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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal butane isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Ignition properties of n-butane and iso-butane in a rapid compression machine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Autoignition delay times of n-butane and iso-butane have been measured in a Rapid Compression Machine in the temperature range 660-1010 K, at pressures varying from 14 to 36 bar and at equivalence ratios {phi} = 1.0 and {phi} = 0.5. Both butane isomers exhibit a negative-temperature-coefficient (NTC) region and, at low temperatures, two-stage ignition. At temperatures below {proportional_to}900 K, the delay times for iso-butane are longer than those for the normal isomer, while above this temperature both butanes give essentially the same results. At temperatures above {proportional_to}720 K the delay times of the lean mixtures are twice those for stoichiometric compositions; at T butane using a comprehensive model for butane ignition, including both delay times in the two-stage region, with substantial differences being observed for iso-butane, particularly in the NTC region. (author)

Gersen, S.; Darmeveil, J.H. [Gasunie Engineering and Technology, P.O. Box 19, 9700 MA Groningen (Netherlands); Mokhov, A.V. [Laboratory for Fuel and Combustion Science, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Levinsky, H.B. [Gasunie Engineering and Technology, P.O. Box 19, 9700 MA Groningen (Netherlands); Laboratory for Fuel and Combustion Science, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

2

Momentum Profile and Final Correlation Effects of Iso-butane Inner Valence by Binary (e, 2e) Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Momentum Profile and Final Correlation Effects of Iso-butane Inner Valence by Binary (e, 2e Momentum Profile and Final Correlation Effects of Iso-butane Inner Valence by Binary (e, 2e) Spectroscopy) The binding energy spectra and the momentum distributions of the valence orbitals of iso-butane, also known

Wang, Yayu

3

Dynamics of Exchange at Gas-Zeolite Interfaces 1: Pure Component n-Butane and Isobutane  

SciTech Connect

The authors present the results of molecular dynamics simulations of n-butane and isobutane in silicalite. They begin with a comparison of the bulk adsorption and diffusion properties for two different parameterizations of the interaction potential between the hydrocarbon species, both of which have been shown to reproduce experimental gas-liquid coexistence curves. They examine diffusion as a function of the loading of the zeolite, as well as the temperature dependence of the diffusion constant at loading and for infinite dilution. They continue with simulations in which interfaces are formed between single component gases and the zeolite. After reaching equilibrium, they examine the dynamics of exchange between the bulk gas and the zeolite. Finally, they calculate the permeability of the zeolite for n-butane and isobutane as a function of pressure. Their simulations are performed for a number of different gas temperatures and pressures, covering a wide range of state points.

CHANDROSS,MICHAEL E.; WEBB III,EDMUND B.; GREST,GARY S.; MARTIN,MARCUS G.; THOMPSON,AIDAN P.; ROTH,M.W.

2000-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

4

Thermodynamics of Liquid Mixtures of Xenon with Alkanes: (Xenon + n-Butane) and (Xenon + Isobutane)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The total vapor pressure of liquid mixtures of (xenon + n-butane) has been measured at 182.34 and 195.49 K, and of (xenon + isobutane) at 195.49 K. The liquid molar volumes have also been measured at 182.34 K for both systems. The mixtures follow the behavior already found for other (xenon + alkane) mixtures, i.e., E negative deviations from Raoult’s law, negative excess molar Gibbs energies (Gm) and negative excess molar

Eduardo J. M. Filipe; Luís F. G. Martins; Jorge C. G. Calado; Clare Mccabe; George Jackson

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Support shape effect in metal oxide catalysis: ceria nanoshapes supported vanadia catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of iso-butane  

SciTech Connect

The activation energy of VOx/CeO2 catalysts in oxidative dehydrogenation of iso-butane was found dependent on the shape of ceria support: rods < octahedra, closely related to the surface oxygen vacancy formation energy and defects amount of the two ceria supports with different crystallographic surface planes.

Wu, Zili [ORNL; Schwartz, Viviane [ORNL; Li, Meijun [ORNL; Rondinone, Adam Justin [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

West Coast (PADD 5) Exports of Normal Butane-Butylene ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Normal Butane/Butylene Exports; Normal Butane/Butylene Supply and Disposition; West Coast (PADD 5) Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products ...

7

Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Product Supplied of Normal Butane ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Normal Butane/Butylene Supply and Disposition; Product Supplied for Normal Butane/Butylene ; Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Product Supplied for Crude Oil ...

8

Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Exports of Normal Butane-Butylene ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Normal Butane/Butylene Supply and Disposition; Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products ...

9

East Coast (PADD 1) Normal Butane-Butylene Stock Change ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

East Coast (PADD 1) Normal Butane-Butylene Stock Change (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 4-3: 1: ...

10

East Coast (PADD 1) Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

East Coast (PADD 1) Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; ...

11

Midwest (PADD 2) Exports of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Midwest (PADD 2) Exports of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 0: 0: 0: 0: ...

12

Midwest (PADD 2) Normal Butane-Butylene Stock Change (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Midwest (PADD 2) Normal Butane-Butylene Stock Change (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981-4-34-7: 14: ...

13

West Coast (PADD 5) Imports of Normal Butane-Butylene ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

West Coast (PADD 5) Imports of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 9: 18: ...

14

Efficient Energy Usage in Butane Splitters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A World surplus of mixed butanes coupled with an increased need for gasoline extenders has raised the demand for isobutane. Isobutane is readily separated from an admixture with normal butane by conventional distillation techniques. However, application of the heat pump principle to this separation can reduce energy consumption by over 50%, though capital costs increase. The conventional fractionation scheme is compared to two different methods of applying the heat pump principle; overhead compression and bottoms flash compression. For both heat pump designs, payout time is less than one year for a Middle East location, based upon a detailed study of an actual case.

Barnwell, J.; Morris, C. P.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

West Coast (PADD 5) Product Supplied of Normal Butane-Butylene ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

West Coast (PADD 5) Product Supplied of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; ...

16

East Coast (PADD 1) Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane-Butylene ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

East Coast (PADD 1) Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 ...

17

U.S. Refinery and Blender Net Production of Normal Butane ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery and Blender Net Production of Normal Butane (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1993-884: 268: 4,851: 6,387: 6,489 ...

18

U.S. Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 7,016: 5,987: ...

19

U.S. Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; ...

20

U.S. Normal Butane-Butylene Stocks at Natural Gas Processing ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Normal Butane-Butylene Stocks at Natural Gas Processing Plants (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1993: ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal butane isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

U.S. Refinery Normal Butane/Butylene Shell Storage Capacity as ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Normal Butane/Butylene Shell Storage Capacity as of January 1 (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 ...

22

U.S. Ending Stocks of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Ending Stocks of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 26,098: 24,979: 24,689: ...

23

U.S. Normal Butane-Butylene Stocks in Pipelines (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Normal Butane-Butylene Stocks in Pipelines (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1993: 1,901: 1,455: 1,356: 1,810: 2,062 ...

24

U.S. Refinery Net Production of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Net Production of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 2005-4,241-2,244: 2,431: 7,319: 7,538 ...

25

Experimental and DFT studies of initiation processes for butane isomerization over sulfated-zirconia catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Reaction kinetics studies were conducted of isobutane and n-butane isomerization at 423 K over sulfated-zirconia, with the butane feeds purified of olefins. Dihydrogen evolution was observed during butane isomerization over fresh catalysts, as well as over catalysts selectively poisoned by preadsorbed ammonia. Butane isomerization over sulfated-zirconia can be viewed as a surface chain reaction comprised of initiation, propagation, and termination steps. The primary initiation step in the absence of feed olefins is considered to be the dehydrogenation of butane over sulfated-zirconia, generating butenes which adsorb onto acid sites to form protonated olefinic species associated with the conjugate base form of the acid sites. Quantum-chemical calculations, employing density-functional theory, suggest that the dissociative adsorption of dihydrogen, isobutylene hydrogenation, and dissociative adsorption of isobutane are feasible over the sulfated-zirconia cluster, and these reactions take place over Zr-O sites.

Hong, Z.; Watwe, R.M.; Natal-Santiago, M.A.; Hill, J.M.; Dumesic, J.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Fogash, K.B. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)] [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Kim, B. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Masqueda-Jimenez, B.I. [Univ. Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico). Centro de Investigacion y Estudios de Posgrado] [Univ. Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico). Centro de Investigacion y Estudios de Posgrado

1998-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

26

Kinetics and deactivation of sulfated zirconia catalysts for butane isomerization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reaction kinetics studies were conducted of n-butane and isobutane isomerization over sulfated zirconia at 423 K. The kinetic data can be described well by a rate expression based on a reversible, bimolecular surface reaction between two adsorbed n-C{sub 4} species, probably through a C{sub 8} intermediate, to produce one i-C{sub 4} species, as well as surface reaction between two adsorbed i-C{sub 4} species to produce one n-C{sub 4} species. This reaction sequence also describes well the rates of C{sub 4}-disproportionation reactions to produce C{sub 3} and C{sub 5} species. The initial rate of catalyst deactivation is faster during n-butane isomerization than during isobutane isomerization, and the longer-term rate of deactivation during n-butane isomerization increases with the pressures of n-butane. The more rapid catalyst deactivation during n-butane isomerization may be related to the formation of n-C{sub 4}-diene species. 25 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

Fogash, K.B.; Larson, R.B.; Gonzalez, M.R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); and others

1996-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

Isobutane ignition delay time measurements at high pressure and detailed chemical kinetic simulations  

SciTech Connect

Rapid compression machine and shock-tube ignition experiments were performed for real fuel/air isobutane mixtures at equivalence ratios of 0.3, 0.5, 1, and 2. The wide range of experimental conditions included temperatures from 590 to 1567 K at pressures of approximately 1, 10, 20, and 30 atm. These data represent the most comprehensive set of experiments currently available for isobutane oxidation and further accentuate the complementary attributes of the two techniques toward high-pressure oxidation experiments over a wide range of temperatures. The experimental results were used to validate a detailed chemical kinetic model composed of 1328 reactions involving 230 species. This mechanism has been successfully used to simulate previously published ignition delay times as well. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed to gain further insight to the chemical processes occurring at various conditions. Additionally, useful ignition delay time correlations were developed for temperatures greater than 1025 K. Comparisons are also made with available isobutane data from the literature, as well as with 100% n-butane and 50-50% n-butane-isobutane mixtures in air that were presented by the authors in recent studies. In general, the kinetic model shows excellent agreement with the data over the wide range of conditions of the present study. (author)

Healy, D.; Curran, H.J. [Combustion Chemistry Centre, School of Chemistry, NUI Galway (Ireland); Donato, N.S.; Aul, C.J.; Petersen, E.L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Zinner, C.M. [Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Bourque, G. [Rolls-Royce Canada Limited, 9500 Cote de Liesse, Lachine, Quebec (Canada)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

28

An experimental study of isobutane oxidation at transition temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The oxidation of isobutane at temperatures in the range 563-693 K has been studied experimentally using a static reactor. Gas chromatographic analysis was used to measure stable species concentrations. The experimental results were used to postulate the main reaction paths of the mechanism at these temperatures. A region of negative temperature coefficient (NTC) was observed between 650 and 680 K. Changes in the product yields and product distribution indicated a transition in the mechanism across the NTC region, from low to intermediate temperatures. Analysis of the experimental results and comparison with results for other fuels, such as n-butane, propane and propene, indicated that the NTC and mechanism transition were strongly dependent on the shift in the equilibrium of CH/sub 3/ + O/sub 2/ <==> CH/sub 3/O/sub 2/. The results are also discussed in relation in relation to recent engine results.

Wilk, R.D.; Cernansky, N.P.; Miller, D.L.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Normal Butane/Butylene Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil exports are ...

30

Firing Excess Refinery Butane in Peaking Gas Turbines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New environmentally-driven regulations for motor gasoline volatility will significantly alter refinery light ends supply/demand balancing. This, in turn, will impact refinery economics. This paper presumes that one outcome will be excess refinery normal butane production, which will reduce refinery normal butane value and price. Explored is an opportunity for a new use for excess refinery normal butane- as a fuel for utility peaking gas turbines which currently fire kerosene and #2 oil. Our paper identifies the fundamental driving forces which are changing refinery butane economics, examines how these forces influence refinery production, and evaluates the potential for using normal butanes as peaking utility gas turbine fuel, especially on the US East Coast.

Pavone, A.; Schreiber, H.; Zwillenberg, M.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

NGL Overview  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2 EIA's Proposed NGL Realignment: Overview June 4, 2013 Butanes include normal butane and isobutane. 3 Changes proposed by EIA to realign NGL data and related terminology...

32

Improving the stability of H-mordenite for n-butane isomerization  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of n-butane over mordenite-based catalysts in the presence of hydrogen and water was investigated for reaction temperatures between 523 and 623 K. Special attention was given to the influence of Pt upon catalytic activity, selectivity, and stability. With parent mordenite the catalytic activity for n-butane conversion decreased markedly after a short time on stream. Deactivation can be minimized by hydrogen (in the presence of Pt) and water addition. Both measures are thought to reduce the concentration of intermediate olefins in the zeolite pores. The best results with respect to selective conversion of n-butane to isobutane were obtained for 0.25 wt% Pt on mordenite in the presence of hydrogen. Higher concentrations of Pt in the catalyst are shown to be detrimental for n-butane isomerization, because of increasing selectivity to hydrogenolysis. A detailed mechanistic scheme for n-butane conversion over Pt-containing mordenites is presented. n-Butane conversion is concluded to occur via a bimolecular mechanism involving a complex network of hydrogen transfer, oligomerization/cracking, isomerization, hydrogenation/dehydrogenation, and hydrogenolysis. 23 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

Asuquo, R.A.; Eder-Mirth, G.; Lercher, J.A. [Catalysis Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)] [and others] [Catalysis Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); and others

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Thermodynamic representations of ammonia and isobutane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Tables of the thermodynamic properties of ammonia and isobutane are presented for the superheated vapor and the saturated liquid and vapor states. The properties were calculated using appropriate analytical pressure-volume-temperature (P-V-T) representations for the fluids in the regions described. The tables cover the approximate range of values of reduced temperatures up to 1.5 and reduced pressure up to 5.

Milora, S. L.; Combs, S. K.

1977-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Refinery Net Production of Normal Butane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

35

Natural Gas Plant Stocks of Normal Butane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

36

Refinery & Blender Net Production of Normal Butane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

37

Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Normal Butane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether, RBOB ...

38

Refinery Stocks of Normal Butane/Butylene  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: "Other Oxygenates ...

39

Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Normal Butane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

40

Normal Butane/Butylene - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Working storage ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal butane isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Refinery Net Input of Normal Butane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and ...

42

Emissions with butane/propane blends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article reports on various aspects of exhaust emissions from a light-duty car converted to operate on liquefied petroleum gas and equipped with an electrically heated catalyst. Butane and butane/propane blends have recently received attention as potentially useful alternative fuels. Butane has a road octane number of 92, a high blending vapor pressure, and has been used to upgrade octane levels of gasoline blends and improve winter cold starts. Due to reformulated gasoline requirements for fuel vapor pressure, however, industry has had to remove increasing amounts of butane form the gasoline pool. Paradoxically, butane is one of the cleanest burning components of gasoline.

NONE

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

U.S. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Propane/Propylene: 308: 269: 271: 294: 335: 408: 1973-2013: Normal Butane/Butylene: 30: 33: 48: 44: 30: 20: 1981-2013: Isobutane/Isobutylene : ...

44

Low temperature n-butane oxidation skeletal mechanism, based on multilevel approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to reconcile an increasingly large deviation (order of magnitude) of the ignition delay time at decreasing initial temperature, computed using the prior art kinetic schemes, with the available experimental values, a new skeletal mechanism (54 species, 94 reactions) for low-temperature (500-800 K) ignition of n- butane in air based on ab initio calculations is developed. The skeletal mechanism obtained accurately reproduces n-butane combustion kinetics for the practically important ranges of pressure, temperature and fuel-air equivalence ratio, especially in the low-temperature range. The elaborated first principal skeletal chemical kinetic mechanism of n-butane oxidation was validated against available experimental results for normal and elevated initial pressure (1-15 atm) using the Chemical Work Bench code. A good agreement with experiments was shown. (author)

Strelkova, M.I.; Sukhanov, L.P.; Kirillov, I.A. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Sq.1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Safonov, A.A. [Kintech Lab., Kurchatov Sq.1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Photochemistry Center, Novatorov Str. 7a, 119421 Moscow (Russian Federation); Umanskiy, S.Ya. [Kintech Lab., Kurchatov Sq.1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); N.N.Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Kosygin Str. 4, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Potapkin, B.V. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Sq.1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kintech Lab., Kurchatov Sq.1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pasman, H.J. [Delft University of Technology, Postbus 5, 2600 AA Delft (Netherlands); Tentner, A.M. [Argonne National Laboratories, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

45

CATALYSIS BY PLATINUM SINGLE CRYSTAL SURFACES: LOW PRESSURE HYDROCARBON REACTIONS AND THE EFFECTS OF INTRODUCING STRONGLY BOUND OXYGEN AT THE SURFACE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of neo-pentane and iso-butane in the presence of excessof neo-pentane to iso-butane was found to be a demandingof neo-pentane and iso-butane in the presence of excess

Smith, Carol Ellen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Refinery Grade Butane Stocks at Bulk ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Refinery Grade Butane Stocks at Bulk Terminals (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 2005: 935: ...

47

Normal Butane/Butylene Refinery Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil stocks in the ...

48

Refinery & Blender Net Production of Normal Butane/Butylene  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

East Coast: 382: 612: 603: 584: 549-349: 1993-2013: Appalachian No. 1: 67: 42: 68: 37: 39: 16: 1995 ... La. Gulf Coast: 919: 1,323: 917: 984: 882: ...

49

Normal Butane/Butylene Total Stocks Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil stocks in the ...

50

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Normal Butane-Butylene Stock Change ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981-58-3-1: 78: 50: 25: 31: 35: 70-11-92-132: 1982-70-64-93-26: 36: 46: 37: 39: 20-43-76-102: ...

51

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 150: 143: 147: 153: 152: 154: 161: 157: 170: 184: 166: 139: 1982: 150: 148: 150: 150: 167: ...

52

Refinery Net Production of Normal Butane/Butylene  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

53

EFFECT OF FUEL TYPE ON FLAME IGNITION BY TRANSIENT PLASMA Jianbang Liu1,2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Rise and delay times of mixtures of methane, propane, n-butane, iso-butane and iso- octane mixed performance of various fuels including methane, propane, iso-butane, n-butane and iso-octane mixed with air

54

Pergamon Atmospheric Environment Vol. 31, No. 23, pp. 4017 4038, 1997 X-1997 Elsevier Science Ltd  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, propane, n-butane, iso-butane, ethene and acetylene) display a seasonal variation of a winter maximum

Aneja, Viney P.

55

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inputs kbbl Crude Oil Butane Isobutane Other Hydrocarbons,674,276 kbbl. Data on butane, isobutene, other hydrocarbons

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

7, 1164711683, 2007 VOC ratios as probes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chemistry, and [isobutane]/[n-butane] and [methyl ethyl ketone]/[n-5 butane] are used to study the extent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

57

Coupling of oxidative dehydrogenation and aromatization reactions of butane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coupling of oxidative dehydrogenation and aromatization of butane by using a dual function catalyst has led to a significant enhancement of the yields (from 25 to 40%) and selectivities to aromatics (from 39 to 64%). Butane is converted to aromatics by using either zinc-promoted [Ga]-ZSM-5 or zinc and gallium copromoted [Fe]-ZSM-5 zeolite as a catalyst. However, the formation of aromatics is severely limited by hydrocracking of butane to methane, ethane, and propane due to the hydrogen formed during aromatization reactions. On the other hand, the oxidative dehydrogenation of butane to butene over molybdate catalysts is found to be accompanied by a concurrent undesirable reaction, i.e., total oxidation. When two of these reactions (oxidative dehydrogenation and aromatization of butane) are coupled by using a dual function catalyst they have shown to complement each other. It is believed that the rate-limiting step for aromatization (butane to butene) is increased by adding an oxidative dehydrogenation catalyst (Ga-Zn-Mg-Mo-O). The formation of methane, ethane, and propane was suppressed due to the removal of hydrogen initially formed as water. Studies of ammonia TPD show that the acidities of [Fe]-ZSM-5 are greatly affected by the existence of metal oxides such as Ga[sub 2]O[sub 3], MgO, ZnO, and MoO[sub 3]. 40 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Xu, Wen-Qing; Suib, S.L. (Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

ADSORPTION AND BONDING OF BUTANE AND PENTANE ON THE Pt(111) CRYSTAL SURFACES. EFFECTS OF OXYGEN TREATMENTS AND DEUTERIUM PREADSORPTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ADSORPTION AND BONDING OF BUTANE AND PENTANE ON THE .Pt(111)ADSORPTION AND BONDING OF BUTANE AND PENTANE ON THE Pt(lll)adsorption characteristics of butane and pentane on the (

Salmeron, M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Experimental enthalpies for a mixture of 80 mole percent isobutane in isopentane. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Seven enthalpy isobars were measured for a nominal mixture of 80% isobutane/20% isopentane. These data were used to construct a phase envelope for use in the design of a turbine expander and the heat exchangers for a geothermal power plant. The dew point values for the phase envelope are difficult to establish for a mixture, particularly in the region near the critical.

Koppany, C.R.; Lenoir, J.M.

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Thermochemistry of radicals formed by hydrogen abstraction from 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and butanal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and butanal Ewa Papajak, Prasenjit Seal, Xuefei Xu, and Donald G. Truhlar Citation: J. Chem. Phys. 137, 104314 abstraction from 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and butanal Ewa Papajak, Prasenjit Seal, Xuefei Xu- propanol, and butanal. Electronic structure calculations for all conformers of the radicals were car- ried

Truhlar, Donald G

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal butane isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Transition events in butane simulations: Similarities across models Daniel M. Zuckermana)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transition events in butane simulations: Similarities across models Daniel M. Zuckermana of long simulations of all-atom butane using both stochastic and fully solved molecular dynamics, we have behavior in molecular simulations has long been a topic of interest, and butane has been an important test

Zuckerman, Daniel M.

