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1

DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY OF NORMAL AND SUPERCONDUCTING ELECTRON LIQUIDS: EXPLICIT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY OF NORMAL AND SUPERCONDUCTING ELECTRON LIQUIDS: EXPLICIT FUNCTIONALS VIAÃ?th University Nathan, Queensland 4111, Australia Abstract The basic idea of density functional theory is to map potential which is a functional of the density. The central task of density functional theory is to #12;nd

Gross, E.K.U.

2

Density and pair-density scaling for deriving the Euler equation in density-functional and pair-density-functional theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A link between density and pair density functional theories is presented. Density and pair density scaling are used to derive the Euler equation in both theories. Density scaling provides a constructive way of obtaining approximations for the Pauli potential. The Pauli potential (energy) of the density functional theory is expressed as the difference of the scaled and original exchange-correlation potentials (energies).

Nagy, A. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen (Hungary)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

3

Normalized Microwave Reflection Index: A Vegetation Measurement Derived From GPS Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is known as Normalized Differ- ence Water Index (NDWI) [12]. It is calculated using reflectance in two near infrared (NIR) channels. Similar indices have been proposed that use reflectance at other NIR wavelengthsNormalized Microwave Reflection Index: A Vegetation Measurement Derived From GPS Networks Kristine

Small, Eric

4

DERIVATION AND OBSERVABILITY OF UPPER ATMOSPHERIC DENSITY VARIATIONS UTILIZING PRECISION ORBIT EPHEMERIDES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for these satellites. The POE derived densities showed marked improvement using these methods of comparison over the existing empirical density models for all examined time periods and solar and geomagnetic activity levels. The cross correlation values for the POE...

Lechtenberg, Travis Francis

2010-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

5

Deriving Atmospheric Density Estimates Using Satellite Precision Orbit Ephemerides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model regardless of solar and geomagnetic activity levels. The POE density estimates were obtained with the desired accuracy for a ±10% variation in the ballistic coefficient used to initialize the process. Fit span length showed little influence...

Hiatt, Andrew Timothy

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Further Developments in Orbit Ephemeris Derived Neutral Density  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/04/2002. ................................... 91 Figure 4.4 – Atmospheric Density Comparison for CHAMP on 04/17/2002. ................................... 92 Figure 4.5 – Atmospheric Density Comparison for GRACE on 08/04/2006. .................................... 93 Figure 4.6 – Atmospheric... sigma values. .... 88 Table 4.2 – Average CC values for CHAMP binned by solar activity level. ..................................... 96 Table 4.3 – Average RMS values (10-12 kg/m3) for CHAMP binned by solar activity level.............. 96 Table 4...

Locke, Travis Cole

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

7

On the Derivation of a Density Functional Theory for Microphase Separation of Diblock Copolymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On the Derivation of a Density Functional Theory for Microphase Separation of Diblock Copolymers in copolymer melts. The Ohta-Kawasaki density functional theory gives rise to a nonlocal Cahn copolymers, mean field theory, density functional theory. 1 Introduction A diblock copolymer is a linear

Ren, Xiaofeng

8

Creep Behavior of High Density Polyethylene after Aging in Contact with Different Oil Derivates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Creep Behavior of High Density Polyethylene after Aging in Contact with Different Oil Derivates The creep behavior of a high density polyethylene (HDPE), currently used as raw material for pipe manu polyethylene (HDPE) is a natural choice due to its good properties, its large availability, and its reduced

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

9

Comparison of Direct Normal Irradiance Derived from Silicon and Thermopile Global Hemispherical Radiation Detectors: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concentrating solar applications utilize direct normal irradiance (DNI) radiation, a measurement rarely available. The solar concentrator industry has begun to deploy numerous measurement stations to prospect for suitable system deployment sites. Rotating shadowband radiometers (RSR) using silicon photodiodes as detectors are typically deployed. This paper compares direct beam estimates from RSR to a total hemispherical measuring radiometer (SPN1) multiple fast thermopiles. These detectors simultaneously measure total and diffuse radiation from which DNI can be computed. Both the SPN1 and RSR-derived DNI are compared to DNI measured with thermopile pyrheliometers. Our comparison shows that the SPN1 radiometer DNI estimated uncertainty is somewhat greater than, and on the same order as, the RSR DNI estimates for DNI magnitudes useful to concentrator technologies.

Myers, D. R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Fundamental gaps with approximate density functionals: The derivative discontinuity revealed from ensemble considerations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fundamental gap is a central quantity in the electronic structure of matter. Unfortunately, the fundamental gap is not generally equal to the Kohn-Sham gap of density functional theory (DFT), even in principle. The two gaps differ precisely by the derivative discontinuity, namely, an abrupt change in slope of the exchange-correlation energy as a function of electron number, expected across an integer-electron point. Popular approximate functionals are thought to be devoid of a derivative discontinuity, strongly compromising their performance for prediction of spectroscopic properties. Here we show that, in fact, all exchange-correlation functionals possess a derivative discontinuity, which arises naturally from the application of ensemble considerations within DFT, without any empiricism. This derivative discontinuity can be expressed in closed form using only quantities obtained in the course of a standard DFT calculation of the neutral system. For small, finite systems, addition of this derivative discontinuity indeed results in a greatly improved prediction for the fundamental gap, even when based on the most simple approximate exchange-correlation density functional – the local density approximation (LDA). For solids, the same scheme is exact in principle, but when applied to LDA it results in a vanishing derivative discontinuity correction. This failure is shown to be directly related to the failure of LDA in predicting fundamental gaps from total energy differences in extended systems.

Kraisler, Eli; Kronik, Leeor [Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovoth 76100 (Israel)] [Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovoth 76100 (Israel)

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

11

Simple Heuristic Derivation of the Universal Jump in the Superfluid Density of 2-Dimensional Superfluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A simple heuristic derivation is given for the universal jump in the superfluid density rho(s) at the transition temperature T(c) of a two-dimensional superfluid. It is based on the mathematical equivalence of the Hamiltonians of two systems: (i) a...

Hu, Chia-Ren.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Normal Liver Tissue Density Dose Response in Patients Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Liver Metastases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate the temporal dose response of normal liver tissue for patients with liver metastases treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Ninety-nine noncontrast follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans of 34 patients who received SBRT between 2004 and 2011 were retrospectively analyzed at a median of 8 months post-SBRT (range, 0.7-36 months). SBRT-induced normal liver tissue density changes in follow-up CT scans were evaluated at 2, 6, 10, 15, and 27 months. The dose distributions from planning CTs were mapped to follow-up CTs to relate the mean Hounsfield unit change ({Delta}HU) to dose received over the range 0-55 Gy in 3-5 fractions. An absolute density change of 7 HU was considered a significant radiographic change in normal liver tissue. Results: Increasing radiation dose was linearly correlated with lower post-SBRT liver tissue density (slope, -0.65 {Delta}HU/5 Gy). The threshold for significant change (-7 {Delta}HU) was observed in the range of 30-35 Gy. This effect did not vary significantly over the time intervals evaluated. Conclusions: SBRT induces a dose-dependent and relatively time-independent hypodense radiation reaction within normal liver tissue that is characterized by a decrease of >7 HU in liver density for doses >30-35 Gy.

Howells, Christopher C.; Stinauer, Michelle A.; Diot, Quentin; Westerly, David C.; Schefter, Tracey E.; Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Miften, Moyed, E-mail: Moyed.Miften@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Digital transcriptome profiling of normal and glioblastoma-derived neural stem cells identifies genes associated with patient survival  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

 associated  with  patient  survival    Pär  G.  Engström,  Diva  Tommei,  Stefan  H.  Stricker,  Christine  Ender,  Steven  M.  Pollard  and  Paul  Bertone    Assignment  of  tags  to  genes  To  assign... 2012) R E S E A R C H Open Acces s Digital transcriptome profiling of normal and glioblastoma-derived neural stem cells identifies genes associated with patient survival Pär G Engström 1 , Diva Tommei 1 , Stefan H Stricker 2 , Christine Ender 2 , Steven...

Engström, Pär G; Tommei, Diva; Stricker, Stefan H; Ender, Christine; Pollard, Steven M; Bertone, Paul

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

14

Fermi Orbital Derivatives in Self-Interaction Corrected Density Functional Theory: Applications to Closed Shell Atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A recent modification of the Perdew-Zunger self-interaction-correction (SIC) to the density-functional formalism (Pederson, Ruzsinszky, Perdew) has provided a framework for explicitly restoring unitary invariance to the expression for the total energy. The formalism depends upon construction of Lowdin orthonormalized Fermi-orbitals (Luken et al) which parametrically depend on variational quasi-classical electronic positions. Derivatives of these quasi-classical electronic positions, required for efficient minimization of the self-interaction corrected energy, are derived and tested here on atoms. Total energies and ionization energies in closed-shell atoms, where correlation is less important, using the PW92 LDA functional are in very good to excellent agreement with experiment and non-relativistic Quantum-Monte-Carlo (QMC) results.

Mark R. Pederson

2014-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

15

Regional Normal Lung Tissue Density Changes in Patients Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Lung Tumors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To describe regional lung tissue density changes in normal lung tissue of patients with primary and metastatic lung tumors who received stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 179 post-SBRT follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans of 62 patients who received SBRT between 2003 and 2009 were studied. Median prescription dose was 54 Gy (range, 30-60 Gy) in 3 to 5 fractions. SBRT-induced lung density changes on post-SBRT follow-up CT were evaluated at approximately 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months after treatment. Dose-response curves (DRC) were generated for SBRT-induced lung damage by averaging CT number (HU) changes for regions of the lungs receiving the same dose at 5-Gy intervals. Results: For all follow-up interval periods, CT numbers linearly increased with dose until 35 Gy and were constant thereafter. For 3, 18, 24, and 30 months, the rate of relative electron density increase with dose was approximately 0.24% per Gy. At 6 months, the rate was also similar below 20 Gy but then rose to 0.6% per Gy above this threshold. After 6 months, DRCs were mostly time-independent. When split between patients treated with 3 fractions of 12 to 20 Gy (median, 20 Gy; average tumor volume, 12 {+-} 16 cm{sup 3}) and with >3 fractions of 6 to 12.5 Gy (median, 9 Gy; average tumor volume, 30 {+-} 40 cm{sup 3}), DRCs differed significantly. In both cases, CT changes at 3, 18, 24, and 30 months were identical to those of the population DRC; however, patients who received >3 fractions showed 6-month CT changes that were more than twice those for the group that received 3 fractions. Conclusions: This analysis of SBRT-induced normal lung density changes indicates that lung normal tissue has more pronounced self-limited acute effects than late effects. Differences in acute CT changes following treatments in 3 fractions were considerably less than for treatments in >3 fractions.

Diot, Quentin, E-mail: quentin.diot@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Kavanagh, Brian; Schefter, Tracey; Gaspar, Laurie; Stuhr, Kelly; Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

16

Comparison of Precision Orbit Derived Density Estimates for CHAMP and GRACE Satellites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. These density variations are the result of many factors; however, the Sun is the main driver in upper atmospheric density changes. The Sun influences the densities in Earth's atmosphere through solar heating of the atmosphere, as well as through geomagnetic...

Fattig, Eric

2011-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

17

Electron density and electron temperature measurement in a bi-Maxwellian electron distribution using a derivative method of Langmuir probes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In plasma diagnostics with a single Langmuir probe, the electron temperature T{sub e} is usually obtained from the slope of the logarithm of the electron current or from the electron energy probability functions of current (I)-voltage (V) curve. Recently, Chen [F. F. Chen, Phys. Plasmas 8, 3029 (2001)] suggested a derivative analysis method to obtain T{sub e} by the ratio between the probe current and the derivative of the probe current at a plasma potential where the ion current becomes zero. Based on this method, electron temperatures and electron densities were measured and compared with those from the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) measurement in Maxwellian and bi-Maxwellian electron distribution conditions. In a bi-Maxwellian electron distribution, we found the electron temperature T{sub e} obtained from the method is always lower than the effective temperatures T{sub eff} derived from EEDFs. The theoretical analysis for this is presented.

Choi, Ikjin; Chung, ChinWook [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Youn Moon, Se [High-Enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)] [High-Enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

18

Electron density estimations derived from spacecraft potential measurements on Cluster in tenuous plasma regions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the solar wind, the magnetosheath, and the plasmashere by the use of CIS ion density and WHISPER electron, in operation from early 2001 in a high inclination orbit, have provided data over nearly half of the 11-year are in the magnetotail from approximately beginning of July to end of October, and the high inclination orbit makes

California at Berkeley, University of

19

Effect of bird density and dietary protein levels on the performance of midget and normal commercial inbred cross layers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Midgets 2 were fed two levels of prot'ein, 17 and. 16%. For nor- mal-sized birds a 16. 1% protein was used. . Body weights ranged from 1057 to 1125 gms. for midgets and from 1595 to 1601 gms. for normal-sized birds. The midgets weighed approximately... were statistically significant and reflected the smaller maintenance requirements of midget birds. Normal-sized birds produced significantly more eggs (69, 'o) than midgets (5P/o). Midgets housed. two per cage had the highest hen-day egg production...

Gonzalez Delfino, Andres

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Density Functional Studies on the Complexation and Spectroscopy of Uranyl Ligated with Acetonitrile and Acetone Derivatives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The coordination of nitrile (acetonitrile, propionitrile, and benzonitrile) and carbonyl (formaldehyde, ethanal, and acetone) ligands to the uranyl dication (UO22+) has been examined using density functional theory (DFT) utilizing relativistic effective core potentials (RECPs). Complexes containing up to six ligands have been modeled for all ligands except formaldehyde, for which no minimum could be found. A comparison of relative binding energies indicates that five coordinate complexes are predominant while a six coordinate complex involving propionitrile ligands might be possible. Additionally, the relative binding energy and the weakening of the uranyl bond is related to the size of the ligand and, in general, nitriles bind more strongly to uranyl than carbonyls.

Schoendorff, George E.; Windus, Theresa L.; De Jong, Wibe A.

2009-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal densities derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Derivation of a three-dimensional phase-field-crystal model for liquid crystals from density functional theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using a generalized order parameter gradient expansion within density functional theory, we derive a phase-field-crystal model for liquid crystals composed by apolar particles in three spatial dimensions. Both the translational density and the orientational direction and ordering are included as order parameters. Different terms involving gradients in the order parameters in the resulting free energy functional are compared to the macroscopic Ginzburg-Landau approach as well as to the hydrodynamic description for liquid crystals. Our approach provides microscopic expressions for all prefactors in terms of the particle interactions. Our phase-field-crystal model generalizes the conventional phase-field-crystal model of spherical particles to orientational degrees of freedom and can be used as a starting point to explore phase transitions and interfaces for various liquid-crystalline phases.

Raphael Wittkowski; Hartmut Löwen; Helmut R. Brand

2010-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

22

Modifying the variational principle in the action integral functional derivation of time-dependent density functional theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

According to a recent paper by G. Vignale [Phys. Rev. A 77, 062511 (2008), arXiv:0803.2727], the problems arising in the original derivation of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) based on the Runge-Gross (RG) action-integral functional (AIF) are due to an incorrect variational principle (VP). This argument and the proposed modification of the VP are critically analyzed. The more fundamental problem, though, is the indefiniteness of the RG AIF. In contrast to a widely held belief, that indefiniteness is not eliminated in the variational procedure, which unwittingly is corroborated by Vignale's initial point.

J. Schirmer

2010-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

23

Density Functional Theory for Fractional Particle Number: Derivative Discontinuity of the Energy at the Maximum Number of Bound Electrons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The derivative discontinuity in the exact exchange-correlation potential of ensemble Density Functional Theory (DFT) is investigated at the specific integer number that corresponds to the maximum number of bound electrons, $J_{max}$. A recently developed complex-scaled analog of DFT is extended to fractional particle numbers and used to study ensembles of both bound and metastable states. It is found that the exact exchange-correlation potential experiences discontinuous jumps at integer particle numbers including $J_{max}$. For integers below $J_{max}$ the jump is purely real because of the real shift in the chemical potential. At $J_{max}$, the jump has a non-zero imaginary component reflecting the finite lifetime of the $(J_{max}+1)$ state.

Daniel L. Whitenack; Yu Zhang; Adam Wasserman

2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

24

Density scaling of the diffusivity in viscous liquids: Identification of the scaling exponent with the pressure derivative of the isothermal bulk modulus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A density scaled diffusivity function for viscous liquids derived earlier [Phys. Rev. E 79, 032501 (2009)] is revisited, based on an improved equation of state assuming that the isothermal bulk modulus increases linearly with pressure. Without making any assumption on the interconnection between the scaling exponent and the Gruneisen parameter, we prove that the scaling exponent is identical with the pressure derivative of the isothermal bulk modulus. We further discuss probable interconnection between the scaling exponent and the Gruneisen parameter.meter.

Anthony N. Papathanassiou; Ilias Sakellis

2009-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

25

Non-Born-Oppenheimer electronic and nuclear densities for a Hooke-Calogero three-particle model: Non-uniqueness of density-derived molecular structure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We consider the calculation of non-Born-Oppenheimer, nBO, one-particle densities for both electrons and nuclei. We show that the nBO one-particle densities evaluated in terms of translationally invariant coordinates are independent of the wavefunction describing the motion of center of mass of the whole system. We show that they depend, however, on an arbitrary reference point from which the positions of the vectors labeling the particles are determined. We examine the effect that this arbitrary choice has on the topology of the one-particle density by selecting the Hooke-Calogero model of a three-body system for which expressions for the one-particle densities can be readily obtained in analytic form. We extend this analysis to the one-particle densities obtained from full Coulomb interaction wavefunctions for three-body systems. We conclude, in view of the fact that there is a close link between the choice of the reference point and the topology of one-particle densities that the molecular structure inferred from the topology of these densities is not unique. We analyze the behavior of one-particle densities for the Hooke-Calogero Born-Oppenheimer, BO, wavefunction and show that topological transitions are also present in this case for a particular mass value of the light particles even though in the BO regime the nuclear masses are infinite. In this vein, we argue that the change in topology caused by variation of the mass ratio between light and heavy particles does not constitute a true indication in the nBO regime of the emergence of molecular structure.

Ludena, E. V. [Centro de Quimica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, IVIC, Apartado 21827, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Echevarria, L. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, USB, Sartenejas, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Lopez, X.; Ugalde, J. M. [Kimika Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Posta Kutxa 1072, 20080 Donostia, Euskadi (Spain)

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

26

A quantum mechanical derivation of the Schwarzschild radius and its quantum correction using a model density distribution: Skin of a black hole  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using a single particle density distribution for a system of self-gravitating particles which ultimately forms a black hole, we from a condensed matter point of view derive the Schwarzschild radius and by including the quantum mechanical exchange energy we find a small correction to the Schwarzschild radius, which we designate as the skin of the black hole.

Subodha Mishra

2007-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

27

The Kinematic Wave Equation (KWE) In Tuesday's interrupted lecture we derived the Kinematic Wave Equation (KWE) for a density  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Kinematic Wave Equation (KWE) In Tuesday's interrupted lecture we derived the Kinematic Wave refer to partial derivatives. Kinematic waves occur when we take Q = Q(), in which case t + c()x = 0 (2) where the propagation velocity is c() = dQ/d. (2) is called the Kinematic Wave Equation (KWE). We wish

Gibbon, J. D.

28

Departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium in cutting arc plasmas derived from electron and gas density measurements using a two-wavelength quantitative Schlieren technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two-wavelength quantitative Schlieren technique that allows inferring the electron and gas densities of axisymmetric arc plasmas without imposing any assumption regarding statistical equilibrium models is reported. This technique was applied to the study of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) departures within the core of a 30 A high-energy density cutting arc. In order to derive the electron and heavy particle temperatures from the inferred density profiles, a generalized two-temperature Saha equation together with the plasma equation of state and the quasineutrality condition were employed. Factors such as arc fluctuations that influence the accuracy of the measurements and the validity of the assumptions used to derive the plasma species temperature were considered. Significant deviations from chemical equilibrium as well as kinetic equilibrium were found at elevated electron temperatures and gas densities toward the arc core edge. An electron temperature profile nearly constant through the arc core with a value of about 14000-15000 K, well decoupled from the heavy particle temperature of about 1500 K at the arc core edge, was inferred.

Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B. [Grupo de Descargas Electricas, Departamento Ing. Electromecanica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, Venado Tuerto 2600, Santa Fe (Argentina); Artana, G. [Laboratorio de Fluidodinamica, Departamento Ing. Mecanica, Facultad de Ingenieria (UBA), Paseo Colon 850, C1063ACV, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kelly, H. [Grupo de Descargas Electricas, Departamento Ing. Electromecanica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, Venado Tuerto 2600, Santa Fe (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (UBA), Instituto de Fisica del Plasma (CONICET), Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

29

Near-Region Modification of Total Pressure Fluctuations by a Normal Shock Wave in a Low-Density Hypersonic Wind Tunnel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scientific understanding of the modifications to turbulence due to a normal shock wave at hypersonic speeds is lacking. The overarching research objective of this study was to characterize the effects of a hypersonic shock wave on the structure...

Mai, Chi Luong Nhat

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Derivation of general analytic gradient expressions for density-fitted post-Hartree-Fock methods: An efficient implementation for the density-fitted second-order Møller–Plesset perturbation theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

General analytic gradient expressions (with the frozen-core approximation) are presented for density-fitted post-HF methods. An efficient implementation of frozen-core analytic gradients for the second-order Møller–Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) with the density-fitting (DF) approximation (applying to both reference and correlation energies), which is denoted as DF-MP2, is reported. The DF-MP2 method is applied to a set of alkanes, conjugated dienes, and noncovalent interaction complexes to compare the computational cost of single point analytic gradients with MP2 with the resolution of the identity approach (RI-MP2) [F. Weigend and M. Häser, Theor. Chem. Acc. 97, 331 (1997); R. A. Distasio, R. P. Steele, Y. M. Rhee, Y. Shao, and M. Head-Gordon, J. Comput. Chem. 28, 839 (2007)]. In the RI-MP2 method, the DF approach is used only for the correlation energy. Our results demonstrate that the DF-MP2 method substantially accelerate the RI-MP2 method for analytic gradient computations due to the reduced input/output (I/O) time. Because in the DF-MP2 method the DF approach is used for both reference and correlation energies, the storage of 4-index electron repulsion integrals (ERIs) are avoided, 3-index ERI tensors are employed instead. Further, as in case of integrals, our gradient equation is completely avoid construction or storage of the 4-index two-particle density matrix (TPDM), instead we use 2- and 3-index TPDMs. Hence, the I/O bottleneck of a gradient computation is significantly overcome. Therefore, the cost of the generalized-Fock matrix (GFM), TPDM, solution of Z-vector equations, the back transformation of TPDM, and integral derivatives are substantially reduced when the DF approach is used for the entire energy expression. Further application results show that the DF approach introduce negligible errors for closed-shell reaction energies and equilibrium bond lengths.

Bozkaya, U?ur, E-mail: ugur.bozkaya@atauni.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Atatürk University, Erzurum 25240, Turkey and Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

31

The evaluation of a coal-derived liquid as a feedstock for the production of high-density aviation turbine fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conversion of coal-derived liquids to transportation fuels has been the subject of many studies sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the US Department of Defense. For the most part, these studies evaluated conventional petroleum processes for the production of specification-grade fuels. Recently, however, the interest of these two departments expanded to include the evaluation of alternate fossil fuels as a feedstock for the production of high-density aviation turbine fuel. In this study, we evaluated five processes for their ability to produce intermediates from a coal-derived liquid for the production of high-density turbine fuel. These processes include acid-base extraction to reduce the heteroatom content of the middle distillate and the atmospheric and vacuum gas oils, solvent dewaxing to reduce the paraffin (alkane) content of the atmospheric and vacuum gas oils, Attapulgus clay treatment to reduce the heteroatom content of the middle distillate, coking to reduce the distillate range of the vacuum gas oil, and hydrogenation to remove heteroatoms and to saturate aromatic rings in the middle distillate and atmospheric gas oil. The chemical and physical properties that the US Air Force considers critical for the development of high-denisty aviation turbine fuel are specific gravity and net heat of combustion. The target minimum values for these properties are a specific gravity of at least 0.85 and a net heat of combustion of at least 130,000 Btu/gal. In addition, the minimum hydrogen content is 13.0 wt %, the maximum freeze point is {minus}53{degrees}F ({minus}47{degrees}C), the maximum amount of aromatics is about 25 to 30 vol %, and the maximum amount of paraffins is 10 vol %. 13 refs., 20 tabs.

Thomas, K.P.; Hunter, D.E.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Response of an unbalanced rotating machine to a stationary normal random excitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Process, x(t) The Mean Square Response for a Stationary Normal Random process, x(t) 17 18 The Root Mean Square Foundation Force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Derivation of the Critical Variance of Eccentricity. . 20 TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued... probability density function autocorrelation of a stationary random process estimator of correlation a constant spectral density spectral density estimator of variance NDNENCLATURE (continued) Symbol Description time Wp x(t) xp (t) Y (w) y (t...

Boyce, Lola

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Accelerating Monte Carlo molecular simulations by reweighting and reconstructing Markov chains: Extrapolation of canonical ensemble averages and second derivatives to different temperature and density conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accurate determination of thermodynamic properties of petroleum reservoir fluids is of great interest to many applications, especially in petroleum engineering and chemical engineering. Molecular simulation has many appealing features, especially its requirement of fewer tuned parameters but yet better predicting capability; however it is well known that molecular simulation is very CPU expensive, as compared to equation of state approaches. We have recently introduced an efficient thermodynamically consistent technique to regenerate rapidly Monte Carlo Markov Chains (MCMCs) at different thermodynamic conditions from the existing data points that have been pre-computed with expensive classical simulation. This technique can speed up the simulation more than a million times, making the regenerated molecular simulation almost as fast as equation of state approaches. In this paper, this technique is first briefly reviewed and then numerically investigated in its capability of predicting ensemble averages of primary quantities at different neighboring thermodynamic conditions to the original simulated MCMCs. Moreover, this extrapolation technique is extended to predict second derivative properties (e.g. heat capacity and fluid compressibility). The method works by reweighting and reconstructing generated MCMCs in canonical ensemble for Lennard-Jones particles. In this paper, system's potential energy, pressure, isochoric heat capacity and isothermal compressibility along isochors, isotherms and paths of changing temperature and density from the original simulated points were extrapolated. Finally, an optimized set of Lennard-Jones parameters (?, ?) for single site models were proposed for methane, nitrogen and carbon monoxide.

Kadoura, Ahmad; Sun, Shuyu, E-mail: shuyu.sun@kaust.edu.sa; Salama, Amgad

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Field Equations and Conservation Laws Derived from the Generalized Einstein Lagrangian Density for A Gravitational System and Their Implications to Cosmology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Based on investigations of the fundamental properties of the generalized Einstein Lagrangian density for a gravitational system, the theoretical foundations of the modified Einstein field equations and the Lorentz and Levi-Civita conservation laws are systematically studied. The theory of cosmology developed on the basis of these equations and laws is analyzed in detail. Some new properties and new effects of the cosmos are deduced; these new properties and new effects could be tested via future experiments and observations.

Fang-Pei Chen

2007-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

35

ccsd00003444, Jordan Normal and Rational Normal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the characteristic polynomial can be fully factorized (see e.g. Fortuna-Gianni for rational normal forms

36

adjacent normal skin: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

tangential mechanics SAI mechanoreceptor depth actuator strain energy density James Biggs; Mandayam A. Srinivasan 5 Expression and function of small RNAs in normal and...

37

Deconvolution in Random Effects Models via Normal Mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation describes a minimum distance method for density estimation when the variable of interest is not directly observed. It is assumed that the underlying target density can be well approximated by a mixture of normals. The method...

Litton, Nathaniel A.

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

38

Gedanken densities and exact constraints in density functional theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Approximations to the exact density functional for the exchange-correlation energy of a many-electron ground state can be constructed by satisfying constraints that are universal, i.e., valid for all electron densities. Gedanken densities are designed for the purpose of this construction, but need not be realistic. The uniform electron gas is an old gedanken density. Here, we propose a spherical two-electron gedanken density in which the dimensionless density gradient can be an arbitrary positive constant wherever the density is non-zero. The Lieb-Oxford lower bound on the exchange energy can be satisfied within a generalized gradient approximation (GGA) by bounding its enhancement factor or simplest GGA exchange-energy density. This enhancement-factor bound is well known to be sufficient, but our gedanken density shows that it is also necessary. The conventional exact exchange-energy density satisfies no such local bound, but energy densities are not unique, and the simplest GGA exchange-energy density is not an approximation to it. We further derive a strongly and optimally tightened bound on the exchange enhancement factor of a two-electron density, which is satisfied by the local density approximation but is violated by all published GGA's or meta-GGA’s. Finally, some consequences of the non-uniform density-scaling behavior for the asymptotics of the exchange enhancement factor of a GGA or meta-GGA are given.

Perdew, John P. [Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States) [Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States); Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Sun, Jianwei [Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States); Burke, Kieron [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

39

Normal Curvature . . . Geodesic Curvature . . .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Normal Curvature . . . Geodesic Curvature . . . Home Page Title Page Page 683 of 711 Go Back Full quadratic form associated with a surface. #12;Normal Curvature . . . Geodesic Curvature . . . Home Page Title Page Page 684 of 711 Go Back Full Screen Close Quit The component g is called the geodesic

Gallier, Jean

40

Normalizing the causality between time series  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recently, a rigorous yet concise formula has been derived to evaluate the information flow, and hence the causality in a quantitative sense, between time series. To assess the importance of a resulting causality, it needs to be normalized. The normalization is achieved through distinguishing three types of fundamental mechanisms that govern the marginal entropy change of the flow recipient. A normalized or relative flow measures its importance relative to other mechanisms. In analyzing realistic series, both absolute and relative information flows need to be taken into account, since the normalizers for a pair of reverse flows belong to two different entropy balances; it is quite normal that two identical flows may differ a lot in relative importance in their respective balances. We have reproduced these results with several autoregressive models. We have also shown applications to a climate change problem and a financial analysis problem. For the former, reconfirmed is the role of the Indian Ocean Dipole as ...

Liang, X San

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal densities derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Generation of Gaussian Density Fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This document describes analytical and numerical techniques for the generation of Gaussian density fields, which represent cosmological density perturbations. The mathematical techniques involved in the generation of density harmonics in k-space, the filtering of the density fields, and the normalization of the power spectrum to the measured temperature fluctuations of the Cosmic Microwave Background, are presented in details. These techniques are well-known amongst experts, but the current literature lacks a formal description. I hope that this technical report will prove useful to new researchers moving into this field, sparing them the task of reinventing the wheel.

Hugo Martel

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

42

Computing Instantaneous Frequency by normalizing Hilbert Transform  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention presents Normalized Amplitude Hilbert Transform (NAHT) and Normalized Hilbert Transform(NHT), both of which are new methods for computing Instantaneous Frequency. This method is designed specifically to circumvent the limitation set by the Bedorsian and Nuttal Theorems, and to provide a sharp local measure of error when the quadrature and the Hilbert Transform do not agree. Motivation for this method is that straightforward application of the Hilbert Transform followed by taking the derivative of the phase-angle as the Instantaneous Frequency (IF) leads to a common mistake made up to this date. In order to make the Hilbert Transform method work, the data has to obey certain restrictions.

Huang, Norden E.

2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

43

Conformal Deformation from Normal to Hermitian Random Matrix Ensembles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the eigenvalues statistics of ensembles of normal random matrices when their order N tends to infinite. In the model the eigenvalues have uniform density within a region determined by a simple analytic polynomial curve. We study the conformal deformations of normal random ensembles to Hermitian random ensembles and give sufficient conditions for the latter to be a Wigner ensemble.

Alexei M. Veneziani; Tiago Pereira; Domingos H. U. Marchetti

2009-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

44

Contractions of product density operators of systems of identical fermions and bosons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recurrence and explicit formulae for contractions (partial traces) of antisymmetric and symmetric products of identical trace class operators are derived. Contractions of product density operators of systems of identical fermions and bosons are proved to be asymptotically equivalent to, respectively, antisymmetric and symmetric products of density operators of a single particle, multiplied by a normalization integer. The asymptotic equivalence relation is defined in terms of the thermodynamic limit of expectation values of observables in the states represented by given density operators. For some weaker relation of asymptotic equivalence, concerning the thermodynamic limit of expectation values of product observables, normalized antisymmetric and symmetric products of density operators of a single particle are shown to be equivalent to tensor products of density operators of a single particle. This paper presents the results of a part of the author's thesis [W. Radzki, "Kummer contractions of product density matrices of systems of $n$ fermions and $n$ bosons" (Polish), MS thesis, Institute of Physics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toru\\'{n}, 1999].

Wiktor Radzki

2008-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

45

How to Calculate Molecular Column Density  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The calculation of the molecular column density from molecular spectral (rotational or ro-vibrational) transition measurements is one of the most basic quantities derived from molecular spectroscopy. Starting from first principles where we describe the basic physics behind the radiative and collisional excitation of molecules and the radiative transfer of their emission, we derive a general expression for the molecular column density. As the calculation of the molecular column density involves a knowledge of the molecular energy level degeneracies, rotational partition functions, dipole moment matrix elements, and line strengths, we include generalized derivations of these molecule-specific quantities. Given that approximations to the column density equation are often useful, we explore the optically thin, optically thick, and low-frequency limits to our derived general molecular column density relation. We also evaluate the limitations of the common assumption that the molecular excitation temperature is con...

Mangum, Jeffrey G

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Innovative fuel designs for high power density pressurized water reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One of the ways to lower the cost of nuclear energy is to increase the power density of the reactor core. Features of fuel design that enhance the potential for high power density are derived based on characteristics of ...

Feng, Dandong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Nuclear Energy Density Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We carry out state-of-the-art optimization of a nuclear energy density of Skyrme type in the framework of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) theory. The particle-hole and particle-particle channels are optimized simultaneously, and the experimental data set includes both spherical and deformed nuclei. The new model-based, derivative-free optimization algorithm used in this work has been found to be significantly better than standard optimization methods in terms of reliability, speed, accuracy, and precision. The resulting parameter set UNEDFpre results in good agreement with experimental masses, radii, and deformations and seems to be free of finite-size instabilities. An estimate of the reliability of the obtained parameterization is given, based on standard statistical methods. We discuss new physics insights offered by the advanced covariance analysis.

M. Kortelainen; T. Lesinski; J. Moré; W. Nazarewicz; J. Sarich; N. Schunck; M. V. Stoitsov; S. Wild

2010-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

48

Normal matter storage of antiprotons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Various simple issues connected with the possible storage of anti p in relative proximity to normal matter are discussed. Although equilibrium storage looks to be impossible, condensed matter systems are sufficiently rich and controllable that nonequilibrium storage is well worth pursuing. Experiments to elucidate the anti p interactions with normal matter are suggested. 32 refs.

Campbell, L.J.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

IMPROVING AND EXPANDING PRECISION ORBIT DERIVED ATMOSPHERIC DENSITIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and the area facing the Earth, were determined so that these areas could be used to estimate the atmospheric drag, the force due to solar radiation pressure, and the force due to Earth radiation pressure (infrared and Earth albedo). This was done for both Terra...

Mysore Krishna, Dhaval

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

50

Rates of Convergence of Extremes from Skew Normal Samples  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a standard skew-normal distribution with shape parameter R (written as X SN()) if its probability density); population structure of Schima superba in Qingliangfeng National Nature Reserve (Liu et al., 2011); rain); modeling of seasonal rainfall in Africa (Siebert and Ward, 2011); modeling of HIV viral loads

Sidorov, Nikita

51

A Statistical Selection Strategy for Normalization Procedures in LC-MS Proteomics Experiments through Dataset Dependent Ranking of Normalization Scaling Factors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quantification of LC-MS peak intensities assigned during peptide identification in a typical comparative proteomics experiment will deviate from run-to-run of the instrument due to both technical and biological variation. Thus, normalization of peak intensities across a LC-MS proteomics dataset is a fundamental step in pre-processing. However, the downstream analysis of LC-MS proteomics data can be dramatically affected by the normalization method selected . Current normalization procedures for LC-MS proteomics data are presented in the context of normalization values derived from subsets of the full collection of identified peptides. The distribution of these normalization values is unknown a priori. If they are not independent from the biological factors associated with the experiment the normalization process can introduce bias into the data, which will affect downstream statistical biomarker discovery. We present a novel approach to evaluate normalization strategies, where a normalization strategy includes the peptide selection component associated with the derivation of normalization values. Our approach evaluates the effect of normalization on the between-group variance structure in order to identify candidate normalization strategies that improve the structure of the data without introducing bias into the normalized peak intensities.

Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Waters, Katrina M.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

The effective density of randomly moving electrons and related characteristics of materials with degenerate electron gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interpretation of the conductivity of metals, of superconductors in the normal state and of semiconductors with highly degenerate electron gas remains a significant issue if consideration is based on the classical statistics. This study is addressed to the characterization of the effective density of randomly moving electrons and to the evaluation of carrier diffusion coefficient, mobility, and other parameters by generalization of the widely published experimental results. The generalized expressions have been derived for various kinetic parameters attributed to the non-degenerate and degenerate electron gas, by analyzing a random motion of the single type carriers in homogeneous materials. The values of the most important kinetic parameters for different metals are also systematized and discussed. It has been proved that Einstein's relation between the diffusion coefficient and the drift mobility of electrons is held for any level of degeneracy if the effective density of randomly moving carriers is properly taken into account.

Palenskis, V., E-mail: vilius.palenskis@ff.vu.lt [Radiophysics Department, Faculty of Physics, Vilnius University, Saul?tekio al. 9, LT-10222, Vilnius (Lithuania)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

53

The Properties of Galaxies in Low Density Regions from the ALFALFA Survey  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Galaxies detected in the 21-cm line of neutral hydrogen (HI) from the on-going Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) blind extragalactic HI survey have been cross-correlated with Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (Abazajian et al. 2009) in order to define a reference sample of HI content in regions of low galactic density. This observational sample will be used in the future to derive new standards of normal atomic gas content that allow a statistical investigation of the HI properties of galaxies in differing environments of the local universe. As a previous step, we compare here morphological indicators, like color or light concentration index, of ALFALFA detections and non-detections in low density regions. Our examination is extended also to a small data set of isolated galaxies. This kind of analysis is necessary in order to characterize as accurately as possible the type of galaxies that ALFALFA is detecting.

Toribio, M C

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

EFFECTIVE MAXWELL EQUATIONS FROM TIME-DEPENDENT DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECTIVE MAXWELL EQUATIONS FROM TIME-DEPENDENT DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY WEINAN E, JIANFENG LU and magnetic fields are derived starting from time-dependent density functional theory. Effective permittivity with the density functional theory [2­4] instead of the many-body Schr¨odinger or Dirac equations. This is because

Bigelow, Stephen

55

The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The Number and Luminosity Density of Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the bivariate brightness distribution (BBD) for the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) based on a preliminary subsample of 45,000 galaxies. The BBD is an extension of the galaxy luminosity function incorporating surface brightness information. It allows the measurement of the local luminosity density, j_B, and the galaxy luminosity and surface brightness distributions while accounting for surface brightness selection biases. The recovered 2dFGRS BBD shows a strong surface brightness-luminosity relation (M_B~2.4\\mu_e). The luminosity-density is dominated by normal galaxies and the luminosity-density peak lies away from the selection boundaries implying that the 2dFGRS is complete and that luminous low surface brightness galaxies are rare. The final value we derive for the local luminosity-density, inclusive of surface brightness corrections, is: j_B=2.49+/-0.20x10^8 h L_solar Mpc^-3. Representative Schechter function parameters are: M*=-19.75+/-0.05, phi*=2.02+/-0.02x10^-2 and alpha=-1.09+/-0.03. Extending the conventional methodology to incorporate surface brightness selection effects has resulted in an increase in the luminosity-density of 37%.

