National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for normal increasing household

  1. Analyzing the Contribution of Aerosols to an Observed Increase in Direct Normal Irradiance in Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riihimaki, Laura D.; Vignola, F.; Long, Charles N.

    2009-01-22

    Annual average total irradiance increases by 1-2% per decade at three mon- itoring stations in Oregon over the period from 1980 to 2007. Direct normal irradiance measurements increase by 5% per decade over the same time pe- riod. The measurements show no sign of a dimming before 1990. The impact of high concentrations of stratospheric aerosols following the volcanic erup- tions of El Chichon and Mt. Pinatubo are clearly seen in the measurements. Removing these years from the annual average all-sky time series reduces the trends in both total and direct normal irradiance. Clear-sky periods from this long direct normal time series are used in conjunction with radiative trans- fer calculations to test whether part of the increase could be caused by an- thropogenic aerosols. All three sites show relatively low clear-sky measure- ments before the eruption of El Chichon in 1982, suggesting higher aerosol loads during this period. After removing the periods most strongly impacted by volcanic eruptions, two of the sites show statistically signicant increases in clear-sky direct normal irradiance from 1987 to 2007. Radiative transfer calculations of the impact of volcanic aerosols and tropospheric water vapor indicate that only about 20% of that clear-sky increase between background aerosol periods before and after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo can be explained by these two factors. Thus, a statistically signicant clear-sky trend remains between 1987 and 2007 that is consistent with the hypothesis that at least some of the increase in surface irradiance could be caused by a reduction of anthropogenic aerosols. D

  2. Household magnets

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Household magnets Chances are very good that you have experimented with magnets. People have been fascinated with magnetism for thousands of years. As familiar to us as they may be, magnets still have some surprises for us. Here is a small collection of some of our favorite magnet experiments. What happens when we break a magnet in half? Radio Shack sells cheap ceramic magnets in several shapes. Get a ring shaped magnet and break it with pliers or a tap with a hammer. Try to put it back

  3. EIA - Household Transportation report: Household Vehicles Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    logo printer-friendly version logo for Portable Document Format file Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 August 1997 Release Next Update: EIA has discontinued this series....

  4. Determinants of Household Use of Selected Energy Star Appliances - Energy

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Information Administration Determinants of Household Use of Selected Energy Star Appliances Release date: May 25, 2016 Introduction According to the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), household appliances1accounted for 35% of U.S. household energy consumption, up from 24% in 1993. Thus, improvements in the energy performance of residential appliances as well as increases in the use of more efficient appliances can be effective in reducing household energy consumption and

  5. INCREASE

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-07-22

    The Interdisciplinary Consortium for Research and Educational Access in Science and Engineering (INCREASE), assists minority-serving institutions in gaining access to world-class research facilities.

  6. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  7. Fact #618: April 12, 2010 Vehicles per Household and Other Demographic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Statistics | Department of Energy 8: April 12, 2010 Vehicles per Household and Other Demographic Statistics Fact #618: April 12, 2010 Vehicles per Household and Other Demographic Statistics Since 1969, the number of vehicles per household has increased by 66% and the number of vehicles per licensed driver has increased by 47%. The number of workers per household has changed the least of the statistics shown here. There has been a decline in the number of persons per household from 1969 to

  8. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Appliances Tables (Million U.S. Households; 60 pages, 240 kb) Contents Pages HC5-1a. Appliances by Climate Zone, Million U.S. Households, 2001 5 HC5-2a. Appliances by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households, 2001 5 HC5-3a. Appliances by Household Income, Million U.S. Households, 2001 5 HC5-4a. Appliances by Type of Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 5 HC5-5a. Appliances by Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 5 HC5-6a. Appliances by Type of Rented

  9. SU-E-T-568: Improving Normal Brain Sparing with Increasing Number of Arc Beams for Volume Modulated Arc Beam Radiosurgery of Multiple Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hossain, S; Hildebrand, K; Ahmad, S; Larson, D; Ma, L; Sahgal, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated arc beams have been newly reported for treating multiple brain metastases. The purpose of this study was to determine the variations in the normal brain doses with increasing number of arc beams for multiple brain metastases treatments via the TrueBeam Rapidarc system (Varian Oncology, Palo Alto, CA). Methods: A patient case with 12 metastatic brain lesions previously treated on the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion (GK) was used for the study. All lesions and organs at risk were contoured by a senior radiation oncologist and treatment plans for a subset of 3, 6, 9 and all 12 targets were developed for the TrueBeam Rapidarc system via 3 to 7 intensity modulated arc-beams with each target covered by at least 99% of the prescribed dose of 20 Gy. The peripheral normal brain isodose volumes as well as the total beam-on time were analyzed with increasing number of arc beams for these targets. Results: All intensisty modulated arc-beam plans produced efficient treatment delivery with the beam-on time averaging 0.6–1.5 min per lesion at an output of 1200 MU/min. With increasing number of arc beams, the peripheral normal brain isodose volumes such as the 12-Gy isodose line enclosed normal brain tissue volumes were on average decreased by 6%, 11%, 18%, and 28% for the 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-target treatment plans respectively. The lowest normal brain isodose volumes were consistently found for the 7-arc treatment plans for all the cases. Conclusion: With nearly identical beam-on times, the peripheral normal brain dose was notably decreased when the total number of intensity modulated arc beams was increased when treating multiple brain metastases. Dr Sahgal and Dr Ma are currently serving on the board of international society of stereotactic radiosurgery.

  10. Increased

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Increased confinement improvement in a reversed-field pinch using double-pulsed poloidal current drive Y. Yagi, a) H. Koguchi, Y. Hirano, T. Shimada, H. Sakakita, and S. Sekine National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568, Japan B. E. Chapman and J. S. Sarff University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 ͑Received 12 December 2002; accepted 18 April 2003͒ The pulsed poloidal current drive ͑PPCD͒ ͓J. S. Sarff et al.,

  11. housingunit_household2001.pdf

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ...

  12. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ...

  13. ac_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ...

  14. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ...

  15. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    or commercial trucks (See Table 1). Energy Information AdministrationHousehold Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991 5 The 1991 RTECS count includes vehicles that were owned or used...

  16. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    logo printer-friendly version logo for Portable Document Format file Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991 December 1993 Release Next Update: August 1997. Based on the 1991...

  17. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  18. Household Vehicles Energy Use Cover Page

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Use Cover Page Glossary Home > Households, Buildings & Industry >Transportation Surveys > Household Vehicles Energy Use Cover Page Contact Us * Feedback * PrivacySecurity *...

  19. Strategies for Collecting Household Energy Data | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Collecting Household Energy Data Strategies for Collecting Household Energy Data Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Data and Evaluation Peer Exchange Call: Strategies for ...

  20. Next Generation Household Refrigerator | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Next Generation Household Refrigerator Next Generation Household Refrigerator Embraco's high efficiency, oil-free linear compressor.
    Credit: Whirlpool Embraco's high ...

  1. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0a. Air Conditioning by Midwest Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Midwest Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division East North Central West North Central 0.5 1.0 1.2 1.4 Households With Electric Air-Conditioning Equipment ...................... 82.9 20.5 13.6 6.8 2.2 Air Conditioners Not Used ........................... 2.1 0.3 Q Q 27.5 Households Using Electric Air-Conditioning 1

  2. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1a. Air Conditioning by South Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. South Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division South Atlantic East South Central West South Central 0.5 0.8 1.2 1.3 1.4 Households With Electric Air-Conditioning Equipment ...................... 82.9 37.2 19.3 6.4 11.5 1.5 Air Conditioners Not Used ........................... 2.1 0.4 Q Q Q 28.2 Households Using Electric Air-Conditioning 1

  3. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2a. Air Conditioning by West Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. West Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division Mountain Pacific 0.4 1.2 1.7 1.4 Households With Electric Air-Conditioning Equipment ...................... 82.9 10.7 3.4 7.2 7.1 Air Conditioners Not Used ........................... 2.1 1.1 0.2 0.9 15.5 Households Using Electric Air-Conditioning 1 ........................................ 80.8 9.6 3.2

  4. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4a. Air Conditioning by Type of Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Type of Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Home Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.4 0.6 1.5 1.4 1.8 Households With Electric Air-Conditioning Equipment ........ 82.9 58.7 6.5 12.4 5.3 4.9 Air Conditioners Not Used ............ 2.1 1.1 Q 0.6 Q 21.8 Households Using Electric Air-Conditioning 1

  5. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8a. Air Conditioning by Urban/Rural Location, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Urban/Rural Location 1 RSE Row Factors City Town Suburbs Rural 0.5 0.8 1.4 1.3 1.4 Households With Electric Air-Conditioning Equipment ...................... 82.9 36.8 13.6 18.9 13.6 4.3 Air Conditioners Not Used ........................... 2.1 1.2 0.2 0.4 0.3 21.4 Households Using Electric Air-Conditioning 2 ........................................ 80.8 35.6 13.4

  6. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9a. Air Conditioning by Northeast Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Northeast Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division Middle Atlantic New England 0.5 1.0 1.2 1.8 Households With Electric Air-Conditioning Equipment ...................... 82.9 14.5 11.3 3.2 3.3 Air Conditioners Not Used ........................... 2.1 0.3 0.3 Q 28.3 Households Using Electric Air-Conditioning 1

  7. Household Energy Consumption Segmentation Using Hourly Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwac, J; Flora, J; Rajagopal, R

    2014-01-01

    The increasing US deployment of residential advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) has made hourly energy consumption data widely available. Using CA smart meter data, we investigate a household electricity segmentation methodology that uses an encoding system with a pre-processed load shape dictionary. Structured approaches using features derived from the encoded data drive five sample program and policy relevant energy lifestyle segmentation strategies. We also ensure that the methodologies developed scale to large data sets.

  8. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... 29.1 5.3 22.7 3.8 1 Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State ...

  9. char_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... Income Relative to Poverty Line Below 100 Percent ...... 15.0 13.2 1.8 Q ...

  10. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    16.8 17.4 18.6 18.9 1.7 2.2 0.6 1.5 Energy Information AdministrationHousehold Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991 15 Vehicle Miles Traveled per Vehicle (Thousand) . . . . . . . . ....

  11. char_household2001.pdf

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Contact: Stephanie J. Battles, Survey Manager (stephanie.battles@eia.doe.gov) World Wide Web: http:www.eia.doe.govemeuconsumption Table HC2-1a. Household Characteristics by ...

  12. Perceptions of risk among households in two Australian coastal communities

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Elrick-Barr, Carmen E.; Smith, Timothy F.; Thomsen, Dana C.; Preston, Benjamin L.

    2015-04-20

    There is limited knowledge of risk perceptions in coastal communities despite their vulnerability to a range of risks including the impacts of climate change. A survey of 400 households in two Australian coastal communities, combined with semi-structured interviews, provides insight into household perceptions of the relative importance of climatic and non-climatic risks and the subsequent risk priorities that may inform household adaptive action. In contrast to previous research, the results demonstrated that geographic location and household characteristics might not affect perceptions of vulnerability to environmental hazards. However, past experience was a significant influence, raising the priority of environmental concerns. Overall,more » the results highlight the priority concerns of coastal households (from finance, to health and environment) and suggest to increase the profile of climate issues in coastal communities climate change strategies need to better demonstrate links between climate vulnerability and other household concerns. Moreover, promoting generic capacities in isolation from understanding the context in which households construe climate risks is unlikely to yield the changes required to decrease the vulnerability of coastal communities.« less

  13. Perceptions of risk among households in two Australian coastal communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elrick-Barr, Carmen E.; Smith, Timothy F.; Thomsen, Dana C.; Preston, Benjamin L.

    2015-04-20

    There is limited knowledge of risk perceptions in coastal communities despite their vulnerability to a range of risks including the impacts of climate change. A survey of 400 households in two Australian coastal communities, combined with semi-structured interviews, provides insight into household perceptions of the relative importance of climatic and non-climatic risks and the subsequent risk priorities that may inform household adaptive action. In contrast to previous research, the results demonstrated that geographic location and household characteristics might not affect perceptions of vulnerability to environmental hazards. However, past experience was a significant influence, raising the priority of environmental concerns. Overall, the results highlight the priority concerns of coastal households (from finance, to health and environment) and suggest to increase the profile of climate issues in coastal communities climate change strategies need to better demonstrate links between climate vulnerability and other household concerns. Moreover, promoting generic capacities in isolation from understanding the context in which households construe climate risks is unlikely to yield the changes required to decrease the vulnerability of coastal communities.

  14. Cover Page of Household Vehicles Energy Use: Latest Data & Trends

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Household Vehicles Energy Use Cover Page Cover Page of Household Vehicles Energy Use: Latest Data & Trends...

  15. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2a. Air Conditioning by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Year of Construction RSE Row Factors 1990 to 2001 1 1980 to 1989 1970 to 1979 1960 to 1969 1950 to 1959 1949 or Before 0.4 1.6 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.1 0.9 Households With Electric Air-Conditioning Equipment ........ 82.9 13.6 16.0 14.7 10.4 10.5 17.6 4.7 Air Conditioners Not Used ............ 2.1 Q 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.5 27.2 Households Using Electric Air-Conditioning 2

  16. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5a. Air Conditioning by Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Owner- Occupied Units Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Home Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.5 0.5 1.5 1.4 1.8 Households With Electric Air-Conditioning Equipment ........ 59.5 58.7 6.5 12.4 5.3 5.2 Air Conditioners Not Used ............ 1.2 1.1 Q 0.6 Q 23.3 Households Using

  17. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6a. Air Conditioning by Type of Rented Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Rented Units Type of Rented Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Home Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.8 0.5 1.4 1.2 1.6 Households With Electric Air-Conditioning Equipment ........ 23.4 58.7 6.5 12.4 5.3 6.1 Air Conditioners Not Used ............ 0.9 1.1 Q 0.6 Q 23.0 Households Using Electric Air-Conditioning

  18. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0a. Home Office Equipment by Midwest Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Home Office Equipment RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Midwest Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division East North Central West North Central 0.5 1.0 1.2 1.6 Total .............................................................. 107.0 24.5 17.1 7.4 NE Households Using Office Equipment ......................................... 96.2 22.4 15.7 6.7 1.3 Personal Computers 1 ................................. 60.0

  19. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1a. Home Office Equipment by South Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Home Office Equipment RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. South Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division South Atlantic East South Central West South Central 0.5 0.8 1.2 1.3 1.6 Total .............................................................. 107.0 38.9 20.3 6.8 11.8 NE Households Using Office Equipment ......................................... 96.2 34.6 18.4 6.0 10.1 1.2 Personal Computers 1

  20. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2a. Home Office Equipment by West Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Home Office Equipment RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. West Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division Mountain Pacific 0.5 1.0 1.6 1.2 Total .............................................................. 107.0 23.3 6.7 16.6 NE Households Using Office Equipment ......................................... 96.2 21.4 6.2 15.2 1.0 Personal Computers 1 ................................. 60.0 14.3 4.0 10.4 3.7 Number of

  1. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9a. Home Office Equipment by Northeast Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Home Office Equipment RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Northeast Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division Middle Atlantic New England 0.5 1.1 1.4 1.2 Total .............................................................. 107.0 20.3 14.8 5.4 NE Households Using Office Equipment ......................................... 96.2 17.9 12.8 5.0 1.3 Personal Computers 1 ................................. 60.0 10.9

  2. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... 29.1 5.3 22.7 3.8 1 Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State income

  3. Fact #748: October 8, 2012 Components of Household Expenditures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Household Expenditures on Transportation, 1984-2010 Fact 748: October 8, 2012 Components of Household Expenditures on Transportation, 1984-2010 The overall share of annual household ...

  4. Fact #614: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 4: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles Fact #614: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles The average age of household vehicles has increased from 6.6 years in 1977 to 9.2 years in 2009. Pickup trucks have the oldest average age in every year listed. Sport utility vehicles (SUVs), first reported in the 1995 survey, have the youngest average age. Average Vehicle Age by Vehicle Type Graph showing the average vehicle age by type (car, van, pickup, SUV, all household

  5. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Four Most Populated States RSE Row Factors New York California Texas Florida 0.4 1.1 1.7 1.2 1.2 Households With Electric Air-Conditioning Equipment ...................... 82.9 4.9 6.0 7.4 6.2 2.4 Air Conditioners Not Used ........................... 2.1 0.1 0.8 Q 0.1 23.2 Households Using Electric Air-Conditioning 1 ........................................ 80.8 4.7 5.2 7.4 6.1 2.6 Type of Electric Air-Conditioning Used Central

  6. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2a. Home Office Equipment by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Home Office Equipment RSE Column Factor: Total Year of Construction RSE Row Factors 1990 to 2001 1 1980 to 1989 1970 to 1979 1960 to 1969 1950 to 1959 1949 or Before 0.4 1.4 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.0 Total ............................................... 107.0 15.5 18.2 18.8 13.8 14.2 26.6 4.2 Households Using Office Equipment .......................... 96.2 14.9 16.7 17.0 12.2 13.0 22.4 4.4 Personal Computers 2

  7. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2a. Appliances by West Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. West Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division Mountain Pacific 0.5 1.0 1.7 1.2 Total .............................................................. 107.0 23.3 6.7 16.6 NE Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ......................................................... 101.7 22.1 6.6 15.5 1.1 1

  8. A Glance at China’s Household Consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shui, Bin

    2009-10-01

    Known for its scale, China is the most populous country with the world’s third largest economy. In the context of rising living standards, a relatively lower share of household consumption in its GDP, a strong domestic market and globalization, China is witnessing an unavoidable increase in household consumption, related energy consumption and carbon emissions. Chinese policy decision makers and researchers are well aware of these challenges and keen to promote green lifestyles. China has developed a series of energy policies and programs, and launched a wide-range social marketing activities to promote energy conservation.

  9. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0a. Appliances by Midwest Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Midwest Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division East North Central West North Central 0.5 1.0 1.2 1.5 Total .............................................................. 107.0 24.5 17.1 7.4 NE Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ......................................................... 101.7 23.8 16.6 7.2 NE 1

  10. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1a. Appliances by South Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. South Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division South Atlantic East South Central West South Central 0.5 0.8 1.1 1.4 1.5 Total .............................................................. 107.0 38.9 20.3 6.8 11.8 NE Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ......................................................... 101.7 36.2 19.4 6.4 10.3 1.5 1

  11. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4a. Appliances by Type of Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Type of Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Home Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.4 0.5 1.7 1.6 1.9 Total ............................................... 107.0 73.7 9.5 17.0 6.8 4.2 Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ........................................... 101.7 69.1 9.4 16.7 6.6 4.3 1

  12. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5a. Appliances by Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Owner- Occupied Units Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Home Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.3 0.4 2.1 3.1 1.3 Total ............................................... 72.7 63.2 2.1 1.8 5.7 6.7 Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ...........................................

  13. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6a. Appliances by Type of Rented Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Rented Units Type of Rented Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Home Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.5 0.8 1.1 0.9 2.5 Total ............................................... 34.3 10.5 7.4 15.2 1.1 6.9 Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ........................................... 33.4 10.1 7.3 14.9 1.1

  14. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8a. Appliances by Urban/Rural Location, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Urban/Rural Location 1 RSE Row Factors City Town Suburbs Rural 0.5 0.9 1.4 1.2 1.3 Total .............................................................. 107.0 49.9 18.0 21.2 17.9 4.1 Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ......................................................... 101.7 47.5 17.5 19.9 16.8 4.2 1

  15. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9a. Appliances by Northeast Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Northeast Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division Middle Atlantic New England 0.5 1.0 1.3 1.6 Total .............................................................. 107.0 20.3 14.8 5.4 NE Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ......................................................... 101.7 19.6 14.5 5.2 1.1 1

  16. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2001 Home Office Equipment RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Four Most Populated States RSE Row Factors New York California Texas Florida 0.4 1.1 1.0 1.5 1.5 Total .............................................................. 107.0 7.1 12.3 7.7 6.3 NE Households Using Office Equipment ......................................... 96.2 6.2 11.4 6.7 5.9 1.7 Personal Computers 1 ................................. 60.0 3.4 7.9 4.1 3.8 4.4 Number of Desktop PCs 1

  17. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0a. Space Heating by Midwest Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Space Heating Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Midwest Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division East North Central West North Central 0.5 1.0 1.2 1.6 Total .............................................................. 107.0 24.5 17.1 7.4 NE Heat Home .................................................... 106.0 24.5 17.1 7.4 NE Do Not Heat Home ....................................... 1.0 Q Q Q 19.8 No

  18. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1a. Space Heating by South Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Space Heating Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. South Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division South Atlantic East South Central West South Central 0.5 0.9 1.2 1.4 1.3 Total .............................................................. 107.0 38.9 20.3 6.8 11.8 NE Heat Home .................................................... 106.0 38.8 20.2 6.8 11.8 NE Do Not Heat Home

  19. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2a. Space Heating by West Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Space Heating Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. West Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division Mountain Pacific 0.6 1.0 1.6 1.2 Total .............................................................. 107.0 23.3 6.7 16.6 NE Heat Home .................................................... 106.0 22.6 6.7 15.9 NE Do Not Heat Home ....................................... 1.0 0.7 Q 0.7 10.6 No Heating Equipment

  20. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5a. Space Heating by Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Space Heating Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Owner- Occupied Units Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Home Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.4 0.4 1.9 3.0 1.3 Total ............................................... 72.7 63.2 2.1 1.8 5.7 6.7 Heat Home ..................................... 72.4 63.0 2.0 1.7 5.7 6.7 Do Not Heat Home

  1. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6a. Space Heating by Type of Rented Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Space Heating Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Rented Units Type of Rented Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Home Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.5 0.8 1.1 0.9 2.5 Total ............................................... 34.3 10.5 7.4 15.2 1.1 6.9 Heat Home ..................................... 33.7 10.4 7.4 14.8 1.1 6.9 Do Not Heat Home

  2. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8a. Space Heating by Urban/Rural Location, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Space Heating Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Urban/Rural Location 1 RSE Row Factors City Town Suburbs Rural 0.6 0.9 1.3 1.3 1.2 Total .............................................................. 107.0 49.9 18.0 21.2 17.9 4.3 Heat Home .................................................... 106.0 49.1 18.0 21.2 17.8 4.3 Do Not Heat Home ....................................... 1.0 0.7 0.1 0.1 0.1 25.8 No Heating

  3. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9a. Space Heating by Northeast Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Space Heating Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Northeast Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division Middle Atlantic New England 0.5 1.0 1.2 1.7 Total .............................................................. 107.0 20.3 14.8 5.4 NE Heat Home .................................................... 106.0 20.1 14.7 5.4 NE Do Not Heat Home ....................................... 1.0 Q Q Q 19.9 No

  4. New York Household Travel Patterns: A Comparison Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Patricia S; Reuscher, Tim

    2007-05-01

    In 1969, the U. S. Department of Transportation began collecting detailed data on personal travel to address various transportation planning issues. These issues range from assessing transportation investment programs to developing new technologies to alleviate congestion. This 1969 survey was the birth of the Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS). The survey was conducted again in 1977, 1983, 1990 and 1995. Longer-distance travel was collected in 1977 and 1995. In 2001, the survey was renamed to the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and collected both daily and longer-distance trips in one survey. In addition to the number of sample households that the national NPTS/NHTS survey allotted to New York State (NYS), the state procured an additional sample of households in both the 1995 and 2001 surveys. In the 1995 survey, NYS procured an addition sample of more than 9,000 households, increasing the final NY NPTS sample size to a total of 11,004 households. Again in 2001, NYS procured 12,000 additional sample households, increasing the final New York NHTS sample size to a total of 13,423 households with usable data. These additional sample households allowed NYS to address transportation planning issues pertinent to geographic areas significantly smaller than for what the national NPTS and NHTS data are intended. Specifically, these larger sample sizes enable detailed analysis of twelve individual Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs). Furthermore, they allowed NYS to address trends in travel behavior over time. In this report, travel data for the entire NYS were compared to those of the rest of the country with respect to personal travel behavior and key travel determinants. The influence of New York City (NYC) data on the comparisons of the state of New York to the rest of the country was also examined. Moreover, the analysis examined the relationship between population density and travel patterns, and the similarities and differences among New

  5. Household energy consumption and expenditures, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-02

    This report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990, is based upon data from the 1990 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Focusing on energy end-use consumption and expenditures of households, the 1990 RECS is the eighth in a series conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Over 5,000 households were surveyed, providing information on their housing units, housing characteristics, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information provided represents the characteristics and energy consumption of 94 million households nationwide.

  6. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Appliances by Climate Zone, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Climate Zone 1 RSE Row Factors Fewer than 2,000 CDD and -- 2,000 CDD or More and Fewer than 4,000 HDD More than 7,000 HDD 5,500 to 7,000 HDD 4,000 to 5,499 HDD Fewer than 4,000 HDD 0.4 1.9 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.1 Total .................................................. 107.0 9.2 28.6 24.0 21.0 24.1 7.8 Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven

  7. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2a. Appliances by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Year of Construction RSE Row Factors 1990 to 2001 1 1980 to 1989 1970 to 1979 1960 to 1969 1950 to 1959 1949 or Before 0.4 1.5 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.1 0.9 Total ............................................... 107.0 15.5 18.2 18.8 13.8 14.2 26.6 4.2 Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ........................................... 101.7 14.3 17.2 17.8 12.9 13.7 25.9 4.2 1

  8. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2a. Space Heating by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Space Heating Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Year of Construction RSE Row Factors 1990 to 2001 1 1980 to 1989 1970 to 1979 1960 to 1969 1950 to 1959 1949 or Before 0.5 1.5 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 0.9 Total ............................................... 107.0 15.5 18.2 18.8 13.8 14.2 26.6 4.3 Heat Home ..................................... 106.0 15.4 18.2 18.6 13.6 13.9 26.4 4.3 Do Not Heat Home ........................

  9. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4a. Space Heating by Type of Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Space Heating Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Type of Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Home Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.5 0.5 1.5 1.4 1.7 Total ............................................... 107.0 73.7 9.5 17.0 6.8 4.4 Heat Home ..................................... 106.0 73.4 9.4 16.4 6.8 4.5 Do Not Heat Home ........................ 1.0 0.3 Q 0.6 Q 19.0 No

  10. Fact #565: April 6, 2009 Household Gasoline Expenditures by Income |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 5: April 6, 2009 Household Gasoline Expenditures by Income Fact #565: April 6, 2009 Household Gasoline Expenditures by Income In the annual Consumer Expenditure Survey, household incomes are grouped into five equal parts called quintiles (each quintile is 20%). Households in the second and third quintiles consistently have a higher share of spending on gasoline each year than households in the other quintiles. Household Gasoline Expenditures by Income Quintile Bar graph

  11. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  12. Kingston Creek Hydro Project Powers 100 Households | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Kingston Creek Hydro Project Powers 100 Households Kingston Creek Hydro Project Powers 100 Households August 21, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Nevada-based contracting firm Nevada ...

  13. Energy Information Administration/Household Vehicles Energy Consumptio...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    , Energy Information AdministrationHousehold Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 ix Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 presents statistics about energy-related...

  14. Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households Better Buildings Residential Network Multifamily and Low-Income Housing Peer ...

  15. Household Response To Dynamic Pricing Of Electricity: A Survey...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Household Response To Dynamic Pricing Of Electricity: A Survey Of The Experimental Evidence Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Household Response To Dynamic...

  16. Microsoft Word - Household Energy Use CA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 20 40 60 80 100 US PAC CA Site Consumption million Btu $0 $500 $1,000 $1,500 $2,000 $2,500 US PAC CA Expenditures dollars ALL ENERGY average per household (excl. transportation) 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 US PAC CA Site Consumption kilowatthours $0 $250 $500 $750 $1,000 $1,250 $1,500 US PAC CA Expenditures dollars ELECTRICITY ONLY average per household  California households use 62 million Btu of energy per home, 31% less than the U.S. average. The lower than average site

  17. Microsoft Word - Household Energy Use CA

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 20 40 60 80 100 US PAC CA Site Consumption million Btu $0 $500 $1,000 $1,500 $2,000 $2,500 US PAC CA Expenditures dollars ALL ENERGY average per household (excl. transportation) 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 US PAC CA Site Consumption kilowatthours $0 $250 $500 $750 $1,000 $1,250 $1,500 US PAC CA Expenditures dollars ELECTRICITY ONLY average per household  California households use 62 million Btu of energy per home, 31% less than the U.S. average. The lower than average site

  18. Transferring 2001 National Household Travel Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Patricia S; Reuscher, Tim; Schmoyer, Richard L; Chin, Shih-Miao

    2007-05-01

    Atlantic, and Pacific), MSA size, and the availability of rail. Extrapolating NHTS data within small geographic areas could risk developing and subsequently using unreliable estimates. For example, if a planning agency in City X of State Y estimates travel rates and other travel characteristics based on survey data collected from NHTS sample households that were located in City X of State Y, then the agency could risk developing and using unreliable estimates for their planning process. Typically, this limitation significantly increases as the size of an area decreases. That said, the NHTS contains a wealth of information that could allow statistical inferences about small geographic areas, with a pre-determined level of statistical certainty. The question then becomes whether a method can be developed that integrates the NHTS data and other data to estimate key travel characteristics for small geographic areas such as Census tract and transportation analysis zone, and whether this method can outperform other, competing methods.

  19. Household energy consumption and expenditures, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-10-10

    Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1987, Part 1: National Data is the second publication in a series from the 1987 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). It is prepared by the Energy End Use Division (EEUD) of the Office of Energy Markets and End Use (EMEU), Energy Information Administration (EIA). The EIA collects and publishes comprehensive data on energy consumption in occupied housing units in the residential sector through the RECS. 15 figs., 50 tabs.

  20. Household and environmental characteristics related to household energy-consumption change: A human ecological approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guerin, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study focused on the family household as an organism and on its interaction with the three environments of the human ecosystem (natural, behavioral, and constructed) as these influence energy consumption and energy-consumption change. A secondary statistical analysis of data from the US Department of Energy Residential Energy Consumption Surveys (RECS) was completed. The 1980 and 1983 RECS were used as the data base. Longitudinal data, including household, environmental, and energy-consumption measures, were available for over 800 households. The households were selected from a national sample of owner-occupied housing units surveyed in both years. Results showed a significant( p = <.05) relationship between the dependent-variable energy-consumption change and the predictor variables heating degree days, addition of insulation, addition of a wood-burning stove, year the housing unit was built, and weighted number of appliances. A significant (p = <.05) relationship was found between the criterion variable energy-consumption change and the discriminating variables of age of the head of the household, cooling degree days, heating degree days, year the housing unit was built, and number of stories in the housing unit.

  1. The changing character of household waste in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 as a function of home heating methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolealov, Markta; Beneov, Libue; Zvodsk, Anita

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: The character of household waste in the three different types of households were assesed. The quantity, density and composition of household waste were determined. The physicochemical characteristics were determined. The changing character of household waste during past 10 years was described. The potential of energy recovery of household waste in Czech republic was assesed. - Abstract: The authors of this paper report on the changing character of household waste, in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 in households differentiated by their heating methods. The data presented are the result of two projects, financed by the Czech Ministry of Environment, which were undertaken during this time period with the aim of focusing on the waste characterisation and complete analysis of the physicochemical properties of the household waste. In the Czech Republic, the composition of household waste varies significantly between different types of households based on the methods of home heating employed. For the purposes of these studies, the types of homes were divided into three categories urban, mixed and rural. Some of the biggest differences were found in the quantities of certain subsample categories, especially fine residue (matter smaller than 20 mm), between urban households with central heating and rural households that primarily employ solid fuel such coal or wood. The use of these solid fuels increases the fraction of the finer categories because of the higher presence of ash. Heating values of the residual household waste from the three categories varied very significantly, ranging from 6.8 MJ/kg to 14.2 MJ/kg in 1999 and from 6.8 MJ/kg to 10.5 MJ/kg in 2009 depending on the type of household and season. The same factors affect moisture of residual household waste which varied from 23.2% to 33.3%. The chemical parameters also varied significantly, especially in the quantities of Tl, As, Cr, Zn, Fe and Mn, which were higher in rural

  2. Households to pay more than expected to stay warm this winter

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Households to pay more than expected to stay warm this winter Following a colder-than-expected November, U.S. households are forecast to consume more heating fuels than previously expected....resulting in higher heating bills. Homeowners that rely on natural gas will see their total winter expenses rise nearly 13 percent from last winter....while users of electric heat will see a 2.6 percent increase in costs. That's the latest forecast from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane

  3. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parizeau, Kate; Massow, Mike von; Martin, Ralph

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • We combined household waste stream weights with survey data. • We examine relationships between waste and food-related practices and beliefs. • Families and large households produced more total waste, but less waste per capita. • Food awareness and waste awareness were related to reduced food waste. • Convenience lifestyles were differentially associated with food waste. - Abstract: It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste.

