuel elements. The facility chamber is stainless steel and is made of 0.065-thick tubing to maximize the internal dimensions of the chamber. This allows for the largest samples possible that can still fit inside the cadmium post of the spent fuel loading station positions. The interior chamber is approximately 3.75 inches inside diameter and accommodates samples up to 25 inches long. There are two configurations for the chamber assembly, with the only difference being the plugs. The uninstrumented configuration has a top plug that is used for installation of the samples, to support the inert gas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal irradiance ghi" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

HAPO GRAPHITE IRRADIATION CAPSULES  

SciTech Connect

A summary is presented of the broad field of graphite irradiation capsules. The various capsule designs are considered; they include temperature- controlled and temperature-monitored capsules. The components and materials of the capsules are described. Finally, methods are given for carrying out heat trandsfer calculations in capsule design and neutron spectra calculations for correlation of radiation data from different reactors. (D.L.C.)

Helm, J.W.

1963-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

102

BIOLOGICAL IRRADIATION FACILITY  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A facility for irradiating biological specimens with neutrons is described. It includes a reactor wherein the core is off center in a reflector. A high-exposure room is located outside the reactor on the side nearest the core while a low-exposure room is located on the opposite side. Means for converting thermal neutrons to fast neutrons are movably disposed between the reactor core and the high and low-exposure rooms. (AEC)

McCorkle, W.H.; Cern, H.S.

1962-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

103

Delayed neutrons from the neutron irradiation of ?U  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A series of experiments was performed with the Texas A&M University Nuclear Science Center Reactor (NSCR) to verify ?U delayed neutron emission rates. A custom device was created to accurately measure a sample's pneumatic flight time and the Nuclear Science Center's (NSC's) pneumatic transfer system (PTS) was redesigned to reduce a sample's pneumatic flight time from over 1,600 milliseconds to less than 450 milliseconds. Four saturation irradiations were performed at reactor powers of 100 and 200 kW for 300 seconds and one burst irradiation was performed using a $1.61 pulse producing 19.11 MW-s of energy. Experimental results agreed extremely well with those of Keepin. By comparing the first ten seconds of collected data, the first saturation irradiation deviated ~1.869% with a dead time of 2 microseconds, while the burst irradiation deviated ~0.303% with a dead time of 5 microseconds. Saturation irradiations one, three and four were normalized to the initial count rate of saturation irradiation two to determine the system reproducibility, and deviated ~0.449%, ~0.343% and ~0.389%, respectively.

Heinrich, Aaron David

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Normalization method for video images  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for automatically and adaptively normalizing analog signals representative of video images in object detection systems. Such normalization maximizes the average information content of the video images and, thereby, provides optimal digitized images for object detection and identification. The present invention manipulates two system control signals -- gain control signal and offset control signal -- to convert an analog image signal into a transformed analog image signal, such that the corresponding digitized image contains the maximum amount of information achievable with a conventional object detection system. In some embodiments of the present invention, information content is measured using parameters selected from image entropy, image mean, and image variance.

Donohoe, G.W.; Hush, D.R.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

105

Normalized information-based divergences  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper is devoted to the mathematical study of some divergences based on the mutual information well-suited to categorical random vectors. These divergences are generalizations of theentropy distanceandinformation distance. Their main characteristic is that they combine a complexity term and the mutual information. We then introduce the notion of (normalized) informationbased divergence, propose several examples and discuss their mathematical properties.

J. -f. Coeurjolly; R. Drouilhet; J. -f. Robineau

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Structural Materials - Irradiation Studies II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 15, 2012 ... Materials and Fuels for the Current and Advanced Nuclear Reactors: Structural Materials - Irradiation Studies II Sponsored by: The Minerals,...

107

Normalized Compression Distance of Multiples  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Normalized compression distance (NCD) is a parameter-free similarity measure based on compression. The NCD between pairs of objects is not sufficient for all applications. We propose an NCD of finite multisets (multiples) of objacts that is metric and is better for many applications. Previously, attempts to obtain such an NCD failed. We use the theoretical notion of Kolmogorov complexity that for practical purposes is approximated from above by the length of the compressed version of the file involved, using a real-world compression program. We applied the new NCD for multiples to retinal progenitor cell questions that were earlier treated with the pairwise NCD. Here we get significantly better results. We also applied the NCD for multiples to synthetic time sequence data. The preliminary results are as good as nearest neighbor Euclidean classifier.

Cohen, Andrew R

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Irradiation Stability of Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ion irradiation of carbon nanotubes is a tool that can be used to achieve modification of the structure. Irradiation stability of carbon nanotubes was studied by ion and electron bombardment of the samples. Different ion species at various energies were used in experiments, and several defect characterization techniques were applied to characterize the damage. Development of dimensional changes of carbon nanotubes in microscopes operated at accelerating voltages of 30 keV revealed that binding energy of carbon atoms in CNs is much lower than in bulk materials. Resistivity measurements during irradiation demonstrated existence of a quasi state of defect creation. Linear relationship between ID/IG ratio and increasing irradiation fluence was revealed by Raman spectroscopy study of irradiated carbon buckypapers. The deviations from linear relationship were observed for the samples irradiated to very high fluence values. Annealing of irradiated samples was able to reduce the value of ID/IG ratio and remove defects. However, annealing could not affect ID/IG ratio and remove defects in amorphized samples. The extracted value of activation energy for irradiated sample was 0.36 0.05 eV. The value of activation energy was in good agreement with theoretical studies.

Aitkaliyeva, Assel

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Electron beam irradiation of gemstone for color enhancement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerous treatment of gemstones has been going on for hundreds of years for enhancing color and clarity of gems devoid of these attributes. Whereas previous practices included fraudulent or otherwise processes to achieve the color enhancement, the ionizing radiation has proven to be a reliable and reproducible technique. Three types of irradiation processes include exposure to gamma radiation, electron beam irradiation and the nuclear power plants. Electron Beam Irradiation of Gemstone is a technique in which a gemstone is exposed to highly ionizing radiation electron beam to knock off electrons to generate color centers culminating in introduction of deeper colors. The color centers may be stable or unstable. Below 9MeV, normally no radioactivity is introduced in the exposed gems. A study was conducted at Electron Beam Irradiation Centre (Alurtron) for gemstone color enhancement by using different kind of precious gemstones obtained from Pakistan. The study shows that EB irradiation not only enhances the color but can also improves the clarity of some type of gemstones. The treated stones included kunzite, tourmaline, topaz, quartz, aquamarine and cultured pearls. Doses ranging from 25 kGy to 200 KGy were employed to assess the influence of doses on color and clarity and to select the optimum doses. The samples used included both the natural and the faceted gemstones. It is concluded that significant revenue generation is associated with the enhancement of the color in clarity of gemstones which are available at very cheap price in the world market.

Idris, Sarada; Ghazali, Zulkafli; Hashim, Siti A'iasah; Ahmad, Shamshad; Jusoh, Mohd Suhaimi [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); School of Chemicals and Material Engineering, NUST Islamabad (Pakistan); Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

110

Definition: Irradiance | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Irradiance Irradiance Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Irradiance The direct, diffuse, and reflected solar radiation that strikes a surface. Usually expressed in kilowatts per square meter. Irradiance multiplied by time equals insolation.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Irradiance is the power of electromagnetic radiation per unit area incident on a surface. Radiant emittance or radiant exitance is the power per unit area radiated by a surface. The SI units for all of these quantities are watts per square meter (W/m), while the cgs units are ergs per square centimeter per second (erg·cm·s, often used in astronomy). These quantities are sometimes called intensity, but this usage leads to confusion with radiant intensity, which has different units. All of these

111

Major Normal Fault | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Major Normal Fault Major Normal Fault Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Major Normal Fault Dictionary.png Major Normal Fault: Normal faults are structures in which the hanging wall is down dropped along the fault plane relative to the foot wall. They are the predominant type of structure in extensional tectonic environments, but are commonly encountered in a number of geologic settings. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Controlling Structures List of controlling structures typically associated with geothermal systems: Major Normal Fault Termination of a Major Normal Fault Stepover or Relay Ramp in Normal Fault Zones Apex or Salient of Normal Fault Fault Intersection Accommodation Zone Displacement Transfer Zone Pull-Apart in Strike-Slip Fault Zone

112

DIRECT NORMAL IRRADIANCE FOR CSP BASED ON SATELLITE IMAGES OF METEOSAT SECOND  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solarthermische Kraftwerke), which aims for standardization of yield prognosis for solar thermal power plants the research project SESK (Standardisierung der Ertragsprognose für Solarthermische Kraftwerke Ertragsgutachter. Bundesverband Solar-Wirtschaft, usw- Arbeitskreis ,Qualitätssicherung von Ertragsgutachten für PV-Kraftwerke

Heinemann, Detlev

113

A simple proof of Jordan normal form  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this note, a simple proof Jordan normal form and rational form of matrices over a field is given.

Chen, Yuqun

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

AFIP-4 Irradiation Summary Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-4 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) fuels at a scale prototypic of research reactor fuel plates. The AFIP-4 test further examine the fuel/clad interface and its behavior under extreme conditions. After irradiation, fission gas retention measurements will be performed during post irradiation (PIE). The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-4 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

Danielle M Perez; Misti A Lillo; Gray S. Chang; Glenn A Roth; Nicolas Woolstenhulme; Daniel M Wachs

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

AFIP-4 Irradiation Summary Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-4 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) fuels at a scale prototypic of research reactor fuel plates. The AFIP-4 test further examine the fuel/clad interface and its behavior under extreme conditions. After irradiation, fission gas retention measurements will be performed during post irradiation (PIE)1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-4 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

Danielle M Perez; Misti A Lillo; Gray S. Chang; Glenn A Roth; Nicolas Woolstenhulme; Daniel M Wachs

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

A Harmonic Approach for Calculating Daily Temperature Normals Constrained by Homogenized Monthly Temperature Normals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NOAA released the new 19812010 climate normals in July 2011. These included monthly and daily normals of minimum and maximum temperature. Monthly normals were computed from monthly temperature values that were corrected for biases (i.e., ...

Anthony Arguez; Scott Applequist

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Africa | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Africa Africa Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. Source U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Date Released July 31st, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords Africa direct normal irradiance DNI GEF GHI GIS global horizontal irradiance latitutde tilt irradiance NASA NREL solar SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile and Images (zip, 19.3 MiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 3.4 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review

118

Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, May 1962  

SciTech Connect

This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of May 1962.

1962-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

119

Status of the NGNP Fuel Experiment AGR-2 Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energys Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next several years to demonstrate and qualify new TRISO coated particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006 and was completed in November 2009. The second experiment (AGR-2), which utilized the same experiment design as well as control and monitoring systems as AGR-1, started irradiation in June 2010 and is currently scheduled to be completed in April 2013. The design of this experiment and support systems will be briefly discussed, followed by the progress and status of the experiment to date.

Blaine Grover

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Slag recycling of irradiated vanadium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental inductoslag apparatus to recycle irradiated vanadium was fabricated and tested. An experimental electroslag apparatus was also used to test possible slags. The testing was carried out with slag materials that were fabricated along with impurity bearing vanadium samples. Results obtained include computer simulated thermochemical calculations and experimentally determined removal efficiencies of the transmutation impurities. Analyses of the samples before and after testing were carried out to determine if the slag did indeed remove the transmutation impurities from the irradiated vanadium.

Gorman, P.K.

1995-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal irradiance ghi" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

ARM Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR): irradiances  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) takes spectral measurements of direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. These measurements are at nominal wavelengths of 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. The measurements are made at a user-specified time interval, usually about one minute or less. The sampling rate for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility MFRSRs is 20 seconds. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's optical depth at the wavelengths mentioned above. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Michalsky et al. 1994) and other atmospheric constituents. A silicon detector is also part of the MFRSR. This detector provides a measure of the broadband direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. A MFRSR head that is mounted to look vertically downward can measure upwelling spectral irradiances. In the ARM system, this instrument is called a multifilter radiometer (MFR). At the Southern Great Plains (SGP) there are two MFRs; one mounted at the 10-m height and the other at 25 m. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites, the MFRs are mounted at 10 m. MFRSR heads are also used to measure normal incidence radiation by mounting on a solar tracking device. These are referred to as normal incidence multi-filter radiometers (NIMFRs) and are located at the SGP and NSA sites. Another specialized use for the MFRSR is the narrow field of view (NFOV) instrument located at SGP. The NFOV is a ground-based radiometer (MFRSR head) that looks straight up.

Hodges, Gary

122

Simple Solar Spectral Model for Direct and Diffuse Irradiance on Horizontal and Tilted Planes at the Earth's Surface for Cloudless Atmospheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a previous work, we described a simple model for calculating direct normal and diffuse horizontal spectral solar irradiance for cloudless sky conditions. In this paper, we present a new simple model (SPCTRAL2) that incorporates improvements to ...

Richard E. Bird; Carol Riordan

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

The Ratio of Diffuse to Direct Solar Irradiance (Perpendicular to the Sun's Rays) with Clear SkiesA Conserved Quantity Throughout the Day  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ratio of diffuse irradiance to direct normal is a conserved quantity throughout the day. Though its absolute value depends on the condition of the atmosphere, ground reflection and obstruction of horizon, once this value is established (by a ...

William A. Peterson; Inge Dirmhirn

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

High and Low LET Radiation Differentially Induce Normal Tissue Damage Signals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Radiotherapy using high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation is aimed at efficiently killing tumor cells while minimizing dose (biological effective) to normal tissues to prevent toxicity. It is well established that high LET radiation results in lower cell survival per absorbed dose than low LET radiation. However, whether various mechanisms involved in the development of normal tissue damage may be regulated differentially is not known. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate whether two actions related to normal tissue toxicity, p53-induced apoptosis and expression of the profibrotic gene PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1), are differentially induced by high and low LET radiation. Methods and Materials: Cells were irradiated with high LET carbon ions or low LET photons. Cell survival assays were performed, profibrotic PAI-1 expression was monitored by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and apoptosis was assayed by annexin V staining. Activation of p53 by phosphorylation at serine 315 and serine 37 was monitored by Western blotting. Transfections of plasmids expressing p53 mutated at serines 315 and 37 were used to test the requirement of these residues for apoptosis and expression of PAI-1. Results: As expected, cell survival was lower and induction of apoptosis was higher in high -LET irradiated cells. Interestingly, induction of the profibrotic PAI-1 gene was similar with high and low LET radiation. In agreement with this finding, phosphorylation of p53 at serine 315 involved in PAI-1 expression was similar with high and low LET radiation, whereas phosphorylation of p53 at serine 37, involved in apoptosis induction, was much higher after high LET irradiation. Conclusions: Our results indicate that diverse mechanisms involved in the development of normal tissue damage may be differentially affected by high and low LET radiation. This may have consequences for the development and manifestation of normal tissue damage.

Niemantsverdriet, Maarten [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, Section of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Goethem, Marc-Jan van [Department of Cell Biology, Section of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Bron, Reinier; Hogewerf, Wytse [Department of Cell Biology, Section of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Brandenburg, Sytze [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A.; Luijk, Peter van [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Coppes, Robert P., E-mail: r.p.coppes@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, Section of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

125

High Resolution Irradiance Spectrum from 300 to 1000 nm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The FTS scans that made up the Kitt Peak Solar Flux Atlas by Kurucz, Furenlid, Brault, and Testerman (1984) have been re-reduced. An approximate telluric atmospheric model was determined for each FTS scan. Large-scale features produced by O3 and O2 dimer were computed and divided out. The solar continuum level was found by fitting a smooth curve to high points in each scan. The scans were normalized to the fitted continuum to produce a residual flux spectrum for each FTS scan. The telluric line spectrum was computed using HITRAN and other line data for H2O, O2, and CO2. The line parameters were adjusted for an approximate match to the observed spectra. The scans were divided by the computed telluric spectra to produce residual irradiance spectra. Artifacts from wavelength mismatches, deep lines, etc, were removed by hand and replaced by linear interpolation. Overlapping scans were fitted together to make a continuous spectrum from 300 to 1000 nm. All the above steps were iterative. The monochromatic error varies from 0.1 to 1.0 percent. The residual spectrum was calibrated two different ways: First by normalizing it to the continuum of theoretical solar model ASUN (Kurucz 1992), and second, by degrading the spectrum to the resolution of the observed irradiance (Thuillier et al. 2004) to determine a normalization function that was then applied to the high resolution spectrum.

Robert L. Kurucz

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Optimal measurement of surface shortwave irradiance using current instrumentation -- the ARM experience  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Shortwave (solar) measurements of surface irradiance for clear sky conditions disagree with a number of different models. Betts used the European Center for Medium-range Forecasts (ECMWF) shortwave model to calculate surface irradiance that were 5-10 percent higher than measurements. Wild used a different formulation of the ECMWF shortwave model, but found that the model overpredicted clear-sky shortwave and average of 3 percent. Ding and Wang used data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program and found that the GENESIS GCM shortwave model, likewise, overpredicted clear-sky irradiance by about 4 percent. To help resolve the measurement dilemma, reference instruments were deployed in April 1996 at the Southern Great Plains ARM site central facility very near the shortwave measurements. The rest of the paper describes the experiment undertaken to ascertain total horizontal shortwave irradiance at the surface, including a separation of the direct normal and diffuse horizontal components. Results and a discussion of same concludes the paper.

Michalsky, J. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Research Center; Rubes, M. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences; Stoffel, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Wesley, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.; Splitt, M. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States); DeLuisi, J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States)

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

HFIR In-Vessel Irradiation Facilities | ORNL Neutron Sciences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home Facilities HFIR In-Vessel Irradiation In-Vessel Irradiation Experiment Facilities The HFIR provides a variety of in-core irradiation facilities, allowing for a...

128

IRRADIANCE THRESHOLDS FOR CHORIORETINAL LESIONS  

SciTech Connect

With use of a high-intensity light source to produce chorioretinal lesions in the eyes of rabbits, cats, and guinea pigs, we determined, at different levels of retinal irradiance, the exposure time which produced an ophthalmoscopically visible lesion it was found that at irradiance levels greater than 2 cal. per square centimeter per second a radiant exposure of 1.0 cal. per square centimeter produced a threshold lesion. At irradiance levels 1ess than 0.7 cal. per square centimeter per second lesions could not be produced at any exposure time through 10 seconds. Histological data on the nature of the lesions and course of healing are presented and discussed. (auth)

DeMott, D.W.; Davis, T.P.

1959-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Making Forecasts and Weather Normalization Work Together  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric utility industry restructuring has changed the consistency between weather-normalized sales and energy forecasts. This Technology Review discusses the feasibility of integrating weather normalization and forecasting processes, and addresses whether the conflicting goal of obtaining greater consistency and accuracy with fewer staff resources can be met with more integrated approaches.

2000-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

130

Asymptotically almost all -terms are strongly normalizing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Asymptotically almost all -terms are strongly normalizing Ren´e David, Christophe Raffalli) properties of random -terms. Our main results show that asymptotically, almost all terms are strongly normalizing and that any fixed closed term almost never appears in a random term. Surprisingly, in combinatory

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

131

Asymptotically almost all -terms are strongly normalizing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Asymptotically almost all -terms are strongly normalizing Ren´e David, Christophe Raffalli) properties of random -terms. Our main results are that asymptotically all the terms are strongly normalizing and that any fixed closed term almost never appears in a random term. Surprisingly, in combinatory logic (the

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

132

Studying defects created by irradiating molybdenum crystals ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

by irradiating molybdenum crystals July 16, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint In order to study irradiation damage and inert gas bubble formation and growth behaviors, and to provide results...

133

Statistical criteria for characterizing irradiance time series.  

SciTech Connect

We propose and examine several statistical criteria for characterizing time series of solar irradiance. Time series of irradiance are used in analyses that seek to quantify the performance of photovoltaic (PV) power systems over time. Time series of irradiance are either measured or are simulated using models. Simulations of irradiance are often calibrated to or generated from statistics for observed irradiance and simulations are validated by comparing the simulation output to the observed irradiance. Criteria used in this comparison should derive from the context of the analyses in which the simulated irradiance is to be used. We examine three statistics that characterize time series and their use as criteria for comparing time series. We demonstrate these statistics using observed irradiance data recorded in August 2007 in Las Vegas, Nevada, and in June 2009 in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Hansen, Clifford W.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Irradiation Performance of Advanced and Model Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 14, 2012 ... Mechanical Performance of Materials for Current and Advanced Nuclear Reactors: Irradiation Performance of Advanced and Model Alloys

135

Electron-Beam Irradiation of Solar Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electron-Beam Irradiation of Solar Cells. Summary: The Dosimetry Group operates a system capable of performing electron ...

2013-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

136

MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF THE THYROID GLAND IN RATS OF DIFFERENT AGE IN TOTAL X-RAY IRRADIATION  

SciTech Connect

The reaction of the thyroid gland of white male rats to x irradiation (800 r) depends upon the age and individual reactivity of the animal. In young rats the irradiation provokes marked changes in the thyroid gland, which in some instances are expressed by an insignificant rise of the activity (in the first hours and days after irradiation) followed by its decrease (from the 5th to 30th day). In other cases a drop of the activity is seen already in the first hours. In all rats of this group the thyroid gland reverts tu normal towards the second month. In adult rats (5- 7-month-old) the above dose of irradiation provokes less pronounced changes in the structure of the gland, as compared to young rats. Towards the l8th day after irradiation the structure of the thyroid gland normalizes. Irradiation (800 r) of old rats does not cause noticeable changes in the histological picture of the thyroid gland. In young rats with a severe course of radiation sickness, sacrificed in the agonal state on the 9th-l3th day following irradiation, there is a sharp drop of the thyroid gland activity. (auth)

Loskutova, E.A.

1959-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Normal Mode Initialization with Elementary Surface Friction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Various normal-mode initialization techniques are applied to a simple 12-level linear model with boundary layer friction, and results are compared to exact solutions of the model. It is found that Machenhauer's initialization scheme gives an ...

Bradley A. Ballish; Ferdinand Baer

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

NORMAL EMISSION PHOTOELECTRON DIFFRACTION STUDIES AT SSRL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DIFFRACTION STUDIES AT SSRL S. D. Kevan June 1980 TWO-WEEKDIFFRACTION STUDIES AT SSRL S.D. Kevan Materials andOur group has worked at SSRL using the normal emission

Kevan, S.D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Perfect Implementation of Normal-Form Mechanisms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Privacy and trust affect our strategic thinking, yet they have not been precisely modeled in mechanism design. In settings of incomplete information, traditional implementations of a normal-form mechanism ---by disregarding ...

Izmalkov, Sergei

140

Nonlinear Normal Mode Initialization with Physics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The nonlinear normal mode initialization with physics was applied for analyses in FGGE IIIb data of the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). A convergence of the iteration in the initialization was attained by modifying ...

Takeo Kitade

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal irradiance ghi" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Vertical Normal Mode Transforms: Theory and Application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The separation of the vertical structure of the, solutions of the primitive (hydrostatic) meteorological equations is formalized as a vertical normal-mode transform. The transform is implemented for arbitrary static stability profiles by the ...

Scott R. Fulton; Wayne H. Schubert

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Effects of whole-body $gamma$-irradiation on the biosynthesis of certain serum proteins. Progress report, September 1, 1972--December 31, 1973  

SciTech Connect

Whole-body gamma irradiation stimulated the in vitro uptake of the model amino acid, alpha -aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) in rat liver. The Km was 5.1 and 9.2 mM for liver slices from normal and irradiated rats; Vmax increased from 10 to 25 mu moles/gm tissue/hr. When /sup 14/C-cycloleucine was used as a tracer, irradiation increased the Na/sup +/-independent component of transport. Although Na+ ions are required, no stoichiometric relationship could be demonstrated. No effect of irradiation was observed on /sup 22/Na uptake. Irradiation reduced the recovery of plasma membranes from liver homogenates. Although the membrane obtained was low in lipids, irradiation had not damaged either the ouabain-sensitive Na/sup +/, K/sup +/(Mg/sup ++)ATPase or the K/sup +- p/-nitrophenylphoaphatase. (auth)

Neuhaus, O.W.

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

GTL-1 Irradiation Summary Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of the Gas Test Loop (GTL-1) miniplate experiment is to confirm acceptable performance of high-density (i.e., 4.8 g-U/cm3) U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel plates clad in Al-6061 and irradiated under the relatively aggressive Booster Fast Flux Loop (BFFL) booster fuel conditions, namely a peak plate surface heat flux of 450 W/cm2. As secondary objectives, several design and fabrication variations were included in the test matrix that may have the potential to improve the high-heat flux, high-temperature performance of the base fuel plate design.1, 2 The following report summarizes the life of the GTL-1 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis, thermal analysis and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; G. S. Chang; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

RERTR-13 Irradiation Summary Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-13 was designed to assess performance of different types of neutron absorbers that can be potentially used as burnable poisons in the low enriched uranium-molybdenum based dispersion and monolithic fuels.1 The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-13 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; D. M. Wachs; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

FFTF utilization for irradiation testing  

SciTech Connect

FFTF utilization for irradiation testing is beginning. Two Fuels Open Test Assemblies and one Vibration Open Test Assembly, both containing in-core contact instrumentation, are installed in the reactor. These assemblies will be used to confirm plant design performance predictions. Some 100 additional experiments are currently planned to follow these three. This will result in an average core loading of about 50 test assemblies throughout the early FFTF operating cycles.

Corrigan, D.C.; Julyk, L.J.; Hoth, C.W.; McGuire, J.C.; Sloan, W.R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Irradiation test program for FFTF  

SciTech Connect

Four unique deisgn features are described which make the Fast Flux Test Facility eminently suitable for irradiation test programs. These features are a fast flux level of 7 x 10/sup 15/ neutrons/cm/sup 2//sec, a 36-inch reference (breeder reactor) core height, test volumes suitable for testing of statistical quantities of materials, and the capability for direct (contact) or indirect (proximity) instrumentation of active core experiments.

Corrigan, D.C.; Last, G.A.

1978-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

147

Handbook of normal frames and coordinates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main subject of the book is an up-to-date and in-depth survey of the theory of normal frames and coordinates in differential geometry. The book can be used as a reference manual, review of the existing results and introduction to some new ideas and developments. In the book can be found practically all existing essential results and methods concerning normal frames and coordinates. Most of the results are represented in full detail with full, in some cases new, proofs. All classical results are expanded and generalized in various directions. Theorems of existence, uniqueness and, possibly, holonomicity of the normal frames and coordinates are proved; mostly, the proofs are constructive and some their parts can be used independently for other tasks. Besides published results, their extensions and generalizations, the book contains completely new results which appear for the first time.

Bozhidar Z. Iliev

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Solar: monthly global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km resolution for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Central America from SUNY Central America from SUNY Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal flat-plate solar collectors for Central America (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a horizontal flat-plate solar collector, such as a Photovoltaic (PV) solar panel. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 10 km by 10 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as kilowatt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from the State University of New York's (SUNY) GOES satellite solar model.

149

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Brazil from NREL Brazil from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly average solar resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for Brazil. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

150

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands from NREL Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors, for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to the model. The local cloud cover can vary significantly even within a single grid cell as a result of terrain effects and other microclimate

151

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ethiopia from NREL Ethiopia from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly average solar resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for Ethiopia. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to the

152

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

China from NREL China from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly average solar resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for China. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to the model. The local cloud cover can vary significantly even within a single grid cell as a result of terrain effects and other microclimate influences. Furthermore, the uncertainty of the modeled estimates increase with distance from reliable measurement sources and with the complexity of the terrain.

153

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nepal from NREL Nepal from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly average solar resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for Nepal. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

154

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ghana from NREL Ghana from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for Ghana. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

155

Solar: monthly global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km resolution...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Central America from SUNY

(Abstract):Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal flat-plate solar collectors for Central America
<...

156

Solar: annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

at 10km resolution for Cuba from SUNY

(Abstract):Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal flat-plate solar collectors for Cuba

(Purpose):<...

157

Solar: monthly global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km resolution...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and...

158

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenya from NREL Kenya from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly average solar resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for Kenya. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

159

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sri Lanka from NREL Sri Lanka from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors, for Sri Lanka (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

160

Solar: monthly global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km resolution for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

40km resolution for 40km resolution for Bangladesh from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly average solar resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for Bangladesh. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal irradiance ghi" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Projecting Normals in a Nonstationary Climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Climate normals are statistical estimates of present and/or near-future climate means for such quantities as seasonal temperature or precipitation. In a changing climate, simply averaging a large number of previous years of data may not be the ...