Nicholas Cross; Simon P. Driver; Warrick Couch; Carlton M. Baugh; Joss Bland-Hawthorn; Terry Bridges; Russell Cannon; Shaun Cole; Matthew Colless; Chris Collins; Gavin Dalton; Kathryn Deeley; Roberto De Propris; George Efstathiou; Richard S. Ellis; Carlos S. Frenk; Karl Glazebrook; Carole Jackson; Ofer Lahav; Ian Lewis; Stuart Lumsden; Steve Maddox; Darren Madgwick; Stephen Moody; Peder Norberg; John A. Peacock; Bruce A. Peterson; Ian Price; Mark Seaborne; Will Sutherland; Helen Tadros; Keith Taylor

2002-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

56

Density Functional Study of Perovskite Superconductor MgCNi{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We here report the first principle density functional study of MgCNi{sub 3} which crystallize in cubic perovskite structure having critical transition temperature of 8 K. The interesting aspect of this compound is that in normal state it is non magnetic in nature despite conduction electrons in it are derived from partially filled Ni d states, which typically lead to ferromagnetism in metallic Ni and many Ni-based binary alloys. To investigate the detailed microscopic origin of the non magnetic nature we have done density functional based calculations on this compound. The lattice constant is calculated using minimum energy criteria from total energy versus lattice constant plot. By taking the calculated values of lattice constant we have done the precise calculations on the compound using Full Potential Linear Augmented Plane Wave (FP-LAPW) method implemented in ELK code. The electronic density of states is found spin degenerate that corresponds to a non-magnetic ground state. The density of states (DOS) at Fermi level, N(E{sub F}) is dominated by Ni-d states. The sharp peak observed just below Fermi level corresponds to van Hove singularity (vHs). The projected density of states (PDOS) suggests a strong hybridization of Ni-3d and C-2p states which is responsible for the observed non magnetic nature of MgCNi{sub 3}.

Kumar, Jagdish [Quantum Phenomena and Application Division, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India); Department of Physics, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla-171005 (India); Sharma, Devina [Quantum Phenomena and Application Division, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India); Department of Physics, Panjab University Chandigarah-160014 (India); Kumar, Ranjan [Department of Physics, Panjab University Chandigarah-160014 (India); Awana, V. P. S. [Quantum Phenomena and Application Division, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India); Ahluwalia, P. K. [Department of Physics, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla-171005 (India)

2011-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

57

Normality of Monte Carlo criticality eigenfunction decomposition coefficients  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A proof is presented, which shows that after a single Monte Carlo (MC) neutron transport power method iteration without normalization, the coefficients of an eigenfunction decomposition of the fission source density are normally distributed when using analog or implicit capture MC. Using a Pearson correlation coefficient test, the proof is corroborated by results from a uniform slab reactor problem, and those results also suggest that the coefficients are normally distributed with normalization. The proof and numerical test results support the application of earlier work on the convergence of eigenfunctions under stochastic operators. Knowledge of the Gaussian shape of decomposition coefficients allows researchers to determine an appropriate level of confidence in the distribution of fission sites taken from a MC simulation. This knowledge of the shape of the probability distributions of decomposition coefficients encourages the creation of new predictive convergence diagnostics. (authors)

Toth, B. E.; Martin, W. R. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Griesheimer, D. P. [Bechtel Bettis, Inc., P.O. Box 79, West Mifflin, PA 15122 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Pair densities in density functional theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The exact interaction energy of a many-electron system is determined by the electron pair density, which is not well-approximated in standard Kohn-Sham density functional models. Here we study the (complicated but well-defined) exact universal map from density to pair density. We show that many common functionals, including the most basic version of the LDA (Dirac exchange with no correlation contribution), arise from particular approximations of this map. We develop an algorithm to compute the map numerically, and apply it to one-parameter families {a*rho(a*x)} of one-dimensional homogeneous and inhomogeneous single-particle densities. We observe that the pair density develops remarkable multiscale patterns which strongly depend on both the particle number and the "width" 1/a of the single-particle density. The simulation results are confirmed by rigorous asymptotic results in the limiting regimes a>>1 and a<<1. For one-dimensional homogeneous systems, we show that the whole spectrum of patterns is rep...

Chen, Huajie

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Normalized cDNA libraries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

Soares, Marcelo B. (New York, NY); Efstratiadis, Argiris (Englewood, NJ)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Normalized cDNA libraries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3{prime} noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 4 figs.

Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal densities derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Equation for liquid density  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Saturated liquid densities for organic chemicals are given as functions of temperature using a modified Rackett equation.

Yaws, C.L.; Yang, H.C.; Hopper, J.R.; Cawley, W.A. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (US))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Density functional theory for carbon dioxide crystal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a density functional approach to describe the solid?liquid phase transition, interfacial and crystal structure, and properties of polyatomic CO{sub 2}. Unlike previous phase field crystal model or density functional theory, which are derived from the second order direct correlation function, the present density functional approach is based on the fundamental measure theory for hard-sphere repulsion in solid. More importantly, the contributions of enthalpic interactions due to the dispersive attractions and of entropic interactions arising from the molecular architecture are integrated in the density functional model. Using the theoretical model, the predicted liquid and solid densities of CO{sub 2} at equilibrium triple point are in good agreement with the experimental values. Based on the structure of crystal-liquid interfaces in different planes, the corresponding interfacial tensions are predicted. Their respective accuracies need to be tested.

Chang, Yiwen; Mi, Jianguo, E-mail: mijg@mail.buct.edu.cn; Zhong, Chongli [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

63

Derivation of a Stochastic Neutron Transport Equation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stochastic difference equations and a stochastic partial differential equation (SPDE) are simultaneously derived for the time-dependent neutron angular density in a general three-dimensional medium where the neutron angular density is a function of position, direction, energy, and time. Special cases of the equations are given such as transport in one-dimensional plane geometry with isotropic scattering and transport in a homogeneous medium. The stochastic equations are derived from basic principles, i.e., from the changes that occur in a small time interval. Stochastic difference equations of the neutron angular density are constructed, taking into account the inherent randomness in scatters, absorptions, and source neutrons. As the time interval decreases, the stochastic difference equations lead to a system of Ito stochastic differential equations (SDEs). As the energy, direction, and position intervals decrease, an SPDE is derived for the neutron angular density. Comparisons between numerical solutions of the stochastic difference equations and independently formulated Monte Carlo calculations support the accuracy of the derivations.

Edward J. Allen

2010-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

64

Josephson oscillations of charge density waves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation of charge density waves in solids was originally proposed as a possible mechanism for superconductivity by Froehlich. Although the experimentally discovered materials with charge density waves (CDW)s are found to have finite resistivity as a result of impurity pinning, they nevertheless reveal many interesting features including motion which is analogous to a resistively shunted Josephson junction of superconductors. The noise spectrum of CDW systems is reviewed with particular emphasis on interactions with normal as well as magnetic impurities. Future prospects for observing an amplitude variation of the noise signals induced by a magnetic field are proposed.

Ruvalds, J.; Tua, P.F.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

atheroprotective high-density lipoprotein: Topics by E-print...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the mean-field energy functional. By studying the latter we derive global properties of high-density ground state configurations in bounded domains and in infinite space. Our main...

66

Normal completely positive maps on the space of quantum operations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We define a class of higher-order linear maps that transform quantum operations into quantum operations and satisfy suitable requirements of normality and complete positivity. For this class of maps we prove two dilation theorems which are the analogues of the Stinespring and Radon-Nikodym theorems for quantum operations. A structure theorem for probability measures with values in this class of higher-order maps is also derived.

Chiribella, G; Umanità, V

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Dynamical density functional theory for colloidal particles with arbitrary shape  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Starting from the many-particle Smoluchowski equation, we derive dynamical density functional theory for Brownian particles with an arbitrary shape. Both passive and active (self-propelled) particles are considered. The resulting theory constitutes a microscopic framework to explore the collective dynamical behavior of biaxial particles in nonequilibrium. For spherical and uniaxial particles, earlier derived dynamical density functional theories are recovered as special cases. Our study is motivated by recent experimental progress in preparing colloidal particles with many different biaxial shapes.

Raphael Wittkowski; Hartmut Löwen

2011-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

68

CONVERGENCE OF DERIVATIVE APPROXIMATIONS IN THE INVERSE CONDUCTIVITY PROBLEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

., Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH, 43403­0221 1 #12; CONVERGENCE OF FRECH ' ET DERIVATIVES of steady­state voltage potential and current density at the boundary @\\Omega from one or more (say, m â?? 1

Wade, Gordon

69

Cascaded target normal sheath acceleration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cascaded target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) scheme is proposed to simultaneously increase energy and improve energy spread of a laser-produced mono-energetic proton beam. An optimum condition that uses the maximum sheath field to accelerate the center of the proton beam is theoretically found and verified by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. An initial 10 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 21 MeV with energy spread decreased from 5% to 2% under the optimum condition during the process of the cascaded TNSA. The scheme opens a way to scale proton energy lineally with laser energy.

Wang, W. P.; Shen, B. F.; Zhang, X. M.; Wang, X. F.; Xu, J. C.; Zhao, X. Y.; Yu, Y. H.; Yi, L. Q.; Shi, Y.; Zhang, L. G.; Xu, T. J.; Xu, Z. Z. [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

Inverse diffusion from knowledge of power densities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper concerns the reconstruction of a diffusion coefficient in an elliptic equation from knowledge of several power densities. The power density is the product of the diffusion coefficient with the square of the modulus of the gradient of the elliptic solution. The derivation of such internal functionals comes from perturbing the medium of interest by acoustic (plane) waves, which results in small changes in the diffusion coefficient. After appropriate asymptotic expansions and (Fourier) transformation, this allow us to construct the power density of the equation point-wise inside the domain. Such a setting finds applications in ultrasound modulated electrical impedance tomography and ultrasound modulated optical tomography. We show that the diffusion coefficient can be uniquely and stably reconstructed from knowledge of a sufficient large number of power densities. Explicit expressions for the reconstruction of the diffusion coefficient are also provided. Such results hold for a large class of boundary...

Bal, Guillaume; Monard, Francois; Triki, Faouzi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Density-dependent covariant energy density functionals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Relativistic nuclear energy density functionals are applied to the description of a variety of nuclear structure phenomena at and away fromstability line. Isoscalar monopole, isovector dipole and isoscalar quadrupole giant resonances are calculated using fully self-consistent relativistic quasiparticle randomphase approximation, based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubovmodel. The impact of pairing correlations on the fission barriers in heavy and superheavy nuclei is examined. The role of pion in constructing desnity functionals is also investigated.

Lalazissis, G. A. [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 (Greece)

2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

72

Massive Gravity from Higher Derivative Gravity with Boundary Conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With an appropriate choice of parameters, a higher derivative theory of gravity can describe a normal massive sector and a ghost massless sector. We show that, when defined on an asymptotically de Sitter spacetime with Dirichlet boundary conditions, such a higher derivative gravity can provide a framework for a unitary theory of massive gravity in four spacetime dimensions. The resulting theory is free not only of higher derivative ghosts but also of the Boulware-Deser mode.

Minjoon Park; Lorenzo Sorbo

2012-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

73

Density functional theory for self-bound systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The density functional theory is extended to account for self-bound systems. To this end the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem is formulated for the intrinsic density and a Kohn-Sham like procedure for an $N$--body system is derived using the adiabatic approximation to account for the center of mass motion.

Nir Barnea

2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

74

Constraints on the density dependence of the symmetry energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Collisions involving 112Sn and 124Sn nuclei have been simulated with the improved Quantum Molecular Dynamics transport model. The results of the calculations reproduce isospin diffusion data from two different observables and the ratios of neutron and proton spectra. By comparing these data to calculations performed over a range of symmetry energies at saturation density and different representations of the density dependence of the symmetry energy, constraints on the density dependence of the symmetry energy at sub-normal density are obtained. Results from present work are compared to constraints put forward in other recent analysis.

M. B. Tsang; Yingxun Zhang; P. Danielewicz; M. Famiano; Zhuxia Li; W. G. Lynch; A. W. Steiner

2008-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

75

Constraints on the density dependence of the symmetry energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Collisions involving 112Sn and 124Sn nuclei have been simulated with the improved Quantum Molecular Dynamics transport model. The results of the calculations reproduce isospin diffusion data from two different observables and the ratios of neutron and proton spectra. By comparing these data to calculations performed over a range of symmetry energies at saturation density and different representations of the density dependence of the symmetry energy, constraints on the density dependence of the symmetry energy at sub-normal density are obtained. Results from present work are compared to constraints put forward in other recent analysis.

Tsang, M B; Danielewicz, P; Famiano, M; Li, Zhuxia; Lynch, W G; Steiner, A W

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Analytic cubic and quartic force fields using density-functional theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the first analytic implementation of cubic and quartic force constants at the level of Kohn–Sham density-functional theory. The implementation is based on an open-ended formalism for the evaluation of energy derivatives in an atomic-orbital basis. The implementation relies on the availability of open-ended codes for evaluation of one- and two-electron integrals differentiated with respect to nuclear displacements as well as automatic differentiation of the exchange–correlation kernels. We use generalized second-order vibrational perturbation theory to calculate the fundamental frequencies of methane, ethane, benzene, and aniline, comparing B3LYP, BLYP, and Hartree–Fock results. The Hartree–Fock anharmonic corrections agree well with the B3LYP corrections when calculated at the B3LYP geometry and from B3LYP normal coordinates, suggesting that the inclusion of electron correlation is not essential for the reliable calculation of cubic and quartic force constants.

Ringholm, Magnus; Gao, Bin; Thorvaldsen, Andreas J.; Ruud, Kenneth [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry (CTCC), Department of Chemistry, University of Tromsø—The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø (Norway)] [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry (CTCC), Department of Chemistry, University of Tromsø—The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø (Norway); Jonsson, Dan [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry (CTCC), Department of Chemistry, University of Tromsø—The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø (Norway) [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry (CTCC), Department of Chemistry, University of Tromsø—The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø (Norway); High Performance Computing Group, University of Tromsø—The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø (Norway); Bast, Radovan [Theoretical Chemistry and Biology, School of Biotechnology, Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova University Center, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden and PDC Center for High Performance Computing, Royal Institute of Technology, S-10044 Stockholm (Sweden)] [Theoretical Chemistry and Biology, School of Biotechnology, Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova University Center, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden and PDC Center for High Performance Computing, Royal Institute of Technology, S-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Ekström, Ulf; Helgaker, Trygve [Center for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry (CTCC), Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033, Blindern, 0315 Oslo (Norway)] [Center for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry (CTCC), Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033, Blindern, 0315 Oslo (Norway)

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

77

Turing's normal numbers: towards randomness Veronica Becher  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

presumably in 1938 Alan Turing gave an algorithm that produces real numbers normal to every integer base- putable normal numbers, and this result should be attributed to Alan Turing. His manuscript entitled "A

78

SMITH NORMAL FORM AND LAPLACIANS DINO LORENZINI  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SMITH NORMAL FORM AND LAPLACIANS DINO LORENZINI Abstract. Let M denote the Laplacian matrix of a graph G. Associated with G is a finite group (G), obtained from the Smith normal form of M, and whose /Im(M). This group can be computed in practice using the Smith normal form of M, as follows. Given any

Lorenzini, Dino J.

79

Combinatorial Maps with Normalized Knot Dainis ZEPS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combinatorial Maps with Normalized Knot Dainis ZEPS Abstract We consider combinatorial maps's normalization doesn't affect combinatorial map what concerns its generality. Knot's normalization leads to more concise numeration of corners in maps, e.g., odd or even corners allow easy to follow distinguished cycles

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

80

MODELING THE REDSHIFT EVOLUTION OF THE NORMAL GALAXY X-RAY LUMINOSITY FUNCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emission from X-ray binaries (XRBs) is a major component of the total X-ray luminosity of normal galaxies, so X-ray studies of high-redshift galaxies allow us to probe the formation and evolution of XRBs on very long timescales ({approx}10 Gyr). In this paper, we present results from large-scale population synthesis models of binary populations in galaxies from z = 0 to {approx}20. We use as input into our modeling the Millennium II Cosmological Simulation and the updated semi-analytic galaxy catalog by Guo et al. to self-consistently account for the star formation history (SFH) and metallicity evolution of each galaxy. We run a grid of 192 models, varying all the parameters known from previous studies to affect the evolution of XRBs. We use our models and observationally derived prescriptions for hot gas emission to create theoretical galaxy X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) for several redshift bins. Models with low common envelope efficiencies, a 50% twins mass ratio distribution, a steeper initial mass function exponent, and high stellar wind mass-loss rates best match observational results from Tzanavaris and Georgantopoulos, though they significantly underproduce bright early-type and very bright (L{sub x} > 10{sup 41}) late-type galaxies. These discrepancies are likely caused by uncertainties in hot gas emission and SFHs, active galactic nucleus contamination, and a lack of dynamically formed low-mass XRBs. In our highest likelihood models, we find that hot gas emission dominates the emission for most bright galaxies. We also find that the evolution of the normal galaxy X-ray luminosity density out to z = 4 is driven largely by XRBs in galaxies with X-ray luminosities between 10{sup 40} and 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}.

Tremmel, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, U.W., Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, U.W., Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Fragos, T.; Zezas, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)] [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lehmer, B. D.; Tzanavaris, P. [The Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)] [The Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Belczynski, K. [Astronomical Observatory, University of Warsaw, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw (Poland)] [Astronomical Observatory, University of Warsaw, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw (Poland); Kalogera, V.; Farr, W. M. [Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Exploration in Astrophysics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)] [Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Exploration in Astrophysics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Basu-Zych, A. R.; Hornschemeier, A.; Jenkins, L.; Ptak, A., E-mail: mjt29@astro.washington.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Centre, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal densities derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

A Bayesian Probability Calculus for Density Matrices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One of the main concepts in quantum physics is a density matrix, which is a symmetric positive definite matrix of trace one. Finite probability distributions are a special case where the density matrix is restricted to be diagonal. Density matrices are mixtures of dyads, where a dyad has the form uu' for any any unit column vector u. These unit vectors are the elementary events of the generalized probability space. Perhaps the simplest case to see that something unusual is going on is the case of uniform density matrix, i.e. 1/n times identity. This matrix assigns probability 1/n to every unit vector, but of course there are infinitely many of them. The new normalization rule thus says that sum of probabilities over any orthonormal basis of directions is one. We develop a probability calculus based on these more general distributions that includes definitions of joints, conditionals and formulas that relate these, i.e. analogs of the theorem of total probability, various Bayes rules for the calculation of posterior density matrices, etc. The resulting calculus parallels the familiar 'classical' probability calculus and always retains the latter as a special case when all matrices are diagonal. Whereas the classical Bayesian methods maintain uncertainty about which model is 'best', the generalization maintains uncertainty about which unit direction has the largest variance. Surprisingly the bounds also generalize: as in the classical setting we bound the negative log likelihood of the data by the negative log likelihood of the MAP estimator.

Manfred K. Warmuth; Dima Kuzmin

2014-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

82

Derivative actions in China   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The enactment of derivative action was expected to be actively used by shareholders to protect their interests. In fact, it turned out that this reform effort seemed futile as the right to engage in such actions was ...

Lin, Shaowei

2014-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

83

Notes on Yurok Derivation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of root. Different finals distinguish transitive from intransitive verbs. Some are abstract, some concrete. Elements are generally joined by one of two link vowels, e and o. Yurok nouns and particles are simpler in structure, but a few derivational finals...

Proulx, Paul

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Dynamic Derivative Strategies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper studies the optimal investment strategy of an investor who can access not only the bond and the stock markets, but also the derivatives market. We consider the investment situation where, in addition to the usual ...

Liu, Jun

2003-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

85

Density Matrix Topological Insulators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal noise can destroy topological insulators (TI). However we demonstrate how TIs can be made stable in dissipative systems. To that aim, we introduce the notion of band Liouvillian as the dissipative counterpart of band Hamiltonian, and show a method to evaluate the topological order of its steady state. This is based on a generalization of the Chern number valid for general mixed states (referred to as density matrix Chern value), which witnesses topological order in a system coupled to external noise. Additionally, we study its relation with the electrical conductivity at finite temperature, which is not a topological property. Nonetheless, the density matrix Chern value represents the part of the conductivity which is topological due to the presence of quantum mixed edge states at finite temperature. To make our formalism concrete, we apply these concepts to the two-dimensional Haldane model in the presence of thermal dissipation, but our results hold for arbitrary dimensions and density matrices.

A. Rivas; O. Viyuela; M. A. Martin-Delgado

2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

86

From massive gravity to dark matter density II  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As previously observed the massless limit of massive gravity leads to a modification of general relativity. Here we study spherically symmetric solutions of the modified field equations which contain normal matter together with a dark energy density. If the dark density profile is assumed to be known, the whole problem is reduced to a linear first order differential equation which can be solved by quadratures.

G. Scharf

2009-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

87

Density Functional Theory for Superconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Density Functional Theory for Superconductors LATHIOTAKIS, A. MARQUES, 1,2,3 LU DERS, L. FAST, 2004 words: theory superconductors; density functional theory; critical temperature; exchange matter physics theoretical chemistry is density functional theory (DFT). foundations were established mid

Gross, E.K.U.

88

Physics of collisionless scrape-off-layer plasma during normal and off-normal Tokamak operating conditions.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structure of a collisionless scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasma in tokamak reactors is being studied to define the electron distribution function and the corresponding sheath potential between the divertor plate and the edge plasma. The collisionless model is shown to be valid during the thermal phase of a plasma disruption, as well as during the newly desired low-recycling normal phase of operation with low-density, high-temperature, edge plasma conditions. An analytical solution is developed by solving the Fokker-Planck equation for electron distribution and balance in the SOL. The solution is in good agreement with numerical studies using Monte-Carlo methods. The analytical solutions provide an insight to the role of different physical and geometrical processes in a collisionless SOL during disruptions and during the enhanced phase of normal operation over a wide range of parameters.

Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, I.

1999-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

89

Multiple density layered insulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed which provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation. 4 figs.

Alger, T.W.

1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

90

Multiple density layered insulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed wh provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation.

Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Energy in density gradient  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inhomogeneous plasmas and fluids contain energy stored in inhomogeneity and they naturally tend to relax into lower energy states by developing instabilities or by diffusion. But the actual amount of energy in such inhomogeneities has remained unknown. In the present work the amount of energy stored in a density gradient is calculated for several specific density profiles in a cylindric configuration. This is of practical importance for drift wave instability in various plasmas, and in particular in its application in models dealing with the heating of solar corona because the instability is accompanied with stochastic heating, so the energy contained in inhomogeneity is effectively transformed into heat. It is shown that even for a rather moderate increase of the density at the axis in magnetic structures in the corona by a factor 1.5 or 3, the amount of excess energy per unit volume stored in such a density gradient becomes several orders of magnitude greater than the amount of total energy losses per unit ...

Vranjes, J

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Orbital-optimized density cumulant functional theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In density cumulant functional theory (DCFT) the electronic energy is evaluated from the one-particle density matrix and two-particle density cumulant, circumventing the computation of the wavefunction. To achieve this, the one-particle density matrix is decomposed exactly into the mean-field (idempotent) and correlation components. While the latter can be entirely derived from the density cumulant, the former must be obtained by choosing a specific set of orbitals. In the original DCFT formulation [W. Kutzelnigg, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 171101 (2006)] the orbitals were determined by diagonalizing the effective Fock operator, which introduces partial orbital relaxation. Here we present a new orbital-optimized formulation of DCFT where the energy is variationally minimized with respect to orbital rotations. This introduces important energy contributions and significantly improves the description of the dynamic correlation. In addition, it greatly simplifies the computation of analytic gradients, for which expressions are also presented. We offer a perturbative analysis of the new orbital stationarity conditions and benchmark their performance for a variety of chemical systems.

Sokolov, Alexander Yu., E-mail: asokolov@uga.edu; Schaefer, Henry F. [Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States)] [Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States)

2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

93

Lambda hyperonic effect on the normal driplines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A generalized mass formula is used to calculate the neutron and proton drip lines of normal and lambda hypernuclei treating non-strange and strange nuclei on the same footing. Calculations suggest existence of several bound hypernuclei whose normal cores are unbound. Addition of Lambda or, Lambda-Lambda hyperon(s) to a normal nucleus is found to cause shifts of the neutron and proton driplines from their conventional limits.

C. Samanta; P. Roy Chowdhury; D. N. Basu

2008-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

94

Indirect methods of determination of the asymptotic normalization coefficients and their application for nuclear astrophysics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The basic methods of the determination of asymptotic normalization coefficient for A+a?B of astrophysical interest are briefly presented. The results of the application of the specific asymptotic normalization coefficients derived within these methods for the extrapolation of the astrophysical S factors to experimentally inaccessible energy regions (E ? 25 keV) for the some specific radiative capture A(a,?)B reactions of the pp-chain and the CNO cycle are presented.

Yarmukhamedov, R. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, 100214 Tashkent (Uzbekistan)

2014-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

95

AUGUSTOSAGNOTTI ScuolaNormaleSuperiore-Pisa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

JoelScherk,unfisicodell'Eco- le Normale Supérieure di Parigi scomparso prematuramente nel- l'80. La stessa Teoria, creata nel 1968

Abbondandolo, Alberto

96

alla Normale 1_la Scuola 9  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

funzione che in Francia viene svolta dalla gemella �cole Normale Supérieure di Parigi. A questa antica

Abbondandolo, Alberto

97

Conformal Universality in Normal Matrix Ensembles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A remarkable property of Hermitian ensembles is their universal behavior, that is, once properly rescaled the eigenvalue statistics does not depend on particularities of the ensemble. Recently, normal matrix ensembles have attracted increasing attention, however, questions on universality for these ensembles still remain under debate. We analyze the universality properties of random normal ensembles. We show that the concept of universality used for Hermitian ensembles cannot be directly extrapolated to normal ensembles. Moreover, we show that the eigenvalue statistics of random normal matrices with radially symmetric potential can be made universal under a conformal transformation.

Alexei M. Veneziani; Tiago Pereira; Domingos H. U. Marchetti

2009-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

98

Nuclear energy density optimization: Shell structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nuclear density functional theory is the only microscopical theory that can be applied throughout the entire nuclear landscape. Its key ingredient is the energy density functional. In this work, we propose a new parameterization UNEDF2 of the Skyrme energy density functional. The functional optimization is carried out using the POUNDerS optimization algorithm within the framework of the Skyrme Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory. Compared to the previous parameterization UNEDF1, restrictions on the tensor term of the energy density have been lifted, yielding a very general form of the energy density functional up to second order in derivatives of the one-body density matrix. In order to impose constraints on all the parameters of the functional, selected data on single-particle splittings in spherical doubly-magic nuclei have been included into the experimental dataset. The agreement with both bulk and spectroscopic nuclear properties achieved by the resulting UNEDF2 parameterization is comparable with UNEDF1. While there is a small improvement on single-particle spectra and binding energies of closed shell nuclei, the reproduction of fission barriers and fission isomer excitation energies has degraded. As compared to previous UNEDF parameterizations, the parameter confidence interval for UNEDF2 is narrower. In particular, our results overlap well with those obtained in previous systematic studies of the spin-orbit and tensor terms. UNEDF2 can be viewed as an all-around Skyrme EDF that performs reasonably well for both global nuclear properties and shell structure. However, after adding new data aiming to better constrain the nuclear functional, its quality has improved only marginally. These results suggest that the standard Skyrme energy density has reached its limits and significant changes to the form of the functional are needed.

M. Kortelainen; J. McDonnell; W. Nazarewicz; E. Olsen; P. -G. Reinhard; J. Sarich; N. Schunck; S. M. Wild; D. Davesne; J. Erler; A. Pastore

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

99

Unconventional fuel: Tire derived fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Material recovery of scrap tires for their fuel value has moved from a pioneering concept in the early 1980`s to a proven and continuous use in the United States` pulp and paper, utility, industrial, and cement industry. Pulp and paper`s use of tire derived fuel (TDF) is currently consuming tires at the rate of 35 million passenger tire equivalents (PTEs) per year. Twenty mills are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. The utility industry is currently consuming tires at the rate of 48 million PTEs per year. Thirteen utilities are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. The cement industry is currently consuming tires at the rate of 28 million PTEs per year. Twenty two cement plants are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. Other industrial boilers are currently consuming tires at the rate of 6.5 million PTEs per year. Four industrial boilers are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. In total, 59 facilities are currently burning over 117 million PTEs per year. Although 93% of these facilities were not engineered to burn TDF, it has become clear that TDF has found acceptance as a supplemental fuel when blending with conventional fuels in existing combustion devices designed for normal operating conditions. The issues of TDF as a supplemental fuel and its proper specifications are critical to the successful development of this fuel alternative. This paper will focus primarily on TDF`s use in a boiler type unit.

Hope, M.W. [Waste Recovery, Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Extremal unital completely positive normal maps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the convex set of unital completely positive normal map on a von-Neumann algebra and find a necessary and sufficient condition for an element in the convex set to be extremal. We also deal with the same problem for the convex subset which admits a faithful normal state.

Anilesh Mohari

2013-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal densities derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Uncertainty analysis of densities and isotopics: Handling correlations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses two cases of correlated parameters in uncertainty analyses: (1) the case of measured mass, density, and volume or spatial dimension correlations; and (2) the case of measured material isotopics, where increasing one atom fraction must cause the others to decrease. In the first case, an equation is derived that has a term due to uncertain density, a term due to uncertain dimensions, and a term due to the correlation between density and dimensions. In a numerical test problem, this equation gives the same result as the standard equation that treats mass and dimensions independently. In the case of isotopics, an equation is derived relating the uncertainty due to uncertain isotopic fractions to the sensitivities to isotopic densities, which are easier to calculate. The equation is verified in a test problem. (authors)

Favorite, J. A.; Armstrong, J. C. [X-Computational Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Burr, T. [Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Paper area density measurement from forward transmitted scattered light  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method whereby the average paper fiber area density (weight per unit area) can be directly calculated from the intensity of transmitted, scattered light at two different wavelengths, one being a non-absorpted wavelength. Also, the method makes it possible to derive the water percentage per fiber area density from a two-wavelength measurement. In the optical measuring technique optical transmitted intensity, for example, at 2.1 microns cellulose absorption line is measured and compared with another scattered, optical transmitted intensity reference in the nearby spectrum region, such as 1.68 microns, where there is no absorption. From the ratio of these two intensities, one can calculate the scattering absorption coefficient at 2.1 microns. This absorption coefficient at this wavelength is, then, experimentally correlated to the paper fiber area density. The water percentage per fiber area density can be derived from this two-wavelength measurement approach.

Koo, Jackson C. (San Ramon, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Density Evolution in the New Modified Chaplygin Gas Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we have considered new modified Chaplygin gas (NMCG) model which interpolates between radiation at early stage and $\\Lambda$CDM at late stage. This model is regarded as a unification of dark energy and dark matter (with general form of matter). We have derived the density parameters from the equation of motion for the interaction between dark energy and dark matter. Also we have studied the evolution of the various components of density parameters.

Surajit Chattopadhyay; Ujjal Debnath

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

High Energy Density Capacitors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

BEEST Project: Recapping is developing a capacitor that could rival the energy storage potential and price of today’s best EV batteries. When power is needed, the capacitor rapidly releases its stored energy, similar to lightning being discharged from a cloud. Capacitors are an ideal substitute for batteries if their energy storage capacity can be improved. Recapping is addressing storage capacity by experimenting with the material that separates the positive and negative electrodes of its capacitors. These separators could significantly improve the energy density of electrochemical devices.

None

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

PHYS 626 --Fundamentals of Plasma Physics --Section 6.4-6.5 1. Using the ideal MHD equation of motion, an energy equation can be derived. It is  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of motion, an energy equation can be derived. It is simply the continuity equation of energy density, which is the sum of kinetic energy density mU2 /2, magnetic energy density B2 /2µ0, and the internal energy density p/( -1). The total energy obtained by integrating the energy density over the whole space

Ng, Chung-Sang

106

The development of a correlation for determining oil density in high temperature reservoirs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) hydrogen su 1f ide carbon dioxide nitrogen methane ethane propane 13 iso-butane normal-butane iso-pentane normal-pentane hexane heptanes and heavier density of the heptanes and heavier fraction molecular weight of the heptanes and heavier... DIOXIDE IN THE MIXTURE (ALL SAMPLES) . . . . , . . . , . . . . . . , . . . . . . . 84 44 ? RESIDUALS FROM THE PREDICTED RESERVOIR FLUID DENSITY BEFORE FINAL NON-HYDROCARBON CORRECTIONS VERSUS THE WEIGHT FRACTION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE IN THE MIXTURE (ALL...

Witte, Thurman William

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Pushing schedule derivation method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of a Pushing Schedule Derivation Method has allowed the company to sustain the maximum production rate at CSH`s Coke Oven Battery, in spite of having single set oven machinery with a high failure index as well as a heat top tendency. The stated method provides for scheduled downtime of up to two hours for machinery maintenance purposes, periods of empty ovens for decarbonization and production loss recovery capability, while observing lower limits and uniformity of coking time.

Henriquez, B. [Compania Siderurgica Huachipato S.A., Talcahuano (Chile)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

108

Gluon density in nuclei  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this talk we present our detailed study (theory and numbers) on the shadowing corrections to the gluon structure functions for nuclei. Starting from rather controversial information on the nucleon structure function which is originated by the recent HERA data, we develop the Glauber approach for the gluon density in a nucleus based on Mueller formula and estimate the value of the shadowing corrections in this case. Then we calculate the first corrections to the Glauber approach and show that these corrections are big. Based on this practical observation we suggest the new evolution equation which takes into account the shadowing corrections and solve it. We hope to convince you that the new evolution equation gives a good theoretical tool to treat the shadowing corrections for the gluons density in a nucleus and, therefore, it is able to provide the theoretically reliable initial conditions for the time evolution of the nucleus-nucleus cascade. The initial conditions should be fixed both theoretically and phenomenologically before to attack such complicated problems as the mixture of hard and soft processes in nucleus-nucleus interactions at high energy or the theoretically reliable approach to hadron or/and parton cascades for high energy nucleus-nucleus interaction. 35 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

Ayala, A.L. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica][Pelotas Univ., RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica e Matematica; Ducati, M.B.G. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Levin, E.M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)][Nuclear Physics Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Constraining the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy from an X-ray bursting neutron star  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neutrons stars lighter than the Sun are basically composed of nuclear matter of density up to around twice normal nuclear density. In our recent analyses, we showed that possible simultaneous observations of masses and radii of such neutron stars could constrain $\\eta\\equiv(K_0L^2)^{1/3}$, a combination of the incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter $K_0$ and the density derivative of the nuclear symmetry energy $L$ that characterizes the theoretical mass-radius relation. In this paper, we focus on the mass-radius constraint of the X-ray burster 4U 1724-307 given by Suleimanov et al. (2011). We therefrom obtain the constraint that $\\eta$ should be larger than around 130 MeV, which in turn leads to $L$ larger than around 110, 98, 89, and 78 MeV for $K_0=180$, 230, 280, and 360 MeV. Such a constraint on $L$ is more or less consistent with that obtained from the frequencies of quasi-periodic oscillations in giant flares observed in soft-gamma repeaters.

Sotani, Hajime; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Constraining the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy from an X-ray bursting neutron star  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neutrons stars lighter than the Sun are basically composed of nuclear matter of density up to around twice normal nuclear density. In our recent analyses, we showed that possible simultaneous observations of masses and radii of such neutron stars could constrain $\\eta\\equiv(K_0L^2)^{1/3}$, a combination of the incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter $K_0$ and the density derivative of the nuclear symmetry energy $L$ that characterizes the theoretical mass-radius relation. In this paper, we focus on the mass-radius constraint of the X-ray burster 4U 1724-307 given by Suleimanov et al. (2011). We therefrom obtain the constraint that $\\eta$ should be larger than around 130 MeV, which in turn leads to $L$ larger than around 110, 98, 89, and 78 MeV for $K_0=180$, 230, 280, and 360 MeV. Such a constraint on $L$ is more or less consistent with that obtained from the frequencies of quasi-periodic oscillations in giant flares observed in soft-gamma repeaters.

Hajime Sotani; Kei Iida; Kazuhiro Oyamatsu

2015-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

111

Low density microcellular foams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular from which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 .mu.m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process.

LeMay, James D. (Castro Valley, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Low density microcellular foams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular foam which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 [mu]m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process. 8 figures.

LeMay, J.D.

1991-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

113

Low density microcellular foams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular foam which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 .mu.m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process.

LeMay, James D. (Castro Valley, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Density constrained TDHF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this manuscript we provide an outline of the numerical methods used in implementing the density constrained time-dependent Hartree-Fock (DC-TDHF) method and provide a few examples of its application to nuclear fusion. In this approach, dynamic microscopic calculations are carried out on a three-dimensional lattice and there are no adjustable parameters, the only input is the Skyrme effective NN interaction. After a review of the DC-TDHF theory and the numerical methods, we present results for heavy-ion potentials $V(R)$, coordinate-dependent mass parameters $M(R)$, and precompound excitation energies $E^{*}(R)$ for a variety of heavy-ion reactions. Using fusion barrier penetrabilities, we calculate total fusion cross sections $\\sigma(E_\\mathrm{c.m.})$ for reactions between both stable and neutron-rich nuclei. We also determine capture cross sections for hot fusion reactions leading to the formation of superheavy elements.

Oberacker, V E

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Density Functional Theory for Superconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Density Functional Theory for Superconductors N. N. LATHIOTAKIS,1,2 M. A. L. MARQUES,1,2,3 M. LU; density functional theory; critical temperature; exchange and correlation; phonon and theoretical chemistry is density functional theory (DFT). Its foundations were established in the mid-1960s

Gross, E.K.U.

116

Effective Maxwell equations from time-dependent density functional theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The behavior of interacting electrons in a perfect crystal under macroscopic external electric and magnetic fields is studied. Effective Maxwell equations for the macroscopic electric and magnetic fields are derived starting from time-dependent density functional theory. Effective permittivity and permeability coefficients are obtained.

Weinan E; Jianfeng Lu; Xu Yang

2010-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

117

Hard Sphere Dynamics for Normal and Granular Fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A fluid of N smooth, hard spheres is considered as a model for normal (elastic collisions) and granular (inelastic collisions) fluids. The potential energy is discontinuous for hard spheres so the pairwise forces are singular and the usual forms of Newtonian and Hamiltonian mechanics do not apply. Nevertheless, particle trajectories in the N particle phase space are well defined and the generators for these trajectories can be identified. The first part of this presentation is a review of the generators for the dynamics of observables and probability densities. The new results presented in the second part refer to applications of these generators to the Liouville dynamics for granular fluids. A set of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the generator for this Liouville dynamics is identified in a special "stationary representation". This provides a class of exact solutions to the Liouville equation that are closely related to hydrodynamics for granular fluids.