62

934 / JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING / OCTOBER 2000 CHLORINATED SOLVENT COMETABOLISM BY BUTANE-GROWN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BY BUTANE-GROWN MIXED CULTURE By Young Kim,1 Daniel J. Arp,2 and Lewis Semprini3 ABSTRACT: A survey of aerobic cometabolism of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by a butane-grown mixed culture was performed and was inhibited by butane and inactivated by acetylene, indicating that a monooxygenase enzyme was likely involved

Semprini, Lewis

63

Surface Adsorption Isotherms and Surface Excess Densities of n-Butane in Silicalite-1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Surface Adsorption Isotherms and Surface Excess Densities of n-Butane in Silicalite-1 Isabella 27, 2008. ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed NoVember 13, 2008 We present isotherms for the adsorption of n-butane have thus studied, as a representative example, the adsorption properties of one hy- drocarbon, n-butane

Kjelstrup, Signe

64

==================== !"#$%&'()*+,-+./,0)12 Development of Micro Ejector for Butane Catalytic Combustor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

==================== !"#$%&'()*+,-+./,0)12 Development of Micro Ejector for Butane Catalytic Combustor ===== ==== !" = !" = = !" A micro ejector for butane catalytic combustor is investigated. Quasi-1 ejector that the volume flow rate of entrained air can reach 43 times the value of butane when the back

Kasagi, Nobuhide

65

Raman and IR spectra of butane: Anharmonic calculations and interpretation of room temperature spectra  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Raman and IR spectra of butane: Anharmonic calculations and interpretation of room temperature-principles anharmonic calculations are carried out for the IR and Raman spectra of the CAH stretch- ing bands in butane.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction n-Butane is of great importance in several disciplines

Potma, Eric Olaf

66

HYDROCARBON FORMATION ON POLYMER-SUPPORTED COBALT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

·omatography, mass , propane, butane , wa:ter, and CO co dueethane ( 1. 7 flillOl) , n~butane (0.17 flmol), isobutane (not possess Isobutane/n~butane activity, this activity The

Benner, Linda S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Cometabolic transformation of cis-1,2-dichloroethylene and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene epoxide by a butane-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by a butane- grown mixed culture Y. Kim* and L. Semprini** *Department of Environmental Engineering, Korea cometabolism of cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (c-DCE) by a butane-grown mixed culture was evaluated in batch kinetic by butane and was inactivated by acetylene (a known monooxygenase inactivator), indicating that a butane

Semprini, Lewis

68

Synthesis of Isobutene and Isobutane from Synthesis Gas. A Literature Review Since 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The isosynthesis reaction is commonly referred as the reaction that converts selectively synthesis gas to isobutene and isobutane. The main feature of this reaction is the production of branched hydrocarbons in higher proportion with respect to linear hydrocarbons than expected from thermodynamic equilibrium and with a molecular weight distribution favoring iso-C4 hydrocarbons. This article reviews and summarizes isosynthesis research results reported in the open scientific literature with emphasis on the articles published in the last two decades.

Petkovic, Lucia M.; Ginosar, Daniel M.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Conceptual design of a 10MW regenerative isobutane geothermal power plant. Technical report No. 18  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At present, there are basically three different systems for converting energy in geothermal fluid into power: vapor-flashing system, total flow system, and binary system. A comparison of the power production processes was made on the basis of work output in Kwh per 1000 pounds of geothermal fluid for self flowing wells with wellhead pressure of 100 psia and for wells with downhole pumps. For simplicity, the assumptions were made that the enthalpy of the geothermal fluid in the reservoir is approximately equal to that at the wellhead, that the thermodynamic properties of geothermal fluid may be approximated by those of water, and that the pressure effects on the properties of fluid are negligible. The results showed that the performance of the two-stage vapor-flashing system is not appreciably improved by using a downhole pump. The total flow system is simple, but its success depends mainly on the development of a reliable machine with sufficiently high thermal efficiency. The regenerative isobutane system is impractical, if the geothermal fluid temperature is below 380/sup 0/F. But, when the brine temperatures range from 485 to 600/sup 0/F, the regenerative isobutane system with downhole pump exhibits superior performance as compared to two-stage vapor-flashing system, basic isobutane system, or total flow system.

Gupta, A.K.; Chou, J.C.S.

1976-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

Transient FTIR studies of the reaction pathway for n-butane selective oxidation over vanadyl pyrophosphate  

SciTech Connect

New information has been provided about the reaction pathway for n-butane partial oxidation to maleic anhydride over vanadyl pyrophosphate (VPO) catalysts using FTIR spectroscopy under transient conditions. Adsorption studies of n-butane, 1,3-butadiene, and related oxygenates were performed to gain information about reaction intermediates. n-Butane was found to adsorb on the VPO catalyst to form olefinic species at low temperatures. Unsaturated, noncyclic carbonyl species were determined to be precursors to maleic anhydride.

Xue, Z.Y.; Schrader, G.L. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)] [Ames Lab., IA (United States); [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

71

Investigating the basis of substrate specificity in butane monooxygenase and chlorinated ethene toxicity in Pseudomonas butanovora.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Pseudomonas butanovora, Mycobacterium vaccae, and Nocardioides sp. CF8 utilize distinctly different butane monooxygenases (BMOs) to initiate degradation of recalcitrant chlorinated ethenes (CEs) that pollute aquifers… (more)

[No author

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Dc slice imaging, crossed beam reaction of chlorine radical with butane.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? We present an investigation of the reaction dynamics of Cl radicals with Butane using crossed molecular beams, at two collision energies: ~ 6.5 and… (more)

Abdul ghani, Tarek Oussama

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Catalytic dehydrogenation of propane and isobutane in hydrogen permselective membrane reactors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The dehydrogenation of propane and isobutane was studied in hydrogen permselective packed bed membrane reactors and conventional packed bed reactors. Two different types of developmental membranes were investigated: sol-gel derived silica-based membranes and a pure palladium thin film supported by a porous ceramic substrate. The palladium membranes deactivated and eventually failed when exposed to both isobutane and propane dehydrogenation temperatures above 773 K. Moderate improvements in propylene and isobutylene yields were obtained with the silica-based membrane reactors. An isobutylene yield of 48 mole percent was obtained at a liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) of 1.8 and temperature of 798 K compared to a yield of 39 percent in a conventional reactor operated with the same flow rate. Similar improvements in propylene yield were obtained when the silica-based membranes were tested in propane dehydrogenation experiments. There was no significant difference in the reaction selectivities for the desired olefin products when the membrane and conventional reactors were operated with the scone LHSV However, for a constant value of the olefin yield, the membrane reactors had a higher reaction selectivity since the desired yield was achieved at a higher LHSV where there was less time for side products to form. Catalyst deactivation rates were generally greater in the membrane reactors, especially when the reactors were operated with high hydrogen removal rates at temperatures of 773 K and above.

Collins, J.P.; Schwartz, R.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sehgal, R.; Ward, T.L. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

198 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1994,116, 198-203 Hydrodesulfurization of Thiophene to Butadiene and Butane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

198 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1994,116, 198-203 Hydrodesulfurization of Thiophene to Butadiene and Butane. Reaction of the butadiene complex with H2 produces butane. Introduction

Jones, William D.

75

Thermodynamic properties of isobutane-isopentane mixtures from -40 to +600/sup 0/F and up to 1000 psia  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Helmholtz function for pure isobutane from a recent correlation has been converted to a dimensionless form and a pressure-enthalpy chart based on this function has been generated by computer. A Helmholtz function for mixtures of isobutane and isopentane has been formed based upon the dimensionless isobutane Helmholtz function as the reference fluid by means of an extended corresponding-states principle. Scarce literature data for saturation properties of isopentane, and new data for its vapor pressure and for the critical line of the mixture were used. The accuracy of the surface was checked by comparing with literature enthalpy data and with new VLE data for the mixture. Tables of thermodynamic properties have been generated from this Helmholtz function for the 0.1 mole fraction isopentane-in-isobutane mixture in the single-phase region and on the dew- and bubble-point curves, together with properties of the coexisting phase. A pressure-enthalpy chart for this mixture has also been generated.

Gallagher, J.S.; Levelt Sengers, J.M.H.; Morrison, G.; Sengers, J.V.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Serious pitting hazard in the raft river 5MW(e) Geothermal Power Plant isobutane cooling loop  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The 5MW(e) Dual Boiling Cycle Geothermal Power Plant, hence referred to as the Raft River plant, is being developed for DOE by EG and G, Inc., Idaho Falls, Idaho. This pilot power plant is of the binary concept and utilizes isobutane as the working second fluid. The plant will demonstrate the feasibility of power generation from an intermediate temperature ({approx} 290 F) resource. The plant is schematically diagrammed in Figure 1. During the final design phase and after the major components were specified to be made of carbon steel, and ordered, various conditions forced the power plant design to switch from surface water to geothermal fluid for the condenser cooling loop make-up water. Because the geothermal fluid contains significant concentrations of chlorides and sulfates, about 1000 ppm and 65 ppm respectively, aeration in the cooling tower causes this water to become extremely aggressive, especially in the pitting of carbon steel components. Although essentially all of the condenser cooling loop materials are carbon steel, the isobutane condenser and turbine lube oil cooler are the most vulnerable. These components are tubed with carbon steel tubes of 0.085 and 0.075 inch wall thickness. These two components are extremely leak critical heat exchangers. For example, even a single pit perforation in the isobutane condenser can cause plant shutdown through loss of isobutane. Such a leak also poses an explosion or fire hazard. As isobutane pressure falls, the incursion of cooling water into the isobutane loop could occur, causing damage to anhydrous service seals. Under a DOE contract for geothermal failure analysis, Radian Corporation has made a preliminary investigation of the pitting hazard presented by the aggressive cooling fluid and the corrosion inhibition treatment that has thus far been proposed. This report documents Radian's understanding of the present situation and the results of its investigation on possible mitigation of this hazard. Finally, various conclusions and recommendations are made that may, if pursued, lead to a satisfactory solution that will avert a certain early prolonged plant shutdown due to failure of the thin walled isobutane and turbine lube oil cooler tubes.

Ellis, Peter F.

1980-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

77

Transition Events in Butane Simulations: Similarities Across Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

From a variety of long simulations of all-atom butane using both stochastic and fully-solved molecular dynamics, we have uncovered striking generic behavior which also occurs in one-dimensional systems. We find an apparently universal distribution of transition event durations, as well as a characteristic speed profile along the reaction coordinate. An approximate analytic distribution of event durations, derived from a one-dimensional model, correctly predicts the asymptotic behavior of the universal distribution for both short and long durations. 1 1

Daniel M. Zuckerman; Thomas B. Woolf

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Transition Events in Butane Simulations Similarities Across Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

From a variety of long simulations of all-atom butane using both stochastic and fully-solved molecular dynamics, we have uncovered striking generic behavior which also occurs in one-dimensional systems. We find an apparently universal distribution of transition event durations, as well as a characteristic speed profile along the reaction coordinate. An approximate analytic distribution of event durations, derived from a one-dimensional model, correctly predicts the asymptotic behavior of the universal distribution for both short and long durations.

Zuckerman, D M; Zuckerman, Daniel M.; Woolf, Thomas B.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

J. Am. Chem. SOC.1988, 110, 8305-8319 8305 Hydrogenolysis of Ethane, Propane, n-Butane, and Neopentane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J. Am. Chem. SOC.1988, 110, 8305-8319 8305 Hydrogenolysis of Ethane, Propane, n-Butane, Pasadena, California 91125. Received February I, 1988 Abstract: The hydrogenolysisof ethane, propane, n-butane in "demethylization"of the parent hydrocarbon. For n-butane, the major reaction channels on the two surfaces are n-C4

Goodman, Wayne

80

Bioaugmentation of butane-utilizing microorganisms to promote cometabolism of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in groundwater microcosms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bioaugmentation of butane-utilizing microorganisms to promote cometabolism of 1,1,1-trichloroethane. The initial inoculum for bioaugmentation was a butane-utilizing enrichment from the subsurface of the Hanford DOE site. The non-augmented microcosm required 80 days of incubation before butane

Semprini, Lewis

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal butane isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Faraday Discuss. Chem. SOC.,1989, 87, 337-344 Butane Hydrogenolysis over Single-crystal Rhodium Catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Faraday Discuss. Chem. SOC.,1989, 87, 337-344 Butane Hydrogenolysis over Single-crystal Rhodium&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, U.S.A. Hydrogenolysis of n-butane has been studied over the (110 of surface composition and geometry.' For example, in our laboratories, the activity for ethane' and butane

Goodman, Wayne

82

Table 1. Halocarbons Dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Table 2. Hydrocarbons Ethane n-Heptane Propane Benzene Propene n-Octane n-Butane iso-Octane iso-Butane Toluene iso-Butene Nonane n ...

2012-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

83

Hydrogeology, chemical and microbial activity measurement through deep permafrost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ethene % Ethane % Propene % Propane % Butene % iso-Butane %Butane C1/(C2 + C3) HLW-03-28, Purge 4 ND HLW-03-28, Purge 6

Stotler, R.L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

METHANE AND n-BUTANE OXIDATION WITH CO2 UNDER RADIOFREQUENCY PLASMAS OF MODERATE PRESSURES (*)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1205 METHANE AND n-BUTANE OXIDATION WITH CO2 UNDER RADIOFREQUENCY PLASMAS OF MODERATE PRESSURES) Résumé. 2014 L'oxydation du méthane et du n-butane avec CO2 a été étudiée dans des décharges électriques intermédiaires en C2 (C2H2, C2H4, C2H6) qui est la voie principale pour convertir mé- thane et n-butane en CO

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

85

Ionization of ethane, butane, and octane in strong laser fields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Strong-field photoionization of ethane, butane, and octane are reported at intensities from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}. The molecular fragment ions, C{sup +} and C{sup 2+}, are created in an intensity window from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} and have intensity-dependent yields similar to the molecular fragments C{sub m}H{sub n}{sup +} and C{sub m}H{sub n}{sup 2+}. In the case of C{sup +}, the yield is independent of the molecular parent chain length. The ionization of more tightly bound valence electrons in carbon (C{sup 3+} and C{sup 4+}) has at least two contributing mechanisms, one influenced by the parent molecule size and one resulting from the tunneling ionization of the carbon ion.

Palaniyappan, Sasi; Mitchell, Rob; Ekanayake, N.; Watts, A. M.; White, S. L.; Sauer, Rob; Howard, L. E.; Videtto, M.; Mancuso, C.; Wells, S. J.; Stanev, T.; Wen, B. L.; Decamp, M. F.; Walker, B. C. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

86

U.S. Refinery Grade Butane Stocks at Bulk Terminals (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Grade Butane Stocks at Bulk Terminals (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; ...

87

Unimolecular dissociations of ionized azo-tert-butane and acetone azine .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This M.Sc. thesis presents an experimental and a theoretical study of azo-tert-butane and acetone azine ions which belong to the azo and azine class of… (more)

Rabaev, Madlena

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

U.S. Refinery Grade Butane Stocks at Bulk Terminals (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Grade Butane Stocks at Bulk Terminals (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 2005: 1,077: 999: 1,362: ...

89

U.S. Product Supplied of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1980's: 134: 101: 124: 143: 117: 146: 151: 163: 188: 1990's: 110: 102: 113: 86: 128: 113 ...

90

U.S. Exports of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 316: 278: 293: 421: 330: 382: 312: 2,765: 310: 1,334: 991: 917: 1982: 1,314: 864: 1,174: ...

91

U.S. Refinery and Blender Net Input of Normal Butane-Butylene ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 237: 165: 117: 104: 77: 89: 80: 91: 144: 185: 242: 301: 1982: 243: 213: 144: 123: 120: ...

92

U.S. Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 226: 214: 215: 222: 219: 218: 221: 219: 231: 247: 226: 203: 1982: 222: 219: 215: 219: 232: ...

93

U.S. Exports of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels per Day)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1980's: 31: 10: 9: 7: 8: 11: 11: 1990's: 12: 14: 16: 16: 14: 20: 23: 17: ...

94

U.S. Refinery and Blender Net Production of Normal Butane ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 799: 890: 736: 1,087: 1,210: 1,603: 1,460: 823: 815: 293: 337-299: 1982-399: 146: 58: 430: ...

95

Stat 511 MS Exam, Spring 2003 Page 1 of 3 This question concerns several analyses of a small set of data on the operation of a Butane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of data on the operation of a Butane Hydrogenolysis Reactor. The response variable percent conversion (cc/sec at STP) feed ratio (Hydrogen/Butane) the reactor wall temperature ( F) flow ratio temp

Vardeman, Stephen B.

96

396 J. Phys. Chem. 1990, 94, 396-409 Reaction of Cyclopropane, Methylcyclopropane, and Propylene with Hydrogen on the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the production of n-butane. This result was interpreted qualitatively by invokingparallel reaction mechanisms for the production of n-butane and isobutane, with the n-butane channel exhibiting a higher apparent activation

Goodman, Wayne

97

A Simulation Study of Diffusion in Microporous Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dynamics simulation of the diffusion of n- butane andi-butane in silicalite. J. Chem. Phys. 108, 2170–2172 (Stefan diffusivity of iso-butane in MFI zeolite. Chem. Phys.

Abouelnasr, Mahmoud Kamal Forrest

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Chloroform cometabolism by butane-grown CF8, Pseudomonas butanovora, and Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 and methane-grown Methylosinus trichosporium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chloroform cometabolism by butane-grown CF8, Pseudomonas butanovora, and Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY 63 (9): 3607-3613 SEP 1997 Abstract: Chloroform (CF) degradation by a butane-grown enrichment culture, CF8, was compared to that by butane-grown Pseudomonas butanovora and Mycobacterium vaccae

Semprini, Lewis

99

Statistical thermodynamics of 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and butanal Prasenjit Seal, Ewa Papajak, Tao Yu, and Donald G. Truhlar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Statistical thermodynamics of 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and butanal Prasenjit Seal, Ewa-body decomposition of ethanedial, propanal, propenal, n-butane, 1-butene, and 1,3-butadiene J. Chem. Phys. 136, and butanal Prasenjit Seal, Ewa Papajak, Tao Yu, and Donald G. Truhlara) Department of Chemistry

Truhlar, Donald G

100

Bioaugmentation with butane-utilizing microorganisms to promote in situ cometabolic treatment of 1,1,1-trichloroethane and 1,1-dichloroethene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bioaugmentation with butane-utilizing microorganisms to promote in situ cometabolic treatment of 1) through bioaugmentation with a butane enrichment culture containing predominantly two Rhodococcus sp of butane and dissolved oxygen and or hydrogen peroxide as sources of dissolved oxygen, about 70% removal

Semprini, Lewis

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal butane isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Transport coefficients of n-butane into and through the surface of silicalite-1 from non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transport coefficients of n-butane into and through the surface of silicalite-1 from non dynamics Non-equilibrium thermodynamics Silicalite-1 n-Butane adsorption a b s t r a c t We have studied coupled heat and mass transfer of n-butane through a membrane of silicalite-1. A description

Kjelstrup, Signe

102

U.S. Natural Gas Processing Plant  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

647 837 1993-2012 PropanePropylene 864 1,575 1,329 1,371 1,505 1,944 1993-2012 Normal ButaneButylene 646 1,373 907 1,292 688 907 1993-2012 IsobutaneButylene 499 453 567 500 500...

103

Selective oxidation of n-butane and butenes over vanadium-containing catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The oxidative dehydrogenation (OXDH) of n-butane, 1-butene, and trans-2-butene on different vanadia catalysts has been compared. MgO, alumina, and Mg-Al mixed oxides with Mg/(Al + Mg) ratios of 0.25 and 0.75 were used as supports. The catalytic data indicate that the higher the acid character of catalysts the lower is both the selectivity to C{sub 4}-olefins from n-butane and the selectivity to butadiene from both 1-butene or trans-2-butene. Thus, OXDH reactions are mainly observed from n-butane and butenes on basic catalysts. The different catalytic performance of both types of catalysts is a consequence of the isomerization of olefins on acid sites, which appears to be a competitive reaction with the selective way, i.e., the oxydehydrogenation process by a redox mechanism. Infrared spectroscopy data of 1-butene adsorbed on supported vanadium oxide catalysts suggest the presence of different adsorbed species. O-containing species (carbonyl and alkoxide species) are observed on catalysts with acid sites while adsorbed butadiene species are observed on catalysts with basic sites. According to these results a reaction network for the oxydehydrogenation of n-butane is proposed with parallel and consecutive reactions.

Nieto, J.M.L.; Concepcion, P.; Dejoz, A.; Knoezinger, H.; Melo, F.; Vazquez, M.I.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Formative time of breakdown modeled for the ignition of air and n-butane mixtures using effective ionization coefficients  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown that simulations of ignition by electric arc discharge in n-butane and air mixtures have interesting features, which deviate from results obtained by simple extension of calculations based on methanelike fuels. In particular, it is demonstrated that lowering the temperature of the n-butane-air mixture before ignition under certain conditions will actually decrease the ignition stage time as well as the required electric field.

Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Popugaev, S. D. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198904 (Russian Federation); Demidov, V. I. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Adams, S. F. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Jiao, C. Q. [ISSI Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45440-3638 (United States)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

105

Saving Energy and Reducing Emissions from the Regeneration Air System of a Butane Dehydrogenation Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Texas Petrochemicals operates a butane dehydrogenation unit producing MTBE for reformulated gasoline that was originally constructed when energy was cheap and prior to environmental regulation. The process exhausts 900,000 pounds per hour of air at 900 to 1100°F containing CO and VOC. By installing a furnace/heat recovery steam generator, Texas Petrochemicals achieved significant reductions of VOC, CO, and NOx, along with energy savings.

John, T. P.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Molecular Components of Catalytic Selectivity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hexagonal Square isobutane n-butane isobutane C 1 – C 3H 2 O H 3 C OH 1-Butanol H 3 C H 2 Butane H H 3 C + H 2 CH 3Pyrrolidine + H 2 +NH 3 Butane and ammonia Scheme 1. (a) (b)

Somorjai, Gabor A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Single event kinetic modeling of solid acid alkylation of isobutane with butenes over proton-exchanged Y-Zeolites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Complex reaction kinetics of the solid acid alkylation of isobutane with butenes over a proton-exchanged Y-zeolite has been modeled at the elementary step level. Starting with a computer algorithm that generated the reaction network based on the fundamentals of the carbenium ion chemistry, the formation of over 100+ product species has been modeled in order to gain understanding of the underlying phenomena leading to rapid catalyst deactivation and product selectivity shifts observed in experimental runs. An experimental investigation of the solid acid alkylation process was carried out in a fixed bed catalytic reactor operating with an excess of isobutane under isothermal conditions at moderate temperatures (353-393 K) in liquid phase. Experimental data varying with run-time for a set of butene space-times and reaction temperatures were collected for parameter estimation purposes. A kinetic model was formulated in terms of rate expressions at the elementary step level including a rigorous modeling of deactivation through site coverage. The single event concept was applied to each rate coefficient at the elementary step level to achieve a significant reduction in the number of model parameters. Based on the identification of structural changes leading to the creation or destruction of symmetry axes and chiral centers in an elementary step, formulae have been developed for the calculation of the number of single events. The Evans-Polanyi relationship and the concept of stabilization energy were introduced to account for energy levels in surface-bonded carbenium ions. A novel functional dependency of the stabilization energy with the nature of the carbenium ion and the carbon number was proposed to account for energy effects from the acid sites on the catalyst. Further reductions in the number of parameters and simplification of the equations for the transient pseudohomogeneous one-dimensional plug-flow model of the reactor were achieved by means of thermodynamic constraints. Altogether, the single event concept, the Evans-Polanyi relationship, the stabilization energy approach and the thermodynamic constraints led to a set of 14 parameters necessary for a complete description of solid acid alkylation at the elementary step level.

Martinis Coll, Jorge Maximiliano

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Geothermal binary-cycle working-fluid properties information. Annual report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The research discussed was performed prior to December 31, 1979. The report was not released until September 30, 1981, so that pressure-enthalpy diagrams for a number of potential geothermal binary cycle working fluids could be prepared in SI units. Efforts were directed principally to working fluid thermophysical property correlation and presentation of properties information. Pressure-enthalpy diagrams are presented for propane, normal butane, isobutane, normal pentane, isopentane and propylene. Generalized correlations are presented for the thermodynamic and transport properties of hydrocarbon pure and mixture working fluids. Specific correlations are presented for the thermodynamic properties of 27 fluids and for the viscosity and thermal conductivity of hydrocarbons including isobutane and isopentane.

Starling, K.E.; Kumar, K.H.; Malik, Z.I.; Batson, B.; Plumb, P.