  4. A Multi Agent-Based Framework for Simulating Household PHEV Distribution and Electric Distribution Network Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Xiaohui; Liu, Cheng; Kim, Hoe Kyoung; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Tuttle, Mark A; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2011-01-01

    The variation of household attributes such as income, travel distance, age, household member, and education for different residential areas may generate different market penetration rates for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Residential areas with higher PHEV ownership could increase peak electric demand locally and require utilities to upgrade the electric distribution infrastructure even though the capacity of the regional power grid is under-utilized. Estimating the future PHEV ownership distribution at the residential household level can help us understand the impact of PHEV fleet on power line congestion, transformer overload and other unforeseen problems at the local residential distribution network level. It can also help utilities manage the timing of recharging demand to maximize load factors and utilization of existing distribution resources. This paper presents a multi agent-based simulation framework for 1) modeling spatial distribution of PHEV ownership at local residential household level, 2) discovering PHEV hot zones where PHEV ownership may quickly increase in the near future, and 3) estimating the impacts of the increasing PHEV ownership on the local electric distribution network with different charging strategies. In this paper, we use Knox County, TN as a case study to show the simulation results of the agent-based model (ABM) framework. However, the framework can be easily applied to other local areas in the US.

  5. Strategies for Collecting Household Energy Data | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Collecting Household Energy Data Strategies for Collecting Household Energy Data Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Data and Evaluation Peer Exchange Call: Strategies for Collecting Household Energy Data, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, July 19, 2012. Call Slides and Discussion Summary (700.06 KB) More Documents & Publications Homeowner and Contractor Surveys Mastermind: Jim Mikel, Spirit Foundation Generating Energy Efficiency Project Leads and Allocating Leads to Contractors

  6. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-22

    This report is the third in the series of reports presenting data from the 1987 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). The 1987 RECS, seventh in a series of national surveys of households and their energy suppliers, provides baseline information on household energy use in the United States. Data from the seven RECS and its companion survey, the Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS), are made available to the public in published reports such as this one, and on public use data files. This report presents data for the four Census regions and nine Census divisions on the consumption of and expenditures for electricity, natural gas, fuel oil and kerosene (as a single category), and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Data are also presented on consumption of wood at the Census region level. The emphasis in this report is on graphic depiction of the data. Data from previous RECS surveys are provided in the graphics, which indicate the regional trends in consumption, expenditures, and uses of energy. These graphs present data for the United States and each Census division. 12 figs., 71 tabs.

  7. Appliance Commitment for Household Load Scheduling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Pengwei; Lu, Ning

    2011-06-30

    This paper presents a novel appliance commitment algorithm that schedules thermostatically-controlled household loads based on price and consumption forecasts considering users comfort settings to meet an optimization objective such as minimum payment or maximum comfort. The formulation of an appliance commitment problem was described in the paper using an electrical water heater load as an example. The thermal dynamics of heating and coasting of the water heater load was modeled by physical models; random hot water consumption was modeled with statistical methods. The models were used to predict the appliance operation over the scheduling time horizon. User comfort was transformed to a set of linear constraints. Then, a novel linear, sequential, optimization process was used to solve the appliance commitment problem. The simulation results demonstrate that the algorithm is fast, robust, and flexible. The algorithm can be used in home/building energy-management systems to help household owners or building managers to automatically create optimal load operation schedules based on different cost and comfort settings and compare cost/benefits among schedules.

  8. Household energy consumption and expenditures, 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-02

    This report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990, is based upon data from the 1990 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Focusing on energy end-use consumption and expenditures of households, the 1990 RECS is the eighth in a series conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Over 5,000 households were surveyed, providing information on their housing units, housing characteristics, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information provided represents the characteristics and energy consumption of 94 million households nationwide.

  9. " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating Characteristics by Household Income, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ... to 79,999","80,000 or More" "Water Heating Characteristics" ...

  10. Delivering Energy Efficiency to Middle Income Single Family Households

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-12-01

    Provides state and local policymakers with information on successful approaches to the design and implementation of residential efficiency programs for households ineligible for low-income programs.

  11. Barriers to household investment in residential energy conservation: preliminary assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, W.L.

    1982-12-01

    A general assessment of the range of barriers which impede household investments in weatherization and other energy efficiency improvements for their homes is provided. The relationship of similar factors to households' interest in receiving a free energy audits examined. Rates of return that underly household investments in major conservation improvements are assessed. A special analysis of household knowledge of economically attractive investments is provided that compares high payback improvements specified by the energy audit with the list of needed or desirable conservation improvements identified by respondents. (LEW)

  12. Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of Improving Efficiencyof Household Appliances in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jiang

    2006-07-10

    China is already the second's largest energy consumer in the world after the United States, and its demand for energy is expected to continue to grow rapidly in the foreseeable future, due to its fast economic growth and its low level of energy use per capita. From 2001 to 2005, the growth rate of energy consumption in China has exceeded the growth rate of its economy (NBS, 2006), raising serious concerns about the consequences of such energy use on local environment and global climate. It is widely expected that China is likely to overtake the US in energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the first half of the 21st century. Therefore, there is considerable interest in the international community in searching for options that may help China slow down its growth in energy consumption and GHG emissions through improving energy efficiency and adopting more environmentally friendly fuel supplies such as renewable energy. This study examines the energy saving potential of three major residential energy end uses: household refrigeration, air-conditioning, and water heating. China is already the largest consumer market in the world for household appliances, and increasingly the global production base for consumer appliances. Sales of household refrigerators, room air-conditioners, and water heaters are growing rapidly due to rising incomes and booming housing market. At the same time, the energy use of Chinese appliances is relatively inefficient compared to similar products in the developed economies. Therefore, the potential for energy savings through improving appliance efficiency is substantial. This study focuses particularly on the impact of more stringent energy efficiency standards for household appliances, given that such policies are found to be very effective in improving the efficiency of household appliances, and are well established both in China and around world (CLASP, 2006).

  13. Reconstructing householder vectors from Tall-Skinny QR

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ballard, Grey Malone; Demmel, James; Grigori, Laura; Jacquelin, Mathias; Knight, Nicholas; Nguyen, Hong Diep

    2015-08-05

    The Tall-Skinny QR (TSQR) algorithm is more communication efficient than the standard Householder algorithm for QR decomposition of matrices with many more rows than columns. However, TSQR produces a different representation of the orthogonal factor and therefore requires more software development to support the new representation. Further, implicitly applying the orthogonal factor to the trailing matrix in the context of factoring a square matrix is more complicated and costly than with the Householder representation. We show how to perform TSQR and then reconstruct the Householder vector representation with the same asymptotic communication efficiency and little extra computational cost. We demonstratemore » the high performance and numerical stability of this algorithm both theoretically and empirically. The new Householder reconstruction algorithm allows us to design more efficient parallel QR algorithms, with significantly lower latency cost compared to Householder QR and lower bandwidth and latency costs compared with Communication-Avoiding QR (CAQR) algorithm. Experiments on supercomputers demonstrate the benefits of the communication cost improvements: in particular, our experiments show substantial improvements over tuned library implementations for tall-and-skinny matrices. Furthermore, we also provide algorithmic improvements to the Householder QR and CAQR algorithms, and we investigate several alternatives to the Householder reconstruction algorithm that sacrifice guarantees on numerical stability in some cases in order to obtain higher performance.« less

  14. Reconstructing householder vectors from Tall-Skinny QR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballard, Grey Malone; Demmel, James; Grigori, Laura; Jacquelin, Mathias; Knight, Nicholas; Nguyen, Hong Diep

    2015-08-05

    The Tall-Skinny QR (TSQR) algorithm is more communication efficient than the standard Householder algorithm for QR decomposition of matrices with many more rows than columns. However, TSQR produces a different representation of the orthogonal factor and therefore requires more software development to support the new representation. Further, implicitly applying the orthogonal factor to the trailing matrix in the context of factoring a square matrix is more complicated and costly than with the Householder representation. We show how to perform TSQR and then reconstruct the Householder vector representation with the same asymptotic communication efficiency and little extra computational cost. We demonstrate the high performance and numerical stability of this algorithm both theoretically and empirically. The new Householder reconstruction algorithm allows us to design more efficient parallel QR algorithms, with significantly lower latency cost compared to Householder QR and lower bandwidth and latency costs compared with Communication-Avoiding QR (CAQR) algorithm. Experiments on supercomputers demonstrate the benefits of the communication cost improvements: in particular, our experiments show substantial improvements over tuned library implementations for tall-and-skinny matrices. Furthermore, we also provide algorithmic improvements to the Householder QR and CAQR algorithms, and we investigate several alternatives to the Householder reconstruction algorithm that sacrifice guarantees on numerical stability in some cases in order to obtain higher performance.

  15. Projecting household energy consumption within a conditional demand framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teotia, A.; Poyer, D.

    1991-01-01

    Few models attempt to assess and project household energy consumption and expenditure by taking into account differential household choices correlated with such variables as race, ethnicity, income, and geographic location. The Minority Energy Assessment Model (MEAM), developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE), provides a framework to forecast the energy consumption and expenditure of majority, black, Hispanic, poor, and nonpoor households. Among other variables, household energy demand for each of these population groups in MEAM is affected by housing factors (such as home age, home ownership, home type, type of heating fuel, and installed central air conditioning unit), demographic factors (such as household members and urban/rural location), and climate factors (such as heating degree days and cooling degree days). The welfare implications of the revealed consumption patterns by households are also forecast. The paper provides an overview of the model methodology and its application in projecting household energy consumption under alternative energy scenarios developed by Data Resources, Inc., (DRI).

  16. Projecting household energy consumption within a conditional demand framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teotia, A.; Poyer, D.

    1991-12-31

    Few models attempt to assess and project household energy consumption and expenditure by taking into account differential household choices correlated with such variables as race, ethnicity, income, and geographic location. The Minority Energy Assessment Model (MEAM), developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE), provides a framework to forecast the energy consumption and expenditure of majority, black, Hispanic, poor, and nonpoor households. Among other variables, household energy demand for each of these population groups in MEAM is affected by housing factors (such as home age, home ownership, home type, type of heating fuel, and installed central air conditioning unit), demographic factors (such as household members and urban/rural location), and climate factors (such as heating degree days and cooling degree days). The welfare implications of the revealed consumption patterns by households are also forecast. The paper provides an overview of the model methodology and its application in projecting household energy consumption under alternative energy scenarios developed by Data Resources, Inc., (DRI).

  17. Fact #618: April 12, 2010 Vehicles per Household and Other Demographic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    per Household and Other Demographic Statistics Fact 618: April 12, 2010 Vehicles per Household and Other Demographic Statistics Since 1969, the number of vehicles per ...

  18. "Table HC7.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Household Income...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ... for 2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ...

  19. "Table HC7.12 Home Electronics Usage Indicators by Household...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ... for 2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ...

  20. "Table HC7.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Household...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ... for 2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ...

  1. Fact #748: October 8, 2012 Components of Household Expenditures on

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation, 1984-2010 | Department of Energy 8: October 8, 2012 Components of Household Expenditures on Transportation, 1984-2010 Fact #748: October 8, 2012 Components of Household Expenditures on Transportation, 1984-2010 The overall share of annual household expenditures for transportation was lower in 2010 than it was in 1984, reaching its lowest point in 2009 at 15.5%. In the early to mid-1980s when oil prices were high, gasoline and motor oil made up a larger share of transportation

  2. Table 2. Percent of Households with Vehicles, Selected Survey...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Percent of Households with Vehicles, Selected Survey Years " ,"Survey Years" ,1983,1985,1988,1991,1994,2001 "Total",85.5450237,89.00343643,88.75545852,89.42917548,87.25590956,92.08...

  3. Ventilation Behavior and Household Characteristics in NewCalifornia Houses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Phillip N.; Sherman, Max H.

    2006-02-01

    A survey was conducted to determine occupant use of windows and mechanical ventilation devices; barriers that inhibit their use; satisfaction with indoor air quality (IAQ); and the relationship between these factors. A questionnaire was mailed to a stratified random sample of 4,972 single-family detached homes built in 2003, and 1,448 responses were received. A convenience sample of 230 houses known to have mechanical ventilation systems resulted in another 67 completed interviews. Some results are: (1) Many houses are under-ventilated: depending on season, only 10-50% of houses meet the standard recommendation of 0.35 air changes per hour. (2) Local exhaust fans are under-utilized. For instance, about 30% of households rarely or never use their bathroom fan. (3) More than 95% of households report that indoor air quality is ''very'' or ''somewhat'' acceptable, although about 1/3 of households also report dustiness, dry air, or stagnant or humid air. (4) Except households where people cook several hours per week, there is no evidence that households with significant indoor pollutant sources get more ventilation. (5) Except households containing asthmatics, there is no evidence that health issues motivate ventilation behavior. (6) Security and energy saving are the two main reasons people close windows or keep them closed.

  4. Modeling patterns of hot water use in households

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, J.D.; Liu, Xiaomin; McMahon, J.E.

    1996-11-01

    This report presents a detailed model of hot water use patterns in individual household. The model improves upon an existing model by including the effects of four conditions that were previously unaccounted for: the absence of a clothes washer; the absence of a dishwasher; a household consisting of seniors only; and a household that does not pay for its own hot water use. Although these four conditions can significantly affect residential hot water use, and have been noted in other studies, this is the first time that they have been incorporated into a detailed model. This model allows detailed evaluation of the impact of potential efficiency standards for water heaters and other market transformation policies. 21 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Modeling patterns of hot water use in households

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, James D.; Liu, Xiaomin; McMahon, James E.; Dunham, Camilla; Shown, Leslie J.; McCure, Quandra T.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents a detailed model of hot water use patterns in individual households. The model improves upon an existing model by including the effects of four conditions that were previously unaccounted for: the absence of a clothes washer; the absence of a dishwasher; a household consisting of seniors only; and a household that does not pay for its own hot water use. Although these four conditions can significantly affect residential hot water use, and have been noted in other studies, this is the first time that they have been incorporated into a detailed model. This model allows detailed evaluation of the impact of potential efficiency standards for water heaters and other market transformation policies.

  6. Shared Solar Projects Powering Households Throughout America | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Shared Solar Projects Powering Households Throughout America Shared Solar Projects Powering Households Throughout America January 31, 2014 - 2:30pm Addthis Shared solar projects allow consumers to take advantage of solar energy’s myriad benefits, even though the system is not located on the consumer’s own rooftop. | Photo courtesy of the Vote Solar Initiative Shared solar projects allow consumers to take advantage of solar energy's myriad benefits, even though the system

  7. Household heating bills expected to be lower this winter

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Household heating bills expected to be lower this winter U.S. consumers are expected to pay less this winter on their home heating bills because of lower oil and natural gas prices and projected milder temperatures than last winter. In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said households that rely on heating oil which are mainly located in the Northeast will pay the lowest heating expenditures in 9 years down 25% from last winter as consumers are expected to save about

  8. Cascaded target normal sheath acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, W. P.; Shen, B. F.; Zhang, X. M.; Wang, X. F.; Xu, J. C.; Zhao, X. Y.; Yu, Y. H.; Yi, L. Q.; Shi, Y.; Zhang, L. G.; Xu, T. J.; Xu, Z. Z.

    2013-11-15

    A cascaded target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) scheme is proposed to simultaneously increase energy and improve energy spread of a laser-produced mono-energetic proton beam. An optimum condition that uses the maximum sheath field to accelerate the center of the proton beam is theoretically found and verified by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. An initial 10 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 21 MeV with energy spread decreased from 5% to 2% under the optimum condition during the process of the cascaded TNSA. The scheme opens a way to scale proton energy lineally with laser energy.

  9. Table HC1-3a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Household Income...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ...

  10. Heating oil and propane households bills to be lower this winter...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heating oil and propane households bills to be lower this winter despite recent cold spell Despite the recent cold weather, households that use heating oil or propane as their main ...

  11. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula; Kurisu, Kiyo H.; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2012-12-15

    management behaviour requiring particular approaches to increase individuals' engagement in future policies.

  12. Fact #727: May 14, 2012 Nearly Twenty Percent of Households Own Three or

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Vehicles | Department of Energy 7: May 14, 2012 Nearly Twenty Percent of Households Own Three or More Vehicles Fact #727: May 14, 2012 Nearly Twenty Percent of Households Own Three or More Vehicles Household vehicle ownership has changed over the last six decades. In 1960, over twenty percent of households did not own a vehicle, but by 2010, that number fell to less than 10%. The number of households with three or more vehicles grew from 2% in 1960 to nearly 20% in 2010. Before 1990,

  13. Fact #729: May 28, 2012 Secondary Household Vehicles Travel Fewer Miles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 9: May 28, 2012 Secondary Household Vehicles Travel Fewer Miles Fact #729: May 28, 2012 Secondary Household Vehicles Travel Fewer Miles When a household has more than one vehicle, the secondary vehicles travel fewer miles than the primary vehicle. In a two-vehicle household, the second vehicle travels less than half of the miles that the primary vehicle travels in a day. In a six-vehicle household, the sixth vehicle travels fewer than five miles a day. Daily Vehicle

  14. Normal Conducting CLIC Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Erk

    2006-01-03

    The CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) multi-lateral study group based at CERN is studying the technology for an electron-positron linear collider with a centre-of-mass energy up to 5 TeV. In contrast to the International Linear Collider (ILC) study which has chosen to use super-conducting cavities with accelerating gradients in the range of 30-40 MV/m to obtain centre-of-mass collision energies of 0.5-1 TeV, the CLIC study aims to use a normal-conducting system based on two-beam technology with gradients of 150 MV/m. It is generally accepted that this change in technology is not only necessary but the only viable choice for a cost-effective multi-TeV collider. The CLIC study group is studying the technology issues of such a machine, and is in particular developing state-of-the-art 30 GHz molybdenum-iris accelerating structures and power extraction and transfer structures (PETS). The accelerating structure has a new geometry which includes fully-profiled RF surfaces optimised to minimize surface fields, and hybrid damping using both iris slots and radial waveguides. A newly-developed structure-optimisation procedure has been used to simultaneously balance surface fields, power flow, short and long-range transverse wakefields, RF-to-beam efficiency and the ratio of luminosity to input power. The slotted irises allow a simple structure fabrication by high-precision high-speed 3D milling of just four pieces, and an even easier bolted assembly in a vacuum chamber.

  15. An Analysis of the Price Elasticity of Demand for Household Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, Kimberly; Dale, Larry; Fujita, K. Sydny

    2008-01-25

    This report summarizes our study of the price elasticity of demand for home appliances, including refrigerators, clothes washers, and dishwashers. In the context of increasingly stringent appliance standards, we are interested in what kind of impact the increased manufacturing costs caused by higher efficiency requirements will have on appliance sales. We begin with a review of existing economics literature describing the impact of economic variables on the sale of durable goods.We then describe the market for home appliances and changes in this market over the past 20 years, performing regression analysis on the shipments of home appliances and relevant economic variables including changes to operating cost and household income. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the demand for home appliances is price inelastic.

  16. The impact of rising energy prices on household energy consumption and expenditure patterns: The Persian Gulf crisis as a case example

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, L.J. ); Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S. . Energy Systems Div.)

    1992-09-01

    The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and the subsequent war between Iraq and an international alliance led by the United States triggered immediate increases in world oil prices. Increases in world petroleum prices and in US petroleum imports resulted in higher petroleum prices for US customers. In this report, the effects of the Persian Gulf War and its aftermath are used to demonstrate the potential impacts of petroleum price changes on majority, black, and Hispanic households, as well as on poor and nonpoor households. The analysis is done by using the Minority Energy Assessment Model developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The differential impacts of these price increases and fluctuations on poor and minority households raise significant issues for a variety of government agencies, including DOE. Although the Persian Gulf crisis is now over and world oil prices have returned to their prewar levels, the differential impacts of rising energy prices on poor and minority households as a result of any future crisis in the world oil market remains a significant long-term issue.

  17. Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households Better Buildings Residential Network Multifamily and Low-Income Housing Peer Exchange Call Series: Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households, March 13, 2014. Call Slides and Discussion Summary (919.64 KB) More Documents & Publications EcoHouse Program Overview Strengthening Relationships Between Energy Programs and Housing Programs Targeted Marketing and Program

  18. Effect of Income on Appliances in U.S. Households, The

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2004-01-01

    Entails how people live, the factors that cause the most differences in home lifestyle, including energy use in geographic location, socioeconomics and household income.

  19. Forum on Enhancing the Delivery of Energy Efficiency to Middle Income Households: Discussion Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-09-20

    Summarizes discussions and recommendations from a forum for practitioners and policymakers aiming to strengthen residential energy efficiency program design and delivery for middle income households.

  20. α -cluster asymptotic normalization coefficients for nuclear...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    -cluster asymptotic normalization coefficients for nuclear astrophysics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: -cluster asymptotic normalization coefficients for nuclear ...

  1. A material flow analysis on current electrical and electronic waste disposal from Hong Kong households

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, Winifred Ka-Yan; Chung, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Chan

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Most household TWARC waste is sold directly to private e-waste collectors in HK. ► The current e-waste recycling network is popular with HK households. ► About 80% of household generated TWARC is exported overseas each year. ► Over 7000 tonnes/yr of household generated TWARC reach landfills. ► It is necessary to upgrade safety and awareness in HK’s e-waste recycling industry. - Abstract: A material flow study on five types of household electrical and electronic equipment, namely television, washing machine, air conditioner, refrigerator and personal computer (TWARC) was conducted to assist the Government of Hong Kong to establish an e-waste take-back system. This study is the first systematic attempt on identifying key TWARC waste disposal outlets and trade practices of key parties involved in Hong Kong. Results from two questionnaire surveys, on local households and private e-waste traders, were used to establish the material flow of household TWARC waste. The study revealed that the majority of obsolete TWARC were sold by households to private e-waste collectors and that the current e-waste collection network is efficient and popular with local households. However, about 65,000 tonnes/yr or 80% of household generated TWARC waste are being exported overseas by private e-waste traders, with some believed to be imported into developing countries where crude recycling methods are practiced. Should Hong Kong establish a formal recycling network with tight regulatory control on imports and exports, the potential risks of current e-waste recycling practices on e-waste recycling workers, local residents and the environment can be greatly reduced.

  2. Household mold and dust allergens: Exposure, sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gent, Janneane F.; Kezik, Julie M.; Hill, Melissa E.; Tsai, Eling; Li, De-Wei; Leaderer, Brian P.

    2012-10-15

    Background: Few studies address concurrent exposures to common household allergens, specific allergen sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity. Objective: To identify levels of allergen exposures that trigger asthma exacerbations in sensitized individuals. Methods: We sampled homes for common indoor allergens (fungi, dust mites (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and cockroach (Bla g 1)) for levels associated with respiratory responses among school-aged children with asthma (N=1233) in a month-long study. Blood samples for allergy testing and samples of airborne fungi and settled dust were collected at enrollment. Symptoms and medication use were recorded on calendars. Combined effects of specific allergen sensitization and level of exposure on wheeze, persistent cough, rescue medication use and a 5-level asthma severity score were examined using ordered logistic regression. Results: Children sensitized and exposed to any Penicillium experienced increased risk of wheeze (odds ratio [OR] 2.12 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12, 4.04), persistent cough (OR 2.01 95% CI 1.05, 3.85) and higher asthma severity score (OR 1.99 95% CI 1.06, 3.72) compared to those not sensitized or sensitized but unexposed. Children sensitized and exposed to pet allergen were at significantly increased risk of wheeze (by 39% and 53% for Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g and Can f 1>1.2 {mu}g/g, respectively). Increased rescue medication use was significantly associated with sensitization and exposure to Der p 1>0.10 {mu}g/g (by 47%) and Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g (by 32%). Conclusion: Asthmatic children sensitized and exposed to low levels of common household allergens Penicillium, Der p 1, Fel d 1 and Can f 1 are at significant risk for increased morbidity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few studies address concurrent allergen exposures, sensitization and asthma morbidity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Children with asthma were tested for sensitivity to common indoor allergens

  3. Normalized cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

    1997-06-10

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3{prime} noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 4 figs.

  4. Normalized cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  5. Normalized Elution Time Prediction Utility

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-02-17

    This program is used to compute the predicted normalized elution time (NET) for a list of peptide sequences. It includes the Kangas/Petritis neural network trained model, the Krokhin hydrophobicity model, and the Mant hydrophobicity model. In addition, it can compute the predicted strong cation exchange (SCX) fraction (on a 0 to 1 scale) in which a given peptide will appear.

  6. Energy-efficient housing alternatives: a predictive model of factors affecting household perceptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreckengost, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The major purpose of this investigation was to assess the impact of household socio-economic factors, dwelling characteristics, energy conservation behavior, and energy attitudes on the perceptions of energy-efficient housing alternatives. Perceptions of passive solar, active solar, earth sheltered, and retrofitted housing were examined. Data used were from the Southern Regional Research Project, S-141, Housing for Low and Moderate Income Families. Responses from 1804 households living in seven southern states were analyzed. A conceptual model was proposed to test the hypothesized relationships which were examined by path analysis. Perceptions of energy efficient housing alternatives were found to be a function of selected household and dwelling characteristics, energy attitude, household economic factors, and household conservation behavior. Age and education of the respondent, family size, housing-income ratio, utility income ratio, energy attitude, and size of the dwelling unit were found to have direct and indirect effects on perceptions of energy-efficient housing alternatives. Energy conservation behavior made a significant direct impact with behavioral energy conservation changes having the most profound influence. Conservation behavior was influenced by selected household and dwelling characteristics, energy attitude, and household economic factors.

  7. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Jin, X.; Earle, L.

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses. The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  8. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Jin, X.; Earle, L.

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses.The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  9. Fact #616: March 29, 2010 Household Vehicle-Miles of Travel by Trip Purpose

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy 6: March 29, 2010 Household Vehicle-Miles of Travel by Trip Purpose Fact #616: March 29, 2010 Household Vehicle-Miles of Travel by Trip Purpose In 2009, getting to and from work accounted for about 27% of household vehicle-miles of travel (VMT). Work-related business was 8.4% of VMT in 2001, but declined to 6.7% in 2009, possibly due to advancements in computing technology making it possible for more business to be handled electronically. VMT for shopping was almost

  10. Table 2.5 Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures by End...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Household 1 Energy Consumption and Expenditures by End Use, Selected Years, 1978-2005 Year Space ... 3 Fuel Oil 4 LPG 5 Total Electricity 3 Natural Gas Elec- tricity 3 ...

  11. How Do You Encourage Everyone in Your Household to Save Energy?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Anyone who has decided to save energy at home knows that the entire household needs to be involved if you really want to see savings. Some people—be they roommates, spouses, children, or maybe even...

  12. EPA Webinar: Bringing Energy Efficiency and Renewable Housing to Low-Income Households

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, this webinar will explore the topic of linking and leveraging energy efficiency and renewable energy programs for limited-income households, including the need to coordinate with other energy assistance programs.

  13. Competition Helps Kids Learn About Energy and Save Their Households Some

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Money | Department of Energy Competition Helps Kids Learn About Energy and Save Their Households Some Money Competition Helps Kids Learn About Energy and Save Their Households Some Money May 21, 2013 - 2:40pm Addthis Students can register now to save energy and win prizes with the Home Energy Challenge. Students can register now to save energy and win prizes with the Home Energy Challenge. Eric Barendsen Energy Technology Program Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  14. Residential Network Members Impact More Than 42,000 Households | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Impact More Than 42,000 Households Residential Network Members Impact More Than 42,000 Households Photo of a row of townhomes. Eligible Better Buildings Residential Network members reported completing 27,563 home energy upgrades during 2013 as part of the Residential Network's first reporting cycle. In addition, 13 Better Buildings Neighborhood Program partners completed 12,166 home energy upgrades, and six Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® Sponsors completed 2,540 home energy

  15. A Mixed Nordic Experience: Implementing Competitive Retail Electricity Markets for Household Customers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Johnsen, Tor Arnt; Lewis, Philip

    2006-11-15

    Although the Nordic countries were among the first to develop competition in the electricity industry, it took a long time to make retail competition work. In Norway and Sweden a considerable number of households are actively using the market but very few households are active in Finland and Denmark. One problem has been institutional barriers involving metering, limited unbundling of distribution and supply, and limited access to reliable information on contracts and prices. (author)

  16. Commercial viability of hybrid vehicles : best household use and cross national considerations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, D. J.; Vyas, A. D.

    1999-07-16

    Japanese automakers have introduced hybrid passenger cars in Japan and will soon do so in the US. In this paper, we report how we used early computer simulation model results to compare the commercial viability of a hypothetical near-term (next decade) hybrid mid-size passenger car configuration under varying fuel price and driving patterns. The fuel prices and driving patterns evaluated are designed to span likely values for major OECD nations. Two types of models are used. One allows the ''design'' of a hybrid to a specified set of performance requirements and the prediction of fuel economy under a number of possible driving patterns (called driving cycles). Another provides an estimate of the incremental cost of the hybrid in comparison to a comparably performing conventional vehicle. In this paper, the models are applied to predict the NPV cost of conventional gasoline-fueled vehicles vs. parallel hybrid vehicles. The parallel hybrids are assumed to (1) be produced at high volume, (2) use nickel metal hydride battery packs, and (3) have high-strength steel bodies. The conventional vehicle also is assumed to have a high-strength steel body. The simulated vehicles are held constant in many respects, including 0-60 time, engine type, aerodynamic drag coefficient, tire rolling resistance, and frontal area. The hybrids analyzed use the minimum size battery pack and motor to meet specified 0-60 times. A key characteristic affecting commercial viability is noted and quantified: that hybrids achieve the most pronounced fuel economy increase (best use) in slow, average-speed, stop-and-go driving, but when households consistently drive these vehicles under these conditions, they tend to travel fewer miles than average vehicles. We find that hours driven is a more valuable measure than miles. Estimates are developed concerning hours of use of household vehicles versus driving cycle, and the pattern of minimum NPV incremental cost (or benefit) of selecting the hybrid over

  17. LCA for household waste management when planning a new urban settlement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slagstad, Helene; Brattebo, Helge

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Household waste management of a new carbon neutral settlement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EASEWASTE as a LCA tool to compare different centralised and decentralised solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental benefit or close to zero impact in most of the categories. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paper and metal recycling important for the outcome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Discusses the challenges of waste prevention planning. - Abstract: When planning for a new urban settlement, industrial ecology tools like scenario building and life cycle assessment can be used to assess the environmental quality of different infrastructure solutions. In Trondheim, a new greenfield settlement with carbon-neutral ambitions is being planned and five different scenarios for the waste management system of the new settlement have been compared. The results show small differences among the scenarios, however, some benefits from increased source separation of paper and metal could be found. The settlement should connect to the existing waste management system of the city, and not resort to decentralised waste treatment or recovery methods. However, as this is an urban development project with ambitious goals for lifestyle changes, effort should be put into research and initiatives for proactive waste prevention and reuse issues.

  18. Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian C. O'Neill

    2006-08-09

    This report describes results of the research project on "Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics". The overall objective of this project was to improve projections of energy demand and associated greenhouse gas emissions by taking into account demographic factors currently not incorporated in Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) of global climate change. We proposed to examine the potential magnitude of effects on energy demand of changes in the composition of populations by household characteristics for three countries: the U.S., China, and Indonesia. For each country, we planned to analyze household energy use survey data to estimate relationships between household characteristics and energy use; develop a new set of detailed household projections for each country; and combine these analyses to produce new projections of energy demand illustrating the potential importance of consideration of households.

  19. Normal Force and Drag Force in Magnetorheological Finishing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miao, C.; Shafrir, S.N.; Lambropoulos, J.C.; Jacobs, S.D.

    2010-01-13

    The material removal in magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is known to be controlled by shear stress, tau, which equals drag force, Fd, divided by spot area, As. However, it is unclear how the normal force, Fn, affects the material removal in MRF and how the measured ratio of drag force to normal force Fd/Fn, equivalent to coefficient of friction, is related to material removal. This work studies, for the first time for MRF, the normal force and the measured ratio Fd/Fn as a function of material mechanical properties. Experimental data were obtained by taking spots on a variety of materials including optical glasses and hard ceramics with a spot-taking machine (STM). Drag force and normal force were measured with a dual load cell. Drag force decreases linearly with increasing material hardness. In contrast, normal force increases with hardness for glasses, saturating at high hardness values for ceramics. Volumetric removal rate decreases with normal force across all materials. The measured ratio Fd/Fn shows a strong negative linear correlation with material hardness. Hard materials exhibit a low coefficient of friction. The volumetric removal rate increases with the measured ratio Fd/Fn which is also correlated with shear stress, indicating that the measured ratio Fd/Fn is a useful measure of material removal in MRF.