D. S. Wilks

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Sandia National Laboratories: Research: Facilities: Gamma Irradiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gamma Irradiation Facility Gamma Irradiation Facility Photo of Gamma Irradiation Facility The Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) provides high-fidelity simulation of nuclear radiation environments for materials and component testing. The low-dose irradiation facility also offers an environment for long-duration testing of materials and electronic components. Such testing may take place over a number of months or even years. Research and other activities The single-structure GIF can house a wide variety of gamma irradiation experiments with various test configurations and at different dose and dose rate levels. Radiation fields at the GIF are produced by high-intensity gamma-ray sources. To induce ionizing radiation effects and damage in test objects, the objects are subjected to high-energy photons from gamma-source

163

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

601 601 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142256601 Varnish cache server Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km resolution for Ethiopia from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) for Ethiopia for the years 2000, 2001 and 2002. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional background information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country.

164

Characterization of Fast Reactor Irradiated Stainless Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the overall effort to understand the role of different material and environmental variables on irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) in light water reactor (LWR) components, the Cooperative IASCC Research (CIR-II) Program has conducted irradiation experiments in the BOR-60 fast reactor near Dimitrovgrad, Russia. This project was a continuation of research on characterization of microstructure and microchemistry of stainless steel heats irradiated in the BOR-60 fast reactor, do...

2008-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

165

Surface Irradiances Consistent with CERES-Derived Top-of-Atmosphere Shortwave and Longwave Irradiances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The estimate of surface irradiance on a global scale is possible through radiative transfer calculations using satellite-retrieved surface, cloud, and aerosol properties as input. Computed top-of-atmosphere (TOA) irradiances, however, do not ...

Seiji Kato; Norman G. Loeb; Fred G. Rose; David R. Doelling; David A. Rutan; Thomas E. Caldwell; Lisan Yu; Robert A. Weller

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

A New Solar Irradiance Reference Spectrum  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A New Solar Irradiance Reference Spectrum Pilewskie, Peter University of Colorado Fontenla, Juan LASP University of Colorado Harder, Jerry LASP University of Colorado Category:...

167

Estimating solar irradiance using a geostationary satellite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RAM 3.1.2 Compute clearness index 3.1.2 Compute global horizontal irradiance complete Performed to reduce duplicate steps when an analysis

Urquhart, Bryan Glenn

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

ABSTRACT: Electron Irradiation Induced Transformation of ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 27, 2007 ... Crystallochemical changes of (Pb5Ca5)(VO4)6F2 apatite under electron irradiation were examined by transmission electron microscopy.

169

Computational Modeling of Defect Evolution under Irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 14, 2012 ... Radiation Effects in Ceramic Oxide and Novel LWR Fuels: Computational Modeling of Defect Evolution under Irradiation Sponsored by: The...

170

Irradiation Performance - Nuclear Engineering Division (Argonne...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of irradiated fuel, cladding and fueled-cladding were conducted in the Alpha-Gamma Hot Cell Facility (AGHCF), while mechanical properties of defueled cladding and structural...

171

NIST Lunar spectral irradiance and radiance (LUSI)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... However, a spectrally resolved model that allows trending at the 0.1 % level ... of the lunar irradiance and radiance at reflected solar wavelengths. ...

2013-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

172

Microstructural Characterization of Test Reactor Irradiated RPV ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Microstructural Characterization of Test Reactor Irradiated RPV ... Evolution in High Purity Reference V-4Cr-4Ti Alloy for Fusion Reactor.

173

Correlation between Irradiation Hardening and Microstructural ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Correlation between Irradiation Hardening and Microstructural Evolution in High Purity Reference V-4Cr-4Ti Alloy for Fusion Reactor.

174

Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Preventing Infectious...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Preventing Infectious Disease Transmission Speaker(s): Peng Xu Date: February 19, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 The transmission of...

175

Target Dependent Score Normalization Techniques and . . .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Score normalization methods in biometric verification, which encompass the more traditional user-dependent decision thresholding techniques, are reviewed from a test hypotheses point of view. These are classified into test dependent and target dependent methods. The focus of the paper is on target dependent methods, which are further classified into impostor-centric, target-centric and target-impostor. These are applied to an on-line signature verification system on signature data from SVC 2004. In particular, a target-centric technique based on a variant of the cross-validation procedure provides the best relative performance improvement both for skilled (19%) and random forgeries (53%) as compared to the raw verification performance without score normalization (7.14% EER and 1.06% EER for skilled and random forgeries respectively).

J. Fierrez-Aguilar; J. Ortega-Garcia; J. Gonzalez-Rodriguez

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

What Is the New Normal Unemployment Rate?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent labor markets developments, including mismatches in the skills of workers and jobs, extended unemployment benefits, and very high rates of long-term joblessness, may be impeding the return to normal unemployment rates of around 5%. An examination of alternative measures of labor market conditions suggests that the normal unemployment rate may have risen as much as 1.7 percentage points to about 6.7%, although much of this increase is likely to prove temporary. Even with such an increase, sizable labor market slack is expected to persist for years. In the past, the U.S. labor market has proven to be very flexible and recessions have not usually been followed by long-lasting increases in the unemployment rate. But, in the wake of the most recent recession, many economists are concerned that developments such as mismatches in the skills of workers and jobs, extended unemployment benefits, and a rise in long-term joblessness may have raised the normal or natural rate of unemployment above the 5 % level that was thought to be typical before the downturn. Indeed, a few economists have gone so far as to argue that the rise in the unemployment rate to its current level of 9 % primarily reflects an increase in the natural rate, implying there is little slack in labor markets and therefore little downward pressure on inflation. This Economic Letter

Weidner; John C. Williams

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

The Next Generation Nuclear Plant/Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Irradiation Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energys Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating eight separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energys lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the worlds premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next ten years to demonstrate and qualify new particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006, and the second experiment (AGR-2) is currently in the design phase. The design of test trains, as well as the support systems and fission product monitoring system that will monitor and control the experiment during irradiation will be discussed. In addition, the purpose and differences between the two experiments will be compared and the irradiation results to date on the first experiment will be presented.

S. Blaine Grover

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

West Coast (PADD 5) Exports of Normal Butane-Butylene ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Normal Butane/Butylene Exports; Normal Butane/Butylene Supply and Disposition; West Coast (PADD 5) Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products ...

179

Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Product Supplied of Normal Butane ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Normal Butane/Butylene Supply and Disposition; Product Supplied for Normal Butane/Butylene ; Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Product Supplied for Crude Oil ...

180

Theoretical and practical implications of the effects of temperature during irradiation and during pre- and post-irradiation storage on the response of thermoluminescence dosimeters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experiments have been conducted to determine the applicability of the Randall-Wilkins theory for describing the behavior of CaF/sub 2/:Mn thermoluminescence dosimeters (Harshaw TLD-400 chips). Results were obtained for four different conditions: irradiation followed by storage, irradiation after storage, irradiation both preceded and followed by storage, and continuous simultaneous irradiation and storage. The experiments were performed for storage intervals of approximately 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 and 7 days at five different storage temperatures: -25, +20, +65, +150 and +175/sup 0/C. The results indicate fading that is described not by the Randall-Wilkins theory but rather as a linear function of the logarithm of the storage time. While the results suggest that the trapping efficiency is independent of temperature, they do demonstrate a small decrease in TL response with storage time prior to irradiation which is independent of temperature and time (>17 hours) and hence probably not dosimetric in origin but perhaps optically related. Glow curve analyses support the concept of a band of traps rather than a single trap. The overall results are compared to other data available in the literature most of which is for room-temperature storage. These data, for storage periods ranging from minutes to one year, can also be described as a linear function of the logarithm of the storage time and are remarkably consistent when uniformly normalized. Although peripheral experiments revealed problems associated with self-irradiation as well as a decline in sensitivity with use, the stability experiment results verify the highly favorable stability properties of CaF/sub 2/:Mn for widespread application.

Gail de Planque, E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal irradiance ghi" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Irradiation-induced phenomena in carbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 1.4.6 Irradiation-induced defects in multi-walled nanotubes and nanotube bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 1.5.2 Irradiation-induced links between single-walled carbon nan- otubes in bundles tubes, as the gap in the latter is quite small, around 1 eV. It should be pointed out that applications

Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.

182

Genetic Background Modulates Gene Expression Profile Induced by Skin Irradiation in Ptch1 Mice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Ptch1 germ-line mutations in mice predispose to radiation-induced basal cell carcinoma of the skin, with tumor incidence modulated by the genetic background. Here, we examined the possible mechanisms underlying skin response to radiation in F1 progeny of Ptch1{sup neo67/+} mice crossed with either skin tumor-susceptible (Car-S) or -resistant (Car-R) mice and X-irradiated (3 Gy) at 2 days of age or left untreated. Methods and Materials: We conducted a gene expression profile analysis in mRNA samples extracted from the skin of irradiated or control mice, using Affymetrix whole mouse genome expression array. Confirmation of the results was done using real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results: Analysis of the gene expression profile of normal skin of F1 mice at 4 weeks of age revealed a similar basal profile in the nonirradiated mice, but alterations in levels of 71 transcripts in irradiated Ptch1{sup neo67/+} mice of the Car-R cross and modulation of only eight genes in irradiated Ptch1{sup neo67/+} mice of the Car-S cross. Conclusions: These results indicate that neonatal irradiation causes a persistent change in the gene expression profile of the skin. The tendency of mice genetically resistant to skin tumorigenesis to show a more complex pattern of transcriptional response to radiation than do genetically susceptible mice suggests a role for this response in genetic resistance to basal cell tumorigenesis.

Galvan, Antonella; Noci, Sara [Department of Experimental Oncology and Laboratories, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Mancuso, Mariateresa; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Saran, Anna [ENEA Laboratories, Rome (Italy); Dragani, Tommaso A. [Department of Experimental Oncology and Laboratories, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: tommaso.dragani@istitutotumori.mi.it

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Modeling of Irradiation Hardening of Polycrystalline Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High energy particle irradiation of structural polycrystalline materials usually produces irradiation hardening and embrittlement. The development of predict capability for the influence of irradiation on mechanical behavior is very important in materials design for next generation reactors. In this work a multiscale approach was implemented to predict irradiation hardening of body centered cubic (bcc) alpha-iron. The effect of defect density, texture and grain boundary was investigated. In the microscale, dislocation dynamics models were used to predict the critical resolved shear stress from the evolution of local dislocation and defects. In the macroscale, a viscoplastic self-consistent model was applied to predict the irradiation hardening in samples with changes in texture and grain boundary. This multiscale modeling can guide performance evaluation of structural materials used in next generation nuclear reactors.

Li, Dongsheng; Zbib, Hussein M.; Garmestani, Hamid; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

184

Conducting Well-Controlled Ion Irradiations To Understand Neutron Irradiation Effects In Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A firm understanding of the effect of radiation on materials is required to develop predictive models of materials behavior in-reactor and provide a foundation for creating new, more radiation-tolerant materials. Ion irradiation can serve this purpose for nuclear reactor components and is becoming a key element of materials development for advanced nuclear reactors. Ion irradiations can be conducted quickly, at low cost, and with precise control over irradiation temperature, temperature uniformity, dose rate, dose uniformity and total dose. During proton irradiations the 2{sigma}(twice the standard deviation) of the sample temperature is generally below {approx}7 deg. C, the dose rate variation {approx}3%, the dose uncertainty {approx}3%, and there is an excellent temperature and dose uniformity across the irradiated area. In this article, we describe the experimental setup and irradiation procedure used to conduct well-controlled ion irradiations at the University of Michigan.

Naab, F. U.; West, E. A.; Toader, O. F.; Was, G. S. [Department of Engineering and Radiological Sciences, College of Engineering, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

RERTR-7 Irradiation Summary Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-7A, was designed to test several modified fuel designs to target fission densities representative of a peak low enriched uranium (LEU) burnup in excess of 90% U-235 at peak experiment power sufficient to generate a peak surface heat flux of approximately 300 W/cm2. The RERTR-7B experiment was designed as a high power test of 'second generation' dispersion fuels at peak experiment power sufficient to generate a surface heat flux on the order of 230 W/cm2.1 The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-7A and RERTR-7B experiments through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analyses, thermal analyses and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Normal Modes of Black Hole Accretion Disks  

SciTech Connect

This paper studies the hydrodynamical problem of normal modes of small adiabatic oscillations of relativistic barotropic thin accretion disks around black holes (and compact weakly magnetic neutron stars). Employing WKB techniques, we obtain the eigen frequencies and eigenfunctions of the modes for different values of the mass and angular momentum of the central black hole. We discuss the properties of the various types of modes and examine the role of viscosity, as it appears to render some of the modes unstable to rapid growth.

Ortega-Rodriguez, Manuel; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Costa Rica U.; Silbergleit, Alexander S.; /Stanford U., HEPL; Wagoner, Robert V.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

2006-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

187

Development of a Low Dose Rate Irradiation Facility for Long...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low Dose Rate Irradiation Facility for Long Term Animal Exposures at Colorado State University Michael Weil Colorado State University Abstract A low dose rate irradiation facility...

188

Helium Behaviour in Ferritic/Martensitic Steels Irradiated in a ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Eurofer97 and F82H steels were irradiated in spallation conditions of STIP-II, the ... experiment of the irradiation program of Swiss Neutron Spallation Source.

189

Workshop on a National Irradiation Sciences User Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2009 * SNS * Oak Ridge, TN 37831 Materials Irradiation Home Materials Irradiation & HFIR Agenda Registration Hotel Registration CommitteeContacts Workshop on a National...

190

Lead Test Assembly Irradiation and Analysis Watts Bar Nuclear...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lead Test Assembly Irradiation and Analysis Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Tennessee and Hanford Site, Richland, Washington Lead Test Assembly Irradiation and Analysis Watts Bar Nuclear...

191

A signal-to-noise approach to score normalization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Score normalization is indispensable in distributed retrieval and fusion or meta-search where merging of result-lists is required. Distributional approaches to score normalization with reference to relevance, such as binary mixture models like the normal-exponential, ... Keywords: Zipf's law, distributed retrieval, filtering, fusion, meta-search, power-law, query length distribution, query model, resource selection, score distribution, score normalization

Avi Arampatzis; Jaap Kamps

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Improving Thermal Model Prediction Through Statistical Analysis of Irradiation and Post-Irradiation Data from AGR Experiments  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Research and Development program for Next Generation High Temperature Reactors (HTR), a series of irradiation tests, designated as Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR), have been defined to support development and qualification of fuel design, fabrication process, and fuel performance under normal operation and accident conditions. The AGR tests employ fuel compacts placed in a graphite cylinder shrouded by a steel capsule and instrumented with thermocouples (TC) embedded in graphite blocks enabling temperature control. The data representing the crucial test fuel conditions (e.g., temperature, neutron fast fluence, and burnup) while impossible to obtain from direct measurements are calculated by physics and thermal models. The irradiation and post-irradiation examination (PIE) experimental data are used in model calibration effort to reduce the inherent uncertainty of simulation results. This paper is focused on fuel temperature predicted by the ABAQUS codes finite element-based thermal models. The work follows up on a previous study, in which several statistical analysis methods were adapted, implemented in the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS), and applied for improving qualification of AGR-1 thermocouple data. The present work exercises the idea that the abnormal trends of measured data observed from statistical analysis may be caused by either measuring instrument deterioration or physical mechanisms in capsules that may have shifted the system thermal response. As an example, the uneven reduction of the control gas gap in Capsule 5 revealed by the capsule metrology measurements in PIE helps justify the reduction in TC readings instead of TC drift. This in turn prompts modification of thermal model to better fit with experimental data, thus help increase confidence, and in other word reduce model uncertainties in thermal simulation results of the AGR-1 test.

Dr. Binh T. Pham; Grant L. Hawkes; Jeffrey J. Einerson

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

AGC-1 Post Irradiation Examination Status  

SciTech Connect

The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Graphite R&D program is currently measuring irradiated material property changes in several grades of nuclear graphite for predicting their behavior and operating performance within the core of new Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. The Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment consisting of six irradiation capsules will generate this irradiated graphite performance data for NGNP reactor operating conditions. All six AGC capsules in the experiment will be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), disassembled in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF), and examined at the INL Research Center (IRC) or Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This is the first in a series of status reports on the progress of the AGC experiment. As the first capsule, AGC1 was irradiated from September 2009 to January 2011 to a maximum dose level of 6-7 dpa. The capsule was removed from ATR and transferred to the HFEF in April 2011 where the capsule was disassembled and test specimens extracted from the capsules. The first irradiated samples from AGC1 were shipped to the IRC in July 2011and initial post irradiation examination (PIE) activities were begun on the first 37 samples received. PIE activities continue for the remainder of the AGC1 specimen as they are received at the IRC.

David Swank

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

AGR-1 Irradiation Experiment Test Plan  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document presents the current state of planning for the AGR-1 irradiation experiment, the first of eight planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The objectives of the AGR-1 experiment are: 1. To gain experience with multi-capsule test train design, fabrication, and operation with the intent to reduce the probability of capsule or test train failure in subsequent irradiation tests. 2. To irradiate fuel produced in conjunction with the AGR fuel process development effort. 3. To provide data that will support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. In order to achieve the test objectives, the AGR-1 experiment will be irradiated in the B-10 position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The test will contain six independently controlled and monitored capsules. Each capsule will contain a single type, or variant, of the AGR coated fuel. The irradiation is planned for about 700 effective full power days (approximately 2.4 calendar years) with a time-averaged, volume-average temperature of approximately 1050 C. Average fuel burnup, for the entire test, will be greater than 17.7 % FIMA, and the fuel will experience fast neutron fluences between 2.4 and 4.5 x 1025 n/m2 (E>0.18 MeV).

John T. Maki

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Apex or Salient of Normal Fault | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Apex or Salient of Normal Fault Apex or Salient of Normal Fault Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Apex or Salient of Normal Fault Dictionary.png Apex or Salient of Normal Fault: Normal faults may intersect in the subsurface to form a fault apex or salient. Apices or salients of normal faults account for 3% of structural controls in the Great Basin. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Controlling Structures List of controlling structures typically associated with geothermal systems: Major Normal Fault Termination of a Major Normal Fault Stepover or Relay Ramp in Normal Fault Zones Apex or Salient of Normal Fault Fault Intersection Accommodation Zone Displacement Transfer Zone Pull-Apart in Strike-Slip Fault Zone Intrusion Margins and Associated Fractures Stratigraphic Boundaries

196

Sub-Hour Solar Data for Power System Modeling From Static Spatial Variability Analysis: Preprint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High penetration renewable integration studies need high quality solar power data with spatial-temporal correlations that are representative of a real system. This paper will summarize the research relating sequential point-source sub-hour global horizontal irradiance (GHI) values to static, spatially distributed GHI values. This research led to the development of an algorithm for generating coherent sub-hour datasets that span distances ranging from 10 km to 4,000 km. The algorithm, in brief, generates synthetic GHI values at an interval of one-minute, for a specific location, using SUNY/Clean Power Research, satellite-derived, hourly irradiance values for the nearest grid cell to that location and grid cells within 40 km.

Hummon, M.; Ibanez, E.; Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

RERTR-12 Insertion 2 Irradiation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-12 was designed to provide comprehensive information on the performance of uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) based monolithic fuels for research reactor applications.1 RERTR-12 insertion 2 includes the capsules irradiated during the last three irradiation cycles. These capsules include Z, Y1, Y2 and Y3 type capsules. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-12 insertion 2 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; G. S. Chang; D. M. Wachs; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Measuring Degradation Rates Without Irradiance Data  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method to report PV system degradation rates without using irradiance data is demonstrated. First, a set of relative degradation rates are determined by comparing daily AC final yields from a group of PV systems relative to the average final yield of all the PV systems. Then, the difference between relative and absolute degradation rates is found from a statistical analysis. This approach is verified by comparing to methods that utilize irradiance data. This approach is significant because PV systems are often deployed without irradiance sensors, so the analysis method described here may enable measurements of degradation using data that were previously thought to be unsuitable for degradation studies.

Pulver, S.; Cormode, D.; Cronin, A.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Smith, R.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Overview Report: Normal and Emergency Operation Visualization  

SciTech Connect

This is an overview report to document and illustrate methods used in a project entitled Normal and Emergency Operations Visualization for a utility company, conducted in 2009-2010 timeframe with funding from the utility company and the U.S. Department of Energy. The original final report (about 180 pages) for the project is not available for distribution because it alludes to findings that assessed the design of an operational system that contained proprietary information; this abridged version contains descriptions of methods and some findings to illustrate the approach used, while avoiding discussion of sensitive or proprietary information. The client has approved this abridged version of the report for unlimited distribution to give researchers and collaborators the benefit of reviewing the research concepts and methods that were applied in this study.

Greitzer, Frank L.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Asymptotic normalization coefficients from ab initio calculations.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present calculations of asymptotic normalization coefficients (ANCs) for one-nucleon removals from nuclear states of mass numbers 3 {le} A {le} 9. Our ANCs were computed from variational Monte Carlo solutions to the many-body Schroedinger equation with the combined Argonne v{sub 18} two-nucleon and Urbana IX three-nucleon potentials. Instead of computing explicit overlap integrals, we applied a Green function method that is insensitive to the difficulties of constructing and Monte Carlo sampling the long-range tails of the variational wave functions. This method also allows computation of the ANC at the physical separation energy, even when it differs from the separation energy for the Hamiltonian. We compare our results, which for most nuclei are the first ab initio calculations of ANCs, with existing experimental and theoretical results and discuss further possible applications of the technique.

Nollett, K. M.; Wiringa, R. B. (Physics)

2011-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal irradiance ghi" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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201

Doses delivered to normal brain under different treatment protocols at Brookhaven National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

As of October 31, 1996, 23 glioblastoma multiforme patients underwent BNCT under several treatment protocols at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor. For treatment planning and dosimetry purposes, these protocols may be divided into four groups. The first group comprises protocols that used an 8-cm collimator and allowed a peak normal brain dose of 10.5 Gy-Eq to avolume of 1 cm{sup 3} were the thermal neutron flux was maximal (even if it happened to be in the tumor volume). The second group differs from the first in that it allowed a peak normal brain dose of 12.6 Gy-Eq. The protocols of the third and fourth groups allowed the prescribed peak normal brain dose of 12.6 Gy-Eq to be outside of the tumor volume, used a 12-cm collimator and, respectively, uni- or bilateral irradiations. We describe the treatment planning procedures and report the doses delivered to various structures of the brain.

Capala, J.; Coderre, J.A.; Liu, H.B. [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

202

Heat pipe thermal control of irradiation capsules  

SciTech Connect

From 1st international heat pipe conference; Stuttgart, F.R. Germany (15 Oct 1973). The use of heat pipes to control the temperature of irradiation capsules containing fast breeder reactor structural materials is discussed. (TFD)

Deverall, J.E.

1974-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

203

IRRADIATION METHOD OF CONVERTING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is given for changing the distribution of organic compounds from that produced by the irradiation of bulk alkane hydrocarbons. This method consists of depositing an alkane hydrocarbon on the surface of a substrate material and irradiating with gamma radiation at a dose rate of more than 100,000 rads. The substrate material may be a metal, metal salts, metal oxides, or carbons having a surface area in excess of 1 m/sup 2//g. The hydrocarbons are deposited in layers of from 0.1 to 10 monolayers on the surfaces of these substrates and irradiated. The product yields are found to vary from those which result from the irradiation of bulk hydrocarbons in that there is an increase in the quantity of branched hydrocarbons.

Allen, A.O.; Caffrey, J.M. Jr.

1960-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

204

Cloud Optical Thickness Estimation from Irradiance Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiative transfer algorithms are developed to estimate the optical thickness of clouds using an irradiance detector located above, deep within, and beneath a cloud. Both monodirectional and diffuse illumination cases are considered. For each ...

H. C. Yi; N. J. McCormick; R. Sanchez

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband diffuse downwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

diffuse downwelling irradiance diffuse downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband diffuse downwelling irradiance All of the solar radiation, across the wavelength range of 0.4 and 4 {mu}m, coming directly from the sky except for solar radiation coming directly from the sun and the circumsolar irradiance within approximately three degrees of the sun. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments

206

Gamma irradiation effects in W films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the van Der Pauw methodology, the surface resistivity of irradiated tungsten films deposited on Silicon substrate was measured. The films were exposed to {gamma} radiation using a isotopic {sup 60}Co source in three irradiation stages attaining 40.35 kGy in total dose. The obtained results for superficial resistivity display a time annealing features and their values are proportional to the total dose.

Claro, Luiz H. [Instituto de Estudos Avancados - IEAv, Rod. dos Tamoios, km 5,5, CEP: 12228-840, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil) and Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco - FATESF, Av. Siqueira Campos, 1174, CEP: 12207-000, Jacarei (Brazil); Santos, Ingrid A. [Instituto de Estudos Avancados - IEAv, Rod. dos Tamoios, km 5,5, CEP: 12228-840, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva, Cassia F. [Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco - FATESF, Av. Siqueira Campos, 1174, CEP: 12207-000, Jacarei, SP (Brazil)

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

207

Design and Status of the NGNP Fuel Experiment AGR-3/4 Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energys Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next several years to demonstrate and qualify new TRISO coated particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006 and was completed in November 2009. The second experiment (AGR-2) started irradiation in June 2010 and is currently scheduled to be completed in April 2013. The third and fourth experiments have been combined into a single experiment designated AGR-3/4, which started its irradiation in December 2011 and is currently scheduled to be completed in November 2013. Since the purpose of this experiment is to provide data on fission product migration and retention in the NGNP reactor, the design of this experiment is significantly different from the first two experiments, though the control and monitoring systems are very similar. The purpose and design of this experiment will be discussed followed by its progress and status to date.

Blaine Grover

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Fractal Fluctuations and Statistical Normal Distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dynamical systems in nature exhibit selfsimilar fractal fluctuations and the corresponding power spectra follow inverse power law form signifying long-range space-time correlations identified as self-organized criticality. The physics of self-organized criticality is not yet identified. The Gaussian probability distribution used widely for analysis and description of large data sets underestimates the probabilities of occurrence of extreme events such as stock market crashes, earthquakes, heavy rainfall, etc. The assumptions underlying the normal distribution such as fixed mean and standard deviation, independence of data, are not valid for real world fractal data sets exhibiting a scale-free power law distribution with fat tails. A general systems theory for fractals visualizes the emergence of successively larger scale fluctuations to result from the space-time integration of enclosed smaller scale fluctuations. The model predicts a universal inverse power law incorporating the golden mean for fractal fluctuations and for the corresponding power spectra, i.e., the variance spectrum represents the probabilities, a signature of quantum systems. Fractal fluctuations therefore exhibit quantum-like chaos. The model predicted inverse power law is very close to the Gaussian distribution for small-scale fluctuations, but exhibits a fat long tail for large-scale fluctuations. Extensive data sets of Dow Jones index, Human DNA, Takifugu rubripes (Puffer fish) DNA are analysed to show that the space/time data sets are close to the model predicted power law distribution.

A. M. Selvam

2008-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

209

Empirical Normal Modes versus Empirical Orthogonal Functions for Statistical Prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The theory of empirical normal modes (ENMs) for a shallow water fluid is developed. ENMs are basis functions that both have the statistical properties of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) and the dynamical properties of normal modes. In fact, ...

Gilbert Brunet; Robert Vautard

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Optimizing Input Data for Gridding Climate Normals for Canada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spatial models of 19712000 monthly climate normals for daily maximum and minimum temperature and total precipitation are required for many applications. The World Meteorological Organizations recommended standard for the calculation of a normal ...

Ron F. Hopkinson; Michael F. Hutchinson; Daniel W. McKenney; Ewa J. Milewska; Pia Papadopol

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

China from DLR China from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) for China for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional background information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords China CRED CREIA DLR DNI GEF GIS solar SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 8.8 MiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 4.4 MiB)

212

Solar: monthly direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km resolution for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

for for Bangladesh from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) for Bangladesh for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional background information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords Bangladesh DLR DNI GEF solar SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 915.2 KiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 488 KiB)

213

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenya from DLR Kenya from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) for Kenya for the years 2000, 2001 and 2002. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional background information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI GEF GIS Kenya solar SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 2.5 MiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 1.3 MiB)

214

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ghana from DLR Ghana from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) for Ghana for the years 2000, 2001 and 2002. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional background information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI Ghana solar SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 1 MiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 519.6 KiB)

215

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nepal from DLR Nepal from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) for Nepal for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional background information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI GIS Nepal solar SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 1.2 MiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 600.4 KiB)

216

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sri Lanka from DLR Sri Lanka from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) for Sri Lanka for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional background information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI GEF GIS solar Sri Lanka SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 155.1 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 295.7 KiB)

217

Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Exports of Normal Butane-Butylene ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Normal Butane/Butylene Supply and Disposition; Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products ...