1981-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

109

Effect of Pt and H{sub 2} on n-butane isomerization over Fe and Mn promoted sulfated zirconia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The activity of a 0.4 wt% Pt-containing Fe and Mn promoted sulfated zirconia (PtSFMZ) catalyst in n-butane isomerization at 35{degrees}C was compared to that of a Pt-free catalyst (SFMZ). The maximum rate of n-butane conversion observed in helium over PtSFMZ was found to be 2.5 times higher than that over the SFMZ catalyst under the same conditions. It is believed that n-butane isomerization proceeds via a bimolecular mechanism in which the formation of hydrogen-deficient intermediates (carbenium ions and butenes), is necessary and the presence of transition metals such as Pt, Fe, and Mn on sulfated zirconia facilitates the formation/accumulation of these intermediates and increases their stability on the catalyst surface. The presence of H{sub 2} had a strong negative effect on n-butane conversion over PtSFMZ, but had no effect over SFMZ. The negative effect of H{sub 2} on PtSFMZ catalyst in n-butane isomerization reaction was attributed to the decreased concentration of butenes in the presence of hydrogen atoms which are formed by the dissociation of H{sub 2} on Pt. The ability of calcined Pt-containing catalysts to activate hydrogen at 35{degrees}C was demonstrated. Reduced SFMZ with or without Pt was not active at 35{degrees}C regardless of the nature of the carrier gas. 42 refs., 5 figs.

Song, Xuemin; Reddy, K.R.; Sayari, A. [Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada)] [Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Gas processing/The boiling behavior of LPG and liquid ethane, ethylene, propane, and n-butane spilled on water  

SciTech Connect

Boiling-rate calorimeter studies showed that unlike liquid nitrogen, methane, and LNG, LPG (84.7% propane, 6.0% ethane, and 9.3% n-butane; 442/sup 0/C bp), or pure propane, when rapidly spilled on water, reacted violently, ejecting water and ice into the vapor space; but in 1-2 sec, a coherent ice layer was formed and further boiloff was quiet and well predicted by a simple one-dimensional, moving-boundary-value, heat transfer model with a growing ice shield. Increasing the content of ethane and butane in LPG to 20% and 10%, respectively, had almost no effect on the LPG boiling, indicating that boiling may be modeled by using pure propane. Ethane, ethylene, and n-butane behaved quite differently from LPG. In spills of pure liquid propane on solid ice, the boiloff rate was almost identical to that predicted by the moving-boundary model.

Reid, R.C.; Smith, K.A.

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Structure of an n-butane monolayer adsorbed on magnesium oxide (100)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Neutron diffraction has been used to characterize the structure of the solid phase of the completed monolayer of n butane on the MgO(100) surface at low temperature. The monolayer is found to adopt a commensurate (7{radical}(2)x{radical}(2)R45 deg. ) structure with lattice constants a=29.47 A ring and b=4.21 A ring , P{sub 2gg} symmetry and four molecules in the unit cell. Excellent agreement with the experimental diffraction pattern is realized, using a Lorenztian profile to describe the line shape.

Arnold, T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Chanaa, S.; Cook, R. E. [Department of Chemistry, Buehler Hall, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Clarke, S. M. [BP Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Larese, J. Z. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Buehler Hall, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States)

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

112

Conntents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... With Isobutane and n-Butane: Modified Ingham, and John J. Lynch Leung-Griffiths Correlation and Data Evaluation Conference Reports ...

2003-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

113

NIST - Physical and Chemical Properties Division - Technical ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... We are now working to develop formulations for propane, butane, and isobutane (so-called "natural refrigerants") that are of increasing interest. ...

114

A New Functional Form and New Fitting Techniques for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Of the 34 equa- tions of state compared in this work (see Table 1), only the equations for ammonia, argon, butane, ethane, ethylene, isobutane ...

2008-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

115

Table E2.1. Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

ethane-propane mixtures, propane-butane mixtures, and isobutane" "produced at refineries or natural gas processing plants, including plants that fractionate raw" "Natural...

116

Dr. William V. (Vance) Payne, II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... His refrigerant work included examining natural refrigerants such as propane and iso-butane (hydrocarbons) as well as carbon dioxide (CO2). ...

2012-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

117

Thermodynamics of the liquid mixture carbon dioxide + butane below 285 K topical report  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide and butane are frequently encountered as minor components of natural gas. These will liquefy first as it is cooled, so a knowledge of their vapor-liquid equilibrium behavior, especially at low temperatures, is desirable. However, only one isotherm of vapor-liquid equilibrium data below 250 K is available in the literature. Models of phase equilibrium can be expressed in terms of the excess Gibbs free energy, and the temperature dependence of the excess Gibbs free energy is related to the excess enthalpy. Thus measurements of excess enthalpy may be combined with phase equilibrium measurements to produce a model that gives reliable vapor-liquid equilibrium predictions. Under the contract, measurements of the heat of mixing of liquid n-butane with liquid carbon dioxide were performed at two temperatures below 250 K in a flow calorimeter. A maximum likelihood method was used to combine these calorimetric results with available vapor-liquid equilibrium data to produce a model of the nonideality in this system that gives much more reliable estimates of the phase equilibrium pressures, compositions, and enthalpies than had been available before.

Hall, E.J.; Guedes, H.J.R.; Zollweg, J.A.

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

n-Butane: Ignition delay measurements at high pressure and detailed chemical kinetic simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ignition delay time measurements were recorded at equivalence ratios of 0.3, 0.5, 1, and 2 for n-butane at pressures of approximately 1, 10, 20, 30 and 45 atm at temperatures from 690 to 1430 K in both a rapid compression machine and in a shock tube. A detailed chemical kinetic model consisting of 1328 reactions involving 230 species was constructed and used to validate the delay times. Moreover, this mechanism has been used to simulate previously published ignition delay times at atmospheric and higher pressure. Arrhenius-type ignition delay correlations were developed for temperatures greater than 1025 K which relate ignition delay time to temperature and concentration of the mixture. Furthermore, a detailed sensitivity analysis and a reaction pathway analysis were performed to give further insight to the chemistry at various conditions. When compared to existing data from the literature, the model performs quite well, and in several instances the conditions of earlier experiments were duplicated in the laboratory with overall good agreement. To the authors' knowledge, the present paper presents the most comprehensive set of ignition delay time experiments and kinetic model validation for n-butane oxidation in air. (author)

Healy, D.; Curran, H.J. [Combustion Chemistry Centre, School of Chemistry, NUI Galway (Ireland); Donato, N.S.; Aul, C.J.; Petersen, E.L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Zinner, C.M. [Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Bourque, G. [Rolls-Royce Canada Limited, 9500 Cote de Liesse, Lachine, Quebec, H8T 1A2 (Canada)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

119

C-H functionalisation through singlet chlorocarbenes insertions – MP2 and DFT investigations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The insertion reactions of singlet mono and dichlorocarbenes (1CHCl and 1CCl2) into primary, secondary and tertiary C-H bonds of methane, ethane, propane, n-butane and iso-butane have been investigated at ...

M. Ramalingam; K. Ramasami; P. Venuvanalingam; V. Sethuraman

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Adsorption of iso-/n-butane on an Anatase Thin Film: A Molecular Beam Scattering and TDS Study  

SciTech Connect

Binding energies and adsorption probabilities have been determined for n/iso-butane adsorption on an anatase thin film grown on SrTiO3(001) by means of thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and molecular beam scattering. The sample has been characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Auger electrons spectroscopy (AES).

Goering, J.; Kadossov, E.; Burghaus, Uwe; Yu, Zhongqing; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Saraf, Laxmikant V.

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal butane isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

The North American natural gas liquids markets are chaotic  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors test for deterministic chaos (i.e., nonlinear deterministic processes which look random) in seven Mont Belview, Texas hydrocarbon markets, using monthly data from 1985:1 to 1996:12--the markets are those of ethane, propane, normal butane, iso-butane, naptha, crude oil, and natural gas. In doing so, they use the Lyapunov exponent estimator of Nychka, Ellner, Gallant, and McCaffrey. They conclude that there is evidence consistent with a chaotic nonlinear generation process in all five natural gas liquids markets.

Serletis, A.; Gogas, P. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Economics)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

n-Alkanes on MgO(100). I: Coverage-Dependent Desorption Kinetics of n-Butane  

SciTech Connect

High quality temperature programmed desorption (TPD) measurements of n-butane from MgO(100) have been made for a large number of initial butane coverages (0-3.70 ML) and a wide range of heating ramp rates (0.3-10 K/s). We present a TPD analysis technique which allows the coverage-dependent desorption energy to be accurately determined by mathematical inversion of a TPD spectrum, assuming only that the prefactor is coverage-independent. A variational method is used to determine the prefactor that minimizes the difference between a set of simulated TPD spectra and corresponding experimental data. The best fit for butane desorption from MgO is obtained with a prefactor of 1015.7?1.6 s-1. The desorption energy is 34.9?3.4 kJ/mol at 0.5 ML coverage, and varies with coverage. Simulations based on these results can accurately reproduce TPD experiments for submonolayer initial coverages over a wide range of heating ramp rates (0.3-10 K/s). Advantages and limitations of this method are discussed.

Tait, Steven L.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Campbell, C T.; Kay, Bruce D.

2005-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

123

Kinetic and inhibition studies for the aerobic cometabolism of 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, and 1,1-dichloroethane by a butane-grown mixed culture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

,1-dichloroethylene, and 1,1-dichloroethane by a butane-grown mixed culture Kim Y, Arp DJ, Semprini L BIOTECHNOLOGY,1- dichloroethane (1,1-DCA) by a butane-grown mixed culture. These chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs for butane (2.6 mumol/mg TSS/ h) followed by 1,1-DCE (1.3 mumol/mg TSS/h), 1,1-DCA (0.49 mumol/mg TSS

Semprini, Lewis

124

A study of the kinetics and mechanism of the adsorption and anaerobic partial oxidation of n-butane over a vanadyl pyrophosphate catalyst  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of n-butane with a ((VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}) catalyst has been investigated by temperature-programmed desorption and anaerobic temperature-programmed reaction. n-Butane has been shown to adsorb on the (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} to as a butyl-hydroxyl pair. When adsorption is carried out at 223 K, upon temperature programming some of the butyl-hydroxyl species recombine resulting in butane desorption at 260 K. However, when adsorption is carried out at 423 K, the hydroxyl species of the butyl-hydroxyl pair migrate away from the butyl species during the adsorption, forming water which is detected in the gas phase. Butane therefore is not observed to desorb at 260 K after the authors lowered the temperature to 223 K under the butane/helium from the adsorption temperature of 423 K prior to temperature programming from that temperature to 1100 K under a helium stream. Anaerobic temperature-programmed oxidation of n-butane produces butene and butadiene at a peak maximum temperature of 1000 K; this is exactly the temperature at which, upon temperature programming, oxygen evolves from the lattice and desorbs as O{sub 2}. This, and the fact that the amount of oxygen desorbing from the (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} at {approximately}1000 K is the same as that required for the oxidation of the n-butane to butene and butadiene, strongly suggests (1) that lattice oxygen as it emerges at the surface is the selective oxidant and (2) that its appearance at the surface is the rate-determining step in the selective oxidation of n-butane. The surface of the (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} catalyst on which this selective oxidation takes place has had approximately two monolayers of oxygen removed from it by unselective oxidation of the n-butane to CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O between 550 and 950 K and has had approximately one monolayer of carbon deposited on it at {approximately}1000 K. It is apparent, therefore, that the original crystallography of the (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} catalyst will not exist during this selective oxidation and that theories that relate selectivity in partial oxidation to the (100) face of the (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} catalyst cannot apply in this case.

Sakakini, B.H.; Taufiq-Yap, Y.H.; Waugh, K.C.

2000-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

125

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Production Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton. Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Butane (C4H10) A normally gaseous straight-chain or branch-chain hydrocarbon extracted from natural gas or refinery gas streams. It includes isobutane and normal butane and is designated in ASTM Specification D1835 and Gas Processors Association Specifications for commercial butane.

126

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Receipts by Pipeline, Tanker, and Barge Between PAD Districts Receipts by Pipeline, Tanker, and Barge Between PAD Districts Definitions Key Terms Definition Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton. Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Butane (C4H10) A normally gaseous straight-chain or branch-chain hydrocarbon extracted from natural gas or refinery gas streams. It includes isobutane and normal butane and is designated in ASTM Specification D1835 and Gas Processors Association Specifications for commercial butane.

127

Reformulating Competition? Gasoline Content Regulation and Wholesale Gasoline Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the volume of normal butane blended into gasoline, or bythe volume of normal butane rejected from motor gasoline.

Brown, Jennifer; Hastings, Justine; Mansur, Erin T.; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Toward Understanding the Nature of Internal Rotation Barriers with a New Energy Partition Scheme: Ethane and n-Butane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on an alternative energy partition scheme where density-based quantification of the steric effect was proposed [S.B. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 244103 (2007)], the origin of the internal rotation barrier between the eclipsed and staggered conformers of ethane and n-butane is systematically investigated in this work. The new definition is repulsive, exclusive, and extensive, and is intrinsically related to Bader’s atoms in molecules approach. Two kinds of differences, adiabatic (with optimal structure) and vertical (with fixed geometry), are considered in this work. We find that in the adiabatic case the eclipsed conformer possesses a larger steric repulsion than the staggered conformer for both molecules, but in the vertical cases the staggered conformer retains a larger steric repulsion. For ethane, a strong correlation between the total energy difference and the fermionic quantum energy difference is discovered. This linear relationship, however, does not hold for n-butane, whose behaviors in energy component differences are found to be more complicated. The impact of basis set and density functional choices on energy components from the new energy partition scheme has been investigated, as has its comparison with another definition of the steric effect in the literature in terms of the natural bond orbital analysis through the Pauli Exclusion Principle. Profiles of conceptual DFT reactivity indices as a function of dihedral angle changes have also been examined. Put together, these results suggest that the new energy partition scheme provides insights from a different perspective of internal rotation barriers.

Liu, Shubin; Govind, Niri

2008-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

129

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Natural Gas Plant Net Stocks Natural Gas Plant Net Stocks Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Butylene (C4H8) An olefinic hydrocarbon recovered from refinery processes. Ethane (C2H6) A normally gaseous straight-chain hydrocarbon. It is a colorless paraffinic gas that boils at a temperature of -127.48Âş F. It is extracted from natural gas and refinery gas streams. Isobutane (C4H10) A normally gaseous branch-chain hydrocarbon. It is a colorless paraffinic gas that boils at a temperature of 10.9Âş F. It is extracted from natural gas or refinery gas streams. Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) A group of hydrocarbon-based gases derived from crude oil refining or nautral gas fractionation. They include: ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, normal butane, butylene, isobutane, and isobutylene. For convenience of transportation, these gases are liquefied through pressurization.

130

Total electron scattering cross sections of ethane, propane, n-butane, 1,3-butadiene and butylene in the energy range 0.3 to 4.0 keV.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The total electron scattering cross sections of Ethane, Propane, n-Butane, 1,3-Butadiene and Butylene were measured in the energy range 0.3 to 4.0 keV using linear… (more)

Wickramarachchi, Priyangika.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Ethane and n-butane oxidation over supported vanadium oxide catalysts: An in situ UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopic investigation  

SciTech Connect

The coordination/oxidation states of surface vanadium oxide species on several oxide supports (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}) during ethane and n-butane oxidation were examined by in situ UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Only a small amount of the surface V(V)cations are reduced to V(IV)/V(III) cations under present steady-state reaction conditions. The extents of reduction of the surface V(V) species are a strong function of the specific oxide support, V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/ZrO{sub 2} {gt} V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {gt} V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2}, and also correlate with their reactivities (turnover frequencies) for ethane and n-butane oxidation reactions. For ZrO{sub 2}-supported samples, the polymerized surface vanadia species were found to be more easily reduced than the isolated surface vanadia species in reducing environments (i.e., ethane or n-butane in He), but no significant differences in the extents of reduction were observed under present steady-state reaction conditions (i.e., ethane/O{sub 2}/He or n-butane/O{sub 2}/He). This observation is also consistent with the ethane oxidation catalytic study, which revealed that the polymerization degree, the domain size, of the surface vanadia species does not appear to significantly affect the reactivity of the supported vanadia catalysts for ethane oxidation.

Gao, X.; Banares, M.A.; Wachs, I.E.

1999-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

132

Refinery Net Input of Isobutane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and ...

133

Autoignited laminar lifted flames of methane, ethylene, ethane, and n-butane jets in coflow air with elevated temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The autoignition characteristics of laminar lifted flames of methane, ethylene, ethane, and n-butane fuels have been investigated experimentally in coflow air with elevated temperature over 800 K. The lifted flames were categorized into three regimes depending on the initial temperature and fuel mole fraction: (1) non-autoignited lifted flame, (2) autoignited lifted flame with tribrachial (or triple) edge, and (3) autoignited lifted flame with mild combustion. For the non-autoignited lifted flames at relatively low temperature, the existence of lifted flame depended on the Schmidt number of fuel, such that only the fuels with Sc > 1 exhibited stationary lifted flames. The balance mechanism between the propagation speed of tribrachial flame and local flow velocity stabilized the lifted flames. At relatively high initial temperatures, either autoignited lifted flames having tribrachial edge or autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion existed regardless of the Schmidt number of fuel. The adiabatic ignition delay time played a crucial role for the stabilization of autoignited flames. Especially, heat loss during the ignition process should be accounted for, such that the characteristic convection time, defined by the autoignition height divided by jet velocity was correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time for the critical autoignition conditions. The liftoff height was also correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. (author)

Choi, B.C.; Chung, S.H. [Clean Combustion Research Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

134

Role of metal-support interactions on the activity of Pt and Rh catalysts for reforming methane and butane.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For residential fuel cell systems, reforming of natural gas is one option being considered for providing the H{sub 2} necessary for the fuel cell to operate. Industrially, natural gas is reformed using Ni-based catalysts supported on an alumina substrate, which has been modified to inhibit coke formation. At Argonne National Laboratory, we have developed a new family of catalysts derived from solid oxide fuel cell technology for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to generate H{sub 2}. These catalysts consist of a transition metal supported on an oxide-ion-conducting substrate, such as ceria, that has been doped with a small amount of a non-reducible element, such as gadolinium, samarium, or zirconium. Unlike alumina, the oxide-ion-conducting substrate has been shown to induce strong metal-support interactions. Metal-support interactions are known to play an important role in influencing the catalytic activity of many metals supported on oxide supports. Based on results from temperature-programmed reduction/oxidation and kinetic reaction studies, this paper discusses the role of the metal and the substrate in the metal-support interactions, and how these interactions influence the activity and the selectivity of the catalyst in reforming methane and butane to hydrogen for use in fuel cell power systems.

Rossignol, C.; Krause, T.; Krumpelt, M.

2002-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

135

A comprehensive environment for property prediction and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Density LAMMPS/OPLSAA Error (K) (g/cm3) (g/cm3) Butane 273 0.6013 0.6010 ± .0026 -0.05% Isobutane 273.2 0.58052 0.6046 ± .0039 4.15% ...

2010-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

136

Study on the Interaction Coefficients in PR Equation with VdW ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The values of ki for HFCs and HCs, including Propane, Isobutane, n-butane, HFC32, HFC125, HFC134a, HFC143a, HFC152a and HFC227ea ...

2006-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

137

Microsoft Word - RBL_Jan_2009_RG13-1-398.doc  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

N001 4.67 Methane percent 01072009 N001 84.98 Ethane percent 01072009 N001 6.97 Propane percent 01072009 N001 1.97 Isobutane percent 01072009 N001 0.464 Butane percent...

138

Data Report  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

N001 5.18 Methane percent 5282008 N001 89.69 Ethane percent 5282008 N001 3.70 Propane percent 5282008 N001 0.695 Isobutane percent 5282008 N001 0.159 Butane percent 5...

139

I T L L C P M O N  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

"A" No. 29-95 on June 8,1966) * Component-. , Carbon Dioxtde Nitrogen Methane ,Ethane Propane iso-Butane. nqentanb Hexanes Heptanes plus . *As reported by Core Laboratories, Inc....

140

Microsoft Word - May_2008_BM26-42_Data_Rpt.doc  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

N001 3.21 Methane percent 05282008 N001 88.77 Ethane percent 05282008 N001 3.89 Propane percent 05282008 N001 0.963 Isobutane percent 05282008 N001 0.179 Butane percent...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal butane isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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141

TABLE16.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6. 6. Refinery Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, January 1998 Crude Oil ................................................................... 44,047 2,783 46,830 70,320 12,891 21,794 105,005 Natural Gas Liquids ................................................. 252 0 252 2,613 131 1,076 3,820 Pentanes Plus ....................................................... 0 0 0 202 45 522 769 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ................................... 252 0 252 2,411 86 554 3,051 Ethane ............................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Propane ............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Normal Butane .................................................. 162 0 162 1,792 76 435 2,303 Isobutane ..........................................................

142

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 September 2013 Table 32. Blender Net Inputs of Petroleum Products by PAD District, September 2013 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD District 1 - East Coast PAD District 2 - Midwest East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri Total Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ....................................................... 308 5 313 45 44 345 434 Pentanes Plus ...................................................... - - - - 2 75 77 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .................................. 308 5 313 45 42 270 357 Normal Butane .................................................. 308 5 313 45 42 270 357 Isobutane .......................................................... - - - - - - - Other Liquids ..........................................................

143

TABLE27.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7. 7. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by PAD District, January 1998 Crude Oil a ....................................................................... 0 1,168 0 0 5,978 7,146 231 Natural Gas Liquids ...................................................... 24 752 885 6 451 2,118 68 Pentanes Plus ............................................................. 1 455 0 5 (s) 461 15 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ......................................... 24 297 885 (s) 450 1,657 53 Ethane/Ethylene ..................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Propane/Propylene ................................................. 20 96 637 (s) 149 904 29 Normal Butane/Butylene ......................................... 3 201 248 0 301 753 24 Isobutane/Isobutylene ............................................ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Other Liquids ..................................................................

144

Petroleum Supply Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0.PDF 0.PDF Table 20. Blender Net Inputs of Petroleum Products by PAD Districts, January 2012 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD District 1 - East Coast PAD District 2 - Midwest East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri Total Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ....................................................... 158 5 163 47 18 168 233 Pentanes Plus ...................................................... 5 - 5 - - 5 5 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .................................. 153 5 158 47 18 163 228 Normal Butane .................................................. 153 5 158 47 18 163 228 Isobutane .......................................................... - - - - - - - Other Liquids ..........................................................

145

untitled  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Blender Net Inputs of Petroleum Products by PAD Districts, 2012 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD District 1 - East Coast PAD District 2 - Midwest East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri Total Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ....................................................... 1,744 80 1,824 345 324 2,161 2,830 Pentanes Plus ...................................................... 63 - 63 - - 87 87 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .................................. 1,681 80 1,761 345 324 2,074 2,743 Normal Butane .................................................. 1,681 80 1,761 345 324 2,074 2,743 Isobutane .......................................................... - - - - - - - Other Liquids ..........................................................

146

Climatic Temperature Normals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The published 1951–80 daily normals of maximum and minimum temperatures were prepared by interpolating between average monthly values. This study compares the published normal and 30-yr average daily temperatures in the eastern half of the United ...

Nathaniel B. Guttman; Marc S. Plantico

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Carbon nanotube-induced preparation of vanadium oxide nanorods: Application as a catalyst for the partial oxidation of n-butane  

SciTech Connect

A vanadium oxide-carbon nanotube composite was prepared by solution-based hydrolysis of NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3} in the presence of carbon nanotubes. The carbon nanotubes induce the nucleation of the 1D vanadium oxide nanostructures, with the nuclei growing into long freestanding nanorods. The vanadium oxide nanorods with the lengths up to 20 {mu}m and the widths of 5-15 nm exhibit a well-ordered crystalline structure. Catalytic tests show that the composite with nanostructured vanadium oxide is active for the partial oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride at 300 deg. C.