  20. Development of the household sample for furnace and boilerlife-cycle cost analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Lutz, Jim

    2005-05-31

    Residential household space heating energy use comprises close to half of all residential energy consumption. Currently, average space heating use by household is 43.9 Mbtu for a year. An average, however, does not reflect regional variation in heating practices, energy costs, or fuel type. Indeed, a national average does not capture regional or consumer group cost impacts from changing efficiency levels of heating equipment. The US Department of Energy sets energy standards for residential appliances in, what is called, a rulemaking process. The residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking process investigates the costs and benefits of possible updates to the current minimum efficiency regulations. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) selected the sample used in the residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking from publically available data representing United States residences. The sample represents 107 million households in the country. The data sample provides the household energy consumption and energy price inputs to the life-cycle cost analysis segment of the furnace and boiler rulemaking. This paper describes the choice of criteria to select the sample of houses used in the rulemaking process. The process of data extraction is detailed in the appendices and is easily duplicated. The life-cycle cost is calculated in two ways with a household marginal energy price and a national average energy price. The LCC results show that using an national average energy price produces higher LCC savings but does not reflect regional differences in energy price.

  1. Household energy use in urban Venezuela: Implications from surveys in Maracaibo, Valencia, Merida, and Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Sathaye, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies the most important results of a comparative analysis of household commercial energy use in Venezuelan urban cities. The use of modern fuels is widespread among all cities. Cooking consumes the largest share of urban household energy use. The survey documents no use of biomass and a negligible use of kerosene for cooking. LPG, natural gas, and kerosene are the main fuels available. LPG is the fuel choice of low-income households in all cities except Maracaibo, where 40% of all households use natural gas. Electricity consumption in Venezuela`s urban households is remarkably high compared with the levels used in households in comparable Latin American countries and in households of industrialized nations which confront harsher climatic conditions and, therefore, use electricity for water and space heating. The penetration of appliances in Venezuela`s urban households is very high. The appliances available on the market are inefficient, and there are inefficient patterns of energy use among the population. Climate conditions and the urban built form all play important roles in determining the high level of energy consumption in Venezuelan urban households. It is important to acknowledge the opportunities for introducing energy efficiency and conservation in Venezuela`s residential sector, particularly given current economic and financial constraints, which may hamper the future provision of energy services.

  2. Process for the utilization of household rubbish or garbage and other organic waste products for the production of methane gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunziker, M.; Schildknecht, A.

    1985-04-16

    Non-organic substances are separated from household garbage and the organic substances are fed in proportioned manner into a mixing tank and converted into slurry by adding liquid. The slurry is crushed for homogenization purposes in a crushing means and passed into a closed holding container. It is then fed over a heat exchanger and heated to 55/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/ C. The slurry passes into a plurality of reaction vessels in which the methane gas and carbon dioxide are produced. In a separating plant, the mixture of gaseous products is broken down into its components and some of the methane gas is recycled by bubbling it through both the holding tank and the reaction tank, the remainder being stored in gasholders. The organic substances are degraded much more rapidly through increasing the degradation temperature and as a result constructional expenditure can be reduced.

  3. NYSERDA's Green Jobs-Green New York Program: Extending Energy Efficiency Financing To Underserved Households

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimring, Mark; Fuller, Merrian

    2011-01-24

    The New York legislature passed the Green Jobs-Green New York (GJGNY) Act in 2009. Administered by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), GJGNY programs provide New Yorkers with access to free or low-cost energy assessments,1 energy upgrade services,2 low-cost financing, and training for various 'green-collar' careers. Launched in November 2010, GJGNY's residential initiative is notable for its use of novel underwriting criteria to expand access to energy efficiency financing for households seeking to participate in New York's Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program.3 The GJGNY financing program is a valuable test of whether alternatives to credit scores can be used to responsibly expand credit opportunities for households that do not qualify for traditional lending products and, in doing so, enable more households to make energy efficiency upgrades.

  4. Average household expected to save $675 at the pump in 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average household expected to save $675 at the pump in 2015 Although retail gasoline prices have risen in recent weeks U.S. consumers are still expected to save about $675 per household in motor fuel costs this year. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration says the average pump price for regular grade gasoline in 2015 will be $2.43 per gallon. That's about 93 cents lower than last year's average. The savings for consumers will be even bigger during the

  5. EERE Success Story-Kingston Creek Hydro Project Powers 100 Households |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Kingston Creek Hydro Project Powers 100 Households EERE Success Story-Kingston Creek Hydro Project Powers 100 Households August 21, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Nevada-based contracting firm Nevada Controls, LLC used a low-interest loan from the Nevada State Office of Energy's Revolving Loan Fund to help construct a hydropower project in the small Nevada town of Kingston. The Kingston Creek Project-benefitting the Young Brothers Ranch-is a 175-kilowatt hydro generation plant

  6. Drivers of U.S. Household Energy Consumption, 1980-2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Drivers of U.S. Household Energy Consumption, 1980-2009 February 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Drivers of U.S. Household Energy Consumption, 1980-2009 i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any

  7. Material World: Forecasting Household Appliance Ownership in a Growing Global Economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.

    2009-03-23

    Over the past years the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed an econometric model that predicts appliance ownership at the household level based on macroeconomic variables such as household income (corrected for purchase power parity), electrification, urbanization and climate variables. Hundreds of data points from around the world were collected in order to understand trends in acquisition of new appliances by households, especially in developing countries. The appliances covered by this model are refrigerators, lighting fixtures, air conditioners, washing machines and televisions. The approach followed allows the modeler to construct a bottom-up analysis based at the end use and the household level. It captures the appliance uptake and the saturation effect which will affect the energy demand growth in the residential sector. With this approach, the modeler can also account for stock changes in technology and efficiency as a function of time. This serves two important functions with regard to evaluation of the impact of energy efficiency policies. First, it provides insight into which end uses will be responsible for the largest share of demand growth, and therefore should be policy priorities. Second, it provides a characterization of the rate at which policies affecting new equipment penetrate the appliance stock. Over the past 3 years, this method has been used to support the development of energy demand forecasts at the country, region or global level.

  8. Comparison of energy expenditures by elderly and non-elderly households: 1975 and 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siler, A.

    1980-05-01

    The relative position of the elderly in the population is examined and their characteristic use of energy in relation to the total population and their non-elderly counterparts is observed. The 1985 projections are based on demographic, economic, and socio-economic, and energy data assumptions contained in the 1978 Annual Report to Congress. The model used for estimating household energy expenditure is MATH/CHRDS - Micro-Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System. Characteristics used include households disposable income, poverty status, location by DOE region and Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA), and race and sex of the household head as well as age. Energy use by fuel type will be identified for total home fuels, including electricity, natural gas, bottled gas and fuel oil, and for all fuels, where gasoline use is also included. Throughout the analysis, both income and expenditure-dollar amounts for 1975 and 1985 are expressed in constant 1978 dollars. Two appendices contain statistical information.

  9. Nonlinear normal modes modal interactions and isolated resonance curves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuether, Robert J.; Renson, L.; Detroux, T.; Grappasonni, C.; Kerschen, G.; Allen, M. S.

    2015-05-21

    The objective of the present study is to explore the connection between the nonlinear normal modes of an undamped and unforced nonlinear system and the isolated resonance curves that may appear in the damped response of the forced system. To this end, an energy balance technique is used to predict the amplitude of the harmonic forcing that is necessary to excite a specific nonlinear normal mode. A cantilever beam with a nonlinear spring at its tip serves to illustrate the developments. Furthermore, the practical implications of isolated resonance curves are also discussed by computing the beam response to sine sweep excitations of increasing amplitudes.

  10. Nonlinear normal modes modal interactions and isolated resonance curves

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kuether, Robert J.; Renson, L.; Detroux, T.; Grappasonni, C.; Kerschen, G.; Allen, M. S.

    2015-05-21

    The objective of the present study is to explore the connection between the nonlinear normal modes of an undamped and unforced nonlinear system and the isolated resonance curves that may appear in the damped response of the forced system. To this end, an energy balance technique is used to predict the amplitude of the harmonic forcing that is necessary to excite a specific nonlinear normal mode. A cantilever beam with a nonlinear spring at its tip serves to illustrate the developments. Furthermore, the practical implications of isolated resonance curves are also discussed by computing the beam response to sine sweepmore » excitations of increasing amplitudes.« less

  11. Vortices in normal part of proximity system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kogan, V. G.

    2015-05-26

    It is shown that the order parameter ? induced in the normal part of superconductor-normal-superconductor proximity system is modulated in the magnetic field differently from vortices in bulk superconductors. Whereas ? turns zero at vortex centers, the magnetic structure of these vortices differs from that of Abrikosov's.

  12. Vortices in normal part of proximity system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kogan, V. G.

    2015-05-26

    It is shown that the order parameter Δ induced in the normal part of superconductor-normal-superconductor proximity system is modulated in the magnetic field differently from vortices in bulk superconductors. Whereas Δ turns zero at vortex centers, the magnetic structure of these vortices differs from that of Abrikosov's.

  13. Disk Quota Increase Request

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Disk Quota Increase Disk Quota Increase Request NERSC will consider reasonable requests for changes in disk space and inode limits. Please submit a request through the "Request ...

  14. Table 2.6 Household End Uses: Fuel Types, Appliances, and Electronics, Selected Years, 1978-2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Household End Uses: Fuel Types, Appliances, and Electronics, Selected Years, 1978-2009 Appliance Year Change 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1984 1987 1990 1993 1997 2001 2005 2009 1980 to 2009 Total Households (millions) 77 78 82 83 84 86 91 94 97 101 107 111 114 32 Percent of Households<//td> Space Heating - Main Fuel 1 Natural Gas 55 55 55 56 57 55 55 55 53 52 55 52 50 -5 Electricity 2 16 17 18 17 16 17 20 23 26 29 29 30 35 17 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 4 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 0 Distillate

  15. Polymers with increased order

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawan, Samuel P.; Talhi, Abdelhafid; Taylor, Craig M.

    1998-08-25

    The invention features polymers with increased order, and methods of making them featuring a dense gas.

  16. The importance of China's household sector for black carbon emissions - article no. L12708

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streets, D.G.; Aunan, K.

    2005-06-30

    The combustion of coal and biofuels in Chinese households is a large source of black carbon (BC), representing about 10-15% of total global emissions during the past two decades, depending on the year. How the Chinese household sector develops during the next 50 years will have an important bearing on future aerosol concentrations, because the range of possible outcomes (about 550 Gg yr{sup -1}) is greater than total BC emissions in either the United States or Europe (each about 400-500 Gg yr{sup -1}). In some Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change scenarios biofuels persist in rural China for at least the next 50 years, whereas in other scenarios a transition to cleaner fuels and technologies effectively mitigates BC emissions. This paper discusses measures and policies that would help this transition and also raises the possibility of including BC emission reductions as a post-Kyoto option for China and other developing countries.

  17. Characterization of household hazardous waste from Marin County, California, and New Orleans, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rathje, W.L.; Wilson, D.C.; Lambou, V.W.; Herndon, R.C.

    1987-09-01

    There is a growing concern that certain constituents of common household products, that are discarded in residential garbage, may be potentially harmful to human health and the environment by adversely affecting the quality of ground and surface water. A survey of hazardous wastes in residential garbage from Marin County, California, and New Orleans, Louisiana, was conducted in order to determine the amount and characteristics of such wastes that are entering municipal landfills. The results of the survey indicate that approximately 642 metric tons of hazardous waste are discarded per year for the New Orleans study area and approximately 259 metric tons are discarded per year for the Marin County study area. Even though the percent of hazardous household waste in the garbage discarded in both study areas was less than 1%, it represents a significant quantity of hazardous waste because of the large volume of garbage involved.

  18. Identification of influencing municipal characteristics regarding household waste generation and their forecasting ability in Biscay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oribe-Garcia, Iraia Kamara-Esteban, Oihane; Martin, Cristina; Macarulla-Arenaza, Ana M.; Alonso-Vicario, Ainhoa

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We have modelled household waste generation in Biscay municipalities. • We have identified relevant characteristics regarding household waste generation. • Factor models are used in order to identify the best subset of explicative variables. • Biscay’s municipalities are grouped by means of hierarchical clustering. - Abstract: The planning of waste management strategies needs tools to support decisions at all stages of the process. Accurate quantification of the waste to be generated is essential for both the daily management (short-term) and proper design of facilities (long-term). Designing without rigorous knowledge may have serious economic and environmental consequences. The present works aims at identifying relevant socio-economic features of municipalities regarding Household Waste (HW) generation by means of factor models. Factor models face two main drawbacks, data collection and identifying relevant explanatory variables within a heterogeneous group. Grouping similar characteristics observations within a group may favour the deduction of more robust models. The methodology followed has been tested with Biscay Province because it stands out for having very different municipalities ranging from very rural to urban ones. Two main models are developed, one for the overall province and a second one after clustering the municipalities. The results prove that relating municipalities with specific characteristics, improves the results in a very heterogeneous situation. The methodology has identified urban morphology, tourism activity, level of education and economic situation as the most influencing characteristics in HW generation.

  19. Evaluation of bulk paint worker exposure to solvents at household hazardous waste collection events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cameron, M.

    1995-09-01

    In fiscal year 93/94, over 250 governmental agencies were involved in the collection of household hazardous wastes in the State of California. During that time, over 3,237,000 lbs. of oil based paint were collected in 9,640 drums. Most of this was in lab pack drums, which can only hold up to 20 one gallon cans. Cost for disposal of such drums is approximately $1000. In contrast, during the same year, 1,228,000 lbs. of flammable liquid were collected in 2,098 drums in bulk form. Incineration of bulked flammable liquids is approximately $135 per drum. Clearly, it is most cost effective to bulk flammable liquids at household hazardous waste events. Currently, this is the procedure used at most Temporary Household Hazardous Waste Collection Facilities (THHWCFs). THHWCFs are regulated by the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) under the new Permit-by Rule Regulations. These regulations specify certain requirements regarding traffic flow, emergency response notifications and prevention of exposure to the public. The regulations require that THHWCF operators bulk wastes only when the public is not present. [22 CCR, section 67450.4 (e) (2) (A)].Santa Clara County Environmental Health Department sponsors local THHWCF`s and does it`s own bulking. In order to save time and money, a variance from the regulation was requested and an employee monitoring program was initiated to determine actual exposure to workers. Results are presented.

  20. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave spectral direct normal irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    direct normal irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave spectral direct normal irradiance The narrow spectral range of measurements coming directly from the sun whose wavelength falls within the solar range of 0.4 and 4 {mu}m. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream

  1. Household`s choices of efficiency levels for appliances: Using stated- and revealed-preference data to identify the importance of rebates and financing arrangements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Train, K.; Atherton, T.

    1994-11-01

    We examine customers` choice between standard and high-efficiency equipment, and the impact of utility incentives such as rebates and loans on this decision. Using data from interviews with 400 households, we identify the factors that customers consider in their choice of efficiency level for appliances and the relative importance of these factors. We build a model that describes customers` choices and can be used to predict choices in future situations under changes in the attributes of appliances and in the utility`s DSM and as part of the appliance-choice component of utilities` end-use forecasting systems. As examples, the model is used to predict the impacts of: doubling the size of rebates, replacing rebates with financing programs, and offering loans and rebates as alternative options for customers.

  2. Managing Increased Charging Demand

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Managing Increased Charging Demand Carrie Giles ICF International, Supporting the Workplace Charging Challenge Workplace Charging Challenge Do you already own an EV? Are you...

  3. Characterizing Walk Trips in communities by Using Data from 2009 National Household Travel Survey, American Community Survey, and Other Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Reuscher, Tim; Wilson, Daniel W; Murakami, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Non-motorized travel (i.e. walking and bicycling) are of increasing interest to the transportation profession, especially in context with energy consumption, reducing vehicular congestion, urban development patterns, and promotion of healthier life styles. This research project aimed to identify factors impacting the amount of travel for both walk and bike trips at the Census block group or tract level, using several public and private data sources. The key survey of travel behavior is the 2009 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) which had over 87,000 walk trips for persons 16 and over, and over 6000 bike trips for persons 16 and over. The NHTS, in conjunction with the Census Bureau s American Community Survey, street density measures using Census Bureau TIGER, WalkScore , Nielsen Claritas employment estimates, and several other sources were used for this study. Stepwise Logistic Regression modeling techniques as well as Discriminant Analysis were applied using the integrated data set. While the models performed reasonably well for walk trips, travel by bike was abandoned due to sparseness of data. This paper discusses data sources utilized and modeling processes conducted under this study. It also presents a summary of findings and addresses data challenges and lesson-learned from this research effort.

  4. Computing Instantaneous Frequency by normalizing Hilbert Transform

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Norden E.

    2005-05-31

    This invention presents Normalized Amplitude Hilbert Transform (NAHT) and Normalized Hilbert Transform(NHT), both of which are new methods for computing Instantaneous Frequency. This method is designed specifically to circumvent the limitation set by the Bedorsian and Nuttal Theorems, and to provide a sharp local measure of error when the quadrature and the Hilbert Transform do not agree. Motivation for this method is that straightforward application of the Hilbert Transform followed by taking the derivative of the phase-angle as the Instantaneous Frequency (IF) leads to a common mistake made up to this date. In order to make the Hilbert Transform method work, the data has to obey certain restrictions.

  5. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband direct normal irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    normal irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband direct normal irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in broad bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4{mu}m, that comes directly from the Sun without being scattered or absorbed in the atmosphere, passes through a unit area perpendicular to the direction from the Sun. Categories Radiometric Instruments

  6. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband direct normal irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    normal irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband direct normal irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4{mu}m, that comes directly from the Sun without being scattered or absorbed in the atmosphere, passes through a unit area perpendicular to the direction from the Sun. Categories Radiometric Instruments

  7. The impact of forecasted energy price increases on low-income consumers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenberg, Joel F.

    2005-10-31

    The Department of Energy’s Energy Information Administration (EIA) recently released its short term forecast for residential energy prices for the winter of 2005-2006. The forecast indicates significant increases in fuel costs, particularly for natural gas, propane, and home heating oil, for the year ahead. In the following analysis, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has integrated the EIA price projections with the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for 2001 in order to project the impact of these price increases on the nation’s low-income households by primary heating fuel type, nationally and by Census Region. The statistics are intended for the use of policymakers in the Department of Energy’s Weatherization Assistance Program and elsewhere who are trying to gauge the nature and severity of the problems that will be faced by eligible low-income households during the 2006 fiscal year.

  8. The Impact of Carbon Control on Low-Income Household Electricity and Gasoline Expenditures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenberg, Joel Fred

    2008-06-01

    In July of 2007 The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA) released its impact analysis of 'The Climate Stewardship And Innovation Act of 2007,' known as S.280. This legislation, cosponsored by Senators Joseph Lieberman and John McCain, was designed to significantly cut U.S. greenhouse gas emissions over time through a 'cap-and-trade' system, briefly described below, that would gradually but extensively reduce such emissions over many decades. S.280 is one of several proposals that have emerged in recent years to come to grips with the nation's role in causing human-induced global climate change. EIA produced an analysis of this proposal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) to generate price projections for electricity and gasoline under the proposed cap-and-trade system. Oak Ridge National Laboratory integrated those price projections into a data base derived from the EIA Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for 2001 and the EIA public use files from the National Household Transportation Survey (NHTS) for 2001 to develop a preliminary assessment of impact of these types of policies on low-income consumers. ORNL will analyze the impacts of other specific proposals as EIA makes its projections for them available. The EIA price projections for electricity and gasoline under the S.280 climate change proposal, integrated with RECS and NHTS for 2001, help identify the potential effects on household electric bills and gasoline expenditures, which represent S.280's two largest direct impacts on low-income household budgets in the proposed legislation. The analysis may prove useful in understanding the needs and remedies for the distributive impacts of such policies and how these may vary based on patterns of location, housing and vehicle stock, and energy usage.

  9. Table HC6.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total.............................................................................. 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day........................................... 8.2 1.4 1.9 1.4 1.0 2.4 2 Times A Day........................................................ 24.6 4.3 7.6 4.3 4.8 3.7 Once a Day............................................................ 42.3 9.9

  10. Table HC6.11 Home Electronics Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Home Electronics Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total...................................................................... 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ................... 35.5 16.3 9.4 4.0 2.7 3.2 Use a Personal Computer................................ 75.6 13.8 25.4 14.4 13.2 8.8 Number of Desktop PCs 1.................................................................. 50.3 11.9 17.4 8.5 7.3 5.2

  11. Table HC6.12 Home Electronics Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Home Electronics Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total................................................................................ 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer............................. 35.5 16.3 9.4 4.0 2.7 3.2 Use a Personal Computer.......................................... 75.6 13.8 25.4 14.4 13.2 8.8 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model.....................................................

  12. Table HC6.2 Living Space Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Living Space Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total...................................................................... 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500............................................... 3.2 1.7 0.8 0.4 0.3 Q 500 to 999....................................................... 23.8 10.2 6.4 3.4 2.3 1.5 1,000 to 1,499................................................. 20.8 5.5 6.3 3.0 3.3 2.6 1,500 to

  13. Table HC6.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total........................................................................ 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment.......................... 17.8 5.4 5.3 2.7 2.5 2.0 Have Cooling Equipment...................................... 93.3 24.6 29.6 15.7 13.4 10.0 Use Cooling Equipment....................................... 91.4 24.0 29.1 15.5 13.2 9.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it......................

  14. Table HC6.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    HC6.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total U.S.............................................................. 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven.................................................. 109.6 29.5 34.4 18.2 15.7 11.8 1................................................................. 103.3 28.4 32.0 17.3 14.7 11.0 2 or More.................................................... 6.2 1.1 2.5 1.0 0.9 0.8 Do Not

  15. Assessment of lead contamination in Bahrain environment. I. Analysis of household paint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madany, I.M.; Ali, S.M.; Akhter, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of lead in household paint collected from various old buildings in Bahrain is reported. The atomic absorption spectrophotometric method, both flame and flameless (graphite furnace) techniques, were used for the analysis. The concentrations of lead in paint were found in the range 200 to 5700 mg/kg, which are low compared to the limit of 0.5% in UK and 0.06% in USA. Nevertheless, these are hazardous. Recommendations are reported in order to avoid paint containing lead. 17 references, 1 table.

  16. WEEE and portable batteries in residual household waste: Quantification and characterisation of misplaced waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigum, Marianne; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We analyse 26.1 Mg of residual waste from 3129 Danish households. • We quantify and characterise misplaced WEEE and portable batteries. • We compare misplaced WEEE and batteries to collection through dedicated schemes. • Characterisation showed that primarily small WEEE and light sources are misplaced. • Significant amounts of misplaced batteries were discarded as built-in WEEE. - Abstract: A total of 26.1 Mg of residual waste from 3129 households in 12 Danish municipalities was analysed and revealed that 89.6 kg of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), 11 kg of batteries, 2.2 kg of toners and 16 kg of cables had been wrongfully discarded. This corresponds to a Danish household discarding 29 g of WEEE (7 items per year), 4 g of batteries (9 batteries per year), 1 g of toners and 7 g of unidentifiable cables on average per week, constituting 0.34% (w/w), 0.04% (w/w), 0.01% (w/w) and 0.09% (w/w), respectively, of residual waste. The study also found that misplaced WEEE and batteries in the residual waste constituted 16% and 39%, respectively, of what is being collected properly through the dedicated special waste collection schemes. This shows that a large amount of batteries are being discarded with the residual waste, whereas WEEE seems to be collected relatively successfully through the dedicated special waste collection schemes. Characterisation of the misplaced batteries showed that 20% (w/w) of the discarded batteries were discarded as part of WEEE (built-in). Primarily alkaline batteries, carbon zinc batteries and alkaline button cell batteries were found to be discarded with the residual household waste. Characterisation of WEEE showed that primarily small WEEE (WEEE directive categories 2, 5a, 6, 7 and 9) and light sources (WEEE directive category 5b) were misplaced. Electric tooth brushes, watches, clocks, headphones, flashlights, bicycle lights, and cables were items most frequently found. It is recommended that these

  17. Normal butane/iso-butane separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volles, W.K.; Cusher, N.A.

    1986-08-26

    This patent describes an improved pressure swing adsorption process for the separation of iso-butane from normal butane in an adsorption system having at least three adsorbent beds, each bed of which undergoes, on a cyclic basis and a processing sequence comprising: introducing a feed gas mixture of iso-butane and normal butane at an upper adsorption pressure to the feed end of the bed capable of selectively adsorbing normal butane as the more selectivity adsorbable component of the gas mixture. The iso-butane as the less readily adsorbable component passes through the bed and is discharged from the discharge end. The feed gas introduction is continued as a normal butane adsorption front is formed in the bed and passes through the bed from the feed end and breaks through at the discharge end of the bed, a portion of the iso-butane effluent stream thus discharged being diverted for passage as purge gas to another bed in the system; and countercurrently depressurizing the bed with release of gas from the feed end.

  18. Residential propane price increases

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 1.98 per gallon, up 1.1 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy ...

  19. Residential propane prices increase

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 3.9 cents from a week ago to 2.80 per gallon. That's up 53.7 cents from a year ago, based on the residential ...

  20. Residential propane price increases

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 1.96 per gallon, up 1.8 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy ...

  1. Residential propane price increases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 2.03 per gallon, up 1 cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy ...

  2. Residential propane prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose to 2.40 per gallon, up 1.1 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy ...

  3. Residential propane price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 2.41 per gallon, up 6-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. ...

  4. Residential propane price increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 1.96 per gallon, up 7-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. ...

  5. Residential propane prices increase

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 4.8 cents from a week ago to 2.76 per gallon. That's up 51.2 cents from a year ago, based on the residential ...

  6. Residential propane prices increase

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 5.5 cents per gallon from last week to 2.62 per gallon; up 37.4 cents from a year ago, based on the residential ...

  7. Residential propane price increases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 2.00 per gallon, up 7-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. ...

  8. Residential propane prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 10.3 cents from a week ago to 2.96 per gallon. That's up 68.1 cents from a year ago, based on the residential ...

  9. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 3.2 cents from a week ago to 2.86 per gallon. That's up 59.3 cents from a year ago, based on the residential ...

  10. Residential propane prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 9.1 cents from a week ago to 2.71 per gallon. That's up 46.9 cents from a year ago, based on the residential ...

  11. Residential propane prices increase

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 2.3 cents per gallon from last week to 2.57 per gallon; up 32.2 cents from a year ago, based on the residential ...

  12. Residential propane price increases

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 2.02 per gallon, up 5-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. ...

  13. Residential propane prices increase

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    propane prices increase The average retail price for propane rose 2.5 cents from a week ago to 2.83 per gallon. That's up 56 cents from a year ago, based on the residential ...

  14. Residential propane price increases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 1.98 per gallon, up 5-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. ...

  15. Residential propane price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 1.99 per gallon, up 3-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. ...

  16. Residential propane price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 2.01 per gallon, up 1.2 cents from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy ...

  17. Residential propane price increases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 2.02 per gallon, up 4-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. ...

  18. Residential propane price increases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 1.97 per gallon, up 6-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. ...

  19. Residential propane price increases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4, 2015 Residential propane price increases The average retail price for propane is 2.36 per gallon, up half of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey ...

  20. Recovery and separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karvelas, D.E.; Jody, B.J.; Poykala, J.A. Jr.; Daniels, E.J.; Arman, B. |

    1996-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop a cost- effective and environmentally acceptable process for the separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances. The process under development has separated individual high purity (greater than 99.5%) acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and high- impact polystyrene (HIPS) from commingled plastics generated by appliance-shredding and metal-recovery operations. The process consists of size-reduction steps for the commingled plastics, followed by a series of gravity-separation techniques to separate plastic materials of different densities. Individual plastics of similar densities, such as ABS and HIPS, are further separated by using a chemical solution. By controlling the surface tension, the density, and the temperature of the chemical solution we are able to selectively float/separate plastics that have different surface energies. This separation technique has proven to be highly effective in recovering high-purity plastics materials from discarded household appliances. A conceptual design of a continuous process to recover high-value plastics from discarded appliances is also discussed. In addition to plastics separation research, Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop cost-effective techniques for improving the mechanical properties of plastics recovered from appliances.

  1. A Method for Modeling Household Occupant Behavior to Simulate Residential Energy Consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Brandon J; Starke, Michael R; Abdelaziz, Omar; Jackson, Roderick K; Tolbert, Leon M

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical method for modeling the behavior of household occupants to estimate residential energy consumption. Using data gathered by the U.S. Census Bureau in the American Time Use Survey (ATUS), actions carried out by survey respondents are categorized into ten distinct activities. These activities are defined to correspond to the major energy consuming loads commonly found within the residential sector. Next, time varying minute resolution Markov chain based statistical models of different occupant types are developed. Using these behavioral models, individual occupants are simulated to show how an occupant interacts with the major residential energy consuming loads throughout the day. From these simulations, the minimum number of occupants, and consequently the minimum number of multiple occupant households, needing to be simulated to produce a statistically accurate representation of aggregate residential behavior can be determined. Finally, future work will involve the use of these occupant models along side residential load models to produce a high-resolution energy consumption profile and estimate the potential for demand response from residential loads.

  2. Residential propane price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    propane price increases The average retail price for propane is $2.02 per gallon, up 4-tenths of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane prices in the Midwest region averaged $1.48 per gallon, down 1-tenth of a cent from last week, and down 43

  3. Normal Conducting RF Cavity for MICE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, D.; DeMello, A.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Summers, D.

    2010-05-23

    Normal conducting RF cavities must be used for the cooling section of the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), currently under construction at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK. Eight 201-MHz cavities are needed for the MICE cooling section; fabrication of the first five cavities is complete. We report the cavity fabrication status including cavity design, fabrication techniques and preliminary low power RF measurements.

  4. Survey of Recipients of WAP Services Assessment of Household Budget and Energy Behaviors Pre to Post Weatherization DOE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Rose, Erin M.; Hawkins, Beth A.

    2015-10-01

    This report presents results from the national survey of weatherization recipients. This research was one component of the retrospective and Recovery Act evaluations of the U.S. Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program. Survey respondents were randomly selected from a nationally representative sample of weatherization recipients. The respondents and a comparison group were surveyed just prior to receiving their energy audits and then again approximately 18 months post-weatherization. This report focuses on budget issues faced by WAP households pre- and post-weatherization, whether household energy behaviors changed from pre- to post, the effectiveness of approaches to client energy education, and use and knowledge about thermostats.

  5. Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel Assembly. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel...

  6. Guidance on Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization in an ESPC Guidance on Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization in an ESPC Document explains how to use estimated ...

  7. Diesel prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to $3.84 a gallon on Monday. That's up 2.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region at $4.00 a gallon, up 2.2 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region at 3.75 a gallon, up 8-tenths of a penny. This is Marlana Anderson, with EIA, in Washington. For more information, contact

  8. Diesel prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to $3.90 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region at 4.11 a gallon, up 4.2 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast states at 3.79 a gallon, up 1.7 cents.

  9. Diesel prices increase nationally

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices increase nationally The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to $3.91 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the West Coast states at 4.07 a gallon, up 1 1/2 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region at 3.83 a gallon, up 7-tenths of a penny.

  10. Diesel prices slightly increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices slightly increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose slightly to $3.87 a gallon on Monday. That's up 2-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region at 4.07 a gallon, up half a penny from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast states at 3.77 a gallon, up 6-tenths of a penny.

  11. Coal liquefaction process with increased naphtha yields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, Daniel F.

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for liquefying solid carbonaceous materials wherein the solid carbonaceous material is slurried with a suitable solvent and then subjected to liquefaction at elevated temperature and pressure to produce a normally gaseous product, a normally liquid product and a normally solid product. The normally liquid product is further separated into a naphtha boiling range product, a solvent boiling range product and a vacuum gas-oil boiling range product. At least a portion of the solvent boiling-range product and the vacuum gas-oil boiling range product are then combined and passed to a hydrotreater where the mixture is hydrotreated at relatively severe hydrotreating conditions and the liquid product from the hydrotreater then passed to a catalytic cracker. In the catalytic cracker, the hydrotreater effluent is converted partially to a naphtha boiling range product and to a solvent boiling range product. The naphtha boiling range product is added to the naphtha boiling range product from coal liquefaction to thereby significantly increase the production of naphtha boiling range materials. At least a portion of the solvent boiling range product, on the other hand, is separately hydrogenated and used as solvent for the liquefaction. Use of this material as at least a portion of the solvent significantly reduces the amount of saturated materials in said solvent.

  12. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-09-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities.