218

Irradiation Embritlement in Alloy HT-9  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HT-9 steel is a candidate structural and cladding material for high temperature lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors. In typical advanced fast reactor designs fuel elements will be irradiated for an extended period of time, reaching up to 5-7 years. Significant displacement damage accumulation in the steel is expected (> 200 dpa) when exposed to dpa-rates of 20-30 dpa{sub Fe}/y and high fast flux (E > 0.1 MeV) {approx}4 x 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2}s. Core temperatures could reach 400-560 C, with coolant temperatures at the inlet as low as 250 C, depending on the reactor design. Mechanical behavior in the presence of an intense fast flux and high dose is a concern. In particular, low temperature operation could be limited by irradiation embrittlement. Creep and corrosion effects in liquid metal coolants could set a limit to the upper operating temperature. In this report, we focus on the low temperature operating window limit and describe HT-9 embrittlement experimental findings reported in the literature that could provide supporting information to facilitate the consideration of a Code Case on irradiation effects for this class of steels in fast reactor environments. HT-9 has an extensive database available on irradiation performance, which makes it the best choice as a possible near-term candidate for clad, and ducts in future fast reactors. Still, as it is shown in this report, embrittlement data for very low irradiation temperatures ( 150 dpa) is scarce. Experimental findings indicate a saturation of DBTT shifts as a function of dose, which could allow for long lifetime cladding operation. However, a strong increase in DBTT shift with decreasing irradiation temperature could compromise operation at low service temperatures. Development of a deep understanding of the physics involved in the radiation damage mechanisms, together with multiscale computer simulation models of irradiation embrittlement will provide the basis to derive trendlines and quantitative engineering predictions.

Serrano De Caro, Magdalena [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

219

Low dose irradiation of the early vertebrate embryo and early onset of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

irradiation of the early vertebrate embryo and early onset of irradiation of the early vertebrate embryo and early onset of tissue aging Lingling Ding Georgia Health Sciences University Abstract There is considerable overlap between cellular and molecular changes that occur in response to low doses of ionizing radiation and those that occur during aging. Both processes are characterized by accumulation of persistent DNA damage (“wear and tear” on the genome), persistent oxidative stress, and depletion of stem/progenitor cells, leading to loss of repair and regenerative capacity. Here we test a hypothesis that exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation accelerates normal, aging-related tissue changes. The work was performed using a small, genetically tractable vertebrate model organism, the Japanese medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). Medaka have a

220

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband total upwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

upwelling irradiance upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband total upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, passes through a horizontal unit area in an upward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments MFR : Multifilter Radiometer Field Campaign Instruments RAD-AIR : Airborne Radiometers

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal irradiance ghi" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

ARM - Measurement - Longwave broadband downwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

downwelling irradiance downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Longwave broadband downwelling irradiance The total diffuse and direct radiant energy, at wavelengths longer than approximately 4 {mu}m, that is being emitted downwards. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments BSRN : Baseline Solar Radiation Network BRS : Broadband Radiometer Station CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems

222

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband total downwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

downwelling irradiance downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband total downwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, passes through a horizontal unit area in a downward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments MFRSR : Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer NFOV : Narrow Field of View Zenith Radiometer

223

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband direct downwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

downwelling irradiance downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband direct downwelling irradiance The direct unscattered radiant energy from the Sun, in a narrow band of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, passing through a horizontal unit area in a downward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Field Campaign Instruments SOAR : Shipboard Oceanographic and Atmospheric Radiation

224

latitutde tilt irradiance | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

latitutde tilt irradiance latitutde tilt irradiance Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude for Bangladesh. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location. Source NREL Date Released April 12th, 2005 (9 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords atmospheric water vapor GEF GIS latitutde tilt irradiance NREL solar SWERA TILT UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 35.5 KiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 26.7 KiB) Quality Metrics

225

ARM - Measurement - Net broadband total irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsNet broadband total irradiance govMeasurementsNet broadband total irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Net broadband total irradiance The difference between upwelling and downwelling, covering longwave and shortwave radiation. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments EBBR : Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station SEBS : Surface Energy Balance System External Instruments ECMWF : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Model

226

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband diffuse upwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

upwelling irradiance upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband diffuse upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, that has been scattered in the atmosphere at least once, passes through a horizontal unit area in an upward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments MFR : Multifilter Radiometer

227

Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory (IFEL) | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory May 30, 2013 The Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory (IFEL) was initially designed and constructed to permit the safe handling of increasing levels of radiation in the chemical, physical, and metallurgical examination of nuclear reactor fuel elements and reactor parts. The IFEL was constructed in 1963 and is a two-story brick building with a partial basement. The front or northern-most section is a single-story office area. The two story area to the immediate rear houses the cell complex, the operating areas, and other supporting activities. The office area is isolated from the main part of the building, so the office area can be excluded from the secondary containment zone. The facility has a gross floor area of about 27,000 ft2.

228

ARM - Measurement - Longwave narrowband upwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

narrowband upwelling irradiance narrowband upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Longwave narrowband upwelling irradiance The total radiant energy, in a narrow band of wavelengths longer than approximately 4 {mu}m, passing through a horizontal unit area in an upward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Field Campaign Instruments OTTER : Twin Otter UAV-EGRETT : UAV-Egrett Value-Added Products LBTM-MINNIS : Minnis Cloud Products Using LBTM Algorithm (Process)

229

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave spectral diffuse downwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

diffuse downwelling irradiance diffuse downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave spectral diffuse downwelling irradiance The rate at which spectrally resolved radiant energy at wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, that has been scattered in the atmosphere at least once, passes through a horizontal unit area in a downward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments RSS : Rotating Shadowband Spectroradiometer

230

Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Preventing Infectious Disease  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Preventing Infectious Disease Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Preventing Infectious Disease Transmission Speaker(s): Peng Xu Date: February 19, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 The transmission of tuberculosis (TB) and other infectious diseases in health-care buildings has been a recognized hazard for decades. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) of upper room air is used as an engineering control method to prevent the spread of airborne infectious disease. Under full-scale conditions, the efficacy of UVGI for inactivating airborne bacterial spores and active cells was evaluated. A test room fitted with a modern UVGI system was used to conduct bio-aerosol inactivation experiments. UVGI efficacy can be affected by environmental factors such as relative humidity (RH), and air mixing

231

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband total downwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

downwelling irradiance downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband total downwelling irradiance The total diffuse and direct radiant energy that comes from some continuous range of directions, at wavelengths between 0.4 and 4 {mu}m, that is being emitted downwards. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AMC : Ameriflux Measurement Component BSRN : Baseline Solar Radiation Network

232

Irradiation effects on borosilicate waste glasses  

SciTech Connect

The effects of alpha decay on five borosilicate glasses containing simulated nuclear high-level waste oxides were studied. Irradiations carried out at room temperature were achieved by incorporating 1 to 8 wt % /sup 244/Cm/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in the glasses. Density changes and stored-energy build-up saturated at doses less than 2 x 10/sup 21/ alpha decays/kg. Damage manifested by stored energy was completely annealed at 633/sup 0/K. Positive and negative density changes were observed which never exceeded 1%. Irradiation had very little effect on mechanical strength or on chemical durability as measured by aqueous leach rates. Also, no effects were observed on the microstructure for vitreous waste glasses, although radiation-induced microcracking could be achieved on specimens that had been devitrified prior to irradiation.

Roberts, F.P.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Adaptive Responses to Low Dose/Low Dose-Rate γ-Rays in Normal Human Fibroblasts:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Responses to Low Dose/Low Dose-Rate γ-Rays in Normal Human Fibroblasts: Responses to Low Dose/Low Dose-Rate γ-Rays in Normal Human Fibroblasts: The Role of Oxidative Metabolism Edouard I. Azzam 1 , Sonia M. de Toledo 1 , Badri N. Pandey 1 , Perumal Venkatachalam 1 , Manuela Buoannano 1 , Zhi Yang 1 , Ling Li 3 , Donna M. Gordon 2 , Roger W. Howell 1 , Debkumar Pain 2 and Douglas R. Spitz 3 1 Department of Radiology, 2 Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 3 Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA To investigate low dose/low dose-rate effects of low linear energy transfer ionizing radiation, we used γ-irradiated cells adapted to grow in three-dimensional architecture that mimics cell growth in vivo. We determined cellular, molecular and biochemical changes in these

234

STUDY OF A CASE OF CHRONIC PROFESSIONAL IRRADIATION. PROVISIONAL DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECTS OF THIS IRRADIATION  

SciTech Connect

The case of a chemist submitted to professional chronic irradiation, in the absence of a physical check doses received, was studied to estimate the deleterious effects of this irradiation on the patient and his descent. No connection was found between the observed symptoms and this irradiation. The health of the patient did not seem to be affected in any important way. The only objective symptom, a depression of the spermatogenesis, was followed by spectacular recuperation. In the absence of objective symptoms, it is felt that there is no reason to fear genetic consequences neither for the patient nor for his offspring. (auth)

Minet, P.

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Understanding the Irradiation Behavior of Zirconium Carbide  

SciTech Connect

Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is being considered for utilization in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuels in deep-burn TRISO fuel. Zirconium carbide possesses a cubic B1-type crystal structure with a high melting point, exceptional hardness, and good thermal and electrical conductivities. The use of ZrC as part of the TRISO fuel requires a thorough understanding of its irradiation response. However, the radiation effects on ZrC are still poorly understood. The majority of the existing research is focused on the radiation damage phenomena at higher temperatures (>450{degree}C) where many fundamental aspects of defect production and kinetics cannot be easily distinguished. Little is known about basic defect formation, clustering, and evolution of ZrC under irradiation, although some atomistic simulation and phenomenological studies have been performed. Such detailed information is needed to construct a model describing the microstructural evolution in fast-neutron irradiated materials that will be of great technological importance for the development of ZrC- based fuel. The goal of the proposed project is to gain fundamental understanding of the radiation-induced defect formation in zirconium carbide and irradiation response (ZrC) by using a combination of state-of-the-art experimental methods and atomistic modeling. This project will combine (1) in situ ion irradiation at a specialized facility at a national laboratory, (2) controlled temperature proton irradiation on bulk samples, and (3) atomistic modeling to gain a fundamental understanding of defect formation in ZrC. The proposed project will cover the irradiation temperatures from cryogenic temperature to as high as 800{degree}C, and dose ranges from 0.1 to 100 dpa. The examination of this wide range of temperatures and doses allows us to obtain an experimental data set that can be effectively used to exercise and benchmark the computer calculations of defect properties. Combining the examination of radiation-induced microstructures mapped spatially and temporally, microstructural evolution during post-irradiation annealing, and atomistic modeling of defect formation and transport energetics will provide new, critical understanding about property changes in ZrC. The behavior of materials under irradiation is determined by the balance between damage production, defect clustering, and lattice response. In order to predict those effects at high temperatures so targeted testing can be expanded and extrapolated beyond the known database, it is necessary to determine the defect energetics and mobilities as these control damage accumulation and annealing. In particular, low-temperature irradiations are invaluable for determining the regions of defect mobility. Computer simulation techniques are particularly useful for identifying basic defect properties, especially if closely coupled with a well-constructed and complete experimental database. The close coupling of calculation and experiment in this project will provide mutual benchmarking and allow us to glean a deeper understanding of the irradiation response of ZrC, which can then be applied to the prediction of its behavior in reactor conditions.

Motta, Arthur; Sridharan, Kumar; Morgan, Dane; Szlufarska, Izabela

2013-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

236

Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of Initial Activities Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of Initial Activities Irradiation is known to have a significant impact on the properties and performance of Zircaloy cladding and structural materials (material degradation processes, e.g., effects of hydriding). This UFD study examines the behavior and performance of unirradiated cladding and actual irradiated cladding through testing and simulation. Three capsules containing hydrogen-charged Zircaloy-4 cladding material have been placed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Irradiation of the capsules was conducted for post-irradiation examination (PIE) metallography. Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of

237

Spatial Variability of Shortwave Irradiance for Snowmelt in Forests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spatial variation of melt energy can influence snow cover depletion rates and in turn be influenced by the spatial variability of shortwave irradiance to snow. The spatial variability of shortwave irradiance during melt under uniform and ...

John Pomeroy; Chad Ellis; Aled Rowlands; Richard Essery; Janet Hardy; Tim Link; Danny Marks; Jean Emmanuel Sicart

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Direct Solar Spectral Irradiance Measurements and Updated Simple Transmittance Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A set of 509 direct solar irradiance spectra, carefully measured over one year, is checked against spectral irradiances computed from five updated transmittance models. The wavelengths under investigation range from 290 to 900 nm, with a 5- or 10-...

A. de La Casinire; A. I. Bokoye; T. Cabot

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

The Sun and Climate Solar Irradiance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Sun and Climate #12;Solar Irradiance The Solar Constant f = 1.4 x 106 erg/cm2/s. Over the surface of the Earth, this is 2 x 1024 erg/s, or 2 x 1017 watts (100 million gigawatts). This energy input keeps the Earth warm. If the solar constant were To change, so would the Earth's temperature. Solar

Walter, Frederick M.

240

Effects of hadron irradiation on scintillating fibers  

SciTech Connect

Trackers based on scintillating-fiber technology are being considered by the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration at SSC and the D[phi] collaboration at Fermilab. An important issue is the effect of the radiation existing in the detector cores on fiber properties. Most studies of radiation damage in scintillators have irradiated small bulk samples rather than fibers, and have used X-rays, [sup 60]Co gammas, or electron beams, often at accelerated rates. The authors have irradiated some 600 fibers in the Fermilab Tevatron C[phi] area, thereby obtaining a hadronic irradiation at realistic rates. Four-meter-long samples of ten Bicron polystyrene-based fiber types, maintained in air, dry nitrogen, argon, and vacuum atmospheres within stainless-steel tubes, were irradiated for seven weeks at various distances from the accelerator beam pipes. Maximum doses, measured by thermoluminescence detectors, were about 80 Krad. Fiber properties, particularly light yield and attenuation length, have been measured over a one-year period. A description of the work together with the results is presented. At the doses achieved, corresponding to a few years of actual fiber-tracking detector operation, little degradation is observed. In addition, recovery after several days' exposure to air has been noted. Properties of unirradiated samples kept in darkness show no changes after one year.

Atac, M. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States) Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)); Buchanan, C.; Chrisman, D.; Cline, D.; Kolonko, J.; Kubic, J.; Park, J. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Baumbaugh, A.; Binkley, M.; Bross, A.D.; Finley, D.; Elias, J.; Foster, G.W.; Kephart, R.; Kephart, R.; Kim, C.; Park, H.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Rivetta, C.; Tkaczyk, S.; Wagner, R. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)); Chung, M.; Goldberg, H.; Jeskik, R.; Margulies, S.; Mendez, H.; Solomon, J.; Vaca, F. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)); Kelley, C. (Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences, Boston, MA (United States)); Baumbaugh, B.; Bishop, J.; Biswas, N.; Cason, N.; Jacques, J.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M.; Kenney, V.; LoSecco, J.; Ruchti, R.; Shephard, W.; Warchol, J.; Wayne, M.; Marchant, J.; Mountain, R.J. (Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)); Davis, D.; Vandergriff, D. (O

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal irradiance ghi" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, October 1961  

SciTech Connect

This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of October, 1961. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

1961-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

242

Recent Changes in Solar Irradiance in Antarctica  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A significant decrease in the annual sums of global irradiance reaching the surface in Antarctica, averaging ?0.28 W m?2 yr?1, was derived from an analysis of all complete years of measurement available from 12 pyranometer stations, 10 of which ...

G. Stanhill; S. Cohen

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, June 1962  

SciTech Connect

This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of June, 1962. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; and NPR Project.

1992-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

244

Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, November 1964  

SciTech Connect

This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of November, 1964. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; and Financial Operation.

1964-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

245

Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, November 1962  

SciTech Connect

This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of November, 1962. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

1962-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

246

NIST SURF Beamline 3: Facility for Irradiance Calibration ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Beamline 3 is home to the Facility for Irradiance Calibration Using ... Source of Uncertainty, Nominal Value, Relative Uncertainty, Sensitivity Coefficient, ...

2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

247

Implementation Plan for the Irradiated Materials Characterization Laboratory (IMCL)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document contains details regarding the planned implementation of the Irradiated Materials Characterization Laboratory at the INL.

Not Listed

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Ion Irradiation of an Ultrafine Grained 316 Austenitic Stainless Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Nuclear Energy: Processes and Policies. Presentation Title, Ion Irradiation of...

249

A Study of the Irradiation-Temperature Coefficient for Alanine ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Study of the Irradiation-Temperature Coefficient for Alanine Film and Pellet Dosimeters at Elevated Temperature. ...

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

ABSTRACT: Effects of Electron Irradiation in Nuclear Waste ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 26, 2007 ... This article summarizes recent studies of electron irradiation damage in sodium borosilicate, iron phosphate and aluminophosphate glass...

251

Statistical analysis of solar irradiation in a distributed microgrid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

irradiation in a distributed microgrid A Thesis submitted inin a distributed microgrid by James Patrick Harper Master of

Harper, James Patrick

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Neural Effects of Beta Amyloid in Normal Aging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

age categories. Neurobiol Aging 1997; 18: 351-?7. JK, McIntosh AR. Aging gracefully: compensatory B. The effect of normal aging on the coupling of

Mormino, Elizabeth Charlotte

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan Used Nuclear Fuel Loading...

254

Enhanced Methods for Normalizing Data for Analysis of Search Results  

Enhanced Methods for Normalizing Data for Analysis of Search Results Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing rights to this ...

255

System and method for normalizing data for analysis of search ...  

System and method for normalizing data for analysis of search results. Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing ...

256

Predictability of normal heart rhythms and deterministic chaos  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The evidence for deterministic chaos in normal heart rhythms is examined. Electrocardiograms were recorded of 29 subjects falling into four groupsa young healthy group

J. H. Lefebvre; D. A. Goodings; M. V. Kamath; E. L. Fallen

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Irradiation Embritlement in Alloy HT-9  

SciTech Connect

HT-9 steel is a candidate structural and cladding material for high temperature lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors. In typical advanced fast reactor designs fuel elements will be irradiated for an extended period of time, reaching up to 5-7 years. Significant displacement damage accumulation in the steel is expected (> 200 dpa) when exposed to dpa-rates of 20-30 dpa{sub Fe}/y and high fast flux (E > 0.1 MeV) {approx}4 x 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2}s. Core temperatures could reach 400-560 C, with coolant temperatures at the inlet as low as 250 C, depending on the reactor design. Mechanical behavior in the presence of an intense fast flux and high dose is a concern. In particular, low temperature operation could be limited by irradiation embrittlement. Creep and corrosion effects in liquid metal coolants could set a limit to the upper operating temperature. In this report, we focus on the low temperature operating window limit and describe HT-9 embrittlement experimental findings reported in the literature that could provide supporting information to facilitate the consideration of a Code Case on irradiation effects for this class of steels in fast reactor environments. HT-9 has an extensive database available on irradiation performance, which makes it the best choice as a possible near-term candidate for clad, and ducts in future fast reactors. Still, as it is shown in this report, embrittlement data for very low irradiation temperatures (< 200 C) and very high radiation exposure (> 150 dpa) is scarce. Experimental findings indicate a saturation of DBTT shifts as a function of dose, which could allow for long lifetime cladding operation. However, a strong increase in DBTT shift with decreasing irradiation temperature could compromise operation at low service temperatures. Development of a deep understanding of the physics involved in the radiation damage mechanisms, together with multiscale computer simulation models of irradiation embrittlement will provide the basis to derive trendlines and quantitative engineering predictions.

Serrano De Caro, Magdalena [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

258

Measuring Spectral Actinic Flux and Irradiance: Experimental Results from the Actinic Flux Determination from Measurements of Irradiance (ADMIRA) Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are presented from the Actinic Flux Determination from Measurements of Irradiance (ADMIRA) campaign to measure spectral global UV irradiance and actinic flux at the ground, beneath an atmosphere well defined by supporting measurements. ...

A. R. Webb; A. F. Bais; M. Blumthaler; G-P. Gobbi; A. Kylling; R. Schmitt; S. Thiel; F. Barnaba; T. Danielsen; W. Junkermann; A. Kazantzidis; P. Kelly; R. Kift; G. L. Liberti; M. Misslbeck; B. Schallhart; J. Schreder; C. Topaloglou

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Convergence of normal form transformations: The role of symmetries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the convergence problem for coordinate transformations which take a given vector field into Poincar\\'e-Dulac normal form. We show that the presence of linear or nonlinear Lie point symmetries can guaranteee convergence of these normalizing transformations, in a number of scenarios. As an application, we consider a class of bifurcation problems.

G. Cicogna; S. Walcher

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

260

Oil production models with normal rate curves Dudley Stark  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oil production models with normal rate curves Dudley Stark School of Mathematical Sciences Queen;Abstract The normal curve has been used to fit the rate of both world and U.S.A. oil production. In this paper we give the first theoretical basis for these curve fittings. It is well known that oil field

Stark, Dudley

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal irradiance ghi" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Shape mixtures of multivariate skew-normal distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Classes of shape mixtures of independent and dependent multivariate skew-normal distributions are considered and some of their main properties are studied. If interpreted from a Bayesian point of view, the results obtained in this paper bring tractability ... Keywords: 62E15, 62H05, Bayes, Conjugacy, Regression model, Robustness, Shape parameter, Skew-normal distribution, Skewness

Reinaldo B. Arellano-Valle; Marc G. Genton; Rosangela H. Loschi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

High Resolution Irradiance Spectrum from 300 to 1000 nm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The FTS scans that made up the Kitt Peak Solar Flux Atlas by Kurucz, Furenlid, Brault, and Testerman (1984) have been re-reduced. An approximate telluric atmospheric model was determined for each FTS scan. Large-scale features produced by O3 and O2 dimer were computed and divided out. The solar continuum level was found by fitting a smooth curve to high points in each scan. The scans were normalized to the fitted continuum to produce a residual flux spectrum for each FTS scan. The telluric line spectrum was computed using HITRAN and other line data for H2O, O2, and CO2. The line parameters were adjusted for an approximate match to the observed spectra. The scans were divided by the computed telluric spectra to produce residual irradiance spectra. Artifacts from wavelength mismatches, deep lines, etc, were removed by hand and replaced by linear interpolation. Overlapping scans were fitted together to make a continuous spectrum from 300 to 1000 nm. All the above steps were iterative. The monochromatic error var...

Kurucz, R L

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Demonstration of Approach and Results of Used Fuel Performance Characterization Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Demonstration of Approach and Results of Used Fuel Performance Characterization This report provides results of the initial demonstration of the modeling capability developed to perform preliminary deterministic evaluations of moderate-to-high burnup used nuclear fuel (UNF) mechanical performance under normal conditions of storage (NCS) and normal conditions of transport (NCT) conditions. This report also provides results from the sensitivity studies, and discussion on the long-term goals and objectives of this

264

Final report on graphite irradiation test OG-2  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented of dimensional, thermal expansivity, thermal conductivity, Young's modulus, and tensile strength measurements on specimens of nuclear graphites irradiated in capsule OG-2. About half the irradiation space was allocated to H-451 near-isotropic petroleum-coke-based graphite or its subsized prototype grade H-429. Most of these specimens had been previously irradiated. Virgin specimens of another near-isotropic graphite, grade TS-1240, were irradiated. Some previously irradiated specimens of needle-coke-based H-327 graphite and pitch-coke-based P$sub 3$JHAN were also included.

Price, R.J.; Beavan, L.A.

1975-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

265

Mechanical Cutting of Irradiated Reactor Internal Components  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the use of mechanical cutting methods to volume reduce and package irradiated reactor internal components. The recent completion of the removal of the Reactor Vessel Internals (RVI) from within the Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Plant demonstrates that unlike previous methods used for similar projects, mechanical cutting minimizes exposure to workers, costly water cleanup, and excessive secondary waste generation. (authors)

Anderson, M.G.; Fennema, J.A. [MOTA Corporation, West Columbia, SC (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Behavior of Irradiated B4C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A project sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Industry Research (NFIR) Group was conducted to evaluate the behavior of irradiated B4C absorber material from LWR control components that had been discharged after having reached a relatively high exposure. Vibratory compacted B4C powder from a Vermont Yankee BWR control blade was examined after reaching a maximum local B-10 depletion of 70%. Hot pressed B4C pellets from a Maine Yankee PWR control rod were examined after ...

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Metal fuel manufacturing and irradiation performance  

SciTech Connect

The advances in metal fuel by the Integral Fast Reactor Program at Argonne National Laboratory are the subject of this paper. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an advanced liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The advances stressed in the paper include fuel irradiation performance, and improved passive safety. The goals and the safety philosophy of the Integral Fast Reactor Program are stressed.

Pedersen, D.R.; Walters, L.C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Metal fuel manufacturing and irradiation performance  

SciTech Connect

The advances in metal fuel by the Integral Fast Reactor Program at Argonne National Laboratory are the subject of this paper. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an advanced liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The advances stressed in the paper include fuel irradiation performance, and improved passive safety. The goals and the safety philosophy of the Integral Fast Reactor Program are stressed.

Pedersen, D.R.; Walters, L.C.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Carbon-14 in Irradiated Graphite Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report examines the international data on the formation and distribution of 14C in graphite moderators in the context of the treatment and/or disposal of the material upon reactor decommissioning. International organizations from the United States, France, Germany, Italy, Lithuania, and the United Kingdom collaborated in this program. This report provides an informed and improved understanding of the formation and behavior of 14C in irradiated graphite to determine where agreement or residual differ...

2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

270

Effect of gamma irradiation on optical isolators  

SciTech Connect

The effects of gamma radiation on optical isolators have been investigated. This study has included the simultaneous irradiation and measurement of the individual emitters and detectors making up the isolators. In this manner, the net effect of irradiation on the isolators could be attributed to the degradation of either the emitter or detector, or both. As expected, isolators containing photodiodes are more radiation resistant than those containing phototransistors. In the photodiode isolator the LED is responsible for essentially all the gamma-induced isolator degradation. The performance of phototransistor isolators depends strongly on the phototransistor bias, V/sub CE/ , and the LED input current, I/sub LED/. At high I/sub LED/ and low V/sub CE/ where gamma-induced surface effects in the phototransistor are minimized, the degradation of the isolator is due primarily to the LED which is more sensitive than the LED in the photodiode isolator. In contrast, at low I/sub LED/ and high V/sub CE/, gamma-induced surface damage in the phototransistor is the dominant effect and the isolator is quite sensitive to irradiation. (auth)

Soda, K.J.; Barnes, C.E.; Kiehl, R.A.

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Irradiation response and stability of nanoporous materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanoporous materials consist of a regular organic or inorganic framework supporting a regular, porous structure. Pores are by definition roughly in the nanometre range, that is between 0.2 nm and 100 nm. Nanoporous materials can be subdivided into 3 categories (IUPAC): (1) Microporous materials - 0.2-2 nm; (2) Mesoporous materials - 2-50 nm; and (3) Macroporous materials - 50-1000 nm. np-Au foams were successfully synthesized by de-alloying process. np-Au foams remain porous structure after Ne ion irradiation to 1 dpa. Stacking Fault Tetrahedra (SFTs) were observed in RT irradiated np-Au foams under the highest and intermediate fluxes, but not under the lowest flux. SFTs were not observed in LNT irradiated np-Au foams under all fluxes. The vacancy diffusivity in Au at RT is high enough so that the vacancies have enough time to agglomerate and then collapse to form SFTs. The high ion flux creates more damage per unit time; vacancies don't have enough time to diffuse or recombine. As a result, SFTs were formed at high ion fluxes.

Fu, Engang [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Yongqiang [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Serrano De Caro, Magdalena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Caro, Jose A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zepeda-Ruiz, L [Lawrence Livermore national Laboratory; Bringa, E. [CONICET, Universidad de Cuyo, Argentina; Nastasi, Mike [University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE; Baldwin, Jon K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

272

Irradiation Environment of the Materials Test Station  

SciTech Connect

Conceptual design of the proposed Materials Test Station (MTS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is now complete. The principal mission is the irradiation testing of advanced fuels and materials for fast-spectrum nuclear reactor applications. The neutron spectrum in the fuel irradiation region of MTS is sufficiently close to that of fast reactor that MTS can match the fast reactor fuel centerline temperature and temperature profile across a fuel pellet. This is an important characteristic since temperature and temperature gradients drive many phenomena related to fuel performance, such as phase stability, stoichiometry, and fission product transport. The MTS irradiation environment is also suitable in many respects for fusion materials testing. In particular, the rate of helium production relative to atomic displacements at the peak flux position in MTS matches well that of fusion reactor first wall. Nuclear transmutation of the elemental composition of the fusion alloy EUROFER97 in MTS is similar to that expected in the first wall of a fusion reactor.