James W. Dufty; Aparna Baskaran

2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

118

Derivation Tree Based Genetic Programming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Derivation Tree Based Genetic Programming Summary of the Ph.D. Thesis by R´obert V´anyi supervisor presented in the Ph.D. thesis enti- tled Derivation Tree Based Genetic Programming. The thesis describes of the generated candidates. [6] 1.2 Proposed method The method presented in the thesis uses derivation trees

Fernandez, Thomas

119

Density of Configurational States from First-Principles Calculations: The Phase Diagram of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(LGH) using interatomic interaction energies derived from density functional theory (DFT) calculations,[3­7] together with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations (called "ab initio LGH+ MC"). Once the LGH has been

120

Canonical density matrix perturbation theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Density matrix perturbation theory [Niklasson and Challacombe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 193001 (2004)] is generalized to canonical (NVT) free energy ensembles in tight-binding, Hartree-Fock or Kohn-Sham density functional theory. The canonical density matrix perturbation theory can be used to calculate temperature dependent response properties from the coupled perturbed self-consistent field equations as in density functional perturbation theory. The method is well suited to take advantage of sparse matrix algebra to achieve linear scaling complexity in the computational cost as a function of system size for sufficiently large non-metallic materials and metals at high temperatures.

Niklasson, Anders M N; Rubensson, Emanuel H; Rudberg, Elias

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal densities derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Modeling pore corrosion in normally open gold- plated copper connectors.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this study is to model the electrical response of gold plated copper electrical contacts exposed to a mixed flowing gas stream consisting of air containing 10 ppb H{sub 2}S at 30 C and a relative humidity of 70%. This environment accelerates the attack normally observed in a light industrial environment (essentially a simplified version of the Battelle Class 2 environment). Corrosion rates were quantified by measuring the corrosion site density, size distribution, and the macroscopic electrical resistance of the aged surface as a function of exposure time. A pore corrosion numerical model was used to predict both the growth of copper sulfide corrosion product which blooms through defects in the gold layer and the resulting electrical contact resistance of the aged surface. Assumptions about the distribution of defects in the noble metal plating and the mechanism for how corrosion blooms affect electrical contact resistance were needed to complete the numerical model. Comparisons are made to the experimentally observed number density of corrosion sites, the size distribution of corrosion product blooms, and the cumulative probability distribution of the electrical contact resistance. Experimentally, the bloom site density increases as a function of time, whereas the bloom size distribution remains relatively independent of time. These two effects are included in the numerical model by adding a corrosion initiation probability proportional to the surface area along with a probability for bloom-growth extinction proportional to the corrosion product bloom volume. The cumulative probability distribution of electrical resistance becomes skewed as exposure time increases. While the electrical contact resistance increases as a function of time for a fraction of the bloom population, the median value remains relatively unchanged. In order to model this behavior, the resistance calculated for large blooms has been weighted more heavily.

Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Moffat, Harry K.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Enos, David George; Serna, Lysle M.; Sorensen, Neil Robert

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

A Harmonic Approach for Calculating Daily Temperature Normals Constrained by2 Homogenized Monthly Temperature Normals3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 1 A Harmonic Approach for Calculating Daily Temperature Normals Constrained by2 Homogenized a constrained harmonic technique that forces the daily30 temperature normals to be consistent with the monthly, or harmonic even though the annual march of temperatures for some locations can be highly asymmetric. Here, we

123

Density Functional Theory (DFT) Simulated Annealing (SA)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . 9 2009 #12;! " # $ % & - " # $ %' ! " # # $ % & # ( # " ) Density Functional Theory) % Lattice-Boltzmann (LBM) #12;! " # $ % & - " # $ %' ! " # # $ % & # ( # " ) Density Functional Theory (DFT;! " # $ % & - " # $ %' ! " # # $ % & # ( # " ) Density Functional Theory (DFT) Simulated Annealing (SA) Monte Carlo &$ ' ' (GCMC

124

Density distribution for the molecules of a liquid in a semi-infinite space  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Sutherland approximation to the van der Waals forces is applied to the derivation of a self-consistent Vlasov-type field in a liquid filling a half space, bordering vacuum. The ensuing Vlasov equation is then derived, and solved to predict the behavior of the density at and in the vicinity of the liquid-vacuum interface. A numerical solution to the Vlasov equation is also produced and the density profile shown and discussed.

V. Molinari; B. D. Ganapol; D. Mostacci

2015-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

125

short course on density-functional theory lectures given at the Fudan University, Shanghai, January 11-15, 2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

short course on density-functional theory lectures given at the Fudan University, Shanghai, January transforms Lecture 2: Density-functional theory · the electronic ground state as a functional of the external-order derivatives from (density-functional) perturbation theory · the 2n+1 theorem · lattice dynamics from DFPT

Gong, Xingao

126

Why are Fluid Densities So Low in Carbon Nanotubes?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The equilibrium density of fluids under nanoconfinement can differ substantially from their bulk density. Using a mean-field approach to describe the energetic landscape near the carbon nanotube (CNT) wall, we obtain analytical results describing the lengthscales associated with the layering observed at the fluid-CNT interface. When combined with molecular simulation results for the fluid density in the layered region, this approach allows us to derive a closed-form prediction for the overall equilibrium fluid density as a function of the CNT radius that is in excellent agreement with molecular dynamics simulations. We also show how aspects of this theory can be extended to describe water confined within CNTs and find good agreement with results from the literature.

Gerald J. Wang; Nicolas G. Hadjiconstantinou

2014-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

127

Detecting Density Variations and Nanovoids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A combination of simulated and experimental data has been used to investigate the size range of nanovoids that can be detected in atom probe tomography data. Simulated atom probe tomography data have revealed that nanovoids as small as 1 nm in diameter can be detected in atom probe tomography data with the use of iso-density surfaces. Iso-density surfaces may be used to quantify the size, morphology and number density of nanovoids and other variations in density in atom probe tomography data. Experimental data from an aluminum-yttrium-iron metallic glass ribbon have revealed the effectiveness of this approach. Combining iso-density surfaces with atom maps also permits the segregation of solute to the nanovoids to be investigated. Field ion microscopy and thin section atom maps have also been used to detect pores and larger voids.

Miller, Michael K [ORNL; Longstreth-Spoor, L. [Washington University, St. Louis; Kelton, K. F. [Washington University, St. Louis

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Generalized Holographic Superconductors with Higher Derivative Couplings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce and study generalized holographic superconductors with higher derivative couplings between the field strength tensor and a complex scalar field, in four dimensional AdS black hole backgrounds. We study this theory in the probe limit, as well as with backreaction. There are multiple tuning parameters in the theory, and with two non-zero parameters, we show that the theory has a rich phase structure, and in particular, the transition from the normal to the superconducting phase can be tuned to be of first order or of second order within a window of one of these. This is established numerically as well as by computing the free energy of the boundary theory. We further present analytical results for the critical temperature of the model, and compare these with numerical analysis. Optical properties of this system are also studied numerically in the probe limit, and our results show evidence for negative refraction at low frequencies.

Anshuman Dey; Subhash Mahapatra; Tapobrata Sarkar

2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

129

Guidance on Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Weather Normalization in an ESPC Document explains how to use estimated energy rates and normalized weather data in determining an energy service company's (ESCO's)...

130

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband direct normal irradiance  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearch Relatedcontent ARMnumberDoppler ARMdiffusedirect normal

131

Wind derivatives: hedging wind risk:.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Wind derivatives are financial contracts that can be used to hedge or mitigate wind risk. In this thesis, the focus was on pricing these wind… (more)

Hoyer, S.A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Cosmic density and velocity fields in Lagrangian perturbation theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A first- and second-order relation between cosmic density and peculiar-velocity fields is presented. The calculation is purely Lagrangian and it is derived using the second-order solutions of the Lagrange-Newton system obtained by Buchert & Ehlers. The procedure is applied to two particular solutions given generic initial conditions. In this approach, the continuity equation yields a relation between the over-density and peculiar-velocity fields that automatically satisfies Euler's equation because the orbits are derived from the Lagrange-Newton system. This scheme generalizes some results obtained by Nusser et al. (1991) in the context of the Zel'dovich approximation. As opposed to several other reconstruction schemes, in this approach it is not necessary to truncate the expansion of the Jacobian given by the continuity equation in order to calculate a first- or second-order expression for the density field. In these previous schemes, the density contrast given by (a) the continuity equation and (b) Euler's equation are mutually incompatible. This inconsistency arises as a consequence of an improper handling of Lagrangian and Eulerian coordinates in the analysis. Here, we take into account the fact that an exact calculation of the density is feasible in the Lagrangian picture and therefore an accurate and consistent description is obtained.

Mikel Susperregi; Thomas Buchert

1997-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

133

Negative Energy Density States for the Dirac Field in Flat Spacetime  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Negative energy densities in the Dirac field produced by state vectors that are the superposition of two single particle electron states are examined. I show that for such states the energy density of the field is not bounded from below and that the quantum inequalities derived for scalar fields are satisfied. I also show that it is not possible to produce negative energy densities in a scalar field using state vectors that are arbitrary superpositions of single particle states.

Dan N. Vollick

1998-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

134

Phenomenological Relativistic Energy Density Functionals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The framework of relativistic nuclear energy density functionals is applied to the description of a variety of nuclear structure phenomena, not only in spherical and deformed nuclei along the valley of beta-stability, but also in exotic systems with extreme isospin values and close to the particle drip-lines. Dynamical aspects of exotic nuclear structure is explored using the fully consistent quasiparticle random-phase approximation based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov model. Recent applications of energy density functionals with explicit density dependence of the meson-nucleon couplings are presented.

Lalazissis, G. A.; Kartzikos, S. [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Niksic, T.; Paar, N.; Vretenar, D. [Physics Department, University of Zagreb (Croatia); Ring, P. [Physics Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

2009-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

135

Stimulated neutrino transformation through turbulence on a changing density profile and application to supernovae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We apply the model of stimulated neutrino transitions to neutrinos traveling through turbulence on a non-constant density profile. We describe a method to predict the location of large amplitude transitions and demonstrate the effectiveness of this method by comparing to numerical calculations using a model supernova (SN) profile. The important wavelength scales of turbulence, both those that stimulate neutrino transformations and those that suppress them, are presented and discussed. We then examine the effects of changing the parameters of the turbulent spectrum, specifically the root-mean-square amplitude and cutoff wavelength, and show how the stimulated transitions model offers an explanation for the increase in both the amplitude and number of transitions with large amplitude turbulence, as well as a suppression or absence of transitions for long cutoff wavelengths. The method can also be used to predict the location of transitions between antineutrino states which, in the normal hierarchy we are using, will not undergo Mikheev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) transitions. Finally, the stimulated neutrino transitions method is applied to the turbulence derived found in a 2D supernova simulation and explains the minimal observed effect on neutrino oscillations in the simulation as as being due to excessive long wavelength modes suppressing transitions and the absence of modes that fulfill the parametric resonance condition.

Kelly M. Patton; James P. Kneller; Gail C. McLaughlin

2015-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

136

Insolation data manual and direct normal solar radiation data manual  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Insolation Data Manual presents monthly averaged data which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service (NWS) stations, principally in the United States. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24--25 years of data, generally from 1952--1975, and listed for each location. Insolation values represent monthly average daily totals of global radiation on a horizontal surface and are depicted using the three units of measurement: kJ/m{sup 2} per day, Btu/ft{sup 2} per day and langleys per day. Average daily maximum, minimum and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3 C (65 F). For each station, global {bar K}{sub T} (cloudiness index) values were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. Global {bar K}{sub T} is an index of cloudiness and indicates fractional transmittance of horizontal radiation, from the top of the atmosphere to the earth's surface. The second section of this volume presents long-term monthly and annual averages of direct normal solar radiation for 235 NWS stations, including a discussion of the basic derivation process. This effort is in response to a generally recognized need for reliable direct normal data and the recent availability of 23 years of hourly averages for 235 stations. The relative inaccessibility of these data on microfiche further justifies reproducing at least the long-term averages in a useful format. In addition to a definition of terms and an overview of the ADIPA model, a discussion of model validation results is presented.

none,

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Advances in target normal sheath acceleration theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A theoretical model of the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) process, able to go beyond the limits of available descriptions, is developed. It allows to achieve a more satisfactory interpretation of TNSA. The theory, also supported by two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, elucidates the role played by the main laser and target parameters. Comparison between model predictions and experimental data related to the target thickness dependence of the maximum ion energy is discussed, showing satisfactory agreement. The model can be used as a simple but effective tool to guide the design of future experiments.

Passoni, M.; Sgattoni, A. [Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, and Sezione di Milano INFN, Milan (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, and Sezione di Milano INFN, Milan (Italy); Perego, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Batani, D. [Université Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), UMR 5107, F-33405 Talence (France) [Université Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), UMR 5107, F-33405 Talence (France); Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, and Sezione di Milano INFN, Milan (Italy)

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

138

The Nuclear Equation of State at high densities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ab inito calculations for the nuclear many-body problem make predictions for the density and isospin dependence of the nuclear equation-of-state (EOS) far away from the saturation point of nuclear matter. I compare predictions from microscopic and phenomenological approaches. Constraints on the EOS derived from heavy ion reactions, in particular from subthreshold kaon production, as well as constraints from neutron stars are discussed.

Christian Fuchs

2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

139

Density operator and entropy of the damped quantum harmonic oscillator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The expression for the density operator of the damped harmonic oscillator is derived from the master equation in the framework of the Lindblad theory for open quantum systems. Then the von Neumann entropy and effective temperature of the system are obtained. The entropy for a state characterized by a Wigner distribution function which is Gaussian in form is found to depend only on the variance of the distribution function.

A. Isar

2005-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

140

Linear response of homogeneous nuclear matter with energy density functionals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Response functions of infinite nuclear matter with arbitrary isospin asymmetry are studied in the framework of the random phase approximation. The residual interaction is derived from a general nuclear Skyrme energy density functional. Besides the usual central, spin-orbit and tensor terms it could also include other components as new density-dependent terms or three-body terms. Algebraic expressions for the response functions are obtained from the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the particle-hole propagator. Applications to symmetric nuclear matter, pure neutron matter and asymmetric nuclear matter are presented and discussed. Spin-isospin strength functions are analyzed for varying conditions of density, momentum transfer, isospin asymmetry, and temperature for some representative Skyrme functionals. Particular attention is paid to the discussion of instabilities, either real or unphysical, which could manifest in finite nuclei.

A. Pastore; D. Davesne; J. Navarro

2014-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal densities derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Resonant normal form and asymptotic normal form behavior in magnetic bottle Hamiltonians  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider normal forms in `magnetic bottle' type Hamiltonians of the form $H=\\frac{1}{2}(\\rho^2_\\rho+\\omega^2_1\\rho^2) +\\frac{1}{2}p^2_z+hot$ (second frequency $\\omega_2$ equal to zero in the lowest order). Our main results are: i) a novel method to construct the normal form in cases of resonance, and ii) a study of the asymptotic behavior of both the non-resonant and the resonant series. We find that, if we truncate the normal form series at order $r$, the series remainder in both constructions decreases with increasing $r$ down to a minimum, and then it increases with $r$. The computed minimum remainder turns to be exponentially small in $\\frac{1}{\\Delta E}$, where $\\Delta E$ is the mirror oscillation energy, while the optimal order scales as an inverse power of $\\Delta E$. We estimate numerically the exponents associated with the optimal order and the remainder's exponential asymptotic behavior. In the resonant case, our novel method allows to compute a `quasi-integral' (i.e. truncated formal integral) valid both for each particular resonance as well as away from all resonances. We applied these results to a specific magnetic bottle Hamiltonian. The non resonant normal form yields theorerical invariant curves on a surface of section which fit well the empirical curves away from resonances. On the other hand the resonant normal form fits very well both the invariant curves inside the islands of a particular resonance as well as the non-resonant invariant curves. Finally, we discuss how normal forms allow to compute a critical threshold for the onset of global chaos in the magnetic bottle.

C. Efthymiopoulos; M. Harsoula; G. Contopoulos

2015-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

142

Overview Report: Normal and Emergency Operation Visualization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is an overview report to document and illustrate methods used in a project entitled “Normal and Emergency Operations Visualization” for a utility company, conducted in 2009-2010 timeframe with funding from the utility company and the U.S. Department of Energy. The original final report (about 180 pages) for the project is not available for distribution because it alludes to findings that assessed the design of an operational system that contained proprietary information; this abridged version contains descriptions of methods and some findings to illustrate the approach used, while avoiding discussion of sensitive or proprietary information. The client has approved this abridged version of the report for unlimited distribution to give researchers and collaborators the benefit of reviewing the research concepts and methods that were applied in this study.

Greitzer, Frank L.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Brief review related to the foundations of time-dependent density functional theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The electron density $n(\\rb,t)$, which is the central tool of time-dependent density functional theory, is presently considered to be derivable from a one-body time-dependent potential $V(\\rb,t)$, via one-electron wave functions satisfying a time- dependent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation. This is here related via a generalized equation of motion to a Dirac density matrix now involving $t$. Linear response theory is then surveyed, with a special emphasis on the question of causality with respect to the density dependence of the potential. Extraction of $V(\\rb,t)$ for solvable models is also proposed.

Thomas A. Niehaus; Norman H. March

2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

144

Density derived estimates of standing crop and net primary production in the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1991) Production and standing stocks of the kelp Macrocystisproduction in the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera Danielproduction (NPP) in the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera off

Reed, Daniel; Rassweiler, Andrew; Arkema, Katie

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Taming Density Functional Theory by Coarse-Graining  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The standard (``fine-grained'') interpretation of quantum density functional theory, in which densities are specified with infinitely-fine spatial resolution, is mathematically unruly. Here, a coarse-grained version of DFT, featuring limited spatial resolution, and its relation to the fine-grained theory in the $L^1\\cap L^3$ formulation of Lieb, is studied, with the object of showing it to be not only mathematically well-behaved, but consonant with the spirit of DFT, practically (computationally) adequate and sufficiently close to the standard interpretation as to accurately reflect its non-pathological properties. The coarse-grained interpretation is shown to be a good model of formal DFT in the sense that: all densities are (ensemble)-V-representable; the intrinsic energy functional $F$ is a continuous function of the density and the representing external potential is the (directional) functional derivative of the intrinsic energy. Also, the representing potential $v[\\rho]$ is quasi-continuous, in that $v[\\rho]\\rho$ is continuous as a function of $\\rho$. The limit of coarse-graining scale going to zero is studied to see if convergence to the non-pathological aspects of the fine-grained theory is adequate to justify regarding coarse-graining as a good approximation. Suitable limiting behaviors or intrinsic energy, densities and representing potentials are found. Intrinsic energy converges monotonically, coarse-grained densities converge uniformly strongly to their low-intrinsic-energy fine-grainings, and $L^{3/2}+L^\\infty$ representability of a density is equivalent to the existence of a convergent sequence of coarse-grained potential/ground-state density pairs.

Paul E. Lammert

2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

146

Intercrystalline density on nanocrystalline nickel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most methods currently available for the synthesis of nanostructured materials result in considerable residual porosity. Studies concerned with the novel structures and properties of these materials are thus compromised by the intrinsically high levels of porosity. As recently shown by Kristic et al., porosity can have a significant effect on fundamental materials properties such as Young`s modulus. One of the most promising techniques for the production of fully dense nanocrystalline materials is electrodeposition. In the present work, the residual porosity and density of nanostructured nickel produced by the electrodeposition method is assessed and discussed in light of the intrinsic intercrystalline density of nickel.

Haasz, T.R.; Aust, K.T. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science] [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science; Palumbo, G. [Ontario Hydro Research Div., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Ontario Hydro Research Div., Toronto, Ontario (Canada); El-Sherik, A.M.; Erb, U. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering] [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Time Dependent Density Functional Theory An introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Time Dependent Density Functional Theory An introduction Francesco Sottile LSI, Ecole Polytechnique (ETSF) Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Palaiseau, 7 February 2012 1 / 32 #12;Outline 1 Frontiers 4 Perspectives and Resources Francesco Sottile (ETSF) Time Dependent Density Functional Theory

Botti, Silvana

148

Time Dependent Density Functional Theory An Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Time Dependent Density Functional Theory An Introduction Francesco Sottile Laboratoire des Solides) Belfast, 29 Jun 2007 Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Francesco Sottile #12;Intro Formalism Dependent Density Functional Theory Francesco Sottile #12;Intro Formalism Results Resources Outline 1

Botti, Silvana

149

Statistical density modification using local pattern matching  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A computer implemented method modifies an experimental electron density map. A set of selected known experimental and model electron density maps is provided and standard templates of electron density are created from the selected experimental and model electron density maps by clustering and averaging values of electron density in a spherical region about each point in a grid that defines each selected known experimental and model electron density maps. Histograms are also created from the selected experimental and model electron density maps that relate the value of electron density at the center of each of the spherical regions to a correlation coefficient of a density surrounding each corresponding grid point in each one of the standard templates. The standard templates and the histograms are applied to grid points on the experimental electron density map to form new estimates of electron density at each grid point in the experimental electron density map.

Terwilliger, Thomas C.

2007-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

150

Derivative  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartmentNationalRestart of the Review of theOFFICEACME |Supplement Analysis,/U U U10

151

Open problems in nuclear density functional theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This note describes five subjects of some interest for the density functional theory in nuclear physics. These are, respectively, i) the need for concave functionals, ii) the nature of the Kohn-Sham potential for the radial density theory, iii) a proper implementation of a density functional for an "intrinsic" rotational density, iv) the possible existence of a potential driving the square root of the density, and v) the existence of many models where a density functional can be explicitly constructed.

B. G. Giraud

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

152

Characterizing the Performance of an Eppley Normal Incident Pyrheliometer An Eppley Normal Incident Pyrheliometer (NIP) is  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With interest growing in the deployment of solar energy system, the accuracy of irradiance measurements becomes for concentrating solar energy systems. The Eppley Normal Incident Pyrheliometer (NIP) is used extensively for DNI and periods with clouds were excluded. The NIP is mounted on an automatic tracker that keeps the instrument

Oregon, University of

153

Derivative-Free Optimization Proximal Point Methods Derivative-Free Proximal Point Conclusion Derivative-Free Optimization via Proximal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Derivative-Free Optimization Proximal Point Methods Derivative-Free Proximal Point Conclusion Derivative-Free Optimization via Proximal Point Methods Yves Lucet & Warren Hare July 24, 2013 1 / 26 #12;Derivative-Free Optimization Proximal Point Methods Derivative-Free Proximal Point Conclusion Outline 1

154

Transformations for densities Linear transformations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

' & $ % Lecture 28 Transformations for densities Linear transformations 1-1 differentiable functions General transformations Expectation of a function 1 #12;' & $ % Transformations for discrete transformation of a U[0, 1] · Take X U[0, 1], so that fX(x) = 1 0 0 and set Y

Adler, Robert J.

155

Normalization and missing value imputation for label-free LC...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Normalization and missing value imputation for label-free LC-MS analysis. Normalization and missing value imputation for label-free LC-MS analysis. Abstract: Shotgun proteomic data...

156

Fractal Fluctuations and Statistical Normal Distribution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamical systems in nature exhibit selfsimilar fractal fluctuations and the corresponding power spectra follow inverse power law form signifying long-range space-time correlations identified as self-organized criticality. The physics of self-organized criticality is not yet identified. The Gaussian probability distribution used widely for analysis and description of large data sets underestimates the probabilities of occurrence of extreme events such as stock market crashes, earthquakes, heavy rainfall, etc. The assumptions underlying the normal distribution such as fixed mean and standard deviation, independence of data, are not valid for real world fractal data sets exhibiting a scale-free power law distribution with fat tails. A general systems theory for fractals visualizes the emergence of successively larger scale fluctuations to result from the space-time integration of enclosed smaller scale fluctuations. The model predicts a universal inverse power law incorporating the golden mean for fractal fluctuations and for the corresponding power spectra, i.e., the variance spectrum represents the probabilities, a signature of quantum systems. Fractal fluctuations therefore exhibit quantum-like chaos. The model predicted inverse power law is very close to the Gaussian distribution for small-scale fluctuations, but exhibits a fat long tail for large-scale fluctuations. Extensive data sets of Dow Jones index, Human DNA, Takifugu rubripes (Puffer fish) DNA are analysed to show that the space/time data sets are close to the model predicted power law distribution.

A. M. Selvam

2008-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

157

Smith Normal Form a possible basis for an  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Smith Normal Form ­ a possible basis for an SVD ­ like code construction? (Semester Project I) Name.7 The Smith Normal Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3 Detailed treatment of the possibilities to use Smith's Normal Form for coding 14 3.1 Introduction

Henkel, Werner

158

EIGENVALUES AND THE SMITH NORMAL FORM Joseph J. Rushanan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EIGENVALUES AND THE SMITH NORMAL FORM Joseph J. Rushanan The MITRE Corporation, M/S E025, Bedford, MA 01730 Abstract. Results are shown that compare the Smith Normal Form (SNF) over the integers and its Smith Normal Form (SNF) over the integers. Our goals are more general than those results

Rushanan, Joe J.

159

Computation of Hermite and Smith Normal Forms of Matrices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computation of Hermite and Smith Normal Forms of Matrices; Abstract We study the problem of computing Hermite and Smith normal forms of ma- trices over. One first result is a fast Las Vegas probabilistic algorithm to compute the * *Smith normal form

Storjohann, Arne

160

Computation of Hermite and Smith Normal Forms of Matrices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computation of Hermite and Smith Normal Forms of Matrices by Arne Storjohann A thesis presented the problem of computing Hermite and Smith normal forms of ma­ trices over principal ideal domains. The main probabilistic algorithm to compute the Smith normal form of a polynomial matrix for those cases where pre

Storjohann, Arne

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal densities derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Neutral H density at the termination shock: a consolidation of recent results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss a consolidation of determinations of the density of neutral interstellar H at the nose of the termination shock carried out with the use of various data sets, techniques, and modeling approaches. In particular, we focus on the determination of this density based on observations of H pickup ions on Ulysses during its aphelion passage through the ecliptic plane. We discuss in greater detail a novel method of determination of the density from these measurements and review the results from its application to actual data. The H density at TS derived from this analysis is equal to 0.087 \\pm 0.022 cm-3, and when all relevant determinations are taken into account, the consolidated density is obtained at 0.09 \\pm 0.022 cm-3. The density of H in CHISM based on literature values of filtration factor is then calculated at 0.16 \\pm 0.04 cm-3.

M. Bzowski; E. Moebius; S. Tarnopolski; V. Izmodenov; G. Gloeckler

2008-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

162

Jacek Dobaczewski Density functional theory and energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jacek Dobaczewski Density functional theory and energy density functionals in nuclear physics Jacek Functional #12;Jacek Dobaczewski Mean-Field Theory Density Functional Theory · mean-field one? Density Functional Theory: A variational method that uses observables as variational parameters. #12;Jacek

Dobaczewski, Jacek

163

Density Functional Theory (DFT) Rob Parrish  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Density Functional Theory (DFT) Rob Parrish robparrish@gmail.com 1 #12;Agenda · The mechanism Easy to do this Why? Because of Hermitian Operators: Kinetic Energy Density: #12;Density Functional The density completely defines the observable state of the system: The way in which it does so (the functional

Sherrill, David

164

A current density distribution tool  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. I. INTRODUCTION Current density distribution is an important consideration for those involved in electrochemical systems and electroplating in particular. In the printed wiring board (PWB) business, great emphasis is placed on the study of current... exist. Numerical techniques on the other hand, are usually easy to implement and are easily applicable to microcomputers. Their disadvantage as with any approximation technique is that the exactness of the results with This document follows the style...

Jagush, Frederic A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

An Index for Evaluation of Air Quality Improvement in Rooms with Personalized Ventilation Based on Occupied Density and Normalized Concentration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2003, Singapore.tropics. Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2003, Singapore,

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen; Cermak, Radim; De Carli, Michele; Li, Xianting

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.

Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig [Cancer Prevention and Control Division, Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1603 W. Taylor St., Chicago, Illinois 60612 (United States)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

167

Modeling variable density effects in turbulent flames -- Some basic considerations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper discusses the basic physical phenomena involved in pressure-density interactions, and presents models of pressure-velocity, pressure-scalar, baroclinic and dilatation effects for variable density low Mach-number turbulence. Their implementation in the {kappa}-{epsilon} framework is then described and their performance evaluated. The models assume that both scalar transport and turbulence generation arising from pressure-density interactions in flames are caused by the motion of large scale turbulent thermals superposed on the normal turbulence mechanism. The velocity of the thermals is related directly to the mean pressure gradient and local density differences in the flames. It is furthermore assumed that the correction for dilatation effects in the {kappa}-{epsilon} system can be determined from the constraint of conservation of the angular momentum of turbulence per unit mass. Simple corrections of the {kappa}-{epsilon} system are proposed for fast chemistry diffusion and premixed flames subject to variable pressure gradients, which offer substantial improvements in the predictions of the flames. some problems remain, particularly in predictions of turbulence in premixed flames, owing to large scale instabilities of the flames observed in the experiments.

Chomiak, J.; Nisbet, J.R. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Thermo and Fluid Dynamics] [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Thermo and Fluid Dynamics

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Quaternion Derivatives: The GHR Calculus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quaternion derivatives in the mathematical literature are typically defined only for analytic (regular) functions. However, in engineering problems, functions of interest are often real-valued and thus not analytic, such as the standard cost function. The HR calculus is a convenient way to calculate formal derivatives of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables, however, both the HR and other functional calculus in quaternion analysis have encountered an essential technical obstacle, that is, the traditional product rule is invalid due to the non- commutativity of the quaternion algebra. To address this issue, a generalized form of the HR derivative is proposed based on a general orthogonal system. The so introduced generalization, called the generalized HR (GHR) calculus, encompasses not just the left- and right-hand versions of quaternion derivative, but also enables solutions to some long standing problems, such as the novel product rule, the chain rule, the mean-valued theorem and Taylor's theorem. At the core of the proposed approach is the quaternion rotation, which can naturally be applied to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples on using the GHR calculus in adaptive signal processing support the analysis.

Dongpo Xu; Cyrus Jahanchahi; Clive C. Took; Danilo P. Mandic

2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

169

Toward a self-consistent model of the interaction between an ultra-intense, normally incident laser pulse with an overdense plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Following a recent work by Sanz et al. [Phys. Rev. E 85, 046411 (2012)], we elaborate upon a one-dimensional model describing the interaction between an ultra-intense, normally incident laser pulse and an overdense plasma. The analytical solutions of the reflected laser field, the electrostatic field, and the plasma surface oscillation are obtained within the cold-fluid approximation. The high-order harmonic spectrum is calculated from the exact solution of the plasma surface oscillations. In agreement with particle-in-cell simulations, two regimes of harmonic generation are predicted: for moderately relativistic laser intensities, or high plasma densities, the harmonic spectrum is determined by the discontinuity in the derivative of the reflected field when the electron plasma boundary oscillates across the fixed ion boundary. For higher intensities, the electron plasma boundary is confined inside the ion region and oscillates at relativistic velocities, giving rise to a train of reflected attosecond pulses. In both cases, the harmonic spectrum obeys an asymptotic ?{sup ?4} scaling. The acceleration of electrons and the related laser absorption efficiency are computed by a test particle method. The model self-consistently reproduces the transition between the “anomalous skin effect” and the “J × B” heating predicted by particle-in-cell simulations. Analytical estimates of the different scalings are presented.

Debayle, A. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France) [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); ETSI Aeronáuticos. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Sanz, J. [ETSI Aeronáuticos. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain)] [ETSI Aeronáuticos. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Gremillet, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)] [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Mima, K. [School for the Creation of Photonic Industries, Shizuoka 431-1202 (Japan)] [School for the Creation of Photonic Industries, Shizuoka 431-1202 (Japan)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

170

Probability distribution of the vacuum energy density  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As the vacuum state of a quantum field is not an eigenstate of the Hamiltonian density, the vacuum energy density can be represented as a random variable. We present an analytical calculation of the probability distribution of the vacuum energy density for real and complex massless scalar fields in Minkowski space. The obtained probability distributions are broad and the vacuum expectation value of the Hamiltonian density is not fully representative of the vacuum energy density.

Duplancic, Goran; Stefancic, Hrvoje [Theoretical Physics Division, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, P.O. Box 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Glavan, Drazen [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, P.O. Box 331, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

171

Operator pencils on the algebra of densities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we continue to study equivariant pencil liftings and differential operators on the algebra of densities. We emphasize the role that the geometry of the extended manifold plays. Firstly we consider basic examples. We give a projective line of diff($M$)-equivariant pencil liftings for first order operators, and the canonical second order self-adjoint lifting. Secondly we study pencil liftings equivariant with respect to volume preserving transformations. This helps to understand the role of self-adjointness for the canonical pencils. Then we introduce the Duval-Lecomte-Ovsienko (DLO)-pencil lifting which is derived from the full symbol calculus of projective quantisation. We use the DLO-pencil lifting to describe all regular proj-equivariant pencil liftings. In particular the comparison of these pencils with the canonical pencil for second order operators leads to objects related to the Schwarzian. Within this paper the question of whether the pencil lifting factors through a full symbol map naturally arises.

A. Biggs; H. M. Khudaverdian

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

172

The development of a bovine interspecies model for the analysis of genomic imprinting in normal and nuclear transfer derived fetuses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. However, in spite of the revolutionary impact this technology presents, problems remain which hinder the production of healthy animals on a consistent basis. Research on cloned mice implicates improper reprogramming of epigenetic modifications and genomic...

Dindot, Scott Victor

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

173

Incompressible Stars and Fractional Derivatives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fractional calculus is an effective tool in incorporating the effects of non-locality and memory into physical models. In this regard, successful applications exist rang- ing from signal processing to anomalous diffusion and quantum mechanics. In this paper we investigate the fractional versions of the stellar structure equations for non radiating spherical objects. Using incompressible fluids as a comparison, we develop models for constant density Newtonian objects with fractional mass distributions or stress conditions. To better understand the fractional effects, we discuss effective values for the density, gravitational field and equation of state. The fractional ob- jects are smaller and less massive than integer models. The fractional parameters are related to a polytropic index for the models considered.

S. S. Bayin; J. P. Krisch

2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

174

A revisit to evaluating accuracy of community detection using the normalized mutual information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Normalized Mutual Information (NMI) has been widely used to evaluate accuracy of community detection algorithms. In this notes we show that NMI is seriously affected by systematic error due to finite size of networks, and may give wrong estimate of performance of algorithms in some cases. A simple expression for the estimate of this error is derived and tested numerically. We suggest to use a new measure to accuracy of community detection, namely relative Normalized Mutual Information (rNMI), which is NMI minus the expected NMI of random partitions. This measure is very close to zero for two random partitions even with a short length, so it can overcome the problem of NMI.

Zhang, Pan

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

STELLAR ORBITAL STUDIES IN NORMAL SPIRAL GALAXIES. I. RESTRICTIONS TO THE PITCH ANGLE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We built a family of non-axisymmetric potential models for normal non-barred or weakly barred spiral galaxies as defined in the simplest classification of galaxies: the Hubble sequence. For this purpose, a three-dimensional self-gravitating model for the spiral arm PERLAS is superimposed on the galactic axisymmetric potentials. We analyze the stellar dynamics varying only the pitch angle of the spiral arms, from 4 Degree-Sign to 40 Degree-Sign for an Sa galaxy, from 8 Degree-Sign to 45 Degree-Sign for an Sb galaxy, and from 10 Degree-Sign to 60 Degree-Sign for an Sc galaxy. Self-consistency is indirectly tested through periodic orbital analysis and through density response studies for each morphological type. Based on ordered behavior, periodic orbit studies show that, for pitch angles up to approximately 15 Degree-Sign , 18 Degree-Sign , and 20 Degree-Sign for Sa, Sb, and Sc galaxies, respectively, the density response supports the spiral arms' potential, a requisite for the existence of a long-lasting large-scale spiral structure. Beyond those limits, the density response tends to ''avoid'' the potential imposed by maintaining lower pitch angles in the density response; in that case, the spiral arms may be explained as transient features rather than long-lasting large-scale structures. In a second limit, from a phase-space orbital study based on chaotic behavior, we found that for pitch angles larger than {approx}30 Degree-Sign , {approx}40 Degree-Sign , and {approx}50 Degree-Sign for Sa, Sb, and Sc galaxies, respectively, chaotic orbits dominate the all phase-space prograde region that surrounds the periodic orbits sculpting the spiral arms and even destroying them. This result seems to be in good agreement with observations of pitch angles in typical isolated normal spiral galaxies.

Perez-Villegas, A.; Pichardo, B.; Moreno, E., E-mail: barbara@astro.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-264, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico)

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Density functional theory of electrowetting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The phenomenon of electrowetting, i.e., the dependence of the macroscopic contact angle of a fluid on the electrostatic potential of the substrate, is analyzed in terms of the density functional theory of wetting. It is shown that electrowetting is not an electrocapillarity effect, i.e., it cannot be consistently understood in terms of the variation of the substrate-fluid interfacial tension with the electrostatic substrate potential, but it is related to the depth of the effective interface potential. The key feature, which has been overlooked so far and which occurs naturally in the density functional approach is the structural change of a fluid if it is brought into contact with another fluid. These structural changes occur in the present context as the formation of finite films of one fluid phase in between the substrate and the bulk of the other fluid phase. The non-vanishing Donnan potentials (Galvani potential differences) across such film-bulk fluid interfaces, which generically occur due to an unequal partitioning of ions as a result of differences of solubility contrasts, lead to correction terms in the electrowetting equation, which become relevant for sufficiently small substrate potentials. Whereas the present density functional approach confirms the commonly used electrocapillarity-based electrowetting equation as a good approximation for the cases of metallic electrodes or electrodes coated with a hydrophobic dielectric in contact with an electrolyte solution and an ion-free oil, a significantly reduced tendency for electrowetting is predicted for electrodes coated with a dielectric which is hydrophilic or which is in contact with two immiscible electrolyte solutions.

Markus Bier; Ingrid Ibagon

2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

177

Deriving confinement via RG decimations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the general framework and building blocks of a recent derivation of the fact that the SU(2) LGT is in a confining phase for all values of the coupling $0 < \\beta < \\infty$, for space-time dimension $d \\leq 4$. The method employs approximate but explicitly computable RG decimations that are shown to constrain the exact partition function and order parameters from above and below, and flow from the weak to the strong coupling regime without encountering a fixed point.

E. T. Tomboulis

2007-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

178

Affine maps of density matrices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For quantum systems described by finite matrices, linear and affine maps of matrices are shown to provide equivalent descriptions of evolution of density matrices for a subsystem caused by unitary Hamiltonian evolution in a larger system; an affine map can be replaced by a linear map, and a linear map can be replaced by an affine map. There may be significant advantage in using an affine map. The linear map is generally not completely positive, but the linear part of an equivalent affine map can be chosen to be completely positive and related in the simplest possible way to the unitary Hamiltonian evolution in the larger system.