Chen Xiaowei [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz-Haber-Institute of MPG, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Zhu Zhenping [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz-Haber-Institute of MPG, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Haevecker, Michael [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz-Haber-Institute of MPG, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Su Dangsheng [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz-Haber-Institute of MPG, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: dangsheng@fhi-berlin.mpg.de; Schloegl, Robert [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz-Haber-Institute of MPG, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

148

EARTH SCIENCES DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ethane Propane Normal-butane, is0bu t ane X Normal-pentane,the mole fraction of normal-butane. Because a binary mixtureof the mole fraction of normal-butane. The discrep- ancy is

Authors, Various

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

(Butan-2-ol-jO)[2-({(ethylsulfanyl)- [2-(2-oxidobenzylidene-jO)hydrazinylidene-jN 2]methyl}iminomethyl)phenolato-jO]dioxidouranium(VI)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

disorder in main residue; R factor = 0.038; wR factor = 0.078; data-to-parameter ratio = 17.4. The U atom in the title complex, [U(C17H15N3O2S)O2-(C4H10O)], exists within a distorted pentagonal–bipyramidal geometry where the oxide O atoms occupy axial positions [O—U—O = 179.61 (18) ] and the pentagonal plane is defined by the N2O2 atoms of the tetradentate Schiff base ligand and the O atom of the butan-2-ol molecule. In the crystal, centrosymmetric aggregates are formed via pairs of hydroxy–phenoxide O—H O hydrogen bonds. The azomethine C N atoms, the ethylthiolyl group and the butyl group of the butan-2-ol molecule are disordered over two positions in a 0.668 (3):0.332 (3) ratio. Related literature For background to uranyl Schiff base complexes, see: S ¸ ahin et al. (2010); Özdemir et al. (2011). For a related structure, see: Takjoo et al. (2012).

Reza Takjoo; A Atefeh Najafi; A Seik Weng Ng B; Edward R. T. Tiekink B

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Natural Gas Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Propane Normal Butane Isobutane Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Product: Natural Gas Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Propane Normal Butane Isobutane Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History U.S. 74,056 76,732 74,938 79,040 82,376 81,196 1981-2013 PADD 1 1,525 1,439 2,394 2,918 2,821 2,687 1981-2013 East Coast 1993-2008 Appalachian No. 1 1,525 1,439 2,394 2,918 2,821 2,687 1993-2013 PADD 2 12,892 13,208 13,331 13,524 15,204 15,230 1981-2013 Ind., Ill. and Ky. 1,975 1,690 2,171 1,877 2,630 2,746 1993-2013

151

Natural Gas Plant Stocks of Natural Gas Liquids  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Product: Natural Gas Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Propane Normal Butane Isobutane Period: Monthly Annual Product: Natural Gas Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Propane Normal Butane Isobutane Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History U.S. 5,419 6,722 6,801 5,826 6,210 6,249 1993-2013 PADD 1 122 121 115 189 246 248 1993-2013 East Coast 1993-2010 Appalachian No. 1 122 121 115 189 246 248 1993-2013 PADD 2 959 891 880 1,129 1,104 1,041 1993-2013 Ind., Ill. and Ky. 311 300 298 308 262 260 1993-2013 Minn., Wis., N. Dak., S. Dak. 56 64 58 60 51 64 1993-2013 Okla., Kans., Mo. 592 527 524 761 791 717 1993-2013 PADD 3 3,810 5,007 5,032 3,817 4,246 4,272 1993-2013

152

Refinery & Blender Net Production of Total Finished Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

& Blender Net Production & Blender Net Production Product: Total Finished Petroleum Products Liquefied Refinery Gases Ethane/Ethylene Ethane Ethylene Propane/Propylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Normal Butane Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Isobutane Isobutylene Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Other Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Greater than Ed55 Conventional Other Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm Sulfur and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Sulfur Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Sulfur Residual Fuel Oil Residual Fuel Less Than 0.31 Percent Sulfur Residual Fuel 0.31 to 1.00 Percent Sulfur Residual Fuel Greater Than 1.00 Percent Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha For Petro. Feed. Use Other Oils For Petro. Feed. Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Marketable Petroleum Coke Catalyst Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Still Gas Miscellaneous Products Processing Gain(-) or Loss(+) Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

153

The Accurate Computer Simulation of Phase Equilibrium for Complex Fluid Mixtures. Application to Binaries Involving isobutene, methanol, MTBE, and n-butane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed a new method, called the Reaction Gibbs Ensemble Monte Carlo (RGEMC) method for the computer simulation of the phase equilibria for multicomponent mixtures, given an intermolecular potential model for the constituent molecular species. The approach treats the phase equilibrium conditions as a special type of chemical reaction, and incorporates knowledge of the pure-substance vapor pressure data into the simulations. Unlike macroscopic thermodynamic-based approaches like the Wilson and the UNIFAC approximations, no experimental information concerning the mixtures is required. In addition to the PTxy phase equilibrium data, the volumetric properties of the mixture are calculated. We developed intermolecular potential models based on the OPLS potential models of Jorgensen, and used the RGEMC method to predict phase equilibrium data for the binary systems isobutene+MTBE and the binaries formed by methanol with isobutene, MTBE, and n-butane. The predictions are excellent, ...

Martin Lísal; William R. Smith; Ivo Nezbeda

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Refinery & Blender Net Production of Isobutane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

155

Isobutane/Butylene Refinery Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil stocks in the ...

156

Product Supplied for Isobutane/Isobutylene  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Data may not add to ...

157

Refinery Net Production of Isobutane/Isobutylene  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

158

Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Isobutane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

159

Normal matter storage of antiprotons  

SciTech Connect

Various simple issues connected with the possible storage of anti p in relative proximity to normal matter are discussed. Although equilibrium storage looks to be impossible, condensed matter systems are sufficiently rich and controllable that nonequilibrium storage is well worth pursuing. Experiments to elucidate the anti p interactions with normal matter are suggested. 32 refs.

Campbell, L.J.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

normal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4202010 Cushman & Wakefield Marks 40 th Earth Day Celebrating New Milestones in Sustainability NEW YORK, April 22, 2010 -- Global real estate services firm Cushman & Wakefield...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal butane isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

EIA-816  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6281 6281 Receipts During Month Inputs During Month Production During Month Shipments During Month Plant Fuel Use & Losses 247 Pentanes Plus Isobutane Normal Butane 249 Month 220 243 Ethane Propane Stocks End of Month Product Code Stocks Beginning of Month FORM EIA-816 MONTHLY NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS REPORT A completed form must be received by the 20th calendar day following the end of the report month. This report is mandatory under the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275). Failure to comply may result in criminal fines, civil penalties and other sanctions as provided by law. Title 18 USC 1001 makes it a criminal offense for any person knowingly and willingly to make to any Agency or Department of the United States any false, fictitious, or fraudulent statements as to any matter within its jurisdiction. See Instructions for further details on

162

Total Refinery Net Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Crude Oil & Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components (net) Alaskan Crude Oil Receipts Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

163

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

124 22 3,585 1,761 3,291 117 -137 3,532 241 5,264 124 22 3,585 1,761 3,291 117 -137 3,532 241 5,264 Crude Oil 34 - - - - 897 1 113 -43 1,084 3 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 90 0 25 32 86 - - 16 27 15 174 Pentanes Plus 15 0 - - - - - - 0 - 10 4 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 75 - - 25 32 86 - - 16 27 5 169 Ethane/Ethylene 1 - - 0 - - - - 0 - - 1 Propane/Propylene 51 - - 36 27 83 - - 24 - 4 168 Normal Butane/Butylene 16 - - -11 3 3 - - -8 17 1 0 Isobutane/Isobutylene 8 - - 0 2 - - - -1 9 - 0 Other Liquids - - 22 - - 555 1,614 193 -31 2,421 5 -10 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 22 - - 25 273 -19 -35 332 5 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 4 - - 4 0 - - Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol)

164

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1,164 20 3,171 1,425 308 193 28 2,990 349 2,914 1,164 20 3,171 1,425 308 193 28 2,990 349 2,914 Crude Oil 1,104 - - - - 1,209 - 140 10 2,443 - 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 61 0 66 4 - - - 36 59 13 22 Pentanes Plus 26 0 - - - - - - 5 18 3 -1 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 34 - - 66 4 - - - 30 41 10 23 Ethane/Ethylene 0 - - - - - - - - - - 0 Propane/Propylene 14 - - 49 4 - - - 12 - 10 45 Normal Butane/Butylene 5 - - 15 0 - - - 13 19 0 -11 Isobutane/Isobutylene 15 - - 1 - - - - 5 22 - -12 Other Liquids - - 20 - - 107 252 94 -71 488 13 43 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 20 - - 19 143 37 -2 219 3 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 47 - - 47 0 - - Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol)

165

table09.chp:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3,434 3,434 - 5,080 -9 -1,729 230 0 6,546 0 0 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ....... 1,272 347 65 - -68 -208 - 229 29 1,566 Pentanes Plus .................................. 188 - 33 - -5 30 - 66 0 119 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 1,084 347 31 - -63 -238 - 163 29 1,446 Ethane/Ethylene ........................... 503 24 18 - 112 -52 - 0 0 709 Propane/Propylene ....................... 363 301 4 - -158 -120 - 0 21 610 Normal Butane/Butylene .............. 76 3 6 - -11 -89 - 100 8 54 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................... 142 19 4 - -6 22 - 63 0 73 Other Liquids .................................... 172 - 223 - -73 82 - 216 65 -41 Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates .... 149 - 1 - 0 6 - 97 46 0 Unfinished Oils ................................. - - 221 - 4 72 - 195 0 -41 Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. .......... 23 - 1 - -77 4 - -76 19 0 Aviation Gasoline Blend. Comp. ....... - - 0 - 0 (s) - (s) 0 0 Finished Petroleum Products

166

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1,173 16 2,988 1,321 324 106 21 2,811 344 2,751 1,173 16 2,988 1,321 324 106 21 2,811 344 2,751 Crude Oil 1,111 - - - - 1,160 2 62 4 2,331 0 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 61 0 50 5 - - - 1 66 15 35 Pentanes Plus 28 0 - - - - - - 0 21 3 4 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 33 - - 50 5 - - - 1 45 12 31 Ethane/Ethylene 0 - - - - - - - - - - 0 Propane/Propylene 12 - - 46 4 - - - 1 - 10 51 Normal Butane/Butylene 6 - - 6 1 - - - 0 26 1 -14 Isobutane/Isobutylene 15 - - -2 0 - - - 0 20 - -7 Other Liquids - - 16 - - 74 245 103 11 414 13 1 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 16 - - 7 138 37 2 193 3 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 43 - - 43 0 - - Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) - - - - 1 1 0

167

RPT_PERIOD","R_S_NAME","LINE_NUM","PROD_CODE","PROD_NAME","PORT_CODE","PORT_CITY  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

RPT_PERIOD","R_S_NAME","LINE_NUM","PROD_CODE","PROD_NAME","PORT_CODE","PORT_CITY","PORT_STATE","PORT_PADD","GCTRY_CODE","CNTRY_NAME","QUANTITY","SULFUR","APIGRAVITY","PCOMP_RNAM","PCOMP_SNAM","PCOMP_STAT","STATE_NAME","PCOMP_PADD" RPT_PERIOD","R_S_NAME","LINE_NUM","PROD_CODE","PROD_NAME","PORT_CODE","PORT_CITY","PORT_STATE","PORT_PADD","GCTRY_CODE","CNTRY_NAME","QUANTITY","SULFUR","APIGRAVITY","PCOMP_RNAM","PCOMP_SNAM","PCOMP_STAT","STATE_NAME","PCOMP_PADD" 41547,"AEROPRES CORP ",1,253,"Isobutane/Ngl",3402,"NOYES, MN","MINNESOTA",2,260,"CANADA",2,0,0,,,,," " 41547,"AEROPRES CORP ",2,252,"Normal Butane/Ngl",3402,"NOYES, MN","MINNESOTA",2,260,"CANADA",5,0,0,,,,," "

168

TABLE11.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1. 1. PAD District IV-Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum (Thousand Barrels per Day) January 1998 Crude Oil ........................................... 356 - 204 52 -131 -1 0 483 0 0 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ........ 131 (s) 17 - -93 (s) - 19 (s) 35 Pentanes Plus .................................. 25 - 4 - -11 (s) - 5 (s) 12 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 106 (s) 14 - -82 (s) - 14 (s) 23 Ethane/Ethylene ........................... 31 0 0 - -41 0 - 0 0 -10 Propane/Propylene ....................... 48 9 8 - -23 -2 - 0 (s) 43 Normal Butane/Butylene ............... 18 -7 6 - -10 1 - 11 0 -5 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................... 9 -3 0 - -8 1 - 2 0 -4 Other Liquids .................................... 11 - 0 - 0 18 - -5 0 -2 Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates .... 3 - 0 - 0 -1 - 4 0 0 Unfinished Oils ................................. - - 0 - 0 3 - -1 0 -2 Motor Gasoline

169

table03.chp:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3. 3. U.S. Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 1998 Crude Oil ............................................... 6,541 - 8,339 60 389 0 14,319 231 0 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ........... 1,805 497 238 - -497 - 478 68 2,492 Pentanes Plus .................................... 303 - 38 - 37 - 138 15 151 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ................ 1,502 497 200 - -534 - 340 53 2,340 Ethane/Ethylene ............................ 636 24 18 - -55 - 0 0 734 Propane/Propylene ........................ 533 527 137 - -310 - 0 29 1,478 Normal Butane/Butylene ............... 155 -65 28 - -179 - 234 24 39 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................... 178 11 17 - 11 - 106 0 89 Other Liquids ........................................ 285 - 476 - 244 - 564 69 -116 Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates ...... 369 - 51 - 33 - 337 50 0 Unfinished Oils ...................................

170

TABLE35.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Thousand Thousand Barrels) January 1998 Crude Oil .................................................................. 344 433 -89 62,087 2,094 59,993 Petroleum Products ................................................ 103,659 8,121 95,538 34,597 13,141 21,456 Pentanes Plus ....................................................... 0 0 0 678 159 519 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ................................... 4,737 0 4,737 6,111 6,365 -254 Ethane/Ethylene ............................................... 0 0 0 773 2,988 -2,215 Propane/Propylene ........................................... 4,630 0 4,630 3,760 2,792 968 Normal Butane/Butylene ................................... 107 0 107 1,086 515 571 Isobutane/Isobutylene ...................................... 0 0 0 492 70 422 Unfinished Oils ......................................................

171

Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Crude Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Crude Oil & Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components (net) Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

172

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,980 842 4,204 1,948 672 -339 187 3,995 240 4,886 ,980 842 4,204 1,948 672 -339 187 3,995 240 4,886 Crude Oil 1,472 - - - - 1,839 556 -359 17 3,416 76 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 508 -17 115 63 -14 - - 75 105 71 404 Pentanes Plus 63 -17 - - 0 98 - - -18 37 53 72 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 444 - - 115 63 -112 - - 93 68 18 332 Ethane/Ethylene 163 - - - 0 -100 - - 11 - - 52 Propane/Propylene 186 - - 104 49 -22 - - 66 - 7 244 Normal Butane/Butylene 52 - - 16 5 5 - - 22 17 11 29 Isobutane/Isobutylene 43 - - -4 8 5 - - -6 50 - 7 Other Liquids - - 858 - - 12 -143 127 346 474 40 -6 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 858 - - 5 -547 -8 11 271 26 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 23 - - 23 0 - -

173

table07.chp:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

558 558 - 893 -73 1,935 -111 0 3,387 38 0 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ....... 283 89 116 - 9 -210 - 123 24 558 Pentanes Plus .................................. 37 - 1 - 17 7 - 25 15 9 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 246 89 115 - -8 -217 - 98 10 550 Ethane/Ethylene ........................... 94 0 (s) - -71 -4 - 0 0 26 Propane/Propylene ....................... 100 116 86 - 31 -155 - 0 3 485 Normal Butane/Butylene .............. 37 -27 16 - 18 -48 - 74 6 12 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................... 15 (s) 13 - 14 -10 - 24 0 27 Other Liquids .................................... 24 - 0 - 38 40 - 46 (s) -24 Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates .... 45 - 0 - 0 7 - 37 (s) 0 Unfinished Oils ................................. - - 0 - -4 17 - 3 0 -24 Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. .......... -21 - 0 - 42 16 - 6 (s) 0 Aviation Gasoline Blend. Comp. ....... - - 0 - 0 -1 - 1 0 0 Finished Petroleum Products .......... 71 3,648 9 - 646 154

174

TABLE13.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3. 3. PAD District V - Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum (Thousand Barrels per Day) January 1998 Crude Oil ............................................ 2,165 - 440 154 -73 101 0 2,393 193 0 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ........ 93 43 (s) - 0 -51 - 98 15 75 Pentanes Plus ................................... 51 - 0 - 0 (s) - 42 (s) 9 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 42 43 (s) - 0 -51 - 56 15 66 Ethane/Ethylene ............................ (s) 0 0 - 0 0 - 0 0 (s) Propane/Propylene ....................... 12 47 (s) - 0 -26 - 0 5 80 Normal Butane/Butylene ............... 21 -8 0 - 0 -25 - 43 10 -15 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................... 10 5 0 - 0 (s) - 13 0 2 Other Liquids ..................................... 87 - 71 - 24 87 - 73 3 19 Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates ..... 109 - 28 - 0 14 - 121 3 0 Unfinished Oils ................................. - - 43 - 0 32 - -8 0 19 Motor

175

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

562 822 4,163 1,839 735 -69 52 3,955 244 4,801 562 822 4,163 1,839 735 -69 52 3,955 244 4,801 Crude Oil 1,116 - - - - 1,730 800 -87 62 3,442 55 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 446 -16 121 74 -25 - - -12 105 111 395 Pentanes Plus 50 -16 - - 1 82 - - -4 31 101 -12 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 396 - - 121 73 -107 - - -8 74 11 407 Ethane/Ethylene 163 - - - 0 -108 - - -2 - - 58 Propane/Propylene 156 - - 108 59 -24 - - -3 - 2 300 Normal Butane/Butylene 48 - - 11 9 10 - - -4 29 9 45 Isobutane/Isobutylene 29 - - 2 6 14 - - 1 46 - 5 Other Liquids - - 838 - - 5 -258 -159 8 408 25 -16 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 838 - - 3 -565 4 1 257 21 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 22 - - 22 0 - -

176

TABLE18.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8. 8. Refinery Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, January 1998 Crude Oil .................................................................... 14,835 511 15,346 8,591 1,779 2,386 12,756 Petroleum Products .................................................. 53,526 2,604 56,130 37,545 10,689 14,376 62,610 Pentanes Plus .......................................................... 0 0 0 4 209 225 438 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ...................................... 1,482 13 1,495 2,085 308 672 3,065 Ethane/Ethylene ................................................... 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 Propane/Propylene ............................................... 564 5 569 1,196 16 332 1,544 Normal Butane/Butylene ....................................... 584 6 590 608 205 232 1,045 Isobutane/Isobutylene ...........................................

177

Total Blender Net Input of Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Input Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquid Petroleum Gases Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Oxygenates/Renewables Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

178

table05.chp:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

27 27 - 1,721 -65 -3 170 0 1,511 0 0 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ....... 27 18 40 - 153 -28 - 8 1 257 Pentanes Plus .................................. 3 - 0 - 0 (s) - 0 (s) 2 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 24 18 40 - 153 -28 - 8 1 254 Ethane/Ethylene ............................ 8 0 0 - 0 0 - 0 0 8 Propane/Propylene ........................ 11 54 39 - 149 -8 - 0 1 261 Normal Butane/Butylene ............... 4 -27 1 - 3 -18 - 5 (s) -7 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................... 1 -9 0 - 0 -2 - 3 0 -8 Other Liquids .................................... -9 - 183 - 11 17 - 234 1 -67 Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates ..... 64 - 22 - 0 7 - 79 1 0 Unfinished Oils ................................. - - 34 - 0 -2 - 104 0 -68 Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. ........... -72 - 126 - 11 12 - 54 (s) 0 Aviation Gasoline Blend. Comp. ....... - - 0 - 0 1 - -2 0 1 Finished Petroleum Products .......... 76 1,798 771 - 2,918 -104 - - 63 5,603 Finished

179

direct normal | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

normal normal Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): A map depicting model estimates of monthly average daily total radiation using inputs derived from satellite and surface observations of cloud cover, aerosol optical depth, precipitable water vapor, albedo, atmospheric pressure and ozone sampled at a 40km resolution. (Purpose): A visual depiction of solar energy resource for concentrating solar power systems. Source NREL Date Released December 11th, 2003 (10 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords Central America direct normal DNI map NREL solar SWERA UNEP Data application/pdf icon Download Map (pdf, 67.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below

180

Weather Normalization of Reliability Indices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Weather significantly increases variability of reliability indices. This project focuses on exploring statistical correlations between weather parameters and system performance indices using historical utility reliability data and weather data. Using this information, various approaches for normalizing utility performance indices for variability in weather can be developed.

2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal butane isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Pt3Ru6 Clusters Supported on gamma-Al2O3: Synthesis from Pt3Ru6(Cu)21(u3-H)(u-H)3, Structural Characterization, and Catalysis of Ethylene Hydrogenation and n-Butane Hydrogenolysis  

SciTech Connect

The supported clusters Pt-Ru/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared by adsorption of the bimetallic precursor Pt{sub 3}Ru{sub 6}(Cu){sub 21}({mu}{sub 3}-H)({mu}-H){sub 3} from CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} solution onto {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} followed by decarbonylation in He at 300 C. The resultant supported clusters were characterized by infrared (IR) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopies and as catalysts for ethylene hydrogenation and n-butane hydrogenolysis. After adsorption, the {nu}{sub CO} peaks characterizing the precursor shifted to lower wavenumbers, and some of the hydroxyl bands of the support disappeared or changed, indicating that the CO ligands of the precursor interacted with support hydroxyl groups. The EXAFS results show that the metal core of the precursor remained essentially unchanged upon adsorption, but there were distortions of the metal core indicated by changes in the metal-metal distances. After decarbonylation of the supported clusters, the EXAFS data indicated that Pt and Ru atoms interacted with support oxygen atoms and that about half of the Pt-Ru bonds were maintained, with the composition of the metal frame remaining almost unchanged. The decarbonylated supported bimetallic clusters reported here are the first having essentially the same metal core composition as that of a precursor metal carbonyl, and they appear to be the best-defined supported bimetallic clusters. The material was found to be an active catalyst for ethylene hydrogenation and n-butane hydrogenolysis under conditions mild enough to prevent substantial cluster disruption.

Chotisuwan,S.; Wittayakun, J.; Gates, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Roaming radical pathways for the decomposition of alkanes.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CASPT2 calculations predict the existence of roaming radical pathways for the decomposition of propane, n-butane, isobutane and neopentane. The roaming radical paths lead to the formation of an alkane and an alkene instead of the expected radical products. The predicted barriers for the roaming radical paths lie {approx}1 kcal/mol below the corresponding radical asymptotes.

Harding, L. B.; Klippenstein, S. J. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Normalization method for video images  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for automatically and adaptively normalizing analog signals representative of video images in object detection systems. Such normalization maximizes the average information content of the video images and, thereby, provides optimal digitized images for object detection and identification. The present invention manipulates two system control signals -- gain control signal and offset control signal -- to convert an analog image signal into a transformed analog image signal, such that the corresponding digitized image contains the maximum amount of information achievable with a conventional object detection system. In some embodiments of the present invention, information content is measured using parameters selected from image entropy, image mean, and image variance.