  13. Table HC6.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total..................................................................... 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............ 1.2 0.3 0.3 Q 0.2 0.2 Have Main Space Heating Equipment............... 109.8 29.7 34.5 18.2 15.6 11.8 Use Main Space Heating Equipment................. 109.1 29.5 34.4 18.1 15.5 11.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It................... 0.8 Q Q Q Q Q Main Heating Fuel and

  14. Table HC6.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total U.S. Housing Units.................................. 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Do Not Have Heating Equipment..................... 1.2 0.3 0.3 Q 0.2 0.2 Have Space Heating Equipment....................... 109.8 29.7 34.5 18.2 15.6 11.8 Use Space Heating Equipment........................ 109.1 29.5 34.4 18.1 15.5 11.6 Have But Do Not Use Equipment.................... 0.8 Q Q Q Q Q Space Heating Usage During 2005

  15. Particle and gas emissions from a simulated coal-burning household fire pit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linwei Tian; Donald Lucas; Susan L. Fischer; S. C. Lee; S. Katharine Hammond; Catherine P. Koshland

    2008-04-01

    An open fire was assembled with firebricks to simulate the household fire pit used in rural China, and 15 different coals from this area were burned to measure the gaseous and particulate emissions. Particle size distribution was studied with a microorifice uniform-deposit impactor (MOUDI). Over 90% of the particulate mass was attributed to sub-micrometer particles. The carbon balance method was used to calculate the emission factors. Emission factors for four pollutants (particulate matter, CO{sub 2}, total hydrocarbons, and NOx) were 2-4 times higher for bituminous coals than for anthracites. In past inventories of carbonaceous emissions used for climate modeling, these two types of coal were not treated separately. The dramatic emission factor difference between the two types of coal warrants attention in the future development of emission inventories. 25 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Household energy conservation attitudes and behaviors in the Northwest: Tracking changes between 1983 and 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, J.M.; Hattrup, M.P.; Nordi, R.T.; Shankle, S.A.; Ivey, D.L.

    1987-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has analyzed the changes in consumer energy conservation attitudes and behaviors in the Pacific Northwest between 1983 and 1985. The information was collected through stratified random telephone surveys on 2000 and 1058 households, respectively, for 1983 and 1985 in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service area in Idaho, Oregon, Washington and Western Montana. This report covers four topic areas and tests two hypotheses. The topics are as follows: consumer perceptions and attitudes of energy use and conservation in the home; consumer perceptions of energy institutions and other entities; past and intended conservation actions and investments; and segmentation of homeowners into market prospect groups. The hypotheses tested are as follows: (1) There has been no change in the size and psychographic make-up of the original three market segments found in the 1983 survey analysis; and (2) image profiles of institutions with respect to familiarity, overall impression, and believability as sources of energy conservation information remain unchanged since 1983.

  17. A Green Approach to SNF Reprocessing: Are Common Household Reagents the Answer?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peper, Shane M.; McNamara, Bruce K.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Douglas, Matthew

    2008-04-03

    It has been discovered that UO2, the principal component of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), can efficiently be dissolved at room temperature using a combination of common household reagents, namely hydrogen peroxide, baking soda, and ammonia. This rather serendipitous discovery opens up the possibility, for the first time, of considering a non-acidic process for recycling U from SNF. Albeit at the early stages of development, our unconventional dissolution approach possesses many attractive features that could make it a reality in the future. With dissolution byproducts of water and oxygen, our approach poses a minimal threat to the environment. Moreover, the use of common household reagents to afford actinide oxide dissolution suggests a certain degree of economic favorability. With the use of a “closed” digestion vessel as a reaction chamber, our approach has substantial versatility with the option of using either aqueous or gaseous reactant feeds or a combination of both. Our approach distinguishes itself from all existing reprocessing technologies in two important ways. First and foremost, it is an alkaline rather than an acidic process, using mild non-corrosive chemicals under ambient conditions to effect actinide separations. Secondly, it does not dissolve the entire SNF matrix, but rather selectively solubilizes U and other light actinides for subsequent separation, resulting in potentially faster head-end dissolution and fewer downstream separation steps. From a safeguards perspective, the use of oxidizing alkaline solutions to effect actinide separations also potentially offers a degree of inherent proliferation resistance, by allowing the U to be selectively removed from the remaining dissolver solution while keeping Pu grouped with the other minor actinides and fission products. This paper will describe the design and general experimental setup of a “closed” digestion vessel for performing uranium oxide dissolutions under alkaline conditions using

  18. Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Ketoff, A.; Masera, O.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela will help free domestic oil resources that can be sold to the rest of the world. Energy conservation will also contribute to a faster recovery of the economy by reducing the need for major investments in new energy facilities, allowing the Venezuelan government to direct its financial investments towards other areas of development. Local environmental benefits will constitute an important additional by-product of implementing energy-efficiency policies in Venezuela. Caracas`s residential sector shows great potential for energy conservation. The sector is characterized by high saturation levels of major appliances, inefficiency of appliances available in the market, and by careless patterns of energy use. Household energy use per capita average 6.5 GJ/per year which is higher than most cities in developing countries; most of this energy is used for cooking. Electricity accounts for 41% of all energy use, while LPG and natural gas constitute the remainder. Specific options for inducing energy conservation and energy efficiency in Caracas`s residential sector include energy-pricing policies, fuel switching, particularly from electricity to gas, improving the energy performance of new appliances and customer information. To ensure the accomplishment of an energy-efficiency strategy, a concerted effort by energy users, manufacturers, utility companies, government agencies, and research institutions will be needed.

  19. Aerosol Behavior Log-Normal Distribution Model.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-10-22

    HAARM3, an acronym for Heterogeneous Aerosol Agglomeration Revised Model 3, is the third program in the HAARM series developed to predict the time-dependent behavior of radioactive aerosols under postulated LMFBR accident conditions. HAARM3 was developed to include mechanisms of aerosol growth and removal which had not been accounted for in the earlier models. In addition, experimental measurements obtained on sodium oxide aerosols have been incorporated in the code. As in HAARM2, containment gas temperature, pressure,more » and temperature gradients normal to interior surfaces are permitted to vary with time. The effects of reduced density on sodium oxide agglomerate behavior and of nonspherical shape of particles on aerosol behavior mechanisms are taken into account, and aerosol agglomeration due to turbulent air motion is considered. Also included is a capability to calculate aerosol concentration attenuation factors and to restart problems requiring long computing times.« less

  20. Overview Report: Normal and Emergency Operation Visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2011-05-01

    This is an overview report to document and illustrate methods used in a project entitled “Normal and Emergency Operations Visualization” for a utility company, conducted in 2009-2010 timeframe with funding from the utility company and the U.S. Department of Energy. The original final report (about 180 pages) for the project is not available for distribution because it alludes to findings that assessed the design of an operational system that contained proprietary information; this abridged version contains descriptions of methods and some findings to illustrate the approach used, while avoiding discussion of sensitive or proprietary information. The client has approved this abridged version of the report for unlimited distribution to give researchers and collaborators the benefit of reviewing the research concepts and methods that were applied in this study.

  1. Increased energy prices: energy savings and equity aspects. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herendeen, R.A.

    1983-06-01

    A mathematical model has been developed which approximates the reduction in a household's total energy consumption in response to higher energy prices and different rebate schemes. This model is based on the assumption that energy consumption is a function of a household's real income, prices of different commodities and energy intensities. The amount of energy saved and the change in real expenditure of a household has been calculated for four tax rates; 50%, 100%, 224% and 400%, and five rebate schemes; one regressive, two progressive, one income distribution preserving and the flat per capita rebate. The results indicate that, for a given tax rate, the choice of rebate scheme does not significantly affect the amount of energy conserved by the households. However, the effect of different rebate schemes on a household's real expenditure could be dramatically different.

  2. Influence of assumptions about household waste composition in waste management LCAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slagstad, Helene; Brattebo, Helge

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uncertainty in waste composition of household waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Systematically changed waste composition in a constructed waste management system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Waste composition important for the results of accounting LCA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Robust results for comparative LCA. - Abstract: This article takes a detailed look at an uncertainty factor in waste management LCA that has not been widely discussed previously, namely the uncertainty in waste composition. Waste composition is influenced by many factors; it can vary from year to year, seasonally, and with location, for example. The data publicly available at a municipal level can be highly aggregated and sometimes incomplete, and performing composition analysis is technically challenging. Uncertainty is therefore always present in waste composition. This article performs uncertainty analysis on a systematically modified waste composition using a constructed waste management system. In addition the environmental impacts of several waste management strategies are compared when applied to five different cities. We thus discuss the effect of uncertainty in both accounting LCA and comparative LCA. We found the waste composition to be important for the total environmental impact of the system, especially for the global warming, nutrient enrichment and human toxicity via water impact categories.

  3. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebersorger, S.; Beigl, P.

    2011-09-15

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  4. Estimating household fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and LPG prices by census region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to estimate individual fuel prices within the residential sector. The data from four US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, residential energy consumption surveys were used to estimate the models. For a number of important fuel types - fuel oil, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas - the estimation presents a problem because these fuels are not used by all households. Estimates obtained by using only data in which observed fuel prices are present would be biased. A correction for this self-selection bias is needed for estimating prices of these fuels. A literature search identified no past studies on application of the selectivity model for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. This report describes selectivity models that utilize the Dubin/McFadden correction method for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas in the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West census regions. Statistically significant explanatory variables are identified and discussed in each of the models. This new application of the selectivity model should be of interest to energy policy makers, researchers, and academicians.

  5. Weatherization assistance for low-income households: An evaluation of local program performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweitzer, M.; Rayner, S.; Wolfe, A.K.; Mason, T.W.; Ragins, B.R.; Cartor, R.A.

    1987-08-01

    The US Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) funds local agencies to provide weatherization services to low-income households. This report describes the most salient features of this program, examines relationships between organization and program outcomes, and presents recommendations for the program's further development. Data were collected by written surveys administered to local weatherization agencies, a telephone survey of 38 states and eight DOE support offices, and site visits to selected local agencies. Locally controlled factors found to be significantly related to program performance include the amount of the weatherization director's time spent on program administration, the use of established client selection criteria, the frequency of evaluation of local goal attainment, and the type of weatherization crews used. Factors controlled at the state or federal levels that influence program performance include delays in state reimbursements of local agency expenditures and local flexibility in the choice of weatherization measures. Data-gathering difficulties experienced during this project indicate a need for possible improvements in goal-setting and record-keeping procedures.

  6. The evolving price of household LED lamps: Recent trends and historical comparisons for the US market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerke, Brian F.; Ngo, Allison T.; Alstone, Andrea L.; Fisseha, Kibret S.

    2014-10-14

    In recent years, household LED light bulbs (LED A lamps) have undergone a dramatic price decline. Since late 2011, we have been collecting data, on a weekly basis, for retail offerings of LED A lamps on the Internet. The resulting data set allows us to track the recent price decline in detail. LED A lamp prices declined roughly exponentially with time in 2011-2014, with decline rates of 28percent to 44percent per year depending on lumen output, and with higher-lumen lamps exhibiting more rapid price declines. By combining the Internet price data with publicly available lamp shipments indices for the US market, it is also possible to correlate LED A lamp prices against cumulative production, yielding an experience curve for LED A lamps. In 2012-2013, LED A lamp prices declined by 20-25percent for each doubling in cumulative shipments. Similar analysis of historical data for other lighting technologies reveals that LED prices have fallen significantly more rapidly with cumulative production than did their technological predecessors, which exhibited a historical decline of 14-15percent per doubling of production.

  7. Status of High Power Tests of Normal Conducting Short Standing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Status of High Power Tests of Normal Conducting Short Standing Wave Structures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Status of High Power Tests of Normal Conducting Short Standing ...

  8. Status of not-in-kind refrigeration technologies for household space conditioning, water heating and food refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Vineyard, Edward Allan; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2012-07-19

    This paper presents a review of the next generation not-in-kind technologies to replace conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology for household applications. Such technologies are sought to provide energy savings or other environmental benefits for space conditioning, water heating and refrigeration for domestic use. These alternative technologies include: thermoacoustic refrigeration, thermoelectric refrigeration, thermotunneling, magnetic refrigeration, Stirling cycle refrigeration, pulse tube refrigeration, Malone cycle refrigeration, absorption refrigeration, adsorption refrigeration, and compressor driven metal hydride heat pumps. Furthermore, heat pump water heating and integrated heat pump systems are also discussed due to their significant energy saving potential for water heating and space conditioning in households. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Both thermoelectric and magnetic technologies look relatively attractive due to recent developments in the materials and prototypes being manufactured.

  9. Cost comparison between private and public collection of residual household waste: Multiple case studies in the Flemish region of Belgium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, R.; Buysse, J.; Gellynck, X.

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The goal is to compare collection costs for residual household waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have clustered all municipalities in order to find mutual comparable pairs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Each pair consists of one private and one public operating waste collection program. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All cases show that private service has lower costs than public service. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipalities were contacted to identify the deeper causes for the waste management program. - Abstract: The rising pressure in terms of cost efficiency on public services pushes governments to transfer part of those services to the private sector. A trend towards more privatizing can be noticed in the collection of municipal household waste. This paper reports the findings of a research project aiming to compare the cost between the service of private and public collection of residual household waste. Multiple case studies of municipalities about the Flemish region of Belgium were conducted. Data concerning the year 2009 were gathered through in-depth interviews in 2010. In total 12 municipalities were investigated, divided into three mutual comparable pairs with a weekly and three mutual comparable pairs with a fortnightly residual waste collection. The results give a rough indication that in all cases the cost of private service is lower than public service in the collection of household waste. Albeit that there is an interest in establishing whether there are differences in the costs and service levels between public and private waste collection services, there are clear difficulties in establishing comparisons that can be made without having to rely on a large number of assumptions and corrections. However, given the cost difference, it remains the responsibility of the municipalities to decide upon the service they offer their citizens, regardless the cost efficiency: public or private.

  10. A life cycle approach to the management of household food waste - A Swedish full-scale case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstad, A.; Cour Jansen, J. la

    2011-08-15

    Research Highlights: > The comparison of three different methods for management of household food waste show that anaerobic digestion provides greater environmental benefits in relation to global warming potential, acidification and ozone depilation compared to incineration and composting of food waste. Use of produced biogas as car fuel provides larger environmental benefits compared to a use of biogas for heat and power production. > The use of produced digestate from the anaerobic digestion as substitution for chemical fertilizer on farmland provides avoidance of environmental burdens in the same ratio as the substitution of fossil fuels with produced biogas. > Sensitivity analyses show that results are highly sensitive to assumptions regarding the environmental burdens connected to heat and energy supposedly substituted by the waste treatment. - Abstract: Environmental impacts from incineration, decentralised composting and centralised anaerobic digestion of solid organic household waste are compared using the EASEWASTE LCA-tool. The comparison is based on a full scale case study in southern Sweden and used input-data related to aspects such as source-separation behaviour, transport distances, etc. are site-specific. Results show that biological treatment methods - both anaerobic and aerobic, result in net avoidance of GHG-emissions, but give a larger contribution both to nutrient enrichment and acidification when compared to incineration. Results are to a high degree dependent on energy substitution and emissions during biological processes. It was seen that if it is assumed that produced biogas substitute electricity based on Danish coal power, this is preferable before use of biogas as car fuel. Use of biogas for Danish electricity substitution was also determined to be more beneficial compared to incineration of organic household waste. This is a result mainly of the use of plastic bags in the incineration alternative (compared to paper bags in the

  11. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Data and Evaluation Peer Exchange Call: Strategies for Collecting Household Energy Data, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, July 19, 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    19, 2012 Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Data and Evaluation Peer Exchange Call: Strategies for Collecting Household Energy Data Call Slides and Discussion Summary Agenda * Call Logistics and Attendance  Is your program getting household energy data? How? * Program Experience and Lessons:  Janelle Beverly and Jeff Hughes, University of North Carolina Environmental Finance Center (http://www.efc.unc.edu/index.html) * Discussion:  What are successful strategies for obtaining

  12. Better Buildings Residential Network Multi-Family & Low-Income Housing Peer Exchange Call Series: Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households, March 13, 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Family & Low-Income Housing Peer Exchange Call Series: Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households March 13, 2014 Agenda  Call Logistics and Introductions  Featured Participants  Becca Harmon Murphy (Indianapolis Neighborhood Housing Partnership)  Discussion:  What strategies or approaches has your program used to build interest in your loan programs for moderate- and low-income households? What has worked well, and why do you think it was effective?  What

  13. Residential energy consumption across different population groups: Comparative analysis for Latino and non-Latino households in U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S.; Henderson, L.

    1998-05-01

    Residential energy cost, an important part of the household budget, varies significantly across different population groups. In the United States, researchers have conducted many studies of household fuel consumption by fuel type -- electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) -- and by geographic areas. The results of past research have also demonstrated significant variation in residential energy use across various population groups, including white, black, and Latino. However, research shows that residential energy demand by fuel type for Latinos, the fastest-growing population group in the United States, has not been explained by economic and noneconomic factors in any available statistical model. This paper presents a discussion of energy demand and expenditure patterns for Latino and non-Latino households in the United States. The statistical model developed to explain fuel consumption and expenditures for Latino households is based on Stone and Geary`s linear expenditure system model. For comparison, the authors also developed models for energy consumption in non-Latino, black, and nonblack households. These models estimate consumption of and expenditures for electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and LPG by various households at the national level. The study revealed significant variations in the patterns of fuel consumption for Latinos and non-Latinos. The model methodology and results of this research should be useful to energy policymakers in government and industry, researchers, and academicians who are concerned with economic and energy issues related to various population groups.

  14. Modeling pore corrosion in normally open gold- plated copper connectors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Moffat, Harry K.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Enos, David George; Serna, Lysle M.; Sorensen, Neil Robert

    2008-09-01

    The goal of this study is to model the electrical response of gold plated copper electrical contacts exposed to a mixed flowing gas stream consisting of air containing 10 ppb H{sub 2}S at 30 C and a relative humidity of 70%. This environment accelerates the attack normally observed in a light industrial environment (essentially a simplified version of the Battelle Class 2 environment). Corrosion rates were quantified by measuring the corrosion site density, size distribution, and the macroscopic electrical resistance of the aged surface as a function of exposure time. A pore corrosion numerical model was used to predict both the growth of copper sulfide corrosion product which blooms through defects in the gold layer and the resulting electrical contact resistance of the aged surface. Assumptions about the distribution of defects in the noble metal plating and the mechanism for how corrosion blooms affect electrical contact resistance were needed to complete the numerical model. Comparisons are made to the experimentally observed number density of corrosion sites, the size distribution of corrosion product blooms, and the cumulative probability distribution of the electrical contact resistance. Experimentally, the bloom site density increases as a function of time, whereas the bloom size distribution remains relatively independent of time. These two effects are included in the numerical model by adding a corrosion initiation probability proportional to the surface area along with a probability for bloom-growth extinction proportional to the corrosion product bloom volume. The cumulative probability distribution of electrical resistance becomes skewed as exposure time increases. While the electrical contact resistance increases as a function of time for a fraction of the bloom population, the median value remains relatively unchanged. In order to model this behavior, the resistance calculated for large blooms has been weighted more heavily.

  15. Solid state laser disk amplifer architecture: the normal-incidence stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dane, C. Brent; Albrecht, Georg F.; Rotter, Mark D.

    2005-01-25

    Normal incidence stack architecture coupled with the development of diode array pumping enables the power/energy per disk to be increased, a reduction in beam distortions by orders of magnitude, a beam propagation no longer restricted to only one direction of polarization, and the laser becomes so much more amendable to robust packaging.

  16. Genome Wide Evaluation of Normal Human Tissue in Response to...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Wide Evaluation of Normal Human Tissue in Response to Controlled, In vivo Low-Dose Low LET Ionizing Radiation Exposure: Pathways and Mechanisms Final Report, September 2013 Rocke,...

  17. Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel Assembly. McConnell, Paul E.; Wauneka, Robert; Saltzstein, Sylvia J.; Sorenson, Ken B. Abstract not provided. Sandia...

  18. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and ...

  19. Dating of major normal fault systems using thermochronology-...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dating of major normal fault systems using thermochronology- An example from the Raft River detachment, Basin and Range, western United States Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  20. Increasing FCC regenerator catalyst level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, R.F. )

    1993-11-01

    A Peruvian FCC unit's operations were improved by increasing the regenerator's catalyst level. This increase resulted in lower stack losses, an improved temperature profile, increased catalyst activity and a lower catalyst consumption rate. A more stable operation saved this Peruvian refiner over $131,000 per year in catalyst alone. These concepts and data may be suitable for your FCC unit as well.

  1. Laser-induced differential normalized fluorescence method for cancer diagnosis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Panjehpour, Masoud; Overholt, Bergein F.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample.

  2. Laser-induced differential normalized fluorescence method for cancer diagnosis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, T.; Panjehpour, M.; Overholt, B.F.

    1996-12-03

    An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample. 5 figs.

  3. Requesting an Increase in Allocation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home For Users Accounts & Allocations Allocations Request More Time Requesting an Increase in Allocation If your project runs out of MPP time the project PI or its...

  4. Comparing of Normal Stress Distribution in Static and Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kholdebarin, Alireza; Massumi, Ali; Davoodi, Mohammad; Tabatabaiefar, Hamid Reza

    2008-07-08

    It is important to consider the vertical component of earthquake loading and inertia force in soil-structure interaction analyses. In most circumstances, design engineers are primarily concerned about the analysis of behavior of foundations subjected to earthquake-induced forces transmitted from the bedrock. In this research, a single rigid foundation with designated geometrical parameters located on sandy-clay soil has been modeled in FLAC software with Finite Different Method and subjected to three different vertical components of earthquake records. In these cases, it is important to evaluate effect of footing on underlying soil and to consider normal stress in soil with and without footing. The distribution of normal stress under the footing in static and dynamic states has been studied and compared. This Comparison indicated that, increasing in normal stress under the footing caused by vertical component of ground excitations, has decreased dynamic vertical settlement in comparison with static state.

  5. Modern technical solutions of gas-fired heating devices of household and communal use and analysis of their testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodzon, L.; Radwan, W.

    1995-12-31

    A review of technical solutions for gas-fired heating devices for household and communal use in Poland is presented. Based upon the analysis it is stated that the power output of Polish and foreign boilers ranges between 9 and 35 kW. The carbon monoxide content in flue gases reaches (on average) 0.005 vol.%, i.e., it is much lower than the maximum permissible level. Temperature of flue gases (excluding condensation boilers and those with air-tight combustion chamber) ranges between 150 and 200{degrees}C and their heating efficiency reaches 87-93%. The best parameters are given for condensation boilers, however they are still not widespread in Poland for the high cost of the equipment and assembling works. Among the heaters, the most safe are convection devices with closed combustion chamber; their efficiency is also the highest. Thus, it is concluded that a wide spectrum of high efficiency heating devices with good combustion parameters are available. The range of output is sufficient to meet household and communal requirement. They are however - predominantly - units manufactured abroad. It is difficult to formulate the program aimed at the improvement of the technique of heating devices made in Poland, and its implementation is uncertain because the production process is broken up into small handicraft workshops.

  6. JTA8B Normal Mechanical Discussion Meeting Minutes January 7...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Conference: JTA8B Normal Mechanical Discussion Meeting Minutes January,7, 2016 ; 2016-01-07 - 2016-01-07 ; Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States Research Org: ...

  7. " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Household Income, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Less than $20,000","$20,000 to $39,999","$40,000 to $59,999","$60,000 to $79,999","$80,000 or More" "Air Conditioning Characteristics"

  8. " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    HC7.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Household Income, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Less than $20,000","$20,000 to $39,999","$40,000 to $59,999","$60,000 to $79,999","$80,000 or More" "Home Appliances Characteristics" "Total

  9. " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Lighting Usage Indicators by Household Income, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Less than $20,000","$20,000 to $39,999","$40,000 to $59,999","$60,000 to $79,999","$80,000 or More" "Lighting Usage Indicators" "Total U.S. Housing

  10. Separate collection of household food waste for anaerobic degradation - Comparison of different techniques from a systems perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstad, A.; Cour Jansen, J. la

    2012-05-15

    Highlight: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four modern and innovative systems for household food waste collection are compared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Direct emissions and resource use were based on full-scale data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conservation of nutrients/energy content over the system was considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Systems with high energy/nutrient recovery are most environmentally beneficial. - Abstract: Four systems for household food waste collection are compared in relation the environmental impact categories eutrophication potential, acidification potential, global warming potential as well as energy use. Also, a hotspot analysis is performed in order to suggest improvements in each of the compared collection systems. Separate collection of household food waste in paper bags (with and without drying prior to collection) with use of kitchen grinders and with use of vacuum system in kitchen sinks were compared. In all cases, food waste was used for anaerobic digestion with energy and nutrient recovery in all cases. Compared systems all resulted in net avoidance of assessed environmental impact categories; eutrophication potential (-0.1 to -2.4 kg NO{sub 3}{sup -}eq/ton food waste), acidification potential (-0.4 to -1.0 kg SO{sub 2}{sup -}eq/ton food waste), global warming potential (-790 to -960 kg CO{sub 2}{sup -}eq/ton food waste) and primary energy use (-1.7 to -3.6 GJ/ton food waste). Collection with vacuum system results in the largest net avoidance of primary energy use, while disposal of food waste in paper bags for decentralized drying before collection result in a larger net avoidance of global warming, eutrophication and acidification. However, both these systems not have been taken into use in large scale systems yet and further investigations are needed in order to confirm the outcomes from the comparison. Ranking of scenarios differ largely if considering only emissions in the foreground system, indicating the

  11. Gasoline prices increase (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    gasoline prices increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.69 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  12. Superior Energy Performance: Certifying Increased Energy Productivity...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    5 Energy & cost savings over time Elevates and integrates energy into normal business systems, as has happened for safety & quality Involves staff from the board...

  13. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from the open burning of household waste in barrels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemieux, P.M.; Lutes, C.C.; Abbott, J.A.; Aldous, K.M.

    2000-02-01

    Backyard burning of household waste in barrels is a common waste disposal practice for which pollutant emissions have not been well characterized. This study measured the emissions of several pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), from burning mixtures designed to simulate waste generated by a recycling and a nonrecycling family in a 208-L (55-gal) burn barrel at the EPA's Open Burning Test Facility. This paper focuses on the PCDD/PCDF emissions and discusses the factors influencing PCDD/PCDF formation for different test burns. Four test burns were made in which the amount of waste placed in the barrel varied from 6.4 to 13.6 kg and the amount actually burned varied from 46.6% to 68.1%. Emissions of total PCDDs/PCDFs ranged between 0.0046 and 0.48 mg/kg of waste burned. Emissions are also presented in terms of 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents. Emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs appear to correlate with both copper and hydrochloric acid emissions. The results of this study indicate that backyard burning emits more PCDDs/PCDFs on a mass of refuse burned basis than various types of municipal waste combustors (MWCs). Comparison of burn barrel emissions to emissions from a hypothetical modern MWC equipped with high-efficiency flue gas cleaning technology indicates that about 2--40 households burning their trash daily in barrels can produce average PCDD/PCDF emissions comparable to a 182,000 kg/day (200 ton/day) MWC facility. This study provides important data on a potentially significant source of emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs.

  14. No increase in background, manmade radioactivity for Los Alamos area

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Man-Made Radioactivity For Los Alamos area No increase in background, manmade radioactivity for Los Alamos area Two aerial flyovers found that radioisotopes and their associated exposure rates are consistent with those expected from normal background radiation. March 19, 2013 High southwest aerial view of Los Alamos National Laboratory (left) and Los Alamos townsite (middle and right). High southwest aerial view of Los Alamos National Laboratory (left) and Los Alamos townsite (middle and right).

  15. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 5.4 cents from a week ago to $4.04 per gallon. That's up 4.9 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to 4.02 per gallon, up 5.6 cents from last week, and up 8

  16. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3, 2014 Residential heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 4.4 cents from a week ago to $4.06 per gallon. That's up 4.1 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to 4.03 per gallon, up 2.5 cents from last week, and up 6

  17. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 12 cents from a week ago to $4.18 per gallon. That's up 13 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to 4.13 per gallon, up 9.8 cents from last week, and up 12.9 cents from a

  18. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 3.9 cents last week to $3.96 per gallon. That's down 2.6 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The price for heating oil in the New England region averaged 3.92 per gallon, up 5.2 cents from last week, and 1.7

  19. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 2.9 cents from a week ago to $3.98 per gallon. That's up 6-tenths of a penny from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to 3.96 per gallon, up 4.1 cents from last week, and up 4.8

  20. Low-dose computed tomography image restoration using previous normal-dose scan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Jianhua; Huang, Jing; Feng, Qianjin; Zhang, Hua; Lu, Hongbing; Liang, Zhengrong; Chen, Wufan

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: In current computed tomography (CT) examinations, the associated x-ray radiation dose is of a significant concern to patients and operators. A simple and cost-effective means to perform the examinations is to lower the milliampere-seconds (mAs) or kVp parameter (or delivering less x-ray energy to the body) as low as reasonably achievable in data acquisition. However, lowering the mAs parameter will unavoidably increase data noise and the noise would propagate into the CT image if no adequate noise control is applied during image reconstruction. Since a normal-dose high diagnostic CT image scanned previously may be available in some clinical applications, such as CT perfusion imaging and CT angiography (CTA), this paper presents an innovative way to utilize the normal-dose scan as a priori information to induce signal restoration of the current low-dose CT image series. Methods: Unlike conventional local operations on neighboring image voxels, nonlocal means (NLM) algorithm utilizes the redundancy of information across the whole image. This paper adapts the NLM to utilize the redundancy of information in the previous normal-dose scan and further exploits ways to optimize the nonlocal weights for low-dose image restoration in the NLM framework. The resulting algorithm is called the previous normal-dose scan induced nonlocal means (ndiNLM). Because of the optimized nature of nonlocal weights calculation, the ndiNLM algorithm does not depend heavily on image registration between the current low-dose and the previous normal-dose CT scans. Furthermore, the smoothing parameter involved in the ndiNLM algorithm can be adaptively estimated based on the image noise relationship between the current low-dose and the previous normal-dose scanning protocols. Results: Qualitative and quantitative evaluations were carried out on a physical phantom as well as clinical abdominal and brain perfusion CT scans in terms of accuracy and resolution properties. The gain by the use

  1. Backsurging perforations can increase production rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brieger, E.F.

    1991-07-01

    Subjecting formations to a large pressure differential or underbalance is a common means of surging perforations to remove damage and increase flow from oil and gas wells. Underbalanced perforating, a standard industry completion technique, is normally used to obtain the pressure differentials intended to dislodge debris from perforations and flush the surrounding compacted zone. Gradually applied pressure underbalance can be achieved by swabbing or jetting to reduce hydrostatic head. Suddenly applied underbalance is achieved by evacuating the tubing in conjunction with a rupture disc, tubing-conveyed perforating systems or by using a new wireline-set, through-tubing backsurge tool. These techniques, except for the through-tubing method, are often utilized only during later workovers due to the expense and difficulty of achieving an adequate underbalance. Many operators prefer to perforate in balanced or overbalanced pressures conditions. This typically leaves perforations completely or partially plugged with gun debris, mud solids and shattered formation material that has been recompacted. Production logging shows that wells often produce from only 10 to 20% of the total interval apparently because of ineffective, plugged perforations.

  2. Optical based tactile shear and normal load sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salisbury, Curt Michael

    2015-06-09

    Various technologies described herein pertain to a tactile sensor that senses normal load and/or shear load. The tactile sensor includes a first layer and an optically transparent layer bonded together. At least a portion of the first layer is made of optically reflective material. The optically transparent layer is made of resilient material (e.g., clear silicone rubber). The tactile sensor includes light emitter/light detector pair(s), which respectively detect either normal load or shear load. Light emitter(s) emit light that traverses through the optically transparent layer and reflects off optically reflective material of the first layer, and light detector(s) detect and measure intensity of reflected light. When a normal load is applied, the optically transparent layer compresses, causing a change in reflected light intensity. When shear load is applied, a boundary between optically reflective material and optically absorptive material is laterally displaced, causing a change in reflected light intensity.

  3. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

    1998-11-03

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3` noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to appropriate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. This invention also provides normalized cDNA libraries generated by the above-described method and uses of the generated libraries. 19 figs.

  4. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1998-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to appropriate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. This invention also provides normalized cDNA libraries generated by the above-described method and uses of the generated libraries.

  5. EIA - Household Transportation report: Household Vehicles Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    National Research Council, Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards (Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 2002), p. 85. 4 8.3 million...

  6. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

    1996-01-09

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form. The method comprises: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3` noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 4 figs.