Thomas F. Jordan

2004-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

179

Derivation of Hamiltonians for accelerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report various forms of the Hamiltonian for particle motion in an accelerator will be derived. Except where noted, the treatment will apply generally to linear and circular accelerators, storage rings, and beamlines. The generic term accelerator will be used to refer to any of these devices. The author will use the usual accelerator coordinate system, which will be introduced first, along with a list of handy formulas. He then starts from the general Hamiltonian for a particle in an electromagnetic field, using the accelerator coordinate system, with time t as independent variable. He switches to a form more convenient for most purposes using the distance s along the reference orbit as independent variable. In section 2, formulas will be derived for the vector potentials that describe the various lattice components. In sections 3, 4, and 5, special forms of the Hamiltonian will be derived for transverse horizontal and vertical motion, for longitudinal motion, and for synchrobetatron coupling of horizontal and longitudinal motions. Hamiltonians will be expanded to fourth order in the variables.

Symon, K.R.

1997-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

180

Derivative-free optimization for parameter estimation in computational nuclear physics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider optimization problems that arise when estimating a set of unknown parameters from experimental data, particularly in the context of nuclear density functional theory. We examine the cost of not having derivatives of these functionals with respect to the parameters. We show that the POUNDERS code for local derivative-free optimization obtains consistent solutions on a variety of computationally expensive energy density functional calibration problems. We also provide a primer on the operation of the POUNDERS software in the Toolkit for Advanced Optimization.

Stefan M. Wild; Jason Sarich; Nicolas Schunck

2014-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal densities derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

The volume densities of GMCs in M81  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HI features near young star clusters in M81 are identified as the photodissociated surfaces of Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs) from which the young stars have recently formed. The HI column densities of these features show a weak trend, from undetectable values inside R = 3.7 kpc and increasing rapidly to values around 3 x 10^21 cm^-2 near R ~ 7.5 kpc. This trend is similar to that of the radially-averaged HI distribution in this galaxy, and implies a constant area covering factor of ~ 0.21 for GMCs throughout M81. The incident UV fluxes G0 of our sample of candidate PDRs decrease radially. A simple equilibrium model of the photodissociation-reformation process connects the observed values of the incident UV flux, the HI column density, and the relative dust content, permitting an independent estimate to be made of the total gas density in the GMC. Within the GMC this gas will be predominantly molecular hydrogen. Volume densities of 1 < n < 200 cm^-3 are derived, with a geometric mean of 17 cm^-3. These values are similar to the densities of GMCs in the Galaxy, but somewhat lower than those found earlier for M101 with similar methods. Low values of molecular density in the GMCs of M81 will result in low levels of collisional excitation of the CO(1-0) transition, and are consistent with the very low surface brightness of CO(1-0) emission observed in the disk of M81.

Jonathan S. Heiner; Ronald J. Allen; Bjorn H. C. Emonts; Pieter C. van der Kruit

2007-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

182

Conditions to have 3+1-dimensional thin-shell wormholes supported by normal matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

From physics standpoint exotic matter problem is a major difficulty in thin-shell wormholes (TSWs) with spherical / cylindrical throat topologies. We aim to circumvent this handicap by considering angular dependent throats in $3+1-$dimensions. By considering the throat of the TSW to be deformed spherical, i.e., a function of $\\theta $ and $\\varphi $, we present general conditions which are to be satisfied by the shape of the throat in order to have the wormhole supported by normal matter. Analytical solutions to those constraint differential equations derived, however, seems to be challenging.

S. Habib Mazharimousavi; M. Halilsoy

2015-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

183

Combining Density Functional Theory and Density Matrix Functional Theory Daniel R. Rohr1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combining Density Functional Theory and Density Matrix Functional Theory Daniel R. Rohr1 , Julien and CNRS, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris, France We combine density-functional theory with density cleavage is an ubiquitous process for chemistry. Density-matrix functional theory (DMFT) (see, e.g., Refs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

184

Excitations and benchmark ensemble density functional theory for two electrons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new method for extracting ensemble Kohn-Sham potentials from accurate excited state densities is applied to a variety of two-electron systems, exploring the behavior of exact ensemble density functional theory. The issue of separating the Hartree energy and the choice of degenerate eigenstates is explored. A new approximation, spin eigenstate Hartree-exchange, is derived. Exact conditions that are proven include the signs of the correlation energy components and the asymptotic behavior of the potential for small weights of the excited states. Many energy components are given as a function of the weights for two electrons in a one-dimensional flat box, in a box with a large barrier to create charge transfer excitations, in a three-dimensional harmonic well (Hooke's atom), and for the He atom singlet-triplet ensemble, singlet-triplet-singlet ensemble, and triplet bi-ensemble.

Pribram-Jones, Aurora; Burke, Kieron [Department of Chemistry, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Yang, Zeng-hui; Ullrich, Carsten A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Trail, John R.; Needs, Richard J. [Theory of Condensed Matter Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)] [Theory of Condensed Matter Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

185

Financial derivative pricing under probability operator via Esscher transfomation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The problem of pricing contingent claims has been extensively studied for non-Gaussian models, and in particular, Black- Scholes formula has been derived for the NIG asset pricing model. This approach was first developed in insurance pricing{sup 9} where the original distortion function was defined in terms of the normal distribution. This approach was later studied6 where they compared the standard Black-Scholes contingent pricing and distortion based contingent pricing. So, in this paper, we aim at using distortion operators by Cauchy distribution under a simple transformation to price contingent claim. We also show that we can recuperate the Black-Sholes formula using the distribution. Similarly, in a financial market in which the asset price represented by a stochastic differential equation with respect to Brownian Motion, the price mechanism based on characteristic Esscher measure can generate approximate arbitrage free financial derivative prices. The price representation derived involves probability Esscher measure and Esscher Martingale measure and under a new complex valued measure ? (u) evaluated at the characteristic exponents ?{sub x}(u) of X{sub t} we recuperate the Black-Scholes formula for financial derivative prices.

Achi, Godswill U., E-mail: achigods@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Abia State Polytechnic Aba, P.M.B. 7166, Aba, Abia State (Nigeria)

2014-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

186

High density behaviour of nuclear symmetry energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Role of the isospin asymmetry in nuclei and neutron stars, with an emphasis on the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy, is discussed. The symmetry energy is obtained using the isoscalar as well as isovector components of the density dependent M3Y effective interaction. The constants of density dependence of the effective interaction are obtained by reproducing the saturation energy per nucleon and the saturation density of spin and isospin symmetric cold infinite nuclear matter. Implications for the density dependence of the symmetry energy in case of a neutron star are discussed, and also possible constraints on the density dependence obtained from finite nuclei are compared.

D. N. Basu; Tapan Mukhopadhyay

2006-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

187

Bounds on negative energy densities in static space-times  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Certain exotic phenomena in general relativity, such as backward time travel, appear to require the presence of matter with negative energy. While quantum fields are a possible source of negative energy densities, there are lower bounds - known as quantum inequalities - that constrain their duration and magnitude. In this paper, we derive new quantum inequalities for scalar fields in static space-times, as measured by static observers with a choice of sampling function. Unlike those previously derived by Pfenning and Ford, our results do not assume any specific sampling function. We then calculate these bounds in static three- and four-dimensional Robertson-Walker universes, the de Sitter universe, and the Schwarzschild black hole. In each case, the new inequality is stronger than that of Pfenning and Ford for their particular choice of sampling function.

Christopher J. Fewster; Edward Teo

1999-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

188

PSD computations using Welch's method. [Power Spectral Density (PSD)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes Welch's method for computing Power Spectral Densities (PSDs). We first describe the bandpass filter method which uses filtering, squaring, and averaging operations to estimate a PSD. Second, we delineate the relationship of Welch's method to the bandpass filter method. Third, the frequency domain signal-to-noise ratio for a sine wave in white noise is derived. This derivation includes the computation of the noise floor due to quantization noise. The signal-to-noise ratio and noise flood depend on the FFT length and window. Fourth, the variance the Welch's PSD is discussed via chi-square random variables and degrees of freedom. This report contains many examples, figures and tables to illustrate the concepts. 26 refs.

Solomon, Jr, O M

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Normal Agricultural Operations and Dove Hunting in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: baiting Doves are migratory birds, and dove hunting is therefore regulated by the Federal Migratory Bird Treaty Act, which specifically prohibits baiting. Under federal law, baiting is the direct or indirect placing, exposing, depositing, distributing... considers this acceptable to hunt over. A problem arises, however, as to what constitutes a ?normal agricultural operation.? For the purpose of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act ?normal agricultural operation? means a normal agricultural planting...

Redmon, Larry

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Augmented Lagrangian Method for Constrained Nuclear Density Functional Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The augmented Lagrangiam method (ALM), widely used in quantum chemistry constrained optimization problems, is applied in the context of the nuclear Density Functional Theory (DFT) in the self-consistent constrained Skyrme Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (CHFB) variant. The ALM allows precise calculations of multidimensional energy surfaces in the space of collective coordinates that are needed to, e.g., determine fission pathways and saddle points; it improves accuracy of computed derivatives with respect to collective variables that are used to determine collective inertia; and is well adapted to supercomputer applications.

A. Staszczak; M. Stoitsov; A. Baran; W. Nazarewicz

2010-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

191

The current density in quantum electrodynamics in external potentials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review different definitions of the current density for quantized fermions in the presence of an external electromagnetic field. Several deficiencies in the popular prescription due to Schwinger and the mode sum formula for static external potentials are pointed out. We argue that Dirac's method, which is the analog of the Hadamard point-splitting employed in quantum field theory in curved space-times, is conceptually the most satisfactory. As a concrete example, we discuss vacuum polarization and the stress-energy tensor for massless fermions in 1+1 dimension. Also a general formula for the vacuum polarization in static external potentials in 3+1 dimensions is derived.

Schlemmer, Jan

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Broadcasting but not receiving: density dependence considerations for SETI signals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper develops a detailed quantitative model which uses the Drake equation and an assumption of an average maximum radio broadcasting distance by an communicative civilization to derive a minimum civilization density for contact between two civilizations to be probable in a given volume of space under certain conditions, the amount of time it would take for a first contact, and whether reciprocal contact is possible. Results show that under certain assumptions, a galaxy can be teeming with civilizations yet not have a guarantee of communication between any of them given either short lifetimes or small maximum distances for communication.

Reginald D. Smith

2010-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

193

Measuring the Density Fluctuation From the Cluster Gas Mass Function  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the gas mass function of clusters of galaxies to measure the density fluctuation spectrum on cluster scales. The baryon abundance confined in rich clusters is computed from the gas mass function and compared with the mean baryon density in the universe which is predicted by the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. This baryon fraction and the slope of the gas mass function put constraints on $\\sigma_8$, the rms linear fluctuation on scales of $8h^{-1}\\Mpc$, and the slope of the fluctuation spectrum, where $h$ is the Hubble constant in units of 100 $\\kms \\oMpc$. We find $\\sigma_8 = 0.80 \\pm 0.15$ and $n \\sim -1.5$ for $0.5 \\le h \\le 0.8$, where we assume that the density spectrum is approximated by a power law on cluster scales: $\\sigma(r) \\propto r^{-{3+n\\over{2}}}$. Our value of $\\sigma_8$ is independent of the density parameter, $\\Omega_0$, and thus we can estimate $\\Omega_0$ by combining $\\sigma_8$ obtained in this study with those from $\\Omega_0$-dependent analyses to date. We find that $\\sigma_8(\\Omega_0)$ derived from the cluster abundance such as the temperature function gives $\\Omega_0 \\sim 0.5$ while $\\sigma_8(\\Omega_0)$ measured from the peculiar velocity field of galaxies gives $\\Omega_0 \\sim 0.2-1$, depending on the technique used to analyze peculiar velocity data. Constraints are also derived for open, spatially flat, and tilted Cold Dark Matter models and for Cold + Hot Dark Matter models.

Kazuhiro Shimasaku

1997-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

194

SciTech Connect: Effect of radiation on normal hematopoiesis...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Effect of radiation on normal hematopoiesis and on viral induced cancer of the hematopoietic system. Technical progress report, August 1, 1973--July 31, 1974 Citation Details...

195

asymptotic normalization coefficients: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

zeilbergtokhniotSameSexMarriages Zeilberger, Doron 114 Journal of Multivariate Analysis 74, 49 68 (2000) Asymptotic Normality of Posterior Distributions for...

196

asymptotic normalization coefficient: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

zeilbergtokhniotSameSexMarriages Zeilberger, Doron 114 Journal of Multivariate Analysis 74, 49 68 (2000) Asymptotic Normality of Posterior Distributions for...

197

Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Demonstration of Approach and Results of Used Fuel Performance Characterization Used...

198

E-Print Network 3.0 - astrocytes normalizes revascularization...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

search results for: astrocytes normalizes revascularization Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Brain Research 896 (2001) 8695 www.elsevier.comlocatebres Summary: Astrocytes are an ideal...

199

allowing normal bone: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

assays. Correlations of fluoride levels between normal bone near the Nancy Medina; Chester W. Douglass; Gary M. Whitford; Robert N. Hoover; Thomas R. Fears 6 Differential...

200

Data Collection and Normalization for the Development of Cost...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

This chapter discusses considerations for data collection and normalization. g4301-1chp19.pdf -- PDF Document, 21 KB Writer: John Makepeace Subjects: Administration Management...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal densities derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Coal deposit characterization by gamma-gamma density/percent dry ash relationships  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Density/Ash Relationship . APPLICATION OF THE GAMMA-GAMMA DENSITY/PERCENT DRY ASH RELATIONSHIPS The Density/Ash Relationship of a South Texas Lignite Deposit Characterization of a South Texas Lignite Deposit CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES. 52 53 53 53... 58 64 67 6g 80 87 LIST OF TABLES TABLE I Coal Classification by Rank. 2 Common Minerals in Coal. 3 Results of Linear Regression Analyses for a South Texas Lignite Deposit. 4 Variability of Geophysica11y-Derived Percent Dry Ash Values...

Wright, David Scott

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Risk Bounds for Mixture Density Estimation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we focus on the problem of estimating a bounded density using a finite combination of densities from a given class. We consider the Maximum Likelihood Procedure (MLE) and the greedy procedure described by ...

Rakhlin, Alexander

2004-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

203

THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF FERMENTATION-DERIVED OXYGENATES TO FUELS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At present ethanol generated from renewable resources through fermentation process is the dominant biofuel. But ethanol suffers from undesirable fuel properties such as low energy density and high water solubility. The production capacity of fermentation derived oxygenates are projected to rise in near future beyond the current needs. The conversion of oxygenates to hydrocarbon compounds that are similar to gasoline, diesel and jet fuel is considered as one of the viable option. In this chapter the thermo catalytic conversion of oxygenates generated through fermentation to fuel range hydrocarbons will be discussed.

Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Deriving Ontologies from XML Schema  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we present a method and a tool for deriving a skeleton of an ontology from XML schema files. We first recall what an is ontology and its relationships with XML schemas. Next, we focus on ontology building methodology and associated tool requirements. Then, we introduce Janus, a tool for building an ontology from various XML schemas in a given domain. We summarize the main features of Janus and illustrate its functionalities through a simple example. Finally, we compare our approach to other existing ontology building tools.

Bedini, Ivan; Nguyen, Benjamin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Organic derivatives of zirconium phosphate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-zirconium phosphate derivatives. 9 Thermogravimetric analysis of y-zirconium 2-hydroxy- 1-ethyl phosphate. 25 10 Thermogravimetric analysis of y-zirconium 2-carboxy- 2-hydroxy-1-ethyl phosphate. 28 11 Thermo gravimetric 1-ethyl phosphate. analysis of n...-ZrP Figure 3. A comparison of the layered structures of c and y zirconium phosphate. according to Yamanaka [9], ethylene oxide is 18. 4 A [ 10] . When this phase is dehydrated at 150 for one hour, the d-spacing decreases to 17. 2 A, but when left in air...

Fine, Steven Beryl

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Quantum critical benchmark for density functional theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two electrons at the threshold of ionization represent a severe test case for electronic structure theory. A pseudospectral method yields a very accurate density of the two-electron ion with nuclear charge close to the critical value. Highly accurate energy components and potentials of Kohn-Sham density functional theory are given, as well as a useful parametrization of the critical density. The challenges for density functional approximations and the strength of correlation are also discussed.

Paul E. Grabowski; Kieron Burke

2014-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

207

Oxides having high energy densities  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Certain disclosed embodiments generally relate to oxide materials having relatively high energy and/or power densities. Various aspects of the embodiments are directed to oxide materials having a structure B.sub.i(M.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2, for example, a structure Li.sub.j(Ni.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2 such as Li(Ni.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5)O.sub.2. In this structure, Y represents one or more atoms, each independently selected from the group consisting of alkaline earth metals, transition metals, Group 14 elements, Group 15, or Group 16 elements. In some embodiments, such an oxide material may have an O3 crystal structure, and/or a layered structure such that the oxide comprises a plurality of first, repeating atomic planes comprising Li, and a plurality of second, repeating atomic planes comprising Ni and/or Y.

Ceder, Gerbrand; Kang, Kisuk

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

208

The Critical Density and the Effective Excitation Density of Commonly Observed Molecular Dense Gas Tracers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The optically thin critical densities and the effective excitation densities to produce a 1 K km/s (or 0.818 Jy km/s $(\\frac{\

Shirley, Yancy L

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Density Functional Theory Models for Radiation Damage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Density Functional Theory Models for Radiation Damage S.L. Dudarev EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, DFT Abstract Density functional theory models developed over the past decade provide unique phenomena. Density functional theory models have effectively created a new paradigm for the scientific

210

Time Dependent Density Functional Theory An introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Time Dependent Density Functional Theory An introduction Francesco Sottile LSI, Ecole Polytechnique) Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Palaiseau, 26 May 2014 1 / 62 #12;Outline 1 Introduction: why and Resources Francesco Sottile (ETSF) Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Palaiseau, 26 May 2014 2 / 62

Botti, Silvana

211

DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY OF FIELD THEORETICAL SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY OF FIELD THEORETICAL SYSTEMS E. Engel Inst. fur Theor. Physik background of relativistic density functional theory is emphasized and its consequences for relativistic Kohn-Sham equations are shown. The local density approximation for the exchange energy functional is reviewed

Engel, Eberhard

212

Density functional theory George F. Bertsch  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Density functional theory George F. Bertsch #3; Institute for Nuclear Theory and Department of Physics University of Tsukuba Tsukuba 305-8577 Japan Abstract Density functional theory is a remarkably Time-dependent density functional theory: the equations 34 A Optical properties

Bertsch George F.

213

DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY, THE MODERN TREATMENT OF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY, THE MODERN TREATMENT OF ELECTRON CORRELATIONS E.K.U. Gross and Stefan The basic idea of density functional theory is to describe a many-electron system exclusively and completely-consistent scheme, known as the Kohn-Sham scheme [2], is the heart of modern density functional theory

Gross, E.K.U.

214

Effect on high-T{sub c} superconductivity of the a-b anisotropy in the normal phase  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have previously proposed a two-dimensional d+s-wave superconductivity model in order to account for high-T{sub c} cuprates, in which an orthorhombic distorsion is present within the layers. Conversely, recent microwave conductivity data suggest that a substantial portion of the a-b anisotropy in the magnetic penetration depth is a normal-state effect. We thus generalize in this paper our d+s model to take into account the normal-state anisotropy. We show that such an anisotropy reacts not only on the a-b anisotropy in the transport coefficients but also on the density of states and other thermodynamic quantities. We hope that future experiments will confirm this effect and help us to sort out the a-b anisotropies due to the normal state with higher precision in a number of different compounds. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Beal-Monod, M.T. [Physique des Solides, Universite de Paris-sud, 91400 Orsay (France)] [Physique des Solides, Universite de Paris-sud, 91400 Orsay (France); Maki, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0484 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0484 (United States)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Oil production models with normal rate curves Dudley Stark  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oil production models with normal rate curves Dudley Stark School of Mathematical Sciences Queen;Abstract The normal curve has been used to fit the rate of both world and U.S.A. oil production. In this paper we give the first theoretical basis for these curve fittings. It is well known that oil field

Stark, Dudley

216

New Equipartition Results for Normal Mode Energies of Anharmonic Chains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New Equipartition Results for Normal Mode Energies of Anharmonic Chains B.I. Henry 1 and T. Szeredi 2;3 Date: 26 September 1995 The canonical and micro­canonical distribution of energy among. If the inter­particle potential is an even function then energy is distributed uniformly among the normal modes

Henry, Bruce Ian

217

SMITH NORMAL FORM OF A MULTIVARIATE MATRIX ASSOCIATED WITH PARTITIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SMITH NORMAL FORM OF A MULTIVARIATE MATRIX ASSOCIATED WITH PARTITIONS CHRISTINE BESSENRODT polynomials, and by determining not only the deter- minant but also the Smith normal form of these matrices. A priori the Smith form need not exist but its existence follows from the explicit computation

218

Numerical algorithms for the computation of the Smith normal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Numerical algorithms for the computation of the Smith normal form of integral matrices C of the Smith normal form of integral matrices are described. More specifically, the com­ pound matrix method of the algorithms. AMS Subject Classification: Primary 65F30, Secondary 15A21, 15A36. Key words and phrases: Smith

Seberry, Jennifer

219

Source and thermal maturity of bitumen in Precambrian Nonesuch Formation inferred from isotopic compositions of individual normal alkanes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of a continuing study of organic geochemistry of the 1.05 Ga Nonesuch Formation in the North American Mid-Continents rift, isotopic compositions of individual normal alkanes were measured using compound-specific isotopic analysis. This is a relatively new technique that can be used in conjunction with traditional biomarker analysis in interpretation of thermal maturity, oil-source rock correlation, and paleoecologic reconstruction. Carbon-isotopic compositions of individual normal alkanes from C{sub 15} to C{sub 25} in five bitumens and one oil from Nonesuch strata vary from {minus}28.8 to {minus}34.5{per thousand} (versus PDB). Within a given sample, isotopic compositions of n-alkanes span a range of 2 to 4 {per thousand}%. Homologues from C{sub 15} to C{sub 19} are isotopically light (depleted) by approximately 0.5{per thousand} relative to higher homologues from C{sub 20} to C{sub 25}. Two sources of normal alkanes are interpreted from the distribution of isotopic compositions. Based on chain length, the series from C{sub 15} to C{sub 19} may have been derived from algal components. Isotopically heavy, higher homologues are suspected to have been derived from bacterial sources. The pattern of isotopic compositions of bitumens is similar to that of the oil, demonstrating an oil-source rock relationship. Superimposed upon this primary, bimodal distribution of normal alkanes is the influence of thermal maturity on isotopic composition. Normal alkanes in samples of higher thermal maturity are enriched isotopically by 0.25 to 2{per thousand} relative to those of lower thermal maturity. Isotopic enrichment with increasing thermal maturity is interpreted to be the result of either addition of isotopically heavy components derived from kerogen and/or preferential loss through cracking of isotopically light components in bitumen.

Hieshima, G.B. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington (United States))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, ???? (2012) Printed 3 May 2013 (MN LATEX style file v2.2) Herschel -ATLAS/GAMA: The Environmental Density of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the normalized environmental densities of these two populations. This is such that infrared emission (a tracer -ATLAS/GAMA: The Environmental Density of Far-Infrared Bright Galaxies at z 0.5 C. S. Burton1 , Matt J1 3RH, UK 3Physics Department, University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535, South Africa 4School

Baes, Maarten

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal densities derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Correlation of nuclear criticality safety computer codes with plutonium benchmark experiments and derivation of subcritical limits. [MGBS, TGAN, KEFF, HRXN, GLASS, ANISN, SPBL, and KENO  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A compilation of benchmark critical experiments was made for essentially one-dimensional systems containing plutonium. The systems consist of spheres, series of experiments with cylinders and cuboids that permit extrapolation to infinite cylinders and slabs, and large cylinders for which separability of the neutron flux into a product of spatial components is a good approximation. Data from the experiments were placed in a form readily usable as computer code input. Aqueous solutions of Pu(NO/sub 3/)/sub 4/ are treated as solutions of PuO/sub 2/ in nitric acid. The apparent molal volume of PuO/sub 2/ as a function of plutonium concentration was derived from analyses of solution density data and was incorporated in the Savannah River Laboratory computer codes along with density tables for nitric acid. The biases of three methods of calculation were established by correlation with the benchmark experiments. The oldest method involves two-group diffusion theory and has been used extensively at the Savannah River Laboratory. The other two involve S/sub n/ transport theory with, in one method, Hansen-Roach cross sections and, in the other, cross sections derived from ENDF/B-IV. Subcritical limits were calculated by all three methods. Significant differences were found among the results and between the results and limits currently in the American National Standard for Nuclear Criticality Safety in Operations with Fissionable Materials Outside Reactor (ANSI N16.1), which were calculated by yet another method, despite the normalization of all four methods to the same experimental data. The differences were studied, and a set of subcritical limits was proposed to supplement and in some cases to replace those in the ANSI Standard, which is currently being reviewed.

Clark, H.K.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Analysis of an open crown conical shell segment for edge loadings and a linearly varying normal surface loading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. INTRO DUG TI ON THEORY Page III. Derivation of the Differential Eguation Solution of the Equation CONCLUSIONS 3 11 22 LITERATURE CITED REFERENCES 23 25 LIST OF FIGURES Shell Segment Showing Boondary Stress Resultants Shell Segment Showing... defined by equation (19 ) Thickness of the shell A differential operator defined by equation (18) M, M Rending moments per unit length of a shell perpendicular to the s and Q directions, respec- tively N i N Normal forces per unit length of sections...

Hervey, Donald Gable

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Laser-induced differential normalized fluorescence method for cancer diagnosis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample. 5 figs.

Vo-Dinh, T.; Panjehpour, M.; Overholt, B.F.

1996-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

224

Laser-induced differential normalized fluorescence method for cancer diagnosis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample.

Vo-Dinh, Tuan (Knoxville, TN); Panjehpour, Masoud (Knoxville, TN); Overholt, Bergein F. (Knoxville, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Power spectrum normalization from the local abundance of rich clusters of galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The number density of rich galaxy clusters still provides the most robust way of normalizing the power spectrum of dark matter perturbations on scales relevant to large-scale structure. We revisit this constraint in light of several recent developments: (1) the availability of well-defined samples of local clusters with relatively accurate X-ray temperatures; (2) new theoretical mass functions for dark matter haloes which provide a good fit to large numerical simulations; (3) more accurate mass-temperature relations from larger catalogs of hydrodynamical simulations; (4) the requirement to consider closed as well as open and flat cosmologies to obtain full multi-parameter likelihood constraints for CMB and SNe studies. We present a new sample of clusters drawn from the literature and use this sample to obtain improved results on sigma_8, the normalization of the matter power spectrum on scales of 8 h^{-1} Mpc, as a function of the matter density and cosmological constant in a Universe with general curvature. We discuss our differences with previous work, and the remaining major sources of uncertainty. Final results on the 68 per cent confidence region, approximately independent of power spectrum shape, can be expressed as constraints on sigma at an appropriate cluster normalization scale R_Cl. We provide fitting formulas for R_Cl and sigma(R_Cl) for general cosmologies, as well as for sigma_8 as a function of cosmology and shape parameter Gamma. For flat models we find approximately sigma_8 \\simeq 0.495^{+0.034}_{-0.037}) Omega_M^{-0.60} for Gamma=0.23, where the error bar is dominated by uncertainty in the mass-temperature relation.

E. Pierpaoli; D. Scott; M. White

2001-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

226

Aerodynamic Focusing Of High-Density Aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-density micron-sized particle aerosols might form the basis for a number of applications in which a material target with a particular shape might be quickly ionized to form a cylindrical or sheet shaped plasma. A simple experimental device was built in order to study the properties of high-density aerosol focusing for 1#22; m silica spheres. Preliminary results recover previous findings on aerodynamic focusing at low densities. At higher densities, it is demonstrated that the focusing properties change in a way which is consistent with a density dependent Stokes number.

Ruiz, D. E.; Fisch, Nathaniel

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

227

Comparing Optical and Microwave Remote Sensing-based Vegetation Density over Mongolia for 1988-2006  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vegetation Index (NDVI), derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) series.vandijk@csiro.au Abstract ­ Vegetation density plays an important role in water and energy balance. Satellite-based optical product (Tucker et al., 2005). It can provide a relatively high spatial resolution product (up to 1km

Evans, Jason

228

Generalized dynamical density functional theory for classical fluids and the significance of inertia and hydrodynamic interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the dynamics of a colloidal fluid including inertia and hydrodynamic interactions, two effects which strongly influence the non-equilibrium properties of the system. We derive a general dynamical density functional theory (DDFT) which shows very good agreement with full Langevin dynamics. In suitable limits, we recover existing DDFTs and a Navier-Stokes-like equation with additional non-local terms.

Benjamin D. Goddard; Andreas Nold; Nikos Savva; Grigorios A. Pavliotis; Serafim Kalliadasis

2012-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

229

Curvature and Frontier Orbital Energies in Density Functional Theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Perdew et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett 49, 1691 (1982)] discovered and proved two different properties that exact Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) must obey: (i) The exact total energy versus particle number must be a series of linear segments between integer electron points; (ii) Across an integer number of electrons, the exchange-correlation potential may ``jump’’ by a constant, known as the derivative discontinuity (DD). Here, we show analytically that in both the original and the generalized Kohn-Sham formulation of DFT, the two are in fact two sides of the same coin. Absence of a derivative discontinuity necessitates deviation from piecewise linearity, and the latter can be used to correct for the former, thereby restoring the physical meaning of the orbital energies. Using selected small molecules, we show that this results in a simple correction scheme for any underlying functional, including semi-local and hybrid functionals as well as Hartree-Fock theory, suggesting a practical correction for the infamous gap problem of density functional theory. Moreover, we show that optimally-tuned range-separated hybrid functionals can inherently minimize both DD and curvature, thus requiring no correction, and show that this can be used as a sound theoretical basis for novel tuning strategies.

Stein, Tamar; Autschbach, Jochen; Govind, Niranjan; Kronik, Leeor; Baer, Roi

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

230

A sample of X-ray emitting normal galaxies from the BMW -- HRI Catalogue  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have obtained a sample of 143 normal galaxies with X-ray luminosity in the range $10^{38} - 10^{43}$ erg s$^{-1}$ from the cross-correlation of the ROSAT HRI Brera Multi-scale Wavelet (BMW -- HRI) Catalogue with the Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database (LEDA). We find that the average X-ray properties of this sample are in good agreement with those of other samples of galaxies in the literature. We have selected a complete flux limited serendipitous sample of 32 galaxies from which we have derived the logN-logS distribution of normal galaxies in the flux range $1.1 - 110 \\times 10^{-14}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. The resulting distribution is consistent with the euclidean -1.5 slope. Comparisons with other samples, such as the Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey, the ROSAT All Sky Survey, the XMM - Newton/2dF survey and the Chandra Deep Field Survey indicate that the logN-logS distribution of normal galaxies is consistent with an euclidean slope over a flux range of about 6 decades.

M. Tajer; G. Trinchieri; A. Wolter; S. Campana; A. Moretti; G. Tagliaferri

2004-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

231

A sample of X-ray emitting normal galaxies from the BMW -- HRI Catalogue  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have obtained a sample of 143 normal galaxies with X-ray luminosity in the range $10^{38} - 10^{43}$ erg s$^{-1}$ from the cross-correlation of the ROSAT HRI Brera Multi-scale Wavelet (BMW -- HRI) Catalogue with the Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database (LEDA). We find that the average X-ray properties of this sample are in good agreement with those of other samples of galaxies in the literature. We have selected a complete flux limited serendipitous sample of 32 galaxies from which we have derived the logN-logS distribution of normal galaxies in the flux range $1.1 - 110 \\times 10^{-14}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. The resulting distribution is consistent with the euclidean -1.5 slope. Comparisons with other samples, such as the Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey, the ROSAT All Sky Survey, the XMM - Newton/2dF survey and the Chandra Deep Field Survey indicate that the logN-logS distribution of normal galaxies is consistent with an euclidean slope over a flux range of about 6 decades.

Tajer, M; Wolter, A; Campana, S; Moretti, A; Tagliaferri, G

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Ceria and its derivatives as substrates for solar-driven thermochemical fuel production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

focus on energy technologies. She has established a new class of fuel cells based on solid acid electrolytes and demonstrated record power densities for solid oxide fuel cells. Her more recent work on waterCeria and its derivatives as substrates for solar-driven thermochemical fuel production Sossina M

Weaver, John H.

233

KH Computational Physics-2009 Density Functional Theory (DFT) Density Functional Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

KH Computational Physics- 2009 Density Functional Theory (DFT) Density Functional Theory of interacting particles. Kristjan Haule, 2009 ­2­ #12;KH Computational Physics- 2009 Density Functional Theory functional of n. Kristjan Haule, 2009 ­3­ #12;KH Computational Physics- 2009 Density Functional Theory (DFT

Haule, Kristjan

234

Density-functional theory of nonuniform classical liquids: An extended modified weighted-density approximation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Density-functional theory of nonuniform classical liquids: An extended modified weighted-density the approximationstreat long-rangeand short-rangepotentials. I. INTRODUCTION The density-functional theory of nonuniform of density- functional theory to the problem of freezing of classical liquids,4 and in particular

Likos, Christos N.

235

Population Density Population density (persons per square kilometer) layers, for 1990  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Population Density Africa Population density (persons per square kilometer) layers, for 1990 the 12 population density classes. Source information: http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw/. ´ Robinson://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/place/ Publish Date: 03/13/07 0 1,000 km Population Density 2000 0 Persons \\ Sq.Km 0-2 Persons \\ Sq.Km 2

Columbia University

236

Dot Density Maps Dot density maps, or dot maps, portray the geographic distribution of discrete phenomena  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dot Density Maps Dot density maps, or dot maps, portray the geographic distribution of discrete for representing geographic patterns. Dot density maps are particularly useful for understanding global distribution of the mapped phenomenon and comparing relative densities of different regions on the map. Dot

Klippel, Alexander

237

A study on real estate derivatives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

All major asset classes including stocks and bonds have a well developed derivative market. Derivatives enable counterparties to reflect a view on a particular market, without having to trade the underlying asset. This ...

Lim, Jong Yoon, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Notes on Derived Functors and Grothendieck Duality.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

59. 2.7. Acyclic objects; finite-dimensional derived functors . . . . . 65. Chapter 3. Derived ...... isomorphism s: I ? Y such that sf = 0 [H, p.37]; and if s has a left.

2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

239

Reduction of derived Hochschild functors over commutative ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jan 9, 2012 ... LUCHEZAR L. AVRAMOV, SRIKANTH B. IYENGAR, JOSEPH LIPMAN,. AND SURESH NAYAK. Abstract. We study functors underlying derived ...

2012-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

240

Postgraduate Scholarship Pricing temperature derivatives and modelling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the volumetric risk of the energy units sold, rather than the price risk of each unit. Weather derivativesPostgraduate Scholarship Pricing temperature derivatives and modelling the market price of risk: Pricing temperature derivatives and modelling the market price of risk. Main Supervisor: A. Alexandridis

Banaji,. Murad

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal densities derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

The Fourth Partial Derivative In Transport Dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new fourth partial derivative is introduced for the study of transport dynamics. It is a Lagrangian partial derivative following the path of diffusion, not the path of convection. Use of this derivative decouples the effect of diffusion and convection and simplifies the analysis of transport processes.

Trinh Khanh Tuoc

2010-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

242

Quantum Inequality Restrictions on Negative Energy Densities in Curved Spacetimes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In quantum field theory, there exist states in which the expectation value of the energy density for a quantized field is negative. These negative energy densities lead to many problems. Although quantum field theory introduces negative energies, it also provides constraints in the form of quantum inequalities (QI's). These uncertainty principle-type relations limit the magnitude and duration of any negative energy. We derive a general form of the QI on the energy density for both the quantized scalar and electromagnetic fields in static curved spacetimes. In the case of the scalar field, the QI can be written as the Euclidean wave operator acting on the Euclidean Green's function. Additionally, a small distance expansion on the Green's function is used to derive the QI in the short sampling time limit. It is found that the QI in this limit reduces to the flat space form with subdominant correction terms which depend on the spacetime geometry. Several example spacetimes are studied in which exact forms of the QI's can be found. These include the three- and four-dimensional static Robertson-Walker spacetimes, flat space with perfectly reflecting mirrors, Rindler and static de Sitter space, and the spacetime outside a black hole. Finally, the application of the quantum inequalities to the Alcubierre warp drive spacetime leads to strict constraints on the thickness of the negative energy region needed to maintain the warp drive. Under these constraints, we discover that the total negative energy required exceeds the total mass of the visible universe by a hundred billion times.

Michael John Pfenning; L. H. Ford

1998-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

243

Density functional theory for Baxter's sticky hard spheres in confinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It has recently been shown that a free energy for Baxter's sticky hard sphere fluid is uniquely defined within the framework of fundamental measure theory (FMT) for the inhomogeneous hard sphere fluid, provided that it obeys scaled-particle theory and the Percus-Yevick (PY) result for the direct correlation function [Hansen-Goos and Wettlaufer, J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 134}, 014506 (2011)]. Here, combining weighted densities from common versions of FMT with a new vectorial weighted density, we derive a regularization of the divergences of the associated strongly confined limit. Moreover, the simple free energy that emerges is exact in the zero-dimensional limit, leaves the underlying equation of state unaffected, and yields a direct correlation function distinct from the PY expression. Comparison with simulation data for both the bulk pair correlation function and the density profiles in confinement shows that the new theory is significantly more accurate than the PY-based results. Finally, the resulting free energy is applicable to a glass of adhesive hard spheres.

Hendrik Hansen-Goos; Mark A. Miller; J. S. Wettlaufer

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

244

Constraints on the density perturbation spectrum from primordial black holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We re-examine the constraints on the density perturbation spectrum, including its spectral index $n$, from the production of primordial black holes. The standard cosmology, where the Universe is radiation dominated from the end of inflation up until the recent past, was studied by Carr, Gilbert and Lidsey; we correct two errors in their derivation and find a significantly stronger constraint than they did, $n \\lesssim 1.25$ rather than their 1.5. We then consider an alternative cosmology in which a second period of inflation, known as thermal inflation and designed to solve additional relic over-density problems, occurs at a lower energy scale than the main inflationary period. In that case, the constraint weakens to $n \\lesssim 1.3$, and thermal inflation also leads to a `missing mass' range, $10^{18} g \\lesssim M \\lesssim 10^{26} g$, in which primordial black holes cannot form. Finally, we discuss the effect of allowing for the expected non-gaussianity in the density perturbations predicted by Bullock and Primack, which can weaken the constraints further by up to 0.05.

Anne M Green; Andrew R Liddle

1997-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

245

Penetration and scattering of lower hybrid waves by density fluctuations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lower Hybrid [LH] ray propagation in toroidal plasma is controlled by a combination of the azimuthal spectrum launched from the antenna, the poloidal variation of the magnetic field, and the scattering of the waves by the density fluctuations. The width of the poloidal and radial RF wave spectrum increases rapidly as the rays penetrate into higher density and scatter from the turbulence. The electron temperature gradient [ETG] spectrum is particularly effective in scattering the LH waves due to its comparable wavelengths and parallel phase velocities. ETG turbulence is also driven by the radial gradient of the electron current density giving rise to an anomalous viscosity spreading the LH-driven plasma currents. The scattered LH spectrum is derived from a Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution of the ray trajectories with a diffusivity proportional to the fluctuations. The LH ray diffusivity is large giving transport in the poloidal and radial wavenumber spectrum in one - or a few passes - of the rays through the core plasma.