Donohoe, G.W.; Hush, D.R.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

184

Normalized information-based divergences  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper is devoted to the mathematical study of some divergences based on the mutual information well-suited to categorical random vectors. These divergences are generalizations of the“entropy distance”and“information distance”. Their main characteristic is that they combine a complexity term and the mutual information. We then introduce the notion of (normalized) informationbased divergence, propose several examples and discuss their mathematical properties.

J. -f. Coeurjolly; R. Drouilhet; J. -f. Robineau

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

U.S. Refinery and Blender Net Production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Total 559,639 599,643 591,916 616,905 613,451 578,101 1981-2013 Liquefied Refinery Gases 24,599 26,928 25,443 26,819 25,951 19,023 1981-2013 Ethane/Ethylene 464 426 407 441 487 379 1981-2013 Ethane 317 277 283 312 332 232 1993-2013 Ethylene 147 149 124 129 155 147 1993-2013 Propane/Propylene 16,840 17,792 16,966 17,839 18,063 17,254 1981-2013 Propane 8,051 8,949 8,756 9,002 9,153 8,816 1995-2013 Propylene 8,789 8,843 8,210 8,837 8,910 8,438 1993-2013 Normal Butane/Butylene 7,270 8,876 8,122 8,676 7,664 1,738 1981-2013 Normal Butane 7,447 9,044 8,314 8,832 8,067 1,743 1993-2013 Butylene -177 -168 -192 -156 -403 -5 1993-2013 Isobutane/Isobutylene

186

Definition: Direct normal irradiance | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Direct normal irradiance the amount of solar radiation received per unit area by a surface perpendicular (normal) to the rays...

187

Normalized Compression Distance of Multiples  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Normalized compression distance (NCD) is a parameter-free similarity measure based on compression. The NCD between pairs of objects is not sufficient for all applications. We propose an NCD of finite multisets (multiples) of objacts that is metric and is better for many applications. Previously, attempts to obtain such an NCD failed. We use the theoretical notion of Kolmogorov complexity that for practical purposes is approximated from above by the length of the compressed version of the file involved, using a real-world compression program. We applied the new NCD for multiples to retinal progenitor cell questions that were earlier treated with the pairwise NCD. Here we get significantly better results. We also applied the NCD for multiples to synthetic time sequence data. The preliminary results are as good as nearest neighbor Euclidean classifier.

Cohen, Andrew R

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Major Normal Fault | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Major Normal Fault Major Normal Fault Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Major Normal Fault Dictionary.png Major Normal Fault: Normal faults are structures in which the hanging wall is down dropped along the fault plane relative to the foot wall. They are the predominant type of structure in extensional tectonic environments, but are commonly encountered in a number of geologic settings. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Controlling Structures List of controlling structures typically associated with geothermal systems: Major Normal Fault Termination of a Major Normal Fault Stepover or Relay Ramp in Normal Fault Zones Apex or Salient of Normal Fault Fault Intersection Accommodation Zone Displacement Transfer Zone Pull-Apart in Strike-Slip Fault Zone

189

U.S. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Ethylene Propane/Propylene Propylene (Nonfuel Use) Normal Butane/Butylene Refinery Grade Butane Isobutane/Butylene Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) MTBE Other Oxygenates Renewables (including Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils Unfinished Oils, Naphthas & Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene & Light Gas Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Aviation Gasoline Blending Comp. Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Gasoline, Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm Sulfur and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Sulfur Distillate F.O., Greater 500 ppm Sulfur Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., than 1.00% Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petro. Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petro. Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products

190

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Plant Processing Plant Processing Definitions Key Terms Definition Extraction Loss The reduction in volume of natural gas due to the removal of natural gas liquid constituents such as ethane, propane, and butane at natural gas processing plants. Natural Gas Processed Natural gas that has gone through a processing plant. Natural Gas Processing Plant A facility designed to recover natural gas liquids from a stream of natural gas which may or may not have passed through lease separators and/or field separation facilities. These facilities also control the quality of the natural gas to be marketed. Cycling plants are classified as natural gas processing plants. For definitions of related energy terms, refer to the EIA Energy Glossary. Sources Natural Gas Processed, Total Liquids Extracted, and Extraction Loss Volume: Form EIA-64A, "Annual Report of the Origin of Natural Gas Liquids Production" . Estimated Heat Content of Extraction Loss: Estimated, assuming the makeup to total liquids production as reported on Form EIA-64A for each State was proportional to the components and products ultimately separated in the States as reported on the 12 monthly reports on Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-816, "Monthly Natural Gas Liquids Report," and applying the following conversion factors to the individual component and product production estimates (million Btu extraction loss per barrel of liquid produced): ethane - 3.082; propane - 3.836; normal butane - 4.326; isobutane - 3.974; pentanes plus - 4.620.

191

Measurement of liquified petroleum gas  

SciTech Connect

Propane, iso-butane, and normal butane commonly referred to as Liquified Petroleum Gases or LPG's are used as heating and transportation fuels, feed-stocks for petrochemical plants, gasoline additives, and aerosol propellents. These liquids are commonly stored in high pressure vessels, underground caverns, or salt domes. Pipelines, trucks, and rail cars are used for transporting these fluids. LPG's must conform to industry accepted specifications regarding their composition and the allowable amounts of contaminants that may be present such as sulphur, heavy hydrocarbons, and water. GPA Standard 2140-80, Liquified Petroleum Gas Specifications and Test Methods, outlines the test procedures to be followed in determining product quality. The physical properties of LPG's including low specific gravities (0.498 to 0.584), high vapor pressures, low boiling points, and lack of lubricity must be considered when storing, transporting, or measuring them. LPG's are easily measured if certain precautions are taken. The equipment must be properly installed, maintained, and calibrated. If meters are used, product flow must be in liquid phase. Due to the considerable effect of temperature and pressure on LPG's, volumes obtained at operating conditions must be reduced to standard conditions.

Vehe, R.E.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Rhenium Complexes and Clusters Supported on c-Al2O3: Effects of Rhenium Oxidation State and Rhenium Cluster Size on Catalytic Activity for n-butane Hydrogenolysis  

SciTech Connect

Supported metals prepared from H{sub 3}Re{sub 3}(CO){sub 12} on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were treated under conditions that led to various rhenium structures on the support and were tested as catalysts for n-butane conversion in the presence of H{sub 2} in a flow reactor at 533 K and 1 atm. After use, two samples were characterized by X-ray absorption edge positions of approximately 5.6 eV (relative to rhenium metal), indicating that the rhenium was cationic and essentially in the same average oxidation state in each. But the Re-Re coordination numbers found by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (2.2 and 5.1) show that the clusters in the two samples were significantly different in average nuclearity despite their indistinguishable rhenium oxidation states. Spectra of a third sample after catalysis indicate approximately Re{sub 3} clusters, on average, and an edge position of 4.5 eV. Thus, two samples contained clusters approximated as Re{sub 3} (on the basis of the Re-Re coordination number), on average, with different average rhenium oxidation states. The data allow resolution of the effects of rhenium oxidation state and cluster size, both of which affect the catalytic activity; larger clusters and a greater degree of reduction lead to increased activity.

Lobo Lapidus, R.; Gates, B

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

A simple proof of Jordan normal form  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this note, a simple proof Jordan normal form and rational form of matrices over a field is given.

Chen, Yuqun

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

A Harmonic Approach for Calculating Daily Temperature Normals Constrained by Homogenized Monthly Temperature Normals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NOAA released the new 1981–2010 climate normals in July 2011. These included monthly and daily normals of minimum and maximum temperature. Monthly normals were computed from monthly temperature values that were corrected for biases (i.e., ...

Anthony Arguez; Scott Applequist

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Making Forecasts and Weather Normalization Work Together  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric utility industry restructuring has changed the consistency between weather-normalized sales and energy forecasts. This Technology Review discusses the feasibility of integrating weather normalization and forecasting processes, and addresses whether the conflicting goal of obtaining greater consistency and accuracy with fewer staff resources can be met with more integrated approaches.

2000-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

196

Asymptotically almost all -terms are strongly normalizing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Asymptotically almost all -terms are strongly normalizing Ren´e David, Christophe Raffalli) properties of random -terms. Our main results show that asymptotically, almost all terms are strongly normalizing and that any fixed closed term almost never appears in a random term. Surprisingly, in combinatory

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

197

Asymptotically almost all -terms are strongly normalizing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Asymptotically almost all -terms are strongly normalizing Ren´e David, Christophe Raffalli) properties of random -terms. Our main results are that asymptotically all the terms are strongly normalizing and that any fixed closed term almost never appears in a random term. Surprisingly, in combinatory logic (the

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

198

Definition: Direct normal irradiance | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

normal irradiance normal irradiance (Redirected from Definition:DNI) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Direct normal irradiance the amount of solar radiation received per unit area by a surface perpendicular (normal) to the rays that come in a straight line from the direction of the sun at its current position in the sky.[1] Also Known As DNI Related Terms Solar radiation, Irradiance, Concentrating solar power, Global horizontal irradiance References ↑ http://www.3tier.com/en/support/glossary/#dni Retrie LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. ved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Direct_normal_irradiance&oldid=423379" Category: Definitions What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link

199

Normal Mode Initialization with Elementary Surface Friction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Various normal-mode initialization techniques are applied to a simple 12-level linear model with boundary layer friction, and results are compared to exact solutions of the model. It is found that Machenhauer's initialization scheme gives an ...

Bradley A. Ballish; Ferdinand Baer

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

NORMAL EMISSION PHOTOELECTRON DIFFRACTION STUDIES AT SSRL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DIFFRACTION STUDIES AT SSRL S. D. Kevan June 1980 TWO-WEEKDIFFRACTION STUDIES AT SSRL S.D. Kevan Materials andOur group has worked at SSRL using the normal emission

Kevan, S.D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal butane isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Perfect Implementation of Normal-Form Mechanisms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Privacy and trust affect our strategic thinking, yet they have not been precisely modeled in mechanism design. In settings of incomplete information, traditional implementations of a normal-form mechanism ---by disregarding ...

Izmalkov, Sergei

202

Nonlinear Normal Mode Initialization with Physics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The nonlinear normal mode initialization with physics was applied for analyses in FGGE IIIb data of the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). A convergence of the iteration in the initialization was attained by modifying ...

Takeo Kitade

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Vertical Normal Mode Transforms: Theory and Application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The separation of the vertical structure of the, solutions of the primitive (hydrostatic) meteorological equations is formalized as a vertical normal-mode transform. The transform is implemented for arbitrary static stability profiles by the ...

Scott R. Fulton; Wayne H. Schubert

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Isobutane/Butylene Bulk Terminal Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil stocks in the ...

205

Refinery & Blender Net Production of Isobutane/Isobutylene  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

206

Refinery Net Production of Isobutane - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

207

Refinery Stocks of Isobutane/Isobutylene - U.S. Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: "Other Oxygenates ...

208

Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physisorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics.

Sachtler, Wolfgang M. H. (Evanston, IL); Huang, Yin-Yan (Evanston, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods are disclosed for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physical sorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics. 17 figs.

Sachtler, W.M.H.; Huang, Y.Y.

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

210

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband direct normal irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

normal irradiance normal irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband direct normal irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in broad bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4{mu}m, that comes directly from the Sun without being scattered or absorbed in the atmosphere, passes through a unit area perpendicular to the direction from the Sun. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments

211

direct normal irradiance | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

normal irradiance normal irradiance Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. Source NREL Date Released July 31st, 2006 (8 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords direct normal irradiance DNI GEF GHI GIS global horizontal irradiance insolation latitutde tilt irradiance NASA NREL South America SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile and Cell Maps (zip, 13.9 MiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 3.5 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

212

Handbook of normal frames and coordinates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main subject of the book is an up-to-date and in-depth survey of the theory of normal frames and coordinates in differential geometry. The book can be used as a reference manual, review of the existing results and introduction to some new ideas and developments. In the book can be found practically all existing essential results and methods concerning normal frames and coordinates. Most of the results are represented in full detail with full, in some cases new, proofs. All classical results are expanded and generalized in various directions. Theorems of existence, uniqueness and, possibly, holonomicity of the normal frames and coordinates are proved; mostly, the proofs are constructive and some their parts can be used independently for other tasks. Besides published results, their extensions and generalizations, the book contains completely new results which appear for the first time.

Bozhidar Z. Iliev

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Projecting “Normals” in a Nonstationary Climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Climate “normals” are statistical estimates of present and/or near-future climate means for such quantities as seasonal temperature or precipitation. In a changing climate, simply averaging a large number of previous years of data may not be the ...

D. S. Wilks

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Target Dependent Score Normalization Techniques and . . .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Score normalization methods in biometric verification, which encompass the more traditional user-dependent decision thresholding techniques, are reviewed from a test hypotheses point of view. These are classified into test dependent and target dependent methods. The focus of the paper is on target dependent methods, which are further classified into impostor-centric, target-centric and target-impostor. These are applied to an on-line signature verification system on signature data from SVC 2004. In particular, a target-centric technique based on a variant of the cross-validation procedure provides the best relative performance improvement both for skilled (19%) and random forgeries (53%) as compared to the raw verification performance without score normalization (7.14% EER and 1.06% EER for skilled and random forgeries respectively).

J. Fierrez-Aguilar; J. Ortega-Garcia; J. Gonzalez-Rodriguez

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

What Is the New Normal Unemployment Rate?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent labor markets developments, including mismatches in the skills of workers and jobs, extended unemployment benefits, and very high rates of long-term joblessness, may be impeding the return to “normal ” unemployment rates of around 5%. An examination of alternative measures of labor market conditions suggests that the “normal ” unemployment rate may have risen as much as 1.7 percentage points to about 6.7%, although much of this increase is likely to prove temporary. Even with such an increase, sizable labor market slack is expected to persist for years. In the past, the U.S. labor market has proven to be very flexible and recessions have not usually been followed by long-lasting increases in the unemployment rate. But, in the wake of the most recent recession, many economists are concerned that developments such as mismatches in the skills of workers and jobs, extended unemployment benefits, and a rise in long-term joblessness may have raised the “normal ” or “natural ” rate of unemployment above the 5 % level that was thought to be typical before the downturn. Indeed, a few economists have gone so far as to argue that the rise in the unemployment rate to its current level of 9 % primarily reflects an increase in the natural rate, implying there is little slack in labor markets and therefore little downward pressure on inflation. This Economic Letter

Weidner; John C. Williams

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Superacid catalysis of light hydrocarbon conversion. Final report, August 26, 1993--August 26, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Motivated by the goal of finding improved catalysts for low- temperature conversion of light alkanes into fuel components or precursors of fuel components, the researchers have investigated sulfated zirconia and promoted sulfated zirconia for conversion of butane, propane, and ethane. Catalyst performance data for sulfated zirconia promoted with iron and manganese show that it is the most active noncorrosive, nonhalide catalyst known for n-butane isomerization, and it is an excellent candidate catalyst for new low- temperature n-butane isomerization processes to make isobutane, which can be converted by established technology into methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE). Various transition metals have been found to work as promoters of sulfated zirconia for n-butane isomerization. The combination of iron and manganese is the best known combination of promoters yet discovered. The iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia is also a catalyst for conversion of propane and of ethane. Ethane is converted into ethylene and butanes in the presence of the iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia; propane is also converted into butane, among other products. However, the activities of the catalyst for these reactions are orders of magnitude less than the activity for n-butane conversion, and there is no evidence that the catalyst would be of practical value for conversion of alkanes lighter than butane. The product distribution data for ethane and propane conversion provide new insights into the nature of the catalyst and its acidity. These data suggest the involvement of Olah superacid chemistry, whereby the catalyst protonates the alkane itself, giving carbonium ions (as transition states). The mechanism of protonation of the alkane may also pertain to the conversion of butane, but there is good evidence that the butane conversion also proceeds via alkene intermediates by conventional mechanisms of carbenium ion formation and rearrangement.

Gates, B.C.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

217

Normal Modes of Black Hole Accretion Disks  

SciTech Connect

This paper studies the hydrodynamical problem of normal modes of small adiabatic oscillations of relativistic barotropic thin accretion disks around black holes (and compact weakly magnetic neutron stars). Employing WKB techniques, we obtain the eigen frequencies and eigenfunctions of the modes for different values of the mass and angular momentum of the central black hole. We discuss the properties of the various types of modes and examine the role of viscosity, as it appears to render some of the modes unstable to rapid growth.

Ortega-Rodriguez, Manuel; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Costa Rica U.; Silbergleit, Alexander S.; /Stanford U., HEPL; Wagoner, Robert V.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

2006-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

218

A signal-to-noise approach to score normalization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Score normalization is indispensable in distributed retrieval and fusion or meta-search where merging of result-lists is required. Distributional approaches to score normalization with reference to relevance, such as binary mixture models like the normal-exponential, ... Keywords: Zipf's law, distributed retrieval, filtering, fusion, meta-search, power-law, query length distribution, query model, resource selection, score distribution, score normalization

Avi Arampatzis; Jaap Kamps

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Apex or Salient of Normal Fault | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Apex or Salient of Normal Fault Apex or Salient of Normal Fault Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Apex or Salient of Normal Fault Dictionary.png Apex or Salient of Normal Fault: Normal faults may intersect in the subsurface to form a fault apex or salient. Apices or salients of normal faults account for 3% of structural controls in the Great Basin. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Controlling Structures List of controlling structures typically associated with geothermal systems: Major Normal Fault Termination of a Major Normal Fault Stepover or Relay Ramp in Normal Fault Zones Apex or Salient of Normal Fault Fault Intersection Accommodation Zone Displacement Transfer Zone Pull-Apart in Strike-Slip Fault Zone Intrusion Margins and Associated Fractures Stratigraphic Boundaries

220

Overview Report: Normal and Emergency Operation Visualization  

SciTech Connect

This is an overview report to document and illustrate methods used in a project entitled “Normal and Emergency Operations Visualization” for a utility company, conducted in 2009-2010 timeframe with funding from the utility company and the U.S. Department of Energy. The original final report (about 180 pages) for the project is not available for distribution because it alludes to findings that assessed the design of an operational system that contained proprietary information; this abridged version contains descriptions of methods and some findings to illustrate the approach used, while avoiding discussion of sensitive or proprietary information. The client has approved this abridged version of the report for unlimited distribution to give researchers and collaborators the benefit of reviewing the research concepts and methods that were applied in this study.

Greitzer, Frank L.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal butane isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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221

Asymptotic normalization coefficients from ab initio calculations.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present calculations of asymptotic normalization coefficients (ANCs) for one-nucleon removals from nuclear states of mass numbers 3 {le} A {le} 9. Our ANCs were computed from variational Monte Carlo solutions to the many-body Schroedinger equation with the combined Argonne v{sub 18} two-nucleon and Urbana IX three-nucleon potentials. Instead of computing explicit overlap integrals, we applied a Green function method that is insensitive to the difficulties of constructing and Monte Carlo sampling the long-range tails of the variational wave functions. This method also allows computation of the ANC at the physical separation energy, even when it differs from the separation energy for the Hamiltonian. We compare our results, which for most nuclei are the first ab initio calculations of ANCs, with existing experimental and theoretical results and discuss further possible applications of the technique.

Nollett, K. M.; Wiringa, R. B. (Physics)

2011-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

222

Fractal Fluctuations and Statistical Normal Distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dynamical systems in nature exhibit selfsimilar fractal fluctuations and the corresponding power spectra follow inverse power law form signifying long-range space-time correlations identified as self-organized criticality. The physics of self-organized criticality is not yet identified. The Gaussian probability distribution used widely for analysis and description of large data sets underestimates the probabilities of occurrence of extreme events such as stock market crashes, earthquakes, heavy rainfall, etc. The assumptions underlying the normal distribution such as fixed mean and standard deviation, independence of data, are not valid for real world fractal data sets exhibiting a scale-free power law distribution with fat tails. A general systems theory for fractals visualizes the emergence of successively larger scale fluctuations to result from the space-time integration of enclosed smaller scale fluctuations. The model predicts a universal inverse power law incorporating the golden mean for fractal fluctuations and for the corresponding power spectra, i.e., the variance spectrum represents the probabilities, a signature of quantum systems. Fractal fluctuations therefore exhibit quantum-like chaos. The model predicted inverse power law is very close to the Gaussian distribution for small-scale fluctuations, but exhibits a fat long tail for large-scale fluctuations. Extensive data sets of Dow Jones index, Human DNA, Takifugu rubripes (Puffer fish) DNA are analysed to show that the space/time data sets are close to the model predicted power law distribution.

A. M. Selvam

2008-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

223

Empirical Normal Modes versus Empirical Orthogonal Functions for Statistical Prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The theory of empirical normal modes (ENMs) for a shallow water fluid is developed. ENMs are basis functions that both have the statistical properties of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) and the dynamical properties of normal modes. In fact, ...

Gilbert Brunet; Robert Vautard

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Optimizing Input Data for Gridding Climate Normals for Canada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spatial models of 1971–2000 monthly climate normals for daily maximum and minimum temperature and total precipitation are required for many applications. The World Meteorological Organization’s recommended standard for the calculation of a normal ...

Ron F. Hopkinson; Michael F. Hutchinson; Daniel W. McKenney; Ewa J. Milewska; Pia Papadopol

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

U.S. Blender Net Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Total Input 1,184,435 1,522,193 1,850,204 2,166,784 2,331,109 2,399,318 2005-2012 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 3,445 5,686 6,538 7,810 10,663 2008-2012 Pentanes Plus 2,012 474 1,808 1,989 2,326 4,164 2005-2012 Liquid Petroleum Gases 2,971 3,878 4,549 5,484 6,499 2008-2012 Normal Butane 2,943 2,971 3,878 4,549 5,484 6,499 2005-2012 Isobutane 2005-2006 Other Liquids 1,518,748 1,844,518 2,160,246 2,323,299 2,388,655 2008-2012 Oxygenates/Renewables 234,047 274,974 286,837 295,004 2009-2012 Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 2005-2006 Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) 234,047 274,974 286,837 295,004 2009-2012 Fuel Ethanol 131,810 182,772 232,677 273,107 281,507 287,433 2005-2012

226

table04.chp:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4. 4. PAD District I-Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 1998 Crude Oil ........................................... 824 - 53,357 -2,000 -89 5,262 0 46,830 0 0 16,235 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ........ 829 569 1,233 - 4,737 -869 - 252 24 7,961 5,223 Pentanes Plus ................................ 79 - 0 - 0 7 - 0 1 71 19 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ............ 750 569 1,233 - 4,737 -876 - 252 24 7,889 5,204 Ethane/Ethylene ........................ 262 0 0 - 0 0 - 0 0 262 0 Propane/Propylene .................... 334 1,689 1,206 - 4,630 -262 - 0 20 8,101 4,043 Normal Butane/Butylene ............ 116 -843 27 - 107 -548 - 162 3 -210 821 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................ 38 -277 0 - 0 -66 - 90 0 -263 340 Other Liquids .................................... -272 - 5,668 - 350 537 - 7,268 17 -2,076 19,354 Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates ... 1,973

227

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 9 Table 5.10 Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Finished Petroleum Products 1 Liquefied Petroleum Gases Pentanes Plus 4 Total Ethane 2 Isobutane Normal Butane 3 Propane 2,3 Total 1949 53 8 11 61 74 155 223 430 1950 66 12 13 69 101 195 238 499 1955 68 34 30 120 205 390 313 771 1960 47 51 45 161 291 549 333 929 1965 41 92 67 185 390 734 434 1,210 1970 25 201 84 248 561 1,095 540 1,660 1975 7 337 90 237 552 1,217 409 1,633 1976 6 365 82 227 521 1,195 403 1,604 1977 5 397 81 223 513 1,214 399 1,618 1978 3 406 75 210 491 1,182 382 1,567 1979 26 400 104 212 500 1,216 342 1,584 1980 23 396 105 210 494 1,205 345 1,573 1981 18 397 117 224 519 1,256 334 1,609 1982 11 426 109 204 519 1,258 282 1,550 1983 12 456 100 217 541 1,314 233 1,559 1984 4 505 99 203 527 1,334 292 1,630 1985 14 493 127 171 521 1,313 282 1,609 1986 4 485 128 157 508 1,277

228

Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Butylene Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) MTBE Other Oxygenates Renewables (including Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils Unfinished Oils, Naphthas & Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene & Light Gas Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Aviation Gasoline Blending Comp. Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Gasoline, Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm Sulfur and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Sulfur Distillate F.O., Greater 500 ppm Sulfur Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., than 1.00% Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petro. Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petro. Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels

229

U.S. Natural Gas Plant Field Production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Natural Gas Liquids 650,794 652,822 697,124 757,019 808,865 881,306 1981-2012 Pentanes Plus 95,899 96,530 98,904 101,155 106,284 116,002 1981-2012 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 554,895 556,292 598,220 655,864 702,581 765,304 1981-2012 Ethane 258,682 256,713 280,590 317,180 337,972 356,592 1981-2012 Propane 185,099 187,340 199,398 213,782 230,227 260,704 1981-2012 Normal Butane 46,833 48,976 49,528 56,655 57,399 65,555 1981-2012 Isobutane 64,281 63,263 68,704 68,247 76,983 82,453 1981-2012 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions, Sources, and Notes link above for more information on this table.