Pitcher, Eric John [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

273

Gas generation from the irradiation of mortar  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A mortar formulation capable of immobilizing chloride salts with high levels of radioactivity is being developed. As part of the developmental effort, radiation effects are being investigated. The radiolytic generation of gas(es) from irradiated mortar formulations was determined for several formulations with variable salt loadings at several test temperatures. The irradiation of a mortar formulation consisting of cement, slag, fly ash, water and 0 to 10 wt % salt led to the generation of hydrogen. The rate of generation was approximately constant, steady state pressures were not attained and final pressures were comparatively high. Higher salt concentrations were correlated with higher hydrogen generation rates for experiments at ambient temperature while lower rates were observed at 120/degree/C. The irradiation of a mortar consisting of cement, fly ash, water and salt led to the radiolytic generation of both oxygen and hydrogen. The addition of 2 wt % FeS or CaS inhibited oxygen generation and changed the hydrogen production rate. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Lewis, M.A.; Warren, D.W.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Irradiation hardening in F82H irradiated at 573 K in the HFIR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Post-irradiation tensile tests were conducted on alloy F82H and variants of this steels irradiated at 573 K up to 19 dpa in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Post-irradiation tensile and hardness tests revealed that the strength of F82H steeply increased below 5 dpa, and the total elongation decreased. The ductility of the variants, which showed more ductility in the unirradiated condition was the same as irradiated F82H, even though the magnitude of irradiation hardening is smaller than F82H. This suggests that the softened parts of the blanket, such as heat affected zones, could show more ductility loss at this temperature. The hardening behavior of F82H with 0.09% additional tantalum (mod3), which demonstrated microstructural stability under high temperature processing, was very similar to that of F82H. Therefore mod3 can be an attractive alternate structural material for a blanket when processed above 1373 K.

Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Sokolov, Mikhail A [ORNL; Hirose, Takanori [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA); Okubo, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA); Tanigawa, Hiroyasu [ORNL; Odette, G.R. [University of California, Santa Barbara; Ando, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Statistical modelling of tropical cyclone tracks: non-normal innovations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present results from the sixth stage of a project to build a statistical hurricane model. Previous papers have described our modelling of the tracks, genesis, and lysis of hurricanes. In our track model we have so far employed a normal distribution for the residuals when computing innovations, even though we have demonstrated that their distribution is not normal. Here, we test to see if the track model can be improved by including more realistic non-normal innovations. The results are mixed. Some features of the model improve, but others slightly worsen.

Hall, T; Hall, Tim; Jewson, Stephen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Comparison of structural properties of pristine and gamma irradiated single-wall carbon nanotubes: Effects of medium and irradiation dose  

SciTech Connect

A systematic study of the gamma irradiation effects on single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) structure was conducted. Nanotubes were exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation in three media. Irradiation was carried out in air, water and aqueous ammonia. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis (EA) and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the changes in the SWCNT structure. TGA measurements showed the highest percentage of introduced groups for the SWCNTs irradiated with 100 kGy. FTIR spectroscopy provided evidence for the attachment of hydroxyl, carboxyl and nitrile functional groups to the SWCNT sidewalls. Those groups were confirmed by EA. All irradiated SWCNTs had hydroxyl and carboxyl groups irrelevant to media used for irradiation, but nitrile functional groups were only identified in SWCNTs irradiated in aqueous ammonia. Raman spectroscopy indicated that the degree of disorder in the carbon nanotube structure correlates with the irradiation dose. For the nanotubes irradiated with the dose of 100 kGy, the Raman I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio was three times higher than for the pristine ones. Atomic force microscopy showed a 50% decrease in nanotube length at a radiation dose of 100 kGy. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies showed significant changes in the morphology and structure of gamma irradiated SWCNTs. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gamma irradiation causes SWCNT covalent functionalization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Type of covalently attached groups to SWCNT surface depends on irradiation medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SWCNT shortening level increases with applied irradiation dose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average length of carbon nanotubes decreased by 50% at the highest dose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The diameter of SWCNT bundles becomes small as irradiation dose rises.

Kleut, D. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O.B. 522, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O.B. 522, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Jovanovic, S., E-mail: svetlanajovanovic@vinca.rs [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O.B. 522, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Markovic, Z.; Kepic, D.; Tosic, D. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O.B. 522, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O.B. 522, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Romcevic, N. [Insitute of Physics, P.O.B. 68, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Insitute of Physics, P.O.B. 68, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Marinovic-Cincovic, M.; Dramicanin, M. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O.B. 522, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O.B. 522, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Holclajtner-Antunovic, I. [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, P.O.B. 47, University of Belgrade, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, P.O.B. 47, University of Belgrade, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Pavlovic, V. [Faculty of Agriculture, P.O.B. 127, University of Belgrade, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Faculty of Agriculture, P.O.B. 127, University of Belgrade, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Drazic, G. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)] [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Milosavljevic, M.; Todorovic Markovic, B. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O.B. 522, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O.B. 522, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

277

Annealing effects in hydrogenated silicon nitride films during high energy ion beam irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The annealing effects during energy recoil detection (ERD) analysis on the structure of hydrogenated silicon nitride film have been investigated by using fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Hydrogenated silicon nitride films were prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition with various substrate temperatures. A 2.5 MeV {sup 4}He{sup ++} ion beam was irradiated onto the film in a vacuum chamber at room temperature. The ERD signal was measured after various ion doses in order to determine the loss of hydrogen counts induced by the ion beam. The IR absorption spectrum was obtained in order to follow the film structural change which occurred due to the ion beam. The films deposited at 200 and 300 C show a significant decrease in the ERD count with increasing ion beam dose, while the film deposited at 400 C, shows no significant changes. The IR absorption peak position for Si-N stretching (830 cm{sup {minus}1}) shifted to smaller wave numbers after ion beam irradiation, while the Si-H stretching (2,160 cm{sup {minus}1}) shifted to the opposite direction. The peak position for N-H (3,360 cm{sup {minus}1}) shows no noticeable changes. Normalized peak area for the Si-N stretching increased after ion beam irradiation. The Si-H peak area decreased slightly. The N-H peak area decreased significantly. A recombination mechanism of the N and H radicals with excess Si radical coming from Si-Si bonds in Si-rich silicon nitride films has been suggested to explain the IR absorption spectral changes which have occurred due to ion beam irradiation.

Lee, J.W. [ETRI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)]|[KAIST, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.H.; Yoo, H.J. [ETRI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jhon, M.S.; Ryoo, R. [KAIST, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

The spectral irradiance traceability chain at PTB  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spectral irradiance is a fundamental radiometric unit. Its application to measurement results requires qualified traceability to basic units of the international system of units (Systeme international d'unites, SI). The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is amongst other national metrological institutes (NMIs) responsible for the realization, maintenance and dissemination of various radiometric and photometric units based on and traceable to national standards. The unit of spectral irradiance is realized and represented by a blackbody-radiator as the national primary standard of the PTB. Based on Planck's radiation law, the irradiance is calculated and realized for any wavelength taking into account the exact knowledge of the radiation temperature and the geometrical parameters. Using a double-monochromator-based spectroradiometer system, secondary standard lamps can be calibrated by direct comparison to the blackbody-radiator (substitution method). These secondary standard lamps are then used at the PTB to calibrate standard lamps of customers. The customers themselves use these so-called transfer standards to calibrate their working standard lamps. These working standards are then used to calibrate own spectroradiometers or sources. This rather complex calibration chain is a common procedural method that for the customers generally leads to satisfying measurement results on site. Nevertheless, the standard lamps in use have to fulfill highest requirements concerning stability and reproducibility. Only this allows achieving comparably low transfer measurement uncertainties, which occur at each calibration step. Thus, the PTB is constantly investigating the improvement and further development of transfer standards and measurement methods for various spectral regions. The realization and dissemination of the spectral irradiance using the blackbody-radiator at the PTB is accomplished with worldwide approved minimized measurement uncertainties confirmed by international intercomparisons among NMIs. Ultimately, the spectral irradiance can be realized with expanded measurement uncertainties of far less than 1 % over a wide spectral range. Thus, for customers with high demands on low measurement uncertainties, it is possible to calibrate their working standards directly against the blackbody-radiator, taking into account the higher necessary effort. In special cases it is possible to calibrate the customer's spectroradiometric facilities directly in front of the blackbody-radiator. In the context of the European Metrology Research Project Traceability for surface spectral solar ultraviolet radiation, the traceability chain will be improved and adapted.

Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.; Nevas, S. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 10, 381160 Braunschweig (Germany)

2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

279

Evaluation of Neutron Irradiated Silicon Carbide and Silicon Carbide Composites  

SciTech Connect

The effects of fast neutron irradiation on SiC and SiC composites have been studied. The materials used were chemical vapor deposition (CVD) SiC and SiC/SiC composites reinforced with either Hi-Nicalon{trademark} Type-S, Hi-Nicalon{trademark} or Sylramic{trademark} fibers fabricated by chemical vapor infiltration. Statistically significant numbers of flexural samples were irradiated up to 4.6 x 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2} (E>0.1 MeV) at 300, 500 and 800 C in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Dimensions and weights of the flexural bars were measured before and after the neutron irradiation. Mechanical properties were evaluated by four point flexural testing. Volume increase was seen for all bend bars following neutron irradiation. Magnitude of swelling depended on irradiation temperature and material, while it was nearly independent of irradiation fluence over the fluence range studied. Flexural strength of CVD SiC increased following irradiation depending on irradiation temperature. Over the temperature range studied, no significant degradation in mechanical properties was seen for composites fabricated with Hi-Nicalon{trademark} Type-S, while composites reinforced with Hi-Nicalon{trademark} or Sylramic fibers showed significant degradation. The effects of irradiation on the Weibull failure statistics are also presented suggesting a reduction in the Weibull modulus upon irradiation. The cause of this potential reduction is not known.

Newsome G, Snead L, Hinoki T, Katoh Y, Peters D

2007-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

280

Chemical And Isotopic Investigation Of Warm Springs Associated With Normal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Isotopic Investigation Of Warm Springs Associated With Normal Isotopic Investigation Of Warm Springs Associated With Normal Faults In Utah Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Chemical And Isotopic Investigation Of Warm Springs Associated With Normal Faults In Utah Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Thermal springs associated with normal faults in Utah have been analyzed for major cations and anions, and oxygen and hydrogen isotopes. Springs with measured temperatures averaging greater than 40°C are characterized by Na + K- and SO4 + Cl-rich waters containing 103 to 104 mg/l of dissolved solids. Lower temperature springs, averaging less than 40°C, are more enriched in Ca + Mg relative to Na + K. Chemical variations monitored through time in selected thermal springs are probably produced by

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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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281

Dating of major normal fault systems using thermochronology- An example  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dating of major normal fault systems using thermochronology- An example Dating of major normal fault systems using thermochronology- An example from the Raft River detachment, Basin and Range, western United States Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Dating of major normal fault systems using thermochronology- An example from the Raft River detachment, Basin and Range, western United States Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Application of thermochronological techniques to major normal fault systems can resolve the timing of initiation and duration of extension, rates of motion on detachment faults, timing of ductile mylonite formation and passage of rocks through the crystal-plastic to brittle transition, and multiple events of extensional unroofing. Here we determine

282

Definition: Apex or Salient of Normal Fault | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Apex or Salient of Normal Fault Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Apex or Salient of Normal Fault Normal faults may intersect in the subsurface to form a fault apex or salient. Apices or salients of normal faults account for 3% of structural controls in the Great Basin.[2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition References ↑ James E. Faulds,Nicholas H. Hinz,Mark F. Coolbaugh,Patricia H. Cashman,Christopher Kratt,Gregory Dering,Joel Edwards,Brett Mayhew,Holly McLachlan. 2011. Assessment of Favorable Structural Settings of Geothermal Systems in the Great Basin, Western USA. In: Transactions. GRC Anual Meeting; 2011/10/23; San Diego, CA. Davis, CA: Geothermal Resources Council; p. 777-783

283

Long-Lead Seasonal Temperature Prediction Using Optimal Climate Normals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study is intended to determine the spatially varying optimal time periods for calculating seasonal climate normals over the entire United States based on temperature data at 344 United States climate divisions during the period of 19311993. ...

Jin Huang; Huug M. van den Dool; Anthony G. Barnston

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Production and Handling Slide 27: Feed Cylinder with Normal Assay...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Normal Assay (0.711%U) Arriving at Plant Refer to caption below for image description The enrichment process begins with "feed material," natural uranium that contains 0.711%...

285

Size, shape, and appearance of the normal female pituitary gland  

SciTech Connect

One hundred seven women 18-65 years old were studied who were referred for suspected central nervous system disease not related to the pituitary gland or hypothalamus. High-resolution, direct, coronal, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) was used to examine the size; shape, and density of the normal pituitary gland. There were three major conclusions: (1) the height of the normal gland can be as much as 9 mm; (2) the superior margin of the gland may bulge in normal patients; and (3) both large size and convex contour appear to be associated with younger age. It was also found that serum prolactin levels do not appear to correlate with the CT appearances. Noise artifacts inherent in high-detail, thin-section, soft-tissue scanning may be a limiting factor in defining reproducible patterns in different parts of the normal pituitary gland.

Wolpert, S.M.; Molitch, M.E.; Goldman, J.A.; Wood, J.B.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

A phrase-based statistical model for SMS text normalization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Short Messaging Service (SMS) texts behave quite differently from normal written texts and have some very special phenomena. To translate SMS texts, traditional approaches model such irregularities directly in Machine Translation (MT). However, such ...

AiTi Aw; Min Zhang; Juan Xiao; Jian Su

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Characteristics of Wind Turbines Under Normal and Fault Conditions: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates the characteristics of a variable-speed wind turbine connected to a stiff or weak grid under normal and fault conditions and the role of reactive power compensation.

Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Parsons, B.; Ellis, A.

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Champernowne's Number, Strong Normality, and the X ... - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A number ? is simply normal in the base r if every 1-string in its .... The results for [ 0, 1) are extended to R in the same way. 5. .... Science and Applications), 1988.

289

Normal-Mode Decomposition of Small-Scale Oceanic Motions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Small-scale oceanic motions consist of vortical motion and internal waves. In a linear or weakly nonlinear system these two types of motions can be unambiguously separated using normal-mode decomposition in which the vortical mode carries the ...

Ren-Chieh Lien; Peter Mller

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Normalized Maximum-Likelihood Estimators of the Directional Wave Spectrum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new family of data-adaptative directional wave spectrum estimators is proposed. These estimators may be considered as an improvement over the well-known extended maximum-likelihood method (EMLM). The normalization is based on the idea of ...

M. A. Arribas; J. J. Egozcue

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

On the Best Temperature and Precipitation Normals: The Illinois Situation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Historical (190179) temperature and precipitation data for four Illinois stations were used to determine the frequency with which summer and winter averages for periods of various length (i.e., different climatic normals) are closest to the ...

Peter J. Lamb; Stanley A. Changnon Jr.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

East Coast (PADD 1) Normal Butane-Butylene Stock Change ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

East Coast (PADD 1) Normal Butane-Butylene Stock Change (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 4-3: 1: ...

293

East Coast (PADD 1) Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

East Coast (PADD 1) Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; ...

294

Midwest (PADD 2) Exports of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Midwest (PADD 2) Exports of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 0: 0: 0: 0: ...

295

Midwest (PADD 2) Normal Butane-Butylene Stock Change (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Midwest (PADD 2) Normal Butane-Butylene Stock Change (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981-4-34-7: 14: ...

296

West Coast (PADD 5) Imports of Normal Butane-Butylene ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

West Coast (PADD 5) Imports of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 9: 18: ...

297

Why Do Forecasts for Near Normal Often Fail?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been observed by many that skill of categorical forecasts, when decomposed into the contributions from each category separately, tends to be low, if not absent or negative, in the near normal (N) category. We have witnessed many ...

Huug M. Van Den Dool; Zoltan Toth

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Time-Extrapolated Rainfall Normals for Central Equatorial Pacific Islands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Normal annual rainfalls (means and medians) for the period 191075 are estimated for islands in the central equatorial Pacific. Ridge regression, with an empirically determined bias constant, is used to establish the relationships among the ...

Bernard N. Meisner

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Post-irradiation-examination of irradiated fuel outside the hot cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of their high radioactivity, irradiated fuels are commonly examined in a hot cell. However, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has recently investigated irradiated U-Mo-Al metallic fuel from the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) project using a conventional unshielded scanning electron microscope outside a hot cell. This examination was possible because of a two-step sample-preparation approach in which a small volume of fuel was isolated in a hot cell and shielding was introduced during later stages of sample preparation. The resulting sample contained numerous sample-preparation artifacts but allowed analysis of microstructures from selected areas.

Dawn E. Janney; Adam B. Robinson; Thomas P. O'Holleran; R. Paul Lind; Marc Babcock; Laurence C. Brower; Julie Jacobs; Pamela K. Hoggan

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Thermal analysis of the FSP-1RR irradiation test  

SciTech Connect

The thermal analysis of four unirradiated fuel pins to be tested in the FSP-1RR fuels irradiation experiment was completed. This test is a follow-on experiment in the series of fuel pin irradiation tests conducted by the SP-100 Program in the Fast Flux Test Facility. One of the pins contains several meltwire temperature monitors within the fuel and the Li annulus. A post-irradiation examination will verify the accuracy of the pre-irradiation thermal analysis. The purpose of the pre-irradiation analysis was to determine the appropriate insulating gap gas compositions required to provide the design goal cladding operating temperatures and to ensure that the meltwire temperature ranges in the temperature monitored pin bracket peak irradiation temperatures. This paper discusses the methodology and summarizes the results of the analysis.

Webb, R.H.; Lyon, W.F. III

1992-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal irradiance ghi" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

NANOSTRUCTURE PATTERNING UNDER ENERGETIC PARTICLE BEAM IRRADIATION  

SciTech Connect

Energetic ion bombardment can lead to the development of complex and diverse nanostructures on or beneath the material surface through induced self-organization processes. These self-organized structures have received particular interest recently as promising candidates as simple, inexpensive, and large area patterns, whose optical, electronic and magnetic properties are different from those in the bulk materials [1-5]. Compared to the low mass efficiency production rate of lithographic methods, these self-organized approaches display new routes for the fabrication of nanostructures over large areas in a short processing time at the nanoscale, beyond the limits of lithography [1,4]. Although it is believed that surface nanostructure formation is based on the morphological instability of the sputtered surface, driven by a kinetic balance between roughening and smoothing actions [6,7], the fundamental mechanisms and experimental conditions for the formation of these nanostructures has still not been well established, the formation of the 3-D naopatterns beneath the irradiated surface especially needs more exploration. During the last funding period, we have focused our efforts on irradiation-induced nanostructures in a broad range of materials. These structures have been studied primarily through in situ electron microscopy during electron or ion irradiation. In particular, we have performed studies on 3-D void/bubble lattices (in metals and CaF2), embedded sponge-like porous structure with uniform nanofibers in irradiated semiconductors (Ge, GaSb, and InSb), 2-D highly ordered pattern of nanodroplets (on the surface of GaAs), hexagonally ordered nanoholes (on the surface of Ge), and 1-D highly ordered ripple and periodic arrays (of Cu nanoparticles) [3,8-11]. The amazing common feature in those nanopatterns is the uniformity of the size of nanoelements (nanoripples, nanodots, nanovoids or nanofibers) and the distance separating them. Our research focuses on the understanding of fundamental scientific basis for the irradiation-induced self-organization processes. The fundamental physical mechanisms underlying ordered pattern formation, which include defect production and migration, ion sputtering, redeposition, viscous flow and diffusion, are investigated through a combination of modeling and in situ and ex-situ observations [3,9,11]. In addition, these nanostructured materials exhibit considerable improvement of optical properties [9,12,13]. For example, patterned Ge with a hexagonally ordered, honeycomb-like structure of nanoscale holes possesses a high surface area and a considerably blue-shifted energy gap [9], and oxidation of ordered Ga droplets shows noticeable enhancement of optical transmission [12]. This research has addressed nanopattern formation in a variety of materials under ion bombardment and provided a fundamental understanding of the dynamic mechanisms involved. In addition, have also stared to systematically investigate pattern formation under ion irradiation for more systems with varied experimental conditions and computation, including the collaboration with Dr. Veena Tikare of Sandia National Laboratory with a hybrid computation method at the ending this grant. A more detailed relationship between nanostructure formation and experimental conditions will be revealed with our continued efforts.

Wang, Lumin [Regents of the University of Michigan; Lu, Wei [Regents of the University of Michigan

2013-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

302

Simple solar spectral model for direct and diffuse irradiance on horizontal and tilted planes at the earth's surface for cloudless atmospheres  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new, simple model for calculating clear-sky direct and diffuse spectral irradiance on horizontal and tilted surfaces is presented. The model is based on previously reported simple algorithms and on comparisons with rigorous radiative transfer calculations and limited outdoor measurements. Equations for direct normal irradiance are outlined; and include: Raleigh scattering; aerosol scattering and absorption; water vapor absorption; and ozone and uniformly mixed gas absorption. Inputs to the model include solar zenith angle, collector tilt angle, atmospheric turbidity, amount of ozone and precipitable water vapor, surface pressure, and ground albedo. The model calculates terrestrial spectra from 0.3 to 4.0 ..mu..m with approximately 10 nm resolution. A major goal of this work is to provide researchers with the capability to calculate spectral irradiance for different atmospheric conditions and different collector geometries using microcomputers. A listing of the computer program is provided.

Bird, R.; Riordan, C.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Comparison of Diffuse Shortwave Irradiance Measurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Diffuse Shortwave Diffuse Shortwave Irradiance Measurements J. J. Michalsky and J. Schlemmer Atmospheric Sciences Research Center State University of New York Albany, New York B. C. Bush, S. Leitner, D. Marsden, and F. P. J. Valero Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego La Jolla, California R. Dolce and A. Los Kipp & Zonen, Inc. Bohemia, New York and Delft The Netherlands E. G. Dutton Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado M. P. Haeffelin Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Blackburg, Virginia G. Major Budapest University of Economic Sciences and Public Administration Budapest, Hungry J. Hickey The Eppley Laboratory, Inc. Newport, Rhode Island

304

DECONTAMINATION OF NEUTRON-IRRADIATED REACTOR FUEL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pyrometallurgical method of decontaminating neutronirradiated reactor fuel is presented. In accordance with the invention, neutron-irradiated reactor fuel may be decontaminated by countercurrently contacting the fuel with a bed of alkali and alkaine fluorides under an inert gas atmosphere and inductively melting the fuel and tracking the resulting descending molten fuel with induction heating as it passes through the bed. By this method, a large, continually fresh surface of salt is exposed to the descending molten fuel which enhances the efficiency of the scrubbing operation.

Buyers, A.G.; Rosen, F.D.; Motta, E.E.

1959-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

305

Radicals in {gamma}-irradiated wool  

SciTech Connect

Radicals were identified in wool fiber {gamma}-irradiated at 77 K by EPR: products of reaction of an electron e and H atom with amino acid residues and a polypeptide chain, and their partial yields at 77 K and the reactivity scale of e with respect to the individual fragments of the protein molecule were determined: [RSSR]: [>C=O{sub p.b.}]:[NH{sub 3}{sup +}-R]:[aromatic ring] = 4:3: > 1:1. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Baeva, N.N.; Sadova, S.F.; Sharpatyi, V.A.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

IRRADIATION BY X RAYS AND AWUEOUS DIURESIS  

SciTech Connect

The effect of x radiation on the renal functioning in the rat, rabbit. and dog was studied to determine if irradiation can modify significantly the yield of aqueous diuresis. The techniques used in the three cases are described. Results show that x radiation does noi cause constant and significant polyuria in the rat, rabbit, or dog. Whereas the rat is characterized by a variable urinary elimination, the rabbit regularly exhibits oliguria. The dog, in acute experiments, shows a rise in diuresis. (J.S.R.)

Beaumariage, M.L.; Barac, G.

1960-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Anomalous Adsorption of Ultrafast Laser Irradiation in Glass ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Anomalous Adsorption of Ultrafast Laser Irradiation in Glass ... and is driven by the stress induced by absorption of ultrafast light in glass.

308

Improved Solar Power Plant Efficiency: Low Cost Solar Irradiance Sensor  

A University of Colorado research group led by Fernando Mancilla-David has developed a low cost irradiance sensor using a network modeled on a neural ...

309

ALGAE: RADIOACTIVITY UPTAKE AND IRRADIATION EFFECTS. A Literature Search  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-seven references are included on the uptake of radioisotopes by algae and the biological effects of external or internal irradiation of algae. (C.H.)

Smith, L.L.

1961-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

310

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic...

311

Consequences of low dose irradiation in the CNS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Consequences of low dose irradiation in the CNS Bertrand Tseng, Munjal M. Acharya, Neal Patel, Katherine Tran, Mary Lan, Erich Giedzinski, Vipan Kumar and Charles Limoli Department...

312

Alterations in mitochondrial gene copy numbers following irradiation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Alterations in mitochondrial gene copy numbers following irradiation in radiosensitive mice Sumita Raha Northwestern University Abstract We have developed a quantitative real-time...

313

Irradiation and Testing of Fuels and Cladding Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 14, 2012 ... Mechanical Performance of Materials for Current and Advanced Nuclear Reactors: Irradiation and Testing of Fuels and Cladding Materials

314

Alterations in mitochondrial gene copy numbers following irradiation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Alterations in mitochondrial gene copy numbers following irradiation in radiosensitive mice. Sumita Raha, Qiong Wang, Emily Mirkin, M. Beau Wanzer, Tatjana Paunesku and Gayle...

315

Impact of Low-Dose Ionizing Irradiation on Histone Modification...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Impact of Low-Dose Ionizing Irradiation on Histone Modification and Chromatin Organization Hunter W. Richards Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract Goal Our goal is to...

316

Impact of Low-Dose Ionizing Irradiation on Histone Modification...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low-Dose Ionizing Irradiation on Histone Modification and Chromatin Organization Hunter W. Richards, Steven D. Ayers, Shutao Cai, Yoshinori Kohwi, Gary Karpen, Sylvain Costes and...

317

Operational Awareness Tour of Building 3525 Irradiated Fuels...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Report for the Operational Awareness Tour of Building 3525 Irradiated Fuels Examination Hot Cell Laboratory Dates of Activity : 10212011 Report Preparer: Tim Mengers Activity...

318

A Rate-Theory Approach to Irradiation Damage Modeling with ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Materials and Fuels for the Current and Advanced Nuclear Reactors II. Presentation Title, A Rate-Theory Approach to Irradiation Damage Modeling...

319

Development of Microstructure and Irradiation Hardening of Zircaloy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Wrought Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4 were neutron irradiated at nominally 300C in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at relatively low neutron ...

320

Program for Irradiation of Reactor Structural Materials at the ATR ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Program for Irradiation of Reactor Structural Materials at the ATR-National Scientific User Facility. Author(s), Heather J. MacLean Chichester, ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal irradiance ghi" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Damage Structure Evolution in Ion Irradiated UO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Radiation Effects in Oxide Ceramics and Novel LWR Fuels ... To better understand low dose irradiation effects on defect creation in UO2, helium...

322

NIST SURF Long-Term Monitoring of the Ultraviolet Irradiance ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... converted into a dedicated primary irradiance source ... SR) is the only standard source available, since ... the range of the blackbody standard sources. ...

2012-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

323

Microstructure Stability in Irradiated Materials - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CASL: The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors: A U.S. ... Strategies for Studying High Dose Irradiation Effects in Reactor Components.

324

Intergranular Cracking of an Irradiated Ti-Stabilized Austenitic ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 1, 1999 ... Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power ... Failure of an irradiated fuel assembly spacer grid sleeve was observed after three...

325

Estimation of Ultraviolet-A Irradiance from Measurements of 368-nm Spectral Irradiance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The estimation of ultraviolet-A (UV-A) radiation across the earths surface is needed to model plant productivity and future impacts of ultraviolet-B radiation on plant productivity. We have developed two models to estimate the UV-A irradiance ...

R. H. Grant; J. R. Slusser

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

EFFECTS OF FEEDING A VITAMIN K-DEFICIENT RATION CONTAINING IRRADIATED BEEF TO RATS, DOGS, AND CATS  

SciTech Connect

A ration containing 35% beef irradiated with 2.79 megarad fed to 12 male Sprague-Dawley rats caused the death of 9 rats because of hemorrhage. The mean reciprocal of the prothrombin time was 0.068 plus or minus 0.018 sec/sup -/. When 3 male cats and 3 male dogs were fed a ration containing irradiated bsef for 40 weeks, all gained weight and the prothrombin time of the blood remained normal. The amount of vitamin K in the ration was calculated to be 6 mu g/100 g of ration solids, which was adequate to prevent prolonged prothrombin times of the blood of cats and dogs, although it was inadequate for rats. Irradintion of beef with 2.8 megarad was previously shown to cause a 50--85% loss in vitamin K content. Rats fed a ration containing nonirradiated beef survived and there was no prolonged prothrombin time of the blood. (H.H.D.)

Reber, E.F.; Malhotra, Om.P.