Horton, W. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin (United States); Goniche, M.; Peysson, Y.; Decker, J.; Ekedahl, A.; Litaudon, X. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

246

SU-E-I-18: CT Scanner QA Using Normalized CTDI Ratio  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To create a ratio of weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDIw) data normalized to in-air measurements (CTDIair) as a function of beam quality to create a look-up table for frequent, rapid quality assurance (QA) checks of CTDI. Methods: The CTDIw values were measured according to TG-63 protocol using a pencil ionization chamber (Unfors Xi CT detector) and head and body Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms (16 and 32 cm diameter, respectively). Single scan dose profiles were measured at each clinically available energy (80,100,120,140 kVp) on three different CT scanners (two Siemens SOMATOM Definition Flash and one GE Optima), using a tube current of 400 mA, a one second rotation time, and the widest available beam width (32 × 0.6 mm and 16 × 1.25 mm, respectively). These values were normalized to CTDIair measurements using the same conditions as CTDIw. The ratios (expressed in cGy/R) were assessed for each scanner as a function of each energy's half value layer (HVL) paired with the phantom's appropriate bow tie filter measured in mmAl. Results: Normalized CTDI values vary linearly with HVL for both the head and body phantoms. The ratios for the two Siemens machines are very similar at each energy. Compared to the GE scanner, these values vary between 10–20% for each kVp setting. Differences in CTDIair contribute most to the deviation of the ratios across machines. Ratios are independent of both mAs and collimation. Conclusion: Look-up tables constructed of normalized CTDI values as a function of HVL can be used to derive CTDIw data from only three in-air measurements (one for CTDIair and two with added filtration for HVL) to allow for simple, frequent QA checks without CT phantom setup. Future investigations will involve comparing results with Monte Carlo simulations for validation.

Randazzo, M; Tambasco, M; Russell, B [San Diego State University, San Diego, CA (United States)

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Quartz resonator fluid density and viscosity monitor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pair of thickness-shear mode resonators, one smooth and one with a textured surface, allows fluid density and viscosity to be independently resolved. A textured surface, either randomly rough or regularly patterned, leads to trapping of liquid at the device surface. The synchronous motion of this trapped liquid with the oscillating device surface allows the device to weigh the liquid; this leads to an additional response that depends on liquid density. This additional response enables a pair of devices, one smooth and one textured, to independently resolve liquid density and viscosity; the difference in responses determines the density while the smooth device determines the density-viscosity product, and thus, the pair determines both density and viscosity.

Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM); Wiczer, James J. (Albuquerque, NM); Cernosek, Richard W. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Gebert, Charles T. (Albuquerque, NM); Casaus, Leonard (Bernalillo, NM); Mitchell, Mary A. (Tijeras, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Characteristics of Wind Turbines Under Normal and Fault Conditions: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper investigates the characteristics of a variable-speed wind turbine connected to a stiff or weak grid under normal and fault conditions and the role of reactive power compensation.

Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Parsons, B.; Ellis, A.

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Coarser connected topologies and non-normality points  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate two topics, coarser connected topologies and non-normality points. The motivating question in the first topic is: When does a space have a coarser connected topology with a nice topological property? We will ...

Yengulalp, Lynne Christine

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Computing Simplicial Homology Based on Efficient Smith Normal Form Algorithms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in general are sparse. We provide a review of several al- gorithms for the calculation of Smith Normal Form defined by ieA = i j=0 (-1)j eA\\{aj }, where A = {a0

Dumas, Jean-Guillaume

251

Paducah and Portsmouth Off-Specification Enriched and Normal...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Enriched and Normal UF 6 Inventory 1 3B refers to a 30B cylinder size and 4A refers to a 48A size cylinder. Table 1 PORTS Enriched Inventory Container ID Sample Transfer Gross lbs...

252

Considering Air Density in Wind Power Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the wind power production calculations the air density is usually considered as constant in time. Using the CIPM-2007 equation for the density of moist air as a function of air temperature, air pressure and relative humidity, we show that it is worth taking the variation of the air density into account, because higher accuracy can be obtained in the calculation of the power production for little effort.

Farkas, Zénó

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Considering Air Density in Wind Power Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the wind power production calculations the air density is usually considered as constant in time. Using the CIPM-2007 equation for the density of moist air as a function of air temperature, air pressure and relative humidity, we show that it is worth taking the variation of the air density into account, because higher accuracy can be obtained in the calculation of the power production for little effort.

Zénó Farkas

2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

254

Method of synthesizing a low density material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel method of synthesizing a polymeric material of low density of the order of 50mg/cc or less. Such a low density material has applications in many areas including laser target fabrication. The method comprises preparing a polymer blend of two incompatible polymers as a major and a minor phase by mixing them and extruding the mixture, and then selectively extracting the major component, to yield a fine, low density structure.

Lorensen, L.E.; Monaco, S.B.

1987-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

255

Use of Normalized Radial Basis Function in Hydrology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this article we will present a use of normalized radial basis function in hydrology for prediction of missing river Reka runoff data. The method is based on multidimensional normal distribution, where standard deviation is first optimized and later the whole prediction process is learned on existing data [5]. We can conclude, that the method works very well for middle ranges of data, but not so well for extremes because of its interpolating nature.

Cotar, Anton; Brilly, Mitja [Chair of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Jamova 2, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2008-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

256

Betatron radiation from density tailored plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Betatron radiation from density tailored plasmas K. Tathe resulting betatron radiation spectrum can therefore bepro?le, the betatron radiation emitted by theses electrons

Ta Phuoc, Kim

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Some challenges for Nuclear Density Functional Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss some of the challenges that the DFT community faces in its quest for the truly universal energy density functional applicable over the entire nuclear chart.

T. Duguet; K. Bennaceur; T. Lesinski; J. Meyer

2006-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

258

3-D capacitance density imaging system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A three-dimensional capacitance density imaging of a gasified bed or the like in a containment vessel is achieved using a plurality of electrodes provided circumferentially about the bed in levels and along the bed in channels. The electrodes are individually and selectively excited electrically at each level to produce a plurality of current flux field patterns generated in the bed at each level. The current flux field patterns are suitably sensed and a density pattern of the bed at each level determined. By combining the determined density patterns at each level, a three-dimensional density image of the bed is achieved. 7 figs.

Fasching, G.E.

1988-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

259

GyPSuM: A Detailed Tomographic Model of Mantle Density and Seismic Wave Speeds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

GyPSuM is a tomographic model fo mantle seismic shear wave (S) speeds, compressional wave (P) speeds and detailed density anomalies that drive mantle flow. the model is developed through simultaneous inversion of seismic body wave travel times (P and S) and geodynamic observations while considering realistic mineral physics parameters linking the relative behavior of mantle properties (wave speeds and density). Geodynamic observations include the (up to degree 16) global free-air gravity field, divergence of the tectonic plates, dynamic topography of the free surface, and the flow-induced excess ellipticity of the core-mantle boundary. GyPSuM is built with the philosophy that heterogeneity that most closely resembles thermal variations is the simplest possible solution. Models of the density field from Earth's free oscillations have provided great insight into the density configuration of the mantle; but are limited to very long-wavelength solutions. Alternatively, simply scaling higher resolution seismic images to density anomalies generates density fields that do not satisfy geodynamic observations. The current study provides detailed density structures in the mantle while directly satisfying geodynamic observations through a joint seismic-geodynamic inversion process. Notable density field observations include high-density piles at the base of the superplume structures, supporting the fundamental results of past normal mode studies. However, these features are more localized and lower amplitude than past studies would suggest. When we consider all seismic anomalies in GyPSuM, we find that P and S-wave speeds are strongly correlated throughout the mantle. However, correlations between the high-velocity S zones in the deep mantle ({approx} 2000 km depth) and corresponding P-wave anomalies are very low suggesting a systematic divergence from simplified thermal effects in ancient subducted slab anomalies. Nevertheless, they argue that temperature variations are the primary cause of P-wave, S-wave, and density anomalies in the mantle.

Simmons, N A; Forte, A M; Boschi, L; Grand, S P

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

260

aerial density profiles: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

present an analytic approach to predict gas density and temperature profiles in dark matter haloes. We assume that the gas density profile traces the dark matter density profile...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal densities derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

High density laser-driven target  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high density target for implosion by laser energy composed of a central quantity of fuel surrounded by a high-Z pusher shell with a low-Z ablator-pusher shell spaced therefrom forming a region filled with low-density material.

Lindl, John D. (San Ramon, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Density Estimation Trees in High Energy Physics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Density Estimation Trees can play an important role in exploratory data analysis for multidimensional, multi-modal data models of large samples. I briefly discuss the algorithm, a self-optimization technique based on kernel density estimation, and some applications in High Energy Physics.

Anderlini, Lucio

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Elliptical Solutions to the Standard Cosmology Model with Realistic Values of Matter Density  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have examined a solution to the FRW model of the Einstein and de Sitter Universe, often termed the standard model of cosmology, using wide values for the normalized cosmological constant Omega_L and spacetime curvature Omega_k with proposed values of normalized matter density. These solutions were evaluated using a combination of the third type of elliptical equations and were found to display critical points for redshift z, between 1 and 3, when Omega_L is positive. These critical points occur at values for normalized cosmological constant higher than those currently thought important, though we find this solution interesting because the Omega_L term may increase in dominance as the Universe evolves bringing this discontinuity into importance. We also find positive Omega_L tends towards attractive at values of z which are commonly observed for distant galaxies.

Ahmet Mecit Oztas; Michael L. Smith

2015-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

264

Density equalizing map projections (cartograms) in public health applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In studying geographic disease distributions, one normally compares rates among arbitrarily defined geographic subareas (e.g. census tracts), thereby sacrificing some of the geographic detail of the original data. The sparser the data, the larger the subareas must be in order to calculate stable rates. This dilemma is avoided with the technique of Density Equalizing Map Projections (DEMP){copyright}. Boundaries of geographic subregions are adjusted to equalize population density over the entire study area. Case locations plotted on the transformed map should have a uniform distribution if the underlying disease risk is constant. On the transformed map, the statistical analysis of the observed distribution is greatly simplified. Even for sparse distributions, the statistical significance of a supposed disease cluster can be calculated with validity. The DEMP algorithm was applied to a data set previously analyzed with conventional techniques; namely, 401 childhood cancer cases in four counties of California. The distribution of cases on the transformed map was analyzed visually and statistically. To check the validity of the method, the identical analysis was performed on 401 artificial cases randomly generated under the assumption of uniform risk. No statistically significant evidence for geographic non-uniformity of rates was found, in agreement with the original analysis performed by the California Department of Health Services.

Merrill, D.W.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Pocket formation and the flame surface density equation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The occurrence and properties of singularities in the equation for the surface density function {sigma} {triple_bond}{vert_bar}{del}{Phi}{vert_bar} are analyzed analytically and numerically using data from two dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS) of pocket formation in a premixed methane-air flame. The various stages and the relevant time scales associated with pocket formation were determined in a previous study. It was found that isolated pockets form if and only if a nondegenerate critical point of a saddle point type appears. The appearance of a singularity in the isoline representing the flame front may have implications to modeling of the terms in the surface density function (sdf) approach during such transient events as pocket formation. The sink and source terms in sdf are evaluated in the neighborhood of a critical point using DNS data during pocket formation, and an analytic representation of a scalar in the vicinity of the critical point which allows for the computation of all kinematic properties. The analytic and computational results show that the normal restoration and dissipation terms in the sdf become singular at the critical point when the pocket emerges. Furthermore, the analytic results show that the singularities exactly cancel, and therefore, the main conclusion is that it is unnecessary to model the singular behavior of these terms at critical points. However, closure of their sum is recommended.

Kollman, W. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Chen, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Density of Spray-Formed Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spray Forming is an advanced materials processing technology that transforms molten metal into a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a substrate. Depending on the application, the spray-formed material may be used in the as-deposited condition or it may undergo post-deposition processing. Regardless, the density of the as-deposited material is an important issue. Porosity is detrimental because it can significantly reduce strength, toughness, hardness and other properties. While it is not feasible to achieve fully-dense material in the as-deposited state, density greater than 99% of theoretical density is possible if the atomization and impact conditions are optimized. Thermal conditions at the deposit surface and droplet impact angle are key processing parameters that influence the density of the material. This paper examines the factors that contribute to porosity formation during spray forming and illustrates that very high as-deposited density is achieved by optimizing processing parameters.

Kevin M. McHugh; Volker Uhlenwinkel; Nils Ellendr

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Neutral depletion and the helicon density limit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is straightforward to create fully ionized plasmas with modest rf power in a helicon. It is difficult, however, to create plasmas with density >10{sup 20} m{sup ?3}, because neutral depletion leads to a lack of fuel. In order to address this density limit, we present fast (1 MHz), time-resolved measurements of the neutral density at and downstream from the rf antenna in krypton helicon plasmas. At the start of the discharge, the neutral density underneath the antenna is reduced to 1% of its initial value in 15 ?s. The ionization rate inferred from these data implies that the electron temperature near the antenna is much higher than the electron temperature measured downstream. Neutral density measurements made downstream from the antenna show much slower depletion, requiring 14 ms to decrease by a factor of 1/e. Furthermore, the downstream depletion appears to be due to neutral pumping rather than ionization.

Magee, R. M.; Galante, M. E.; Carr, J. Jr.; Lusk, G.; McCarren, D. W.; Scime, E. E. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)] [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

268

Ions in solution: Density corrected density functional theory (DC-DFT)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Standard density functional approximations often give questionable results for odd-electron radical complexes, with the error typically attributed to self-interaction. In density corrected density functional theory (DC-DFT), certain classes of density functional theory calculations are significantly improved by using densities more accurate than the self-consistent densities. We discuss how to identify such cases, and how DC-DFT applies more generally. To illustrate, we calculate potential energy surfaces of HO·Cl{sup ?} and HO·H{sub 2}O complexes using various common approximate functionals, with and without this density correction. Commonly used approximations yield wrongly shaped surfaces and/or incorrect minima when calculated self consistently, while yielding almost identical shapes and minima when density corrected. This improvement is retained even in the presence of implicit solvent.

Kim, Min-Cheol; Sim, Eunji, E-mail: esim@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nano-Bio Molecular Assemblies, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nano-Bio Molecular Assemblies, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Burke, Kieron [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

269

COMMENTS ON ANOMALOUS EFFECTS IN CHARGING OF PD POWDERS WITH HIGH DENSITY HYDROGEN ISOTOPES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In Kitamura, et al, Pd-containing materials are exposed to isotopes of hydrogen and anomalous results obtained. These are claimed to be a replication of another experiment conducted by Arata and Zhang. Erroneous basic assumptions are pointed out herein that alter the derived conclusions significantly. The final conclusion is that the reported results are likely normal chemistry combined with noise. Thus the claim to have proven that cold fusion is occurring in these systems is both premature and unlikely.

Shanahan, K.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

GLOBAL CONVERGENCE OF GENERAL DERIVATIVE-FREE ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a relatively recent topic [1, 3, 7, 10]. In this paper we address trust-region methods for unconstrained derivative-free optimization. These methods ... Page 2

2006-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

271

Wood density measurement protocol J Chave Page 1 Measuring wood density for tropical forest trees  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood density measurement protocol ­ J Chave Page 1 Measuring wood density for tropical forest trees Diversité Biologique Université Paul Sabatier 31000 Toulouse, France 1. Introduction Wood is a biological, that transport the sap along the stem and they are filled by water. The density of tree wood is an interesting

Chave, Jérôme

272

Testing the kinetic energy functional: Kinetic energy density as a density functional  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is to the exchange-correlation energy as a functional of the density. A large part of the total energy, the kinetic contexts. For finite systems these forms integrate to the same global ki- netic energy, but they differTesting the kinetic energy functional: Kinetic energy density as a density functional Eunji Sim

Burke, Kieron

273

Systematic comparison between line integrated densities measured with interferometry and polarimetry at JET  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A systematic comparison between the line integrated electron density derived from interferometry and polarimetry at JET has been carried out. For the first time the reliability of the measurements of the Cotton-Mouton effect has been analyzed for a wide range of main plasma parameters and the possibility to evaluate the electron density directly from polarimetric data has been studied. The purpose of this work is to recover the interferometric data with the density derived from the measured Cotton-Mouton effect, when the fringe jump phenomena occur. The results show that the difference between the line integrated electron density from interferometry and polarimetry is with one fringe (1.143x10{sup 19} m{sup -2}) for more than 90% of the cases. It is possible to consider polarimetry as a satisfactory alternative method to interferometry to measure the electron density and it could be used to recover interferometric signal when a fringe jumps occurs, preventing difficulties for the real-time control of many experiments at the JET machine.

Brombin, M.; Zilli, E.; Giudicotti, L. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-Enea Sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Department of Electrical Engineering, Padova University, via Gradenigo 6-A, 35131 Padova (Italy); Boboc, A. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Murari, A. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-Enea Sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

274

Method and means for a spatial and temporal probe for laser-generated plumes based on density gradients  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and means are disclosed for a spatial and temporal probe for laser generated plumes based on density gradients includes generation of a plume of vaporized material from a surface by an energy source. The probe laser beam is positioned so that the plume passes through the probe laser beam. Movement of the probe laser beam caused by refraction from the density gradient of the plume is monitored. Spatial and temporal information, correlated to one another, is then derived. 15 figs.

Yeung, E.S.; Chen, G.

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3` noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to appropriate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. This invention also provides normalized cDNA libraries generated by the above-described method and uses of the generated libraries. 19 figs.

Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

1998-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

276

Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to appropriate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. This invention also provides normalized cDNA libraries generated by the above-described method and uses of the generated libraries.

Soares, Marcelo B. (New York, NY); Efstratiadis, Argiris (Englewood, NJ)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Method and apparatus for measuring surface density of explosive and inert dust in stratified layers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for determining the surface density of coal dust on top of rock dust or rock dust on top of coal dust is disclosed which comprises directing a light source at either a coal or rock dust layer overlaying a substratum of the other, detecting the amount of light reflected from the deposit, generating a signal from the reflected light which is converted into a normalized output (V), and calculating the surface density from the normalized output. The surface density S.sub.c of coal dust on top of rock dust is calculated according to the equation: S.sub.c =1/-a.sub.c ln(V) wherein a.sub.c is a constant for the coal dust particles, and the surface density S.sub.r of rock dust on top of coal dust is determined by the equation: ##EQU1## wherein a.sub.r is a constant based on the properties of the rock dust particles. An apparatus is also disclosed for carrying out the method of the present invention.

Sapko, Michael J. (Finleyville, PA); Perlee, Henry E. (Bethel Park, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

New Derivation of Off-Shell Representations of the Multi-dimensional Affine and Virasoro Algebras  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Algebras of currents and diffeomorphisms in arbitrary dimension have extensions which generalize the affine and Virasoro algebras on the circle. A large class of off-shell representations was discovered in Comm. Math. Phys. 214 (2000) 469--491. That paper is not so accessible due to a slightly non-standard normal ordering formalism and cumbersome $p$-jet calculations. The purpose of the present paper is to simplify the derivation using standard OPE methods and a more field-like formalism.

T. A. Larsson

2015-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

279

Periodic subsystem density-functional theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

By partitioning the electron density into subsystem contributions, the Frozen Density Embedding (FDE) formulation of subsystem Density Functional Theory (DFT) has recently emerged as a powerful tool for reducing the computational scaling of Kohn–Sham DFT. To date, however, FDE has been employed to molecular systems only. Periodic systems, such as metals, semiconductors, and other crystalline solids have been outside the applicability of FDE, mostly because of the lack of a periodic FDE implementation. To fill this gap, in this work we aim at extending FDE to treat subsystems of molecular and periodic character. This goal is achieved by a dual approach. On one side, the development of a theoretical framework for periodic subsystem DFT. On the other, the realization of the method into a parallel computer code. We find that periodic FDE is capable of reproducing total electron densities and (to a lesser extent) also interaction energies of molecular systems weakly interacting with metallic surfaces. In the pilot calculations considered, we find that FDE fails in those cases where there is appreciable density overlap between the subsystems. Conversely, we find FDE to be in semiquantitative agreement with Kohn–Sham DFT when the inter-subsystem density overlap is low. We also conclude that to make FDE a suitable method for describing molecular adsorption at surfaces, kinetic energy density functionals that go beyond the GGA level must be employed.

Genova, Alessandro; Pavanello, Michele, E-mail: m.pavanello@rutgers.edu [Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States); Ceresoli, Davide [Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States); CNR-ISTM, Institute of Molecular Sciences and Technologies, Milano (Italy)

2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

280

Density Prediction of Uranium-6 Niobium Ingots  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The densities of uranium-6 niobium (U-Nb) alloys have been compiled from a variety of literature sources such as Y-12 and Rocky Flats datasheets. We also took advantage of the 42 well-pedigreed, homogeneous baseline U-Nb alloys produced under the Enhanced Surveillance Program for density measurements. Even though U-Nb alloys undergo two-phase transitions as the Nb content varies from 0 wt. % to 8 wt %, the theoretical and measured densities vary linearly with Nb content. Therefore, the effect of Nb content on the density was modeled with a linear regression. From this linear regression, a homogeneous ingot of U-6 wt.% Nb would have a density of 17.382 {+-} 0.040 g/cc (95% CI). However, ingots produced at Y-12 are not homogeneous with respect to the Nb content. Therefore, using the 95% confidence intervals, the density of a Y-12 produced ingot would vary from 17.310 {+-} 0.043 g/cc at the center to 17.432 {+-} 0.039 g/cc at the edge. Ingots with larger Nb inhomogeneities will also have larger variances in the density.

D.F.Teter; P.K. Tubesing; D.J.Thoma; E.J.Peterson

2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal densities derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Effect of density changes on tokamak plasma confinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A change of the particle density (by gas puff, pellets or impurity seeding) during the plasma discharge in tokamak produces a radial current and implicitly a torque and rotation that can modify the state of confinement. After ionization the newly born ions will evolve toward the periodic neoclassical orbits (trapped or circulating) but the first part of their excursion, which precedes the periodicity, is an effective radial current. It is short, spatially finite and unique for each new ion, but multiplied by the rate of ionization and it can produce a substantial total radial current. The associated torque induces rotation which modify the transport processes. We derive the magnitude of the radial current induced by ionization by three methods: the analysis of a simple physical picture, a numerical model and the neoclassical drift-kinetic treatment. The results of the three approaches are in agreement and show that the current can indeed be substantial. Many well known experimental observations can be reconsi...

Spineanu, F

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Plasma behaviour at high beta and high density in the Madison Symmetric Torus RFP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pellet fuelling of improved confinement Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) plasmas has resulted in high density and high plasma beta. The density in improved confinement discharges has been increased fourfold, and a record plasma beta (beta(tot) = 26%) for the improved confinement reversed-field pinch (RFP) has been achieved. At higher beta, a new regime for instabilities is accessed in which local interchange and global tearing instabilities are calculated to be linearly unstable, but experimentally, no severe effect, e. g., a disruption, is observed. The tearing instability, normally driven by the current gradient, is driven by the pressure gradient in this case, and there are indications of increased energy transport ( as compared with low-density improved confinement). Pellet fuelling is also compared with enhanced edge fuelling of standard confinement RFP discharges for the purpose of searching for a density limit in MST. In standard-confinement discharges, pellet fuelling peaks the density profile where edge fuelling cannot, but transport appears unchanged. For a limited range of plasma current, MST discharges with edge fuelling are constrained to a maximum density corresponding to the Greenwald limit. This limit is surpassed in pellet-fuelled improved confinement discharges.

Wyman, M. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Chapman, B. E. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Ahn, J. W. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Almagri, A. F. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Anderson, J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Bonomo, F. [Consorzio RFX, Italy; Bower, D L [University of California, Los Angeles; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Craig, D. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Foust, Charles R [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Density-dependent nucleon-nucleon interaction from UIX three-nucleon force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A density-dependent two-nucleon potential has been derived in the formalism of correlated basis function. The effects of 3-particle interactions has been included by integrating out the degrees of freedom of the third nucleon. The potential can be easily employed in nuclear matter calculations. It yields results in agreement with those obtained from the underlying three-body potential. The use of the density dependent potential allowed us to study the effects of three-nucleon interactions in symmetric nuclear matter within the Auxiliary Field Diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) computational scheme.

Alessandro Lovato; Omar Benhar; Stefano Fantoni; Alexey Yu. Illarionov; Kevin E. Schmidt

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

284

Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form. The method comprises: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3` noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 4 figs.

Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

1996-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

285

Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

Soares, Marcelo B. (New York, NY); Efstratiadis, Argiris (Englewood, NJ)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Low density, resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde under alkaline conditions results in the formation of surface functionalized polymer ''clusters''. The covalent crosslinking of these ''clusters'' produces gels which when processed under supercritical conditions, produce low density, organic aerogels (density less than or equal to100 mg/cc; cell size less than or equal to0.1 microns). The aerogels are transparent,dark red in color and consist of interconnected colloidal-like particles with diameters of about 100 A/degree/. These aerogels may be further carbonized to form low density carbon foams with cell size of about 0.1 micron. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Pekala, R.W.

1988-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

287

Low density, resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde under alkaline conditions results in the formation of surface functionalized polymer "Clusters". The covalent crosslinking of these "clusters" produces gels which when processed under supercritical conditions, produce low density, organic aerogels (density.ltoreq.100 mg/cc; cell size .ltoreq.0.1 microns). The aerogels are transparent, dark red in color and consist of interconnected colloidal-like particles with diameters of about 100.circle.. These aerogels may be further carbonized to form low density carbon foams with cell size of about 0.1 micron.

Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Low density, resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde under alkaline conditions results in the formation of surface functionalized polymer "clusters". The covalent crosslinking of these "clusters" produces gels which when processed under supercritical conditions, produce low density, organic aerogels (density .ltoreq.100 mg/cc; cell size .ltoreq.0.1 microns). The aerogels are transparent, dark red in color and consist of interconnected colloidal-like particles with diameters of about 100 .ANG.. These aerogels may be further carbonized to form low density carbon foams with cell size of about 0.1 micron.

Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Low density, resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde under alkaline conditions results in the formation of surface functionalized polymer clusters. The covalent crosslinking of these clusters produces gels which when processed under supercritical conditions, produce low density, organic aerogels (density [<=]100 mg/cc; cell size [<=]0.1 microns). The aerogels are transparent, dark red in color and consist of interconnected colloidal-like particles with diameters of about 100 [angstrom]. These aerogels may be further carbonized to form low density carbon foams with cell size of about 0.1 micron.

Pekala, R.W.

1989-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

290

The temperature dependence of equilibrium plasma density  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Temperature dependence of an electron-nuclear plasma equilibrium density is considered basing on known approaches, which are given in (1)(2). It is shown that at a very high temperature, which is characteristic for a star interior, the equilibrium plasma density is almost constant and equals approximately to $10^{25}$ particles per $cm^3$. At a relatively low temperature, which is characteristic for star surface, the equilibrium plasma density is in several orders lower and depends on temperature as $T^{3/2}$.

B. V. Vasiliev

2002-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

291

Instabilities in the Nuclear Energy Density Functional  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the field of Energy Density Functionals (EDF) used in nuclear structure and dynamics, one of the unsolved issues is the stability of the functional. Numerical issues aside, some EDFs are unstable with respect to particular perturbations of the nuclear ground-state density. The aim of this contribution is to raise questions about the origin and nature of these instabilities, the techniques used to diagnose and prevent them, and the domain of density functions in which one should expect a nuclear EDF to be stable.

M. Kortelainen; T. Lesinski

2010-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

292

Gravity derivation of the Tisza-Landau model in AdS/CFT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We derive the fully backreacted bulk solution dual to a boundary superfluid with finite supercurrent density in AdS/CFT. The nonlinear boundary hydrodynamical description of this solution is shown to be governed by a relativistic version of the Tisza-Landau two-fluid model to nondissipative order. As previously noted, the phase transition can be both first order and second order, but in the strongly backreacted regime at low charge q we find that the transition remains second order for all allowed fractions of superfluid density.

Sonner, Julian; Withers, Benjamin [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom and Trinity College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1TQ (United Kingdom); Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

293

Chemically authentic surrogate mixture model for the thermophysical properties of a coal-derived liquid fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We developed a surrogate mixture model to represent the physical properties of a coal-derived liquid fuel using only information obtained from a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the fuel and a recently developed 'advanced distillation curve'. We then predicted the density, speed of sound, and viscosity of the fuel and compared them to limited experimental data. The surrogate contains five components (n-propylcyclohexane, trans-decalin, {alpha}-methyldecalin, bicyclohexane, and n-hexadecane), yet comparisons to limited experimental data demonstrate that the model is able to represent the density, sound speed, and viscosity to within 1, 4, and 5%, respectively. 102 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

M.L. Huber; E.W. Lemmon; V. Diky; B.L. Smith; T.J. Bruno [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States). Physical and Chemical Properties Division

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

294

Shock compression of low-density foams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Shock compression of very low density micro-cellular materials allows entirely new regimes of hot fluid states to be investigated experimentally. Using a two-stage light-gas gun to generate strong shocks, temperatures of several eV are readily achieved at densities of roughly 0.5--1 g/cm{sup 3} in large, uniform volumes. The conditions in these hot, expanded fluids are readily found using the Hugoniot jump conditions. We will briefly describe the basic methodology for sample preparation and experimental measurement of shock velocities. We present data for several materials over a range of initial densities. This paper will explore the applications of these methods for investigations of equations of state and phase diagrams, spectroscopy, and plasma physics. Finally, we discus the need for future work on these and related low-density materials.

Holmes, N.C.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Breast Density and Cancer | GE Global Research  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Breast Cancer Awareness Series: Understanding Breast Density Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in...

296

Magnetic fields and density functional theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major focus of this dissertation is the development of functionals for the magnetic susceptibility and the chemical shielding within the context of magnetic field density functional theory (BDFT). These functionals depend on the electron density in the absence of the field, which is unlike any other treatment of these responses. There have been several advances made within this theory. The first of which is the development of local density functionals for chemical shieldings and magnetic susceptibilities. There are the first such functionals ever proposed. These parameters have been studied by constructing functionals for the current density and then using the Biot-Savart equations to obtain the responses. In order to examine the advantages and disadvantages of the local functionals, they were tested numerically on some small molecules.

Salsbury Jr., Freddie

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Separation of carbon nanotubes in density gradients  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The separation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), by chirality and/or diameter, using centrifugation of compositions of SWNTs in and surface active components in density gradient media.

Hersam, Mark C. (Evanston, IL); Stupp, Samuel I. (Chicago, IL); Arnold, Michael S. (Northbrook, IL)

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

298

Density controlled carbon nanotube array electrodes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

CNT materials comprising aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with pre-determined site densities, catalyst substrate materials for obtaining them and methods for forming aligned CNTs with controllable densities on such catalyst substrate materials are described. The fabrication of films comprising site-density controlled vertically aligned CNT arrays of the invention with variable field emission characteristics, whereby the field emission properties of the films are controlled by independently varying the length of CNTs in the aligned array within the film or by independently varying inter-tubule spacing of the CNTs within the array (site density) are disclosed. The fabrication of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) formed utilizing the carbon nanotube material of the invention is also described.

Ren, Zhifeng F. (Newton, MA); Tu, Yi (Belmont, MA)

2008-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

299

Separation of carbon nanotubes in density gradients  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The separation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), by chirality and/or diameter, using centrifugation of compositions of SWNTs in and surface active components in density gradient media.

Hersam, Mark C. (Evanston, IL); Stupp, Samuel I. (Chicago, IL); Arnold, Michael S. (Northbrook, IL)

2010-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

300

High density effective theory on the lattice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Long-range interactions in finite density QCD necessitate a non-perturbative approach in order to reliably map out the key features and spectrum of the QCD phase diagram. However, the complex nature of the fermion determinant in this sector prohibits the use of established Monte Carlo techniques that utilize importance sampling. Whilst significant progress has been made in the low density, high temperature region, this remains a considerable challenge at mid to high density. At large chemical potential, QCD can be approximated using high density effective theory which is free from the sign problem at leading order. We investigate the implementation of this theory on the lattice in conjunction with existing re-weighting techniques.

A. Dougall

2007-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal densities derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Water-Energy Shortages in the West: The New Normal?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water-Energy Shortages in the West: The New Normal? Tuesday, November 19, 2013 12:00 - 1:30 p, Kristen Averyt, director of the Western Water Assessment, a NOAA program based at CIRES, will discuss the connections between climate science and decision- making across the West , in particular, the water

Zhang, Junshan

302

Rigid Shape Interpolation Using Normal Equations William Baxter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rigid Shape Interpolation Using Normal Equations William Baxter OLM Digital, Inc. Pascal Barla INRIA Bordeaux University Ken-ichi Anjyo OLM Digital, Inc. Figure 1: Rigid Morphing with large rotations works well and is a very practical way e-mail: baxter@olm.co.jp e-mail: pascal.barla@labri.fr e

Boyer, Edmond

303

Auditory Responses in Normal-Hearing, Noise-Exposed Ears  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

....................................................................................... 29 Influence of ABR Recording Electrode ......................................................................................... 31 ABR Wave V Amplitude... membrane electrode (Ferguson and Ferraro, 1989; Schwartz et al., 1994; Hall, 2007b; Gaddam and Ferraro, 2008). Variability is commonly seen in ABR response amplitude, even in normal-hearing ears (Schwartz et al., 1994). In light of the recent animal data...

Stamper, Greta

2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

304

Liquidliquid separation in solutions of normal and sickle cell hemoglobin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liquid­liquid separation in solutions of normal and sickle cell hemoglobin Oleg Galkin*, Kai Chen, Comprehensive Sickle Cell Center, Bronx, NY 10461 Edited by John M. Prausnitz, University of California the nucleation of HbS polymers, whose formation is the primary pathogenic event for sickle cell anemia. In view

Vekilov, Peter

305

Oddelek za ziko Normal modes in the atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

weather prediction. In section 3 I concentrate on the normal modes of a very simple model, shallow water #12;Numerical weather prediction is an initial condition problem. That means we need ini- tial-gravity waves just play their role, but in numerical models of the atmosphere, they can cause huge problems. 1

Â?umer, Slobodan

306

CONCENTRATED SOLID SOLUTIONS OF NORMAL METALS By H. JONES,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

637. CONCENTRATED SOLID SOLUTIONS OF NORMAL METALS By H. JONES, Imperial College. Department and Heine [1] in the light of the new knowledge of the Fermi surface revealed by experi- ments alloys is reviewed in the light of modern work on the nature of the Fermi surfaces in the noble metals

Boyer, Edmond

307

Some Properties of Realcompact Subspaces and Coarser Normal Spaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

William Fleissner. In 1997 Buzjakova proved that for a pseudocompact space X, there exists an ordinal such that the product of X and that ordinal condenses onto a normal space if and only if X condenses onto a compact space. In the third chapter, we extend...

Niknejad, Jila

2009-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

308

PAS kinase is required for normal cellular energy balance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PAS kinase is required for normal cellular energy balance Huai-Xiang Hao*, Caleb M. Cardon*, Wojtek, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 Edited by Steven L. McKnight, University in a cell-autonomous manner to maintain cellular energy homeostasis and is a potential therapeutic target

Rutter, Jared

309

NAVARRO VERTICES AND NORMAL SUBGROUPS IN GROUPS OF ODD ORDER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NAVARRO VERTICES AND NORMAL SUBGROUPS IN GROUPS OF ODD ORDER JAMES P. COSSEY Abstract. Let p be a prime and suppose G is a finite solvable group and is an ordinary irreducible character of G. Navarro character of Q, which is unique up to conjugacy. This pair is called the Navarro vertex

Cossey, James P.

310

QCD Level Density from Maximum Entropy Method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a method to calculate the QCD level density directly from the thermodynamic quantities obtained by lattice QCD simulations with the use of the maximum entropy method (MEM). Understanding QCD thermodynamics from QCD spectral properties has its own importance. Also it has a close connection to phenomenological analyses of the lattice data as well as experimental data on the basis of hadronic resonances. Our feasibility study shows that the MEM can provide a useful tool to study QCD level density.

Shinji Ejiri; Tetsuo Hatsuda

2005-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

311

E-Print Network 3.0 - anthraquinone derivatives derived Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

derived Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Langmuir Films of Anthracene Derivatives on Liquid Mercury I: Symmetric Molecules Department of Physics, Bar-Ilan UniVersity, Ramat-Gan 52900,...

312

The MSW solution to the solar neutrino problem in the presence of random solar matter density perturbations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the evolution equation describing MSW conversion, derived in the framework of the Schr\\"odinger approach, in the presence of matter density fluctuations. Then we analyse the effect of such fluctuations in the MSW scenario as a solution to the solar neutrino problem. It is shown that the non-adiabatic MSW parameter region is rather stable (especially in $\\delta m^2$) for matter density noise at the few percent level. We also discuss the possibility to probe solar matter density fluctuations at the future Borexino experiment.

Anna Rossi

1996-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

313

Upgrading of biorenewables to high energy density fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

According to a recent report, lignocellulose is the most abundant renewable biological resource on earth, with an annual production of {approx} 200 x 10{sup 9} tons. Conversion of lignocellulosics derived from wood, agricultural wastes, and woody grasses into liquid fuels and value-added chemical feedstocks is an active area of research that has seen an explosion of effort due to the need to replace petroleum based sources. The carbohydrates D-glucose (C{sub 6}), L-arabinose (C{sub 5}), and D-xylose (C{sub 5}) are readily obtained from the hydrolysis of lignocellulose and constitute the most abundant renewable organic carbon source on the planet. Because they are naturally produced on such a large scale, these sugars have the greatest potential to displace petrochemical derived transportation fuel. Recent efforts in our laboratories aimed towards the production of high energy density transportation fuels from carbohydrates have been structured around the parameters of selective carbohydrate carbon chain extension chemistries, low reaction temperatures, and the desired use of water or neat substrate as the solvent. Some of our efforts in this regard will be presented.

Gordon, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batista, Enrique R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Weizhong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Currier, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dirmyer, Matthew R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; John, Kevin D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Jin K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Keith, Jason [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martin, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pierpont, Aaron W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Silks Ill, L. A. "" Pete [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smythe, Mathan C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sutton, Andrew D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taw, Felicia L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trovitch, Ryan J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vasudevan, Kalyan V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Waidmann, Christopher R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wu, Ruilian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, R. Thomas [UNIV OF OTTAWWA; Schlaf, Marcel [UNIV OF GUELPH

2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

314

Fragment transition density method to calculate electronic coupling for excitation energy transfer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A general approach, the Fragment Transition Density (FTD) scheme, is introduced to estimate electronic coupling for excitation energy transfer in a molecular system. Within this method, the excitation energies and transition densities of the system are used to derive the coupling matrix element. The scheme allows one to treat systems where exciton donor and acceptor are close together and their exchange interaction and orbital overlap are significant. The FTD method can be applied in combination with any quantum mechanical approach to treat excited states of general nature including single-, double-, and higher excitations. Using FTD approach, we derive excitonic couplings for several systems computed with the CIS, TD DFT and MS-CASPT2 methods. In particular, it is shown that the estimated coupling values in DNA ?-stacks are strongly affected by the short-range electronic interaction of adjacent nucleobases.