  7. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1996-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  8. Closeness to spheres of hypersurfaces with normal curvature bounded below

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borisenko, A A; Drach, K D

    2013-11-30

    For aRiemannian manifold M{sup n+1} and acompact domain ??M{sup n+1} bounded by ahypersurface ?? with normal curvature bounded below, estimates are obtained in terms of the distance from O to ?? for the angle between the geodesic line joining afixed interior point O in ? to apoint on ?? and the outward normal to the surface. Estimates for the width of aspherical shell containing such ahypersurface are also presented. Bibliography: 9 titles.

  9. Diesel prices continue to increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices continue to increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to $3.91 a gallon on Monday. That's up 7-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region at 4.12 a gallon, up 4-tenths of a penny from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast states at 3.80 a gallon, up 1.3 cents.

  10. Diesel prices continue to increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices continue to increase The U.S. retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to its highest average since September at $3.95 a gallon. That's up 4.7 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region at 4.31 a gallon, up 13.4 cents from a week ago and marking the highest average this region has seen since last February. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast states at 3.78 a gallon,

  11. Diesel prices continue to increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices continue to increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to $3.98 a gallon. That's up 2.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region at 4.37 a gallon, up 6.4 cents from a week ago and marking the highest average this region has seen since August 2008. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast states at 3.79 a gallon, up 1.3 cents.

  12. Diesel prices continue to increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices continue to increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to $3.89 a gallon on Monday. That's up 2.4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. For the first time this year, the West Coast surpassed New England for the highest regional diesel prices at 4.01 a gallon, up 3.9 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region at 3.78 a gallon, up 3.6 cents

  13. Diesel prices continue to increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices continue to increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to $3.87 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.9 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region at 4.01 a gallon, up 4 cents from a week ago, followed by the West Coast region at 4.00 a gallon, up 4.6 cents. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region and Lower Atlantic States at 3.80 a gallon.

  14. Diesel prices continue to increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices continue to increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to $3.90 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region at 4.05 a gallon, up 4.2 cents from a week ago, followed closely by the West Coast region at 4.04 a gallon, up 4.4 cents. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region at 3.84 a gallon, up 4.3 cents.

  15. Diesel prices continue to increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices continue to increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to $3.92 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Regionally, diesel prices were highest in New England at 4.06 a gallon, up 1.4 cents from a week ago, followed closely by the West Coast states at 4.05 a gallon, up 1.1 cents. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region at 3.85 a gallon, up 4-tenths of a

  16. Diesel prices continue to increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices continue to increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to $3.98 a gallon on Labor Day Monday. That's up 6.8 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the West Coast states at 4.13 a gallon, up 5.6 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region at 3.90 a gallon, up 6.8 cents.

  17. Diesel prices continue to increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices continue to increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to $3.88 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.9 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region at 4.04 a gallon, up 3.7 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region at 3.78 a gallon, up 2.7cents. This is Marlana Anderson, with EIA, in Washington. For more information, contact

  18. Diesel prices slightly increase nationally

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices slightly increase nationally The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose slightly to $3.90 a gallon on Monday. That's up 4-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the West Coast states at 4.06 a gallon, up 1.2 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region at 3.82 a gallon, down 2-tenths of a penny.

  19. Residential heating oil price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 11.2 cents from a week ago to $2.91 per gallon. That's down $1.33 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to $2.87 per gallon, up 9.8 cents from last week, and down $1.29 from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk with EIA, in Washington.

  20. Residential heating oil price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9, 2015 Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 11.7 cents from a week ago to $3.03 per gallon. That's down $1.20 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to $2.99 per gallon, up 12 cents from last week, and down $1.16 from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk

  1. Residential heating oil price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5, 2015 Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 14.7 cents from a week ago to $3.19 per gallon. That's down $1.06 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to $3.15 per gallon, up 15.9 cents from last week, and down $1.00 from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk

  2. Residential heating oil price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 10.3 cents from a week ago to $3.29 per gallon. That's down 93.7 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to $3.26 per gallon, up 10.4 cents from last week, and down 89.3 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk

  3. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5, 2014 Residential heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 6.5 cents from a week ago to $4.24 per gallon. That's up 14.9 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to 4.17 per gallon, up 4.1 cents from last week, and up 13.4 cents from a year ago. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington. For more information, contact Marcela

  4. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4, 2013 Residential heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 2.9 cents from last week to $3.92 per gallon. That's down 11 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The price for heating oil in the New England region averaged 3.87 per gallon, up 2.5 cents from last week, but down 7.1 cents from a year earlier. This is Marlana Anderson

  5. RANGE INCREASER FOR PNEUMATIC GAUGES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fowler, A.H.; Seaborn, G.B. Jr.

    1960-09-27

    An improved pneumatic gage is offered in which the linear range has been increased without excessive air consumption. This has been accomplished by providing an expansible antechamber connected to the nozzle of the gage so that the position of the nozzle with respect to the workpiece is varied automatically by variation in pressure within the antechamber. This arrangement ensures that the nozzle-to-workpiece clearance is maintained within certain limits, thus obtaining a linear relation of air flow to nozzle-to-workpiece clearance over a wider range.

  6. Microwaving of normally opaque and semi-opaque substances

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1990-07-17

    Disclosed is a method of heating small particles using microwave radiation which are not normally capable of being heated by microwaves. The surfaces of the particles are coated with a material which is transparent to microwave radiation in order to cause microwave coupling to the particles and thus accomplish heating of the particles.

  7. Microwaving of normally opaque and semi-opaque substances

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, Haskell; Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1990-01-01

    Method of heating small particles using microwave radiation which are not normally capable of being heated by microwaves. The surfaces of the particles are coated with a material which is transparent to microwave radiation in order to cause microwave coupling to the particles and thus accomplish heating of the particles.

  8. Metastatic prostatic pulmonary nodules with normal bone image

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petras, A.F.; Wollett, F.C.

    1983-11-01

    Asymptomatic prostatic caricnoma presented as multiple bilateral pulmonary modules in a patient without any evidence of skeletal involvement by normal bone image. Percutaneous biopsy provided the initial clue to diagnosis. The authors recommend that asymptomatic prostatic carcinoma be included in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules, even when there is no evidence of skeletal metastasis.

  9. Deep Borehole Disposal Remediation Costs for Off-Normal Outcomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finger, John T.; Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-08-17

    This memo describes rough-order-of-magnitude (ROM) cost estimates for a set of off-normal (accident) scenarios, as defined for two waste package emplacement method options for deep borehole disposal: drill-string and wireline. It summarizes the different scenarios and the assumptions made for each, with respect to fishing, decontamination, remediation, etc.

  10. Terrestrial Food-Chain Model for Normal Operations.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1991-10-01

    Version 00 TERFOC-N calculates radiation doses to the public due to atmospheric releases of radionuclides in normal operations of nuclear facilities. The code estimates the highest individual dose and the collective dose from four exposure highways: internal doses from ingestion and inhalation, external doses from cloudshine and groundshine.

  11. Increased serum cortisol binding in chronic active hepatitis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orbach, O.; Schussler, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    A high serum cortisol concentration, apparently due to increased cortisol-binding globulin (CBG), was found in a patient (index case) with chronic active hepatitis (CAH). We therefore performed further studies to determine whether increased cortisol binding is generally associated with CAH. Serum samples were obtained from 15 hospitalized patients with long-term liver function test elevations but no evidence of cirrhosis, 15 normal subjects without a history of hepatitis, four healthy pregnant women, and 10 alcoholic patients with stigmata of cirrhosis. Serum cortisol binding was measured by an adaptation of a previously described charcoal uptake method. Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and sex hormone-binding globulin were determined by radioimmunoassays. Charcoal uptake of 125I cortisol from sera of normal subjects and additional patients with CAH revealed that increased serum cortisol binding by a saturable site, presumably CBG, was associated with CAH. Cortisol binding was significantly correlated with immunoassayable TBG, suggesting that in CAH, similar mechanisms may be responsible for increasing the serum concentrations of CBG and TBG.

  12. Procedure for normalization of cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonaldo, Maria DeFatima; Soares, Marcelo Bento

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a cDNA library constructed in a vector capable of being converted to single-stranded circles and capable of producing complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles comprising: (a) converting the cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles; (c) hybridizing the single-stranded circles converted in step (a) with complementary nucleic acid molecules of step (b) to produce partial duplexes to an appropriate Cot; (e) separating the unhybridized single-stranded circles from the hybridized single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  13. Procedure for normalization of cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonaldo, M.D.; Soares, M.B.

    1997-12-30

    This invention provides a method to normalize a cDNA library constructed in a vector capable of being converted to single-stranded circles and capable of producing complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles comprising: (a) converting the cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles; (c) hybridizing the single-stranded circles converted in step (a) with complementary nucleic acid molecules of step (b) to produce partial duplexes to an appropriate Cot; (e) separating the unhybridized single-stranded circles from the hybridized single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 1 fig.

  14. A comparison of normal and worst case cement plant emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodford, J.; Gossman, D.; Johnson, N.

    1996-12-31

    Lone Star Industries, Inc. in Cape Girardeau, Missouri conducted a trial burn in October, 1995. Two metals emissions test days were conducted. One of the test days was a worst case metals spiking day and one of the test days was a normal emissions day. This paper examines and compares the emissions from these two test days. Much has been made of metals emissions from hazardous waste burning cement kilns, but for the most part, this has been due to the worst case metals emissions data that became available from the 1992 BIF compliance testing performed and reported by 24 cement plants. By comparison, very little data exists on normal cement kiln emissions. This paper provides one comparison.

  15. B-2 Bomber During In-flight Refueling Normal Heart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    B-2 Bomber During In-flight Refueling Normal Heart Image Technology to Detect Concealed Nuclear Material in Trucks and Cargo Containers Single Abnormality Possible Heart Attack Disc Drive Computer Chip MP3 Player Protein Structure Energy Research Energy Security As part of the nation's energy security strategy, there is renewed focus on nuclear energy. It is critical that fuel elements and the construction materials for new reactors be well characterized. LAN- SCE is developing the Materials

  16. Table 2.4 Household Energy Consumption by Census Region, Selected Years, 1978-2009 (Quadrillion Btu, Except as Noted)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Household 1 Energy Consumption by Census Region, Selected Years, 1978-2009 (Quadrillion Btu, Except as Noted) Census Region 2 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1984 1987 1990 1993 1997 2001 2005 2009 United States Total (does not include wood) 10.56 9.74 9.32 9.29 8.58 9.04 9.13 9.22 10.01 10.25 9.86 10.55 10.18 Natural Gas 5.58 5.31 4.97 5.27 4.74 4.98 4.83 4.86 5.27 5.28 4.84 4.79 4.69 Electricity 3 2.47 2.42 2.48 2.42 2.35 2.48 2.76 3.03 3.28 3.54 3.89 4.35 4.39 Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene 2.19

  17. User interface in ORACLE for the Worldwide Household Goods Information System for Transportation Modernization (WHIST-MOD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, T. ); Loftis, J. )

    1990-07-01

    The Directorate of Personal Property of the Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC) requested that Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) design a prototype decision support system, the Worldwide Household Goods Information System for Transportation Modernization (WHIST-MOD). This decision support system will automate current tasks and provide analysis tools for evaluating the Personal Property Program, predicting impacts to the program, and planning modifications to the program to meet the evolving needs of military service members and the transportation industry. The system designed by ORNL consists of three application modules: system dictionary applications, data acquisition and administration applications, and user applications. The development of the user applications module is divided into two phases. Round 1 is the data selection front-end interface, and Round 2 is the output or back-end interface. This report describes the prototyped front-end interface for the user application module. It discusses user requirements and the prototype design. The information contained in this report is the product of in-depth interviews with MTMC staff, prototype meetings with the users, and the research and design work conducted at ORNL. 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Normal ground state of dense relativistic matter in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorbar, E. V.; Miransky, V. A.; Shovkovy, I. A.

    2011-04-15

    The properties of the ground state of relativistic matter in a magnetic field are examined within the framework of a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The main emphasis of this study is the normal ground state, which is realized at sufficiently high temperatures and/or sufficiently large chemical potentials. In contrast to the vacuum state, which is characterized by the magnetic catalysis of chiral symmetry breaking, the normal state is accompanied by the dynamical generation of the chiral shift parameter {Delta}. In the chiral limit, the value of {Delta} determines a relative shift of the longitudinal momenta (along the direction of the magnetic field) in the dispersion relations of opposite chirality fermions. We argue that the chirality remains a good approximate quantum number even for massive fermions in the vicinity of the Fermi surface and, therefore, the chiral shift is expected to play an important role in many types of cold dense relativistic matter, relevant for applications in compact stars. The qualitative implications of the revealed structure of the normal ground state on the physics of protoneutron stars are discussed. A noticeable feature of the {Delta} parameter is that it is insensitive to temperature when T<<{mu}{sub 0}, where {mu}{sub 0} is the chemical potential, and increases with temperature for T>{mu}{sub 0}. The latter implies that the chiral shift parameter is also generated in the regime relevant for heavy ion collisions.

  19. Is the assumption of normality or log-normality for continuous response data critical for benchmark dose estimation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Kan; Gift, Jeffrey S.; Setzer, R. Woodrow

    2013-11-01

    Continuous responses (e.g. body weight) are widely used in risk assessment for determining the benchmark dose (BMD) which is used to derive a U.S. EPA reference dose. One critical question that is not often addressed in doseresponse assessments is whether to model the continuous data as normally or log-normally distributed. Additionally, if lognormality is assumed, and only summarized response data (i.e., mean standard deviation) are available as is usual in the peer-reviewed literature, the BMD can only be approximated. In this study, using the hybrid method and relative deviation approach, we first evaluate six representative continuous doseresponse datasets reporting individual animal responses to investigate the impact on BMD/BMDL estimates of (1) the distribution assumption and (2) the use of summarized versus individual animal data when a log-normal distribution is assumed. We also conduct simulation studies evaluating model fits to various known distributions to investigate whether the distribution assumption has influence on BMD/BMDL estimates. Our results indicate that BMDs estimated using the hybrid method are more sensitive to the distribution assumption than counterpart BMDs estimated using the relative deviation approach. The choice of distribution assumption has limited impact on the BMD/BMDL estimates when the within dose-group variance is small, while the lognormality assumption is a better choice for relative deviation method when data are more skewed because of its appropriateness in describing the relationship between mean and standard deviation. Additionally, the results suggest that the use of summarized data versus individual response data to characterize log-normal distributions has minimal impact on BMD estimates. - Highlights: We investigate to what extent the distribution assumption can affect BMD estimates. Both real data analysis and simulation study are conducted. BMDs estimated using hybrid method are more sensitive to

  20. Normal waves in media with light-induced anisotropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burov, L.I.; Gancherenok, I.I.

    1986-03-01

    The structure of normal waves for arbitrary directions of light beams is studied within the framework of standard nonlinear-polarization spectroscopy. A connection is found between the polarization of these waves and the polarization of the intense field and the mechanism for the creation of the induced anisotropy. The feasibility of the spectroscopic application of these results is considered, and a method is proposed for the use of a noncollinear pump. Analysis of the possibility of achieving dual-mode lasing with orthogonal mode polarization is made based on the formalism developed.

  1. Electromagnetic fluctuations and normal modes of a drifting relativistic plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruyer, C.; Gremillet, L.; Bénisti, D.; Bonnaud, G.

    2013-11-15

    We present an exact calculation of the power spectrum of the electromagnetic fluctuations in a relativistic equilibrium plasma described by Maxwell-Jüttner distribution functions. We consider the cases of wave vectors parallel or normal to the plasma mean velocity. The relative contributions of the subluminal and supraluminal fluctuations are evaluated. Analytical expressions of the spatial fluctuation spectra are derived in each case. These theoretical results are compared to particle-in-cell simulations, showing a good reproduction of the subluminal fluctuation spectra.

  2. Normal and abnormal evolution of argon metastable density in high-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, B. H.; Kim, J. H.; You, S. J.

    2015-05-15

    A controversial problem on the evolution of Ar metastable density as a function of electron density (increasing trend versus decreasing trend) was resolved by discovering the anomalous evolution of the argon metastable density with increasing electron density (discharge power), including both trends of the metastable density [Daltrini et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061504 (2008)]. Later, by virtue of an adequate physical explanation based on a simple global model, both evolutions of the metastable density were comprehensively understood as part of the abnormal evolution occurring at low- and high-density regimes, respectively, and thus the physics behind the metastable evolution has seemed to be clearly disclosed. In this study, however, a remarkable result for the metastable density behavior with increasing electron density was observed: even in the same electron density regime, there are both normal and abnormal evolutions of metastable-state density with electron density depending on the measurement position: The metastable density increases with increasing electron density at a position far from the inductively coupled plasma antenna but decreases at a position close to the antenna. The effect of electron temperature, which is spatially nonuniform in the plasma, on the electron population and depopulation processes of Argon metastable atoms with increasing electron density is a clue to understanding the results. The calculated results of the global model, including multistep ionization for the argon metastable state and measured electron temperature, are in a good agreement with the experimental results.

  3. Not normally manned compression platforms for the North Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumaran, K.S.

    1994-12-31

    Gas turbine driven gas compressors have been widely used on manned offshore facilities. Similarly unmanned gas turbine driven compressor stations have been in operation onshore with major gas transmission companies in Europe, North America and elsewhere. This paper summarizes a recent joint industry study to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of Not Normally Manned (NNM) Offshore Compression Facilities in terms of reliability, availability and maintainability. Classification of not normally manned (or unmanned) offshore facilities in the UK North Sea is in accordance with HSE Operations Notice 8. ON8 specifies criteria for offshore visits, visit hours and number of personnel on board for the operation of NNM platforms. This paper describes a typical Southern North Sea gas platform being considered for NNM compressor application. The conclusions from the study was that NNM compression is technically feasible with the facilities being able to provide an availability in excess of 98%. Life cycle costs were of the order of 70% of manned facilities thus significantly improving field development economics.

  4. Termination of a Major Normal Fault | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    sometimes split into multiple closely-spaced faults that result in increased permeability. Fault sets at these terminations sometimes appear as "horsetailing" splays that...

  5. Next Generation Household Refrigerator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partner: Whirlpool - Benton Harbor, MI

  6. Try This: Household Magnets

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Now which is stronger, gravity or magnetism? What is going on? How do flexible refrigerator magnets work? Get two of these magnets, they are often the size of a business card....

  7. Phenomenology of electrostatically charged droplet combustion in normal gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Eric K.; Koch, Jeremy A.; Kyritsis, Dimitrios C.

    2008-08-15

    Experimental findings are provided on the effect of electrostatically charging a fuel on single-burning droplet combustion in normal gravity. It was established that significant modification of the flame morphology and the droplet burning time could be achieved, solely by the droplet charge, without the application of external electric fields. Negative charging of the droplets of mixtures of isooctane with either ethanol or a commercially available anti-static additive generated intense motion of the flame and abbreviated the droplet burning time by as much as 40% for certain blend compositions. Positive charging of the droplets generated almost spherical flames, because electrostatic attraction toward the droplets countered the effect of buoyancy. By comparing combustion of droplets of the same conductivity but different compositions, coupling of electrostatics with combustion chemistry was established. (author)

  8. Mineral density volume gradients in normal and diseased human tissues

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Djomehri, Sabra I.; Candell, Susan; Case, Thomas; Browning, Alyssa; Marshall, Grayson W.; Yun, Wenbing; Lau, S. H.; Webb, Samuel; Ho, Sunita P.; Aikawa, Elena

    2015-04-09

    Clinical computed tomography provides a single mineral density (MD) value for heterogeneous calcified tissues containing early and late stage pathologic formations. The novel aspect of this study is that, it extends current quantitative methods of mapping mineral density gradients to three dimensions, discretizes early and late mineralized stages, identifies elemental distribution in discretized volumes, and correlates measured MD with respective calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) and Ca to zinc (Zn) elemental ratios. To accomplish this, MD variations identified using polychromatic radiation from a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) benchtop unit were correlated with elemental mapping obtained from a microprobe X-raymore » fluorescence (XRF) using synchrotron monochromatic radiation. Digital segmentation of tomograms from normal and diseased tissues (N=5 per group; 40-60 year old males) contained significant mineral density variations (enamel: 2820-3095mg/cc, bone: 570-1415mg/cc, cementum: 1240-1340mg/cc, dentin: 1480-1590mg/cc, cementum affected by periodontitis: 1100-1220mg/cc, hypomineralized carious dentin: 345-1450mg/cc, hypermineralized carious dentin: 1815-2740mg/cc, and dental calculus: 1290-1770mg/cc). A plausible linear correlation between segmented MD volumes and elemental ratios within these volumes was established, and Ca/P ratios for dentin (1.49), hypomineralized dentin (0.32-0.46), cementum (1.51), and bone (1.68) were observed. Furthermore, varying Ca/Zn ratios were distinguished in adapted compared to normal tissues, such as in bone (855-2765) and in cementum (595-990), highlighting Zn as an influential element in prompting observed adaptive properties. Hence, results provide insights on mineral density gradients with elemental concentrations and elemental footprints that in turn could aid in elucidating mechanistic processes for pathologic formations.« less

  9. Mineral density volume gradients in normal and diseased human tissues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djomehri, Sabra I.; Candell, Susan; Case, Thomas; Browning, Alyssa; Marshall, Grayson W.; Yun, Wenbing; Lau, S. H.; Webb, Samuel; Ho, Sunita P.; Aikawa, Elena

    2015-04-09

    Clinical computed tomography provides a single mineral density (MD) value for heterogeneous calcified tissues containing early and late stage pathologic formations. The novel aspect of this study is that, it extends current quantitative methods of mapping mineral density gradients to three dimensions, discretizes early and late mineralized stages, identifies elemental distribution in discretized volumes, and correlates measured MD with respective calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) and Ca to zinc (Zn) elemental ratios. To accomplish this, MD variations identified using polychromatic radiation from a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) benchtop unit were correlated with elemental mapping obtained from a microprobe X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using synchrotron monochromatic radiation. Digital segmentation of tomograms from normal and diseased tissues (N=5 per group; 40-60 year old males) contained significant mineral density variations (enamel: 2820-3095mg/cc, bone: 570-1415mg/cc, cementum: 1240-1340mg/cc, dentin: 1480-1590mg/cc, cementum affected by periodontitis: 1100-1220mg/cc, hypomineralized carious dentin: 345-1450mg/cc, hypermineralized carious dentin: 1815-2740mg/cc, and dental calculus: 1290-1770mg/cc). A plausible linear correlation between segmented MD volumes and elemental ratios within these volumes was established, and Ca/P ratios for dentin (1.49), hypomineralized dentin (0.32-0.46), cementum (1.51), and bone (1.68) were observed. Furthermore, varying Ca/Zn ratios were distinguished in adapted compared to normal tissues, such as in bone (855-2765) and in cementum (595-990), highlighting Zn as an influential element in prompting observed adaptive properties. Hence, results provide insights on mineral density gradients with elemental concentrations and elemental footprints that in turn could aid in elucidating mechanistic processes for pathologic formations.

  10. Short and Long-Term Perspectives: The Impact on Low-Income Consumers of Forecasted Energy Price Increases in 2008 and A Cap & Trade Carbon Policy in 2030

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenberg, Joel Fred

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) recently released its short-term forecast for residential energy prices for the winter of 2007-2008. The forecast indicates increases in costs for low-income consumers in the year ahead, particularly for those using fuel oil to heat their homes. In the following analysis, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has integrated the EIA price projections with the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for 2001 in order to project the impact of these price increases on the nation's low-income households by primary heating fuel type, nationally and by Census Region. The report provides an update of bill estimates provided in a previous study, "The Impact Of Forecasted Energy Price Increases On Low-Income Consumers" (Eisenberg, 2005). The statistics are intended for use by policymakers in the Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program and elsewhere who are trying to gauge the nature and severity of the problems that will be faced by eligible low-income households during the 2008 fiscal year. In addition to providing expenditure forecasts for the year immediately ahead, this analysis uses a similar methodology to give policy makers some insight into one of the major policy debates that will impact low-income energy expenditures well into the middle decades of this century and beyond. There is now considerable discussion of employing a cap-and-trade mechanism to first limit and then reduce U.S. emissions of carbon into the atmosphere in order to combat the long-range threat of human-induced climate change. The Energy Information Administration has provided an analysis of projected energy prices in the years 2020 and 2030 for one such cap-and-trade carbon reduction proposal that, when integrated with the RECS 2001 database, provides estimates of how low-income households will be impacted over the long term by such a carbon reduction policy.

  11. Development of Advanced Combustion Technologies for Increased...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Combustion Technologies for Increased Thermal Efficiency Development of Advanced Combustion Technologies for Increased Thermal Efficiency Investigation of fuel effects on ...

  12. Connecticut's Health Impact Study Rapidly Increasing Weatherization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Connecticut's Health Impact Study Rapidly Increasing Weatherization Efforts Connecticut's Health Impact Study Rapidly Increasing Weatherization Efforts June 18, 2014 - 10:49am ...

  13. Report: Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report: Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from the Electric Power Sector Report: Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from the ...

  14. Direct normal irradiance related definitions and applications: The circumsolar issue

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Blanc, P.; Espinar, B.; Geuder, N.; Gueymard, C.; Meyer, R.; Pitz-Paal, R.; Reinhardt, B.; Renne, D.; Segupta, M.; Wald, L.; et al

    2014-10-21

    The direct irradiance received on a plane normal to the sun, called direct normal irradiance (DNI), is of particular relevance to concentrated solar technologies, including concentrating solar thermal plants and concentrated photovoltaic systems. Following various standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the DNI definition is related to the irradiance from a small solid angle of the sky, centered on the position of the sun. Half-angle apertures of pyrheliometers measuring DNI have varied over time, up to ≈10°. The current recommendation of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for this half-angle is 2.5°. Solar concentrating collectors have an angular acceptancemore » function that can be significantly narrower, especially for technologies with high concentration ratios. The disagreement between the various interpretations of DNI, from the theoretical definition used in atmospheric physics and radiative transfer modeling to practical definitions corresponding to specific measurements or conversion technologies is significant, especially in the presence of cirrus clouds or large concentration of aerosols. Under such sky conditions, the circumsolar radiation—i.e. the diffuse radiation coming from the vicinity of the sun—contributes significantly to the DNI ground measurement, although some concentrating collectors cannot utilize the bulk of it. These issues have been identified in the EU-funded projects MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate-Interim Implementation) and SFERA (Solar Facilities for the European Research Area), and have been discussed within a panel of international experts in the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) program of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) Task 46 “Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting”. In accordance with these discussions, the terms of reference related to DNI are specified here. The important role of circumsolar radiation is

  15. Direct normal irradiance related definitions and applications: The circumsolar issue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanc, P.; Espinar, B.; Geuder, N.; Gueymard, C.; Meyer, R.; Pitz-Paal, R.; Reinhardt, B.; Renne, D.; Segupta, M.; Wald, L.; Wilbert, S.

    2014-10-21

    The direct irradiance received on a plane normal to the sun, called direct normal irradiance (DNI), is of particular relevance to concentrated solar technologies, including concentrating solar thermal plants and concentrated photovoltaic systems. Following various standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the DNI definition is related to the irradiance from a small solid angle of the sky, centered on the position of the sun. Half-angle apertures of pyrheliometers measuring DNI have varied over time, up to ≈10°. The current recommendation of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for this half-angle is 2.5°. Solar concentrating collectors have an angular acceptance function that can be significantly narrower, especially for technologies with high concentration ratios. The disagreement between the various interpretations of DNI, from the theoretical definition used in atmospheric physics and radiative transfer modeling to practical definitions corresponding to specific measurements or conversion technologies is significant, especially in the presence of cirrus clouds or large concentration of aerosols. Under such sky conditions, the circumsolar radiation—i.e. the diffuse radiation coming from the vicinity of the sun—contributes significantly to the DNI ground measurement, although some concentrating collectors cannot utilize the bulk of it. These issues have been identified in the EU-funded projects MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate-Interim Implementation) and SFERA (Solar Facilities for the European Research Area), and have been discussed within a panel of international experts in the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) program of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) Task 46 “Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting”. In accordance with these discussions, the terms of reference related to DNI are specified here. The important role of circumsolar radiation is evidenced

  16. Impact of Millimeter-Level Margins on Peripheral Normal Brain Sparing for Gamma Knife Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Lijun; Sahgal, Arjun; Larson, David A.; Pinnaduwage, Dilini; Fogh, Shannon; Barani, Igor; Nakamura, Jean; McDermott, Michael; Sneed, Penny

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate how millimeter-level margins beyond the gross tumor volume (GTV) impact peripheral normal brain tissue sparing for Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Methods and Materials: A mathematical formula was derived to predict the peripheral isodose volume, such as the 12-Gy isodose volume, with increasing margins by millimeters. The empirical parameters of the formula were derived from a cohort of brain tumor and surgical tumor resection cavity cases (n=15) treated with the Gamma Knife Perfexion. This was done by first adding margins from 0.5 to 3.0 mm to each individual target and then creating for each expanded target a series of treatment plans of nearly identical quality as the original plan. Finally, the formula was integrated with a published logistic regression model to estimate the treatment-induced complication rate for stereotactic radiosurgery when millimeter-level margins are added. Results: Confirmatory correlation between the nominal target radius (ie, R{sub T}) and commonly used maximum target size was found for the studied cases, except for a few outliers. The peripheral isodose volume such as the 12-Gy volume was found to increase exponentially with increasing Δ/R{sub T}, where Δ is the margin size. Such a curve fitted the data (logarithmic regression, R{sup 2} >0.99), and the 12-Gy isodose volume was shown to increase steeply with a 0.5- to 3.0-mm margin applied to a target. For example, a 2-mm margin on average resulted in an increase of 55% ± 16% in the 12-Gy volume; this corresponded to an increase in the symptomatic necrosis rate of 6% to 25%, depending on the Δ/R{sub T} values for the target. Conclusions: Millimeter-level margins beyond the GTV significantly impact peripheral normal brain sparing and should be applied with caution. Our model provides a rapid estimate of such an effect, particularly for large and/or irregularly shaped targets.

  17. Spin transport in normal metal/insulator/topological insulator coupled to ferromagnetic insulator structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondo, Kenji

    2014-05-07

    In this study, we investigate the spin transport in normal metal (NM)/insulator (I)/topological insulator (TI) coupled to ferromagnetic insulator (FI) structures. In particular, we focus on the barrier thickness dependence of the spin transport inside the bulk gap of the TI with FI. The TI with FI is described by two-dimensional (2D) Dirac Hamiltonian. The energy profile of the insulator is assumed to be a square with barrier height V and thickness d along the transport-direction. This structure behaves as a tunnel device for 2D Dirac electrons. The calculation is performed for the spin conductance with changing the barrier thickness and the components of magnetization of FI layer. It is found that the spin conductance decreases with increasing the barrier thickness. Also, the spin conductance is strongly dependent on the polar angle ?, which is defined as the angle between the axis normal to the FI and the magnetization of FI layer. These results indicate that the structures are promising candidates for novel tunneling magnetoresistance devices.

  18. Raman Spectroscopy of DNA Packaging in Individual Human Sperm Cells distinguishes Normal from Abnormal Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huser, T; Orme, C; Hollars, C; Corzett, M; Balhorn, R

    2009-03-09

    Healthy human males produce sperm cells of which about 25-40% have abnormal head shapes. Increases in the percentage of sperm exhibiting aberrant sperm head morphologies have been correlated with male infertility, and biochemical studies of pooled sperm have suggested that sperm with abnormal shape may contain DNA that has not been properly repackaged by protamine during spermatid development. We have used micro-Raman spectroscopy to obtain Raman spectra from individual human sperm cells and examined how differences in the Raman spectra of sperm chromatin correlate with cell shape. We show that Raman spectra of individual sperm cells contain vibrational marker modes that can be used to assess the efficiency of DNA-packaging for each cell. Raman spectra obtained from sperm cells with normal shape provide evidence that DNA in these sperm is very efficiently packaged. We find, however, that the relative protein content per cell and DNA packaging efficiencies are distributed over a relatively wide range for sperm cells with both normal and abnormal shape. These findings indicate that single cell Raman spectroscopy should be a valuable tool in assessing the quality of sperm cells for in-vitro fertilization.

  19. Do Tumors in the Lung Deform During Normal Respiration? An Image Registration Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Jianzhou; Lei Peng; Shekhar, Raj; Li Huiling; Suntharalingam, Mohan; D'Souza, Warren D.