1961-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Flattening Filter Free vs Flattened Beams for Breast Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Flattening filter free (FFF) beams offer the potential for a higher dose rate, shorter treatment time, and lower peripheral dose. To investigate their role in large-field treatments, this study compared flattened and FFF beams for breast irradiation. Methods and Materials: Ten left breast clinical plans comprising 2 tangential beams and a medially located 3-field simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) were replanned. Full intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), hybrid IMRT, electronic tissue compensator (ETC), and multiple static field treatment plans were created for the elective breast volume using flattened and FFF beams, in combination with a 3-field IMRT SIB. Plan quality was assessed and delivery times were measured for all plans for 1 patient. Out-of-field doses were measured using an ionization chamber for an IMRT plan optimized on a corner of simple cubic phantom for both flattened and FFF beams. Results: For each technique, mean target volume metrics (planning target volume coverage, homogeneity, conformity) were typically within 3% for flattened and FFF beams. Larger mean differences in boost conformity favoring flattened hybrid (7.2%) and full IMRT (5.5%) plans may have reflected limitations in plan normalization. Calculated heart and ipsilateral lung doses were comparable; however, both flattened and FFF low-dose phantom measurements were substantially higher than calculated values, rendering the comparison of low dose in the contralateral breast uncertain. Beam delivery times were on average 31% less for FFF. Conclusions: In general, target volume metrics for flattened and FFF plans were comparable. The planning system did not seem to allow for accurate peripheral dose evaluation. FFF was associated with a potentially shorter treatment time. All 4 IMRT techniques allowed FFF beams to generate acceptable plans for breast IMRT.

Spruijt, Kees H., E-mail: k.spruijt@vumc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dahele, Max; Cuijpers, Johan P.; Jeulink, Marloes; Rietveld, Derek; Slotman, Ben J.; Verbakel, Wilko F.A.R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Evolution of the nanostructure OF VVER-1000 RPV materials under neutron irradiation and post irradiation annealing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high nickel VVER-1000 (15Kh2NMFAA) base metal (1.34 wt% Ni, 0.47% Mn, 0.29% Si and 0.05% Cu), and a high nickel (12Kh2N2MAA) weld metal (1.77 wt% Ni, 0.74% Mn, 0.26% Si and 0.07% Cu) have been characterized by atom probe tomography to determine the changes in the microstructure during neutron irradiation to high fluences. The base metal was studied in the unirradiated condition and after neutron irradiation to fluences between 2.4 and 14.9 x 10{sup 23} m{sup -2} (E > 0.5 MeV), and the weld metal was studied in the unirradiated condition and after neutron irradiation to fluences between 2.4 and 11.5 x 10{sup 23} m{sup -2} (E > 0.5 MeV). High number densities of 2-nm-diameter Ni-, Si- and Mn-enriched nanoclusters were found in the neutron irradiated base and weld metals. No significant copper enrichment was associated with these nanoclusters and no copper-enriched precipitates were observed. The number densities of these nanoclusters correlate with the shifts in the {Delta}T{sub 41 J} ductile-to-brittle transition temperature. These nanoclusters were present after a post irradiOffice of Science (US)C, but had dissolved into the matrix after 24 h at 450 C. Phosphorus, nickel, silicon and to a lesser extent manganese were found to be segregated to the dislocations.

Miller, Michael K [ORNL; Chernobaeva, A. A. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Shtrombakh, Ya. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Erak, D. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Zabusov, Oleg O. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Russell, Kaye F [ORNL; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Optimisation of buildings' solar irradiation availability  

SciTech Connect

In order to improve the sustainability of new and existing urban settlements it is desirable to maximise the utilisation of the solar energy incident on the building envelope, whether by passive or active means. To this end we have coupled a multi-objective optimisation algorithm with the backwards ray tracing program RADIANCE which itself uses a cumulative sky model for the computation of incident irradiation (W h/m{sup 2}) in a single simulation. The parameters to optimise are geometric (the height of buildings up to their facade and the height and orientation of roofs), but with the constraint of maintaining an overall built volume, and the objective function is heating season solar irradiation offset by envelope heat losses. This methodology has been applied to a range of urban typologies and produces readily interpretable results. The focus of this work is on the design of new urban forms but the method could equally be applied to examine the relative efficiency of existing urban settlements, by comparison of existing forms with the calculated optima derived from relevant specifications of the building envelope. (author)

Kaempf, Jerome Henri; Montavon, Marylene; Bunyesc, Josep; Robinson, Darren [Solar Energy and Building Physics Laboratory, Station 18, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Bolliger, Raffaele [Industrial Energy Systems Laboratory, Station 9, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

330

Hafnium radioisotope recovery from irradiated tantalum  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hafnium is recovered from irradiated tantalum by: (a) contacting the irradiated tantalum with at least one acid to obtain a solution of dissolved tantalum; (b) combining an aqueous solution of a calcium compound with the solution of dissolved tantalum to obtain a third combined solution; (c) precipitating hafnium, lanthanide, and insoluble calcium complexes from the third combined solution to obtain a first precipitate; (d) contacting the first precipitate of hafnium, lanthanide and calcium complexes with at least one fluoride ion complexing agent to form a fourth solution; (e) selectively adsorbing lanthanides and calcium from the fourth solution by cationic exchange; (f) separating fluoride ion complexing agent product from hafnium in the fourth solution by adding an aqueous solution of ferric chloride to obtain a second precipitate containing the hafnium and iron; (g) dissolving the second precipitate containing the hafnium and iron in acid to obtain an acid solution of hafnium and iron; (h) selectively adsorbing the iron from the acid solution of hafnium and iron by anionic exchange; (i) drying the ion exchanged hafnium solution to obtain hafnium isotopes. Additionally, if needed to remove residue remaining after the product is dried, dissolution in acid followed by cation exchange, then anion exchange, is performed.

Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, David J. (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

LWRS ATR Irradiation Testing Readiness Status  

SciTech Connect

The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors. The LWRS Program is divided into four R&D Pathways: (1) Materials Aging and Degradation; (2) Advanced Light Water Reactor Nuclear Fuels; (3) Advanced Instrumentation, Information and Control Systems; and (4) Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization. This report describes an irradiation testing readiness analysis in preparation of LWRS experiments for irradiation testing at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) under Pathway (2). The focus of the Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuels Pathway is to improve the scientific knowledge basis for understanding and predicting fundamental performance of advanced nuclear fuel and cladding in nuclear power plants during both nominal and off-nominal conditions. This information will be applied in the design and development of high-performance, high burn-up fuels with improved safety, cladding integrity, and improved nuclear fuel cycle economics

Kristine Barrett

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan Used nuclear fuel (UNF) must maintain its integrity during the storage period in such a way that it can withstand the physical forces of handling and transportation associated with restaging the fuel and transporting it to treatment or recycling facilities, or to a geologic repository. This RD&D plan describes a methodology, including development and use of analytical models, to evaluate loading and associated mechanical responses of UNF rods and key structural components. The plan objective is to

333

Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan Used nuclear fuel (UNF) must maintain its integrity during the storage period in such a way that it can withstand the physical forces of handling and transportation associated with restaging the fuel and transporting it to treatment or recycling facilities, or to a geologic repository. This RD&D plan describes a methodology, including development and use of analytical models, to evaluate loading and associated mechanical responses of UNF rods and key structural components. The plan objective is to

334

A complete and normalized 61850 substation (Smart Grid Project) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

complete and normalized 61850 substation (Smart Grid Project) complete and normalized 61850 substation (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name A complete and normalized 61850 substation Country Spain Headquarters Location Madrid, Spain Coordinates 40.488735°, -3.284912° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.488735,"lon":-3.284912,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

335

Gradually Truncated Log-normal distribution- Size distribution of firms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many natural and economical phenomena are described through power law or log-normal distributions. In these cases, probability decreases very slowly with step size compared to normal distribution. Thus it is essential to cut-off these distributions for larger step size. Recently we introduce the gradually truncated power law distribution to successfully describe variation of financial, educational, physical and citation index. In the present work, we introduce gradually truncated log-normal distribution in which we gradually cut-off larger steps due to physical limitation of the system. We applied this distribution successfully to size distribution of USAs manufactoring firms which is measured through their annual sell. The physical limitation are due to limited market size or shortage of highly competent executives. I.

Hari M. Gupta; Jos R. Campanha

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Defining the normal turbine inflow within a wind park environment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This brief paper discusses factors that must be considered when defining the [open quotes]normal[close quotes] (as opposed to [open quotes]extreme[close quotes]) loading conditions seen in wind turbines operating within a wind park environment. The author defines the [open quotes]normal[close quotes] conditions to include fatigue damage accumulation as a result of: (1) start/stop cycles, (2) emergency shutdowns, and (3) the turbulence environment associated with site and turbine location. He also interprets [open quotes]extreme[close quotes] loading conditions to include those events that can challenge the survivability of the turbine.

Kelley, N.D.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Defining the normal turbine inflow within a wind park environment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This brief paper discusses factors that must be considered when defining the {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} (as opposed to {open_quotes}extreme{close_quotes}) loading conditions seen in wind turbines operating within a wind park environment. The author defines the {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} conditions to include fatigue damage accumulation as a result of: (1) start/stop cycles, (2) emergency shutdowns, and (3) the turbulence environment associated with site and turbine location. He also interprets {open_quotes}extreme{close_quotes} loading conditions to include those events that can challenge the survivability of the turbine.

Kelley, N.D.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form. The method comprises: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3` noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 4 figs.

Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

1996-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

339

The Fission Converter-Based Epithermal Neutron Irradiation Facility at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A new type of epithermal neutron irradiation facility for use in neutron capture therapy has been designed, constructed, and put into operation at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR). A fission converter, using plate-type fuel and driven by the MITR, is used as the source of neutrons. After partial moderation and filtration of the fission neutrons, a high-intensity forward directed beam is available with epithermal neutron flux [approximately equal to]10{sup 10} n/cm{sup 2}.s, 1 eV {<=} E {<=} 10 keV, at the entrance to the medical irradiation room, and epithermal neutron flux = 3 to 5 x 10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2}.s at the end of the patient collimator. This is currently the highest-intensity epithermal neutron beam. Furthermore, the system is designed and licensed to operate at three times higher power and flux should this be desired. Beam contamination from unwanted fast neutrons and gamma rays in the aluminum, polytetrafluoroethylene, cadmium and lead-filtered beam is negligible with a specific fast neutron and gamma dose, D{sub {gamma}}{sub ,fn}/{phi}{sub epi} [less than or approximately equal] 2 x 10{sup -13} Gy cm{sup 2}/n{sub epi}. With a currently approved neutron capture compound, boronophenylalanine, the therapeutically advantageous depth of penetration is >9 cm for a unilateral beam placement. Single fraction irradiations to tolerance can be completed in 5 to 10 min. An irradiation control system based on beam monitors and redundant, high-reliability programmable logic controllers is used to control the three beam shutters and to ensure that the prescribed neutron fluence is accurately delivered to the patient. A patient collimator with variable beam sizes facilitates patient irradiations in any desired orientation. A shielded medical room with a large window provides direct viewing of the patient, as well as remote viewing by television. Rapid access through a shielded and automatically operated door is provided. The D{sub 2}O cooling system for the fuel has been conservatively designed with excess capacity and is fully instrumented to ensure detection and control of off-normal conditions. A wide range of possible abnormal events or accident scenarios has been analyzed to show that even in the worst cases, there should be no fission product release through fuel damage. This facility has been licensed to operate by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and initial operation commenced in June 2000.

Harling, O.K. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Riley, K.J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Newton, T.H. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Wilson, B.A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Bernard, J.A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Hu, L-W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Fonteneau, E.J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Menadier, P.T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Ali, S.J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Sutharshan, B. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Kohse, G.E. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Ostrovsky, Y. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Stahle, P.W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Binns, P.J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Kiger, W.S. III [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Busse, P.M. [Beth-Israel Deaconess Medical Center (Israel)

2002-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

340

A stochastic model for cell survival after irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper deals with the theory of cell survival after irradiation. It is based on the assumption that the cell is composed of two regions with different sensitivities and takes into account phenomena with general repair-time distribution different ... Keywords: Irradiation, mean life time, repair-time distribution

G. K. Agrafiotis

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal irradiance ghi" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

PROCESS FOR CONTINUOUSLY SEPARATING IRRADIATION PRODUCTS OF THORIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is presented for separating uranium-233 and protactinium from thorium-232 containing compositions which comprises irradiating finely divided particles of said thorium with a neutron flux to form uranium-233 and protactinium, heating the neutron-irradiated composition in a fluorine and hydrogen atmosphere to form volatile fluorides of uranium and protactinium and thereafter separating said volatile fluorides from the thorium.

Hatch, L.P.; Miles, F.T.; Sheehan, T.V.; Wiswall, R.H.; Heus, R.J.

1959-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Total Solar Irradiance Measurements During Solar Cycles 22 and 23  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Total Solar Irradiance Measurements During Solar Cycles 22 and 23 Sabri Mekaoui Abstract The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) is a measure of the radiative output from the Sun. Its value and its long solar cycles. Cycle 22 lasted from late 1986 until 1996 while cycle 23 is currently ending

Glineur, François

343

Bystander Effects Induced by Medium From Irradiated Cells: Similar Transcriptome Responses in Irradiated and Bystander K562 Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Cells exposed to ionizing radiation release factors that induce deoxyribonucleic acid damage, chromosomal instability, apoptosis, and changes in the proliferation rate of neighboring unexposed cells, phenomena known as bystander effects. This work analyzes and compares changes in global transcript levels induced by direct irradiation and by bystander effects in K562 (human erythroleukemia) cells. Methods and Materials: Cells were X-irradiated with 4 Gy or transferred into culture medium collected from cells 1 h after irradiation (irradiation-conditioned medium). Global transcript profiles were assessed after 36 h of growth by use of Affymetrix microarrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) and the kinetics of change of selected transcripts by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results: The level of the majority (72%) of transcripts changed similarly (increase, decrease, or no change) in cells grown in irradiation-conditioned medium or irradiated, whereas only 0.6% showed an opposite response. Transcript level changes in bystander and irradiated cells were significantly different from those in untreated cells grown for the same amount of time and were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for selected genes. Signaling pathways in which the highest number of transcripts changed in both conditions were found in the following groups: neuroactive ligand-receptor, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Janus Kinase-Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (JAK-STAT) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) In control cells more transcripts were downregulated than in irradiated and bystander cells with transcription factors YBX1 and STAT5B, heat shock protein HSPA1A, and ribonucleic acid helicase DDX3X as examples. Conclusions: The transcriptomes of cells grown in medium from X-irradiated cells or directly irradiated show very similar changes. Signals released by irradiated cells may cause changes in the transcriptome of neighboring cells that sustain their survival.

Herok, Robert; Konopacka, Maria [Department of Experimental and Clinical Radiobiology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Polanska, Joanna; Swierniak, Andrzej [System Engineering Group, Institute of Automatic Control, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland); Rogolinski, Jacek [Department of Experimental and Clinical Radiobiology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Jaksik, Roman [System Engineering Group, Institute of Automatic Control, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland); Hancock, Ronald [Laval University Cancer Research Centre, Hotel-Dieu Hospital, Quebec, QC (Canada); Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna, E-mail: jwolny@io.gliwice.p [Department of Experimental and Clinical Radiobiology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); System Engineering Group, Institute of Automatic Control, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Relationships between Measured and Satellite-Estimated Solar Irradiance in Texas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accuracy of satellite-estimated surface solar irradiance and the relationship between irradiance at pairs of locations and distance between the pairs were examined. Daily measured and satellite-estimated irradiances were available for a 23 ...

William A. Dugas; Mark L. Heuer

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Automated geometric features evaluation method for normal foot skeleton model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

"Normal foot model" is a geometric model of a healthy human foot. As the comparison of the processed feet requires a reference ideal healthy foot parameterization it was necessary to create such a model by defining skeleton geometric features and generating ...

Bartosz Borucki; Krzysztof Nowi?Ski; Micha? Chlebiej; Andrzej Rutkowski; Pawe? Adamczyk; Jacek Laskowski

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Normal accidents: Data quality problems in ERP-enabled manufacturing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The efficient operation of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems largely depends on data quality. ERP can improve data quality and information sharing within an organization. It can also pose challenges to data quality. While it is well known that ... Keywords: Data quality, ERP, complexity, enterprise resource planning, normal accident, tight coupling

Lan Cao, Hongwei Zhu

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Nonlinear Normal-Mode Balancing and the Ellipticity Condition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a low-order, spectral, shallow-water model on an f-plane, the conditions under which height-constrained nonlinear normal mode initialization fails and the existence of realizable balancing wind fields are examined. The relationship of this ...

Joseph J. Tribbia

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Strong Normality of Numbers - CECM - Simon Fraser University  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dence of the patterning and review some relevant results in normality. We propose ... outstanding historical results. .... will work in R/Z by discarding all digits to the left of the decimal point in. 5 ..... puting 88 (II, Science and Applications), 1988.

349

Recent Studies of RF Breakdown Physics in Normal Conducting Cavities  

SciTech Connect

The operating accelerating gradient in normal conducting accelerating structures is often limited by rf breakdown. The behavior of the rf breakdown depends on multiple parameters, including the input rf power, rf circuit, cavity shape and material. Here we discuss recent experimental data and theoretical studies of rf breakdown physics.

Dolgashev, Valery; /SLAC

2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

350

DYNAMICS OF DISTANT NORMAL GALAXIES David C. Koo 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, a new and very powerful dimension has been added to the suite of tools to explore distant galaxiesDYNAMICS OF DISTANT NORMAL GALAXIES David C. Koo 1 1 UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy of techniques for measuring total dynamical masses are being explored and found practical. I highlight three

351

Projecting diffusion along the normal bundle of a plane curve  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to provide new formulas for the estimation of the effective diffusion coefficient of an equation of Fick-Jacob's type obtained by projecting the two-dimensional diffusion equation along the normal direction of an arbitrary plane curve.

Carlos Valero Valdes; Rafael Herrera Guzman

2013-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

352

Assessment of Initial Test Conditions for Experiments to Assess Irradiation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Assessment of Initial Test Conditions for Experiments to Assess Assessment of Initial Test Conditions for Experiments to Assess Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking Mechanisms Assessment of Initial Test Conditions for Experiments to Assess Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking Mechanisms Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking is a key materials degradation issue in today's nuclear power reactor fleet and affects critical structural components within the reactor core. The effects of increased exposure to irradiation, stress, and/or coolant can substantially increase susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking of austenitic steels in high-temperature water environments. Despite 30 years of experience, the underlying mechanisms of Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) are unknown. Extended service conditions will increase the exposure

353

Researchers Devise New Stress Test for Irradiated Materials | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Researchers Devise New Stress Test for Irradiated Materials Researchers Devise New Stress Test for Irradiated Materials Researchers Devise New Stress Test for Irradiated Materials July 20, 2011 - 3:58pm Addthis Scientists conducted compression tests of copper specimens irradiated with high-energy protons, designed to model how damage from radiation affects the mechanical properties of copper. By using a specialized in situ mechanical testing device in a transmission electron microscope at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, the team could examine — with nanoscale resolution — the localized nature of this deformation. | Courtesy of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Scientists conducted compression tests of copper specimens irradiated with high-energy protons, designed to model how damage from radiation affects

354

Researchers Devise New Stress Test for Irradiated Materials | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Researchers Devise New Stress Test for Irradiated Materials Researchers Devise New Stress Test for Irradiated Materials Researchers Devise New Stress Test for Irradiated Materials July 20, 2011 - 3:58pm Addthis Scientists conducted compression tests of copper specimens irradiated with high-energy protons, designed to model how damage from radiation affects the mechanical properties of copper. By using a specialized in situ mechanical testing device in a transmission electron microscope at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, the team could examine — with nanoscale resolution — the localized nature of this deformation. | Courtesy of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Scientists conducted compression tests of copper specimens irradiated with high-energy protons, designed to model how damage from radiation affects

355

Recovery of niobium from irradiated targets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for selective separation of niobium from proton irradiated molybdenum targets is provided and includes dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first ion-containing solution, contacting the first ion-containing solution with a cationic resin whereby ions selected form the group consisting of molybdenum, biobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium and rubidium remain in a second ion-containing solution while ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium and zirconium are selectively adsorbed by the cationic resin; adjusting the pH of the second ion-containing solution to within a range of from about 5.0 to about 6.0; contacting the pH adjusting second ion-containing solution with a dextran-based material for a time to selectively separate niobium from the solution and recovering the niobium from the dextran-based material.

Phillips, Dennis R. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, Sr., David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Hamilton, Virginia T. (Los Alamos, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Strongly anisotropic Dirac quasiparticles in irradiated graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study quasiparticle dynamics in graphene exposed to a linearly-polarized electromagnetic wave of very large intensity. Low-energy transport in such system can be described by an effective time-independent Hamiltonian, characterized by multiple Dirac points in the first Brillouin zone. Around each Dirac point the spectrum is anisotropic: the velocity along the polarization of the radiation significantly exceeds the velocity in the perpendicular direction. Moreover, in some of the points the transverse velocity oscillates as a function of the radiation intensity. We find that the conductance of a graphene p-n junction in the regime of strong irradiation depends on the polarization as $G(\\theta)\\propto|\\sin\\theta|^{3/2}$, where $\\theta$ is the angle between the polarization and the p-n interface, and oscillates as a function of the radiation intensity.

S. V. Syzranov; Ya. I. Rodionov; K. I. Kugel; F. Nori

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

357

Controlled doping of graphene using ultraviolet irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The electronic properties of graphene are tunable via doping, making it attractive in low dimensional organic electronics. Common methods of doping graphene, however, adversely affect charge mobility and degrade device performance. We demonstrate a facile shadow mask technique of defining electrodes on graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) thereby eliminating the use of detrimental chemicals needed in the corresponding lithographic process. Further, we report on the controlled, effective, and reversible doping of graphene via ultraviolet (UV) irradiation with minimal impact on charge mobility. The change in charge concentration saturates at {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} and the quantum yield is {approx}10{sup -5} e/photon upon initial UV exposure. This simple and controlled strategy opens the possibility of doping wafer-size CVD graphene for diverse applications.

Luo Zhengtang [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong); Pinto, Nicholas J.; Davila, Yarely [Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Puerto Rico at Humacao, Humacao, 00792 (Puerto Rico); Charlie Johnson, A. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6396 (United States)

2012-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

358

Damage and repair of irradiated mammalian brain  

SciTech Connect

We have demonstrated that focal charged particle irradiation of the rabbit brain can create well-defined lesions which are observable by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR) and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging techniques. These are similar, in terms of location and characteristic NMR and PET features, to those that occur in the brain of about 10% of clinical research human subjects, who have been treated for intracranial vascular malformations with stereotactic radiosurgery. These lesions have been described radiologically as vasogenic edema of the deep white matter,'' and the injury is of variable intensity and temporal duration, can recede or progress to serious neurologic sequelae, and persist for a considerable period of time, frequently 18 mon to 3 yr. 8 refs., 6 figs.

Frankel, K.; Lo, E.; Phillips, M.; Fabrikant, J.; Brennan, K.; Valk, P.; Poljak, A.; Delapaz, R.; Woodruff, K. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Medical Center; Brookside Hospital, San Pablo, CA (USA))

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Instrumentation to Enhance Advanced Test Reactor Irradiations  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in April 2007 to support U.S. leadership in nuclear science and technology. By attracting new research users - universities, laboratories, and industry - the ATR will support basic and applied nuclear research and development, further advancing the nation's energy security needs. A key component of the ATR NSUF effort is to prove new in-pile instrumentation techniques that are capable of providing real-time measurements of key parameters during irradiation. To address this need, an assessment of instrumentation available and under-development at other test reactors has been completed. Based on this review, recommendations are made with respect to what instrumentation is needed at the ATR and a strategy has been developed for obtaining these sensors. Progress toward implementing this strategy is reported in this document. It is anticipated that this report will be updated on an annual basis.

J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson; K. G. Condie; J. E. Daw; S. C. Taylor

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Post-Irradiation Examination of AREVA M5 Guide Tubes and Fuel Rods Irradiated in North Anna 1 and 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the hot cell examination of guide tubes and fuel rods fabricated with the advanced M5 alloy and irradiated in North Anna Units 1 and 2 to exposures beyond current fuel licensing limits. Collecting the relevant data required detailed poolside and hot cell examinations, which entailed outage coordination and shipment of irradiated fuel and components to multiple facilities.

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

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361

The Effects of Interfaces on the Ultrafast Irradiation of Thin Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, The Effects of Interfaces on the Ultrafast Irradiation of Thin Films ... Abstract Scope, The ultrafast laser irradiation of bulk materials is a...

362

A high-resolution, cloud-assimilating numerical weather prediction model for solar irradiance forecasting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ofnumericalweatherpredictionsolarirradianceforecastsofnumericalweatherpredictionforintra?daysolarnumericalweatherpredictionmodelforsolarirradiance

Mathiesen, Patrick; Collier, Craig; Kleissl, Jan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Fracture and Impact Properties of HT-9 Steel Irradiated to High Dose ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Fracture and Impact Properties of HT-9 Steel Irradiated to High ... 250, and the irradiation temperature in a servo-hydraulic testing machine.

364

Spectral asymptotics via the semiclassical Birkhoff normal form  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This article gives a simple treatment of the quantum Birkhoff normal form for semiclassical pseudo-differential operators with smooth coefficients. The normal form is applied to describe the discrete spectrum in a generalised non-degenerate potential well, yielding uniform estimates in the energy $E$. This permits a detailed study of the spectrum in various asymptotic regions of the parameters $(E,\\h)$, and gives improvements and new proofs for many of the results in the field. In the completely resonant case we show that the pseudo-differential operator can be reduced to a Toeplitz operator on a reduced symplectic orbifold. Using this quantum reduction, new spectral asymptotics concerning the fine structure of eigenvalue clusters are proved. In the case of polynomial differential operators, a combinatorial trace formula is obtained.

Laurent Charles; San Vu Ngoc

2006-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

365

Procedure for normalization of cDNA libraries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides a method to normalize a cDNA library constructed in a vector capable of being converted to single-stranded circles and capable of producing complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles comprising: (a) converting the cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles; (c) hybridizing the single-stranded circles converted in step (a) with complementary nucleic acid molecules of step (b) to produce partial duplexes to an appropriate Cot; (e) separating the unhybridized single-stranded circles from the hybridized single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 1 fig.

Bonaldo, M.D.; Soares, M.B.

1997-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

366

A nanotube based electron microbeam cellular irradiator for radiobiology research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A prototype cellular irradiator utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) based field emission electron source has been developed for microscopic image-guided cellular region irradiation. The CNT cellular irradiation system has shown great potential to be a high temporal and spatial resolution research tool to enable researchers to gain a better understanding of the intricate cellular and intercellular microprocesses occurring following radiation deposition, which is essential to improving radiotherapy cancer treatment outcomes. In this paper, initial results of the system development are reported. The relationship between field emission current, the dose rate, and the dose distribution has been investigated. A beam size of 23 {mu}m has been achieved with variable dose rates of 1-100 Gy/s, and the system dosimetry has been measured using a radiochromic film. Cell irradiation has been demonstrated by the visualization of H2AX phosphorylation at DNA double-strand break sites following irradiation in a rat fibroblast cell monolayer. The prototype single beam cellular irradiator is a preliminary step to a multipixel cell irradiator that is under development.

Bordelon, David E. [Curriculum in Applied and Materials Sciences, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Zhang Jian; Graboski, Sarah; Cox, Adrienne; Schreiber, Eric; Chang, Sha [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Zhou, Otto Z. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Curriculum in Applied and Materials Sciences, and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

367

Efficient Software Implementation for Finite Field Multiplication in Normal Basis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. Finite field arithmetic is becoming increasingly important in today's computer systems, particularly for implementing cryptographic operations. Among various arithmetic operations, finite field multiplication is of particular interest since it is a major building block for elliptic curve cryptosystems. In this paper, we present new techniques for efficient software implementation of binary field multiplication in normal basis. Our techniques are more efficient in terms of both speed and memory compared with alternative approaches. 1 Introduction Finite field arithmetic is becoming increasingly important in today's computer systems, particularly for implementing cryptographic operations. Among the more common finite fields in cryptography are odd-characteristic finite fields of degree 1 and even-characteristic finite fields of degree greater than 1. The latter is conventionally known as GF (2m) arithmetic or binary field arithmetic. GF (2m) arithmetic is further classified according to the choice of basis for representing elements of the finite field; two common choices are polynomial basis and normal basis. Fast implementation techniques for GF (2m) arithmetic have been studied intensively in the past twenty years. Among various arithmetic operations, GF (2m) multiplication has attracted most of the attention since it is a major building block for implementing elliptic curve cryptosystems. Depending on the choice of basis, the mathematical formula for a GF (2m) multiplication can be quite different, thus making major differences in practical implementation. Currently, it seems that normal basis representation (especially optimal normal basis) offers the best performance in hardware [9-11], while in software polynomial basis representation is more efficient [2, 3, 8].