230

U.S. Blender Net Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Total Input 206,541 217,867 212,114 216,075 219,783 208,203 2005-2013 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 891 352 376 196 383 1,397 2008-2013 Pentanes Plus 261 301 313 67 287 393 2005-2013 Liquid Petroleum Gases 630 51 63 129 96 1,004 2008-2013 Normal Butane 630 51 63 129 96 1,004 2005-2013 Isobutane 2005-2006 Other Liquids 205,650 217,515 211,738 215,879 219,400 206,806 2008-2013 Oxygenates/Renewables 25,156 26,576 26,253 26,905 27,788 25,795 2009-2013 Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 2005-2006 Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) 25,156 26,576 26,253 26,905 27,788 25,795 2009-2013 Fuel Ethanol 24,163 25,526 24,804 25,491 25,970 24,116 2005-2013

231

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

59,397 25,268 126,131 58,449 20,168 -10,157 5,610 119,848 7,211 59,397 25,268 126,131 58,449 20,168 -10,157 5,610 119,848 7,211 146,586 280,571 Crude Oil 44,167 - - - - 55,181 16,673 -10,758 505 102,476 2,282 0 102,610 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 15,230 -515 3,462 1,887 -432 - - 2,252 3,146 2,129 12,105 58,830 Pentanes Plus 1,896 -515 - - 6 2,928 - - -549 1,119 1,599 2,146 7,743 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 13,334 - - 3,462 1,881 -3,360 - - 2,801 2,027 530 9,959 51,087 Ethane/Ethylene 4,901 - - - 9 -3,013 - - 339 - - 1,558 4,694 Propane/Propylene 5,587 - - 3,111 1,470 -650 - - 1,991 - 199 7,328 24,444 Normal Butane/Butylene 1,561 - - 475 162 156 - - 651 514 331 858 20,078 Isobutane/Isobutylene 1,285 - - -124 240 147 - - -180 1,513 - 215 1,871

232

East Coast (PADD 1) Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Net Receipts by  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Total Crude Oil and Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Ether* MGBC - Reformulated GTAB* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Renewable Fuels Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated, Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Greater than Ed55 Conventional Other Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and Under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petrochem. Feed. Use Other Oils for Petrochem. Feed. Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products

233

U.S. Product Supplied for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

18,553 18,551 18,724 19,046 19,091 19,116 1963-2013 18,553 18,551 18,724 19,046 19,091 19,116 1963-2013 Crude Oil 0 0 0 0 0 0 1981-2013 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs 2,297 2,086 2,138 2,169 2,159 2,331 1981-2013 Pentanes Plus 52 48 113 -52 15 114 1981-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,245 2,038 2,025 2,222 2,144 2,217 1973-2013 Ethane/Ethylene 921 930 894 963 940 1,027 1981-2013 Propane/Propylene 1,148 924 979 1,052 1,036 1,093 1973-2013 Normal Butane/Butylene 130 138 85 141 103 78 1981-2013 Isobutane/Isobutylene 47 45 68 66 64 18 1981-2013 Other Liquids 66 100 24 184 -43 199 1981-2013 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/ Other Hydrocarbons 0 0 0 0 0 0 1991-2013 Unfinished Oils 67 100 24 184 -43 199 1981-2013 Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. 0 0 0 0 0 0 1981-2013

234

U.S. Total Stocks  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 1,665,345 1,736,739 1,776,375 1,794,099 1,750,087 1,807,777 1956-2012 Crude Oil 983,046 1,027,663 1,051,795 1,059,975 1,026,630 1,060,764 1913-2012 All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) 682,299 709,076 724,580 734,124 723,457 747,013 1993-2012 Pentanes Plus 10,278 13,775 10,481 12,510 17,596 12,739 1981-2012 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 95,592 113,134 102,147 108,272 111,778 140,529 1967-2012 Ethane/Ethylene 14,869 27,591 20,970 24,323 22,892 35,396 1967-2012 Propane/Propylene 52,007 55,408 50,140 49,241 54,978 67,991 1967-2012 Normal Butane/Butylene 21,862 23,031 24,149 27,652 26,779 28,574 1981-2012 Isobutane/Butylene 6,854 7,104 6,888 7,056 7,129 8,568 1981-2012 Other Hydrocarbons 29 20 41 42 2009-2012

235

TABLE12.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2. 2. PAD District V-Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 1998 Crude Oil ............................................ 67,121 - 13,641 4,786 -2,251 3,132 0 74,187 5,978 0 63,808 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ........ 2,884 1,346 5 - 0 -1,591 - 3,038 451 2,337 3,315 Pentanes Plus ................................... 1,572 - 0 - 0 -1 - 1,293 (s) 280 23 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 1,312 1,346 5 - 0 -1,590 - 1,745 450 2,058 3,292 Ethane/Ethylene ............................ 2 0 0 - 0 0 - 0 0 2 0 Propane/Propylene ....................... 358 1,447 5 - 0 -805 - 0 149 2,466 1,676 Normal Butane/Butylene ............... 639 -241 0 - 0 -771 - 1,348 301 -480 1,111 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................... 313 140 0 - 0 -14 - 397 0 70 505 Other Liquids ..................................... 2,710 - 2,197 - 734 2,707 - 2,248 94 592 36,195 Other

236

table08.chp:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

106,453 106,453 - 157,490 -279 -53,603 7,143 0 202,918 0 0 717,193 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ........ 39,438 10,759 2,005 - -2,109 -6,438 - 7,105 885 48,541 46,872 Pentanes Plus .................................. 5,820 - 1,031 - -167 925 - 2,057 0 3,702 4,603 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 33,618 10,759 974 - -1,942 -7,363 - 5,048 885 44,839 42,269 Ethane/Ethylene ........................... 15,603 751 544 - 3,485 -1,605 - 0 0 21,988 14,111 Propane/Propylene ....................... 11,268 9,321 136 - -4,893 -3,707 - 0 637 18,902 15,091 Normal Butane/Butylene ............... 2,346 107 176 - -356 -2,748 - 3,088 248 1,685 7,266 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................... 4,401 580 118 - -178 697 - 1,960 0 2,264 5,801 Other Liquids .................................... 5,321 - 6,903 - -2,255 2,536 - 6,692 2,021 -1,280 65,913 Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates .... 4,613 - 22

237

Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Exports Exports Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blend. Comp. Finished Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Naphtha for Petro. Feed. Use Other Oils Petro. Feed. Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

238

U.S. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Total 522,879 659,392 738,803 858,685 1,089,848 1,172,965 1981-2012 Crude Oil 10,006 10,464 15,985 15,198 17,158 24,693 1870-2012 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 25,584 36,951 50,681 59,842 90,968 115,054 1981-2012 Pentanes Plus 4,776 12,393 14,337 11,792 36,837 43,136 1984-2012 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 20,809 24,558 36,344 48,050 54,131 71,918 1981-2012 Ethane/Ethylene 1983-1992 Propane/Propylene 15,501 19,264 30,925 39,860 45,243 62,490 1981-2012 Normal Butane/Butylene 5,308 5,294 5,419 8,189 8,888 9,428 1981-2012 Isobutane/Isobutylene 1984-1992 Other Liquids 32,049 23,477 23,625 44,514 67,981 78,359 1991-2012 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/ Other Hydrocarbons

239

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

10,500 998 19,270 9,979 482 370 18,113 3,631 19,116 10,500 998 19,270 9,979 482 370 18,113 3,631 19,116 Crude Oil 7,794 - - - - 7,911 278 256 15,628 99 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 2,707 -18 634 134 - - 101 560 465 2,331 Pentanes Plus 372 -18 - - 26 - - -23 189 100 114 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,334 - - 634 108 - - 124 371 365 2,217 Ethane/Ethylene 1,001 - - 13 0 - - -14 - - 1,027 Propane/Propylene 852 - - 575 87 - - 86 - 335 1,093 Normal Butane/Butylene 230 - - 58 11 - - 33 157 30 78 Isobutane/Isobutylene 253 - - -12 10 - - 19 214 - 18 Other Liquids - - 1,015 - - 1,337 296 304 1,926 219 199 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 1,015 - - 75 121 -36 1,129 118 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 208 - - 208 0 - -

240

Product Supplied for Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blend. Comp. Finished Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Sulfur Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Sulfur Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Sulfur Residual Fuel Oil Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petro. Feed. Use Other Oils for Petro. Feed Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Petroleum Coke - Marketable Petroleum Coke - Catalyst Asphalt and Road Oil Still Gas Miscellaneous Products Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal butane isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

U.S. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

96,229 107,478 106,354 120,656 114,693 108,925 1981-2013 96,229 107,478 106,354 120,656 114,693 108,925 1981-2013 Crude Oil 3,965 3,863 3,591 3,029 2,052 2,975 1920-2013 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 12,522 14,761 10,699 17,203 15,796 13,937 1981-2013 Pentanes Plus 3,327 4,292 1,655 7,308 5,315 2,989 1984-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 9,194 10,468 9,044 9,895 10,481 10,947 1981-2013 Ethane/Ethylene 1981-1992 Propane/Propylene 8,363 9,542 8,057 8,407 9,125 10,040 1981-2013 Normal Butane/Butylene 832 927 987 1,488 1,356 907 1981-2013 Isobutane/Isobutylene 1984-1992 Other Liquids 7,489 6,277 6,728 7,063 5,570 6,579 1991-2013 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/ Other Hydrocarbons 2,897 3,520 3,180 3,430 4,056 3,543 1991-2013 Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol)

242

U.S. Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

302,265 311,620 293,713 317,538 316,119 299,380 1981-2013 302,265 311,620 293,713 317,538 316,119 299,380 1981-2013 Crude Oil 231,793 239,848 231,900 250,207 251,054 237,344 1920-2013 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 5,268 5,261 4,667 4,819 3,708 4,020 1981-2013 Pentanes Plus 1,366 2,222 730 1,461 316 772 1981-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 3,902 3,039 3,937 3,358 3,392 3,248 1981-2013 Ethane 1993-2006 Ethylene 9 12 8 12 12 9 1993-2013 Propane 2,585 1,818 2,474 2,105 1,901 1,875 1995-2013 Propylene 728 680 814 595 722 728 1993-2013 Normal Butane 181 121 149 106 272 194 1995-2013 Butylene 143 241 162 153 146 139 1993-2013 Isobutane 256 167 330 387 339 303 1995-2013 Isobutylene 1993-2010 Other Liquids 43,066 47,595 40,206 44,400 38,927 40,118 1981-2013

243

U.S. Refinery  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 354,918 353,802 345,413 343,062 345,025 342,763 1993-2013 Crude Oil 98,082 97,563 90,880 93,075 97,586 90,778 1981-2013 All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) 256,836 256,239 254,533 249,987 247,439 251,985 1993-2013 Pentanes Plus 947 867 828 805 708 856 1993-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 12,896 14,096 15,761 16,662 18,296 18,683 1993-2013 Ethane/Ethylene 281 321 261 242 205 171 1993-2013 Propane/Propylene 2,692 2,994 3,569 3,518 4,099 4,104 1993-2013 Normal Butane/Butylene 7,627 8,451 9,511 10,757 11,921 12,147 1993-2013 Isobutane/Butylene 2,296 2,330 2,420 2,145 2,071 2,261 1993-2013 Other Hydrocarbons 19 43 49 33 26 21 2009-2013 Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) 116 99 100 82 71 78 2009-2013

244

U.S. Refinery & Blender Net Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Total 526,996 566,851 559,032 581,600 578,456 543,388 1981-2013 Crude Oil 445,937 474,296 474,991 497,241 489,887 468,825 1981-2013 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 12,805 11,759 12,769 13,227 13,760 16,794 1981-2013 Pentanes Plus 4,949 4,341 4,752 4,734 5,331 5,666 1981-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 7,856 7,418 8,017 8,493 8,429 11,128 1981-2013 Ethane 1981-1992 Normal Butane 2,668 1,880 1,998 2,014 2,083 4,711 1981-2013 Isobutane 5,188 5,538 6,019 6,479 6,346 6,417 1981-2013 Other Liquids 68,254 80,796 71,272 71,132 74,809 57,769 1981-2013 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/ Other Hydrocarbons 32,667 34,665 34,097 35,446 36,356 33,881 1981-2013

245

U.S. Refinery  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 346,915 338,782 331,615 339,907 336,327 341,211 1993-2012 Crude Oil 89,070 86,598 90,944 88,982 90,640 88,781 1981-2012 All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) 257,845 252,184 240,671 250,925 245,687 252,430 1993-2012 Pentanes Plus 949 997 1,006 971 895 884 1993-2012 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 13,161 12,456 12,611 14,896 14,429 15,934 1993-2012 Ethane/Ethylene 31 185 118 220 223 214 1993-2012 Propane/Propylene 4,120 3,293 3,577 4,278 4,087 4,574 1993-2012 Normal Butane/Butylene 6,320 6,482 6,478 7,818 7,794 8,774 1993-2012 Isobutane/Butylene 2,690 2,496 2,438 2,580 2,325 2,372 1993-2012 Other Hydrocarbons 29 20 41 42 2009-2012 Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) 47 24 58 112 2009-2012

246

table06.chp:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7,308 7,308 - 27,686 -2,263 59,993 -3,449 0 105,005 1,168 0 70,132 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ......... 8,763 2,756 3,599 - 265 -6,499 - 3,820 752 17,310 23,020 Pentanes Plus ................................... 1,146 - 42 - 519 214 - 769 455 269 1,988 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ............... 7,617 2,756 3,557 - -254 -6,713 - 3,051 297 17,041 21,032 Ethane/Ethylene ............................ 2,909 0 12 - -2,215 -110 - 0 0 816 2,868 Propane/Propylene ....................... 3,095 3,602 2,661 - 968 -4,799 - 0 96 15,029 13,173 Normal Butane/Butylene ............... 1,156 -837 486 - 571 -1,497 - 2,303 201 369 3,305 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................... 457 -9 398 - 422 -307 - 748 0 827 1,686 Other Liquids ..................................... 738 - 0 - 1,171 1,228 - 1,429 11 -759 26,014 Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates ..... 1,380 - 0 - 0 225 - 1,144 11 0 2,175 Unfinished Oils ..................................

247

table02.chp:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2. 2. U.S. Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 1998 Crude Oil ............................................... 202,756 - 258,506 1,851 12,065 0 443,902 7,146 0 880,184 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ............ 55,963 15,419 7,378 - -15,412 - 14,810 2,118 77,244 79,784 Pentanes Plus .................................... 9,388 - 1,185 - 1,137 - 4,282 461 4,693 6,852 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ................ 46,575 15,419 6,193 - -16,549 - 10,528 1,657 72,551 72,932 Ethane/Ethylene ............................ 19,726 751 556 - -1,715 - 0 0 22,748 17,192 Propane/Propylene ........................ 16,528 16,343 4,241 - -9,623 - 0 904 45,831 34,422 Normal Butane/Butylene ................ 4,818 -2,023 880 - -5,547 - 7,256 753 1,213 12,826 Isobutane/Isobutylene .................... 5,503 348 516 - 336 - 3,272 0 2,759 8,492

248

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

25,966 7,956 1,280,301 725,573 1,191,766 9,116 -19,377 1,260,324 25,966 7,956 1,280,301 725,573 1,191,766 9,116 -19,377 1,260,324 90,720 1,909,011 152,389 Crude Oil 9,418 - - - - 316,140 4,126 8,405 -1,574 336,230 3,434 0 8,328 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 16,548 -84 14,202 18,043 26,704 - - -1,588 7,264 3,052 66,685 6,377 Pentanes Plus 2,828 -84 - - 185 -19 - - 12 63 315 2,520 43 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 13,720 - - 14,202 17,858 26,723 - - -1,600 7,201 2,737 64,165 6,334 Ethane/Ethylene 174 - - 93 - - - - 0 - - 267 - Propane/Propylene 9,223 - - 12,922 16,074 26,601 - - -793 - 1,230 64,383 5,184 Normal Butane/Butylene 2,091 - - 1,435 616 122 - - -866 3,435 1,507 188 837 Isobutane/Isobutylene 2,232 - - -248 1,168 - - - 59 3,766 - -673 313

249

U.S. Product Supplied for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

556,591 575,071 561,721 590,423 591,817 573,483 1981-2013 556,591 575,071 561,721 590,423 591,817 573,483 1981-2013 Crude Oil 0 0 0 0 0 0 1981-2013 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs 68,909 64,655 64,147 67,242 66,924 69,929 1981-2013 Pentanes Plus 1,561 1,486 3,400 -1,627 474 3,432 1981-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 67,349 63,170 60,747 68,869 66,450 66,498 1981-2013 Ethane/Ethylene 27,620 28,821 26,806 29,847 29,153 30,817 1981-2013 Propane/Propylene 34,429 28,651 29,365 32,619 32,108 32,780 1981-2013 Normal Butane/Butylene 3,899 4,288 2,546 4,356 3,201 2,347 1981-2013 Isobutane/Isobutylene 1,400 1,409 2,030 2,047 1,988 554 1981-2013 Other Liquids 1,994 3,096 713 5,708 -1,348 5,977 1981-2013 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/ Other Hydrocarbons 0 0 0 0 0 0 1991-2013

250

U.S. Natural Gas Plant Field Production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Natural Gas Liquids 74,056 76,732 74,938 79,040 82,376 81,196 1981-2013 Pentanes Plus 9,772 10,464 10,689 11,270 11,542 11,167 1981-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 64,284 66,268 64,249 67,770 70,834 70,029 1981-2013 Ethane 27,647 28,274 26,311 27,829 30,063 30,015 1981-2013 Propane 23,332 24,191 24,157 25,425 25,974 25,545 1981-2013 Normal Butane 5,876 6,383 6,543 6,399 6,508 6,893 1981-2013 Isobutane 7,429 7,420 7,238 8,117 8,289 7,576 1981-2013 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions, Sources, and Notes link above for more information on this table.

251

East Coast (PADD 1) Net Receipts of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Type: Net Receipts Receipts Shipments Type: Net Receipts Receipts Shipments Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Type Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 96,936 96,489 98,076 99,950 102,408 98,737 1981-2013 Crude Oil -533 -654 -152 -479 -42 20 1981-2013 Petroleum Products 97,469 97,143 98,228 100,429 102,450 98,717 1986-2013 Pentanes Plus -2 1987-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,739 1,357 1,555 1,342 1,959 2,568 1981-2013 Ethane/Ethylene 1989-2002 Propane/Propylene 2,739 1,357 1,555 1,342 1,959 2,483 1989-2013 Normal Butane/Butylene 85 1989-2013 Isobutane/Isobutylene 1989-2013

252

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3,707 661 107,540 52,842 98,737 3,513 -4,105 105,957 7,218 3,707 661 107,540 52,842 98,737 3,513 -4,105 105,957 7,218 157,931 153,902 Crude Oil 1,020 - - - - 26,908 20 3,378 -1,285 32,517 94 0 10,326 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 2,687 -11 747 945 2,568 - - 471 798 453 5,214 6,541 Pentanes Plus 443 -11 - - - - - - 2 - 300 130 82 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,244 - - 747 945 2,568 - - 469 798 153 5,084 6,459 Ethane/Ethylene 27 - - 9 - - - - 6 - - 30 15 Propane/Propylene 1,517 - - 1,078 813 2,483 - - 724 - 126 5,041 4,442 Normal Butane/Butylene 474 - - -333 80 85 - - -246 523 27 2 1,673 Isobutane/Isobutylene 226 - - -7 52 - - - -15 275 - 11 329 Other Liquids - - 672 - - 16,653 48,432 5,798 -936 72,642 156 -307 61,003

253

U.S. Refinery & Blender Net Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Total 6,204,500 6,277,893 6,169,893 6,345,372 6,422,710 6,406,693 1981-2012 Crude Oil 5,532,097 5,361,287 5,232,656 5,374,094 5,404,347 5,489,516 1981-2012 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 184,383 177,559 177,194 161,479 178,884 186,270 1981-2012 Pentanes Plus 64,603 55,497 59,100 56,686 63,385 63,596 1981-2012 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 119,780 122,062 118,094 104,793 115,499 122,674 1981-2012 Ethane 1981-1992 Normal Butane 48,292 50,024 48,509 43,802 47,571 52,246 1981-2012 Isobutane 71,488 72,038 69,585 60,991 67,928 70,428 1981-2012 Other Liquids 488,020 739,047 760,043 809,799 839,479 730,907 1981-2012 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/ Other Hydrocarbons

254

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

429,215 5,872 1,093,588 483,473 118,666 38,688 7,789 1,028,754 429,215 5,872 1,093,588 483,473 118,666 38,688 7,789 1,028,754 126,026 1,006,933 150,671 Crude Oil 406,791 - - - - 424,639 598 22,523 1,445 853,106 0 0 56,432 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 22,424 -123 18,260 1,933 - - - 404 24,108 5,319 12,663 4,734 Pentanes Plus 10,215 -123 - - - - - - -20 7,565 1,094 1,453 51 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 12,209 - - 18,260 1,933 - - - 424 16,543 4,225 11,210 4,683 Ethane/Ethylene 34 - - - - - - - - - - 34 - Propane/Propylene 4,422 - - 16,669 1,593 - - - 335 - 3,714 18,635 1,915 Normal Butane/Butylene 2,360 - - 2,258 332 - - - 129 9,346 512 -5,037 2,249 Isobutane/Isobutylene 5,393 - - -667 8 - - - -40 7,197 - -2,423 519

255

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

302,630 5,088 230,918 121,366 -164,290 -11,531 4,472 221,774 5,269 302,630 5,088 230,918 121,366 -164,290 -11,531 4,472 221,774 5,269 252,667 39,043 Crude Oil 163,870 - - - - 115,845 -53,264 -13,771 3,101 209,575 5 0 18,928 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 138,760 -110 3,391 3,503 -119,108 - - 94 6,946 4,261 15,135 1,470 Pentanes Plus 18,508 -110 - - - -13,355 - - 14 2,156 3,795 -922 194 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 120,252 - - 3,391 3,503 -105,753 - - 80 4,790 466 16,057 1,276 Ethane/Ethylene 63,265 - - - - -61,214 - - -6 - - 2,057 400 Propane/Propylene 36,541 - - 3,406 3,155 -28,078 - - 7 - 12 15,005 363 Normal Butane/Butylene 15,114 - - 294 255 -9,019 - - 88 2,241 455 3,860 366 Isobutane/Isobutylene 5,332 - - -309 93 -7,442 - - -9 2,549 - -4,866 147