Voityuk, Alexander A., E-mail: alexander.voityuk@icrea.cat [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, 08010 Barcelona, Spain and Institut de Química Computacional i Catàlisi (IQCC), Universitat de Girona 17071 Girona (Spain)

2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

315

The Theory of Quaternion Matrix Derivatives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A systematic theory is introduced for calculating the derivatives of quaternion matrix function with respect to quaternion matrix variables. The proposed methodology is equipped with the matrix product rule and chain rule and it is able to handle both analytic and nonanalytic functions. This corrects a flaw in the existing methods, that is, the incorrect use of the traditional product rule. In the framework introduced, the derivatives of quaternion matrix functions can be calculated directly without the differential of this function. Key results are summarized in tables. Several examples show how the quaternion matrix derivatives can be used as an important tool for solving problems related to signal processing.

Dongpo Xu; Danilo P. Mandic

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

The Nuclear Level Density and the Determination of Thermonuclear Rates for Astrophysics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The prediction of cross sections for nuclei far off stability is crucial in the field of nuclear astrophysics. In recent calculations the nuclear level density -- as an important ingredient to the statistical model (Hauser-Feshbach) -- has shown the highest uncertainties. We present a global parametrization of nuclear level densities based on the back-shifted Fermi-Gas formalism. Employment of an energy-dependent level density parameter $a$ and microscopic corrections from a recent FRDM mass formula by M\\"oller et al.\\ leads to a highly improved fit of level densities at the neutron-separation energy in the mass range $20\\le A \\le 245$. The importance of using proper microscopic corrections from mass formulae is emphasized. The resulting level description is well suited for astrophysical applications. The level density can also provide clues to the applicability of the statistical model which is only correct for a high density of excited states. Using the above description one can derive a ``map'' for the applicability of the model for reactions of stable and unstable nuclei with neutral and charged particles.

T. Rauscher; F. -K. Thielemann; K. -L. Kratz

1996-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

317

Density structure of an active region and associated moss using Hinode/EIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Context: Studying the problem of active region heating requires precise measurements of physical plasma parameters such as electron density, temperature etc. It is also important to understand the relationship of coronal structures with the magnetic field. The Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) aboard Hinode provides a rare opportunity to derive electron density simultaneously at different temperatures. Aims: MethodsWe study the density structure and characterise plasma in active regions and associated moss regions. In addition we study its relationship to the photospheric magnetic field. Methods: We used data recorded by the EIS, together with magnetic field measurements from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) aboard SoHO and images recorded with the Transition Region And Coronal Explorer (TRACE) and X-Ray Telescope (XRT/Hinode). Results: We find that the hot core of the active region is densest with values as high as 10^10.5 cm^-3. The electron density estimated in specific regions in the active region moss decreases with increasing temperature. The moss areas were located primarily on one side of the active region, and they map the positive polarity regions almost exactly. The density within the moss region was highest at log T=5.8-6.1, with a value around 10^(10.0-10.5) cm^-3. The moss densities were highest in the strong positive magnetic field region. However, there was no such correlation for the negative polarity areas, where there was a large sunspot.

D. Tripathi; H. E. Mason; P. R. Young; G. Del Zanna

2008-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

318

White noise approach to the low density limit of a quantum particle in a gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The white noise approach to the investigation of the dynamics of a quantum particle interacting with a dilute and in general non-equilibrium gaseous environment in the low density limit is outlined. The low density limit is the kinetic Markovian regime when only pair collisions (i.e., collisions of the test particle with one particle of the gas at one time moment) contribute to the dynamics. In the white noise approach one first proves that the appropriate operators describing the gas converge in the sense of appropriate matrix elements to certain operators of quantum white noise. Then these white noise operators are used to derive quantum white noise and quantum stochastic equations describing the approximate dynamics of the total system consisting of the particle and the gas. The derivation is given ab initio, starting from the exact microscopic quantum dynamics. The limiting dynamics is described by a quantum stochastic equation driven by a quantum Poisson process. This equation then applied to the derivation of quantum Langevin equation and linear Boltzmann equation for the reduced density matrix of the test particle. The first part of the paper describes the approach which was developed by L. Accardi, I.V. Volovich and the author and uses the Fock-antiFock (or GNS) representation for the CCR algebra of the gas. The second part presents the approach to the derivation of the limiting equations directly in terms of the correlation functions, without use of the Fock-antiFock representation. This approach simplifies the derivation and allows to express the strength of the quantum number process directly in terms of the one-particle $S$-matrix.

Alexander Pechen

2006-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

319

Comparison of Jupiter Interior Models Derived from First-Principles Simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recently two groups used first-principles computer simulations to model Jupiter's interior. While both studies relied on the same simulation technique, density functional molecular dynamics, the groups derived very different conclusions. In particular estimates for the size of Jupiter's core and the metallicity of its hydrogen-helium mantle differed substantially. In this paper, we discuss the differences of the approaches and give an explanation for the differing conclusions.

B. Militzer; W. B. Hubbard

2008-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

320

Asymptotic Expansions for Moments of Skew-Normal Extremes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

parameter R (written as X SN()) if its probability density function (pdf) is f(x) = 2(x)(x), - and Alam, 2011); population structure of Schima superba in Qingliangfeng National Nature Reserve (Liu et al-Mreri, 2011); modeling of seasonal rainfall in Africa (Siebert and Ward, 2011); modeling of HIV viral loads

Sidorov, Nikita

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal densities derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

SCM Forcing Data Derived from NWP Analyses  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Forcing data, suitable for use with single column models (SCMs) and cloud resolving models (CRMs), have been derived from NWP analyses for the ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites of Manus Island and Nauru.

Jakob, Christian

322

Background and Motivation Biomass derived syngas contains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Background and Motivation · Biomass derived syngas contains: CO, H2, small hydrocarbons, H2S prepared by SEA contain smaller metal particle sizes and have higher dispersion · The quantity of reducible

Das, Suman

323

Modelling and Simulating of Rain Derivatives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modelling and Simulating of Rain Derivatives Master thesis Cathrin van Emmerich Supervisor, Februar 2005 Cathrin van Emmerich i #12;Table of Contents Table of Contents ii 1 Introduction 1 2

324

Entanglement entropy in higher derivative holography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider holographic entanglement entropy in higher derivative gravity theories. Recently Lewkowycz and Maldacena arXiv:1304.4926 have provided a method to derive the equations for the entangling surface from first principles. We use this method to compute the entangling surface in four derivative gravity. Certain interesting differences compared to the two derivative case are pointed out. For Gauss-Bonnet gravity, we show that in the regime where this method is applicable, the resulting equations coincide with proposals in the literature as well as with what follows from considerations of the stress tensor on the entangling surface. Finally we demonstrate that the area functional in Gauss-Bonnet holography arises as a counterterm needed to make the Euclidean action free of power law divergences.

Arpan Bhattacharyya; Apratim Kaviraj; Aninda Sinha

2013-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

325

Comprehension by Derivation Douglas R. Smith  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comprehension by Derivation Douglas R. Smith Kestrel Institute 3260 Hillview Avenue Palo Alto, California 94304 USA smith@kestrel.edu Abstract We argue that to comprehend a software system is to have

326

Direct synthesis of pyridine and pyrimidine derivatives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I. Synthesis of Substituted Pyridine Derivatives via the Ruthenium-Catalyzed Cycloisomerization of 3-Azadienynes. The two-step conversion of various N-vinyl and N-aryl amides to the corresponding substituted pyridines and ...

Hill, Matthew D. (Matthew Dennis)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Molecular Density Functional Theory for water with liquid-gas coexistence and correct pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The solvation of hydrophobic solutes in water is special because liquid and gas are almost at coexistence. In the common hypernetted chain approximation to integral equations, or equivalently in the homogenous reference fluid of molecular density functional theory, coexistence is not taken into account. Hydration structures and energies of nanometer-scale hydrophobic solutes are thus incorrect. In this article, we propose a bridge functional that corrects this thermodynamic inconsistency by introducing a metastable gas phase for the homogeneous solvent. We show how this can be done by a third order expansion of the functional around the bulk liquid density that imposes the right pressure and the correct second order derivatives. Although this theory is not limited to water, we apply it to study hydrophobic solvation in water at room temperature and pressure and compare the results to all-atom simulations. With this correction, molecular density functional theory gives, at a modest computational cost, quantita...

Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Sergiievskyi, Volodymyr; Borgis, Daniel

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Tracing spiral density waves in M81  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use SPITZER IRAC 3.6 and 4.5micron near infrared data from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS), optical B, V and I and 2MASS Ks band data to produce mass surface density maps of M81. The IRAC 3.6 and 4.5micron data, whilst dominated by emission from old stellar populations, is corrected for small-scale contamination by young stars and PAH emission. The I band data are used to produce a mass surface density map by a B-V colour-correction, following the method of Bell and de Jong. We fit a bulge and exponential disc to each mass map, and subtract these components to reveal the non-axisymmetric mass surface density. From the residual mass maps we are able to extract the amplitude and phase of the density wave, using azimuthal profiles. The response of the gas is observed via dust emission in the 8micron IRAC band, allowing a comparison between the phase of the stellar density wave and gas shock. The relationship between this angular offset and radius suggests that the spiral structure is reasonably long lived and allows the position of corotation to be determined.

S. Kendall; R. C. Kennicutt; C. Clarke; M. D. Thornley

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

329

ORBITAL-FREE KINETIC-ENERGY DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 5 ORBITAL-FREE KINETIC-ENERGY DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY Yan Alexander Wang and Emily A Theory (DFT), there was the Thomas-Fermi (TF) model, which uses the electron density ¢¡ r£ (a function-dependent DFT Density-Functional Theory DI density-independent DM1 first-order reduced density matrix EDF energy

Wang, Yan Alexander

330

SciTech Connect: Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel Assembly. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel...

331

E-Print Network 3.0 - absolutely normal bone Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

females (N 49). The data set consisted of bone biopsies from normal and vertebral fracture subjects... microradiographic studies of normal and oste- oporotic ... Source: Ecole...

332

Low-Oxygen Induction of Normally Cryptic psbA Genes in Cyanobacteria...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxygen Induction of Normally Cryptic psbA Genes in Cyanobacteria. Low-Oxygen Induction of Normally Cryptic psbA Genes in Cyanobacteria. Abstract: Microarray analysis indicated...

333

Procedure for normalization of cDNA libraries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides a method to normalize a cDNA library constructed in a vector capable of being converted to single-stranded circles and capable of producing complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles comprising: (a) converting the cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles; (c) hybridizing the single-stranded circles converted in step (a) with complementary nucleic acid molecules of step (b) to produce partial duplexes to an appropriate Cot; (e) separating the unhybridized single-stranded circles from the hybridized single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 1 fig.

Bonaldo, M.D.; Soares, M.B.

1997-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

334

Measurement of normal contact stiffness of fractal rough surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the effects of roughness and fractality on the normal contact stiffness of rough surfaces. Samples of isotropically roughened aluminium surfaces are considered. The roughness and fractal dimension were altered through blasting using different sized particles. Subsequently, surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) was applied to the surfaces in order to modify the surface at the microscale. The surface topology was characterised by interferometry based profilometry. The normal contact stiffness was measured through nanoindentation with a flat tip utilising the partial unloading method. We focus on establishing the relationships between surface stiffness and roughness, combined with the effects of fractal dimension. The experimental results, for a wide range of surfaces, showed that the measured contact stiffness depended very closely on surfaces' root mean squared (RMS) slope and their fractal dimension, with correlation coefficients of around 90\\%, whilst a relatively weak correlation coefficient of 57\\% was found between the contact stiffness and RMS roughness.

Chongpu Zhai; Sébastien Bevand; Yixiang Gan; Dorian Hanaor; Gwénaëlle Proust; Bruno Guelorget; Delphine Retraint

2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

335

Procedure for normalization of cDNA libraries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides a method to normalize a cDNA library constructed in a vector capable of being converted to single-stranded circles and capable of producing complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles comprising: (a) converting the cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles; (c) hybridizing the single-stranded circles converted in step (a) with complementary nucleic acid molecules of step (b) to produce partial duplexes to an appropriate Cot; (e) separating the unhybridized single-stranded circles from the hybridized single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

Bonaldo, Maria DeFatima (New York, NY); Soares, Marcelo Bento (New York, NY)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Higher-Rank Numerical Ranges of Unitary and Normal Matrices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We verify a conjecture on the structure of higher-rank numerical ranges for a wide class of unitary and normal matrices. Using analytic and geometric techniques, we show precisely how the higher-rank numerical ranges for a generic unitary matrix are given by complex polygons determined by the spectral structure of the matrix. We discuss applications of the results to quantum error correction, specifically to the problem of identification and construction of codes for binary unitary noise models.

Man-Duen Choi; John A. Holbrook; David W. Kribs; Karol Zyczkowski

2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

337

Constraining the gravitational wave energy density of the Universe using Earth's ring  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The search for gravitational waves is one of today's major scientific endeavors. A gravitational wave can interact with matter by exciting vibrations of elastic bodies. Earth itself is a large elastic body whose so-called normal-mode oscillations ring up when a gravitational wave passes. Therefore, precise measurement of vibration amplitudes can be used to search for the elusive gravitational-wave signals. Earth's free oscillations that can be observed after high-magnitude earthquakes have been studied extensively with gravimeters and low-frequency seismometers over many decades leading to invaluable insight into Earth's structure. Making use of our detailed understanding of Earth's normal modes, numerical models are employed for the first time to accurately calculate Earth's gravitational-wave response, and thereby turn a network of sensors that so far has served to improve our understanding of Earth, into an astrophysical observatory exploring our Universe. In this article, we constrain the energy density of gravitational waves to values in the range 0.035 - 0.15 normalized by the critical energy density of the Universe at frequencies between 0.3mHz and 5mHz, using 10 years of data from the gravimeter network of the Global Geodynamics Project that continuously monitors Earth's oscillations. This work is the first step towards a systematic investigation of the sensitivity of gravimeter networks to gravitational waves. Further advance in gravimeter technology could improve sensitivity of these networks and possibly lead to gravitational-wave detection.

Michael Coughlin; Jan Harms

2014-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

338

Surface tension with Normal Curvature in Curved Space-Time  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With an aim to include the contribution of surface tension in the action of the boundary, we define the tangential pressure in terms of surface tension and Normal curvature in a more naturally geometric way. First, we show that the negative tangential pressure is independent of the four-velocity of a very thin hyper-surface. Second, we relate the 3-pressure of a surface layer to the normal curvature and the surface tension. Third, we relate the surface tension to the energy of the surface layer. Four, we show that the delta like energy flows across the hyper-surface will be zero for such a representation of intrinsic 3-pressure. Five, for the weak field approximation and for static spherically symmetric configuration, we deduce the classical Kelvin's relation. Six, we write a modified action for the boundary having contributions both from surface tension and normal curvature of the surface layer. Also we propose a method to find the physical action assuming a reference background, where the background is not flat.

Himanshu kumar; Sharf Alam; Suhail Ahmad

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

An Introduction to Database Systems The Relational Database Normalization Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, AB A, AB B, ... } |F+| > 30. #12; F+ Armstrong ­ ­ · #12; F+ Armstrong ­ ­ · #12;Armstrong Armstrong's Axioms (1974): (IR1) Reflexivity rule():(IR1) Reflexivity rule(): If X Y, then X Y, Y Z } |= X Z. F #12;A Armstrong Additional rules derivable from Armstrong's Axioms. (IR4) D iti l

Lu, Jiaheng

340

On Controllability and Normality of Discrete Event Dynamical Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the plant, can also occur in the closed loop system, there may not always exist a complete supervisor Dynami- cal Systems (DEDS's) through the use of synchronous composition of the plant and the supervisor is then used to derive an algorithm that is computationally more e cient than previously existing ones

Garg, Vijay

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal densities derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

High power density solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O (LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

2004-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

342

Statistical approach to nuclear level density  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We discuss the level density in a finite many-body system with strong interaction between the constituents. Our primary object of applications is the atomic nucleus but the same techniques can be applied to other mesoscopic systems. We calculate and compare nuclear level densities for given quantum numbers obtained by different methods, such as nuclear shell model (the most successful microscopic approach), our main instrument - moments method (statistical approach), and Fermi-gas model; the calculation with the moments method can use any shell-model Hamiltonian excluding the spurious states of the center-of-mass motion. Our goal is to investigate statistical properties of nuclear level density, define its phenomenological parameters, and offer an affordable and reliable way of calculation.

Sen'kov, R. A.; Horoi, M. [Department of Physics, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Zelevinsky, V. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

343

Neutron Matter from Low to High Density  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neutron matter is an intriguing nuclear system with multiple connections to other areas of physics. Considerable progress has been made over the last two decades in exploring the properties of pure neutron fluids. Here we begin by reviewing work done to explore the behavior of very low density neutron matter, which forms a strongly paired superfluid and is thus similar to cold Fermi atoms, though at energy scales differing by many orders of magnitude. We then increase the density, discussing work that ties the study of neutron matter with the determination of the properties of neutron-rich nuclei and neutron-star crusts. After this, we review the impact neutron matter at even higher densities has on the mass-radius relation of neutron stars, thereby making contact with astrophysical observations.

Gandolfi, Stefano; Carlson, J

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Fabrication of low density ceramic material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A precursor mixture and a method of making a low-density ceramic structural material are disclosed. The precursor mixture includes hollow microballoons, typically made of glass, together with a cementing agent capable of being cured by microwave irradiation. A preferred cementing agent is liquid hydrated potassium silicate, which is mixed with the glass microballoons to form a slurry. Upon irradiation the potassium silicate is dehydrated to form a solid porous matrix in which the microballoons are evenly distributed. Ground glass or other filling agents may be included in the slurry to enhance the properties of the final product. Low-density structural ceramics having densities on the order of 0.1 to 0.3 are obtained.

Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.; Sheinberg, H.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Density matrix of black hole radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hawking's model of black hole evaporation is not unitary and leads to a mixed density matrix for the emitted radiation, while the Page model describes a unitary evaporation process in which the density matrix evolves from an almost thermal state to a pure state. We compare a recently proposed model of semiclassical black hole evaporation to the two established models. In particular, we study the density matrix of the outgoing radiation and determine how the magnitude of the off-diagonal corrections differs for the three frameworks. For Hawking's model, we find power-law corrections to the two-point functions that induce exponentially suppressed corrections to the off-diagonal elements of the full density matrix. This verifies that the Hawking result is correct to all orders in perturbation theory and also allows one to express the full density matrix in terms of the single-particle density matrix. We then consider the semiclassical theory for which the corrections, being non-perturbative from an effective field-theory perspective, are much less suppressed and grow monotonically in time. In this case, the R\\'enyi entropy for the outgoing radiation is shown to grow linearly at early times; but this growth slows down and the entropy eventually starts to decrease at the Page time. In addition to comparing models, we emphasize the distinction between the state of the radiation emitted from a black hole, which is highly quantum, and that of the radiation emitted from a typical classical black body at the same temperature.

Lasma Alberte; Ram Brustein; Andrei Khmelnitsky; A. J. M. Medved

2015-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

346

Derivation of statistical energy analysis from radiative Laboratoire de Tribologie et Dynamique des Syst`emes CNRS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

assumption is equivalent to the equirepartition of energy in the modal approach. This equivalenceDerivation of statistical energy analysis from radiative exchanges A. LE BOT Laboratoire de to be uncorrelated leading to the additivity of energy. Inside all subsystems, the energy density is the sum

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

347

Configuration Interactions Constrained by Energy Density Functionals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new method for constructing a Hamiltonian for configuration interaction calculations with constraints to energies of spherical configurations obtained with energy-density-functional (EDF) methods is presented. This results in a unified model that reproduced the EDF binding-energy in the limit of single-Slater determinants, but can also be used for obtaining energy spectra and correlation energies with renormalized nucleon-nucleon interactions. The three-body and/or density-dependent terms that are necessary for good nuclear saturation properties are contained in the EDF. Applications to binding energies and spectra of nuclei in the region above 208Pb are given.

B. Alex Brown; Angelo Signoracci; Morten Hjorth-Jensen

2010-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

348

Error Analysis in Nuclear Density Functional Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nuclear density functional theory (DFT) is the only microscopic, global approach to the structure of atomic nuclei. It is used in numerous applications, from determining the limits of stability to gaining a deep understanding of the formation of elements in the universe or the mechanisms that power stars and reactors. The predictive power of the theory depends on the amount of physics embedded in the energy density functional as well as on efficient ways to determine a small number of free parameters and solve the DFT equations. In this article, we discuss the various sources of uncertainties and errors encountered in DFT and possible methods to quantify these uncertainties in a rigorous manner.

Nicolas Schunck; Jordan D. McDonnell; Jason Sarich; Stefan M. Wild; Dave Higdon

2014-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

349

Low density, microcellular foams, preparation, and articles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microcellular low-density foam of poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) particularly useful for forming targets for inertial confinement fusion has been developed. Articles made from the foam have been machined to tolerances of 0.0001 inch, although the densities of the fragile foam are low (about 10 to about 100 mg/cc) and the cell sizes are small (about 10 to about 30 ..mu..m). Methods for forming the foam and articles are given. The yield strength of the foam of the invention is higher than was obtained in other structures of this same material.

Young, A.T.

1982-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

350

Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Application to Extended Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Application to Extended Systems Francesco Sottile Facility (ETSF) Donostia, 25 July 2007 Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Francesco Sottile #12 Density Functional Theory Francesco Sottile #12;Linear Periodic systems ALDA The Quest for the Holy

Botti, Silvana

351

Mechanical constraints enhance electrical energy densities of soft dielectrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical constraints enhance electrical energy densities of soft dielectrics Lin Zhang, Qiming, the dielectric will breakdown electrically. The breakdown limits the electrical energy density of the dielectric electric fields and thus increase their electrical energy densities. The mechanical constraints suppress

Ferrari, Silvia

352

neutron density. The neutron density (nn) of the source was modeled by solving the simul-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

neutron density. The neutron density (nn) of the source was modeled by solving the simul- taneousT is the thermal neutron velocity, l is the decay constant, Ns is the s-process abun- dance, bsÃ? is the maxwellian-averaged neutron capture cross-section, and t0 is the average neutron exposure (21). The branching decay of 186Re

West, Stuart

353

On the Determination of the Mean Cosmic Matter Density and the Amplitude of Density Fluctuations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The cosmological implications from a new estimate of the local X-ray galaxy cluster abundance are summarized. The results are then compared to independent observations. It is suggested that `low' values for the mean cosmic matter density and the amplitude of mass density fluctuations currently do not appear unreasonable observationally.

Thomas H. Reiprich

2002-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

354

SMITH NORMAL FORMS OF INCIDENCE MATRICES Abstract. A brief introduction is given to the topic of Smith normal forms of incidence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SMITH NORMAL FORMS OF INCIDENCE MATRICES PETER SIN Abstract. A brief introduction is given to the topic of Smith normal forms of incidence matrices. A general discussion of techniques is illustrated, the fundamental invariant is the Smith normal form of A, whose definition we now recall. A square integer matrix

Sin, Peter

355

Theoretical Electron Density Distributions for Fe- and Cu-Sulfide...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electron Density Distributions for Fe- and Cu-Sulfide Earth Materials: A Connection between Bond Length, Bond Theoretical Electron Density Distributions for Fe- and Cu-Sulfide...

356

High power density supercapacitors using locally aligned carbon nanotube electrodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High power density supercapacitors using locally alignedof high power density supercapacitors and other similarcells [6], and for supercapacitors [7–18]. As unique energy

Du, C S; Yeh, J; Pan, Ning

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Novel and Optimized Materials Phases for High Energy Density...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Novel and Optimized Materials Phases for High Energy Density Batteries Novel and Optimized Materials Phases for High Energy Density Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

358

TEMPO-based Catholyte for High Energy Density Nonaqueous Redox...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

TEMPO-based Catholyte for High Energy Density Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries. TEMPO-based Catholyte for High Energy Density Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries. Abstract: We will...

359

High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program | National Nuclear...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program...

360

Estimating density of Florida Key deer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for this species since 1968; however, a need to evaluate the precision of existing and alternative survey methods (i.e., road counts, mark-recapture, infrared-triggered cameras [ITC]) was desired by USFWS. I evaluated density estimates from unbaited ITCs and road...

Roberts, Clay Walton

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal densities derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

RICE UNIVERSITY Screened Coulomb Hybrid Density Functionals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy Approved, Thesis Committee-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) screened Coulomb hybrid density functional is designed to produce exchange energies comparable to traditional hybrids while only using the short range, screened HF exchange. #12;The accuracy of the HSE

Scuseria, Gustavo E.

362

THE QCD PHASE DIAGRAM AT FINITE DENSITY.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the density of states method to explore the phase diagram of the chiral transition on the temperature and quark chemical potential plane. Four quark flavours are used in the analysis. Though the method is quite expensive small lattices show an indication for a triple-point connecting three different phases on the phase diagram.

SCHMIDT, C.; FODOR, Z.; KATZ, S.

2005-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

363

Density Functional Theory Approach to Nuclear Fission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Skyrme nuclear energy density functional theory (DFT) is used to model neutron-induced fission in actinides. This paper focuses on the numerical implementation of the theory. In particular, it reports recent advances in DFT code development on leadership class computers, and presents a detailed analysis of the numerical accuracy of DFT solvers for near-scission calculations.

N. Schunck

2013-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

364

Modern applications of covariant density functional theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modern applications of Covariant Density Functional Theory (CDFT) are discussed. First we show a systematic investigation of fission barriers in actinide nuclei within constraint relativistic mean field theory allowing for triaxial deformations. In the second part we discuss a microscopic theory of quantum phase transitions (QPT) based on the relativistic generator coordinate method.

P. Ring; H. Abusara; A. V. Afanasjev; G. A. Lalazissis; T. Niksic; D. Vretenar

2011-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

365

Density Perturbations for Running Cosmological Constant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The dynamics of density and metric perturbations is investigated for the previously developed model where the decay of the vacuum energy into matter (or vice versa) is due to the renormalization group (RG) running of the cosmological constant (CC) term. The evolution of the CC depends on the single parameter \

Julio C. Fabris; Ilya L. Shapiro; Joan Sola

2007-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

366

Drawing Electron Density Maps Tutorial : J. Reibenspies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

file Choose the difference map #12;Step 2 · If necessary generate full molecule in XSEED or XP shift key to pan) #12;Step 4 · All ball and stick plot to spice it up ZOOMED #12;Step 5 · Save screen the electron density in the macocyclic void in order to understand the disorder #12;Step one · In the INS

Meagher, Mary

367

Density waves in the Calogero model - revisited  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Calogero model bears, in the continuum limit, collective excitations in the form of density waves and solitary modulations of the density of particles. This sector of the spectrum of the model was investigated, mostly within the framework of collective-field theory, by several authors, over the past 15 years or so. In this work we shall concentrate on periodic solutions of the collective BPS-equation (also known as 'finite amplitude density waves'), as well as on periodic solutions of the full static variational equations which vanish periodically (also known as 'large amplitude density waves'). While these solutions are not new, we feel that our analysis and presentation add to the existing literature, as we explain in the text. In addition, we show that these solutions also occur in a certain two-family generalization of the Calogero model, at special points in parameter space. A compendium of useful identities associated with Hilbert transforms, including our own proofs of these identities, appears in Appendix A. In Appendix B we also elucidate in the present paper some fine points having to do with manipulating Hilbert-transforms, which appear ubiquitously in the collective field formalism. Finally, in order to make this paper self-contained, we briefly summarize in Appendix C basic facts about the collective field formulation of the Calogero model.

Bardek, V. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka c.54, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail: bardek@irb.hr; Feinberg, J. [Department of Physics, University of Haifa at Oranim, Tivon 36006 (Israel); Department of Physics, Technion-Israel Inst. of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); KITP, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4030 (United States)], E-mail: joshua@physics.technion.ac.il; Meljanac, S. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka c.54, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail: meljanac@irb.hr

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density Keith Mathieson1,4 , James Loudin1 to stimulating electrodes via intraocular cables. We present a photovoltaic subretinal prosthesis, in which pixel, demonstrating the possibility of a fully integrated photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high

Palanker, Daniel

369

Master's Thesis Density Functional Theory for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the information found during my work. v #12;vi #12;Contents Abstract #12;Abstract This thesis presents a number of results for basic quantum mechanical models intended to be used in the development of density functional theory for systems with edges. Following previous work

Armiento, Rickard

370

Methods to enhance blanket power density  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this task is to investigate the extent to which the power density in the FED/INTOR breeder blanket test modules can be enhanced by artificial means. Assuming a viable approach can be developed, it will allow advanced reactor blanket modules to be tested on FED/INTOR under representative conditions.

Hsu, P.Y.; Miller, L.G.; Bohn, T.S.; Deis, G.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Masson, L.S.; Wessol, D.E.; Abdou, M.A.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

?Linear Gas Jet with Tailored Density Profile"  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Supersonic, highly collimated gas jets and gas-filled capillary discharge waveguides are two primary targets of choice for Laser Plasma Accelerators (LPA) . Present gas jets have lengths of only 2-4 mm at densities of 1-4E19 cm-3, sufficient for self trapping and electron acceleration to energies up to ~150 MeV. Capillary structures 3 cm long have been used to accelerate beams up to 1 GeV. Capillary discharges used in LPAs serve to guide the pump laser and optimize the energy gain. A wall-stabilized capillary discharge provides a transverse profile across the channel that helps guide the laser and combat diffraction. Gas injection via a fast nozzle at one end provides some longitudinal density control, to improve the coupling. Gas jets with uniform or controlled density profiles may be used to control electron bunch injection and are being integrated into capillary experiments to add tuning of density. The gas jet for electron injection has not yet been optimized. Our Ph-I results have provided the LPA community with an alternative path to realizing a 2-3GeV electron bunch using just a gas jet. For example, our slit/blade combination gives a 15-20mm long acceleration path with tunable density profile, serving as an alternative to a 20-mm long capillary discharge with gas injection at one end. In Ph-II, we will extend these results to longer nozzles, to see whether we can synthesize 30 or 40-mm long plasma channels for LPAs.

KRISHNAN, Mahadevan

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

372

Fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon. Phase I final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project involves the simultaneous production of clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon and sulfur, along with value-added carbon nanofibers. This can be accomplished because the nanofiber production process removes carbon via a catalyzed pyrolysis reaction, which also has the effect of removing 99.9% of the sulfur, which is trapped in the nanofibers. The reaction is mildly endothermic, meaning that net energy production with real reductions in greenhouse emissions are possible. In Phase I research, the feasibility of generating clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon was demonstrated by the successful design, construction and operation of a facility capable of utilizing coal as well as natural gas as an inlet feedstock. In the case of coal, for example, reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions can be as much as 70% (normalized according to kilowatts produced), with the majority of carbon safely sequestered in the form of carbon nanofibers or coke. Both of these products are value-added commodities, indicating that low-emission coal fuel can be done at a profit rather than a loss as is the case with most clean-up schemes. The main results of this project were as follows: (1) It was shown that the nanofiber production process produces hydrogen as a byproduct. (2) The hydrogen, or hydrogen-rich hydrocarbon mixture can be consumed with net release of enthalpy. (3) The greenhouse gas emissions from both coal and natural gas are significantly reduced. Because coal consumption also creates coke, the carbon emission can be reduced by 75% per kilowatt-hour of power produced.

Kennel, E.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Cessna, T.J.

1999-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

373

Frequency combs and platicons in optical microresonators with normal GVD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We predict the existence of a novel type of the flat-top dissipative solitonic pulses, "platicons", in microresonators with normal group velocity dispersion (GVD). We propose methods to generate these platicons from cw pump. Their duration may be altered significantly by tuning the pump frequency. The transformation of a discrete energy spectrum of dark solitons of the Lugiato-Lefever equation into a quasicontinuous spectrum of platicons is demonstrated. Generation of similar structures is also possible with bi-harmonic, phase/amplitude modulated pump or via laser injection locking.

Lobanov, V E; Kippenberg, T J; Gorodetsky, M L

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

SRS reactor control rod cooling without normal forced convection cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes an analytical study of the coolability of the control rods in the Savannah River site (SRS) K production reactor under conditions of loss of normal forced convection cooling. The study was performed as part of the overall safety analysis of the reactor supporting its restart. The analysis addresses the buoyancy-driven boiling flow over the control rods that occurs when forced cooling is lost. The objective of the study was to demonstrate that the control rods will remain cooled (i.e., no melting) at powers representative of those anticipated for restart of the reactor.

Smith, D.C. (SAIC, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Easterling, T.C. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Combinatorics and Boson normal ordering: A gentle introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss a general combinatorial framework for operator ordering problems by applying it to the normal ordering of the powers and exponential of the boson number operator. The solution of the problem is given in terms of Bell and Stirling numbers enumerating partitions of a set. This framework reveals several inherent relations between ordering problems and combinatorial objects, and displays the analytical background to Wick's theorem. The methodology can be straightforwardly generalized from the simple example given herein to a wide class of operators.

Blasiak, P; Penson, K A; Solomon, A I; Duchamp, G H E

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Combinatorics and Boson normal ordering: A gentle introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss a general combinatorial framework for operator ordering problems by applying it to the normal ordering of the powers and exponential of the boson number operator. The solution of the problem is given in terms of Bell and Stirling numbers enumerating partitions of a set. This framework reveals several inherent relations between ordering problems and combinatorial objects, and displays the analytical background to Wick's theorem. The methodology can be straightforwardly generalized from the simple example given herein to a wide class of operators.

P. Blasiak; A. Horzela; K. A. Penson; A. I. Solomon; G. H. E. Duchamp

2007-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

377

Fitting Parton Distribution Data with Multiplicative Normalization Uncertainties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the generic problem of performing a global fit to many independent data sets each with a different overall multiplicative normalization uncertainty. We show that the methods in common use to treat multiplicative uncertainties lead to systematic biases. We develop a method which is unbiased, based on a self--consistent iterative procedure. We demonstrate the use of this method by applying it to the determination of parton distribution functions with the NNPDF methodology, which uses a Monte Carlo method for uncertainty estimation.

The NNPDF Collaboration; Richard D. Ball; Luigi Del Debbio; Stefano Forte; Alberto Guffanti; Jose I. Latorre; Juan Rojo; Maria Ubiali

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Asymptotic normalization coefficients for B-10->Be-9+p  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

started the Asymptotic normalization coefficient A. M. Mukhamedzhanov, H. L. Clark, C. A. Gagliardi, Y.-W Cyclotron Institute, Texas A&M University V. Burjan, J. Cejpek Institute for Nuclear Physics, Czech Academ F. Carstoi Institute of Atomic...! the 7Be(p ,g)8B radiative capture cross section at ver astrophysics. @S0556-2813~97!02109-2# PACS number~s!: 25.70.Hi, 21.10.Jx, 24.10.Ht, 25.70.B I. INTRODUCTION Despite considerable experimental and theoretical progress in determining...

Mukhamedzhanov, AM; Clark, HL; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Lui, YW; Trache, L.; Tribble, Robert E.; Xu, HM; Zhou, XG; Burjan, V.; Cejpek, J.; Kroha, V.; Carstoiu, F.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

High-accuracy measurements of the normal specular reflectance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The French Laser Megajoule (LMJ) is designed and constructed by the French Commissariata l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Its amplifying section needs highly reflective multilayer mirrors for the flash lamps. To monitor and improve the coating process, the reflectors have to be characterized to high accuracy. The described spectrophotometer is designed to measure normal specular reflectance with high repeatability by using a small spot size of 100 {mu}m. Results are compared with ellipsometric measurements. The instrument can also perform spatial characterization to detect coating nonuniformity.

Voarino, Philippe; Piombini, Herve; Sabary, Frederic; Marteau, Daniel; Dubard, Jimmy; Hameury, Jacques; Filtz, Jean Remy

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Termination of a Major Normal Fault | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov Pty LtdSteen,Ltd Jump to:TaosISGANAttribution(Alabama)Tennessee/WindTequesta,Normal

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal densities derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Moment Methods for Exotic Volatility Derivatives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The latest generation of volatility derivatives goes beyond variance and volatility swaps and probes our ability to price realized variance and sojourn times along bridges for the underlying stock price process. In this paper, we give an operator algebraic treatment of this problem based on Dyson expansions and moment methods and discuss applications to exotic volatility derivatives. The methods are quite flexible and allow for a specification of the underlying process which is semi-parametric or even non-parametric, including state-dependent local volatility, jumps, stochastic volatility and regime switching. We find that volatility derivatives are particularly well suited to be treated with moment methods, whereby one extrapolates the distribution of the relevant path functionals on the basis of a few moments. We consider a number of exotics such as variance knockouts, conditional corridor variance swaps, gamma swaps and variance swaptions and give valuation formulas in detail.

Albanese, Claudio

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Technical Note: Contrast solution density and cross section errors in inhomogeneity-corrected dose calculation for breast balloon brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Recent recommendations by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 186 emphasize the importance of understanding material properties and their effect on inhomogeneity-corrected dose calculation for brachytherapy. Radiographic contrast is normally injected into breast brachytherapy balloons. In this study, the authors independently estimate properties of contrast solution that were expected to be incorrectly specified in a commercial brachytherapy dose calculation algorithm. Methods: The mass density and atomic weight fractions of a clinical formulation of radiographic contrast solution were determined using manufacturers' data. The mass density was verified through measurement and compared with the density obtained by the treatment planning system's CT calibration. The atomic weight fractions were used to determine the photon interaction cross section of the contrast solution for a commercial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy source and compared with that of muscle. Results: The density of contrast solution was 10% less than that obtained from the CT calibration. The cross section of the contrast solution for the HDR source was 1.2% greater than that of muscle. Both errors could be addressed by overriding the density of the contrast solution in the treatment planning system. Conclusions: The authors estimate the error in mass density and cross section parameters used by a commercial brachytherapy dose calculation algorithm for radiographic contrast used in a clinical breast brachytherapy practice. This approach is adaptable to other clinics seeking to evaluate dose calculation errors and determine appropriate density override values if desired.

Kim, Leonard H.; Zhang Miao; Howell, Roger W.; Yue, Ning J.; Khan, Atif J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey: Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey: New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey 07103 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey: Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 (United States)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

1983-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

384

High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Carriera, Laura H. (Athens, GA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

The problem of the universal density functional and the density matrix functional theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The analysis in this paper shows that the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem is the constellation of two statements: (i) the mathematically rigorous Hohenberg-Kohn lemma, which demonstrates that the same ground-state density cannot correspond to two different potentials of an external field, and (ii) the hypothesis of the existence of the universal density functional. Based on the obtained explicit expression for the nonrel-ativistic particle energy in a local external field, we prove that the energy of the system of more than two non-interacting electrons cannot be a functional of the inhomogeneous density. This result is generalized to the system of interacting electrons. It means that the Hohenberg-Kohn lemma cannot provide justification of the universal density functional for fermions. At the same time, statements of the density functional theory remain valid when considering any number of noninteracting ground-state bosons due to the Bose condensation effect. In the framework of the density matrix functional theory, the hypothesis of the existence of the universal density matrix functional corresponds to the cases of noninteracting particles and to interaction in the Hartree-Fock approximation.