Peng Ning; Yiqun Lisa Yin

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Effect of crossed beams irradiation on parametric instabilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modification of the growth of scattering processes in the case of multiple beam irradiation compared to single beam irradiation has been investigated in a preformed plasma using Thomson scattrering of a short wavelength probe beam, and spectral and temporal analysis of reflected and transmitted light. First observations of the reduction of the amplitude of ion acoustic waves associated with stimulated Brillouin scattering, amplification of the amplitude of electron plasma waves associated with stimulated Raman scattering, and transfer of energy between crqssing beams with same frequency in a flowing plasma under crossed beam irradiation are reported.

Labaune, C., Ecole Polytechnique, France

1998-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

369

Radiochemistry Results from the IER-163 COMET Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The COMET assembly at the National Criticality Experiments Research Center (NCERC) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) was used to irradiate twelve foils in September 2011. The intention of this irradiation was to measure 'peak yield' fission product activities, activation products, and so-called 'endpoint R values' for different foil materials in a non-thermal neutron spectrum. After irradiation, several of the foils were shipped to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for radiochemical analysis. The results from the non-destructive and radiochemical analyses of six of these foils are presented.

Jackman, Kevin R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bredeweg, Todd Allen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schake, Ann R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oldham, Warren J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bounds, John Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Attrep, Moses Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

370

Ion irradiation tolerance of graphene as studied by atomistic simulations  

SciTech Connect

As impermeable to gas molecules and at the same time transparent to high-energy ions, graphene has been suggested as a window material for separating a high-vacuum ion beam system from targets kept at ambient conditions. However, accumulation of irradiation-induced damage in the graphene membrane may give rise to its mechanical failure. Using atomistic simulations, we demonstrate that irradiated graphene even with a high vacancy concentration does not show signs of such instability, indicating a considerable robustness of graphene windows. We further show that upper and lower estimates for the irradiation damage in graphene can be set using a simple model.

Ahlgren, E. H.; Lehtinen, O. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kotakoski, J. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1190 Wien (Austria); Krasheninnikov, A. V. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, P.O. Box 1100, 00076 Aalto (Finland)

2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

371

AGC-2 Irradiation Data Qualification Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Graphite Technology Development Program will run a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear grade graphite. The second Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment (AGC-2) began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 149A on April 12, 2011, and ended with ATR Cycle 151B on May 5, 2012. The purpose of this report is to qualify AGC-2 irradiation monitoring data following INL Management and Control Procedure 2691, Data Qualification. Data that are Qualified meet the requirements for data collection and use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Data that do not meet the requirements are Failed. Some data may not quite meet the requirements, but may still provide some useable information. These data are labeled as Trend. No Trend data were identified for the AGC-2 experiment. All thermocouples functioned throughout the AGC-2 experiment. There was one instance where spurious signals or instrument power interruption resulted in a recorded temperature value being well outside physical reality. This value was identified and labeled as Failed data. All other temperature data are Qualified. All helium and argon gas flow data are within expected ranges. Total gas flow was approximately 50 sccm through the capsule. Helium gas flow was briefly increased to 100 sccm during reactor shutdown. All gas flow data are Qualified. At the start of the experiment, moisture in the outflow gas line increased to 200 ppmv then declined to less than 10 ppmv over a period of 5 days. This increase in moisture coincides with the initial heating of the experiment and drying of the system. Moisture slightly exceeded 10 ppmv three other times during the experiment. While these moisture values exceed the 10 ppmv threshold value, the reported measurements are considered accurate and to reflect moisture conditions in the capsule. All moisture data are Qualified. Graphite creep specimens are subjected to one of three loads, 393 lbf, 491 lbf, or 589 lbf. Loads were consistently within 5% of the specified values throughout the experiment. Stack displacement increased consistently throughout the experiment with total displacement ranging from 1 to 1.5 inches. No anomalous values were identified. During reactor outages, a set of pneumatic rams are used to raise the stacks of graphite creep specimens to ensure the specimens have not become stuck within the test train. This stack raising was performed after all cycles when the capsule was in the reactor. All stacks were raised successfully after each cycle. The load and displacement data are Qualified

Laurence C. Hull

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Pyrolytic carbon free-radical evolution and irradiation damage of polyimide under low-energy proton irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Ionization and displacement effects are basic phenomena in damage processes of materials under space-particle irradiation. In this paper, the damage behaviors were investigated on the polyimide under proton irradiation using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra analysis and optical absorbance valuation. The results indicate that the proton irradiation induces the formation of pyrolytic carbon free-radical with a g value of 2.0025, and the population of free radicals increases with the irradiation fluence. The most important finding is that the irradiation-induced free-radical population increases linearly with the displacement damage dose, as does the optical degradation, whereas the ionization effect alone, during the irradiation, cannot induce the formation of pyrolytic carbon free radical. Furthermore, during the post storage, after irradiation, the free-radical population decreases following a sum of an exponential and a linear mode with the storage time. It is interesting that, during the post storage, the recovery of the degraded optical absorbance of the polyimide follows a similar mode to that of free radicals, and the characteristic time constant changes with the wavelength of the optical spectra.

Sun Chengyue; Wu Yiyong; Xiao Jingdong; Li Ruifeng; Yang Dezhuang; He Shiyu [National Key Lab in Materials Behaviors and Evaluation Technology in Space Environments, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

373

Small-scale irradiated fuel electrorefining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In support of the metallic fuel cycle development for the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), a small scale electrorefiner was built and operated in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at Argonne National Laboratory-West. The initial purpose of this apparatus was to test the single segment dissolution of irradiated metallic fuel via either direct dissolution in cadmium or anodic dissolution. These tests showed that 99.95% of the uranium and 99.99% of the plutonium was dissolved and separated from the fuel cladding material. The fate of various fission products was also measured. After the dissolution experiments, the apparatus was upgraded to stady fission product behavior during uranium electrotransport. Preliminary decontamination factors were estimated for different fission products under different processing conditions. Later modifications have added the following capabilities: Dissolution of multiple fuel segments simultaneously, electrotransport to a solid cathode or liquid cathode and actinide recovery with a chemical reduction crucible. These capabilities have been tested with unirradiated uranium-zirconium fuel and will support the Fuel Cycle Demonstration program.

Benedict, R.W.; Krsul, J.R.; Mariani, R.D.; Park, K.; Teske, G.M.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Recovery of germanium-68 from irradiated targets  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A process for selective separation of germanium-68 from proton irradiated molybdenum targets is provided and includes dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first ion-containing solution, contacting the first ion-containing solution with a cationic resin whereby ions selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium and rubidium remain in a second ion-containing solution while ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium and zirconium are selectively adsorbed by the first resin, adjusting the pH of the second ion-containing solution to within a range of from about 0.7 to about 3.0, adjusting the soluble metal halide concentration in the second ion-containing solution to a level adapted for subsequent separation of germanium, contacting the pH-adjusted, soluble metal halide-containing second ion-containing solution with a dextran-based material whereby germanium ions are separated by the dextran-based material, and recovering the germanium from the dextran-based material, preferably by distillation.

Phillips, Dennis R. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, Sr., David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Hamilton, Virginia T. (Los Alamos, NM)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Recovery of germanium-68 from irradiated targets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a process for selective separation of germanium-68 from proton irradiated molybdenum targets is provided and includes dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first ion-containing solution, contacting the first ion-containing solution with a cationic resin whereby ions selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium,vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium and rubidium remain in a second ion-containing solution while ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium and zirconium are selectively adsorbed by the first resin, adjusting the pH of the second ion-containing solution to within a range of from about 0.7 to about 3.0, adjusting the soluble metal halide concentration in the second ion-containing solution to a level adapted for subsequent separation of germanium, contacting the pH-adjusted, soluble metal halide-containing second ion-containing solution with a dextran-based material whereby germanium ions are separated by the dextran-based material, and recovering the germanium from the dextran-based material, preferably by distillation.

Phillips, D.R.; Jamriska, D.J. Sr.; Hamilton, V.T.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

376

Post-irradiation Examination and Fission Product Inventory Analysis of AGR-1 Irradiation Capsules  

SciTech Connect

The AGR-1 experiment was the first in a series of Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) experiments designed to test TRISO fuel under High Temperature Gas Reactor irradiation conditions. This experiment was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and is currently undergoing post-irradiation examination (PIE) at INLs Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC). The inventory and distribution of fission products, especially Ag-110m, was assessed and analyzed for all the components of the AGR-1 capsules. This data should help inform the study of fission product migration in coated particle fuel. Gamma spectrometry was used to measure the activity of various different fission products in the different components of the AGR-1 test train. Each capsule contained: 12 fuel compacts, a graphite holder that kept the fuel compacts in place, graphite spacers that were above and below the graphite holders and fuel compacts, gas lines through which a helium neon gas mixture flowed in and out of each capsule, and the stainless steel shell that contained the experiment. Gamma spectrometry results and the experimental techniques used to capture these results will be presented for all the capsule components. The components were assayed to determine the total activity of different fission products present in or on them. These totals are compared to the total expected activity of a particular fission product in the capsule based on predictions from physics simulation. Based on this metric, a significant fraction of the Ag-110m was detected outside the fuel compacts, but the amount varied highly between the 6 capsules. Very small fractions of Cs-137 (<2E-5), Cs-134 (<1e-5), and Eu-154 (<4e-4) were detected outside of the fuel compacts. Additionally, the distribution of select fission products in some of the components including the fuel compacts and the graphite holders were measured and will be discussed.

J M Harp; P D Demkowicz; S A Ploger

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

SANS Study of Highly Irradiated RPV Steels - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, SANS Study of Highly Irradiated RPV Steels ... In this study, the evolution of Cu-, Ni-, and Mg-enriched precipitates is ... Phase-field Modeling of Grain Growth in Sintered Uranium Dioxide under High Temperature Gradients.

378

Simulation of Electron Beam Irradiation of a Skin Tissue Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electron Beam Irradiation of a Skin Tissue Model Electron Beam Irradiation of a Skin Tissue Model John Miller 1 , Seema Varma 1 , William Chrisler 2 , Xihai Wang 2 and Marianne Sowa 2 1 Washington State University Tri-Cities, Richland, WA 2 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA Monte Carlo simulations of electrons stopping in liquid water are being used to model electron- beam irradiation of the full-thickness (FT) EpiDerm TM skin model (MatTek, Ashland, VA). This 3D tissue model has a fully developed basement membrane separating an epidermal layer of keratinocytes from a dermal layer of fibroblasts embedded in collagen. The simulations have shown the feasibility of exposing the epidermal layer to low linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation in the presence of a non-irradiated dermal layer (Miller et al. 2011). The variable-

379

Simulation of Electron Beam Irradiation of a Skin Tissue Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Simulation of Electron Beam Irradiation of a Skin Tissue Model Simulation of Electron Beam Irradiation of a Skin Tissue Model John Miller Washington State University Tri-Cities Abstract Monte Carlo simulations of electrons stopping in liquid water are being used to model electronbeam irradiation of the full-thickness (FT) EpiDermTM skin model (MatTek, Ashland, VA). This 3D tissue model has a fully developed basement membrane separating an epidermal layer of keratinocytes from a dermal layer of fibroblasts embedded in collagen. The simulations have shown the feasibility of exposing the epidermal layer to low linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation in the presence of a non-irradiated dermal layer (Miller et al. 2011). The variableenergy electron microbeam at PNNL (Sowa et al. 2005) was used as a model of device characteristics and

380

Radioadaptation in Neural Stem Cells Exposed to Low Dose Irradiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radioadaptation in Neural Stem Cells Exposed to Low Dose Irradiation Radioadaptation in Neural Stem Cells Exposed to Low Dose Irradiation Charles Limoli University of California, Irvine Abstract In the CNS, irradiation of multipotent neural stem and precursor cells has been shown to cause a persistent oxidative stress that impacts radiosensitivity, mitochondrial function, and cell fate. The nature, magnitude and duration of reactive species dictates whether these radiation-induced changes are harmful or beneficial to a variety of in vitro and in vivo endpoints of viability and function. We have shown that acute low dose irradiation (2-10 cGy) can elicit significant increases in reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species over several days post-exposure. These changes can be attenuated when the dose is protracted over several weeks using a 57Co flood source having a surface dose rate of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal irradiance ghi" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Irradiation qualification testing of SNAP-10A components  

SciTech Connect

Selected SNAP 10A components were irradiated to about 10{sup14} nvt and 5{times} 10{sup 7} r at an average temperature of 136{degrees}F in a nominal vacuum of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} torr. The components were operated periodically and the electrical characteristics recorded. Pre-irradiationand post-irradiation tests were conducted. Catastropic degradation occurred only in the low-level neutron detection system and about 1.5 {times} 10{sup 13} nvt and in the high-level neutron power supply at about 6{times} 10{sup 12} nvt. Marginal degradation occurred in the fusistors and in the silicone rubber insert material in connectors. The relays, low-voltage trip devices, expansion compensator position demodulator, resistance thermometer sensor and bridge, and the gamma detection system opearted within their respective specifications during and after irradiation. The insulation resistance of all components was adeqauate during and after irradiation.

Chesavage, A.J.

1964-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

382

Method for mounting laser fusion targets for irradiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods for preparing laser fusion targets of the ball-and-disk type are disclosed. Such targets are suitable for irradiation with one or two laser beams to produce the requisite uniform compression of the fuel material.

Fries, R. Jay (Los Alamos, NM); Farnum, Eugene H. (Los Alamos, NM); McCall, Gene H. (Los Alamos, NM)

1977-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

383

Chromosome- and Chromatid-type Aberrations after Irradiation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chromosome- and Chromatid-type Aberrations after Irradiation of Various HRR or NHEJ Deficient Mutant Chinese Hamster Cells and Their Wild-type Counterparts in G0G1 or LateSG2...

384

The Observed Hemispheric Symmetry in Reflected Shortwave Irradiance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While the concentration of landmasses and atmospheric aerosols on the Northern Hemisphere suggests that the Northern Hemisphere is brighter than the Southern Hemisphere, satellite measurements of top-of-atmosphere irradiances found that both ...

Aiko Voigt; Bjorn Stevens; Jrgen Bader; Thorsten Mauritsen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Alternative Parameterizations of Downward Irradiance and Their Dynamical Significance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of solar flux divergence on upper ocean dynamics and energetics under both low and high wind speeds was determined using four different parameterizations of downward irradiance. The first (case I) involved only one attenuation length, ...

J. J. Simpson; T. D. Dickey

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

FY 2013 Summary Report: Post-Irradiation Examination of Zircaloy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

In the future, baseline data generated from these activities will be used to benchmark hot-cell testing of actual high-burnup UNF cladding. FY13SumRprtPostIrradiationExaminatZir...

387

Low dose irradiation of the early vertebrate embryo and early...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

irradiation of the early vertebrate embryo and early onset of tissue aging Lingling Ding 1,2 , Xuan Zheng 1,3 , Wendy W. Kuhne 4 , David E. Hinton 5 , Jeffrey R. Lee 6 , and...

388

Influence of Urban Aerosol on Spectral Solar Irradiance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

From a dataset of spectral distribution of global and disuse solar irradiances measured in Barcelona during the last three years, the influence of turbidity caused by urban aerosol on spectral composition of solar radiation and transmissivity of ...

J. Lorente; A. Reda; X. De Cabo

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Carbon Characterization Laboratory Readiness to Receive Irradiated Graphite Samples  

SciTech Connect

The Carbon Characterization Laboratory (CCL) is located in Labs C19 and C20 of the Idaho National Laboratory Research Center. The CCL was established under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project to support graphite and ceramic composite research and development activities. The research conducted in this laboratory will support the Advanced Graphite Creep experimentsa major series of material irradiation experiments within the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Graphite program. The CCL is designed to characterize and test low activated irradiated materials such as high purity graphite, carbon-carbon composites, silicon-carbide composite, and ceramic materials. The laboratory is fully capable of characterizing material properties for both irradiated and nonirradiated materials. Major infrastructural modifications were undertaken to support this new radiological facility at Idaho National Laboratory. Facility modifications are complete, equipment has been installed, radiological controls and operating procedures have been established and work management documents have been created to place the CCL in readiness to receive irradiated graphite samples.

Karen A. Moore

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal irradiance...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

b>
Global Horizontal Irradiance
NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008)
22-year Monthly & Annual Average...

391

Optimal Measurement of Surface Shortwave Irradiance Using Current Instrumentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although most measurements of total downwelling shortwave irradiance are made with pyranometers, the World Climate Research Programs Baseline Surface Radiation Network has recommended the use of the summation of shortwave components in which the ...

J. Michalsky; E. Dutton; M. Rubes; D. Nelson; T. Stoffel; M. Wesley; M. Splitt; J. DeLuisi

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Irradiation facilities at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The irradiation facilities for testing SSC components and detector systems are described. Very high intensity proton, neutron, and pion fluxes are available with beam kinetic energies of up to 800 MeV. 4 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Sandberg, V.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

High Dose Heavy Ion Irradiation of Austenitic Stainless Steels ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ab Initio Study of Radiation-Induced Amorphization Mechanisms in SiC and ZrC ... of Zircaloy during Low Dose Neutron Irradiation at Nominally 375-440C.

394

Turbidity Determination from Broadband Irradiance Measurements: A Detailed Multicoefficient Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A physically modeled method is presented to obtain accurate turbidity determinations from broadband direct irradiance measurements. The method uses parameterizations of various extinction processes affecting the transfer of shortwave radiation in ...

Christian A. Gueymard

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Lead Test Assembly Irradiation and Analysis Watts Bar Nuclear Plant,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lead Test Assembly Irradiation and Analysis Watts Bar Nuclear Lead Test Assembly Irradiation and Analysis Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Tennessee and Hanford Site, Richland, Washington Lead Test Assembly Irradiation and Analysis Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Tennessee and Hanford Site, Richland, Washington SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts associated with the U.S. Department of Energy proposed action to conduct a lead test assembly program to confirm the viability of using a commercial light water reactor to produce tritium. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD July 22, 1997 EA-1210: Finding of No Significant Impact Lead Test Assembly Irradiation and Analysis Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Tennessee and Hanford Site, Richland, Washington July 22, 1997 EA-1210: Final Environmental Assessment

396

Program for alloy development for irradiation performance in fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

The use of fission reactors as irradiation test facilities for structural materials for a fusion environment is discussed. A comparison is made of displacement damage and helium production in fast fission and fusion reactors for stainless steel. (MOW)

Stiegler, J.O.; Reuther, T.C.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Estimation of Ultraviolet-B Irradiance under Variable Cloud Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods to estimate the irradiance of ultraviolet-B (UVB; 280320 nm) radiation are needed to assess biological effects of changes in atmospheric composition. Measurements of the spatial distribution of sky cloud cover, temporal variability of ...

Richard H. Grant; Gordon M. Heisler

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Late Light Curves of Normally-Luminous Type Ia Supernovae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of Type Ia supernovae as cosmological tools has reinforced the need to better understand these objects and their light curves. The light curves of Type Ia supernovae are powered by the nuclear decay of $^{56}Ni \\to ^{56}Co \\to ^{56}Fe$. The late time light curves can provide insight into the behavior of the decay products and their effect of the shape of the curves. We present the optical light curves of six "normal" Type Ia supernovae, obtained at late times with template image subtraction, and the fits of these light curves to supernova energy deposition models.

J. C. Lair; M. D. Leising; P. A. Milne; G. G. Williams

2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

399

Overview of the BlockNormal Event Trigger Generator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the search for unmodeled gravitational wave bursts, there are a variety of methods that have been proposed to generate candidate events from time series data. Block Normal is a method of identifying candidate events by searching for places in the data stream where the characteristic statistics of the data change. These change-points divide the data into blocks in which the characteristics of the block are stationary. Blocks in which these characteristics are inconsistent with the long term characteristic statistics are marked as Event-Triggers which can then be investigated by a more computationally demanding multi-detector analysis.

J W C McNabb; M Ashley; L S Finn; E Rotthoff; A Stuver; T Summerscales; P Sutton; M Tibbits; K Thorne; K Zaleski

2004-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

400

Gas-cooled fast breeder reactor steady-state irradiation testing program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The requirements for the gas-cooled fast breeder reactor irradiation program are specified, and an irradiation program plan which satisfies these requirements is presented. The irradiation program plan consists of three parts and includes a schedule and a preliminary cost estimate: (1) a steady-state irradiation program, (2) irradiations in support of the design basis transient test program, and (3) irradiations in support of the GRIST-2 safety test program. Data from the liquid metal fast breeder reactor program are considered, and available irradiation facilities are examined.

Acharya, R.T.; Campana, R.J.; Langer, S.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal irradiance ghi" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Micro-bulge testing applied to neutron irradiated materials  

SciTech Connect

Micro-bulge testing was conducted on several Fe--Ni--Cr alloys irradiated as 0.3 mm thick disks to 10 dpa at 603 and 773 K in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. Miniature tensile tests were performed on specimens of the same alloys irradiated concurrently. Good correlation between the tensile yield strength and the bulge yield load was observed in unirradiated specimens, however, the correlation was not simple for irradiated specimens. Good correlation was also observed between the ultimate tensile strength and the maximum bulge load. While irradiation produced a significant reduction in total elongation in the tensile test, irradiation caused only a small decrease in the deflection corresponding to the maximum bulge load compared to that observed on thinner disks used in earlier experiments. The results suggest that the thinner disk is better suited for ductility evaluations than the thicker disk. The area bounded by the load-deflection traces of the bulge tests shows a systematic variation with both alloy composition and irradiation condition which is not observed in the tensile data. It is anticipated that this parameter may prove useful in the evaluation of material toughness.

Okada, A. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)); Hamilton, M.L.; Garner, F.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiation Effects on Human Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Wednesday, 28 July 2010 00:00 Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking place on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and/or tomography, is a popular method of investigating micrometer deformation and fracture behavior in bone. However, the role that irradiation plays in these high-exposure experiments, and how it affects the properties of bone tissue, are not yet fully understood. A team of researchers led by Robert O. Ritchie at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Berkeley used synchrotron radiation micro-tomography at Advanced Light Source Beamline 8.3.2 to investigate changes in crack path and toughening mechanisms in human cortical bone with increased exposure to radiation, finding that exposure to high levels of irradiation can lead to drastic losses in strength, ductility, and toughness.

403

Magnetic properties of graphite irradiated with MeV ions  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the change in the magnetic properties produced on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite samples by irradiation of H, C, and N ions in the mega-electron-volt energy range. The use of specially made sample holders for the magnetic measurements provided high reproducibility allowing us to obtain directly the irradiation effects without any corrections or subtractions. Our results show that three magnetic phenomena are triggered by the defects produced by the irradiation, namely, Curie-type paramagnetism, ferromagnetism and an anomalous paramagnetic state that appears as precursor of the magnetic ordered state. Using SRIM simulations to estimate the amount of vacancies produced by the irradiation, the Curie-type paramagnetic response indicates an effective Bohr magneton number per nominally produced vacancy p=0.27+-0.02mu{sub B}. Direct measurements of the surface sample temperature during irradiation and the decrease in the (as-received) paramagnetic as well as ferromagnetic contributions after irradiation indicate that self-heating is one of the causes for small yield of ferromagnetism. Taking into account the hydrogen distribution in the virgin samples, the obtained results indicate that the induced ferromagnetism appears when the average vacancy distance is {approx}2 nm in the near surface region.

Ramos, M. A.; Munoz-Martin, A.; Climent-Font, A. [CMAM and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales 'Nicolas Cabrera', Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Barzola-Quiquia, J.; Esquinazi, P. [Division of Superconductivity and Magnetism, Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik II, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Garcia-Hernandez, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

USE OF SILICON CARBIDE MONITORS IN ATR IRRADIATION TESTING  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In April 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to advance US leadership in nuclear science and technology. By attracting new users from universities, laboratories, and industry, the ATR will support basic and applied nuclear research and development and help address the nation's energy security needs. In support of this new program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed in-house capabilities to fabricate, test, and qualify new and enhanced temperature sensors for irradiation testing. Although most efforts emphasize sensors capable of providing real-time data, selected tasks have been completed to enhance sensors provided in irradiation locations where instrumentation leads cannot be included, such as drop-in capsule and Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) or 'rabbit' locations. For example, silicon carbide (SiC) monitors are now available to detect peak irradiation temperatures between 200C and 800C. Using a resistance measurement approach, specialized equipment installed at INL's High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL) and specialized procedures were developed to ensure that accurate peak irradiation temperature measurements are inferred from SiC monitors irradiated at the ATR. Comparison examinations were completed by INL to demonstrate this capability, and several programs currently rely on SiC monitors for peak temperature detection. This paper discusses the use of SiC monitors at the ATR, the process used to evaluate them at the HTTL, and presents representative measurements taken using SiC monitors.

K. L. Davis; B. Chase; T. Unruh; D. Knudson; J. L. Rempe

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Vertebral Body Growth After Craniospinal Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To estimate the effects of radiotherapy and clinical factors on vertebral growth in patients with medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The height of eight individual or grouped vertebral bodies (C3, C3-C4, T4, T4-T5, C6-T3, T4-T7, L3, L1-L5) was measured before and after CSI (23.4 or 36-39.6 Gy) in 61 patients. Of the 61 patients, 40 were boys and 21 were girls (median age, 7 years; range, 3-13 years), treated between October 1996 and October 2003. Sagittal T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance images were used for the craniocaudal measurements. The measurements numbered 275 (median, 5/patient; range, 3-7). The median follow-up after CSI was 44.1 months (range, 13.8-74.9 months). Results: Significant growth was observed in all measured vertebrae. Excluding C3-C4, the growth rate of the grouped vertebrae was affected by age, gender, and CSI dose (risk classification). The risk classification alone affected the growth rates of C3 (p = 0.002) and L3 (p = 0.02). Before CSI, the length of all vertebral bodies was an increasing function of age (p <0.0001). The C3 length before CSI was affected by gender and risk classification: C3 was longer for female (p = 0.07) and high-risk (p = 0.07) patients. Conclusion: All vertebrae grew significantly after CSI, with the vertebrae of the boys and younger patients growing at a rate greater than that of their counterparts. The effect of age was similar across all vertebrae, and gender had the greatest effect on the growth of the lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. The effect of the risk classification was greatest in the lumbar spine by a factor of {<=}10.

Hartley, Katherine A. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Li Chenghong [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Laningham, Fred H.; Krasin, Matthew J. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Xiong Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)], E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Slag remelt purification of irradiated vanadium alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes theoretical and scoping experimental efforts to investigate the decontamination potential of a slag remelting process for decontaminating irradiated vanadium alloys. Theoretical calculations, using a commercial thermochemical computer code HSC Chemistry, determined the potential slag compositions and slag-vanadium alloy ratios. The experiment determined the removal characteristics of four surrogate transmutation isotopes (Ca, Y - to simulate Sc, Mn, and Ar) from a V-5Ti-5Cr alloy with calcium fluoride slag. An electroslag remelt furnace was used in the experiment to melt and react the constituents. The process achieved about a 90 percent removal of calcium and over 99 percent removal of yttrium. Analyses indicate that about 40 percent of the manganese may have been removed. Argon analyses indicates that 99.3% of the argon was released from the vanadium alloy in the first melt increasing to 99.7% during the second melt. Powder metallurgy techniques were used to incorporate surrogate transmutation products in the vanadium. A powder mixture was prepared with the following composition: 90 wt % vanadium, 4.7 wt % titanium, 4.7 wt % chromium, 0.35 wt % manganese, 0.35 wt % CaO, and 0.35 wt % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This mixture was packed into 2.54 cm diameter stainless steel tubes. Argon was introduced into the powder mixture by evacuating and backfilling the stainless steel containers to a pressure of 20 kPa (0.2 atm). The tubes were hot isostatically pressed at 207 MPa (2000 atm) and 1473 K to consolidate the metal. An electroslag remelt furnace (crucible dimensions: 5.1 cm diameter by 15.2 cm length) was used to process the vanadium electrodes. Chemical analyses were performed on samples extracted from the slags and ingots. Ingot analyses results are shown below. Values are shown in percent removal of the four targeted elements of the initial compositions.

Carmack, W.J.; Smolik, G.R.; McCarthy, K.A.; Gorman, P.K.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

A Symplectic Method to Generate Multivariate Normal Distributions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The AMAS group at the Paul Scherrer Institute developed an object oriented library for high performance simulation of high intensity ion beam transport with space charge. Such particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations require a method to generate multivariate particle distributions as starting conditions. In a preceeding publications it has been shown that the generators of symplectic transformations in two dimensions are a subset of the real Dirac matrices (RDMs) and that few symplectic transformations are required to transform a quadratic Hamiltonian into diagonal form. Here we argue that the use of RDMs is well suited for the generation of multivariate normal distributions with arbitrary covariances. A direct and simple argument supporting this claim is that this is the "natural" way how such distributions are formed. The transport of charged particle beams may serve as an example: An uncorrelated gaussian distribution of particles starting at some initial position of the accelerator is subject to linear deformat...