256

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

315,006 29,943 578,101 299,380 14,453 11,088 543,388 108,925 315,006 29,943 578,101 299,380 14,453 11,088 543,388 108,925 573,483 1,831,621 Crude Oil 233,810 - - - - 237,344 8,334 7,688 468,825 2,975 0 1,067,149 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 81,196 -552 19,023 4,020 - - 3,027 16,794 13,937 69,929 189,672 Pentanes Plus 11,167 -552 - - 772 - - -700 5,666 2,989 3,432 18,036 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 70,029 - - 19,023 3,248 - - 3,727 11,128 10,947 66,498 171,636 Ethane/Ethylene 30,015 - - 379 9 - - -414 - - 30,817 34,444 Propane/Propylene 25,545 - - 17,254 2,603 - - 2,582 - 10,040 32,780 67,782 Normal Butane/Butylene 6,893 - - 1,738 333 - - 999 4,711 907 2,347 58,942 Isobutane/Isobutylene 7,576 - - -348 303 - - 560 6,417 - 554 10,468

257

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8,897 964 18,564 10,598 335 158 17,505 3,205 18,490 8,897 964 18,564 10,598 335 158 17,505 3,205 18,490 Crude Oil 6,489 - - - - 8,527 144 93 14,999 67 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 2,408 -18 630 170 - - 65 509 314 2,301 Pentanes Plus 317 -18 - - 29 - - -13 174 118 50 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,091 - - 630 141 - - 79 335 196 2,251 Ethane/Ethylene 974 - - 18 0 - - 34 - - 958 Propane/Propylene 712 - - 553 116 - - 36 - 171 1,175 Normal Butane/Butylene 179 - - 56 15 - - 5 143 26 77 Isobutane/Isobutylene 225 - - 3 9 - - 4 192 - 41 Other Liquids - - 981 - - 1,257 53 51 1,997 214 28 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 981 - - 40 151 5 1,050 116 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 190 - - 190 0 - -

258

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

71 22 3,498 1,982 3,256 25 -53 3,444 248 5,216 71 22 3,498 1,982 3,256 25 -53 3,444 248 5,216 Crude Oil 26 - - - - 864 11 23 -4 919 9 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 45 0 39 49 73 - - -4 20 8 182 Pentanes Plus 8 0 - - 1 0 - - 0 0 1 7 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 37 - - 39 49 73 - - -4 20 7 175 Ethane/Ethylene 0 - - 0 - - - - 0 - - 1 Propane/Propylene 25 - - 35 44 73 - - -2 - 3 176 Normal Butane/Butylene 6 - - 4 2 0 - - -2 9 4 1 Isobutane/Isobutylene 6 - - -1 3 - - - 0 10 - -2 Other Liquids - - 22 - - 717 1,611 114 -5 2,505 10 -47 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 22 - - 29 291 -9 3 324 6 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 4 - - 4 0 - - Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) - - - - 0 - 0 0

259

Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Net Receipts by Pipeline, Tanker,  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Total Crude Oil and Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Ether* MGBC - Reformulated GTAB* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Renewable Fuels Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated, Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and Under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petrochem. Feed. Use Other Oils for Petrochem. Feed. Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels

260

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

34,932 594 95,116 42,741 9,239 5,791 830 89,707 10,470 87,406 34,932 594 95,116 42,741 9,239 5,791 830 89,707 10,470 87,406 142,840 Crude Oil 33,114 - - - - 36,279 - 4,213 311 73,295 - 0 52,719 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 1,818 -8 1,970 134 - - - 1,076 1,782 396 660 8,270 Pentanes Plus 794 -8 - - - - - - 163 552 92 -21 314 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1,024 - - 1,970 134 - - - 913 1,230 304 681 7,956 Ethane/Ethylene 3 - - - - - - - - - - 3 - Propane/Propylene 420 - - 1,475 124 - - - 374 - 299 1,346 2,272 Normal Butane/Butylene 158 - - 451 10 - - - 378 556 5 -320 5,110 Isobutane/Isobutylene 443 - - 44 - - - - 161 674 - -348 574 Other Liquids - - 602 - - 3,200 7,556 2,809 -2,126 14,630 387 1,276 46,625

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261

Refinery Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending with Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending with Ether* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Reformulated Blended with Fuel Ethanol Reformulated, Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended with Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended with Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil, 15 ppm and Under Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 500 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Less than 0.31 Percent Sulfur 0.31 to 1.00 Percent Sulfur Greater than 1.00 Percent Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Marketable Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Units: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels

262

Geothermal Power Plants in China  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Nine small experimental geothermal power plants are now operating at six sites in the People's Republic of China. These range in capacity from 50 kW to 3MW, and include plants of the flash-steam and binary type. All except two units utilize geofluids at temperatures lower than 100 C. The working fluids for the binary plants include normal- and iso-butane, ethyl chloride, and Freon. The first geothermal plant came on-line in 1970, the most recent ones in 1979. Figure 1 shows the location of the plants. Major cities are also shown for reference. Table 1 contains a listing of the plants and some pertinent characteristics. The total installed capacity is 5,186 kW, of which 4,386 kW is from flash-steam units. In the report, they given an example of the results of exploratory surveys, and show system diagrams, technical specifications, and test results for several of the power plants.

DiPippo, Ronald

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Publications Portal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... A correlation for estimating the vapor pressure of normal alkanes from methane through n-hexatriacontane and isomers of butane to nonane is ...

2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

264

EIA-816 MONTHLY NATURAL GAS PLANT LIQUIDS REPORT INSTRUCTIONS ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

EIA-816, Monthly Natural Gas Plant Liquids Report Page 3 Inputs During Month Report only inputs of normal butane being converted by an isomerization process into ...

265

Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Normal ButaneButylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Gasoline Blending...

266

Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Normal ButaneButylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Gasoline Blending...

267

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Net Receipts by Pipeline, Tanker, and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Net Receipts by Pipeline, Tanker, and Barge from Other PADDs of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels per Day)

268

OMB No. 1905-0165 Expiration Date: 1/31/2013 Version No.:2011 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Propane/Propylene: 246 Normal Butane/Butylene 244 ... Report storage capacity of trans-shipment and other tanks and underground storage operated as ...

269

OMB No. 1905-0165 Version No.:xxxx.xx FORM EIA-812 MONTHLY ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Propane/Propylene. 246: Normal Butane/Butylene. 244: ... Report storage capacity of trans-shipment and other tanks and underground storage operated as ...

270

Neural Effects of Beta Amyloid in Normal Aging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

age   categories.  Neurobiol  Aging  1997;  18:  351-­?7.  JK,  McIntosh  AR.  Aging  gracefully:  compensatory  B.  The  effect  of  normal  aging  on  the  coupling  of  

Mormino, Elizabeth Charlotte

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan Used Nuclear Fuel Loading...

272

Enhanced Methods for Normalizing Data for Analysis of Search Results  

Enhanced Methods for Normalizing Data for Analysis of Search Results Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing rights to this ...

273

System and method for normalizing data for analysis of search ...  

System and method for normalizing data for analysis of search results. Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing ...

274

Predictability of normal heart rhythms and deterministic chaos  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The evidence for deterministic chaos in normal heart rhythms is examined. Electrocardiograms were recorded of 29 subjects falling into four groups—a young healthy group

J. H. Lefebvre; D. A. Goodings; M. V. Kamath; E. L. Fallen

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Convergence of normal form transformations: The role of symmetries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the convergence problem for coordinate transformations which take a given vector field into Poincar\\'e-Dulac normal form. We show that the presence of linear or nonlinear Lie point symmetries can guaranteee convergence of these normalizing transformations, in a number of scenarios. As an application, we consider a class of bifurcation problems.

G. Cicogna; S. Walcher

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

276

Oil production models with normal rate curves Dudley Stark  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oil production models with normal rate curves Dudley Stark School of Mathematical Sciences Queen;Abstract The normal curve has been used to fit the rate of both world and U.S.A. oil production. In this paper we give the first theoretical basis for these curve fittings. It is well known that oil field

Stark, Dudley

277

Shape mixtures of multivariate skew-normal distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Classes of shape mixtures of independent and dependent multivariate skew-normal distributions are considered and some of their main properties are studied. If interpreted from a Bayesian point of view, the results obtained in this paper bring tractability ... Keywords: 62E15, 62H05, Bayes, Conjugacy, Regression model, Robustness, Shape parameter, Skew-normal distribution, Skewness

Reinaldo B. Arellano-Valle; Marc G. Genton; Rosangela H. Loschi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Demonstration of Approach and Results of Used Fuel Performance Characterization Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Demonstration of Approach and Results of Used Fuel Performance Characterization This report provides results of the initial demonstration of the modeling capability developed to perform preliminary deterministic evaluations of moderate-to-high burnup used nuclear fuel (UNF) mechanical performance under normal conditions of storage (NCS) and normal conditions of transport (NCT) conditions. This report also provides results from the sensitivity studies, and discussion on the long-term goals and objectives of this

279

Laser-induced differential normalized fluorescence method for cancer diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample.

Vo-Dinh, Tuan (Knoxville, TN); Panjehpour, Masoud (Knoxville, TN); Overholt, Bergein F. (Knoxville, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Statistical modelling of tropical cyclone tracks: non-normal innovations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present results from the sixth stage of a project to build a statistical hurricane model. Previous papers have described our modelling of the tracks, genesis, and lysis of hurricanes. In our track model we have so far employed a normal distribution for the residuals when computing innovations, even though we have demonstrated that their distribution is not normal. Here, we test to see if the track model can be improved by including more realistic non-normal innovations. The results are mixed. Some features of the model improve, but others slightly worsen.

Hall, T; Hall, Tim; Jewson, Stephen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal butane isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Chemical And Isotopic Investigation Of Warm Springs Associated With Normal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Isotopic Investigation Of Warm Springs Associated With Normal Isotopic Investigation Of Warm Springs Associated With Normal Faults In Utah Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Chemical And Isotopic Investigation Of Warm Springs Associated With Normal Faults In Utah Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Thermal springs associated with normal faults in Utah have been analyzed for major cations and anions, and oxygen and hydrogen isotopes. Springs with measured temperatures averaging greater than 40°C are characterized by Na + K- and SO4 + Cl-rich waters containing 103 to 104 mg/l of dissolved solids. Lower temperature springs, averaging less than 40°C, are more enriched in Ca + Mg relative to Na + K. Chemical variations monitored through time in selected thermal springs are probably produced by

282

Dating of major normal fault systems using thermochronology- An example  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dating of major normal fault systems using thermochronology- An example Dating of major normal fault systems using thermochronology- An example from the Raft River detachment, Basin and Range, western United States Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Dating of major normal fault systems using thermochronology- An example from the Raft River detachment, Basin and Range, western United States Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Application of thermochronological techniques to major normal fault systems can resolve the timing of initiation and duration of extension, rates of motion on detachment faults, timing of ductile mylonite formation and passage of rocks through the crystal-plastic to brittle transition, and multiple events of extensional unroofing. Here we determine

283

Definition: Apex or Salient of Normal Fault | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Apex or Salient of Normal Fault Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Apex or Salient of Normal Fault Normal faults may intersect in the subsurface to form a fault apex or salient. Apices or salients of normal faults account for 3% of structural controls in the Great Basin.[2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition References ↑ James E. Faulds,Nicholas H. Hinz,Mark F. Coolbaugh,Patricia H. Cashman,Christopher Kratt,Gregory Dering,Joel Edwards,Brett Mayhew,Holly McLachlan. 2011. Assessment of Favorable Structural Settings of Geothermal Systems in the Great Basin, Western USA. In: Transactions. GRC Anual Meeting; 2011/10/23; San Diego, CA. Davis, CA: Geothermal Resources Council; p. 777-783

284

Long-Lead Seasonal Temperature Prediction Using Optimal Climate Normals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study is intended to determine the spatially varying optimal time periods for calculating seasonal climate normals over the entire United States based on temperature data at 344 United States climate divisions during the period of 1931–1993. ...

Jin Huang; Huug M. van den Dool; Anthony G. Barnston

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Production and Handling Slide 27: Feed Cylinder with Normal Assay...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Normal Assay (0.711%U) Arriving at Plant Refer to caption below for image description The enrichment process begins with "feed material," natural uranium that contains 0.711%...

286

Size, shape, and appearance of the normal female pituitary gland  

SciTech Connect

One hundred seven women 18-65 years old were studied who were referred for suspected central nervous system disease not related to the pituitary gland or hypothalamus. High-resolution, direct, coronal, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) was used to examine the size; shape, and density of the normal pituitary gland. There were three major conclusions: (1) the height of the normal gland can be as much as 9 mm; (2) the superior margin of the gland may bulge in normal patients; and (3) both large size and convex contour appear to be associated with younger age. It was also found that serum prolactin levels do not appear to correlate with the CT appearances. Noise artifacts inherent in high-detail, thin-section, soft-tissue scanning may be a limiting factor in defining reproducible patterns in different parts of the normal pituitary gland.

Wolpert, S.M.; Molitch, M.E.; Goldman, J.A.; Wood, J.B.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

A phrase-based statistical model for SMS text normalization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Short Messaging Service (SMS) texts behave quite differently from normal written texts and have some very special phenomena. To translate SMS texts, traditional approaches model such irregularities directly in Machine Translation (MT). However, such ...

AiTi Aw; Min Zhang; Juan Xiao; Jian Su

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Characteristics of Wind Turbines Under Normal and Fault Conditions: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates the characteristics of a variable-speed wind turbine connected to a stiff or weak grid under normal and fault conditions and the role of reactive power compensation.

Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Parsons, B.; Ellis, A.

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Champernowne's Number, Strong Normality, and the X ... - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A number ? is simply normal in the base r if every 1-string in its .... The results for [ 0, 1) are extended to R in the same way. 5. .... Science and Applications), 1988.

290

Normal-Mode Decomposition of Small-Scale Oceanic Motions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Small-scale oceanic motions consist of vortical motion and internal waves. In a linear or weakly nonlinear system these two types of motions can be unambiguously separated using normal-mode decomposition in which the vortical mode carries the ...

Ren-Chieh Lien; Peter Müller

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Normalized Maximum-Likelihood Estimators of the Directional Wave Spectrum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new family of data-adaptative directional wave spectrum estimators is proposed. These estimators may be considered as an improvement over the well-known extended maximum-likelihood method (EMLM). The normalization is based on the idea of ...

M. A. Arribas; J. J. Egozcue

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

On the “Best” Temperature and Precipitation Normals: The Illinois Situation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Historical (1901–79) temperature and precipitation data for four Illinois stations were used to determine the frequency with which summer and winter averages for periods of various length (i.e., different climatic normals) are closest to the ...

Peter J. Lamb; Stanley A. Changnon Jr.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal irradiance GIS...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

>  
Direct Normal Irradiance (kWhm2day)
NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008)
22-year Monthly & Annual Average...

294

Why Do Forecasts for “Near Normal” Often Fail?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been observed by many that skill of categorical forecasts, when decomposed into the contributions from each category separately, tends to be low, if not absent or negative, in the “near normal” (N) category. We have witnessed many ...

Huug M. Van Den Dool; Zoltan Toth

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Time-Extrapolated Rainfall Normals for Central Equatorial Pacific Islands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Normal annual rainfalls (means and medians) for the period 1910–75 are estimated for islands in the central equatorial Pacific. Ridge regression, with an empirically determined bias constant, is used to establish the relationships among the ...

Bernard N. Meisner

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan Used nuclear fuel (UNF) must maintain its integrity during the storage period in such a way that it can withstand the physical forces of handling and transportation associated with restaging the fuel and transporting it to treatment or recycling facilities, or to a geologic repository. This RD&D plan describes a methodology, including development and use of analytical models, to evaluate loading and associated mechanical responses of UNF rods and key structural components. The plan objective is to

297

A complete and normalized 61850 substation (Smart Grid Project) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

complete and normalized 61850 substation (Smart Grid Project) complete and normalized 61850 substation (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name A complete and normalized 61850 substation Country Spain Headquarters Location Madrid, Spain Coordinates 40.488735°, -3.284912° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.488735,"lon":-3.284912,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

298

Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan Used nuclear fuel (UNF) must maintain its integrity during the storage period in such a way that it can withstand the physical forces of handling and transportation associated with restaging the fuel and transporting it to treatment or recycling facilities, or to a geologic repository. This RD&D plan describes a methodology, including development and use of analytical models, to evaluate loading and associated mechanical responses of UNF rods and key structural components. The plan objective is to

299

Gradually Truncated Log-normal distribution- Size distribution of firms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many natural and economical phenomena are described through power law or log-normal distributions. In these cases, probability decreases very slowly with step size compared to normal distribution. Thus it is essential to cut-off these distributions for larger step size. Recently we introduce the gradually truncated power law distribution to successfully describe variation of financial, educational, physical and citation index. In the present work, we introduce gradually truncated log-normal distribution in which we gradually cut-off larger steps due to physical limitation of the system. We applied this distribution successfully to size distribution of USA´s manufactoring firms which is measured through their annual sell. The physical limitation are due to limited market size or shortage of highly competent executives. I.

Hari M. Gupta; José R. Campanha

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Defining the normal turbine inflow within a wind park environment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This brief paper discusses factors that must be considered when defining the [open quotes]normal[close quotes] (as opposed to [open quotes]extreme[close quotes]) loading conditions seen in wind turbines operating within a wind park environment. The author defines the [open quotes]normal[close quotes] conditions to include fatigue damage accumulation as a result of: (1) start/stop cycles, (2) emergency shutdowns, and (3) the turbulence environment associated with site and turbine location. He also interprets [open quotes]extreme[close quotes] loading conditions to include those events that can challenge the survivability of the turbine.

Kelley, N.D.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal butane isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Defining the normal turbine inflow within a wind park environment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This brief paper discusses factors that must be considered when defining the {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} (as opposed to {open_quotes}extreme{close_quotes}) loading conditions seen in wind turbines operating within a wind park environment. The author defines the {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} conditions to include fatigue damage accumulation as a result of: (1) start/stop cycles, (2) emergency shutdowns, and (3) the turbulence environment associated with site and turbine location. He also interprets {open_quotes}extreme{close_quotes} loading conditions to include those events that can challenge the survivability of the turbine.

Kelley, N.D.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form. The method comprises: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3` noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 4 figs.

Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

1996-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

303

Automated geometric features evaluation method for normal foot skeleton model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

"Normal foot model" is a geometric model of a healthy human foot. As the comparison of the processed feet requires a reference ideal healthy foot parameterization it was necessary to create such a model by defining skeleton geometric features and generating ...

Bartosz Borucki; Krzysztof Nowi?Ski; Micha? Chlebiej; Andrzej Rutkowski; Pawe? Adamczyk; Jacek Laskowski

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Normal accidents: Data quality problems in ERP-enabled manufacturing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The efficient operation of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems largely depends on data quality. ERP can improve data quality and information sharing within an organization. It can also pose challenges to data quality. While it is well known that ... Keywords: Data quality, ERP, complexity, enterprise resource planning, normal accident, tight coupling

Lan Cao, Hongwei Zhu

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Nonlinear Normal-Mode Balancing and the Ellipticity Condition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a low-order, spectral, shallow-water model on an f-plane, the conditions under which height-constrained nonlinear normal mode initialization fails and the existence of realizable balancing wind fields are examined. The relationship of this ...

Joseph J. Tribbia

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Strong Normality of Numbers - CECM - Simon Fraser University  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dence of the patterning and review some relevant results in normality. We propose ... outstanding historical results. .... will work in R/Z by discarding all digits to the left of the decimal point in. 5 ..... puting 88 (II, Science and Applications), 1988.

307

Recent Studies of RF Breakdown Physics in Normal Conducting Cavities  

SciTech Connect

The operating accelerating gradient in normal conducting accelerating structures is often limited by rf breakdown. The behavior of the rf breakdown depends on multiple parameters, including the input rf power, rf circuit, cavity shape and material. Here we discuss recent experimental data and theoretical studies of rf breakdown physics.

Dolgashev, Valery; /SLAC

2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

308

DYNAMICS OF DISTANT NORMAL GALAXIES David C. Koo 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, a new and very powerful dimension has been added to the suite of tools to explore distant galaxiesDYNAMICS OF DISTANT NORMAL GALAXIES David C. Koo 1 1 UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy of techniques for measuring total dynamical masses are being explored and found practical. I highlight three

309

Projecting diffusion along the normal bundle of a plane curve  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to provide new formulas for the estimation of the effective diffusion coefficient of an equation of Fick-Jacob's type obtained by projecting the two-dimensional diffusion equation along the normal direction of an arbitrary plane curve.

Carlos Valero Valdes; Rafael Herrera Guzman

2013-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

310

Olefins by catalytic oxidation of alkanes in fluidized bed reactors  

SciTech Connect

The production of ethylene or syngas from ethane and olefins from propane, n-butane, and isobutane in the presence of air or O{sub 2} at atmospheric pressure has been examined over 100 {mu}m {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} beads coated with noble metals in a static fluidized bed reactor at contact times from 0.05 to 0.2 s. Variations in feed composition, preheating temperature, and flow rate were examined. 21 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Bharadwaj, S.S.; Schmidt, L.D. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)] [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its impact on Mexico City air quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alkane hydrocarbons (propane, isobutane, and n-butane) from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are present in major quantities throughout Mexico City air because of leakage of the unburned gas from numerous urban sources. These hydrocarbons, together with olefinic minor LPG components, furnish substantial amounts of hydroxyl radical reactivity, a major precursor to formation of the ozone component of urban smog. The combined processes of unburned leakage and incomplete combustion of LPG play significant role in causing the excessive ozone characteristic of Mexico City. Reductions in ozone levels should be possible through changes in LPG composition and lowered rates of leakage. 23 refs., 3 tabs.

Blake, D.R.; Rowland, F.S. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

1995-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

312

LPG--a direct source of C/sub 3/-C/sub 4/ olefins  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the selective production of olefins by the catalytic dehydrogenation of the corresponding paraffins by means of UOP's Oleflex process. In this process, propylene can be obtained at about 85 mol % selectivity by the catalytic dehydrogenation of propane. Isobutylene can be obtained at selectivities in excess of 90 mol % from isobutane, and n-butenes (1-butene plus 2-butene) at about 80 mol % from n-butane. The availability of this technology, coupled with an abundant supply of LPG (C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ paraffins), opens new avenues for the selective production of propylene and butylenes.

Pujado, P.R.; Berg, R.C.; Vora, B.V.

1983-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

313

Fuel property effects on engine combustion processes. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A major obstacle to improving spark ignition engine efficiency is the limitations on compression ratio imposed by tendency of hydrocarbon fuels to knock (autoignite). A research program investigated the knock problem in spark ignition engines. Objective was to understand low and intermediate temperature chemistry of combustion processes relevant to autoignition and knock and to determine fuel property effects. Experiments were conducted in an optically and physically accessible research engine, static reactor, and an atmospheric pressure flow reactor (APFR). Chemical kinetic models were developed for prediction of species evolution and autoignition behavior. The work provided insight into low and intermediate temperature chemistry prior to autoignition of n-butane, iso-butane, n-pentane, 1-pentene, n-heptane, iso-octane and some binary blends. Study of effects of ethers (MTBE, ETBE, TAME and DIPE ) and alcohols (methanol and ethanol) on the oxidation and autoignition of primary reference fuel (PRF) blends.