Bobrov, V. B., E-mail: vic5907@mail.ru; Trigger, S. A., E-mail: satron@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

386

The ESO Nearby Abell Cluster Survey IX. The morphology-radius and morphology-density relations in rich galaxy clusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the morphology-radius (MR-) and morphology-density (MD-) relations for a sample of about 850 galaxies (with M = -22), the S0 galaxies and the early spirals have different Sigma1-distributions. The reason for this is that Sigma1 is much less correlated with R than is Sigma10, and thus has much less cross-talk from the (MR-) relation. On average, the 'normal' ellipticals populate environments with higher projected density than do the S0 galaxies while the early spirals populate even less dense environments. The segregation of the brightest ellipticals and the late spirals is driven mostly by global factors, while the segregation between 'normal' ellipticals, S0 galaxies and early spirals is driven primarily by local factors.

T. Thomas; P. Katgert

2005-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

387

Optimization of accelerator parameters using normal form methods on high-order transfer maps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methods of analysis of the dynamics of ensembles of charged particles in collider rings are developed. The following problems are posed and solved using normal form transformations and other methods of perturbative nonlinear dynamics: (1) Optimization of the Tevatron dynamics: (a) Skew quadrupole correction of the dynamics of particles in the Tevatron in the presence of the systematic skew quadrupole errors in dipoles; (b) Calculation of the nonlinear tune shift with amplitude based on the results of measurements and the linear lattice information; (2) Optimization of the Muon Collider storage ring: (a) Computation and optimization of the dynamic aperture of the Muon Collider 50 x 50 GeV storage ring using higher order correctors; (b) 750 x 750 GeV Muon Collider storage ring lattice design matching the Tevatron footprint. The normal form coordinates have a very important advantage over the particle optical coordinates: if the transformation can be carried out successfully (general restrictions for that are not much stronger than the typical restrictions imposed on the behavior of the particles in the accelerator) then the motion in the new coordinates has a very clean representation allowing to extract more information about the dynamics of particles, and they are very convenient for the purposes of visualization. All the problem formulations include the derivation of the objective functions, which are later used in the optimization process using various optimization algorithms. Algorithms used to solve the problems are specific to collider rings, and applicable to similar problems arising on other machines of the same type. The details of the long-term behavior of the systems are studied to ensure the their stability for the desired number of turns. The algorithm of the normal form transformation is of great value for such problems as it gives much extra information about the disturbing factors. In addition to the fact that the dynamics of particles is represented in a way that is easy to understand, such important characteristics as the strengths of the resonances and the tune shifts with amplitude and various parameters of the system are calculated. Each major section is supplied with the results of applying various numerical optimization methods to the problems stated. The emphasis is made on the efficiency comparison of various approaches and methods. The main simulation tool is the arbitrary order code COSY INFINITY written by M. Berz, K. Makino, et al. at Michigan State University. Also, the code MAD is utilized to design the 750 x 750 GeV Muon Collider storage ring baseline lattice.

Snopok, Pavel; /Michigan State U.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

MID-INFRARED SPECTRAL INDICATORS OF STAR FORMATION AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ACTIVITY IN NORMAL GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the use of mid-infrared (MIR) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bands, the continuum, and emission lines as probes of star formation (SF) and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in a sample of 100 'normal' and local (z {approx} 0.1) emission-line galaxies. The MIR spectra were obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph as part of the Spitzer-SDSS-GALEX Spectroscopic Survey, which includes multi-wavelength photometry from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared and optical spectroscopy. The continuum and features were extracted using PAHFIT, a decomposition code which we find to yield PAH equivalent widths (EWs) up to {approx}30 times larger than the commonly used spline methods. Despite the lack of extreme objects in our sample (such as strong AGNs, low-metallicity galaxies, or ULIRGs), we find significant variations in PAH, continuum, and emission-line properties, and systematic trends between these MIR properties and optically derived physical properties, such as age, metallicity, and radiation field hardness. We revisit the diagnostic diagram relating PAH EWs and [Ne II]12.8 {mu}m/[O IV]25.9 {mu}m line ratios and find it to be in much better agreement with the standard optical SF/AGN classification than when spline decompositions are used, while also potentially revealing obscured AGNs. The luminosity of individual PAH components, of the continuum, and, with poorer statistics, of the neon emission lines and molecular hydrogen lines are found to be tightly correlated to the total infrared (TIR) luminosity, making individual MIR components good gauges of the total dust emission in SF galaxies. Like the TIR luminosity, these individual components can be used to estimate dust attenuation in the UV and in H{alpha} lines based on energy balance arguments. We also propose average scaling relations between these components and dust-corrected, H{alpha}-derived SF rates.

Treyer, Marie; Martin, Christopher D.; Wyder, Ted [California Institute of Technology, MC 278-17, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Schiminovich, David; O'Dowd, Matt [Astronomy Department, Columbia University, 550 W. 120 St., New York, NY 10027 (United States); Johnson, Benjamin D. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Charlot, Stephane [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, 98bis Bvd Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Heckman, Timothy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Martins, Lucimara [NAT-Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Rua Galvao Bueno, 868, Sao Paulo, SP, 01506-000 (Brazil); Seibert, Mark [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Van der Hulst, J. M., E-mail: treyer@srl.caltech.ed [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

2010-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

389

PRICING ENERGY DERIVATIVES BY LINEAR PROGRAMMING: TOLLING AGREEMENT CONTRACTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PRICING ENERGY DERIVATIVES BY LINEAR PROGRAMMING: TOLLING AGREEMENT CONTRACTS Valeriy Ryabchenko for pricing energy derivatives known as tolling agreement contracts. The pricing problem is reduced energy derivatives. The problem of pricing such contracts falls into the class of multiple optimal

Uryasev, Stanislav

390

Carbide-derived carbons - From porous networks to nanotubes and...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Carbide-derived carbons - From porous networks to nanotubes and graphene Re-direct Destination: Carbide-derived carbons (CDCs) are a large family of carbon materials derived from...

391

Oblique interactions of dust density waves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Self-excited dust density waves (DDWs) are studied in a striped electrode device. In addition to the usual perpendicularly (with respect to the electrode) propagating DDWs, which have been frequently observed in dusty plasma experiments on the ground, a low-frequency oblique mode is also observed. This low-frequency oblique DDW has a frequency much lower than the dust plasma frequency and its spontaneous excitation is observed even with a very low dust density. It is found that the low-frequency oblique mode can exist either separately or together with the usual perpendicular mode. In the latter case, a new mode arises as a result of the interactions between the perpendicular and the oblique modes. The experiments show that these three modes satisfy the wave coupling conditions in both the frequencies and the wave-vectors.

Wang, Zhelchui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Yang - Fang [MAX-PLANCK INSTITUTE; Hou, Lujing [MAX-PLANCK INSTITUTE; Jiang, Ke [MAX-PLANCK INSTITUTE; Wu, De - Jin [CHINA; Thomas, Hubertus M [MAX-PLANCK INSTITUTE; Morfill, Gregor E [MAX-PLANCK INSTITUTE

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Global coherence of dust density waves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The coherence of self-excited three-dimensional dust density waves has been experimentally investigated by comparing global and local wave properties. For that purpose, three-dimensional dust clouds have been confined in a radio frequency plasma with thermophoretic levitation. Global wave properties have been measured from the line-of-sight integrated dust density obtained from homogenous light extinction measurements. Local wave properties have been obtained from thin, two-dimensional illuminated laser slices of the cloud. By correlating the simultaneous global and local wave properties, the spatial coherence of the waves has been determined. We find that linear waves with small amplitudes tend to be fragmented, featuring an incoherent wave field. Strongly non-linear waves with large amplitudes, however, feature a strong spatial coherence throughout the dust cloud, indicating a high level of synchronization.

Killer, Carsten; Melzer, André [Institut für Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

393

Development of Silica Aerogel with Any Density  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract–New production methods of silica aerogel with high and low refractive indices have been developed. A very slow shrinkage of alcogel at room temperature has made possible producing aerogel with high refractive indices of up to 1.265 without cracks. Even higher refractive indices than 1.08, the transmission length of the aerogel obtained from this technique has been measured to be about 10 to 20 mm at 400 nm wave length. A mold made of alcogel which endures shrinkage in the supercritical drying process has provided aerogel with the extremely low density of 0.009g/cm 3, which corresponds to the refractive index of 1.002. We have succeeded producing aerogel with a wide range of densities. I.

M. Tabata; I. Adachi; T. Fukushima; H. Kawai; H. Kishimoto; A. Kuratani; H. Nakayama; S. Nishida; T. Noguchi; K. Okudaira; Y. Tajima; H. Yano; H. Yokogawa; H. Yoshida

394

Wave function derivation of the JIMWLK equation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using the stationary lightcone perturbation theory, we propose the complete and careful derivation the JIMWLK equation. We show that the rigorous treatment requires the knowledge of a boosted wave function with second order accuracy. Previous wave function approaches are incomplete and implicitly used the time ordered perturbation theory, which requires a usage of an external target field.

Alexey V. Popov

2008-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

395

Benchmarking Derivative-Free Optimization Algorithms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Science, U.S. Department of Energy, under Contract DE-AC02-06CH11357 ... deterministic simulation based on solving the equations (for example, ... most ambitious work in this direction [7] is a comparison of six derivative-free optimization ...... [5] Elizabeth D. Dolan and Jorge J. Moré, Benchmarking optimization software.

2008-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

396

Derivative Free Optimization Methods for Optimizing Stirrer ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It also gives a comparison of the two optimization algorithms. Key words: Energy, Numerical Optimization, Derivative-Free Optimization,. Computational Fluid ... numerical simulations are needed for the computation of the fluid flow inside the stirrer for ..... Optimization Methods and Software, 20 (2005) 493-508. [6] A. R. Conn ...

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

High speed point derivative microseismic detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high speed microseismic event detector constructed in accordance with the present invention uses a point derivative comb to quickly and accurately detect microseismic events. Compressional and shear waves impinging upon microseismic receiver stations disposed to collect waves are converted into digital data and analyzed using a point derivative comb including assurance of quiet periods prior to declaration of microseismic events. If a sufficient number of quiet periods have passed, the square of a two point derivative of the incoming digital signal is compared to a trip level threshold exceeding the determined noise level to declare a valid trial event. The squaring of the derivative emphasizes the differences between noise and signal, and the valid event is preferably declared when the trip threshold has been exceeded over a temporal comb width to realize a comb over a given time period. Once a trial event has been declared, the event is verified through a spatial comb, which applies the temporal event comb to additional stations. The detector according to the present invention quickly and accurately detects initial compressional waves indicative of a microseismic event which typically exceed the ambient cultural noise level by a small amount, and distinguishes the waves from subsequent larger amplitude shear waves. 9 figs.

Uhl, J.E.; Warpinski, N.R.; Whetten, E.B.

1998-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

398

High speed point derivative microseismic detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high speed microseismic event detector constructed in accordance with the present invention uses a point derivative comb to quickly and accurately detect microseismic events. Compressional and shear waves impinging upon microseismic receiver stations disposed to collect waves are converted into digital data and analyzed using a point derivative comb including assurance of quiet periods prior to declaration of microseismic events. If a sufficient number of quiet periods have passed, the square of a two point derivative of the incoming digital signal is compared to a trip level threshold exceeding the determined noise level to declare a valid trial event. The squaring of the derivative emphasizes the differences between noise and signal, and the valid event is preferably declared when the trip threshold has been exceeded over a temporal comb width to realize a comb over a given time period. Once a trial event has been declared, the event is verified through a spatial comb, which applies the temporal event comb to additional stations. The detector according to the present invention quickly and accurately detects initial compressional waves indicative of a microseismic event which typically exceed the ambient cultural noise level by a small amount, and distinguishes the waves from subsequent larger amplitude shear waves.

Uhl, James Eugene (Albuquerque, NM); Warpinski, Norman Raymond (Albuquerque, NM); Whetten, Ernest Blayne (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Biofuels and bio-products derived from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NEED Biofuels and bio- products derived from lignocellulosic biomass (plant materials) are part improve the energy and carbon efficiencies of biofuels production from a barrel of biomass using chemical and thermal catalytic mechanisms. The Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels IMPACT

Ginzel, Matthew

400

Regular-expression derivatives reexamined SCOTT OWENS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. For regular sets of strings, i.e., sets defined by regular expressions (REs), the derivative is also a regular is elegant and easily supports extended regular expressions; i.e., REs extended with Boolean operations expressions, but since the extensions are conservative (i.e., regular languages are closed under Boolean

Strickland, Stevie

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal densities derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Higher Derivative D-brane Couplings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

supersymmetry. In the third part, we obtain the higher derivative D-brane action by using both linearized T-duality and string disc amplitude computation. We evaluate disc amplitude of one R-R field C^(p-3) and two NS-NS fields in the presence of a single Dp...

Guo, Guangyu

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

402

Isatin Derivatives as Inhibitors of Microtubule Assembly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis describes the rationale, design, and syntheses of derivatives of isatin (1-H-indole-2,3-dione). Isatin was identified, during a high throughput screen of 10,000 compounds, as a potential scaffold for microtubule-destabilizing agents...

Beckman, Karen

2008-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

403

Thin-shell wormholes supported by total normal matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Zipoy-Voorhees-Weyl (ZVW) spacetime characterized by mass ($M$) and oblateness ($\\delta $) is proposed in the construction of viable thin-shell wormholes (TSWs). Departure from spherical / cylindrical symmetry yields positive total energy in spite of the fact that local energy density may take negative values. We show that oblateness of the bumpy sources / black holes can be incorporated as a new degree of freedom that may play role in the resolution of the exotic matter problem in TSWs. Small velocity perturbation reveals, however, that the resulting TSW is unstable.

S. Habib Mazharimousavi; M. Halilsoy

2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

404

Energy-momentum Density of Gravitational Waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we elaborate the problem of energy-momentum in general relativity by energy-momentum prescriptions theory. Our aim is to calculate energy and momentum densities for the general form of gravitational waves. In this connection, we have extended the previous works by using the prescriptions of Bergmann and Tolman. It is shown that they are finite and reasonable. In addition, using Tolman prescription, exactly, leads to same results that have been obtained by Einstein and Papapetrou prescriptions.

Amir M. Abbassi; Saeed Mirshekari

2014-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

405

Mapping densities in a noisy state space  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Weak noise smooths out fractals in a chaotic state space and introduces a maximum attainable resolution to its structure. The balance of noise and deterministic stretching/contraction in each neighborhood introduces local invariants of the dynamics that can be used to partition the state space. We study the local discrete-time evolution of a density in a two-dimensional hyperbolic state space, and use the asymptotic eigenfunctions for the noisy dynamics to formulate a new state space partition algorithm.

Domenico Lippolis

2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

406

Structure formation: a spherical model for the evolution of the density distribution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Within the framework of hierarchical clustering we show that a simple Press-Schechter-like approximation, based on spherical dynamics, provides a good estimate of the evolution of the density field in the quasi-linear regime up to $\\Sigma \\sim 1$. Moreover, it allows one to recover the exact series of the cumulants of the probability distribution of the density contrast in the limit $\\Sigma \\to 0$ which sheds some light on the rigorous result and on ``filtering''. We also obtain similar results for the divergence of the velocity field. Next, we extend this prescription to the highly non-linear regime, using a stable-clustering approximation. Then we recover a specific scaling of the counts-in-cells which is indeed seen in numerical simulations, over a well-defined range. To this order we also introduce an explicit treatment of the behaviour of underdensities, which takes care of the normalization and is linked to the low-density bubbles and the walls one can see in numerical simulations. We compare this to a 1-dimensional adhesion model, and we present the consequences of our prescription for the power-law tail and the cutoff of the density distribution.

P. Valageas

1998-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

407

LOW-FREQUENCY RADIO-FIR CORRELATION IN NORMAL GALAXIES AT {approx}1 kpc SCALES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the radio-FIR correlation between the nonthermal (synchrotron) radio continuum emission at {lambda}90 cm (333 MHz) and the far-infrared emission due to cool ({approx}20 K) dust at {lambda}70 {mu}m in spatially resolved normal galaxies at scales of {approx}1 kpc. The slope of the radio-FIR correlation significantly differs between the arm and interarm regions. However, this change is not evident at a lower wavelength of {lambda}20 cm (1.4 GHz). We find the slope of the correlation in the arm to be 0.8 {+-} 0.12 and we use this to determine the coupling between equipartition magnetic field (B{sub eq}) and gas density ({rho}{sub gas}) as B{sub eq}{proportional_to}{rho}{sup 0.51{+-}0.12}{sub gas}. This is close to what is predicted by magnetohydrodynamic simulations of turbulent interstellar medium, provided the same region produces both the radio and far-infrared emission. We argue that at 1 kpc scales this condition is satisfied for radio emission at 1.4 GHz and may not be satisfied at 333 MHz. The change of slope observed in the interarm region could be caused by propagation of low energy ({approx}1.5 GeV) and long-lived ({approx}10{sup 8} yr) cosmic-ray electrons at 333 MHz.

Basu, Aritra; Roy, Subhashis; Mitra, Dipanjan, E-mail: aritra@ncra.tifr.res.in, E-mail: roy@ncra.tifr.res.in, E-mail: dmitra@ncra.tifr.res.in [National Center for Radio Astrophysics, TIFR, Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind Road, Pune-411007 (India)

2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

408

High Energy Density Utracapacitors: Low-Cost, High Energy and Power Density, Nanotube-Enhanced Ultracapacitors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: FastCAP is improving the performance of an ultracapacitor—a battery-like electronic device that can complement, and possibly even replace, an HEV or EV battery pack. Ultracapacitors have many advantages over conventional batteries, including long lifespans (over 1 million cycles, as compared to 10,000 for conventional batteries) and better durability. Ultracapacitors also charge more quickly than conventional batteries, and they release energy more quickly. However, ultracapacitors have fallen short of batteries in one key metric: energy density—high energy density means more energy storage. FastCAP is redesigning the ultracapacitor’s internal structure to increase its energy density. Ultracapacitors traditionally use electrodes made of irregularly shaped, porous carbon. FastCAP’s ultracapacitors are made of tiny, aligned carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes provide a regular path for ions moving in and out of the ultracapacitor’s electrode, increasing the overall efficiency and energy density of the device.

None

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Interaction of coal-derived synthesis gas impurities with solid...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

coal-derived synthesis gas impurities with solid oxide fuel cell metallic components. Interaction of coal-derived synthesis gas impurities with solid oxide fuel cell metallic...

410

Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels This factsheet describes a project that developed...

411

Progress toward Biomass and Coal-Derived Syngas Warm Cleanup...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Progress toward Biomass and Coal-Derived Syngas Warm Cleanup: Proof-of-Concept Process Demonstration of Multicontaminant Removal Progress toward Biomass and Coal-Derived Syngas...

412

Exploring Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Sugar and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Exploring Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Sugar and Sugar Alcohols to Reduce Costs Exploring Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Sugar and Sugar Alcohols to Reduce...

413

Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review Agenda for the Derived Liquids to...

414

Precise attention filters for Weber contrast derived from centroid estimations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Precise attention filters for Weber contrast derived from centroid estimations Department attention filters for Weber contrast derived from centroid estimations. Journal of Vision, 10(10):20, 1

Sperling, George

415

acetic acid derivatives: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

affects the values of the derivatives. Our constructions use randomness extractors and expander graphs. We study our derivatives in a more general setting than Arora et al. In...

416

amino acetal derivative: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

affects the values of the derivatives. Our constructions use randomness extractors and expander graphs. We study our derivatives in a more general setting than Arora et al. In...

417

Automation of Nested Matrix and Derivative Operations Robert Kalaba  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Automation of Nested Matrix and Derivative Operations Robert Kalaba Departments of Electrical of expressions involving nested matrix and derivative operations. The need to differentiate such expressions

Tesfatsion, Leigh

418

Phosphine oxide derivatives as hosts for blue phosphors: A joint...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

oxide derivatives as hosts for blue phosphors: A joint theoretical and experimental study of their electronic Phosphine oxide derivatives as hosts for blue phosphors: A joint...

419

THE DENSITY PROFILES OF MASSIVE, RELAXED GALAXY CLUSTERS. I. THE TOTAL DENSITY OVER THREE DECADES IN RADIUS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Clusters of galaxies are excellent locations to probe the distribution of baryons and dark matter (DM) over a wide range of scales. We study a sample of seven massive (M {sub 200} = 0.4-2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} M {sub Sun }), relaxed galaxy clusters with centrally located brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) at z = 0.2-0.3. Using the observational tools of strong and weak gravitational lensing, combined with resolved stellar kinematics within the BCG, we measure the total radial density profile, comprising both dark and baryonic matter, over scales of {approx_equal} 3-3000 kpc. We present Keck spectroscopy yielding seven new spectroscopic redshifts of multiply imaged sources and extended stellar velocity dispersion profiles of the BCGs. Lensing-derived mass profiles typically agree with independent X-ray estimates within {approx_equal} 15%, suggesting that departures from hydrostatic equilibrium are small and that the clusters in our sample (except A383) are not strongly elongated or compressed along the line of sight. The inner logarithmic slope {gamma}{sub tot} of the total density profile measured over r/r {sub 200} = 0.003-0.03, where {rho}{sub tot}{proportional_to}r{sup -{gamma}{sub t}{sub o}{sub t}}, is found to be nearly universal, with a mean ({gamma}{sub tot}) = 1.16 {+-} 0.05(random){sup +0.05} {sub -0.07} (systematic) and an intrinsic scatter {sigma}{sub {gamma}} < 0.13 (68% confidence). This is further supported by the very homogeneous shape of the observed velocity dispersion profiles, which are mutually consistent after a simple scaling. Remarkably, this slope agrees closely with high-resolution numerical simulations that contain only DM, despite the significant contribution of stellar mass on the scales we probe. The Navarro-Frenk-White profile characteristic of collisionless cold DM is a better description of the total mass density at radii {approx}> 5-10 kpc than that of DM alone. Hydrodynamical simulations that include baryons, cooling, and feedback currently provide a poorer match. We discuss the significance of our findings for understanding the physical processes governing the assembly of BCGs and cluster cores, particularly the influence of baryons on the inner DM halo.

Newman, Andrew B.; Ellis, Richard S. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)] [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Treu, Tommaso; Sand, David J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Nipoti, Carlo [Astronomy Department, University of Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)] [Astronomy Department, University of Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Richard, Johan [CRAL, Observatorie de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, 9 Avenue Ch. Andre, F-69561 Saint Genis Laval Cedex (France)] [CRAL, Observatorie de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, 9 Avenue Ch. Andre, F-69561 Saint Genis Laval Cedex (France); Jullo, Eric, E-mail: anewman@astro.caltech.edu [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, Universite d'Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France)] [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, Universite d'Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France)

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Density and Temperature Structure of TMC-1C from 450 and 850 micron Maps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have mapped the central 10'x10' of the dense core TMC-1C at 450 and 850 microns using SCUBA on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. The unusually high quality of the 450 micron map allows us to make a detailed analysis of the temperature and column density profiles of the core. We find that the dust temperature at the center of TMC-1C is 7 K, rising to 11 K at the edges. We discuss the possibility and effects of a variable emissivity spectral index on the derived mass profile. The low dust temperature of TMC-1C results in a high derived mass for the core, significantly larger than the virial mass estimated from the linewidth of the N2H+ (1-0) transition. This result is valid within a wide range of dust properties and ellipticities of the core. The N2H+ (1-0) spectra, taken with the IRAM 30m telescope, show signs of self-absorption, which provide evidence of sub-sonic infall motions. The derived density profile and infall velocity is compared to the predictions of several popular star formation models, and the Bonnor-Ebert model isthe best fit analytic model.

S. Schnee; A. Goodman

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal densities derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Tunneling from super- to normal-deformed minima in nuclei.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An excited minimum, or false vacuum, gives rise to a highly elongated superdeformed (SD) nucleus. A brief review of superdeformation is given, with emphasis on the tunneling from the false to the true vacuum, which occurs in the feeding and decay of SD bands. During the feeding process the tunneling is between hot states, while in the decay it is from a cold to a hot state. The {gamma} spectra connecting SD and normal-deformed (ND) states provide information on several physics issues: the decay mechanism; the spin/parity quantum numbers, energies and microscopic structures of SD bands; the origin of identical SD bands; the quenching of pairing with excitation energy; and the chaoticity of excited ND states at 2.5-5 MeV. Other examples of tunneling in nuclei, which are briefly described, include the possible role of tunneling in {Delta}I = 4 bifurcation in SD bands, sub-barrier fusion and proton emitters.

Khoo, T. L.

1998-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

422

Asymptotic normalization coefficients, spectroscopic factors, and direct radiative capture rates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the norms of the overlap function and the radial bound-state wave function are, correspondingly, the spectroscopic factor SlB jB and unity, the single-particle spec- troscopic factor SlB jB (sp) in Eq. ~5! will equal the spectroscopic factor SlB jB... of the radial overlap function is given by Eq. ~3!, and the asymptotic normalization of the radial bound-state wave function is defined as wnBlB jB~r ! ? r.RN blB jB W 2hB ,lB11/2~2kBr ! r . ~6! By the proper choice of SlB jB (sp) , one can make Eq...

Mukhamedzhanov, AM; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Tribble, Robert E.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Phenomenology of electrostatically charged droplet combustion in normal gravity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental findings are provided on the effect of electrostatically charging a fuel on single-burning droplet combustion in normal gravity. It was established that significant modification of the flame morphology and the droplet burning time could be achieved, solely by the droplet charge, without the application of external electric fields. Negative charging of the droplets of mixtures of isooctane with either ethanol or a commercially available anti-static additive generated intense motion of the flame and abbreviated the droplet burning time by as much as 40% for certain blend compositions. Positive charging of the droplets generated almost spherical flames, because electrostatic attraction toward the droplets countered the effect of buoyancy. By comparing combustion of droplets of the same conductivity but different compositions, coupling of electrostatics with combustion chemistry was established. (author)

Anderson, Eric K.; Koch, Jeremy A.; Kyritsis, Dimitrios C. [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

424

The helium abundances in HgMn and normal stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The parameter-free model of diffusion in the atmospheres of HgMn stars (Michaud 1986; Michaud et al 1979) predicts that helium should sink below the He II ionization zone in order that diffusion of other elements may take place, and that all HgMn stars should have deficits of helium in their photospheres, with a minimum deficit of 0.3 dex. In this study, the Smith & Dworetsky (1993) sample of HgMn stars and normal comparison stars is examined, and the helium abundances determined by spectrum synthesis using echelle spectra taken at Lick Observatory and the AAT. The prediction is confirmed; all HgMn stars are deficient in He by as much as 1.5 dex. Also, two HgMn stars, HR7361 and HR7664, show clear evidence of helium stratification.

M. M. Dworetsky

2004-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

425

Fermi Normal Coordinates and Fermion Curvature Couplings in General Relativity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study gravitational curvature effects in circular and radial geodesics in static, spherically symmetric space-times, using Fermi normal coordinates. We first set up these coordinates in the general case, and then use this to study effective magnetic fields due to gravitational curvature in the exterior and interior Schwarzschild, Janis-Newman-Winicour, and Bertrand space-times. We show that these fields can be large for specific parameter values in the theories, and thus might have observational significance. We discuss the qualitative differences of the magnetic field for vacuum space-times and for those seeded by matter. We estimate the magnitude of these fields in realistic galactic scenarios and discuss their possible experimental relevance. Gravitational curvature corrections to the Hydrogen atom spectrum for these space-times are also discussed briefly.

Anshuman Dey; Abhisek Samanta; Tapobrata Sarkar

2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

426

Triamine chelants, their derivatives, complexes and conjugates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A group of functionalized triamine chelants and their derivatives that form complexes with radioactive metal ions are disclosed. The complexes can be covalently attached to a protein or an antibody or antibody fragment and used for therapeutic and/or diagnostic purposes. The chelants are of the formula, as shown in the accompanying diagrams, wherein n, m, R, R{sup 1}, R{sup 2} and L are defined in the specification.

Troutner, D.E.; John, C.S.; Pillai, M.R.A.

1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

427

A stochastic derivation of the geodesic rule  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We argue that the geodesic rule, for global defects, is a consequence of the randomness of the values of the Goldstone field $\\phi$ in each causally connected volume. As these volumes collide and coalescence, $\\phi$ evolves by performing a random walk on the vacuum manifold $\\mathcal{M}$. We derive a Fokker-Planck equation that describes the continuum limit of this process. Its fundamental solution is the heat kernel on $\\mathcal{M}$, whose leading asymptotic behavior establishes the geodesic rule.

Nikos Kalogeropoulos

2006-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

428

Triamine chelants, their derivatives, complexes and conjugates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A group of functionalized triamine chelants and their derivatives that form complexes with radioactive metal ions are disclosed. The complexes can be covalently attached to a protein or an antibody or antibody fragment and used for therapeutic and/or diagnostic purposes. The chelants are of the formula: ##STR1## wherein n, m, R, R.sup.1, R.sup.2 and L are defined in the specification.

Troutner, David E. (Phoenixville, PA); John, Christy S. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pillai, Maroor R. A. (Vashi, IN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Two-point derivative dispersion relations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new derivation is given for the representation, under certain conditions, of the integral dispersion relations of scattering theory through local forms. The resulting expressions have been obtained through an independent procedure to construct the real part, and consist of new mathematical structures of double infinite summations of derivatives. In this new form the derivatives are calculated at the generic value of the energy $E$ and separately at the reference point $E=m$ that is the lower limit of the integration. This new form may be more interesting in certain circumstances and directly shows the origin of the difficulties in convergence that were present in the old truncated forms called standard-DDR. For all cases in which the reductions of the double to single sums were obtained in our previous work, leading to explicit demonstration of convergence, these new expressions are seen to be identical to the previous ones. We present, as a glossary, the most simplified explicit results for the DDR's in the cases of imaginary amplitudes of forms $(E/m)^\\lambda[\\ln (E/m)]^n$, that cover the cases of practical interest in particle physics phenomenology at high energies. We explicitly study the expressions for the cases with $\\lambda$ negative odd integers, that require identification of cancelation of singularities, and provide the corresponding final results.

Erasmo Ferreira; Javier Sesma

2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

430

Method of high-density foil fabrication  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for preparing flat foils having a high density includes the steps of mixing a powdered material with a binder to form a green sheet. The green sheet is exposed to a high intensity radiative source adapted to emit radiation of wavelengths corresponding to an absorption spectrum of the powdered material. The surface of the green sheet is heated while a lower sub-surface temperature is maintained. An apparatus for preparing a foil from a green sheet using a radiation source is also disclosed.

Blue, Craig A.; Sikka, Vinod K.; Ohriner, Evan K.

2003-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

431

Nuclear Energy Density Optimization: UNEDF2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The parameters of the UNEDF2 nuclear energy density functional (EDF) model were obtained in an optimization to experimental data consisting of nuclear binding energies, proton radii, odd-even mass staggering data, fission-isomer excitation energies, and single particle energies. In addition to parameter optimization, sensitivity analysis was done to obtain parameter uncertainties and correlations. The resulting UNEDF2 is an all-around EDF. However, the sensitivity analysis also demonstrated that the limits of current Skyrme-like EDFs have been reached and that novel approaches are called for.

M. Kortelainen; J. McDonnell; W. Nazarewicz; E. Olsen; P. -G. Reinhard; J. Sarich; N. Schunck; S. M. Wild; D. Davesne; J. Erler; A. Pastore

2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

432

Low density inorganic foams fabricated using microwaves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of our work was to determine if high temperature foams could be made using microwave heating; and if so, to investigate some of their properties. Several foams were made and their compressive strengths, tensile strengths and densities were determined. Foams were made of glass, metal-glass, glass-fiber, metal-glass-fiber, and fly ash. The microwave source used was a Litton model 1521 microwave oven which operated at 2.45 GHz and had an output of 700 watts.

Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.; Gregory, T.G.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Symmetry energy in nuclear density functional theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The nuclear symmetry energy represents a response to the neutron-proton asymmetry. In this survey we discuss various aspects of symmetry energy in the framework of nuclear density functional theory, considering both non-relativistic and relativistic self-consistent mean-field realizations side-by-side. Key observables pertaining to bulk nucleonic matter and finite nuclei are reviewed. Constraints on the symmetry energy and correlations between observables and symmetry-energy parameters, using statistical covariance analysis, are investigated. Perspectives for future work are outlined in the context of ongoing experimental efforts.

W. Nazarewicz; P. -G. Reinhard; W. Satula; D. Vretenar

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

434

ARM - Lesson Plans: Air Density and Temperature  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearch Related InformationAcid Rain Outreach Home Room NewsDensity and

435

Thermal phase transitions and gapless quark spectra in quark matter at high density  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal color superconducting phase transitions in three-flavor quark matter at high baryon density are investigated in the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) approach. We constructed the GL potential near the boundary with a normal phase by taking into account nonzero quark masses, electric charge neutrality, and color charge neutrality. We found that the density of states averaged over paired quarks plays a crucial role in determining the phases near the boundary. By performing a weak coupling calculation of the parameters characterizing the GL potential terms of second order in the pairing gap, we show that three successive second-order phase transitions take place as the temperature increases: a modified color-flavor locked phase (ud, ds, and us pairings) {yields} a dSC phase (ud and ds pairings) {yields} an isoscalar pairing phase (ud pairing) {yields} a normal phase (no pairing). The Meissner masses of the gluons and the number of gapless quark modes are also studied analytically in each of these phases.

Iida, K. [RIKEN BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Matsuura, T.; Hatsuda, T. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Tachibana, M. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

The density of states approach for the simulation of finite density quantum field theories  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Finite density quantum field theories have evaded first principle Monte-Carlo simulations due to the notorious sign-problem. The partition function of such theories appears as the Fourier transform of the generalised density-of-states, which is the probability distribution of the imaginary part of the action. With the advent of Wang-Landau type simulation techniques and recent advances, the density-of-states can be calculated over many hundreds of orders of magnitude. Current research addresses the question whether the achieved precision is high enough to reliably extract the finite density partition function, which is exponentially suppressed with the volume. In my talk, I review the state-of-play for the high precision calculations of the density-of-states as well as the recent progress for obtaining reliable results from highly oscillating integrals. I will review recent progress for the $Z_3$ quantum field theory for which results can be obtained from the simulation of the dual theory, which appears to free of a sign problem.

K. Langfeld; B. Lucini; A. Rago; R. Pellegrini; L. Bongiovanni

2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

437

Transformation of spatial and perturbation derivatives of travel time  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transformation of spatial and perturbation derivatives of travel time at a general interface and perturbation parameters. We derive the explicit equations for transforming these travel­time derivatives Hamiltonian function and are applicable to the transformation of travel­time derivatives in both isotropic

Cerveny, Vlastislav

438

SPEECH-CODING AND TRAINING-INDUCED PLASTICITY IN AUDITORY CORTEX OF NORMAL AND DYSLEXIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SPEECH-CODING AND TRAINING-INDUCED PLASTICITY IN AUDITORY CORTEX OF NORMAL AND DYSLEXIA MODEL RATS anymore... #12;SPEECH-CODING AND TRAINING-INDUCED PLASTICITY IN AUDITORY CORTEX OF NORMAL AND DYSLEXIA

Kilgard, Michael P.

439

3D culture models of normal and malignant breast epithelial cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3D culture models of normal and malignant breast epithelialcells; Lee et al. 3D culture models of normal and malignantFor correspondence: mjbissell@lbl.gov 3D culture models of

Lee, Genee Y.; Kenny, Paraic A.; Lee, Eva H.; Bissell, Mina J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Method of reducing the green density of a slip cast article  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The method disclosed in this specification is one of reducing the green density of an article cast in a slip casting operation. The article is cast from a casting slip containing silicon metal particles, yttrium containing particles, and a small amount of a fluoride salt which is effective to suppress flocculation of the silicon metal particles by y.sup.+3 ions derived from the yttrium containing particles. The method is characterized by the following step. A small amount of compound which produces a cation which will partly flocculate the particles of silicon metal is added to the casting slip. The small amount of this compound is added so that when the casting slip is slip cast into a casting mold, the partly flocculated particles of silicon will interrupt an otherwise orderly packing of the particles of silicon and particles of yttrium. In this manner, the green density of the slip cast article is reduced and the article may be more easily nitrided.

Mangels, John A. (Flat Rock, MI); Dickie, Ray A. (Birmingham, MI)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal densities derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Probability density adjoint for sensitivity analysis of the Mean of Chaos  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sensitivity analysis, especially adjoint based sensitivity analysis, is a powerful tool for engineering design which allows for the efficient computation of sensitivities with respect to many parameters. However, these methods break down when used to compute sensitivities of long-time averaged quantities in chaotic dynamical systems. This paper presents a new method for sensitivity analysis of ergodic chaotic dynamical systems, the density adjoint method. The method involves solving the governing equations for the system's invariant measure and its adjoint on the system's attractor manifold rather than in phase-space. This new approach is derived for and demonstrated on one-dimensional chaotic maps and the three-dimensional Lorenz system. It is found that the density adjoint computes very finely detailed adjoint distributions and accurate sensitivities, but suffers from large computational costs.

Blonigan, Patrick J., E-mail: blonigan@mit.edu; Wang, Qiqi, E-mail: qiqi@mit.edu

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Single-particle spectral density of a Bose gas in the two-fluid hydrodynamic regime  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In Bose superfluids, the single-particle Green's function can be directly related to the superfluid velocity-velocity correlation function in the hydrodynamic regime. An explicit expression for the single-particle spectral density was originally written down by Hohenberg and Martin in 1965, starting from the two-fluid equations for a superfluid. We give a simple derivation of their results. Using these results, we calculate the relative weights of first and second sound modes in the single-particle spectral density as a function of temperature in a uniform Bose gas. We show that the second sound mode makes a dominant contribution to the single-particle spectrum in a relatively high-temperature region. We also discuss the possibility of experimental observation of the second sound mode in a Bose gas by photoemission spectroscopy.

Arahata, Emiko; Nikuni, Tetsuro; Griffin, Allan [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7 (Canada)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

443

Density functional theory for hard-sphere mixtures: the White-Bear version Mark II  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the spirit of the White-Bear version of fundamental measure theory we derive a new density functional for hard-sphere mixtures which is based on a recent mixture extension of the Carnahan-Starling equation of state. In addition to the capability to predict inhomogeneous density distributions very accurately, like the original White-Bear version, the new functional improves upon consistency with an exact scaled-particle theory relation in the case of the pure fluid. We examine consistency in detail within the context of morphological thermodynamics. Interestingly, for the pure fluid the degree of consistency of the new version is not only higher than for the original White-Bear version but also higher than for Rosenfeld's original fundamental measure theory.

Hendrik Hansen-Goos; Roland Roth

2006-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

444

The current density in quantum electrodynamics in time-dependent external potentials and the Schwinger effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the framework of quantum electrodynamics (QED) in external potentials, we introduce a method to compute the time-dependence of the expectation value of the current density for time-dependent homogeneous external electric fields. We apply it to the so-called Sauter pulse. For late times, our results agree with the asymptotic value due to electron-positron pair production. For sub-critical peak field strengths, or results agree very well with the general expression derived by Serber for the linearization in the external field. In particular, the expectation value of the current density at intermediate times can be much greater than at asymptotic times. We comment on consequences of these findings for recent proposals to test the Schwinger effect with high intensity lasers using processes at intermediate times.