Baumgarten, Christian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Hard Sphere Dynamics for Normal and Granular Fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A fluid of N smooth, hard spheres is considered as a model for normal (elastic collisions) and granular (inelastic collisions) fluids. The potential energy is discontinuous for hard spheres so the pairwise forces are singular and the usual forms of Newtonian and Hamiltonian mechanics do not apply. Nevertheless, particle trajectories in the N particle phase space are well defined and the generators for these trajectories can be identified. The first part of this presentation is a review of the generators for the dynamics of observables and probability densities. The new results presented in the second part refer to applications of these generators to the Liouville dynamics for granular fluids. A set of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the generator for this Liouville dynamics is identified in a special "stationary representation". This provides a class of exact solutions to the Liouville equation that are closely related to hydrodynamics for granular fluids.

James W. Dufty; Aparna Baskaran

2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

409

The theory of normal zone propagation in superconductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper contains a study of properties of stable normal (N) regions of finite size-resistive domains (R.D.), in superconductors (S) with transport current I. It is demonstra-ted that in homogeneous superconductors R.D. are moving due to thermoelectric effect (Thom-son heat) while the rate of R.D., vdi for dif-ferent materials ranges from 1 to 10 cm/s. It is also shown that the thermoelectric effect leads to asymmetry i n the rate of the N-S boundary av, relative to the direction of I, with AV N vd. The conditions for localizing R.D. in an inhomogeneous superconductor have been obtained, as well as the I-V characteric-tics of a sample with R.D. Hysteresis effects are discussed associated with the localization of R.D and the thermoelectric effect. 1.

A. V. Gurevich; R. G. Mints

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Three-Dimensional Volumetric Analysis of Irradiated Lung With Adjuvant Breast Irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the dose-volume histogram data of irradiated lung in adjuvant breast radiotherapy (ABR) using a three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT)-guided planning technique; and to investigate the relationship between lung dose-volume data and traditionally used two-dimensional (2D) parameters, as well as their correlation with the incidence of steroid-requiring radiation pneumonitis (SRRP). Methods and Materials: Patients beginning ABR between January 2005 and February 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients included were women aged >=18 years with ductal carcinoma in situ or Stage I-III invasive carcinoma, who received radiotherapy using a 3D-CT technique to the breast or chest wall (two-field radiotherapy [2FRT]) with or without supraclavicular irradiation (three-field radiotherapy [3FRT]), to 50 Gy in 25 fractions. A 10-Gy tumor-bed boost was allowed. Lung dose-volume histogram parameters (V{sub 10}, V{sub 20}, V{sub 30}, V{sub 40}), 2D parameters (central lung depth [CLD], maximum lung depth [MLD], and lung length [LL]), and incidence of SRRP were reported. Results: A total of 89 patients met the inclusion criteria: 51 had 2FRT, and 38 had 3FRT. With 2FRT, mean ipsilateral V{sub 10}, V{sub 20}, V{sub 30}, V{sub 40} and CLD, MLD, LL were 20%, 14%, 11%, and 8% and 2.0 cm, 2.1 cm, and 14.6 cm, respectively, with strong correlation between CLD and ipsilateral V{sub 10-V40} (R{sup 2} = 0.73-0.83, p < 0.0005). With 3FRT, mean ipsilateral V{sub 10}, V{sub 20}, V{sub 30}, and V{sub 40} were 30%, 22%, 17%, and 11%, but its correlation with 2D parameters was poor. With a median follow-up of 14.5 months, 1 case of SRRP was identified. Conclusions: With only 1 case of SRRP observed, our study is limited in its ability to provide definitive guidance, but it does provide a starting point for acceptable lung irradiation during ABR. Further prospective studies are warranted.

Teh, Amy Yuen Meei, E-mail: amy.teh@petermac.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Park, Eileen J.H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Cancer Institute, National University Hospital (Singapore); Shen Liang [Biostatistics Unit, Yang Loo Ling School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Chung, Hans T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Cancer Institute, National University Hospital (Singapore)

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Insolation data manual and direct normal solar radiation data manual  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Insolation Data Manual presents monthly averaged data which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service (NWS) stations, principally in the United States. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24--25 years of data, generally from 1952--1975, and listed for each location. Insolation values represent monthly average daily totals of global radiation on a horizontal surface and are depicted using the three units of measurement: kJ/m{sup 2} per day, Btu/ft{sup 2} per day and langleys per day. Average daily maximum, minimum and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3 C (65 F). For each station, global {bar K}{sub T} (cloudiness index) values were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. Global {bar K}{sub T} is an index of cloudiness and indicates fractional transmittance of horizontal radiation, from the top of the atmosphere to the earth's surface. The second section of this volume presents long-term monthly and annual averages of direct normal solar radiation for 235 NWS stations, including a discussion of the basic derivation process. This effort is in response to a generally recognized need for reliable direct normal data and the recent availability of 23 years of hourly averages for 235 stations. The relative inaccessibility of these data on microfiche further justifies reproducing at least the long-term averages in a useful format. In addition to a definition of terms and an overview of the ADIPA model, a discussion of model validation results is presented.

none,

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

THE BEHAVIOUR OF VASCILAR REACTIONS IN ACUTE IRRADIATION DISEASE  

SciTech Connect

Acute experiments were made with cats, and chronic experiments with dogs. The a cute experiments numbered 377 and concerned 65 rats of either sex and different weights in urethan anesthesia. Another 22 cats were used for 65 control experiments. The cats received a total dose of 1500 r from a therapeutic x-ray unit. The conditions were: distance, 60 cm; O.5 mm copper filter; 160 kv; 20 ma; 29 r/min. The cats were examined on the third day after irradiation, when the irradiation disease picture was developed. Vascular reflexes from the interoceptors of the carotid sinus were investigated after Heymans's method, reflexes from the interoceptors of spleen and intestinal loop vessels after Czernigowski's method, and reflexes from interoceptors of hind-leg vessels after the author's method. Adrenaline, noradrenaline, serotonin, acetylcho-line, potassium chloride, and lactic acid were used to stimulate interoceptors. To stimulate the proximal section of the sciatic nerve and peripheral part of the splanchnic nerve, electric current was used --3 to 6 volts, 20 ma, 20 sec. Furthermore, arterial blood pressure was measured in irradiated cats after intravenous administration of adrenaline, noradrenaline, serotonin, acetylcholine, or histamine. Experiments were also made with cats poisoned with phentolamine, atropine, or pendiomid. The experimental material was analyzed statistically. Chronic experiments numbered 165 and concerned 6 dogs. Before irradiation, the dogs were opperated upon after the author's method to enable blood pressure to be measured by intravascular technique, and subsequently standards of arterial blood pressure reaction to adrenaline, noradrenaline, serotonin, acetylcholine, and histamine were determin+d. In the experiments, the dogs received a total dose of 800 r from a therapeutic x ray unit. Conditions were: distance, 80 cm; O.5 mm Cu filter; l60 Kv; 20 ma; 21 r/min. Alrterial blood pressure reaction to the above neurohormones was investigated in the irradiated dogs daily. Experiments with dogs poisoned with phentolamine or pendiomid were also carried out. The experiments referred to showed ionizing radiation to reduce considerably reflexes from vascular chemoreceptors to neurohormones, potassium chloride, and lactic acid. In irradiated cats, pressor reflexes from carotid sinus mechanoreceptors were diminished, and so were pressor reflexes to electric stimulation of the sciatic and splanchnic nerves. Neurohormones, such as adrenaline and noradrenaline, caused in cats and dogs lower-than-standard effects. Depressor effects of serotonin were in irradiated and noniirradiated cats equal in strength. In dogs, on the other hand, pressor effects of serotonin diminished in strength with the progress of irradiation disease. Pressure fall evoked by aby acetylcholine and histamine was the same in irradiated and nonirradiated cats and dogs, but of considerably longer duration in irradiated animals. Phentolamine diminished pressor effects of adrenaline in irradiated cats and dogs, and also weakened in dogs the pressor effects of serotonin. Atropine and phentolamine increased in irradiated cats and dogs pressor effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline, and pressor effects of serotonin in dogs. It was concluded that in acute irradiation disease the adrenergic part of the autonomic nervous system, first of all sensory and vasomotor terminals, is injured. Also, preserved vasomotor reflexes, even though weakened, enable in this disease an influence to be exerted on the functional efficiency of the circulatory system. (auth)

Ryzewski, J.

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking place on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and/or tomography, is a popular method of investigating micrometer deformation and fracture behavior in bone. However, the role that irradiation plays in these high-exposure experiments, and how it affects the properties of bone tissue, are not yet fully understood. A team of researchers led by Robert O. Ritchie at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Berkeley used synchrotron radiation micro-tomography at Advanced Light Source Beamline 8.3.2 to investigate changes in crack path and toughening mechanisms in human cortical bone with increased exposure to radiation, finding that exposure to high levels of irradiation can lead to drastic losses in strength, ductility, and toughness.

414

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking place on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and/or tomography, is a popular method of investigating micrometer deformation and fracture behavior in bone. However, the role that irradiation plays in these high-exposure experiments, and how it affects the properties of bone tissue, are not yet fully understood. A team of researchers led by Robert O. Ritchie at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Berkeley used synchrotron radiation micro-tomography at Advanced Light Source Beamline 8.3.2 to investigate changes in crack path and toughening mechanisms in human cortical bone with increased exposure to radiation, finding that exposure to high levels of irradiation can lead to drastic losses in strength, ductility, and toughness.

415

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking place on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and/or tomography, is a popular method of investigating micrometer deformation and fracture behavior in bone. However, the role that irradiation plays in these high-exposure experiments, and how it affects the properties of bone tissue, are not yet fully understood. A team of researchers led by Robert O. Ritchie at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Berkeley used synchrotron radiation micro-tomography at Advanced Light Source Beamline 8.3.2 to investigate changes in crack path and toughening mechanisms in human cortical bone with increased exposure to radiation, finding that exposure to high levels of irradiation can lead to drastic losses in strength, ductility, and toughness.

416

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking place on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and/or tomography, is a popular method of investigating micrometer deformation and fracture behavior in bone. However, the role that irradiation plays in these high-exposure experiments, and how it affects the properties of bone tissue, are not yet fully understood. A team of researchers led by Robert O. Ritchie at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Berkeley used synchrotron radiation micro-tomography at Advanced Light Source Beamline 8.3.2 to investigate changes in crack path and toughening mechanisms in human cortical bone with increased exposure to radiation, finding that exposure to high levels of irradiation can lead to drastic losses in strength, ductility, and toughness.

417

A hybrid electron and photon IMRT planning technique that lowers normal tissue integral patient dose using standard hardware  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To present a mixed electron and photon IMRT planning technique using electron beams with an energy range of 6-22 MeV and standard hardware that minimizes integral dose to patients for targets as deep as 7.5 cm. Methods: Ten brain cases, two lung, a thyroid, an abdominal, and a parotid case were planned using two planning techniques: a photon-only IMRT (IMRT) versus a mixed modality treatment (E + IMRT) that includes an enface electron beam and a photon IMRT portion that ensures a uniform target coverage. The electron beam is delivered using a regular cutout placed in an electron cone. The electron energy was chosen to provide a good trade-off between minimizing integral dose and generating a uniform, deliverable plan. The authors choose electron energies that cover the deepest part of PTV with the 65%-70% isodose line. The normal tissue integral dose, the dose for ring structures around the PTV, and the volumes of the 75%, 50%, and 25% isosurfaces were used to compare the dose distributions generated by the two planning techniques. Results: The normal tissue integral dose was lowered by about 20% by the E + IMRT plans compared to the photon-only IMRT ones for most studied cases. With the exception of lungs, the dose reduction associated to the E + IMRT plans was more pronounced further away from the target. The average dose ratio delivered to the 0-2 cm and the 2-4 cm ring structures for brain patients for the two planning techniques were 89.6% and 70.8%, respectively. The enhanced dose sparing away from the target for the brain patients can also be observed in the ratio of the 75%, 50%, and 25% isodose line volumes for the two techniques, which decreases from 85.5% to 72.6% and further to 65.1%, respectively. For lungs, the lateral electron beams used in the E + IMRT plans were perpendicular to the mostly anterior/posterior photon beams, generating much more conformal plans. Conclusions: The authors proved that even using the existing electron delivery hardware, a mixed electron/photon planning technique (E + IMRT) can decrease the normal tissue integral dose compared to a photon-only IMRT plan. Different planning approaches can be enabled by the use of an electron beam directed toward organs at risk distal to the target, which are still spared due the rapid dose fall-off of the electron beam. Examples of such cases are the lateral electron beams in the thoracic region that do not irradiate the heart and contralateral lung, electron beams pointed toward kidneys in the abdominal region, or beams treating brain lesions pointed toward the brainstem or optical apparatus. For brain, electron vertex beams can also be used without irradiating the whole body. Since radiation retreatments become more and more common, minimizing the normal tissue integral dose and the dose delivered to tissues surrounding the target, as enabled by E + IMRT type techniques, should receive more attention.

Rosca, Florin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Danvers, Massachusetts 01923 (United States)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

418

Planning Hybrid Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Whole-breast Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To test tangential and not-tangential hybrid intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for whole-breast irradiation. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight (36 right-, 42 left-) breast patients were randomly selected. Hybrid IMRT was performed by direct aperture optimization. A semiautomated method for planning hybrid IMRT was implemented using Pinnacle scripts. A plan optimization volume (POV), defined as the portion of the planning target volume covered by the open beams, was used as the target objective during inverse planning. Treatment goals were to prescribe a minimum dose of 47.5 Gy to greater than 90% of the POV and to minimize the POV and/or normal tissue receiving a dose greater than 107%. When treatment goals were not achieved by using a 4-field technique (2 conventional open plus 2 IMRT tangents), a 6-field technique was applied, adding 2 non tangential (anterior-oblique) IMRT beams. Results: Using scripts, manual procedures were minimized (choice of optimal beam angle, setting monitor units for open tangentials, and POV definition). Treatment goals were achieved by using the 4-field technique in 61 of 78 (78%) patients. The 6-field technique was applied in the remaining 17 of 78 (22%) patients, allowing for significantly better achievement of goals, at the expense of an increase of low-dose ({approx}5 Gy) distribution in the contralateral tissue, heart, and lungs but with no significant increase of higher doses ({approx}20 Gy) in heart and lungs. The mean monitor unit contribution to IMRT beams was significantly greater (18.7% vs 9.9%) in the group of patients who required 6-field procedure. Conclusions: Because hybrid IMRT can be performed semiautomatically, it can be planned for a large number of patients with little impact on human or departmental resources, promoting it as the standard practice for whole-breast irradiation.

Farace, Paolo, E-mail: paolofarace@gmail.com [Medical Physics Department, Regional Oncological Hospital, Cagliari (Italy)] [Medical Physics Department, Regional Oncological Hospital, Cagliari (Italy); Zucca, Sergio; Solla, Ignazio; Fadda, Giuseppina; Durzu, Silvia; Porru, Sergio; Meleddu, Gianfranco [Medical Physics Department, Regional Oncological Hospital, Cagliari (Italy)] [Medical Physics Department, Regional Oncological Hospital, Cagliari (Italy); Deidda, Maria Assunta; Possanzini, Marco; Orru, Sivia; Lay, Giancarlo [Radiotherapy Department, Regional Oncological Hospital, Cagliari (Italy)] [Radiotherapy Department, Regional Oncological Hospital, Cagliari (Italy)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

An Instrument Design Concept for Measuring Solar Diffuse Irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Instrument Design Concept for Measuring Solar Diffuse Irradiance An Instrument Design Concept for Measuring Solar Diffuse Irradiance Rutledge, Charles NASA Langley Research Center Schuster, Greg NASA Langley Research Center Category: Instruments Recent effort towards the development of a diffuse horizontal solar irradiance standard group [Michalsky et.al. 2005] using well calibrated pyranometers suggested that inter-instrument differences in cosine response characteristics may be problematic. They showed a calibration method using overcast skies (an approximately uniform radiance distribution) produced superior diffuse radiometer performance when compared to a calibration method using clear skies (which have a radiance distribution systematically varying from horizon to the near vicinity of the sun). The proposed instrument offers a significantly different basic design compared to

420

Irradiated Materials Examination and Testing Facility (IMET) | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiated Materials Examination and Testing Facility Irradiated Materials Examination and Testing Facility May 30, 2013 The Irradiated Material Examination and Testing (IMET) Facility was designed and built as a hot cell facility. It is a two-story block and brick structure with a two-story high bay that houses six heavily shielded cells and an array of sixty shielded storage wells. It includes the Specimen Prep Lab (SPL) with its associated laboratory hood and glove boxes, an Operating Area, where the control and monitoring instruments supporting the in-cell test equipment are staged, a utility corridor, a hot equipment storage area, a tank vault room, office space, a trucking area with access to the high bay, and an outside steel building for storage. The tests and examinations are conducted in six examination "hot" cells

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421

Consequences of low dose irradiation in the CNS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Consequences of low dose irradiation in the CNS Consequences of low dose irradiation in the CNS Bertrand Tseng University of California Abstract Radiation-induced oxidative stress can impact the physiologic function of multipotent neural stem and precursor cells by activating redox-sensitive signaling cascades that can alter radiosensitivity, mitochondrial function, and cell fate. Many of these signaling pathways depend on the nature, magnitude and duration of the specific reactive species involved, features that dictate in large part whether radiation-induced changes are harmful or beneficial to the organism. We have shown that acute low dose irradiation (2-20 cGy) can elicit significant increases in reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species over several days to weeks. These redox changes can

422

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: The Progeny of Irradiated Mammary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Progeny of Irradiated Mammary Epithelial Cells Exhibit a Phenotype Progeny of Irradiated Mammary Epithelial Cells Exhibit a Phenotype Characteristic of Malignancy Mary H. Barcellos-Hoff, R.L. Henshall-Powell, M.J. Bissell, and B. Parvin Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Life Sciences Division We have proposed that the ability of radiation to induce altered microenvironments affects the frequency and features of neoplastic progression. Thus, we have sought to characterize the irradiated microenvironment and determine how these events contribute to mammary carcinogenesis. By using imaging bioinformatics to analyze mouse and human models of breast cancer we have now examined cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) critical for tissue-specific organization and function. We found that 1) radiation-induced microenvironments can contribute to neoplastic potential

423

Radiation Damage Study in Natural Zircon Using Neutrons Irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changes of atomic displacements in crystalline structure of natural zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) can be studied by using neutron irradiation on the surface of zircon and compared the data from XRD measurements before and after irradiation. The results of neutron irradiation on natural zircon using Pneumatic Transfer System (PTS) at PUSPATI TRIGA Research Reactor in the Malaysian Nuclear Agency are discussed in this work. The reactor produces maximum thermal power output of 1 MWatt and the neutron flux of up to 1x10{sup 13} ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. From serial decay processes of uranium and thorium radionuclides in zircon crystalline structure, the emission of alpha particles can produce damage in terms of atomic displacements in zircon. Hence, zircon has been extensively studied as a possible candidate for immobilization of fission products and actinides.

Lwin, Maung Tin Moe; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Kassim, Hasan Abu [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mohamed, Abdul Aziz [Materials Technology Group, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Karim, Julia Abdul [Reactor Physics Section, Nuclear Power Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

424

Effects of laser irradiation on the morphology of Cu(110)  

SciTech Connect

The effects of pulsed laser irradiation on the morphology of the Cu(110) surface were investigated by means of reflectance difference spectroscopy (RDS) and spot profile analysis low-energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). The laser light induces surface defects (adatoms and islands) as well as subsurface dislocation lines. The high surface mobility leads to efficient annealing of the surface defects even at room temperature, whereas the subsurface dislocation lines persist up to temperatures T>800 K. SPA-LEED profiles of the (00) diffraction spot from the laser irradiated surface suggest an anisotropic distribution of the subsurface line defects related to the geometry of the fcc easy glide system, which is corroborated by STM measurements. Comparative experiments using conventional Ar ion bombardment point out the distinctiveness of the morphological changes induced by laser irradiation.

Brandstetter, T.; Draxler, M.; Hohage, M.; Zeppenfeld, P.; Stehrer, T.; Heitz, J.; Georgiev, N.; Martinotti, D.; Ernst, H.-J. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Johannes Kepler Universitaet Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Johannes Kepler Universitaet Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); CEA Saclay, DSM/Drecam/SPCSI, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

425

AGR-1 Irradiation Test Final As-Run Report  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the as-run analysis of the AGR-1 irradiation experiment. AGR-1 is the first of eight planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. Funding for this program is provided by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. The objectives of the AGR-1 experiment are: 1. To gain experience with multi-capsule test train design, fabrication, and operation with the intent to reduce the probability of capsule or test train failure in subsequent irradiation tests. 2. To irradiate fuel produced in conjunction with the AGR fuel process development effort. 3. To provide data that will support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. In order to achieve the test objectives, the AGR-1 experiment was irradiated in the B-10 position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for a total duration of 620 effective full power days of irradiation. Irradiation began on December 24, 2006 and ended on November 6, 2009 spanning 13 ATR cycles and approximately three calendar years. The test contained six independently controlled and monitored capsules. Each capsule contained 12 compacts of a single type, or variant, of the AGR coated fuel. No fuel particles failed during the AGR-1 irradiation. Final burnup values on a per compact basis ranged from 11.5 to 19.6 %FIMA, while fast fluence values ranged from 2.21 to 4.39 ?1025 n/m2 (E >0.18 MeV). Well say something here about temperatures once thermal recalc is done. Thermocouples performed well, failing at a lower rate than expected. At the end of the irradiation, nine of the originally-planned 19 TCs were considered functional. Fission product release-to-birth (R/B) ratios were quite low. In most capsules, R/B values at the end of the irradiation were at or below 10-7 with only one capsule significantly exceeding this value. A maximum R/B of around 2?10-7 was reached at the end of the irradiation in Capsule 5. Several shakedown issues were encountered and resolved during the first three cycles. These include the repair of minor gas line leaks; repair of faulty gas line valves; the need to position moisture monitors in regions of low radiation fields for proper functioning; the enforcement of proper on-line data storage and backup, the need to monitor thermocouple performance, correcting for detector spectral gain shift, and a change in the mass flow rate range of the neon flow controllers.

Blaise P. Collin

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Neutron and gamma irradiation damage to organic materials.  

SciTech Connect

This document discusses open literature reports which investigate the damage effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on polymers and/or epoxies - damage refers to reduced physical chemical, and electrical properties. Based on the literature, correlations are made for an SNL developed epoxy (Epon 828-1031/DDS) with an expected total fast-neutron fluence of {approx}10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} and a {gamma} dosage of {approx}500 Gy received over {approx}30 years at < 200 C. In short, there are no gamma and neutron irradiation concerns for Epon 828-1031/DDS. To enhance the fidelity of our hypotheses, in regards to radiation damage, we propose future work consisting of simultaneous thermal/irradiation (neutron and gamma) experiments that will help elucidate any damage concerns at these specified environmental conditions.

White, Gregory Von, II; Bernstein, Robert

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Neutron and gamma irradiation damage to organic materials.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document discusses open literature reports which investigate the damage effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on polymers and/or epoxies - damage refers to reduced physical chemical, and electrical properties. Based on the literature, correlations are made for an SNL developed epoxy (Epon 828-1031/DDS) with an expected total fast-neutron fluence of {approx}10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} and a {gamma} dosage of {approx}500 Gy received over {approx}30 years at irradiation concerns for Epon 828-1031/DDS. To enhance the fidelity of our hypotheses, in regards to radiation damage, we propose future work consisting of simultaneous thermal/irradiation (neutron and gamma) experiments that will help elucidate any damage concerns at these specified environmental conditions.

White, Gregory Von, II; Bernstein, Robert

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

TEST RESULTS FROM GAMMA IRRADIATION OF ALUMINUM OXYHYDROXIDES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrated metal oxides or oxyhydroxides boehmite and gibbsite that can form on spent aluminum-clad nuclear fuel assemblies during in-core and post-discharge wet storage were exposed as granular powders to gamma irradiation in a {sup 60}Co irradiator in closed laboratory test vessels with air and with argon as separate cover gases. The results show that boehmite readily evolves hydrogen with exposure up to a dose of 1.8 x 10{sup 8} rad, the maximum tested, in both a full-dried and moist condition of the powder, whereas only a very small measurable quantity of hydrogen was generated from the granular powder of gibbsite. Specific information on the test setup, sample characteristics, sample preparation, irradiation, and gas analysis are described.

Fisher, D.; Westbrook, M.; Sindelar, R.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

ORR irradiation experiment OF-1: accelerated testing of HTGR fuel  

SciTech Connect

The OF-1 capsule, the first in a series of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor fuel irradiations in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor, was irradiated for more than 9300 hr at full reactor power (30 MW). Peak fluences of 1.08 x 10/sup 22/ neutrons/cm/sup 2/ (> 0.18 MeV) were achieved. General Atomic Company's magazine P13Q occupied the upper two-thirds of the test space and the ORNL magazine OF-1 the lower one-third. The ORNL portion tested various HTGR recycle particles and fuel bonding matrices at accelerated flux levels under reference HTGR irradiation conditions of temperature, temperature gradient, and fast fluence exposure (> 0.18 MeV).

Tiegs, T.N.; Long, E.L. Jr.; Kania, M.J.; Thoms, K.R.; Allen, E.J.

1977-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Physiological Interaction of Heart and Lung in Thoracic Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: The risk of early radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) limits the dose and efficacy of radiation therapy of thoracic tumors. In addition to lung dose, coirradiation of the heart is a known risk factor in the development RILT. The aim of this study was to identify the underlying physiology of the interaction between lung and heart in thoracic irradiation. Methods and Materials: Rat hearts, lungs, or both were irradiated to 20 Gy using high-precision proton beams. Cardiopulmonary performance was assessed using breathing rate measurements and F{sup 18}-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET) scans biweekly and left- and right-sided cardiac hemodynamic measurements and histopathology analysis at 8 weeks postirradiation. Results: Two to 12 weeks after heart irradiation, a pronounced defect in the uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG in the left ventricle (LV) was observed. At 8 weeks postirradiation, this coincided with LV perivascular fibrosis, an increase in LV end-diastolic pressure, and pulmonary edema in the shielded lungs. Lung irradiation alone not only increased pulmonary artery pressure and perivascular edema but also induced an increased LV relaxation time. Combined irradiation of lung and heart induced pronounced increases in LV end-diastolic pressure and relaxation time, in addition to an increase in right ventricle end-diastolic pressure, indicative of biventricular diastolic dysfunction. Moreover, enhanced pulmonary edema, inflammation and fibrosis were also observed. Conclusions: Both lung and heart irradiation cause cardiac and pulmonary toxicity via different mechanisms. Thus, when combined, the loss of cardiopulmonary performance is intensified further, explaining the deleterious effects of heart and lung coirradiation. Our findings show for the first time the physiological mechanism underlying the development of a multiorgan complication, RILT. Reduction of dose to either of these organs offers new opportunities to improve radiation therapy treatment of thoracic tumors, potentially facilitating increased treatment doses and tumor control.

Ghobadi, Ghazaleh; Veen, Sonja van der [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Bartelds, Beatrijs [Center for Congenital Heart Disease, Beatrix Children Hospital, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Center for Congenital Heart Disease, Beatrix Children Hospital, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Boer, Rudolf A. de [Department of Cardiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Department of Cardiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Dickinson, Michael G. [Center for Congenital Heart Disease, Beatrix Children Hospital, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Center for Congenital Heart Disease, Beatrix Children Hospital, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Jong, Johan R. de [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Faber, Hette; Niemantsverdriet, Maarten [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Brandenburg, Sytze [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Berger, Rolf M.F. [Center for Congenital Heart Disease, Beatrix Children Hospital, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Center for Congenital Heart Disease, Beatrix Children Hospital, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Coppes, Robert P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Luijk, Peter van, E-mail: p.van.luijk@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Sampling Plan for Assaying Plates Containing Depleted or Normal Uranium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the rationale behind the proposed method for selecting a 'representative' sample of uranium metal plates, portions of which will be destructively assayed at the Y-12 Security Complex. The total inventory of plates is segregated into two populations, one for Material Type 10 (depleted uranium (DU)) and one for Material Type 81 (normal [or natural] uranium (NU)). The plates within each population are further stratified by common dimensions. A spreadsheet gives the collective mass of uranium element (and isotope for DU) and the piece count of all plates within each stratum. These data are summarized in Table 1. All plates are 100% uranium metal, and all but approximately 60% of the NU plates have Kel-F{reg_sign} coating. The book inventory gives an overall U-235 isotopic percentage of 0.22% for the DU plates, ranging from 0.19% to 0.22%. The U-235 ratio of the NU plates is assumed to be 0.71%. As shown in Table 1, the vast majority of the plates are comprised of depleted uranium, so most of the plates will be sampled from the DU population.