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether lung tumors may be described adequately using a rigid body assumption or whether they deform during normal respiration. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with early stage non-small-cell lung cancer underwent four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) simulation. The gross tumor volume (GTV) was delineated on the 4D CT images. Image registration was performed in the vicinity of the GTV. The volume of interest for registration was the GTV and minimal volume of surrounding non-GTV tissue. Three types of registration were performed: translation only, translation + rotation, and deformable. The GTV contour from end-inhale was mapped to end-exhale using the registration-derived transformation field. The results were evaluated using three metrics: overlap index (OI), root-mean-squared distance (RMS), and Hausdorff distance (HD). Results: After translation only image registration, on average OI increased by 21.3%, RMS and HD reduced by 1.2 mm and 2.0 mm, respectively. The succeeding increases in OI after translation + rotation and deformable registration were 1.1% and 1.4% respectively. The succeeding reductions in RMS were 0.1 mm and 0.2 mm respectively. No reduction in HD was observed after translation + rotation and deformable image registration compared with translation only registration. The difference in the results from the three registration scenarios was independent of GTV size and motion amplitude. Conclusions: The primary effect of normal respiration on lung tumors was the translation of tumors. Rotation and deformation of lung tumors was determined to be minimal.

  20. ARM - Will There be Increased Global Precipitation?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Will There be Increased Global Precipitation? Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Will There be Increased Global Precipitation? Very probable. Along with an increase in air temperature might be an increase in evaporation, which could lead to greater global precipitation. The

  1. Advancing Commercialization of Algal Biofuels through Increased...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advancing Commercialization of Algal Biofuels through Increased Biomass Productivity ... including: NAABB, Cornell's Marine Algal Biofuels Consortium, ATP3. * Participation in ...

  2. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative: Increasing American Competitive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing Initiative: Increasing American Competitiveness Through Innovation Clean ... Manufacturing Initiative (CEMI), a collaborative effort between the federal government, ...

  3. Isotope Production in Light of Increasing Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patton, B.

    2004-10-05

    This presentation is a part of the panel discussion on isotope production in light of increasing demand.

  4. Persistent Fe moments in the normal state of the pressure-induced...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the normal state of the pressure-induced superconductor Ca0.67Sr0.33Fe2As2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Persistent Fe moments in the normal state of the ...

  5. PCI-related cladding failures during off-normal events - draft. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Houten, R.; Tokar, M.; MacDonald, P.E.

    1984-05-01

    Pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) has long been identified as a fuel rod failure mechanism during power increases in both pressurized and boiling water reactors, and commercial guidelines have practically eliminated such failures during standard operations. A question remains regarding the possible formation of through-wall cladding cracks during several types of postulated off-normal reactor events involving power increases. This report includes preliminary findings for reactor events of the type addressed by Chapter 15 of the NRC Standard Review Plan. Specifically, the BWR turbine trip without bypass, PWR control rod withdrawal error, subcritical PWR control rod withdrawal error, BWR control blade withdrawal error, and the PWR steamline break are analyzed on the joint bases of peak rod power, power increase, ramp rate, and duration at elevated power. These Chapter 15 events are compared to numerous test reactor results and to other relevant investigations, and tentative conclusions on transient severity and data base adequacy are presented. Progress in developing computer codes for predicting PCI-induced fuel rod failures is also discussed. 49 references.

  6. Guidance on Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization in an ESPC |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization in an ESPC Guidance on Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization in an ESPC Document explains how to use estimated energy rates and normalized weather data in determining an energy service company's (ESCO's) payments under a Federal energy savings performance contract (ESPC). Download the guidance on utility rate estimations and weather normalization in an ESPC. (105.41 KB) More Documents & Publications FEMP

  7. Market overview: Increase in uranium prices continues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-01

    Spot market activity totaled just over 200,000 lbs of U308 equivalent. The restricted uranium spot market price range increased from a high last month of $14.75/lb U308 to a low this month of $15.25/lb U308. There was also an increase in the unrestricted range this month with the upper end of the range increasing by $0.50/lb U308. The lower end of the spot conversion price range increased by R0.35/kg U while the upper end of the separative work price range increased by $2.00/SWU.

  8. Radiation-Induced Changes in Normal-Appearing White Matter in Patients With Cerebral Tumors: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagesh, Vijaya Tsien, Christina I.; Chenevert, Thomas L.; Ross, Brian D.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Junick, Larry; Cao Yue

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To quantify the radiation-induced changes in normal-appearing white matter before, during, and after radiotherapy (RT) in cerebral tumor patients. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients with low-grade glioma, high-grade glioma, or benign tumor treated with RT were studied using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. The biologically corrected doses ranged from 50 to 81 Gy. The temporal changes were assessed before, during, and to 45 weeks after the start of RT. The mean diffusivity of water (), fractional anisotropy of diffusion, diffusivity perpendicular ({lambda}{sub perpendicular}) and parallel ({lambda}{sub parallel}) to white matter fibers were calculated in normal-appearing genu and splenium of the corpus callosum. Results: In the genu and splenium, fractional anisotropy decreased and , {lambda}{sub parallel}, {lambda}{sub -perpendicular} increased linearly and significantly with time (p < 0.01). At 45 weeks after the start of RT, {lambda}{sub -perpendicular} had increased {approx}30% in the genu and splenium, and {lambda}{sub parallel} had increased 5% in the genu and 9% in the splenium, suggesting that demyelination is predominant. The increases in {lambda}{sub perpendicular} and {lambda}{sub parallel} were dose dependent, starting at 3 weeks and continuing to 32 weeks from the start of RT. The dose-dependent increase in {lambda}{sub perpendicular} and {lambda}{sub parallel} was not sustained after 32 weeks, indicating the transition from focal to diffuse effects. Conclusion: The acute and subacute changes in normal-appearing white matter fibers indicate radiation-induced demyelination and mild structural degradation of axonal fibers. The structural changes after RT are progressive, with early dose-dependent demyelination and subsequent diffuse dose-independent demyelination and mild axonal degradation. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging is potentially a biomarker for the assessment of radiation-induced white matter injury.

  9. Assessment of Summer 1997 motor gasoline price increase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-05-01

    Gasoline markets in 1996 and 1997 provided several spectacular examples of petroleum market dynamics. The first occurred in spring 1996, when tight markets, following a long winter of high demand, resulted in rising crude oil prices just when gasoline prices exhibit their normal spring rise ahead of the summer driving season. Rising crude oil prices again pushed gasoline prices up at the end of 1996, but a warm winter and growing supplies weakened world crude oil markets, pushing down crude oil and gasoline prices during spring 1997. The 1996 and 1997 spring markets provided good examples of how crude oil prices can move gasoline prices both up and down, regardless of the state of the gasoline market in the United States. Both of these spring events were covered in prior Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports. As the summer of 1997 was coming to a close, consumers experienced yet another surge in gasoline prices. Unlike the previous increase in spring 1996, crude oil was not a factor. The late summer 1997 price increase was brought about by the supply/demand fundamentals in the gasoline markets, rather than the crude oil markets. The nature of the summer 1997 gasoline price increase raised questions regarding production and imports. Given very strong demand in July and August, the seemingly limited supply response required examination. In addition, the price increase that occurred on the West Coast during late summer exhibited behavior different than the increase east of the Rocky Mountains. Thus, the Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) 5 region needed additional analysis (Appendix A). This report is a study of this late summer gasoline market and some of the important issues surrounding that event.

  10. DREAM tool increases space weather predictions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DREAM tool increases space weather predictions Model addresses radiation hazards of the space environment on space systems. April 13, 2012 Scientists studying Earth's radiation ...

  11. BPA proposes rate increase to bolster

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    proposed a 9.6 percent average wholesale power rate increase to compensate for reduced revenue expectations from surplus power sales and to continue funding needed investments in...

  12. Increasing Scientific Productivity by Tracking Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    than its predecessor. To effectively meet the increasing scientific demand for storage systems and services, the center's staff must first understand how data moves within the...

  13. Weatherization Assistance Program: Spurring Innovation, Increasing Home

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency | Department of Energy Weatherization Assistance Program: Spurring Innovation, Increasing Home Energy Efficiency Weatherization Assistance Program: Spurring Innovation, Increasing Home Energy Efficiency October 31, 2013 - 5:01pm Addthis The Intermountain Weatherization Training Center in Clearfield, Utah. Weatherization Training Centers throughout the nation teach workers valuable skills needed to improve energy efficiency of homes. | Photo courtesy of Intermountain

  14. Normal conditions of transport thermal analysis and testing of a Type B drum package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerrell, J.W.; Alstine, M.N. van; Gromada, R.J.

    1995-11-01

    Increasing the content limits of radioactive material packagings can save money and increase transportation safety by decreasing the total number of shipments required to transport large quantities of material. The contents of drum packages can be limited by unacceptable containment vessel pressures and temperatures due to the thermal properties of the insulation. The purpose of this work is to understand and predict the effects of insulation properties on containment system performance. The type B shipping container used in the study is a double containment fiberboard drum package. The package is primarily used to transport uranium and plutonium metals and oxides. A normal condition of transport (NCT) thermal test was performed to benchmark an NCT analysis of the package. A 21 W heater was placed in an instrumented package to simulate the maximum source decay heat. The package reached thermal equilibrium 120 hours after the heater was turned on. Testing took place indoors to minimize ambient temperature fluctuations. The thermal analysis of the package used fiberboard properties reported in the literature and resulted in temperature significantly greater than those measured during the test. Details of the NCT test will be described and transient temperatures at key thermocouple locations within the package will be presented. Analytical results using nominal fiberboard properties will be presented. Explanations of the results and the attempt to benchmark the analysis will be presented. The discovery that fiberboard has an anisotropic thermal conductivity and its effect on thermal performance will also be discussed.

  15. SES Performance-Based Pay Increase

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    An agency may provide a pay increase to allow a senior executive to advance his or her relative position with the SES rate range only upon a determination by the authorized agency official that the executive’s individual performance and/or contribution to agency performance so warrant. A senior executive who receives an annual summary rating of Outstanding or equivalent may be considered for an annual pay increase. A senior executive who receives an annual summary rating of less than Fully Successful or equivalent may not receive an increase in pay for the current appraisal period. The expectation is that executives who are paid consistent with their current level of responsibilities and who receive an acceptable (“Fully Successful” or better) annual summary rating will be eligible to receive a discretionary performance-based pay increase. Pay increases that advance an executive's position in the SES rate range restart the clock under the 12-month rule.

  16. Notes on power of normality tests of error terms in regression models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Střelec, Luboš

    2015-03-10

    Normality is one of the basic assumptions in applying statistical procedures. For example in linear regression most of the inferential procedures are based on the assumption of normality, i.e. the disturbance vector is assumed to be normally distributed. Failure to assess non-normality of the error terms may lead to incorrect results of usual statistical inference techniques such as t-test or F-test. Thus, error terms should be normally distributed in order to allow us to make exact inferences. As a consequence, normally distributed stochastic errors are necessary in order to make a not misleading inferences which explains a necessity and importance of robust tests of normality. Therefore, the aim of this contribution is to discuss normality testing of error terms in regression models. In this contribution, we introduce the general RT class of robust tests for normality, and present and discuss the trade-off between power and robustness of selected classical and robust normality tests of error terms in regression models.

  17. Ethanologenic bacteria with increased resistance to furfural

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Elliot Norman; Jarboe, Laura R.; Yomano, Lorraine P.; York, Sean W.; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal

    2015-10-06

    The invention relates to bacterium that have increased resistance to furfural and methods of preparation. The invention also relates to methods of producing ethanol using the bacterium and corresponding kits.

  18. U.S. monthly coal production increases

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    monthly coal production increases U.S. coal production in July totaled 88.9 million short tons, the highest level since August 2012, according to preliminary data from the U.S. ...

  19. Gasoline prices show sharp increase (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline saw its sharpest increase this year at 3.54 a gallon on Monday. That's up 18.1 cents from a week ago, based on ...

  20. Gasoline prices show sharp increase (long version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline saw its sharpest increase this year at 3.54 a gallon on Monday. That's up 18.1 cents from a week ago, based on the ...

  1. Increasing Energy Security | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Security Increasing Energy Security January 20, 2012 - 4:01pm Addthis Increasing Energy Security Heather Zichal Deputy Assistant to the President for Energy and Climate Change Editor's note: This article is cross-posted from WhiteHouse.gov. There is a lot of discussion lately about domestic energy production and American energy security. For the Obama Administration, moving towards the goal of energy independence has been a clear priority since day one. When President Obama took office,

  2. Connecticut's Health Impact Study Rapidly Increasing Weatherization

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efforts | Department of Energy Connecticut's Health Impact Study Rapidly Increasing Weatherization Efforts Connecticut's Health Impact Study Rapidly Increasing Weatherization Efforts June 18, 2014 - 10:49am Addthis Weatherization workers are trained in the house as a system approach. The Energy Department's Weatherization Assistance Program funded technical assistance as part of Connecticut's Health Impact Assessment project. | Photo courtesy of Weatherization Assistance Program Technical

  3. Hole Burning Imaging Studies of Cancerous and Analogous Normal Ovarian Tissues Utilizing Organelle Specific Dyes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satoshi Matsuzaki

    2004-12-19

    Presented in this dissertation is the successful demonstration that nonphotochemical hole burning (NPWB) imaging can be used to study in vitro tissue cellular systems for discerning differences in cellular ultrastructures due to cancer development. This has been accomplished with the surgically removed cancerous ovarian and analogous normal peritoneal tissues from the same patient and the application of a fluorescent mitochondrion specific dye, Molecular Probe MitoFluor Far Red 680 (MF680), commonly known as rhodamine 800, that has been proven to exhibit efficient NPHB. From the results presented in Chapters 4 and 5 , and Appendix B, the following conclusions were made: (1) fluorescence excitation spectra of MF680 and confocal microscopy images of thin sliced tissues incubated with MF680 confirm the site-specificity of the probe molecules in the cellular systems. (2) Tunneling parameters, {lambda}{sub 0} and {sigma}{sub {lambda}}, as well as the standard hole burning parameters (namely, {gamma} and S), have been determined for the tissue samples by hole growth kinetics (HGK) analyses. Unlike the preliminary cultured cell studies, these parameters have not shown the ability to distinguish tissue cellular matrices surrounding the chromophores. (3) Effects of an external electric (Stark) field on the nonphotochemical holes have been used to determine the changes in permanent dipole moment (f{Delta}{mu}) for MF680 in tissue samples when burn laser polarization is parallel to the Stark field. Differences are detected between f{Delta}{mu}s in the two tissue samples, with the cancerous tissue exhibiting a more pronounced change (1.35-fold increase) in permanent dipole moment change relative to the normal analogs. It is speculated that the difference may be related to differences in mitochondrial membrane potentials in these tissue samples. (4) In the HGK mode, hole burning imaging (HBI) of cells adhered to coverslips and cooled to liquid helium temperatures in the

  4. Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel Assembly |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel Assembly Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel Assembly This report describes a test of an instrumented surrogate PWR fuel assembly on a truck trailer conducted to simulate normal conditions of truck transport. The purpose of the test was to measure strains and accelerations on a Zircaloy-4 fuel rod during the transport of the assembly on the truck. This test complements tests conducted

  5. Persistent Fe moments in the normal state of the pressure-induced...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Persistent Fe moments in the normal state of the pressure-induced superconductor ... Resource Relation: Journal Name: Physical Review B, vol. 90, no. 14, October 13, 2014, pp. ...

  6. Ar-40/Ar-39 Age Constraints for the Jaramillo Normal Subchron...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    oxygen isotope, climate record calibration of the astronomical timescale proposed by Johnson (1982) and Shackleton et al. (1990). Ar-40Ar-39 ages of a normally magnetized...

  7. Pentose fermentation of normally toxic lignocellulose prehydrolysate with strain of Pichia stipitis yeast using air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, Jr., Fred A.; Nguyen, Quang A.

    2002-01-01

    Strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis NPw9 (ATCC PTA-3717) useful for the production of ethanol using oxygen for growth while fermenting normally toxic lignocellulosic prehydrolysates.

  8. Gasoline price shows small increase (Short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    shows small increase (Short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.32 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  9. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.44 a gallon on Monday. That's up 6.4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  10. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.48 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3 ½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  11. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.51 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  12. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.55 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  13. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4, 2014 Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's up 5½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  14. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1, 2014 Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.68 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  15. Porous radiant burners having increased radiant output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tong, Timothy W.; Sathe, Sanjeev B.; Peck, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Means and methods for enhancing the output of radiant energy from a porous radiant burner by minimizing the scattering and increasing the adsorption, and thus emission of such energy by the use of randomly dispersed ceramic fibers of sub-micron diameter in the fabrication of ceramic fiber matrix burners and for use therein.

  16. Increasing security in inter-chip communication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edwards, Nathan J; Hamlet, Jason; Bauer, Todd; Helinski, Ryan

    2014-10-28

    An apparatus for increasing security in inter-chip communication includes a sending control module, a communication bus, and a receiving control module. The communication bus is coupled between the sending control module and the receiving control module. The sending control module operates to send data on the communication bus, disable the communication bus when threats are detected, or both.

  17. Holographic technology could increase solar efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Torrance, Calif.-based company is working on a product that could help solar energy producers get both kinds of energy out of the same sunlight -- potentially increasing a system’s return. Using holographic thin-film, Luminit is working on a solar cogeneration system that also tracks sunlight across the sky without movable parts.

  18. Neutronics and Fuel Performance Evaluation of Accident Tolerant Fuel under Normal Operation Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Wu; Piyush Sabharwall; Jason Hales

    2014-07-01

    This report details the analysis of neutronics and fuel performance analysis for enhanced accident tolerance fuel, with Monte Carlo reactor physics code Serpent and INL’s fuel performance code BISON, respectively. The purpose is to evaluate two of the most promising candidate materials, FeCrAl and Silicon Carbide (SiC), as the fuel cladding under normal operating conditions. Substantial neutron penalty is identified when FeCrAl is used as monolithic cladding for current oxide fuel. From the reactor physics standpoint, application of the FeCrAl alloy as coating layer on surface of zircaloy cladding is possible without increasing fuel enrichment. Meanwhile, SiC brings extra reactivity and the neutron penalty is of no concern. Application of either FeCrAl or SiC could be favorable from the fuel performance standpoint. Detailed comparison between monolithic cladding and hybrid cladding (cladding + coating) is discussed. Hybrid cladding is more practical based on the economics evaluation during the transition from current UO2/zircaloy to Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) system. However, a few issues remain to be resolved, such as the creep behavior of FeCrAl, coating spallation, inter diffusion with zirconium, etc. For SiC, its high thermal conductivity, excellent creep resistance, low thermal neutron absorption cross section, irradiation stability (minimal swelling) make it an excellent candidate materials for future nuclear fuel/cladding system.

  19. Mixing characteristics of compressible vortex rings interacting with normal shock waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cetegen, B.M. . Mechanical Engineering Dept.); Hermanson, J.C. )

    1995-01-01

    Current interest in the interaction between compressible vortical flows and shock waves is largely motivated by the need to promote rapid, loss-effective mixing and combustion of hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels for supersonic combustor applications. The instability mechanisms and mixing enhancement arising from the interaction of a compressible vortex ring with a normal shock wave were studied in a colinear, dual-shock tube. This flow geometry simulates features of the interaction of a shock wave with a jet containing streamwise vorticity, a configuration of significant interest for supersonic combustion applications. Flow visualization and quantitative concentration measurements were performed by planar laser Rayleigh scattering. For a given primary shock strength, interfacial instability is more evident in a weak vortex ring than in a strong vortex ring. In all cases, the identity of the vortex ring is lost after a sufficiently long time of interaction. The probability density function of the mixed fluid changes rapidly from a bimodal distribution to a single peak upon processing by a shock wave. The most probable concentration decreases with time, indicating a rapid increase in mixing and dilution of the vortex fluid. The mixing enhancement is most rapid for the case of a strong vortex ring interacting with a strong shock wave, somewhat slower for a weak vortex ring and a strong shock wave, and significantly slower for the case of a strong vortex ring and a weaker shock wave. These observations are consistent with the earlier numerical predictions.

  20. Calculation of grain boundary normals directly from 3D microstructure images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lieberman, E. J.; Rollett, A. D.; Lebensohn, R. A.; Kober, E. M.

    2015-03-11

    The determination of grain boundary normals is an integral part of the characterization of grain boundaries in polycrystalline materials. These normal vectors are difficult to quantify due to the discretized nature of available microstructure characterization techniques. The most common method to determine grain boundary normals is by generating a surface mesh from an image of the microstructure, but this process can be slow, and is subject to smoothing issues. A new technique is proposed, utilizing first order Cartesian moments of binary indicator functions, to determine grain boundary normals directly from a voxelized microstructure image. In order to validate the accuracy of this technique, the surface normals obtained by the proposed method are compared to those generated by a surface meshing algorithm. Specifically, the local divergence between the surface normals obtained by different variants of the proposed technique and those generated from a surface mesh of a synthetic microstructure constructed using a marching cubes algorithm followed by Laplacian smoothing is quantified. Next, surface normals obtained with the proposed method from a measured 3D microstructure image of a Ni polycrystal are used to generate grain boundary character distributions (GBCD) for Σ3 and Σ9 boundaries, and compared to the GBCD generated using a surface mesh obtained from the same image. Finally, the results show that the proposed technique is an efficient and accurate method to determine voxelized fields of grain boundary normals.

  1. Calculation of grain boundary normals directly from 3D microstructure images

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lieberman, E. J.; Rollett, A. D.; Lebensohn, R. A.; Kober, E. M.

    2015-03-11

    The determination of grain boundary normals is an integral part of the characterization of grain boundaries in polycrystalline materials. These normal vectors are difficult to quantify due to the discretized nature of available microstructure characterization techniques. The most common method to determine grain boundary normals is by generating a surface mesh from an image of the microstructure, but this process can be slow, and is subject to smoothing issues. A new technique is proposed, utilizing first order Cartesian moments of binary indicator functions, to determine grain boundary normals directly from a voxelized microstructure image. In order to validate the accuracymore » of this technique, the surface normals obtained by the proposed method are compared to those generated by a surface meshing algorithm. Specifically, the local divergence between the surface normals obtained by different variants of the proposed technique and those generated from a surface mesh of a synthetic microstructure constructed using a marching cubes algorithm followed by Laplacian smoothing is quantified. Next, surface normals obtained with the proposed method from a measured 3D microstructure image of a Ni polycrystal are used to generate grain boundary character distributions (GBCD) for Σ3 and Σ9 boundaries, and compared to the GBCD generated using a surface mesh obtained from the same image. Finally, the results show that the proposed technique is an efficient and accurate method to determine voxelized fields of grain boundary normals.« less

  2. Keys to Access: Argonne-INCREASE partnership opens doors to collaboration |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Key Terms Key Terms Three Door Keys data-key-571156_960_720.png Key Terms Low Vision: non-correctable reduced vision Blindness: lack of visual perception Hearing Impairment: full or partial decrease in the ability to detect or understand sounds Physical Impairment: a physical condition that permanently prevents normal body movement or control Cognitive Disabilities: difficulty with one or more types of mental tasks Argonne National Laboratory

    The INCREASE workshop gave visitors one-on-one

  3. Increasing water holding capacity for irrigation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Increasing water holding capacity for irrigation Researchers recommend solutions for sediment trapping in irrigation system LANL and SNL leveraged technical expertise to determine the sources of sediment and recommend solutions for irrigation sediment buildup management. April 3, 2012 Santa Cruz Irrigation District (SCID) Kenny Salazar, owner of Kenny Salazar Orchards, stands beside the Santa Cruz Reservoir Dam, which holds back the waters of the Santa Cruz Irrigation District. Salazar, a board

  4. Increasing Solar Efficiency through Luminescent Solar Concentrators -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Increasing Biofuel Deployment and Utilization through Development of Renewable Super Premium: Infrastructure Assessment K. Moriarty National Renewable Energy Laboratory M. Kass and T. Theiss Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5400-61684 November 2014 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National

  5. Increasing Biofuel Deployment through Renewable Super Premium

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstration & Market Transformation Platform Tim Theiss, ORNL Bob McCormick, NREL Jeongwoo Han, ANL Increasing Biofuel Deployment through Renewable Super Premium 2015 Bioenergy Technologies Office Peer Review March 23, 2015 2 | Bioenergy Technologies Office Project Goals are Aligned with DMT & BETO Goals 2025 CAFE Standards (U.S. EPA and U.S. NHTSA standards) FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS 70% NO x & PM, 85% NMOG < 10 ppm sulfur in gasoline (U.S. EPA Tier 3 regulations) EMISSIONS

  6. Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    , 2014 Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.48 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3 ½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast states at 3.71 a gallon, up 5.6 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region at 3.23 a gallon, up 1.8 cents. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  7. Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    March 10, 2014 Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.51 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast states at 3.76 a gallon, up 4.7 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region at 3.25 a gallon, up 2 ½ cents.

  8. Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7, 2014 Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.55 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast states at 3.81 a gallon, up 5½ cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region at 3.28 a gallon, up 3.1 cents. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  9. Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    14, 2014 Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's up 5½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast states at 3.98 a gallon, up 9.7 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain states at 3.44 a gallon, down 8-tenths of a penny

  10. Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    21, 2014 Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.68 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast states at 4.03 a gallon, up a nickel from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain states at 3.45 a gallon, up 8-tenths of a penny

  11. Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    24, 2014 Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.44 a gallon on Monday. That's up 6.4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast states at 3.65 a gallon, up 8 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region at 3.21 a gallon, up

  12. Increasing jet entrainment, mixing and spreading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrington, Robert B.

    1994-01-01

    A free jet of air is disturbed at a frequency that substantially matches natural turbulences in the free jet to increase the entrainment, mixing, and spreading of air by the free jet, for example in a room or other enclosure. The disturbances are created by pulsing the flow of air that creates the free jet at the desired frequency. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk on an axis transverse to the flow of air in the duct.

  13. Final Technical Report: Increasing Prediction Accuracy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Bruce Hardison; Hansen, Clifford; Stein, Joshua

    2015-12-01

    PV performance models are used to quantify the value of PV plants in a given location. They combine the performance characteristics of the system, the measured or predicted irradiance and weather at a site, and the system configuration and design into a prediction of the amount of energy that will be produced by a PV system. These predictions must be as accurate as possible in order for finance charges to be minimized. Higher accuracy equals lower project risk. The Increasing Prediction Accuracy project at Sandia focuses on quantifying and reducing uncertainties in PV system performance models.

  14. Increasing jet entrainment, mixing and spreading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrington, R.B.

    1994-08-16

    A free jet of air is disturbed at a frequency that substantially matches natural turbulences in the free jet to increase the entrainment, mixing, and spreading of air by the free jet, for example in a room or other enclosure. The disturbances are created by pulsing the flow of air that creates the free jet at the desired frequency. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk on an axis transverse to the flow of air in the duct. 11 figs.

  15. Density- and wavefunction-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ? 20

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael, J. Robert; Volkov, Anatoliy

    2015-03-01

    The widely used pseudoatom formalism in experimental X-ray charge-density studies makes use of real spherical harmonics when describing the angular component of aspherical deformations of the atomic electron density in molecules and crystals. The analytical form of the density-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonic functions for up to l ? 7 and the corresponding normalization coefficients were reported previously by Paturle & Coppens. It was shown that the analytical form for normalization coefficients is available primarily forl ? 4. Only in very special cases it is possible to derive an analytical representation of the normalization coefficients for 4 < l ? 7. In most cases for l > 4 the density normalization coefficients were calculated numerically to within seven significant figures. In this study we review the literature on the density-normalized spherical harmonics, clarify the existing notations, use the PaturleCoppens method in the Wolfram Mathematicasoftware to derive the Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ? 20 and determine the density normalization coefficients to 35 significant figures, and computer-generate a Fortran90 code. The article primarily targets researchers who work in the field of experimental X-ray electron density, but may be of some use to all who are interested in Cartesian spherical harmonics.

  16. Density- and wavefunction-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ≤ 20

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael, J. Robert; Volkov, Anatoliy

    2015-03-01

    The widely used pseudoatom formalism in experimental X-ray charge-density studies makes use of real spherical harmonics when describing the angular component of aspherical deformations of the atomic electron density in molecules and crystals. The analytical form of the density-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonic functions for up to l ≤ 7 and the corresponding normalization coefficients were reported previously by Paturle & Coppens. It was shown that the analytical form for normalization coefficients is available primarily forl ≤ 4. Only in very special cases it is possible to derive an analytical representation of the normalization coefficients for 4 < l ≤ 7. In most cases for l > 4 the density normalization coefficients were calculated numerically to within seven significant figures. In this study we review the literature on the density-normalized spherical harmonics, clarify the existing notations, use the Paturle–Coppens method in the Wolfram Mathematicasoftware to derive the Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ≤ 20 and determine the density normalization coefficients to 35 significant figures, and computer-generate a Fortran90 code. The article primarily targets researchers who work in the field of experimental X-ray electron density, but may be of some use to all who are interested in Cartesian spherical harmonics.

  17. Density- and wavefunction-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ≤ 20

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Michael, J. Robert; Volkov, Anatoliy

    2015-03-01

    The widely used pseudoatom formalism in experimental X-ray charge-density studies makes use of real spherical harmonics when describing the angular component of aspherical deformations of the atomic electron density in molecules and crystals. The analytical form of the density-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonic functions for up to l ≤ 7 and the corresponding normalization coefficients were reported previously by Paturle & Coppens. It was shown that the analytical form for normalization coefficients is available primarily forl ≤ 4. Only in very special cases it is possible to derive an analytical representation of the normalization coefficients for 4 < l ≤ 7.more » In most cases for l > 4 the density normalization coefficients were calculated numerically to within seven significant figures. In this study we review the literature on the density-normalized spherical harmonics, clarify the existing notations, use the Paturle–Coppens method in the Wolfram Mathematicasoftware to derive the Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ≤ 20 and determine the density normalization coefficients to 35 significant figures, and computer-generate a Fortran90 code. The article primarily targets researchers who work in the field of experimental X-ray electron density, but may be of some use to all who are interested in Cartesian spherical harmonics.« less

  18. Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. , Portland, OR )

    1992-03-01

    This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

  19. SU-E-T-168: Evaluation of Normal Tissue Damage in Head and Neck Cancer Treatments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ai, H; Zhang, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate normal tissue toxicity in patients with head and neck cancer by calculating average survival fraction (SF) and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for normal tissue cells. Methods: 20 patients with head and neck cancer were included in this study. IMRT plans were generated using EclipseTM treatment planning system by dosimetrist following clinical radiotherapy treatment guidelines. The average SF for three different normal tissue cells of each concerned structure can be calculated from dose spectrum acquired from differential dose volume histogram (DVH) using linear quadratic model. The three types of normal tissues include radiosensitive, moderately radiosensitive and radio-resistant that represents 70%, 50% and 30% survival fractions, respectively, for a 2-Gy open field. Finally, EUDs for three types of normal tissue of each structure were calculated from average SF. Results: The EUDs of the brainstem, spinal cord, parotid glands, brachial plexus and etc were calculated. Our analysis indicated that the brainstem can absorb as much as 14.3% of prescription dose to the tumor if the cell line is radiosensitive. In addition, as much as 16.1% and 18.3% of prescription dose were absorbed by the brainstem for moderately radiosensitive and radio-resistant cells, respectively. For the spinal cord, the EUDs reached up to 27.6%, 35.0% and 42.9% of prescribed dose for the three types of radiosensitivities respectively. Three types of normal cells for parotid glands can get up to 65.6%, 71.2% and 78.4% of prescription dose, respectively. The maximum EUDs of brachial plexsus were calculated as 75.4%, 76.4% and 76.7% of prescription for three types of normal cell lines. Conclusion: The results indicated that EUD can be used to quantify and evaluate the radiation damage to surrounding normal tissues. Large variation of normal tissue EUDs may come from variation of target volumes and radiation beam orientations among the patients.

  20. Fuel cell system logic for differentiating between rapid and normal shutdown commands

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keskula, Donald H.; Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2000-01-01

    A method of controlling the operation of a fuel cell system wherein each shutdown command for the system is subjected to decision logic which determines whether the command should be a normal shutdown command or rapid shutdown command. If the logic determines that the shutdown command should be a normal shutdown command, then the system is shutdown in a normal step-by-step process in which the hydrogen stream is consumed within the system. If the logic determines that the shutdown command should be a rapid shutdown command, the hydrogen stream is removed from the system either by dumping to atmosphere or routing to storage.

  1. Hydromechanical modeling of pulse tests that measure both fluidpressure and fracture-normal displacement of the Coaraze Laboratory site,France

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cappa, F.; Guglielmi, Y.; Rutqvist, J.; Tsang, C-F.; Thoraval, A.