Zahn, Jochen

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Computation of the current density in nonlinear materials subjected to large current pulses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The finite element method and the finite difference method are used to calculate the current distribution in two nonlinear conductors. The first conductor is a small ferromagnetic wire subjected to a current pulse that rises to 10,000 Amperes in 10 microseconds. Results from the transient thermal and transient magnetic solvers of the finite element code FLUX2D are used to compute the current density in the wire. The second conductor is a metal oxide varistor. Maxwell's equations, Ohm's law and the varistor relation for the resistivity and the current density of {rho} = {alpha}j{sup {minus}{beta}} are used to derive a nonlinear differential equation. The solutions of the differential equation are obtained by a finite difference approximation and a shooting method. The behavior predicted by these calculations is in agreement with experiments. 9 refs., 6 figs.

Hodgdon, M.L.; Hixson, R.S.; Parsons, W.M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Measurements of electron cloud density in the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron with the microwave transmission method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The electron cloud effect can pose severe performance limitations in high-energy particle accelerators as the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). Mitigation techniques such as vacuum chamber thin film coatings with low secondary electron yields (SEY < 1.3) aim to reduce or even suppress this effect. The microwave transmission method, developed and first applied in 2003 at the SPS, measures the integrated electron cloud density over a long section of an accelerator. This paper summarizes the theory and measurement principle and describes the new SPS microwave transmission setup used to study the electron cloud mitigation of amorphous carbon coated SPS dipole vacuum chambers. Comparative results of carbon coated and bare stainless steel dipole vacuum chambers are given for the beam with nominal LHC 25 ns bunch-to-bunch spacing in the SPS and the electron cloud density is derived.

Federmann, S; Mahner, E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Quasi-local-density approximation for a van der Waals energy functional  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss a possible form for a theory akin to local density functional theory, but able to produce van der Waals energies in a natural fashion. The usual Local Density Approximation (LDA) for the exchange and correlation energy $E_{xc}$ of an inhomogeneous electronic system can be derived by making a quasilocal approximation for the {\\it interacting} density-density response function $\\chi (\\vec{r},\\vec{r} ^{\\prime},\\omega)$, then using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and a Feynman coupling-constant integration to generate $E_{xc}$. The first new idea proposed here is to use the same approach except that one makes a quasilocal approximation for the {\\it bare} response $\\chi ^{0}$, rather than for $\\chi $. The interacting response is then obtained by solving a nonlocal screening integral equation in real space. If the nonlocal screening is done at the time-dependent Hartree level, then the resulting energy is an approximation to the full inhomogeneous RPA energy: we show here that the inhomogeneous RPA correlation energy contains a van der Waals term for the case of widely-separated neutral subsystems. The second new idea is to use a particularly simple way of introducing LDA-like local field corrrections into the screening equations, giving a theory which should remain reasonable for all separations of a pair of subsystems, encompassing both the van der Waals limit much as in RPA and the bonding limit much as in LDA theory.

John F. Dobson

2003-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

448

Edge effects in graphene nanostructures: I. From multiple reflection expansion to density of states  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the influence of different edge types on the electronic density of states of graphene nanostructures. To this end we develop an exact expansion for the single particle Green's function of ballistic graphene structures in terms of multiple reflections from the system boundary, that allows for a natural treatment of edge effects. We first apply this formalism to calculate the average density of states of graphene billiards. While the leading term in the corresponding Weyl expansion is proportional to the billiard area, we find that the contribution that usually scales with the total length of the system boundary differs significantly from what one finds in semiconductor-based, Schr\\"odinger type billiards: The latter term vanishes for armchair and infinite mass edges and is proportional to the zigzag edge length, highlighting the prominent role of zigzag edges in graphene. We then compute analytical expressions for the density of states oscillations and energy levels within a trajectory based semiclassical approach. We derive a Dirac version of Gutzwiller's trace formula for classically chaotic graphene billiards and further obtain semiclassical trace formulae for the density of states oscillations in regular graphene cavities. We find that edge dependent interference of pseudospins in graphene crucially affects the quantum spectrum.

J. Wurm; K. Richter; I. Adagideli

2011-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

449

Ultra-nonlocality in density functional theory for photo-emission spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We derive an exact expression for the photocurrent of photo-emission spectroscopy using time-dependent current density functional theory (TDCDFT). This expression is given as an integral over the Kohn-Sham spectral function renormalized by effective potentials that depend on the exchange-correlation kernel of current density functional theory. We analyze in detail the physical content of this expression by making a connection between the density-functional expression and the diagrammatic expansion of the photocurrent within many-body perturbation theory. We further demonstrate that the density functional expression does not provide us with information on the kinetic energy distribution of the photo-electrons. Such information can, in principle, be obtained from TDCDFT by exactly modeling the experiment in which the photocurrent is split into energy contributions by means of an external electromagnetic field outside the sample, as is done in standard detectors. We find, however, that this procedure produces very nonlocal correlations between the exchange-correlation fields in the sample and the detector.

Uimonen, A.-M. [Department of Physics, Nanoscience Center, University of Jyväskylä, Survontie 9, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland)] [Department of Physics, Nanoscience Center, University of Jyväskylä, Survontie 9, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Stefanucci, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy) [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF), Louvain-la Neuve (Belgium); Leeuwen, R. van [Department of Physics, Nanoscience Center, University of Jyväskylä, Survontie 9, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland) [Department of Physics, Nanoscience Center, University of Jyväskylä, Survontie 9, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF), Louvain-la Neuve (Belgium)

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

450

Covariant density functional theory for antimagnetic rotation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Following the previous letter on the first microscopic description of the antimagnetic rotation (AMR) in 105Cd, a systematic investigation and detailed analysis for the AMR band in the frame-work of tilted axis cranking (TAC) model based on covariant density functional theory are carried out. After performing the microscopic and self-consistentTAC calculations with an given density functional, the configuration for the observed AMR band in 105Cd is obtained from the single-particle Routhians. With the configuration thus obtained, the tilt angle for a given rotational frequency is determined self-consistently by minimizing the total Routhian with respect to the tilt angle. In such a way, the energy spectrum, total angular momenta, kinetic and dynamic moments of inertia, and the B(E2) values for the AMR band in 105Cd are calculated. Good agreement with the data is found. By investigating microscopically the contributions from neutrons and protons to the total angular momentum, the "two-shears-like" mechanism in the AMR band is clearly illus-trated. Finally, the currents leading to time-odd mean fields in the Dirac equation are presented and discussed in detail. It is found that they are essentially determined by the valence particles and/or holes. Their spatial distribution and size depend onthe specific single-particle orbitals and the rotational frequency.

P. W. Zhao; J. Peng; H. Z. Liang; P. Ring; J. Meng

2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

451

Longitudinal density monitor for the LHC  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

The longitudinal density monitor (LDM) is primarily intended for the measurement of the particle population in nominally empty rf buckets. These so-called satellite or ghost bunches can cause problems for machine protection as well as influencing the luminosity calibration of the LHC. The high dynamic range of the system allows measurement of ghost bunches with as little as 0.01% of the main bunch population at the same time as characterization of the main bunches. The LDM is a single-photon counting system using visible synchrotron light. The photon detector is a silicon avalanche photodiode operated in Geiger mode, which allows the longitudinal distribution of the LHC beams to be measured with a resolution of 90 ps. Results from the LDM are presented, including a proposed method for constructing a 3-dimensional beam density map by scanning the LDM sensor in the transverse plane. In addition, we present a scheme to improve the sensitivity of the system by using an optical switching technique.

Jeff, A.; Andersen, M.; Boccardi, A.; Bozyigit, S.; Bravin, E.; Lefevre, T.; Rabiller, A.; Roncarolo, F.; Welsch, C. P.; Fisher, A. S.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Imaging of normal and pathologic joint synovium using nonlinear optical microscopy as a potential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and gout at 3.0 million. Arthritis can result in irreversible destruction and loss of normal articular

Rose, Michael R.

453

Interacting boson model from energy density functionals: {gamma}-softness and the related topics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A comprehensive way of deriving the Hamiltonian of the interacting boson model (IBM) is described. Based on the fact that the multi-nucleon induced surface deformation in finite nucleus is simulated by effective boson degrees of freedom, the potential energy surface calculated with self-consistent mean-field method employing a given energy density functional (EDF) is mapped onto the IBM analog, and thereby the excitation spectra and transition rates with good symmetry quantum numbers are calculated. Recent applications of the proposed approach are reported: (i) an alternative robust interpretation of the {gamma}-soft nuclei and (ii) shape coexistence in lead isotopes.

Nomura, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, D-50937 Koeln (Germany)

2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

454

Further Study on the Conservation Laws of Energy-momentum Tensor Density for a Gravitational System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The various methods to derive Einstein conservation laws and the relevant definitions of energy-momentum tensor density for gravitational fields are studied in greater detail. It is shown that these methods are all equivalent. The study on the identical and different characteristics between Lorentz and Levi-Civita conservation laws and Einstein conservation laws is thoroughly explored. Whether gravitational waves carry the energy-momentum is discussed and some new interpretations for the energy exchanges in the gravitational systems are given. The viewpoint that PSR1913 does not verify the gravitational radiation is confirmed.

Chen Fang-Pei

2008-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

455

Synchrotron radiation damage observations in normal incidence copper mirrors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water-cooled copper mirrors used at near-normal incidence on two beam lines at the NSLS are observed to undergo severe degradation upon exposure to the direct SR beam. These mirrors are used on beam lines designed to utilize radiation in the wavelength regions longer than 100 nm and are coated with a uv reflection-enhancing coating, consisting of one or more bilayers of aluminum with a MgF/sub 2/ overcoat. Beamline performance degrades very rapidly following installation of a new set of mirrors. Analysis of the mirror surfaces by various non-destructive techniques indicates severe degradation of the coating and surface along the central strip where most of the x-ray power is absorbed from the beam. In one case where the mirror had three bilayer coatings, the outer coating layer has disappeared along the central strip. Rutherford backscatter measurements indicate compositional changes between layers and confirm the existence of a carbon deposit on the surface. Thermal modeling suggests that most of the damage is caused by direct photon interaction, since the temperature rise in the energy deposition region is small.

Takacs, P.Z.; Melendez, J.; Colbert, J.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Sampling Plan for Assaying Plates Containing Depleted or Normal Uranium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the rationale behind the proposed method for selecting a 'representative' sample of uranium metal plates, portions of which will be destructively assayed at the Y-12 Security Complex. The total inventory of plates is segregated into two populations, one for Material Type 10 (depleted uranium (DU)) and one for Material Type 81 (normal [or natural] uranium (NU)). The plates within each population are further stratified by common dimensions. A spreadsheet gives the collective mass of uranium element (and isotope for DU) and the piece count of all plates within each stratum. These data are summarized in Table 1. All plates are 100% uranium metal, and all but approximately 60% of the NU plates have Kel-F{reg_sign} coating. The book inventory gives an overall U-235 isotopic percentage of 0.22% for the DU plates, ranging from 0.19% to 0.22%. The U-235 ratio of the NU plates is assumed to be 0.71%. As shown in Table 1, the vast majority of the plates are comprised of depleted uranium, so most of the plates will be sampled from the DU population.

Ivan R. Thomas

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Rap G protein signal in normal and disordered lymphohematopoiesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rap proteins (Rap1, Rap2a, b, c) are small molecular weight GTPases of the Ras family. Rap G proteins mediate diverse cellular events such as cell adhesion, proliferation, and gene activation through various signaling pathways. Activation of Rap signal is regulated tightly by several specific regulatory proteins including guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase-activating proteins. Beyond cell biological studies, increasing attempts have been made in the past decade to define the roles of Rap signal in specific functions of normal tissue systems as well as in cancer. In the immune and hematopoietic systems, Rap signal plays crucial roles in the development and function of essentially all lineages of lymphocytes and hematopoietic cells, and importantly, deregulated Rap signal may lead to unique pathological conditions depending on the affected cell types, including various types of leukemia and autoimmunity. The phenotypical studies have unveiled novel, even unexpected functional aspects of Rap signal in cells from a variety of tissues, providing potentially important clues for controlling human diseases, including malignancy.

Minato, Nagahiro, E-mail: minato@imm.med.kyoto-u.ac.jp

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

458

Assessing the efficiency of dye-swap normalization to remove systematic bias  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessing the efficiency of dye-swap normalization to remove systematic bias from two. Using three different data sets, this paper assesses the effectiveness of dye-swap normalization. The results show how dye-swap normalization corrects the bias introduced by the different properties

Rostock, Universität

459

The Smith Normal Form of a Matrix Associated with Young's Lattice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Smith Normal Form of a Matrix Associated with Young's Lattice Tommy Wuxing Cai and Richard P. Stanley Abstract. We prove a conjecture of Miller and Reiner on the Smith normal form of the operator DU be a commutative ring with 1 and M an mÃ?m matrix over R. We say that M has a Smith normal form (SNF) over R

460

Direct-Normal Solar Irradiance -A Closure Experiment, Halthore et al. 1 Comparison of Model Estimated and Measured Direct-Normal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). This is the energy in the solar spectrum falling per unit time on a unit area of a surface oriented normal to the Sun Direct-normal solar irradiance (DNSI), the total energy in the solar spectrum incident in unit time extinction of solar energy without regard to the details of the extinction - whether absorption or scattering

Schwartz, Stephen E.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal densities derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

High density Ru nanocrystal deposition for nonvolatile memory applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High density Ru nanocrystal deposition for nonvolatile memory applications Damon B. Farmer School density optimizes the charge storing capability of the floating layer, while a high degree of size

462

Wood-Fiber/High-Density-Polyethylene Composites: Compounding Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood-Fiber/High-Density-Polyethylene Composites: Compounding Process J. Z. Lu,1 Q. Wu,1 I. I parameters for the wood-fiber/high-density-polyethylene blends at 60 rpm were a temperature of 180°C

463

Experimental bond critical point and local energy density properties...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mn-O, Fe-O and Co-O bonded interactions for Abstract: Bond critical point, bcp, and local energy density properties for the electron density, ED, distributions, calculated with...

464

Design of annular fuel for high power density BWRs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enabling high power density in the core of Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) is economically profitable for existing or new reactors. In this work, we examine the potential for increasing the power density in BWR plants by ...

Morra, Paolo

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Constrained Density-Functional Theory--Configuration Interaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, I implemented a method for performing electronic structure calculations, "Constrained Density Functional Theory-- Configuration Interaction" (CDFT-CI), which builds upon the computational strengths of Density ...

Kaduk, Benjamin James

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Derivation of an Applied Nonlinear Schroedinger Equation.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We derive from first principles a mathematical physics model useful for understanding nonlinear optical propagation (including filamentation). All assumptions necessary for the development are clearly explained. We include the Kerr effect, Raman scattering, and ionization (as well as linear and nonlinear shock, diffraction and dispersion). We explain the phenomenological sub-models and each assumption required to arrive at a complete and consistent theoretical description. The development includes the relationship between shock and ionization and demonstrates why inclusion of Drude model impedance effects alters the nature of the shock operator. Unclassified Unlimited Release

Pitts, Todd Alan; Laine, Mark Richard; Schwarz, Jens; Rambo, Patrick K.; Karelitz, David B.

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this project are to design and synthesize novel monomers which orginate from renewable biological sources and to carry out their rapid, efficient, pollution-free and energy efficient cationic polymerization to useful products under the influence of ultraviolet light or heat. A summary of the results of the past year's research on cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources is presented. Three major areas of investigation corresponding to the different classes of naturally occurring starting materials were investigated; epoxidized terpenes and natural rubber and vinyl ethers from alcohols and carbohydrates.

Crivello, J.V.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Formal Derivation of Concurrent Garbage Collectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Concurrent garbage collectors are notoriously difficult to implement correctly. Previous approaches to the issue of producing correct collectors have mainly been based on posit-and-prove verification or on the application of domain-specific templates and transformations. We show how to derive the upper reaches of a family of concurrent garbage collectors by refinement from a formal specification, emphasizing the application of domain-independent design theories and transformations. A key contribution is an extension to the classical lattice-theoretic fixpoint theorems to account for the dynamics of concurrent mutation and collection.

Pavlovic, Dusko; Smith, Douglas R

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

High energy density redox flow device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Redox flow devices are described in which at least one of the positive electrode or negative electrode-active materials is a semi-solid or is a condensed ion-storing electroactive material, and in which at least one of the electrode-active materials is transported to and from an assembly at which the electrochemical reaction occurs, producing electrical energy. The electronic conductivity of the semi-solid is increased by the addition of conductive particles to suspensions and/or via the surface modification of the solid in semi-solids (e.g., by coating the solid with a more electron conductive coating material to increase the power of the device). High energy density and high power redox flow devices are disclosed. The redox flow devices described herein can also include one or more inventive design features. In addition, inventive chemistries for use in redox flow devices are also described.

Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, W. Craig; Ho, Bryan Y; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

470

Ternary liquid mixture viscosities and densities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid mixture viscosities and densities have been measured at 298.15 K and ambient pressure for 20 ternary systems. Twelve ternary compositions, encompassing the entire composition range, have been chosen for each system in an effort to test a newly proposed predictive equation based on local compositions. Viscosities calculated by using the local composition model agreed with the experimental data within an average absolute deviation of 6.4%. No adjustable parameters were used and only binary interactions in the form of NRTL constants were input. The results of these studies indicate that the local composition model predictions are generally as good for multicomponent systems as they are for the corresponding binaries. 24 references, 3 tables.

Wei, I.C.; Rowley, R.L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Energy density fluctuations in early universe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primordial nucleosinthesys of the element can be influenced by the transitions of phase that take place after the Big Bang, such as the QCD transition. In order to study the effect of this phase transition, in this work we compute the time evolution of thermodynamical quantities of the early universe, focusing on temperature and energy density fluctuations, by solving the relevant equations of motion using as input the lattice QCD equation of state to describe the strongly interacting matter in the early universe plasma. We also study the effect of a primordial strong magnetic field by means of a phenomenological equation of state. Our results show that small inhomogeneities of strongly interacting matter in the early Universe are moderately damped during the crossover.

Guardo, G. L.; Ruggieri, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Greco, V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania, Catania, Italy and INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy)

2014-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

472

Competition between superconductivity and spin density wave  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Hubbard model has been investigated widely by many authors, while this work may be new in two aspects. One, we focus on the possible effects of the positions of the gaps associated with the pairing and the spin density wave. Two, we suggest that the models with different parameters are appropriate for different materials (or a material in different doped regions). This will lead to some new insights into the high temperature superconductors. It is shown that the SDW can appear at some temperature region when the on-site Coulomb interaction is larger, while the SC requires a decreased U at a lower temperature. This can qualitatively explain the relationship between superconducting and pseudogap states of Cu-based superconductors in underdoped and optimally doped regions. The superinsulator is also discussed.

Tian De Cao

2012-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

473

LATTICE QCD AT FINITE TEMPERATURE AND DENSITY.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the operation of the RHIC heavy ion program, the theoretical understanding of QCD at finite temperature and density has become increasingly important. Though QCD at finite temperature has been extensively studied using lattice Monte-Carlo simulations over the past twenty years, most physical questions relevant for RHIC (and future) heavy ion experiments remain open. In lattice QCD at finite temperature and density there have been at least two major advances in recent years. First, for the first time calculations of real time quantities, like meson spectral functions have become available. Second, the lattice study of the QCD phase diagram and equation of state have been extended to finite baryon density by several groups. Both issues were extensively discussed in the course of the workshop. A real highlight was the study of the QCD phase diagram in (T, {mu})-plane by Z. Fodor and S. Katz and the determination of the critical end-point for the physical value of the pion mass. This was the first time such lattice calculations at, the physical pion mass have been performed. Results by Z Fodor and S. Katz were obtained using a multi-parameter re-weighting method. Other determinations of the critical end point were also presented, in particular using a Taylor expansion around {mu} = 0 (Bielefeld group, Ejiri et al.) and using analytic continuation from imaginary chemical potential (Ph. de Forcrand and O. Philipsen). The result based on Taylor expansion agrees within errors with the new prediction of Z. Fodor and S. Katz, while methods based on analytic continuation still predict a higher value for the critical baryon density. Most of the thermodynamics studies in full QCD (including those presented at this workshop) have been performed using quite coarse lattices, a = 0.2-0.3 fm. Therefore one may worry about cutoff effects in different thermodynamic quantities, like the transition temperature T{sub tr}. At the workshop U. Heller presented a study of the transition temperature for three different lattice spacings and performed a continuum extrapolation of T{sub tr} for the first time. Lattice calculations of the meson spectral functions were presented by M. Asakawa, S. Datta, E. Laermann and H. Matsufuru. These show that charmonia ground states ({eta}{sub c} and J/{psi}) continue to exist in the plasma at least up to a temperature of 1.7 T{sub tr}. At what temperature charmonia states cease to exist is not yet clear. Calculations presented by M. Asakawa show dissolution of the J/{psi} at T = 1.7 T{sub tr}, while the analysis presented H. Matsufuru provided evidence that ground state charmonia still exist at this temperature. S. Datta argued that the ground state charmonia is likely to dissolve only for temperatures T > 2.25 T{sub tr}, while the P-states are dissociated at, 1.1 T{sub tr}. It is also very interesting that, even in the case of light quarks, meson spectral functions show a resonance-like structure in the plasma phase (talk by E. Laermann). Finally attempts to calculate transport properties in the Quark Gluon Plasma were presented by S. Gupta. The workshop devoted special attention to the finite temperature modification of inter-quark forces and color screening, another area where considerable progress has been made in recent years (talks by 0. Kaczmarek, K. Petrov, O. Philipsen and F. Zantow). Many other new theoretical developments which cannot be discussed here were also presented on the workshop. Altogether the workshop was a great success, for which we thank all the participants.

BLUM,T.; CREUTZ,M.; PETRECZKY,P.

2004-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

474

Thermodynamics of two-flavor lattice QCD with an improved Wilson quark action at non-zero temperature and density  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the current status of our systematic studies of the QCD thermodynamics by lattice QCD simulations with two flavors of improved Wilson quarks. We evaluate the critical temperature of two flavor QCD in the chiral limit at zero chemical potential and show the preliminary result. Also we discuss fluctuations at none-zero temperature and density by calculating the quark number and isospin susceptibilities and their derivatives with respect to chemical potential.

Y. Maezawa; S. Aoki; S. Ejiri; T. Hatsuda; N. Ishii; K. Kanaya; N. Ukita

2007-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

475

Normal and lateral Casimir forces between deformed plates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Casimir force between macroscopic bodies depends strongly on their shape and orientation. To study this geometry dependence in the case of two deformed metal plates, we use a path-integral quantization of the electromagnetic field which properly treats the many-body nature of the interaction, going beyond the commonly used pairwise summation (PWS) of van der Waals forces. For arbitrary deformations we provide an analytical result for the deformation induced change in the Casimir energy, which is exact to second order in the deformation amplitude. For the specific case of sinusoidally corrugated plates, we calculate both the normal and the lateral Casimir forces. The deformation induced change in the Casimir interaction of a flat and a corrugated plate shows an interesting crossover as a function of the ratio of the mean plate distance H to the corrugation length {lambda}: For {lambda}<>H. The amplitude of the lateral force between two corrugated plates which are out of registry is shown to have a maximum at an optimal wavelength of {lambda}{approx_equal}2.5 H. With increasing H/{lambda} > or approx. 0.3 the PWS approach becomes a progressively worse description of the lateral force due to many-body effects. These results may be of relevance for the design and operation of novel microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and other nanoscale devices.

Emig, Thorsten; Hanke, Andreas; Golestanian, Ramin; Kardar, Mehran [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Strasse 77, D-50937 Cologne (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan 45195-159 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Superfluid Local Density Approximation: A Density Functional Theory Approach to the Nuclear Pairing Problem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I describe the foundation of a Density Functional Theory approach to include pairing correlations, which was applied to a variety of systems ranging from dilute fermions, to neutron stars and finite nuclei. Ground state properties as well as properties of excited states and time-dependent phenomena can be achieved in this manner within a formalism based on microscopic input.

Aurel Bulgac

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

477

Quantum coherent switch utilizing commensurate nanoelectrode and charge density periodicities  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A quantum coherent switch having a substrate formed from a density wave (DW) material capable of having a periodic electron density modulation or spin density modulation, a dielectric layer formed onto a surface of the substrate that is orthogonal to an intrinsic wave vector of the DW material; and structure for applying an external spatially periodic electrostatic potential over the dielectric layer.

Harrison, Neil (Santa Fe, NM); Singleton, John (Los Alamos, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

478

ORIGINAL PAPER BambooFiber Filled High Density Polyethylene Composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORIGINAL PAPER Bamboo­Fiber Filled High Density Polyethylene Composites: Effect of Coupling Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008 Abstract High density polyethylene (HDPE)/bamboo composites in the future study. Keywords Bamboo Á High density polyethylene Á Coupling treatment Á Nanoclay Introduction

479

HIGHLIGHT OF THE MONTH Orbital Functionals in Density Functional Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HIGHLIGHT OF THE MONTH Orbital Functionals in Density Functional Theory: The Optimized E#11;ectiveurzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany The success of density functional theory hinges the development of modern density functional theory. In present-day language, the exact OEP should be called

Gross, E.K.U.

480

Electronic excitations in complex systems: beyond density functional theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electronic excitations in complex systems: beyond density functional theory for real materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3 Time-dependent density functional theory 19 3.1 The Runge-Gross theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4 Model kernels from many-body perturbation theory 29 4.1 Time-dependent density functional theory

Botti, Silvana

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481

A Guided Tour of TimeDependent Density Functional Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Guided Tour of Time­Dependent Density Functional Theory Kieron Burke 1 and E.K.U. Gross 2 1 outlook. 1 Introduction and User's Guide Density functional theory is the study of the one in density functional theory, driven largely by its applications in quantum chemistry[3]. This is due

Gross, E.K.U.

482

Density Functional Theory applied to the solid state...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Density Functional Theory applied to the solid state... An introduction to VASP Jeremie Zaffran 2nd Marom (PhD) #12;Contents I- DFT and its functionals A. On the density functional theory... B #12;I- DFT and its functionals #12;I-DFT and its functionals A- On the density functional theory Why

Adler, Joan

483

Benchmark density functional theory calculations for nanoscale conductance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Benchmark density functional theory calculations for nanoscale conductance M. Strange,a I. S. The transmission functions are calculated using two different density functional theory methods, namely state density functional theory DFT . The resulting NEGF- DFT formalism provides a numerically efficient

Thygesen, Kristian

484

1 Density Functional Theory for Emergents Robert O. Jones  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Density Functional Theory for Emergents Robert O. Jones Peter-Gr¨unberg-Institut PGI-1 and German the widespread use of density functional (DF) theory in materials science and chemistry and the physical insight as basic variable 3 3 An "approximate practical method" 5 4 Density functional formalism 7 4.1 Single

485

THE MANY-ELECTRON ENERGY IN DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE MANY-ELECTRON ENERGY IN DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY From Exchange-Correlation Functional Design to the configuration of its electrons. Computer programs based on density functional theory (DFT) can calculate applicable within the field of computational density functional theory. Sammanfattning Att förutsäga

Armiento, Rickard

486

Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Applications, limitations and ... new frontiers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Applications, limitations and ... new frontiers Francesco Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF) Vienna, 19 January 2007 1/55 Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Francesco Sottile #12;Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory Applications and results: The ETSF Outline 1 Time

Botti, Silvana

487

RELATIVISTIC DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY: FOUNDATIONS AND BASIC FORMALISM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Chapter 10 RELATIVISTIC DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY: FOUNDATIONS AND BASIC FORMALISM E. Engela a An overview of relativistic density functional theory (RDFT) is presented with special emphasis on its field-Cluster schemes in recent years density functional theory (DFT) still represents the method of choice

Engel, Eberhard

488

Inverse diffusion from knowledge of power densities Guillaume Bal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

asymptotic expansions and (Fourier) transformation, this allow us to construct the power density) provides access to the power density H(x) = (x)|u|2 (x) for all x inside the domain of interestInverse diffusion from knowledge of power densities Guillaume Bal , Eric Bonnetier , Fran

Bal, Guillaume

489

Density of the Values Set of the Tau Function  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is shown that the density of the values set {Tau(n): n > x/log x. The currently known density is #{Tau(n) : n > x^(1/2+o(1)), and the expected density is #{Tau(n) : n 2, which arises as a singular case of this analysis, is discussed within.

N. A. Carella

2014-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

490

Prufer Transformations for the Normal Modes in Ocean Acoustics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1926 Prufer introduced a method of transforming the second order Sturm-Liouville (SL) equation into two nonlinear first order differential equations for the phase oe and ''magnitude'', |oe{sup 2}+oe{sup 2}| for a Poincare phase space representation, (oe,oe). The useful property is the phase equation decouples from the magnitude one which leads to a nonlinear, two point boundary value problem for the eigenvalues, or SL numbers. The transformation has been used both theoretically, e.g. Atkinson, [1960] to prove certain properties of SL equations as well as numerically e.g Bailey [1978]. This paper examines the utility of the Prufer transformation in the context of numerical solutions for modes of the ocean acoustic wave equation. (Its use is certainly not well known in the ocean acoustics community.) Equations for the phase, oe, and natural logarithm of the ''magnitude'', ln(|oe{sup 2}+oe{sup 2}|) lead to same decoupling and a fast and efficient numerical solution with the SL eigenvalues mapping to the horizontal wavenubers. The Prufer transformation has stabilty problems for low order modes at high frequecies, so a numerically stable method of integrating the phase equation is derived. This seems to be the first time the these stability issues have been highlighted to provide a robust algorthim for the modes.

Baggeroer, Arthur B. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2010-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

491

Normalization of First-Order Logic Proofs in Isabelle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Types are important in functional programming. First order logic can be viewed as, using the Curry-Howard isomorphism, a very strict type theory. Proven first order logic propositions are theorems. Hereby theorems are types and, by the Curry-Howard isomorphism, a ilinearized proofj of a theorem can be viewed as a program having the theorem as its type. A proof of a first order logic theorem can be created automatically using some strategy for proof search. A generated proof can be huge. Such a generated proof of the theorem can be reduced to be a minimal proof using techniques adopted from the theory of ?-calculus. Using this technique a program can be specied as a rst order logic theorem, and the automatically derived program hereof can be made efficient. Hereby proof search tools implementing the proof reduction can be used to help writing efficient programs. To show how this will be done in an environment that can be used for proof search, the proof reduction is implemented in the Is...

Bo Kjellerup

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Kalman-predictive-proportional-integral-derivative (KPPID)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With third generation synchrotron X-ray sources, it is possible to acquire detailed structural information about the system under study with time resolution orders of magnitude faster than was possible a few years ago. These advances have generated many new challenges for changing and controlling the state of the system on very short time scales, in a uniform and controlled manner. For our particular X-ray experiments on crystallization or order-disorder phase transitions in metallic alloys, we need to change the sample temperature by hundreds of degrees as fast as possible while avoiding over or under shooting. To achieve this, we designed and implemented a computer-controlled temperature tracking system which combines standard Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) feedback, thermal modeling and finite difference thermal calculations (feedforward), and Kalman filtering of the temperature readings in order to reduce the noise. The resulting Kalman-Predictive-Proportional-Integral-Derivative (KPPID) algorithm allows us to obtain accurate control, to minimize the response time and to avoid over/under shooting, even in systems with inherently noisy temperature readings and time delays. The KPPID temperature controller was successfully implemented at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratories and was used to perform coherent and time-resolved X-ray diffraction experiments.

Fluerasu, A.; Sutton, M. (McGill)

2004-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

493

Primer on electricity futures and other derivatives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increased competition in bulk power and retail electricity markets is likely to lower electricity prices, but will also result in greater price volatility as the industry moves away from administratively determined, cost-based rates and encourages market-driven prices. Price volatility introduces new risks for generators, consumers, and marketers. Electricity futures and other derivatives can help each of these market participants manage, or hedge, price risks in a competitive electricity market. Futures contracts are legally binding and negotiable contracts that call for the future delivery of a commodity. In most cases, physical delivery does not take place, and the futures contract is closed by buying or selling a futures contract on or near the delivery date. Other electric rate derivatives include options, price swaps, basis swaps, and forward contracts. This report is intended as a primer for public utility commissioners and their staff on futures and other financial instruments used to manage price risks. The report also explores some of the difficult choices facing regulators as they attempt to develop policies in this area.

Stoft, S.; Belden, T.; Goldman, C.; Pickle, S.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Conformal Higgs model: predicted dark energy density  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Postulated universal Weyl conformal scaling symmetry provides an alternative to the $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm for cosmology. Recent applications to galactic rotation velocities, Hubble expansion, and a model of dark galactic halos explain qualitative phenomena and fit observed data without invoking dark matter. Significant revision of theory relevant to galactic collisions and clusters is implied, but not yet tested. Dark energy is found to be a consequence of conformal symmetry for the Higgs scalar field of electroweak physics. The present paper tests this implication. The conformal Higgs model acquires a gravitational effect described by a modified Friedmann cosmic evolution equation, shown to fit cosmological data going back to the cosmic microwave background epoch. The tachyonic mass parameter of the Higgs model becomes dark energy in the Friedmann equation. A dynamical model of this parameter, analogous to the Higgs mechanism for gauge boson mass, is derived and tested here. An approximate calculation yields a result consistent with the empirical magnitude inferred from Hubble expansion.

R. K. Nesbet

2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

495

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic oxygen densities Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

densities Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: atomic oxygen densities...

496

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic oxygen density Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

density Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: atomic oxygen density...

497

Nanopatterned ferroelectrics for ultrahigh density rad-hard nonvolatile memories.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radiation hard nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM) is a crucial component for DOE and DOD surveillance and defense applications. NVRAMs based upon ferroelectric materials (also known as FERAMs) are proven to work in radiation-rich environments and inherently require less power than many other NVRAM technologies. However, fabrication and integration challenges have led to state-of-the-art FERAMs still being fabricated using a 130nm process while competing phase-change memory (PRAM) has been demonstrated with a 20nm process. Use of block copolymer lithography is a promising approach to patterning at the sub-32nm scale, but is currently limited to self-assembly directly on Si or SiO{sub 2} layers. Successful integration of ferroelectrics with discrete and addressable features of {approx}15-20nm would represent a 100-fold improvement in areal memory density and would enable more highly integrated electronic devices required for systems advances. Towards this end, we have developed a technique that allows us to carry out block copolymer self-assembly directly on a huge variety of different materials and have investigated the fabrication, integration, and characterization of electroceramic materials - primarily focused on solution-derived ferroelectrics - with discrete features of {approx}20nm and below. Significant challenges remain before such techniques will be capable of fabricating fully integrated NVRAM devices, but the tools developed for this effort are already finding broader use. This report introduces the nanopatterned NVRAM device concept as a mechanism for motivating the subsequent studies, but the bulk of the document will focus on the platform and technology development.

Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Stevens, Jeffrey; Scrymgeour, David; Gin, Aaron V.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Ex vivo evaluation of a coherent normalization procedure to quantify in vivo finger strontium XRS measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRS) measurements were performed on human cadaver index fingers to measure bone strontium content in the presence of intact overlying soft-tissue. This work assesses the feasibility of applying a normalization procedure including soft-tissue correction of x-ray absorption as a means to quantify an ex vivo bone strontium XRS measurement. Methods: Bone strontium measurements were made using an excitation-detection system incorporating an {sup 125}I x-ray excitation source and an Ortec registered Ametek-AMT Si(Li) detector in 180 deg. backscatter geometry. Spectral processing was accomplished using an in-house nonlinear least-squares Marquardt fitting routine. Bone strontium was quantified using an egs5 Monte Carlo based x-ray soft-tissue correction algorithm in conjunction with the normalization of strontium x-rays to the coherent scatter peaks of 35.5 keV {sup 125}I {gamma}-rays. Results: Comparison of tissue intact and bare bone finger XRS measurement quantification attempts revealed an overall discrepancy of 18.6% that is attributed primarily to the significant contribution of soft-tissue to coherent scatter of 35.5 keV source {gamma}-rays and to a lesser degree, inconsistencies with the simulated tissue correction model. Work toward the beginnings of an experimentally derived tissue correction model, as a means to validate the simulated model, have been reported. Two observations hinted at a systematic inflation of the observed K{beta} peak area. First, strontium concentrations estimated by K{alpha} peak areas were less than the K{beta} peak areas by 28.6% (p < 0.0001) and 10.5% (p < 0.001) for tissue intact and bare bone measurements, respectively. Second, the K{alpha}:K{beta} x-ray average ratios between tissue corrected (3.61 {+-} 0.55) and bare bone predicted (4.4 {+-} 0.4) did not agree (p < 0.0001) and pointed to shortcomings with the current processing treatment of strontium K x-ray peak area extraction. Through finger bone XRS measurements, bone strontium concentration in the Caucasian population was estimated at 95 {+-} 15 {mu}g Sr/g dry bone. Conclusions: The discrepancies observed: between quantification attempts of tissue corrected and bare bone measurements, the inflated estimates of K{beta} relative to K{alpha} peak concentrations and between observed and expected K{alpha}:K{beta} ratios, have indicated that shortcomings with the bone strontium coherent normalization and tissue correction procedure exist. Coherent scatter contribution of soft-tissue overlying bone, tissue correction model limitations, and spectra processing issues are all mentioned as sources of observed discrepancies.

Heirwegh, C. M.; Chettle, D. R.; Pejovic-Milic, A. [Department of Medical Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1 (Canada); Department of Physics, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3, Canada and Department of Medical Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1 (Canada)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

499

Gluon condensation and deconfinement critical density in nuclear matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An upper limit to the critical density for the transition to the deconfined phase, at zero temperature, has been evaluated by analyzing the behavior of the gluon condensate in nuclear matter. Due to the non linear baryon density effects, the upper limit to the critical density, \\rho_c turns out about nine times the saturation density, rho_0 for the value of the gluon condensate in vacuum =0.012 GeV^4. For neutron matter \\rho_c \\simeq 8.5 \\rho_0. The dependence of the critical density on the value of the gluon condensate in vacuum is studied.

M. Baldo; P. Castorina; D. Zappala'

2004-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

500

Scrap tire derived fuel: Markets and issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More than 250 million scrap tires are generated annually in the United States and their proper management continues to be a solid waste management concern. Sound markets for scrap tires are growing and are consuming an ever increasing percentage of annual generation, with market capacity reaching more than 75% of annual generation in 1996. Of the three major markets - fuel, civil engineering applications, and ground rubber markets - the use of tires as a fuel is by far the largest market. The major fuel users include cement kilns, pulp and paper mills, electrical generation facilities, and some industrial facilities. Current issues that may impact the tire fuel market include continued public concern over the use of tires as fuels, the new EPA PM 2.5 standard, possible additional Clean Air emissions standards, access to adequate supplies of scrap tires, quality of processed tire derived fuel, and the possibility of creating a commodity market through the development of ASTM TDF standards.

Serumgard, J. [Scrap Tire Management Council, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z