Ivan R. Thomas

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Standard Test Method for Normal Spectral Emittance at Elevated Temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This test method describes a highly accurate technique for measuring the normal spectral emittance of electrically conducting materials or materials with electrically conducting substrates, in the temperature range from 600 to 1400 K, and at wavelengths from 1 to 35 ?m. 1.2 The test method requires expensive equipment and rather elaborate precautions, but produces data that are accurate to within a few percent. It is suitable for research laboratories where the highest precision and accuracy are desired, but is not recommended for routine production or acceptance testing. However, because of its high accuracy this test method can be used as a referee method to be applied to production and acceptance testing in cases of dispute. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this stan...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Effect of gamma irradiation on emission characteristics of laser heterostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changes in the threshold current and slope efficiency are studied under conditions of gamma-ray irradiation by injection InGaAsP/InP lasers emitting at 1.3 {mu}m (irradiation dose is {approx}10{sup 14} - 10{sup 17} photon cm{sup -2}). We observed an improved performance at low values of the quantum flux density and degradation at doses greater than 10{sup 14} photon cm{sup -2}. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

Makhsudov, B I [Tajik State National University, Dushanbe (Tajikistan)

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

434

Tensile Hoop Behavior of Irradiated Zircaloy-4 Nuclear Fuel Cladding  

SciTech Connect

A method for evaluating the room temperature ductility behavior of irradiated Zircaloy-4 nuclear fuel cladding has been developed and applied to evaluate tensile hoop strength of material irradiated to different levels. The test utilizes a polyurethane plug fitted within a tubular cladding specimen. A cylindrical punch is used to compress the plug axially, which generates a radial displacement that acts upon the inner diameter of the specimen. Position sensors track the radial displacement of the specimen outer diameter as the compression proceeds. These measurements coupled with ram force data provide a load-displacement characterization of the cladding response to internal pressurization. The development of this simple, cost-effective, highly reproducible test for evaluating tensile hoop strain as a function of internal pressure for irradiated specimens represents a significant advance in the mechanical characterization of irradiated cladding. In this project, nuclear fuel rod assemblies using Zircaloy-4 cladding and two types of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel pellets were irradiated to varying levels of burnup. Fuel pellets were manufactured with and without thermally induced gallium removal (TIGR) processing. Fuel pellets manufactured by both methods were contained in fuel rod assemblies and irradiated to burnup levels of 9, 21, 30, 40, and 50 GWd/MT. These levels of fuel burnup correspond to fast (E > 1 MeV) fluences of 0.27, 0.68, 0.98, 1.4 and 1.7 1021 neutrons/cm2, respectively. Following irradiation, fuel rod assemblies were disassembled; fuel pellets were removed from the cladding; and the inner diameter of cladding was cleaned to remove residue materials. Tensile hoop strength of this cladding material was tested using the newly developed method. Unirradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding was also tested. With the goal of determining the effect of the two fuel types and different neutron fluences on clad ductility, tensile hoop strength tests were performed on cladding for these varying conditions. Experimental data revealed negligible performance differences for cladding containing TIGR vs non-TIGR processed fuel pellets. Irradiation hardening was observed in tensile hoop data as the strength of the cladding increased with increasing neutron dose and appeared to saturate for a fast fluence of 1.7 1021 neutrons/cm2.

Jaramillo, Roger A [ORNL; Hendrich, WILLIAM R [ORNL; Packan, Nicolas H [ORNL

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Light water reactor mixed-oxide fuel irradiation experiment  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is sponsoring and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leading an irradiation experiment to test mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel made from weapons-grade (WG) plutonium. In this multiyear program, sealed capsules containing MOX fuel pellets fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The planned experiments will investigate the utilization of dry-processed plutonium, the effects of WG plutonium isotopics on MOX performance, and any material interactions of gallium with Zircaloy cladding.

Hodge, S.A.; Cowell, B.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Chang, G.S.; Ryskamp, J.M. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Respiration Induced Heart Motion and Indications of Gated Delivery for Left-Sided Breast Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate respiration-induced heart motion for left-sided breast irradiation using a four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) technique and to determine novel indications to assess heart motion and identify breast patients who may benefit from a gated treatment. Methods and Materials: Images of 4DCT acquired during free breathing for 20 left-sided breast cancer patients, who underwent whole breast irradiation with or without regional nodal irradiation, were analyzed retrospectively. Dose distributions were reconstructed in the phases of 0%, 20%, and 50%. The intrafractional heart displacement was measured in three selected transverse CT slices using D{sub LAD} (the distance from left ascending aorta to a fixed line [connecting middle point of sternum and the body] drawn on each slice) and maximum heart depth (MHD, the distance of the forefront of the heart to the line). Linear regression analysis was used to correlate these indices with mean heart dose and heart dose volume at different breathing phases. Results: Respiration-induced heart displacement resulted in observable variations in dose delivered to the heart. During a normal free-breathing cycle, heart-induced motion D{sub LAD} and MHD changed up to 9 and 11 mm respectively, resulting in up to 38% and 39% increases of mean doses and V{sub 25.2} for the heart. MHD and D{sub LAD} were positively correlated with mean heart dose and heart dose volume. Respiratory-adapted gated treatment may better spare heart and ipsilateral-lung compared with the conventional non-gated plan in a subset of patients with large D{sub LAD} or MHD variations. Conclusion: Proposed indices offer novel assessment of heart displacement based on 4DCT images. MHD and D{sub LAD} can be used independently or jointly as selection criteria for respiratory gating procedure before treatment planning. Patients with great intrafractional MHD variations or tumor(s) close to the diaphragm may particularly benefit from the gated treatment.

Qi, X. Sharon, E-mail: xiangrong.qi@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Hu, Angela [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Wang Kai [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Newman, Francis [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Crosby, Marcus; Hu Bin; White, Julia; Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Advanced neutron irradiation system using Texas A&M University Nuclear Science Center Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A heavily filtered fast neutron irradiation system (FNIS) was developed for a variety of applications, including the study of long-term health effects of fast neutrons by evaluating the biological mechanisms of damage in cultured cells and living animals such as rats or mice. This irradiation system includes an exposure cave made with a lead-bismuth alloy, a cave positioning system, a gamma and neutron monitoring system, a sample transfer system, and interchangeable filters. This system was installed in the irradiation cell of the Texas A&M University Nuclear Science Center Reactor (NSCR). By increasing the thickness of the lead-bismuth alloy, the neutron spectra were shifted into lower energies by the scattering interactions of fast neutrons with the alloy. It is possible, therefore, by changing the alloy thickness, to produce distinctly different dose weighted neutron spectra inside the exposure cave of the FNIS. The calculated neutron spectra showed close agreement with the results of activation foil measurements, unfolded by SAND-II close to the cell window. However, there was a considerable less agreement for locations far away from the cell window. Even though the magnitude of values such as neutron flux and tissue kerma rates in air differed, the weighted average neutron energies showed close agreement between the MCNP and SAND-II since the normalized neutron spectra were in a good agreement each other. A paired ion chamber system was constructed, one with a tissue equivalent plastic (A-150) and propane gas for total dose monitoring, and another with graphite and argon for photon dose monitoring. Using the pair of detectors, the neutron to gamma ratio can be inferred. With the 20 cm-thick FNIS, the absorbed dose rates of neutrons measured with the paired ion chamber method and calculated with the SAND-II results were 13.7 ?? 0.02 Gy/min and 15.5 Gy/min, respectively. The absorbed dose rate of photons and the gamma contribution to total dose were 6.7??10-1 ?? 1.3??10-1 Gy/min and 4.7%, respectively. However, the estimated gamma contribution to total dose varied between 3.6 % to 6.6 % as the assumed neutron sensitivity to the graphite detector was changed from 0.01 to 0.03.

Jang, Si Young

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Differential action on cancer and normal tissue by adrenochrome monoaminoguanidine methanesulfonate and cytochrome C combined with radiotherapy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The possibility that radioprotective effects on potent natural killer (NK) cells by adrenochrome monoaminoguanidine methanesulfonate (AMM) + cytochrome C during radiotherapy (RT) for lung cancer might result in the radiosensitization of human lung cancer cells in vivo is examined. Human lung cancer xenografts in the right hind legs of KSN mice (10 weeks old) were locally irradiated with 20 Gy of X ray. AMM (10 mg/kg/day) and/or cytochrome C (CCC) (5 mg/kg/day) were given intraperitoneally immediately before or after RT, followed by daily administration for 4 days. Natural killer activities of host splenocytes were also tested with the standard [sup 51]Cr releasing assay with YAC-1 cells as target cells. In a clinical study, 65 patients with lung cancer were treated with more than 50 Gy of RT with or without combination with AMM + CCC, OK-432 or AMM + CCC + OK-432. Before and after RT, lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood were examined with dichromatic analysis using an Ortho Spectrum IIIFCM system and fluorescent MABs. In this study, the change in the absolute number of each subset was investigated. AMM + cytochrome C augumented NK activity in KSN nude mice, protected potent NK cells in patients with lung cancer against RT and sensitized the human lung cancer xenografts to RT. AMM + cytochrome C may have potential as a differential modulator of radiosensitivity of normal tissues and of tumors. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Nakatsugawa, S. (Fukui Medical School (Japan)); Sugahara, T. (Health Research Foundation, Kyoto (Japan))

1994-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

439

Effect of irradiation parameters on defect aggregation during thermal annealing of LiF irradiated with swift ions and electrons  

SciTech Connect

Absorption spectroscopy were performed to study the effects of thermal annealing on the aggregation of color centers in LiF crystals irradiated with different ions between carbon and uranium of megaelectron volt-gigaelectron volt energy. The beam parameters such as energy, energy loss, and fluence have a pronounced influence on the initial defect composition and concentration as well as their evolution upon thermal annealing. A distinct phenomenon was observed, viz., the enhancement of F{sub n} centers for annealing temperatures between 500 and 700 K, followed by Li colloid formation above 700 K. The phenomenon requires specific irradiation conditions whereas the formation of Mg colloids from Mg impurities occurs in all irradiated crystals. The mechanisms of annealing and colloid formation are discussed.

Schwartz, K.; Neumann, R.; Trautmann, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Volkov, A. E.; Sorokin, M. V. [Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute', Kurchatov Square 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Measurement of Broadband Diffuse Solar Irradiance Using Current Commercial Instrumentation with a Correction for Thermal Offset Errors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diffuse-sky solar irradiance is an important quantity for radiation budget research, particularly as it relates to climate. Diffuse irradiance is one component of the total downwelling solar irradiance and contains information on the amount of ...

Ellsworth G. Dutton; Joseph J. Michalsky; Thomas Stoffel; Bruce W. Forgan; John Hickey; Donald W. Nelson; Timothy L. Alberta; Ibrahim Reda

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal irradiance ghi" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

US/French Joint Research Program regarding the behavior of polymer base materials subjected to beta radiation. Volume 1. Phase-1 normalization results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the ongoing multi-year joint NRC/CEA international cooperative test program to investigate the dose-damage equivalence of gamma and beta radiation on polymer base materials, dosimetry and ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) specimens were exchanged, irradiated, and evaluated for property changes at research facilities in the US (Sandia National Laboratories) and France (Compagnie ORIS Industrie). The purpose of this Phase-1 test series was to normalize and cross-correlate the results obtained by one research center to the other, in terms of exposure (1.0 MeV accelerated electrons and /sup 60/Co gammas) and postirradiation testing (ultimate elongation and tensile strength, hardness, and density) techniques. The dosimetry and material specimen results indicate good agreement between the two countries regarding the exposure conditions and postirradiation evaluation techniques employed.

Wyant, F.J.; Buckalew, W.H.; Chenion, J.; Carlin, F.; Gaussens, G.; Le Tutour, P.; Le Meur, M.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Modeling pore corrosion in normally open gold- plated copper connectors.  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study is to model the electrical response of gold plated copper electrical contacts exposed to a mixed flowing gas stream consisting of air containing 10 ppb H{sub 2}S at 30 C and a relative humidity of 70%. This environment accelerates the attack normally observed in a light industrial environment (essentially a simplified version of the Battelle Class 2 environment). Corrosion rates were quantified by measuring the corrosion site density, size distribution, and the macroscopic electrical resistance of the aged surface as a function of exposure time. A pore corrosion numerical model was used to predict both the growth of copper sulfide corrosion product which blooms through defects in the gold layer and the resulting electrical contact resistance of the aged surface. Assumptions about the distribution of defects in the noble metal plating and the mechanism for how corrosion blooms affect electrical contact resistance were needed to complete the numerical model. Comparisons are made to the experimentally observed number density of corrosion sites, the size distribution of corrosion product blooms, and the cumulative probability distribution of the electrical contact resistance. Experimentally, the bloom site density increases as a function of time, whereas the bloom size distribution remains relatively independent of time. These two effects are included in the numerical model by adding a corrosion initiation probability proportional to the surface area along with a probability for bloom-growth extinction proportional to the corrosion product bloom volume. The cumulative probability distribution of electrical resistance becomes skewed as exposure time increases. While the electrical contact resistance increases as a function of time for a fraction of the bloom population, the median value remains relatively unchanged. In order to model this behavior, the resistance calculated for large blooms has been weighted more heavily.

Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Moffat, Harry K.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Enos, David George; Serna, Lysle M.; Sorensen, Neil Robert

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Extraction of erythropoietin from normal kidneys. [Rats, dogs  

SciTech Connect

Significant amounts of active erythropoietin were extracted from the kidneys of normal rats, cattle, dogs, and rabbits by homogenization of the organs in 0.1 M phosphate buffer. The mean erythropoietin activities of the extracts, as determined by the starved-rat assay, were 0.26 U/g beef kidney, 0.41 U/g dog kidney, and 0.11 U/g rat kidney. The dog kidney extracts had a mean activity of 0.35 U/g, as measured by stimulation of hemoglobin synthesis in cultured bone marrow cells (in vitro assay) and produced a dose-dependent stimulation of /sup 59/Fe incorporation into circulating red cells when assayed in polycythemic mice. Extracts of rabbit kidney cortices had a mean activity of 2.12 U/g, as measured by stimulation of hemoglobin synthesis in cultured bone marrow cells. When the dog kidney homogenate was fractionated on DEAE-cellulose, all of the erythropoietin activity was adsorbed to the exchanger in the presence of 0.01 M acetate buffer, pH 4.5, and was completely eluted by 0.1 M Na/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/-0.5 M NaCl, pH 8. An antibody made aganist human urinary erythropoietin completely inactivated the erythropoietic factor in the dog kidney extract. Serum from a donor dog had no erythropoietin activity when assayed in the starved rat, suggesting that the factor in the extracts is intracellular erythropoietin rather than that contained in plasma trapped in the renal vasculature. The complete inactivation of the erythropoietic factor in these kidney homogenates by antierythropoietin and its behavior on DEAE-cellulose indicate that this factor is structurally similar to native plasma erythropoietin. The extracts are completely active without being incubated in the presence of serum.

Sherwood, J.B.; Goldwasser, E.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Stokes' Cradle: Normal Three-Body Collisions between Wetted Particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, a combination of experiments and theory is used to investigate three-body, normal collisions between solid particles with a liquid coating (i.e., "wetted" particles). Experiments are carried out using a Stokes' cradle, an apparatus inspired by the Newton's cradle desktop toy except with wetted particles. Unlike previous work on two-body systems, which may either agglomerate or rebound upon collision, four outcomes are possible in three-body systems: fully agglomerated, Newton's cradle (striker and target particle it strikes agglomerate), reverse Newton's cradle (targets agglomerate while striker separates), and fully separated. Post-collisional velocities are measured over a range of parameters. For all experiments, as the impact velocity increases, the progression of outcomes observed is fully agglomerated, reverse Newton's cradle, and fully separated. Notably, as the viscosity of the oil increases, experiments reveal a decrease in the critical Stokes number (the Stokes number that demarcates a transition from agglomeration to separation) for both sets of adjacent particles. A scaling theory is developed based on lubrication forces and particle deformation and elasticity. Unlike previous work for two-particle systems, two pieces of physics are found to be critical in the prediction of a regime map that is consistent with experiments: (i) an additional resistance upon rebound of the target particles due to the pre-existing liquid bridge between them (which has no counterpart in two-particle collisions), and (ii) the addition of a rebound criterion due to glass transition of the liquid layer at high pressure between colliding particles.

C. M. Donahue; C. M. Hrenya; R. H. Davis; K. J. Nakagawa; A. P. Zelinskaya; G. G. Joseph

2009-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

445

Estimating Hourly All-Sky Solar Irradiation Components from Meteorological Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method to calculate hourly direct beam and diffuse irradiation on a horizontal surface using 3-h standard meteorological data is described. Comparisons of computed and observed irradiations are made with hourly data obtained in Carpentras ...

F. Kermel

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Development and Characterization of a New Solar Ultraviolet-B Irradiance Detector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Characteristics of an instrument for measuring solar ultraviolet-B irradiance are presented together with a description of the instrument. The instrument measures direct and scattered broadband ultraviolet irradiance (wavelengths between 280 and ...

B. K. Dichter; A. F. Beaubien; D. J. Beaubien

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Accounting for the Solar Radiation Influence on Downward Longwave Irradiance Measurements by Pyrgeometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of broadband downward longwave (LW) irradiance are carried out at Lampedusa, Italy, in the Mediterranean, jointly with solar irradiance, since 2004 using shaded and unshaded Eppley Precision Infrared Radiometers (PIRs) and Kipp & ...

Daniela Meloni; Claudia Di Biagio; Alcide di Sarra; Francesco Monteleone; Giandomenico Pace; Damiano Massimiliano Sferlazzo

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Analysis of a Method to Estimate Chlorophyll-a Concentration from Irradiance Measurements at Varying Depths  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model to estimate chlorophyll-a concentration and yellow substance absorption at 440 nm from irradiance measurements made at varying depths is examined. The derivation of the model, requiring irradiance measurements at three wavebands, is ...

Jasmine S. Nahorniak; Mark R. Abbott; Ricardo M. Letelier; W. Scott Pegau

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

A novel method for testing normality in a mixed model of a nested classification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Normality is one of the most common assumptions made in the development of statistical models such as the fixed effect model and the random effect model. White and MacDonald [1980. Some large-sample tests for normality in the linear regression model. ... Keywords: Normality test, Random effect model, Shapiro-Wilk test, Simulations, Skewness test, Transformation

Yi-Ting Hwang; Peir Feng Wei

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Parabolic geometries and normal Weyl structures First BGG operators and special solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Parabolic geometries and normal Weyl structures First BGG operators and special solutions structures & BGG solutions #12;Parabolic geometries and normal Weyl structures First BGG operators the machinery of BGG sequences. Andreas Cap Weyl structures & BGG solutions #12;Parabolic geometries and normal

Drmota, Michael

451

Physical and Chemical Changes of Polystyrene Nanospheres Irradiated with Laser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been reported that polymer resist such as PMMA (Poly(methyl methacrylate) which is a well known and commonly used polymer resist for fabrication of electronic devices can show zwitter characteristic due to over exposure to electron beam radiation. Overexposed PMMA tend to changes their molecular structure to either become negative or positive resist corresponded to electron beam irradiation doses. These characteristic was due to crosslinking and scissors of the PMMA molecular structures, but till now the understanding of crosslinking and scissors of the polymer resist molecular structure due to electron beam exposure were still unknown to researchers. Previously we have over exposed polystyrene nanospheres to various radiation sources, such as electron beam, solar radiation and laser, which is another compound that can act as polymer resist. We investigated the physical and chemical structures of the irradiated polystyrene nanospheres with FTIR analysis. It is found that the physical and chemical changes of the irradiated polystyrene were found to be corresponded with the radiation dosages. Later, combining Laser irradiation and Reactive Ion Etching manipulation, created a facile technique that we called as LARIEA NSL (Laser and Reactive Ion Etching Assisted Nanosphere Lithography) which can be a facile technique to fabricate controllable carbonaceous nanoparticles for applications such as lithographic mask, catalysts and heavy metal absorbers.

Mustafa, Mohd Ubaidillah; Juremi, Nor Rashidah Md.; Mohamad, Farizan; Wibawa, Pratama Jujur [Microelectronic and Nanotechnology-Shamsudin Research Centre, Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Malaysia); Agam, Mohd Arif; Ali, Ahmad Hadi [Faculty of Science, Art and Heritage, University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Malaysia)

2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

452

Displacement Damage in Silicon Carbide Irradiated in Fission Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Calculations are performed for displacement damage in SiC due to irradiation in the neutron environments of various types of nuclear reactors using the best available models and nuclear data. The displacement damage calculations use recently developed damage functions for SiC that are based on extensive molecular dynamics simulations of displacement events1. Displacements per atom (DPA) cross sections for SiC have been calculated as a function of neutron energy, and they are presented here in tabular form to facilitate their use as the standard measure of displacement damage for irradiated SiC. DPA cross sections averaged over the neutron energy spectrum are calculated for neutron spectra in the cores of typical commercial reactors and in the test sample irradiation regions of several materials test reactors used in both past and present irradiation testing. Particular attention is focused on a next-generation high-temperature gas-cooled pebble bed reactor, for which the high-temperature properties of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composites are well suited. Calculated transmutations and activation levels in a pebble bed reactor are compared to those in other reactors.

Heinisch, Howard L.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Weber, William J.; Williford, Rick E.

2004-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

453

Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, November 1956  

SciTech Connect

This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of November 1956. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: research and engineering operations; production and reactor operations; facilities engineering operation; employee relations operation; and financial operation.

1956-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

454

Post Irradiation Capabilities at the Idaho National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) oversees the research, development, and demonstration activities that ensure nuclear energy remains a viable energy option for the United States. Fuel and material development through fabrication, irradiation, and characterization play a significant role in accomplishing the research needed to support nuclear energy. All fuel and material development requires the understanding of irradiation effects on the fuel performance and relies on irradiation experiments ranging from tests aimed at targeted scientific questions to integral effects under representative and prototypic conditions. The DOE recently emphasized a solution-driven, goal-oriented, science-based approach to nuclear energy development. Nuclear power systems and materials were initially developed during the latter half of the 20th century and greatly facilitated by the United States ability and willingness to conduct large-scale experiments. Fifty-two research and test reactors with associated facilities for performing fabrication and pre and post irradiation examinations were constructed at what is now Idaho National Laboratory (INL), another 14 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and a few more at other national laboratory sites. Building on the scientific advances of the last several decades, our understanding of fundamental nuclear science, improvements in computational platforms, and other tools now enable technological advancements with less reliance on large-scale experimentation.

Schulthess, J.L.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Local phase transformation in alloys during charged-particle irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Among the various mechanisms and processes by which energetic irradiation can alter the phase stability of alloys, radiation-induced segregation is one of the most important phenomena. Radiation-induced segregation in alloys occurs as a consequence of preferential coupling between persistent fluxes of excess defects and solute atoms, leading to local enrichment or depletion of alloying elements. Thus, this phenomenon tends to drive alloy systems away from thermodynamic equilibrium, on a local scale. During charged-particle irradiations, the spatial nonuniformity in the defect production gives rise to a combination of persistent defect fluxes, near the irradiated surface and in the peak-damage region. This defect-flux combination can modify the alloy composition in a complex fashion, i.e., it can destabilize pre-existing phases, causing spatially- and temporally-dependent precipitation of new metastable phases. The effects of radiation-induced segregation on local phase transformations in Ni-based alloys during proton bombardment and high-voltage electron-microscope irradiation at elevated temperatures are discussed.

Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

RMF MEASUREMENTS ON MTR-IRRADIATED EUROPIUM OXIDE  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum capsules with Al inserts and He atmospheres and containing 4 strips of Eu/sub 2/O/sub 3/-stainless steel were measured in the Reactivity Measurement Facility at MTR, both before and after irradiation. (T.R.H.)

Henscheid, J.W.; Fast, E.

1957-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

457

Radiation-disorder and aperiodicity in irradiated ceramics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This final technical report documents the accomplishments of the program of research entitled Radiation Disorder and Aperiodicity in Irradiated Ceramics'' for the period June 22, 1989--June 21, 1992. This research forms the latest part on an on-going program, begun at MIT in 1983 under DOE support, which has had as its objectives investigation of the responses in radiation environments of ceramics heavily-irradiated with electrons, neutrons and ions, with potential applications to fusion energy technology and high-level nuclear waste storage. Materials investigated have included SiO{sub 2}, MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Al{sub 23}O{sub 27}N{sub 5}, SiC, BeO, LiAlO{sub 2}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, CaTiO{sub 3}KTaO{sub 3} and Ca(Zr, Pu)Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The program initially proposed for 1989 had as its major objectives two main thrusts: (1) research on defect aggregation in irradiated non-oxide ceramics, and (2) research on irradiation-induced amorphization of network silicas and phosphates.

Hobbs, L.W.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Is mediastinal irradiation necessary for stage I testicular seminoma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study is a review of 39 patients with testicular seminoma, Stage I, treated at the Department of Radiation Oncology, James Graham Brown Cancer Center from 1959 to 1978. The age of the patients ranged from 16 to 70 years with a median of 37. Thirty-two (82%) patients presented with swelling or mass in the testis, four patients with pain, and three patients had seminoma diagnosed incidentally. Twenty (51%) patients had the tumor on the right side and 19 (49%) patients had the tumor on the left side. All patients received irradiation to the ipsilateral inguinal, iliac, and bilateral para-aortic nodes with ''hockey stick'' type fields. The majority of the patients received a midplane dose of 3,200 to 3,600 rad in 3-4 weeks time. None of the patients received prophylactic irradiation to the mediastinum and supraclavicular region. The 5-year actuarial survival rate is 96%. There is no additional benefit in giving prophylactic irradiation to the mediastinum and supraclavicular regions in Stage I testicular seminoma. A brief review of the literature regarding the role of prophylactic irradiation in this group of patients is done.

Jose, B.; Perkins, L.P.; Kays, H.; Chu, A.M.; Sharma, S.C.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Role of Slip Behavior in the Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crack Growth Rates of Irradiated Commercial Stainless Steels in BWR and PWR ... Detailed Root Cause Analysis of SG Tube ODSCC Indications within the Tube Sheets of NPP Biblis Unit A .... Radiation Damage in Fe-C-Met Model Alloys ... Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior near the Fusion Boundary of Dissimilar Weld

460

Electrical conductivity of. gamma. -irradiated and chemically oxidized wool  

SciTech Connect

Examples of wool fibers were irradiated with gamma rays and chemically oxidized with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ to study the effect on their electrical conductivity. In both cases, electrical conductivity increased whereas the activation cnergy decreased with increases in diameter, moisture content and intrensic ash content of the wool samples.

Moharram, M.A. (Tanta Univ., Cairo, Egypt); Abou Sekkina, M.M.; Rabie, S.M.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal irradiance ghi" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, September 1959  

SciTech Connect

This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of September, 1959. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

Greninger, A.B.

1959-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

462

RETHINKING SATELLITE BASED SOLAR IRRADIANCE MODELLING R. W. Mueller  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Solar irra- diance schemes provide these data using weather satellites such as METEOSAT and MSGRETHINKING SATELLITE BASED SOLAR IRRADIANCE MODELLING R. W. Mueller , K.F. Dagestad ¡ , R of Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg; 2-University of Bergen; 3-Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems; 4

Heinemann, Detlev

463

Program on Technology Innovation: A Mechanistic Basis for Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) refers to intergranular stress corrosion cracking that is accelerated under the action of irradiation in light water reactor core components. It is referred to as assisted because irradiation enhances, or accelerates, the IGSCC process over the non-irradiated state. IASCC has been a problem in the nuclear industry for the last 40 years and continues to occur due to a lack of understanding of its underlying mechanism. It is the single most important...

2009-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

464

Superlattice-like stacking fault array in ion-irradiated GaN  

SciTech Connect

Controlling defects in crystalline solids is of technological importance for realizing desirable materials properties. Irradiation with energetic particles is useful for designing the spatial distribution and concentration of defects in materials. Here, we performed ion irradiation into hexagonal GaN with the wurtzite structure and demonstrated the spontaneous formation of superlattice-like stacking fault arrays. It was found that the modulation period can be controlled by irradiation conditions and post-irradiation heat treatments.

Ishimaru, Dr. Manabu [Osaka University; Usov, Igor Olegovich [ORNL; Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL; Weber, William J [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Irradiation Effects on High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Structural Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

G. Irradiation Behavior / Status of Metallic Materials Development for Application in Advanced High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor / Material

James R. Lindgren

466