    2006-04-22

    In situ fracture mechanical deformation and fluid flowinteractions are investigated through a series of hydraulic pulseinjection tests, using specialized borehole equipment that cansimultaneously measure fluid pressure and fracture displacements. Thetests were conducted in two horizontal boreholes spaced one meter apartvertically and intersecting a near-vertical highly permeable faultlocated within a shallow fractured carbonate rock. The field data wereevaluated by conducting a series of coupled hydromechanical numericalanalyses, using both distinct-element and finite-element modelingtechniques and both two- and three-dimensional model representations thatcan incorporate various complexities in fracture network geometry. Oneunique feature of these pulse injection experiments is that the entiretest cycle, both the initial pressure increase and subsequent pressurefall-off, is carefully monitored and used for the evaluation of the insitu hydromechanical behavior. Field test data are evaluated by plottingfracture normal displacement as a function of fluid pressure, measured atthe same borehole. The resulting normal displacement-versus-pressurecurves show a characteristic loop, in which the paths for loading(pressure increase) and unloading (pressure decrease) are different. Bymatching this characteristic loop behavior, the fracture normal stiffnessand an equivalent stiffness (Young's modulus) of the surrounding rockmass can be back-calculated. Evaluation of the field tests by couplednumerical hydromechanical modeling shows that initial fracture hydraulicaperture and normal stiffness vary by a factor of 2 to 3 for the twomonitoring points within the same fracture plane. Moreover, the analysesshow that hydraulic aperture and the normal stiffness of the pulse-testedfracture, the stiffness of surrounding rock matrix, and the propertiesand geometry of the surrounding fracture network significantly affectcoupled hydromechanical responses during the pulse injection test

  2. Consumers face $5. 9 million rate increase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    Testimony at hearings before the Garrison Diversion Compromise Commission claimed that rural consumers in the Upper Midwest could face $5.9 million in electric rate increases if the commission deauthorizes the project and hydroelectric rates go up to pay the costs of the 1944 Pick-Sloan project originally assigned to irrigation. If there is no irrigation development, the revenue that irrigation must raise to repay the $67 million debt assigned to irrigation must be reassigned to hydroelectric power. The commission represents a compromise between supporters and opponents of the Garrison Diversion project. Spokesmen for regional utilities spoke in support of the project as an investment whose costs have escalated because of delays at the expense of economic development in North Dakota.

  3. The status of normal conducting RF (NCRF) guns; a summary of the ERL2005 Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.H. Dowell; J.W. Lewellen; D. Nguyen; R.A. Rimmer

    2005-03-19

    The 32nd Advanced ICFA Beam Dynamics Workshop on Energy Recovering Linacs (ERL2005) was held at Jefferson Laboratory, March 20 to 23, 2005. A wide range of ERL-related topics were presented and discussed in several working groups with Working Group 1 concentrated upon the physics and technology issues for DC, superconducting RF (SRF) and normal conducting RF (NCRF) guns. This paper summarizes the NCRF gun talks and reviews the status of NCRF gun technology. It begins with the presentations made on the subject of low-frequency, high-duty factor guns most appropriate for ERLs. One such gun at 433MHz was demonstrated at 25%DF in 1992, while the CW and much improved version is currently being constructed at 700MHz for LANL. In addition, the idea of combining the NCRF gun with a SRF linac booster was presented and is described in this paper. There was also a talk on high-field guns typically used for SASE free electron lasers. In particular, the DESY coaxial RF feed design provides rotationally symmetric RF fields and greater flexibility in the placement of the focusing magnetic field. While in the LCLS approach, the symmetric fields are obtained with a dual RF feed and racetrack cell shape. Although these guns cannot be operated at high-duty factor, they do produce the best quality beams. With these limitations in mind, a section with material not presented at the workshop has been included in the paper. This work describes a re-entrant approach which may allow NCRF guns to operate with simultaneously increased RF fields and duty factors. And finally, a novel proposal describing a high-duty factor, two-frequency RF gun using a field emission source instead of a laser driven photocathode was also presented.

  4. The Status of Normal Conducting RF (NCRF) Guns, a Summary of the ERL2005 Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowell, D.H.; Lewellen, J.W.; Nguyen, D.; Rimmer, R.; /Jefferson Lab

    2006-03-13

    The 32nd Advanced ICFA Beam Dynamics Workshop on Energy Recovering Linacs (ERL2005) was held at Jefferson Laboratory, March 20 to 23, 2005. A wide range of ERL-related topics were presented and discussed in several working groups with Working Group 1 concentrated upon the physics and technology issues for DC, superconducting RF (SRF) and normal conducting RF (NCRF) guns. This paper summarizes the NCRF gun talks and reviews the status of NCRF gun technology. It begins with the presentations made on the subject of low-frequency, high-duty factor guns most appropriate for ERLs. One such gun at 433MHz was demonstrated at 25%DF in 1992, while the CW and much improved version is currently being constructed at 700MHz for LANL. In addition, the idea of combining the NCRF gun with a SRF linac booster was presented and is described in this paper. There was also a talk on high-field guns typically used for SASE free electron lasers. In particular, the DESY coaxial RF feed design provides rotationally symmetric RF fields and greater flexibility in the placement of the focusing magnetic field. While in the LCLS approach, the symmetric fields are obtained with a dual RF feed and racetrack cell shape. Although these guns cannot be operated at high-duty factor, they do produce the best quality beams. With these limitations in mind, a section with material not presented at the workshop has been included in the paper. This work describes a re-entrant approach which may allow NCRF guns to operate with simultaneously increased RF fields and duty factors. And finally, a novel proposal describing a high-duty factor, two-frequency RF gun using a field emission source instead of a laser driven photocathode was also presented.

  5. Survival of tumor and normal cells upon targeting with electron-emitting radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajon, Didier; Bolch, Wesley E.; Howell, Roger W.

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: Previous studies have shown that the mean absorbed dose to a tissue element may not be a suitable quantity for correlating with the biological response of cells in that tissue element. Cell survival can depend strongly on the distribution of radioactivity at the cellular and multicellular levels. Furthermore, when cellular absorbed doses are examined, the cross-dose from neighbor cells can be less radiotoxic than the self-dose component. To better understand how the nonuniformity of activity among cells can affect the dose response, a computer model of a 3D tissue culture was previously constructed and showed that activity distribution among cells is significantly more relevant than the mean absorbed dose for low-energy-electron emitters. The present work greatly expands upon those findings. Methods: In the present study, we used this same computer model but restricted the number of labeled cells to a fraction of the whole cell population (50%, 10%, and 1%, respectively). The labeled cells were randomly distributed among the whole cell population. Results: While the activity distribution is an important factor in determining the tissue response for low-energy-electron emitters, the fraction of labeled cells has an even more pronounced effect on survival response. For all electron energies studied, reducing the percentage of cells labeled significantly increases the surviving fraction of the whole population. Conclusions: This study provides abundant information on killing tumor and normal cells under some conditions relevant to targeted radionuclide therapy of isolated tumor cells and micrometastases. The percentage of cells labeled, activity distribution among the labeled cells, and electron energy play key roles in determining their response. Most importantly, and not previously demonstrated, lognormal activity distributions can have a profound impact on the response of the tumor cells even when the radionuclide emits high-energy electrons.

  6. Operating Experience Level 3, Dangers of Objects Falling into Normally Occupied Areas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Operating Experience Level 3 (OE-3) document provides information about a safety concern related to the dangers of items falling from heights into spaces normally occupied by workers at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities.

  7. Blood Vessel Normalization in the Hamster Oral Cancer Model for Experimental Cancer Therapy Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ana J. Molinari; Romina F. Aromando; Maria E. Itoiz; Marcela A. Garabalino; Andrea Monti Hughes; Elisa M. Heber; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; David W. Nigg; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint

    2012-07-01

    Normalization of tumor blood vessels improves drug and oxygen delivery to cancer cells. The aim of this study was to develop a technique to normalize blood vessels in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Tumor-bearing hamsters were treated with thalidomide and were compared with controls. Results: Twenty eight hours after treatment with thalidomide, the blood vessels of premalignant tissue observable in vivo became narrower and less tortuous than those of controls; Evans Blue Dye extravasation in tumor was significantly reduced (indicating a reduction in aberrant tumor vascular hyperpermeability that compromises blood flow), and tumor blood vessel morphology in histological sections, labeled for Factor VIII, revealed a significant reduction in compressive forces. These findings indicated blood vessel normalization with a window of 48 h. Conclusion: The technique developed herein has rendered the hamster oral cancer model amenable to research, with the potential benefit of vascular normalization in head and neck cancer therapy.

  8. Method for distinguishing normal and transformed cells using G1 kinase inhibitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crissman, Harry A.; Gadbois, Donna M.; Tobey, Robert A.; Bradbury, E. Morton

    1993-01-01

    A G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitor is applied in a low concentration to a population of normal and transformed mammalian cells. The concentration of G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitor is selected to reversibly arrest normal mammalian cells in the G.sub.1 cell cycle without arresting growth of transformed cells. The transformed cells may then be selectively identified and/or cloned for research or diagnostic purposes. The transformed cells may also be selectively killed by therapeutic agents that do not affect normal cells in the G.sub.1 phase, suggesting that such G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitors may form an effective adjuvant for use with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy for optimizing the killing dose of chemotherapeutic agents while minimizing undesirable side effects on normal cells.

  9. Method for distinguishing normal and transformed cells using G1 kinase inhibitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crissman, H.A.; Gadbois, D.M.; Tobey, R.A.; Bradbury, E.M.

    1993-02-09

    A G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitor is applied in a low concentration to a population of normal and transformed mammalian cells. The concentration of G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitor is selected to reversibly arrest normal mammalian cells in the G[sub 1] cell cycle without arresting growth of transformed cells. The transformed cells may then be selectively identified and/or cloned for research or diagnostic purposes. The transformed cells may also be selectively killed by therapeutic agents that do not affect normal cells in the G[sub 1] phase, suggesting that such G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitors may form an effective adjuvant for use with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy for optimizing the killing dose of chemotherapeutic agents while minimizing undesirable side effects on normal cells.

  10. Individualized Radical Radiotherapy of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Based on Normal Tissue Dose Constraints: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baardwijk, Angela van Bosmans, Geert; Boersma, Liesbeth; Wanders, Stofferinus; Dekker, Andre; Dingemans, Anne Marie C.; Bootsma, Gerben; Geraedts, Wiel; Pitz, Cordula; Simons, Jean; Lambin, Philippe; Ruysscher, Dirk de

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: Local recurrence is a major problem after (chemo-)radiation for non-small-cell lung cancer. We hypothesized that for each individual patient, the highest therapeutic ratio could be achieved by increasing total tumor dose (TTD) to the limits of normal tissues, delivered within 5 weeks. We report first results of a prospective feasibility trial. Methods and Materials: Twenty-eight patients with medically inoperable or locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, World Health Organization performance score of 0-1, and reasonable lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second > 50%) were analyzed. All patients underwent irradiation using an individualized prescribed TTD based on normal tissue dose constraints (mean lung dose, 19 Gy; maximal spinal cord dose, 54 Gy) up to a maximal TTD of 79.2 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions twice daily. No concurrent chemoradiation was administered. Toxicity was scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events criteria. An {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan was performed to evaluate (metabolic) response 3 months after treatment. Results: Mean delivered dose was 63.0 {+-} 9.8 Gy. The TTD was most often limited by the mean lung dose (32.1%) or spinal cord (28.6%). Acute toxicity generally was mild; only 1 patient experienced Grade 3 cough and 1 patient experienced Grade 3 dysphagia. One patient (3.6%) died of pneumonitis. For late toxicity, 2 patients (7.7%) had Grade 3 cough or dyspnea; none had severe dysphagia. Complete metabolic response was obtained in 44% (11 of 26 patients). With a median follow-up of 13 months, median overall survival was 19.6 months, with a 1-year survival rate of 57.1%. Conclusions: Individualized maximal tolerable dose irradiation based on normal tissue dose constraints is feasible, and initial results are promising.

  11. Influence of Transcontinental arch on Cretaceous listric-normal faulting, west flank, Denver basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, T.L.

    1983-08-01

    Seismic studies along the west flank of the Denver basin near Boulder and Greeley, Colorado illustrate the interrelationship between shallow listric-normal faulting in the Cretaceous and deeper basement-controlled faulting. Deeper fault systems, primarily associated with the Transcontinental arch, control the styles and causative mechanisms of listric-normal faulting that developed in the Cretaceous. Three major stratigraphic levels of listric-normal faulting occur in the Boulder-Greeley area. These tectonic sensitive intervals are present in the following Cretaceous formations: Laramie-Fox Hills-upper Pierre, middle Pierre Hygiene zone, and the Niobrara-Carlile-Greenhorn. Documentation of the listric-normal fault style reveals a Wattenberg high, a horst block or positive feature of the greater Transcontinental arch, was active in the east Boulder-Greeley area during Cretaceous time. Paleotectonic events associated with the Wattenberg high are traced through analysis of the listric-normal fault systems that occur in the area. These styles are important to recognize because of their stratigraphic and structural influence on Cretaceous petroleum reservoir systems in the Denver basin. Similar styles of listric-normal faulting occur in the Cretaceous in many Rocky Mountain foreland basins.

  12. Vertical barriers with increased sorption capacities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradl, H.B.

    1997-12-31

    Vertical barriers are commonly used for the containment of contaminated areas. Due to the very small permeability of the barrier material which is usually in the order of magnitude of 10-10 m/s or less the advective contaminant transport can be more or less neglected. Nevertheless, there will always be a diffusive contaminant transport through the barrier which is caused by the concentration gradient. Investigations have been made to increase the sorption capacity of the barrier material by adding substances such as organoclays, zeolites, inorganic oxides and fly ashes. The contaminants taken into account where heavy metals (Pb) and for organic contaminants Toluole and Phenantrene. The paper presents results of model calculations and experiments. As a result, barrier materials can be designed {open_quotes}tailor-made{close_quotes} depending on the individual contaminant range of each site (e.g. landfills, gasworks etc.). The parameters relevant for construction such as rheological properties, compressive strength and permeability are not affected by the addition of the sorbents.

  13. Increased radiation dose at mammography due to prolonged exposure, delayed processing, and increased film darkening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimme-Smith, C.; Bassett, L.W.; Gold, R.H.; Chow, S. )

    1991-02-01

    Four single-emulsion films introduced over the past 2 years--Du Pont Microvision, Fuji MiMa, Konica CM, and Eastman Kodak OM--were compared with Eastman Kodak OM SO-177 (Min-RE) film to evaluate their varying effects on mean glandular dose of reciprocity law failure due to prolonged exposure, delayed processing, and increased film darkening as a result of increased radiation exposure to improve penetration of glandular tissue. Exposures over 1.3 seconds led to increased radiation doses of 20%-30%. Delays in processing of 6 hours decreased processing speed by 11%-32% for all films except Du Pont Microvision. Optical density increases of 0.40 required 20%-30% more skin exposure for all five films. Optimal viewing densities were also evaluated and found to be different for each of the five films. Mammographers need to be aware of these differences in mammographic films to achieve maximum contrast at mammography.

  14. SU-E-J-212: MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Assessment of Tumor and Normal Brain Tissue Responses of Juvenile Pilocytic Astrocytoma Treated by Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, P; Park, P; Li, H; Zhu, X; Mahajan, A; Grosshans, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can measure molecular mobility at the cellular level, quantified by the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). DTI may also reveal axonal fiber directional information in the white matter, quantified by the fractional anisotropy (FA). Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) is a rare brain tumor that occurs in children and young adults. Proton therapy (PT) is increasingly used in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors including JPA. However, the response of both tumors and normal tissues to PT is currently under investigation. We report tumor and normal brain tissue responses for a pediatric case of JPA treated with PT assessed using DTI. Methods: A ten year old male with JPA of the left thalamus received passive scattered PT to a dose of 50.4 Gy (RBE) in 28 fractions. Post PT, the patient has been followed up in seven years. At each follow up, MRI imaging including DTI was performed to assess response. MR images were registered to the treatment planning CT and the GTV mapped onto each MRI. The GTV contour was then mirrored to the right side of brain through the patient’s middle line to represent normal brain tissue. ADC and FA were measured within the ROIs. Results: Proton therapy can completely spare contra lateral brain while the target volume received full prescribed dose. From a series of MRI ADC images before and after PT at different follow ups, the enhancement corresponding to GTV had nearly disappeared more than 2 years after PT. Both ADC and FA demonstrate that contralateral normal brain tissue were not affect by PT and the tumor volume reverted to normal ADC and FA values. Conclusion: DTI allowed quantitative evaluation of tumor and normal brain tissue responses to PT. Further study in a larger cohort is warranted.

  15. Increased use of Renewable Energy in Africa through a Program of Energy Enterprise Development and Investment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christine Eibs Singer

    2005-03-11

    To provide training in enterprise development and technical applications, local partner capacity building, individualized enterprise development services and seed capital investment to catalyze the creation of sustainable renewable energy enterprises that deliver clean energy services to households and businesses in South Africa, Ethiopia and Tanzania.

  16. A method for estimating direct normal solar irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janjai, Serm

    2010-09-15

    In order to investigate a potential use of concentrating solar power technologies and select an optimum site for these technologies, it is necessary to obtain information on the geographical distribution of direct normal solar irradiation over an area of interest. In this work, we have developed a method for estimating direct normal irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment. The method starts with the estimation of global irradiation on a horizontal surface from MTSAT-1R satellite data and other ground-based ancillary data. Then a satellite-based diffuse fraction model was developed and used to estimate the diffuse component of the satellite-derived global irradiation. Based on this estimated global and diffuse irradiation and the solar radiation incident angle, the direct normal irradiation was finally calculated. To evaluate its performance, the method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation at seven pyrheliometer stations in Thailand. It was found that values of monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation from the measurements and those estimated from the proposed method are in reasonable agreement, with a root mean square difference of 16% and a mean bias of -1.6%, with respect to mean measured values. After the validation, this method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation over Thailand by using MTSAT-1R satellite data for the period from June 2005 to December 2008. Results from the calculation were displayed as hourly and yearly irradiation maps. These maps reveal that the direct normal irradiation in Thailand was strongly affected by the tropical monsoons and local topography of the country. (author)

  17. Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation: Simulation and Comparison of Normalized Exposures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petithuguenin, T.D.P.; Sherman, M.H.

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of ventilation is to dilute indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. Even when providing the same nominal rate of outdoor air, different ventilation systems may distribute air in different ways, affecting occupants' exposure to household contaminants. Exposure ultimately depends on the home being considered, on source disposition and strength, on occupants' behavior, on the ventilation strategy, and on operation of forced air heating and cooling systems. In any multi-zone environment dilution rates and source strengths may be different in every zone and change in time, resulting in exposure being tied to occupancy patterns.This paper will report on simulations that compare ventilation systems by assessing their impact on exposure by examining common house geometries, contaminant generation profiles, and occupancy scenarios. These simulations take into account the unsteady, occupancy-tied aspect of ventilation such as bathroom and kitchen exhaust fans. As most US homes have central HVAC systems, the simulation results will be used to make appropriate recommendations and adjustments for distribution and mixing to residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.This paper will report on work being done to model multizone airflow systems that are unsteady and elaborate the concept of distribution matrix. It will examine several metrics for evaluating the effect of air distribution on exposure to pollutants, based on previous work by Sherman et al. (2006).

  18. Distinct p53 genomic binding patterns in normal and cancer-derived human cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botcheva K.; McCorkle S. R.; McCombie W. R.; Dunn J. J.; Anderson C. W.

    2011-12-15

    We report here genome-wide analysis of the tumor suppressor p53 binding sites in normal human cells. 743 high-confidence ChIP-seq peaks representing putative genomic binding sites were identified in normal IMR90 fibroblasts using a reference chromatin sample. More than 40% were located within 2 kb of a transcription start site (TSS), a distribution similar to that documented for individually studied, functional p53 binding sites and, to date, not observed by previous p53 genome-wide studies. Nearly half of the high-confidence binding sites in the IMR90 cells reside in CpG islands, in marked contrast to sites reported in cancer-derived cells. The distinct genomic features of the IMR90 binding sites do not reflect a distinct preference for specific sequences, since the de novo developed p53 motif based on our study is similar to those reported by genome-wide studies of cancer cells. More likely, the different chromatin landscape in normal, compared with cancer-derived cells, influences p53 binding via modulating availability of the sites. We compared the IMR90 ChIPseq peaks to the recently published IMR90 methylome1 and demonstrated that they are enriched at hypomethylated DNA. Our study represents the first genome-wide, de novo mapping of p53 binding sites in normal human cells and reveals that p53 binding sites reside in distinct genomic landscapes in normal and cancer-derived human cells.

  19. Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Households with Children Households...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 7.6 2.1 3.3 2.2 11.5 Q Q Q 1.4 6.9 2.8 18.8 Below Poverty Line 100 Percent ... 6.6 1.6 3.6 1.3 5.8 0.3 0.7...

  20. Spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random-access memory technologies for normally off computing (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ando, K. Yuasa, S.; Fujita, S.; Ito, J.; Yoda, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Nakatani, Y.; Miyazaki, T.

    2014-05-07

    Most parts of present computer systems are made of volatile devices, and the power to supply them to avoid information loss causes huge energy losses. We can eliminate this meaningless energy loss by utilizing the non-volatile function of advanced spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random-access memory (STT-MRAM) technology and create a new type of computer, i.e., normally off computers. Critical tasks to achieve normally off computers are implementations of STT-MRAM technologies in the main memory and low-level cache memories. STT-MRAM technology for applications to the main memory has been successfully developed by using perpendicular STT-MRAMs, and faster STT-MRAM technologies for applications to the cache memory are now being developed. The present status of STT-MRAMs and challenges that remain for normally off computers are discussed.

  1. Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency Home > Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency > Posts by term > Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency Content Group Activity By term Q & A...

  2. World-Class Test Facility Increases Efficiency of Solar Products...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    World-Class Test Facility Increases Efficiency of Solar Products World-Class Test Facility Increases Efficiency of Solar Products World-Class Test Facility Increases Efficiency of ...

  3. New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry ...

  4. New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases New York Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry ...

  5. Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases Virginia Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry ...

  6. West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves ...

  7. North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves ...

  8. Quantifying Unnecessary Normal Tissue Complication Risks due to Suboptimal Planning: A Secondary Study of RTOG 0126

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Kevin L.; Schmidt, Rachel; Moiseenko, Vitali; Olsen, Lindsey A.; Tan, Jun; Xiao, Ying; Galvin, James; Pugh, Stephanie; Seider, Michael J.; Dicker, Adam P.; Bosch, Walter; Michalski, Jeff; Mutic, Sasa

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the frequency and clinical severity of quality deficiencies in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0126 protocol. Methods and Materials: A total of 219 IMRT patients from the high-dose arm (79.2 Gy) of RTOG 0126 were analyzed. To quantify plan quality, we used established knowledge-based methods for patient-specific dose-volume histogram (DVH) prediction of organs at risk and a Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model for grade ≥2 rectal complications to convert DVHs into normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). The LKB model was validated by fitting dose-response parameters relative to observed toxicities. The 90th percentile (22 of 219) of plans with the lowest excess risk (difference between clinical and model-predicted NTCP) were used to create a model for the presumed best practices in the protocol (pDVH{sub 0126,top10%}). Applying the resultant model to the entire sample enabled comparisons between DVHs that patients could have received to DVHs they actually received. Excess risk quantified the clinical impact of suboptimal planning. Accuracy of pDVH predictions was validated by replanning 30 of 219 patients (13.7%), including equal numbers of presumed “high-quality,” “low-quality,” and randomly sampled plans. NTCP-predicted toxicities were compared to adverse events on protocol. Results: Existing models showed that bladder-sparing variations were less prevalent than rectum quality variations and that increased rectal sparing was not correlated with target metrics (dose received by 98% and 2% of the PTV, respectively). Observed toxicities were consistent with current LKB parameters. Converting DVH and pDVH{sub 0126,top10%} to rectal NTCPs, we observed 94 of 219 patients (42.9%) with ≥5% excess risk, 20 of 219 patients (9.1%) with ≥10% excess risk, and 2 of 219 patients (0.9%) with ≥15% excess risk. Replanning demonstrated the

  9. Static jaw collimation settings to minimize radiation dose to normal brain tissue during stereotactic radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Eun Young; Zhang Xin; Yan Yulong; Sharma, Sunil; Penagaricano, Jose; Moros, Eduardo; Corry, Peter

    2012-01-01

    At University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is performed by using a linear accelerator with an add-on micromultileaf collimator (mMLC). In our clinical setting, static jaws are automatically adapted to the furthest edge of the mMLC-defined segments with 2-mm (X jaw) and 5-mm (Y jaw) margin and the same jaw values are applied for all beam angles in the treatment planning system. This additional field gap between the static jaws and the mMLC allows additional radiation dose to normal brain tissue. Because a radiosurgery procedure consists of a single high dose to the planning target volume (PTV), reduction of unnecessary dose to normal brain tissue near the PTV is important, particularly for pediatric patients whose brains are still developing or when a critical organ, such as the optic chiasm, is near the PTV. The purpose of this study was to minimize dose to normal brain tissue by allowing minimal static jaw margin around the mMLC-defined fields and different static jaw values for each beam angle or arc. Dose output factors were measured with various static jaw margins and the results were compared with calculated doses in the treatment planning system. Ten patient plans were randomly selected and recalculated with zero static jaw margins without changing other parameters. Changes of PTV coverage, mean dose to predefined normal brain tissue volume adjacent to PTV, and monitor units were compared. It was found that the dose output percentage difference varied from 4.9-1.3% for the maximum static jaw opening vs. static jaw with zero margins. The mean dose to normal brain tissue at risk adjacent to the PTV was reduced by an average of 1.9%, with negligible PTV coverage loss. This dose reduction strategy may be meaningful in terms of late effects of radiation, particularly in pediatric patients. This study generated clinical knowledge and tools to consistently minimize dose to normal brain tissue.

  10. Status of High Power Tests of Normal Conducting Single-Cell Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolgashev, V.A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Higashi, Y.; Higo, T.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2011-11-04

    We report the results of ongoing high power tests of single-cell standing wave structures. These tests are part of an experimental and theoretical study of rf breakdown in normal conducting structures at 11.4 GHz. The goal of this study is to determine the maximum gradient possibilities for normal-conducting rf powered particle beam accelerators. The test setup consists of reusable mode launchers and short test structures powered by SLACs XL-4 klystron. The mode launchers and structures were manufactured at SLAC and KEK and tested at the SLAC klystron test laboratory.

  11. Symbolic computation of solitons in the normal dispersion regime of inhomogeneous optical fibres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Wenjun; Tain Bo; Li Min; Jiang Yan; Qu Qixing; Wang Pan; Sun Kun

    2011-06-30

    A nonlinear Schroedinger equation with varying dispersion, nonlinearity and gain (or absorption) is studied for ultrashort optical pulses propagating in inhomogeneous optical fibres in the case of normal dispersion. Using the modified Hirota method and symbolic computation, the bilinear form and analytic soliton solution are derived. Stable bright and dark solitons are observed in the normal dispersion regime. A periodically varying soliton and compressed soliton without any fluctuation are obtained. Combined and kink-shaped solitons are observed. Possibly applicable soliton control techniques, which are used to design dispersion-managed systems, are proposed. The proposed techniques may find applications in soliton management communication links, soliton compression and soliton control. (solitons)

  12. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Four Most Populated States RSE Row Factors New York California Texas Florida 0.4 1.2 1.1 1.4 1.3 Total .............................................................. 107.0 7.1 12.3 7.7 6.3 NE Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ......................................................... 101.7 6.9 11.4 6.7 6.1 1.6 1 .............................................................. 95.2 6.2 10.7 6.3 6.0 2.1 2 or More

  13. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2001 Space Heating Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Four Most Populated States RSE Row Factors New York California Texas Florida 0.5 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.6 Total .............................................................. 107.0 7.1 12.3 7.7 6.3 NE Heat Home .................................................... 106.0 7.1 12.0 7.7 6.2 NE Do Not Heat Home ....................................... 1.0 Q 0.3 Q 0.1 20.7 No Heating Equipment ................................ 0.5 Q 0.1 Q Q 41.3

  14. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... For this report, the heating or cooling degree-days are a measure of how cold or how hot a location is over a period of one year, relative to a base temperature of 65 degrees ...

  15. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... For this report, the heating or cooling degree-days are a measure of how cold or how hot a location is over a period of one year, relative to a base temperature of 65 degrees ...

  16. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... For this report, the heating or cooling degree-days are a measure of how cold or how hot a location is over a period of one year, relative to a base temperature of 65 degrees ...

  17. char_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Income Relative to Poverty Line Below 100 Percent ...... 9.8 2.8 2.1 4.4 0.5 11.6 100 to 150 Percent ...... 5.1 1.4 1.1 2.3 Q 14.2 Above 150 ...

  18. char_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Income Relative to Poverty Line Below 100 Percent ...... 0.9 0.5 0.6 13.0 1 Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State ...

  19. char_household2001.pdf

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Income Relative to Poverty Line Below 100 Percent ...... 0.6 0.5 Q 17.4 1 Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State ...

  20. char_household2001.pdf

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Income Relative to Poverty Line Below 100 Percent ...... 5.2 3.9 Q Q 1.1 21.9 100 to 150 Percent ...... 6.4 5.2 0.2 Q 0.9 16.5 Above 150 Percent ...

  1. char_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Income Relative to Poverty Line Below 100 Percent ...... definition. 2 Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State ...

  2. char_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Income Relative to Poverty Line Below 100 Percent ...... 15.0 1.4 2.3 ... were conducted. 2 Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State ...

  3. char_household2001.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Income Relative to Poverty Line Below 100 Percent ...... 0.7 0.4 0.2 18.4 1 Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State ...

  4. char_household2001.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Income Relative to Poverty Line Below 100 Percent ...... 15.0 1.0 3.4 ... weather station. 2 Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State ...

  5. char_household2001.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Income Relative to Poverty Line Below 100 Percent ...... 1.2 0.7 0.5 11.3 1 Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State ...

  6. char_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Income Relative to Poverty Line Below 100 Percent ...... 1.5 0.5 1.0 14.6 1 Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State ...

  7. char_household2001.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Income Relative to Poverty Line Below 100 Percent ...... 15.0 6.7 2.3 ... 4.9 Q Q 0.2 14.8 1 Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State ...

  8. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    selected tabulations were produced using two different software programs, Table Producing Language (TPL) and Statistical Analysis System (SAS). Energy Information Administration...

  9. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Matching: A model-based procedure used to impute for item nonresponse. This method uses logistic models to compute predicted means that are used to statistically match each...

  10. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    were imputed as disposed vehicles. To impute vehicle stock changes in the 1991 RTECS, logistic regression equations were used to compute a predicted probability (or propensity)...

  11. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    production vehicles in order to assess compliance with Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards. The EPA Composite MPG is based on the assumption of a "typical" vehicle-use...

  12. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    more fuel-efficient vehicles, and the implementation of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) 6 standards. Figure 13. Average Fuel Efficiency of All Vehicles, by Model Year 6...

  13. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of vehicles in the residential sector. Data are from the 1991 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey. The "Glossary" contains the definitions of terms used in the...

  14. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    for 1994, will continue the 3-year cycle. The RTECS, a subsample of the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), is an integral part of a series of surveys designed by...

  15. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a comparison between the 1991 and previous years RTECS designs; (2) the sample design; (3) the data-collection procedures; (4) the Vehicle Identification Number (VIN); (5)...

  16. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    DC, October 1995), Table DL-1B. 5. "Chained dollars" is a measure used to express real prices. Real prices are those that have been adjusted to remove the effect of changes...

  17. ac_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Contact: Stephanie J. Battles, Survey Manager (stephanie.battles@eia.doe.gov) World Wide Web: http:www.eia.doe.govemeuconsumption Table HC4-1a. Air Conditioning by Climate ...

  18. usage_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Contact: Stephanie J. Battles, Survey Manager (stephanie.battles@eia.doe.gov) World Wide Web: http:www.eia.doe.govemeuconsumption Table HC6-1a. Usage Indicators by Climate ...

  19. Increasing Confidence In Geothermal Heat Pump Design Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick

    1998-03-01

    safety. These conservative designs increase the installed cost of GHP systems, limiting their use and applicability. Moreover, as ground heat exchanger sizing methods have improved, they have suggested (and field tests are beginning to verify) that standard bore backfill practices lead to unnecessarily large ground heat exchangers. Growing evidence suggests that in many applications use of sand backfill with a grout plug at the surface, or use of bottom-to-top thermally enhanced grout, may provide groundwater protection equal to current practice at far less cost. Site tests of thermal properties provides more accurate information, but since these tests are expensive they are usually only performed in large projects. Even so, because soil properties can vary over a distance as small as a few feet, the value of these tests is limited. One objective of ongoing research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is to increase designers confidence in available ground heat exchanger sizing methods that lead to reliable yet cost-effective designs. To this end we have developed research-grade models that address the interactions between buildings, geothermal heat pump systems and ground heat exchangers The first application of these models was at Fort Polk, Louisiana, where the space conditioning systems of over 4,000 homes were replaced with geothermal heat pumps (Shonder and Hughes, 1997; Hughes et. al., 1997). At Fort Polk, the models were calibrated to detailed data from one of the residences. Data on the energy use of the heat pump, combined with inlet and outlet water temperature and flow rate in the ground heat exchangers, allowed us to determine the thermal properties of the soil formation being experienced by the operating GHP system. Outputs from the models provide all the data required by the various commercially-available ground loop sizing programs. Accurate knowledge of both the building loads and the soil properties eliminated the uncertainty normally associated

  20. Data Collection and Normalization for the Development of Cost Estimating Relationships

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Cost estimating relationships or parametric equations are mathematical statements that indicate that the cost is proportional to a physical commodity. Parametric estimating requires that the statistical analysis be performed on data points to correlate the cost drivers and other system parameters. This chapter discusses considerations for data collection and normalization.

  1. Exploring a possible origin of a 14 deg y-normal spin tilt at RHIC polarimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meot, F.; Huang, H.

    2015-06-15

    A possible origin of a 14 deg y-normal spin n0 tilt at the polarimeter is in snake angle defects. This possible cause is investigated by scanning the snake axis angle µ, and the spin rotation angle at the snake, φ, in the vicinity of their nominal values.

  2. Evaluation of Geometrically Nonlinear Reduced Order Models with Nonlinear Normal Modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuether, Robert J.; Deaner, Brandon J.; Hollkamp, Joseph J.; Allen, Matthew S.

    2015-09-15

    Several reduced-order modeling strategies have been developed to create low-order models of geometrically nonlinear structures from detailed finite element models, allowing one to compute the dynamic response of the structure at a dramatically reduced cost. But, the parameters of these reduced-order models are estimated by applying a series of static loads to the finite element model, and the quality of the reduced-order model can be highly sensitive to the amplitudes of the static load cases used and to the type/number of modes used in the basis. Our paper proposes to combine reduced-order modeling and numerical continuation to estimate the nonlinear normal modes of geometrically nonlinear finite element models. Not only does this make it possible to compute the nonlinear normal modes far more quickly than existing approaches, but the nonlinear normal modes are also shown to be an excellent metric by which the quality of the reduced-order model can be assessed. Hence, the second contribution of this work is to demonstrate how nonlinear normal modes can be used as a metric by which nonlinear reduced-order models can be compared. Moreover, various reduced-order models with hardening nonlinearities are compared for two different structures to demonstrate these concepts: a clamped–clamped beam model, and a more complicated finite element model of an exhaust panel cover.

  3. Evaluation of Geometrically Nonlinear Reduced Order Models with Nonlinear Normal Modes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kuether, Robert J.; Deaner, Brandon J.; Hollkamp, Joseph J.; Allen, Matthew S.

    2015-09-15

    Several reduced-order modeling strategies have been developed to create low-order models of geometrically nonlinear structures from detailed finite element models, allowing one to compute the dynamic response of the structure at a dramatically reduced cost. But, the parameters of these reduced-order models are estimated by applying a series of static loads to the finite element model, and the quality of the reduced-order model can be highly sensitive to the amplitudes of the static load cases used and to the type/number of modes used in the basis. Our paper proposes to combine reduced-order modeling and numerical continuation to estimate the nonlinearmore » normal modes of geometrically nonlinear finite element models. Not only does this make it possible to compute the nonlinear normal modes far more quickly than existing approaches, but the nonlinear normal modes are also shown to be an excellent metric by which the quality of the reduced-order model can be assessed. Hence, the second contribution of this work is to demonstrate how nonlinear normal modes can be used as a metric by which nonlinear reduced-order models can be compared. Moreover, various reduced-order models with hardening nonlinearities are compared for two different structures to demonstrate these concepts: a clamped–clamped beam model, and a more complicated finite element model of an exhaust panel cover.« less

  4. Experimental Modeling of VHTR Plenum Flows during Normal Operation and Pressurized Conduction Cooldown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn E McCreery; Keith G Condie

    2006-09-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is the leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Project in the U.S. which has the goal of demonstrating the production of emissions free electricity and hydrogen by 2015. The present document addresses experimental modeling of flow and thermal mixing phenomena of importance during normal or reduced power operation and during a loss of forced reactor cooling (pressurized conduction cooldown) scenario. The objectives of the experiments are, 1), provide benchmark data for assessment and improvement of codes proposed for NGNP designs and safety studies, and, 2), obtain a better understanding of related phenomena, behavior and needs. Physical models of VHTR vessel upper and lower plenums which use various working fluids to scale phenomena of interest are described. The models may be used to both simulate natural convection conditions during pressurized conduction cooldown and turbulent lower plenum flow during normal or reduced power operation.

  5. HIGH AVERAGE CURRENT LOW EMITTANCE BEAM EMPLOYING CW NORMAL CONDUCTING GUN.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHANG,X.; BEN-ZVI, I.; KEWISCH, J.; PAI, C.

    2007-06-25

    CW normal conducting guns usually do not achieve very high field gradient and waste much RF power at high field gradient compared to superconducting cavities. But they have less trapped modes and wakefields compared to the superconducting cavities due to their low Q. The external bucking coil can also be applied very close to the cathode to improve the beam quality. By using a low frequency gun with a recessed cathode and a carefully designed beam line we can get a high average current and a high quality beam with acceptable RF power loss on the cavity wall. This paper shows that the CW normal conducting gun can be a backup solution for those projects which need high peak and average current, low emittance electron beams such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) e-cooling project and Energy Recovery Linac (Em) project.

  6. Isotope effect in normal-to-local transition of acetylene bending modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Jianyi; Xu, Dingguo; Guo, Hua; Tyng, Vivian; Kellman, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The normal-to-local transition for the bending modes of acetylene is considered a prelude to its isomerization to vinylidene. Here, such a transition in fully deuterated acetylene is investigated using a full-dimensional quantum model. It is found that the local benders emerge at much lower energies and bending quantum numbers than in the hydrogen isotopomer HCCH. This is accompanied by a transition to a second kind of bending mode called counter-rotator, again at lower energies and quantum numbers than in HCCH. These transitions are also investigated using bifurcation analysis of two empirical spectroscopic fitting Hamiltonians for pure bending modes, which helps to understand the origin of the transitions semiclassically as branchings or bifurcations out of the trans and normal bend modes when the latter become dynamically unstable. The results of the quantum model and the empirical bifurcation analysis are in very good agreement.

  7. Isotope effect in normal-to-local transition of acetylene bending modes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ma, Jianyi; Xu, Dingguo; Guo, Hua; Tyng, Vivian; Kellman, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The normal-to-local transition for the bending modes of acetylene is considered a prelude to its isomerization to vinylidene. Here, such a transition in fully deuterated acetylene is investigated using a full-dimensional quantum model. It is found that the local benders emerge at much lower energies and bending quantum numbers than in the hydrogen isotopomer HCCH. This is accompanied by a transition to a second kind of bending mode called counter-rotator, again at lower energies and quantum numbers than in HCCH. These transitions are also investigated using bifurcation analysis of two empirical spectroscopic fitting Hamiltonians for pure bending modes, which helpsmore » to understand the origin of the transitions semiclassically as branchings or bifurcations out of the trans and normal bend modes when the latter become dynamically unstable. The results of the quantum model and the empirical bifurcation analysis are in very good agreement.« less

  8. Regulation of bcl-2 proto-oncogene expression during normal human lymphocyte proliferation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, J.C.; Tsujimoto, Y.; Alpers, J.D.; Croce, C.M.; Nowell, P.C.

    1987-06-05

    The bcl-2 and c-myc proto-oncogenes are brought into juxtaposition with the immuno-globulin heavy chain locus in particular B-cell lymphomas, resulting in high levels of constitutive accumulation of their messenger RNAs. Precisely how the products of the bcl-2 and c-myc genes contribute to tumorigenesis is unknown, but observations that c-myc expression is rapidly induced in nonneoplastic lymphocytes upon stimulation of proliferation raise the possibility that this proto-oncogene is involved in the control of normal cellular growth. In addition to c-myc, the bcl-2 proto-oncogene also was expressed in normal human B and T lymphocytes after stimulation with appropriate mitogens. Comparison of the regulation of the expression of these proto-oncogenes demonstrated marked differences and provided evidence that, in contrast to c-myc, levels of bcl-2 messenger RNA are regulated primarily though transcriptional mechanisms. 10 references, 3 figures.

  9. Induced supersolidity in a mixture of normal and hard-core bosons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, Tapan; Das, B. P.; Pai, Ramesh V.

    2010-01-01

    We present a scenario where a supersolid is induced in one of the components of a mixture of two species bosonic atoms where there are no long-range interactions. We study a system of normal and hard-core boson mixture with only the former possessing long-range interactions. We consider three cases: the first where the total density is commensurate and the other two where it is incommensurate to the lattice. By suitable choices of the densities of normal and hard-core bosons and the interaction strengths between them, we predict that the charge density wave and the supersolid orders can be induced in the hard-core species as a result of the competing interatomic interactions.

  10. FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION MODELS OF THE MITRAL VALVE: FUNCTION IN NORMAL AND PATHOLOGIC STATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunzelman, K. S.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Cochran, R. P.

    2007-08-29

    Successful mitral valve repair is dependent upon a full understanding of normal and abnormal mitral valve anatomy and function. Computational analysis is one such method that can be applied to simulate mitral valve function in order to analyze the roles of individual components, and evaluate proposed surgical repair. We developed the first three-dimensional, finite element (FE) computer model of the mitral valve including leaflets and chordae tendineae, however, one critical aspect that has been missing until the last few years was the evaluation of fluid flow, as coupled to the function of the mitral valve structure. We present here our latest results for normal function and specific pathologic changes using a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model. Normal valve function was first assessed, followed by pathologic material changes in collagen fiber volume fraction, fiber stiffness, fiber splay, and isotropic stiffness. Leaflet and chordal stress and strain, and papillary muscle force was determined. In addition, transmitral flow, time to leaflet closure, and heart valve sound were assessed. Model predictions in the normal state agreed well with a wide range of available in-vivo and in-vitro data. Further, pathologic material changes that preserved the anisotropy of the valve leaflets were found to preserve valve function. By contrast, material changes that altered the anisotropy of the valve were found to profoundly alter valve function. The addition of blood flow and an experimentally driven microstructural description of mitral tissue represent significant advances in computational studies of the mitral valve, which allow further insight to be gained. This work is another building block in the foundation of a computational framework to aid in the refinement and development of a truly noninvasive diagnostic evaluation of the mitral valve. Ultimately, it represents the basis for simulation of surgical repair of pathologic valves in a clinical and educational

  11. Microwave-induced spin currents in ferromagnetic-insulator|normal-metal bilayer system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Milan; Serga, Alexander A.; Lauer, Viktor; Papaioannou, Evangelos Th.; Hillebrands, Burkard; Vasyuchka, Vitaliy I.

    2014-09-01

    A microwave technique is employed to simultaneously examine the spin pumping and the spin Seebeck effect processes in a YIG|Pt bilayer system. The experimental results show that for these two processes, the spin current flows in opposite directions. The temporal dynamics of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect exhibits that the effect depends on the diffusion of bulk thermal-magnons in the thermal gradient in the ferromagnetic-insulator|normal-metal system.

  12. SU-E-I-18: CT Scanner QA Using Normalized CTDI Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randazzo, M; Tambasco, M; Russell, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To create a ratio of weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDIw) data normalized to in-air measurements (CTDIair) as a function of beam quality to create a look-up table for frequent, rapid quality assurance (QA) checks of CTDI. Methods: The CTDIw values were measured according to TG-63 protocol using a pencil ionization chamber (Unfors Xi CT detector) and head and body Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms (16 and 32 cm diameter, respectively). Single scan dose profiles were measured at each clinically available energy (80,100,120,140 kVp) on three different CT scanners (two Siemens SOMATOM Definition Flash and one GE Optima), using a tube current of 400 mA, a one second rotation time, and the widest available beam width (32 × 0.6 mm and 16 × 1.25 mm, respectively). These values were normalized to CTDIair measurements using the same conditions as CTDIw. The ratios (expressed in cGy/R) were assessed for each scanner as a function of each energy's half value layer (HVL) paired with the phantom's appropriate bow tie filter measured in mmAl. Results: Normalized CTDI values vary linearly with HVL for both the head and body phantoms. The ratios for the two Siemens machines are very similar at each energy. Compared to the GE scanner, these values vary between 10–20% for each kVp setting. Differences in CTDIair contribute most to the deviation of the ratios across machines. Ratios are independent of both mAs and collimation. Conclusion: Look-up tables constructed of normalized CTDI values as a function of HVL can be used to derive CTDIw data from only three in-air measurements (one for CTDIair and two with added filtration for HVL) to allow for simple, frequent QA checks without CT phantom setup. Future investigations will involve comparing results with Monte Carlo simulations for validation.

  13. Study Shows Active Power Controls from Wind May Increase Revenues...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Shows Active Power Controls from Wind May Increase Revenues and Improve System Reliability Study Shows Active Power Controls from Wind May Increase Revenues and Improve System ...

  14. Technical Assistance: Increasing Code Compliance - 2014 BTO Peer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assistance: Increasing Code Compliance - 2014 BTO Peer Review Technical Assistance: ... View the Presentation PDF icon Technical Assistance: Increasing Code Compliance - 2014 BTO ...

  15. Fact Sheet: Gas Prices and Oil Consumption Would Increase Without...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Gas Prices and Oil Consumption Would Increase Without Biofuels Fact Sheet: Gas Prices and Oil Consumption Would Increase Without Biofuels Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman and ...

  16. Evaluation Helps Program Increase Sales of Energy Saving Light...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation Helps Program Increase Sales of Energy Saving Light Bulbs Among Women Evaluation Helps Program Increase Sales of Energy Saving Light Bulbs Among Women This document,...

  17. Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency > Posts by term > Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: Combined Heat And Power...

  18. Mentoring and Educating to Increase Diversity in Science, Tech...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Mentoring and Educating to Increase Diversity in Science, Tech, Engineering and Math Mentoring and Educating to Increase Diversity in Science, Tech, Engineering and Math October ...

  19. Metal and Glass Manufacturers Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metal and Glass Manufacturers Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy Efficiency in Process Heating Systems Metal and Glass Manufacturers Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy Efficiency in...

  20. Federal Strategies to Increase the Implementation of CHP in the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Federal Strategies to Increase the Implementation of CHP in the United States, June 1999 Federal Strategies to Increase the Implementation of CHP in the United States, June 1999 ...

  1. Fume Hood Sash Stickers Increases Laboratory Safety and Efficiency...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Fume Hood Sash Stickers Increases Laboratory Safety and Efficiency at Minimal Cost Case study describes two University of California campuses that increased laboratory exhaust ...

  2. Effective Fouling Minimization Increases the Efficiency and Productivi...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Effective Fouling Minimization Increases the Efficiency and Productivity of Refineries Effective Fouling Minimization Increases the Efficiency and Productivity of Refineries This ...

  3. Webinar: Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell Technologies Webinar: Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell Technologies Below is the text ...

  4. Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell Technologies Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell Technologies Download presentation ...

  5. Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell Technologies Increasing Renewable ... Services Workshop Hour-by-Hour Cost Modeling of Optimized Central ...

  6. Federal Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent since 1999; Exceeds Goal Federal Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent since 1999; Exceeds Goal ...

  7. Bacteria increase arid-land soil surface temperature through...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bacteria increase arid-land soil surface temperature through the production of sunscreens Prev Next Title: Bacteria increase arid-land soil surface temperature through the ...

  8. Evaluation Helps Program Increase Sales of Energy Saving Light...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Increase Sales of Energy Saving Light Bulbs Among Women Evaluation Helps Program ... the Case Study Series, explaining how "Evaluation Helps Program Increase Sales of Energy ...

  9. NREL Refinery Process Shows Increased Effectiveness of Producing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refinery Process Shows Increased Effectiveness of Producing Ethanol from Algae NREL Refinery Process Shows Increased Effectiveness of Producing Ethanol from Algae February 11, 2016 ...

  10. New Orleans Council Calls on Entergy to Increase Energy Savings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Orleans Council Calls on Entergy to Increase Energy Savings New Orleans Council Calls on Entergy to Increase Energy Savings bbrnstoriesneworleans012916.jpg The New Orleans City ...

  11. Waste Shipment Tracking Technology Lowers Costs, Increases Efficiency...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Waste Shipment Tracking Technology Lowers Costs, Increases Efficiency Waste Shipment Tracking Technology Lowers Costs, Increases Efficiency February 27, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis This ...

  12. DOE Increases Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Furnaces...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Increases Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Furnaces & Boilers DOE Increases Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Furnaces & Boilers November 19, 2007 - 4:31pm ...

  13. Bacteria increase arid-land soil surface temperature through...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... During the process, overall microbial biomass increases steadily, and eventually the ... a as a proxy of photosynthetic biomass), which increased across the gradient ...

  14. Increasing LTC Engine Efficiency by Reducing Pressure-Oscillation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Increasing LTC Engine Efficiency by Reducing Pressure-Oscillation-Related Heat Transfer Losses Increasing LTC Engine Efficiency by Reducing Pressure-Oscillation-Related Heat ...

  15. Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission Increase...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission Increase Cooperation to Advance Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission Increase Cooperation to ...

  16. Public Finance Mechanisms to Increase Investment in Energy Efficiency...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Increase Investment in Energy Efficiency Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Public Finance Mechanisms to Increase Investment in Energy Efficiency Agency...

  17. Employee-Driven Initiative Increases Treatment Capacity, Reduces...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Employee-Driven Initiative Increases Treatment Capacity, Reduces Clean Water Demands Employee-Driven Initiative Increases Treatment Capacity, Reduces Clean Water Demands June 30, ...

  18. CHP SYSTEM AT FOOD PROCESSING PLANT INCREASES RELIABILITY AND...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CHP SYSTEM AT FOOD PROCESSING PLANT INCREASES RELIABILITY AND REDUCES EMISSIONS - CASE STUDY, 2015 CHP SYSTEM AT FOOD PROCESSING PLANT INCREASES RELIABILITY AND REDUCES EMISSIONS -...

  19. President Truman Increases Production of Uranium and Plutonium...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Increases Production of Uranium and Plutonium President Truman Increases Production of Uranium and Plutonium Washington, DC President Truman approves a 1.4 billion expansion of ...

  20. Federal Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent since 1999; Exceeds Goal Federal Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent since 1999; Exceeds Goal...

  1. Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs cfdblastfurnace.pdf (552.85 KB) More ...

  2. U.S. Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases ... Release Date: 11192015 Next Release Date: 12312016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane ...

  3. Retro-Commissioning Increases Data Center Efficiency at Low Cost...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Retro-Commissioning Increases Data Center Efficiency at Low Cost Retro-Commissioning Increases Data Center Efficiency at Low Cost Fact sheet discusses a success story detailing a ...

  4. Sandia Energy - Water Increasingly Crucial in Energy Policies...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experts Say Home Energy News News & Events Systems Analysis Systems Engineering Water Increasingly Crucial in Energy Policies, Experts Say Previous Next Water Increasingly...

  5. Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from the Electric Sector Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from the Electric Sector This ...

  6. Analysis of differential protein expression in normal and neoplastic human breast epithelial cell lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, K.; Chubb, C.; Huberman, E.; Giometti, C.S.

    1997-07-01

    High resolution two dimensional get electrophoresis (2DE) and database analysis was used to establish protein expression patterns for cultured normal human mammary epithelial cells and thirteen breast cancer cell lines. The Human Breast Epithelial Cell database contains the 2DE protein patterns, including relative protein abundances, for each cell line, plus a composite pattern that contains all the common and specifically expressed proteins from all the cell lines. Significant differences in protein expression, both qualitative and quantitative, were observed not only between normal cells and tumor cells, but also among the tumor cell lines. Eight percent of the consistently detected proteins were found in significantly (P < 0.001) variable levels among the cell lines. Using a combination of immunostaining, comigration with purified protein, subcellular fractionation, and amino-terminal protein sequencing, we identified a subset of the differentially expressed proteins. These identified proteins include the cytoskeletal proteins actin, tubulin, vimentin, and cytokeratins. The cell lines can be classified into four distinct groups based on their intermediate filament protein profile. We also identified heat shock proteins; hsp27, hsp60, and hsp70 varied in abundance and in some cases in the relative phosphorylation levels among the cell lines. Finally, we identified IMP dehydrogenase in each of the cell lines, and found the levels of this enzyme in the tumor cell lines elevated 2- to 20-fold relative to the levels in normal cells.

  7. Capacitor energy needed to induce transitions from the superconducting to the normal state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberhard, P.H.; Ross, R.R.

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a technique to turn a long length of superconducting wire normal by dumping a charged capacitor into it and justify some formulae needed in the design. The physical phenomenon is described. A formula for the energy to be stored in the capacitor is given. There are circumstances where the dc in an electrical circuit containing superconducting elements has to be turned off quickly and where the most convenient way to switch the current off is to turn a large portion or all of the superconducting wire normal. Such was the case of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) superconducting magnet as soon as a quench was detected. The technique used was the discharge of a capacitor into the coil center tap. It turned the magnet winding normal in ten milliseconds or so and provided an adequate quench protection. The technique of discharging a capacitor into a superconducting wire should have many other applications whenever a substantial resistance in a superconducting circuit has to be generated in that kind of time scale. The process involves generating a pulse of large currents in some part of the circuit and heating the wire up by ac losses until the value of the wire critical current is smaller than the dc current. Use of low inductance connections to the circuit is necessary. Then the dc gets turned off due to the resistance of the wire as in a magnet quench.

  8. Dexamethasone increases glucose cycling, but not glucose production, in healthy subjects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wajngot, A.; Khan, A.; Giacca, A.; Vranic, M.; Efendic, S. )

    1990-11-01

    We established that measurement of glucose fluxes through glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase; hepatic total glucose output, HTGO), glucose cycling (GC), and glucose production (HGP), reveals early diabetogenic changes in liver metabolism. To elucidate the mechanism of the diabetogenic effect of glucocorticoids, we treated eight healthy subjects with oral dexamethasone (DEX; 15 mg over 48 h) and measured HTGO with (2-3H)glucose and HGP with (6-3H)glucose postabsorptively and during a 2-h glucose infusion (11.1 mumol.kg-1.min-1). (2-3H)- minus (6-3H)glucose equals GC. DEX significantly increased plasma glucose, insulin, C peptide, and HTGO, while HGP was unchanged. In controls and DEX, glucose infusion suppressed HTGO (82 vs. 78%) and HGP (87 vs. 91%). DEX increased GC postabsorptively (three-fold) P less than 0.005 and during glucose infusion (P less than 0.05) but decreased metabolic clearance and glucose uptake (Rd), which eventually normalized, however. Because DEX increased HTGO (G-6-Pase) and not HGP (glycogenolysis + gluconeogenesis), we assume that DEX increases HTGO and GC in humans by activating G-6-Pase directly, rather than by expanding the glucose 6-phosphate pool. Hyperglycemia caused by peripheral effects of DEX can also contribute to an increase in GC by activating glucokinase. Therefore, measurement of glucose fluxes through G-6-Pase and GC revealed significant early effects of DEX on hepatic glucose metabolism, which are not yet reflected in HGP.

  9. Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling of Radiation-Induced Hypothyroidism After Head-and-Neck Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakhshandeh, Mohsen; Hashemi, Bijan; Mahdavi, Seied Rabi Mehdi; Nikoofar, Alireza; Vasheghani, Maryam; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the dose-response relationship of the thyroid for radiation-induced hypothyroidism in head-and-neck radiation therapy, according to 6 normal tissue complication probability models, and to find the best-fit parameters of the models. Methods and Materials: Sixty-five patients treated with primary or postoperative radiation therapy for various cancers in the head-and-neck region were prospectively evaluated. Patient serum samples (tri-iodothyronine, thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], free tri-iodothyronine, and free thyroxine) were measured before and at regular time intervals until 1 year after the completion of radiation therapy. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the patients' thyroid gland were derived from their computed tomography (CT)-based treatment planning data. Hypothyroidism was defined as increased TSH (subclinical hypothyroidism) or increased TSH in combination with decreased free thyroxine and thyroxine (clinical hypothyroidism). Thyroid DVHs were converted to 2 Gy/fraction equivalent doses using the linear-quadratic formula with {alpha}/{beta} = 3 Gy. The evaluated models included the following: Lyman with the DVH reduced to the equivalent uniform dose (EUD), known as LEUD; Logit-EUD; mean dose; relative seriality; individual critical volume; and population critical volume models. The parameters of the models were obtained by fitting the patients' data using a maximum likelihood analysis method. The goodness of fit of the models was determined by the 2-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Ranking of the models was made according to Akaike's information criterion. Results: Twenty-nine patients (44.6%) experienced hypothyroidism. None of the models was rejected according to the evaluation of the goodness of fit. The mean dose model was ranked as the best model on the basis of its Akaike's information criterion value. The D{sub 50} estimated from the models was approximately 44 Gy. Conclusions: The implemented normal tissue

  10. Energy information needs for U. S. state-level policy making: Minimal data requirements during normal and emergency periods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barkenbus, J.N.; Leff, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Since the oil embargo of 1973, state governments have increased their efforts to track and understand energy flows within their boundaries. There is a commonly perceived need to comprehend the status of present and expected future energy availability, demand, and price and to be prepared to exercise responsible and effective management during energy emergencies. This responsibility has brought with it new needs for accurate and timely state-level information on energy transactions and the external parameters that effect energy availability and disposition. What energy data are needed by a state, regardless of its idiosyncracies, during both normal and energy emergency periods, and to what extent are these data available now. The authors find that needed ongoing (core) data are only partially available at present, and that emergency data can be obtained only with a carefully planned monitoring program that can be fitted to specific emergency conditions. Overall, this paper provides a realistic assessment of the state-level energy data needed to provide state policy makers with sufficient information to make considered judgments.

  11. Energy-information needs for US state-level policy making: minimal data requirements during normal and emergency periods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barkenbus, J.N.; Leff, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Since the oil embargo of 1973, state governments have increased their efforts to track and understand energy flows within their boundaries. There is a commonly perceived need to comprehend the status of present and expected future energy availability, demand, and price and to be prepared to exercise responsible and effective management during energy emergencies. This responsibility has brought with it new needs for accurate and timely state-level information on energy transactions and the external parameters that effect energy availability and disposition. Hence, we ask: what energy data are needed by a state, regardless of its idiosyncracies, during both normal and energy emergency periods, and to what extent are these data available now. We find that needed ongoing (core) data are only partially available at present, and that emergency data can be obtained only with a carefully planned monitoring program that can be fitted to specific emergency conditions. Overall, this paper provides a realistic assessment of the state-level energy data needed to provide state policy makers with sufficient information to make considered judgments. 7 references, 6 tables.

  12. Reliability of Quantitative Ultrasonic Assessment of Normal-Tissue Toxicity in Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshida, Emi J.; Chen Hao; Torres, Mylin; Andic, Fundagul; Liu Haoyang; Chen Zhengjia; Sun, Xiaoyan; Curran, Walter J.; Liu Tian

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: We have recently reported that ultrasound imaging, together with ultrasound tissue characterization (UTC), can provide quantitative assessment of radiation-induced normal-tissue toxicity. This study's purpose is to evaluate the reliability of our quantitative ultrasound technology in assessing acute and late normal-tissue toxicity in breast cancer radiotherapy. Method and Materials: Our ultrasound technique analyzes radiofrequency echo signals and provides quantitative measures of dermal, hypodermal, and glandular tissue toxicities. To facilitate easy clinical implementation, we further refined this technique by developing a semiautomatic ultrasound-based toxicity assessment tool (UBTAT). Seventy-two ultrasound studies of 26 patients (720 images) were analyzed. Images of 8 patients were evaluated for acute toxicity (<6 months postradiotherapy) and those of 18 patients were evaluated for late toxicity ({>=}6 months postradiotherapy). All patients were treated according to a standard radiotherapy protocol. To assess intraobserver reliability, one observer analyzed 720 images in UBTAT and then repeated the analysis 3 months later. To assess interobserver reliability, three observers (two radiation oncologists and one ultrasound expert) each analyzed 720 images in UBTAT. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to evaluate intra- and interobserver reliability. Ultrasound assessment and clinical evaluation were also compared. Results: Intraobserver ICC was 0.89 for dermal toxicity, 0.74 for hypodermal toxicity, and 0.96 for glandular tissue toxicity. Interobserver ICC was 0.78 for dermal toxicity, 0.74 for hypodermal toxicity, and 0.94 for glandular tissue toxicity. Statistical analysis found significant changes in dermal (p < 0.0001), hypodermal (p = 0.0027), and glandular tissue (p < 0.0001) assessments in the acute toxicity group. Ultrasound measurements correlated with clinical Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) toxicity scores of patients

  13. Control of target-normal-sheath-accelerated protons from a guiding cone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, D. B.; Zhuo, H. B.; Yang, X. H.; Yu, T. P.; Shao, F. Q.; Pukhov, A.

    2015-06-15

    It is demonstrated through particle-in-cell simulations that target-normal-sheath-accelerated protons can be well controlled by using a guiding cone. Compared to a conventional planar target, both the collimation and number density of proton beams are substantially improved, giving a high-quality proton beam which maintained for a longer distance without degradation. The effect is attributed to the radial electric field resulting from the charge due to the hot target electrons propagating along the cone surface. This electric field can effectively suppress the spatial spread of the protons after the expansion of the hot electrons.

  14. Nonlinear surface plasma wave induced target normal sheath acceleration of protons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, C. S.; Tripathi, V. K. Shao, Xi; Liu, T. C.

    2015-02-15

    The mode structure of a large amplitude surface plasma wave (SPW) over a vacuum–plasma interface, including relativistic and ponderomotive nonlinearities, is deduced. It is shown that the SPW excited by a p-polarized laser on a rippled thin foil target can have larger amplitude than the transmitted laser amplitude and cause stronger target normal sheath acceleration of protons as reported in a recent experiment. Substantial enhancement in proton number also occurs due to the larger surface area covered by the SPW.

  15. An implementation of Hill's theory of normal anisotropic plasticity for explicit shell analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.

    1991-08-20

    This paper summarizes the formulation and numerical implementation of a general anisotropic elastic-plastic material model for shell analysis. The 1948 Hill yield function is presented and specialized to conditions of plane stress. Next, an unconditionally stable and fully vectorized numerical algorithm for this constitutive model is presented. Finally, the model is specialized to conditions of normal anisotropy, and the implementation in DYNA3D is discussed. This development in material modeling should substantially extend the applicability of DYNA3D for many sheet metal forming applications. Several large-scale sheet metal forming examples are presented to illustrate these new analysis capabilities. 9 refs.

  16. An implementation of Hill`s theory of normal anisotropic plasticity for explicit shell analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.

    1991-08-20

    This paper summarizes the formulation and numerical implementation of a general anisotropic elastic-plastic material model for shell analysis. The 1948 Hill yield function is presented and specialized to conditions of plane stress. Next, an unconditionally stable and fully vectorized numerical algorithm for this constitutive model is presented. Finally, the model is specialized to conditions of normal anisotropy, and the implementation in DYNA3D is discussed. This development in material modeling should substantially extend the applicability of DYNA3D for many sheet metal forming applications. Several large-scale sheet metal forming examples are presented to illustrate these new analysis capabilities. 9 refs.

  17. STEO October 2012 - home heating use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Last year's warm U.S. winter temperatures to give way to normal, increasing household heating fuel use U.S. households will likely burn more heating fuels to stay warm this winter compared with last year Average household demand for natural gas, the most common primary heating fuel, is expected to be up 14 percent this winter, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration's new winter fuels forecast. Demand for electricity will be up 8 percent. And demand for heating oil, used mainly

  18. Increasing Solar Energy Awareness in El Paso | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Increasing Solar Energy Awareness in El Paso Increasing Solar Energy Awareness in El Paso October 3, 2012 - 2:30pm Addthis Members of the community gathered to celebrate the ...

  19. Fact Sheet: Gas Prices and Oil Consumption Would Increase Without...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Gas Prices and Oil Consumption Would Increase Without Biofuels Fact Sheet: Gas Prices and Oil Consumption Would Increase Without Biofuels June 11, 2008 - 1:30pm Addthis Secretary ...

  20. New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision Increases...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Increases (Million Barrels) New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision Increases (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...