Cernansky, N.P.; Miller, D.L.

1995-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

314

Spectral asymptotics via the semiclassical Birkhoff normal form  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This article gives a simple treatment of the quantum Birkhoff normal form for semiclassical pseudo-differential operators with smooth coefficients. The normal form is applied to describe the discrete spectrum in a generalised non-degenerate potential well, yielding uniform estimates in the energy $E$. This permits a detailed study of the spectrum in various asymptotic regions of the parameters $(E,\\h)$, and gives improvements and new proofs for many of the results in the field. In the completely resonant case we show that the pseudo-differential operator can be reduced to a Toeplitz operator on a reduced symplectic orbifold. Using this quantum reduction, new spectral asymptotics concerning the fine structure of eigenvalue clusters are proved. In the case of polynomial differential operators, a combinatorial trace formula is obtained.

Laurent Charles; San Vu Ngoc

2006-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

315

Procedure for normalization of cDNA libraries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides a method to normalize a cDNA library constructed in a vector capable of being converted to single-stranded circles and capable of producing complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles comprising: (a) converting the cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles; (c) hybridizing the single-stranded circles converted in step (a) with complementary nucleic acid molecules of step (b) to produce partial duplexes to an appropriate Cot; (e) separating the unhybridized single-stranded circles from the hybridized single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 1 fig.

Bonaldo, M.D.; Soares, M.B.

1997-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

316

Efficient Software Implementation for Finite Field Multiplication in Normal Basis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. Finite field arithmetic is becoming increasingly important in today's computer systems, particularly for implementing cryptographic operations. Among various arithmetic operations, finite field multiplication is of particular interest since it is a major building block for elliptic curve cryptosystems. In this paper, we present new techniques for efficient software implementation of binary field multiplication in normal basis. Our techniques are more efficient in terms of both speed and memory compared with alternative approaches. 1 Introduction Finite field arithmetic is becoming increasingly important in today's computer systems, particularly for implementing cryptographic operations. Among the more common finite fields in cryptography are odd-characteristic finite fields of degree 1 and even-characteristic finite fields of degree greater than 1. The latter is conventionally known as GF (2m) arithmetic or binary field arithmetic. GF (2m) arithmetic is further classified according to the choice of basis for representing elements of the finite field; two common choices are polynomial basis and normal basis. Fast implementation techniques for GF (2m) arithmetic have been studied intensively in the past twenty years. Among various arithmetic operations, GF (2m) multiplication has attracted most of the attention since it is a major building block for implementing elliptic curve cryptosystems. Depending on the choice of basis, the mathematical formula for a GF (2m) multiplication can be quite different, thus making major differences in practical implementation. Currently, it seems that normal basis representation (especially optimal normal basis) offers the best performance in hardware [9-11], while in software polynomial basis representation is more efficient [2, 3, 8].

Peng Ning; Yiqun Lisa Yin

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Liquid butane filled load for a liner driven Pegasus experiment.  

SciTech Connect

A hydrogen rich, low density liquid, contained within the internal volume of a cylindrical liner, was requested of the Polymers and Coatings Group (MST-7) of the Los Alamos Materials Science Division for one of the last liner driven experiments conducted on the Los Alamos Pegasus facility. The experiment (Fig.1) was a continuation of the Raleigh-Taylor hydrodynamics series of experiments and associated liners that have been described previously.

Salazar, M. A. (Mike A.); Armijo, E. V. (Elfino V.); Anderson, W. E. (Wallace E.); Atchison, W. L. (Walter L.); Bartos, J. J. (Jacob J.); Garcia, F. (Fermin); Randolph, B. (Blaine); Sheppard, M. G. (Maurice G.); Stokes, J. L. (John L.)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

LIQUID BUTANE FILLED LOAD FOR A LINER DRIVEN PEGASUS EXPERIMENT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A hydrogen rich, low density liquid, contained within the internal volume of a cylindrical liner, was requested of the Polymers and Coatings Group (MST-7) of the Los Alamos Materials Science Division for one of the last liner driven experiments conducted on the Los Alamos Pegasus facility. The experiment was a continuation of the Raleigh-Taylor hydrodynamics series of experiments and associated liners that have been described previously [1,2].

M.A. SALAZAR; W. ANDERSON; ET AL

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Fueling Requirements for Steady State high butane current fraction discharges  

SciTech Connect

The CT injector originally used for injecting CTs into 1T toroidal field discharges in the TdeV tokamak was shipped PPPL from the Affiliated Customs Brokers storage facility in Montreal during November 2002. All components were transported safely, without damage, and are currently in storage at PPPL, waiting for further funding in order to begin advanced fueling experiments on NSTX. The components are currently insured through the University of Washington. Several technical presentations were made to investigate the feasibility of the CT injector installation on NSTX. These technical presentations, attached to this document, were: (1) Motivation for Compact Toroida Injection in NSTX; (2) Assessment of the Engineering Feasibility of Installing CTF-II on NSTX; (3) Assessment of the Cost for CT Installation on NSTX--A Peer Review; and (4) CT Fueling for NSTX FY 04-08 steady-state operation needs.

R.Raman

2003-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

320

Refinery Grade Butane Bulk Terminal Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil stocks in the ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal butane isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

U.S. Refinery Grade Butane Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil stocks in the ...

322

Midwest (PADD 2) Refinery Grade Butane Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil stocks in the ...

323

Late Light Curves of Normally-Luminous Type Ia Supernovae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of Type Ia supernovae as cosmological tools has reinforced the need to better understand these objects and their light curves. The light curves of Type Ia supernovae are powered by the nuclear decay of $^{56}Ni \\to ^{56}Co \\to ^{56}Fe$. The late time light curves can provide insight into the behavior of the decay products and their effect of the shape of the curves. We present the optical light curves of six "normal" Type Ia supernovae, obtained at late times with template image subtraction, and the fits of these light curves to supernova energy deposition models.

J. C. Lair; M. D. Leising; P. A. Milne; G. G. Williams

2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

324

Overview of the BlockNormal Event Trigger Generator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the search for unmodeled gravitational wave bursts, there are a variety of methods that have been proposed to generate candidate events from time series data. Block Normal is a method of identifying candidate events by searching for places in the data stream where the characteristic statistics of the data change. These change-points divide the data into blocks in which the characteristics of the block are stationary. Blocks in which these characteristics are inconsistent with the long term characteristic statistics are marked as Event-Triggers which can then be investigated by a more computationally demanding multi-detector analysis.

J W C McNabb; M Ashley; L S Finn; E Rotthoff; A Stuver; T Summerscales; P Sutton; M Tibbits; K Thorne; K Zaleski

2004-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

325

U.S. Refinery Net Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Total 320,455 348,984 346,918 365,525 358,673 335,185 2005-2013 Crude Oil 445,937 474,296 474,991 497,241 489,887 468,825 2005-2013 Natural Gas Plant Liquids 11,914 11,407 12,393 13,031 13,377 15,397 2005-2013 Pentanes Plus 4,688 4,040 4,439 4,667 5,044 5,273 2005-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 7,226 7,367 7,954 8,364 8,333 10,124 2005-2013 Normal Butane 2,038 1,829 1,935 1,885 1,987 3,707 2005-2013 Isobutane 5,188 5,538 6,019 6,479 6,346 6,417 2005-2013 Other Liquids -137,396 -136,719 -140,466 -144,747 -144,591 -149,037 2005-2013 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/ Other Hydrocarbons 7,511 8,089 7,844 8,541 8,568 8,086 2005-2013 Hydrogen 5,792 6,200 6,050 6,477 6,520 6,226 2009-2013

326

U.S. Isobutane-Isobutylene Stocks at Natural Gas Processing ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

456: 482: 435: 394: 363: 472: 649: 558: 389: 565: 476: 2005: 544: 607: 387: 478: 421: 426: 473: 657: 596: 718: 511: 426: 2006: 485: 529: 537: 590: 569: 772: 556: 541 ...

327

Natural Gas Plant Stocks of Isobutane - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

328

A Symplectic Method to Generate Multivariate Normal Distributions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The AMAS group at the Paul Scherrer Institute developed an object oriented library for high performance simulation of high intensity ion beam transport with space charge. Such particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations require a method to generate multivariate particle distributions as starting conditions. In a preceeding publications it has been shown that the generators of symplectic transformations in two dimensions are a subset of the real Dirac matrices (RDMs) and that few symplectic transformations are required to transform a quadratic Hamiltonian into diagonal form. Here we argue that the use of RDMs is well suited for the generation of multivariate normal distributions with arbitrary covariances. A direct and simple argument supporting this claim is that this is the "natural" way how such distributions are formed. The transport of charged particle beams may serve as an example: An uncorrelated gaussian distribution of particles starting at some initial position of the accelerator is subject to linear deformat...

Baumgarten, Christian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Hard Sphere Dynamics for Normal and Granular Fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A fluid of N smooth, hard spheres is considered as a model for normal (elastic collisions) and granular (inelastic collisions) fluids. The potential energy is discontinuous for hard spheres so the pairwise forces are singular and the usual forms of Newtonian and Hamiltonian mechanics do not apply. Nevertheless, particle trajectories in the N particle phase space are well defined and the generators for these trajectories can be identified. The first part of this presentation is a review of the generators for the dynamics of observables and probability densities. The new results presented in the second part refer to applications of these generators to the Liouville dynamics for granular fluids. A set of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the generator for this Liouville dynamics is identified in a special "stationary representation". This provides a class of exact solutions to the Liouville equation that are closely related to hydrodynamics for granular fluids.

James W. Dufty; Aparna Baskaran

2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

330

The theory of normal zone propagation in superconductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper contains a study of properties of stable normal (N) regions of finite size-resistive domains (R.D.), in superconductors (S) with transport current I. It is demonstra-ted that in homogeneous superconductors R.D. are moving due to thermoelectric effect (Thom-son heat) while the rate of R.D., vdi for dif-ferent materials ranges from 1 to 10 cm/s. It is also shown that the thermoelectric effect leads to asymmetry i n the rate of the N-S boundary av, relative to the direction of I, with AV N vd. The conditions for localizing R.D. in an inhomogeneous superconductor have been obtained, as well as the I-V characteric-tics of a sample with R.D. Hysteresis effects are discussed associated with the localization of R.D and the thermoelectric effect. 1.

A. V. Gurevich; R. G. Mints

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Insolation data manual and direct normal solar radiation data manual  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Insolation Data Manual presents monthly averaged data which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service (NWS) stations, principally in the United States. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24--25 years of data, generally from 1952--1975, and listed for each location. Insolation values represent monthly average daily totals of global radiation on a horizontal surface and are depicted using the three units of measurement: kJ/m{sup 2} per day, Btu/ft{sup 2} per day and langleys per day. Average daily maximum, minimum and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3 C (65 F). For each station, global {bar K}{sub T} (cloudiness index) values were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. Global {bar K}{sub T} is an index of cloudiness and indicates fractional transmittance of horizontal radiation, from the top of the atmosphere to the earth's surface. The second section of this volume presents long-term monthly and annual averages of direct normal solar radiation for 235 NWS stations, including a discussion of the basic derivation process. This effort is in response to a generally recognized need for reliable direct normal data and the recent availability of 23 years of hourly averages for 235 stations. The relative inaccessibility of these data on microfiche further justifies reproducing at least the long-term averages in a useful format. In addition to a definition of terms and an overview of the ADIPA model, a discussion of model validation results is presented.

none,

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Performance of a new LMRPC prototype for the STAR MTD system  

SciTech Connect

A new prototype of a Long-Strip Multi-Gap Resistive Plate Chamber (LMRPC) for the STAR Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) at RHIC has been developed. This prototype has an active area of 52 x 90 cm{sup 2} and consists of six 250 {mu}m wide gaps. Each detector has 12 strips, read-out at both ends, which are each 3.8 cm wide and 90 cm long with 0.6 cm intervals. In cosmic-ray tests, the efficiency was larger than 95% and the time resolution was {approx}75 ps for the 94% Freon, 5% iso-butane, and 1% SF{sub 6} gas mixture. There was good uniformity in the performance across the different strips. The module was also tested in a proton beam at IHEP in Beijing. The efficiency was close to 100% and the best timing resolution achieved was 55 ps for the 90% Freon, 5% iso-butane, and 5% SF6 gas mixture. Trigger scans along and across the strip direction were also performed.

Ruan, L.J.; Wang, Y.; Chen, H. S.; Ding, W. C.; Qiu, X. Z.; Wang, J. B.; Zhu, X. L.; Kang, K. J.; Cheng, J. P.; Li, Y. J.; Ruan, L.; Xu, Z.; Asselta, K.; Christie, W.; D'Agostino, C.; Dunlop, J.; Landgraf, J.; Ljubicic, T.; Scheblein, J.; Soja, R.; Tang, A. H.; Ullrich, T.; Crawford, H. J.; Engelage, J.; Sanchez, M. Calderon de la Barca; Reed, R.; Liu, H. D.; Butterworth, J.; Eppley, G.; Geurts, F.; Llope, W. J.; McDonald, D.; Nussbaum, T.; Roberts, J.; Xin, K.; Bridges, L.; Li, J. C.; Qian, S.; Ning, Z.; Chen, H. F.; Huang, B. C.; Li, C.; Shao, M.; Sun, Y. J.; Tang, Z. B.; Wang, X. L.; Xu, Y. C.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zeng, H.; Zhou, Y.; Clarke, R.; Mioduszewski, S.; Davila, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Li, L.; Markert, C.; Ray, L.; Schambach, J.; Thein, D.; Wada, M.; Ahammed, Z.; Bhaduri, P. P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Dubey, A. K.; Dutt-Mazumdar, M. R.; Ghosh, P.; Khan, S. A.; Muhuri, S.; Mohanty, B.; Nayak, T. K.; Pal, S.; Singaraju, R.; Singhal, V.; Tribedy, P.; Viyogi, Y. P.

2011-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

333

Sampling Plan for Assaying Plates Containing Depleted or Normal Uranium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the rationale behind the proposed method for selecting a 'representative' sample of uranium metal plates, portions of which will be destructively assayed at the Y-12 Security Complex. The total inventory of plates is segregated into two populations, one for Material Type 10 (depleted uranium (DU)) and one for Material Type 81 (normal [or natural] uranium (NU)). The plates within each population are further stratified by common dimensions. A spreadsheet gives the collective mass of uranium element (and isotope for DU) and the piece count of all plates within each stratum. These data are summarized in Table 1. All plates are 100% uranium metal, and all but approximately 60% of the NU plates have Kel-F{reg_sign} coating. The book inventory gives an overall U-235 isotopic percentage of 0.22% for the DU plates, ranging from 0.19% to 0.22%. The U-235 ratio of the NU plates is assumed to be 0.71%. As shown in Table 1, the vast majority of the plates are comprised of depleted uranium, so most of the plates will be sampled from the DU population.

Ivan R. Thomas

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Standard Test Method for Normal Spectral Emittance at Elevated Temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This test method describes a highly accurate technique for measuring the normal spectral emittance of electrically conducting materials or materials with electrically conducting substrates, in the temperature range from 600 to 1400 K, and at wavelengths from 1 to 35 ?m. 1.2 The test method requires expensive equipment and rather elaborate precautions, but produces data that are accurate to within a few percent. It is suitable for research laboratories where the highest precision and accuracy are desired, but is not recommended for routine production or acceptance testing. However, because of its high accuracy this test method can be used as a referee method to be applied to production and acceptance testing in cases of dispute. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this stan...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Modeling pore corrosion in normally open gold- plated copper connectors.  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study is to model the electrical response of gold plated copper electrical contacts exposed to a mixed flowing gas stream consisting of air containing 10 ppb H{sub 2}S at 30 C and a relative humidity of 70%. This environment accelerates the attack normally observed in a light industrial environment (essentially a simplified version of the Battelle Class 2 environment). Corrosion rates were quantified by measuring the corrosion site density, size distribution, and the macroscopic electrical resistance of the aged surface as a function of exposure time. A pore corrosion numerical model was used to predict both the growth of copper sulfide corrosion product which blooms through defects in the gold layer and the resulting electrical contact resistance of the aged surface. Assumptions about the distribution of defects in the noble metal plating and the mechanism for how corrosion blooms affect electrical contact resistance were needed to complete the numerical model. Comparisons are made to the experimentally observed number density of corrosion sites, the size distribution of corrosion product blooms, and the cumulative probability distribution of the electrical contact resistance. Experimentally, the bloom site density increases as a function of time, whereas the bloom size distribution remains relatively independent of time. These two effects are included in the numerical model by adding a corrosion initiation probability proportional to the surface area along with a probability for bloom-growth extinction proportional to the corrosion product bloom volume. The cumulative probability distribution of electrical resistance becomes skewed as exposure time increases. While the electrical contact resistance increases as a function of time for a fraction of the bloom population, the median value remains relatively unchanged. In order to model this behavior, the resistance calculated for large blooms has been weighted more heavily.

Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Moffat, Harry K.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Enos, David George; Serna, Lysle M.; Sorensen, Neil Robert

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Extraction of erythropoietin from normal kidneys. [Rats, dogs  

SciTech Connect

Significant amounts of active erythropoietin were extracted from the kidneys of normal rats, cattle, dogs, and rabbits by homogenization of the organs in 0.1 M phosphate buffer. The mean erythropoietin activities of the extracts, as determined by the starved-rat assay, were 0.26 U/g beef kidney, 0.41 U/g dog kidney, and 0.11 U/g rat kidney. The dog kidney extracts had a mean activity of 0.35 U/g, as measured by stimulation of hemoglobin synthesis in cultured bone marrow cells (in vitro assay) and produced a dose-dependent stimulation of /sup 59/Fe incorporation into circulating red cells when assayed in polycythemic mice. Extracts of rabbit kidney cortices had a mean activity of 2.12 U/g, as measured by stimulation of hemoglobin synthesis in cultured bone marrow cells. When the dog kidney homogenate was fractionated on DEAE-cellulose, all of the erythropoietin activity was adsorbed to the exchanger in the presence of 0.01 M acetate buffer, pH 4.5, and was completely eluted by 0.1 M Na/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/-0.5 M NaCl, pH 8. An antibody made aganist human urinary erythropoietin completely inactivated the erythropoietic factor in the dog kidney extract. Serum from a donor dog had no erythropoietin activity when assayed in the starved rat, suggesting that the factor in the extracts is intracellular erythropoietin rather than that contained in plasma trapped in the renal vasculature. The complete inactivation of the erythropoietic factor in these kidney homogenates by antierythropoietin and its behavior on DEAE-cellulose indicate that this factor is structurally similar to native plasma erythropoietin. The extracts are completely active without being incubated in the presence of serum.

Sherwood, J.B.; Goldwasser, E.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Stokes' Cradle: Normal Three-Body Collisions between Wetted Particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, a combination of experiments and theory is used to investigate three-body, normal collisions between solid particles with a liquid coating (i.e., "wetted" particles). Experiments are carried out using a Stokes' cradle, an apparatus inspired by the Newton's cradle desktop toy except with wetted particles. Unlike previous work on two-body systems, which may either agglomerate or rebound upon collision, four outcomes are possible in three-body systems: fully agglomerated, Newton's cradle (striker and target particle it strikes agglomerate), reverse Newton's cradle (targets agglomerate while striker separates), and fully separated. Post-collisional velocities are measured over a range of parameters. For all experiments, as the impact velocity increases, the progression of outcomes observed is fully agglomerated, reverse Newton's cradle, and fully separated. Notably, as the viscosity of the oil increases, experiments reveal a decrease in the critical Stokes number (the Stokes number that demarcates a transition from agglomeration to separation) for both sets of adjacent particles. A scaling theory is developed based on lubrication forces and particle deformation and elasticity. Unlike previous work for two-particle systems, two pieces of physics are found to be critical in the prediction of a regime map that is consistent with experiments: (i) an additional resistance upon rebound of the target particles due to the pre-existing liquid bridge between them (which has no counterpart in two-particle collisions), and (ii) the addition of a rebound criterion due to glass transition of the liquid layer at high pressure between colliding particles.

C. M. Donahue; C. M. Hrenya; R. H. Davis; K. J. Nakagawa; A. P. Zelinskaya; G. G. Joseph

2009-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

338

A novel method for testing normality in a mixed model of a nested classification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Normality is one of the most common assumptions made in the development of statistical models such as the fixed effect model and the random effect model. White and MacDonald [1980. Some large-sample tests for normality in the linear regression model. ... Keywords: Normality test, Random effect model, Shapiro-Wilk test, Simulations, Skewness test, Transformation

Yi-Ting Hwang; Peir Feng Wei

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

TRENDS IN DIRECT NORMAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE IN OREGON FROM 1979-2003 Laura Riihimaki  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TRENDS IN DIRECT NORMAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE IN OREGON FROM 1979-2003 Laura Riihimaki Frank Vignola of trends in direct normal irradiance from three sites around Oregon over a period of 25 years. An overall. Changes in clear noon values are also examined. This article analyzes direct normal data unlike other

Oregon, University of

340

Parabolic geometries and normal Weyl structures First BGG operators and special solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Parabolic geometries and normal Weyl structures First BGG operators and special solutions structures & BGG solutions #12;Parabolic geometries and normal Weyl structures First BGG operators the machinery of BGG sequences. Andreas Cap Weyl structures & BGG solutions #12;Parabolic geometries and normal

Drmota, Michael

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal butane isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

West Coast (PADD 5) Product Supplied for Crude Oil and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Area: 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History; Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products: 3,235: 3,057: 2,845: 2,903: ... 51: 1989-2012: Normal Butane/Butylene-3: 2-3 ...

342

U.S. Product Supplied for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Propane/Propylene: 1,235: 1,154: 1,160: 1,160: 1,153: 1,175: 1973-2012: Normal Butane/Butylene: 101: 111: 72: 108: 68: 77: 1981-2012: ... 1985-2012: ...

343

U.S. Refinery Net Input - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

413: 420: 2005-2013: Pentanes Plus: 166: 168: 156: 130: 148: 151: 2005-2013: Liquefied Petroleum Gases: 300: 281: 241: 238: 265: 270: 2005-2013: Normal Butane: 132 ...

344

Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Refinery and Blender Net Production of ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Refinery and Blender Net Production of Normal Butane (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8

345

Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

working fluids including butane, pentane, isopentane,xylene p-xylene pentane butane Alkanes cyclopentane BACKONEalkanes (pentane, butane, cyclopentane, cyclohexane,

Ho, Tony

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

User's manual for TEDPED, an interactive code for testing the hypothesis of log-normally or normally distributed data. [In FORTRAN IV for PDP-10  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TEDPED is an interactive computer code that produces both graphical and numerical descriptions of a set of data based on the user's assumption of either a normal or a log-normal distribution. Numerical statistics calculated by TEDPED at the user's option are the chi-square, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, and Pearson's. The linearized cumulative-probability distribution of the data may be plotted, together with a least-squares fit, consistent with either the normal or log-normal assumption. Data input may be by named data file or via the user's terminal keyboard. The code is written in FORTRAN and runs on a Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-10 computer; typical central-processor-unit execution time is about 0.32 s. 50 figures, 1 table.

Fields, D.E.; Little, C.A.; Shaeffer, D.L.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Pentose fermentation of normally toxic lignocellulose prehydrolysate with strain of Pichia stipitis yeast using air  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis NPw9 (ATCC PTA-3717) useful for the production of ethanol using oxygen for growth while fermenting normally toxic lignocellulosic prehydrolysates.

Keller, Jr., Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Nguyen, Quang A. (Golden, CO)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Intra-hour Direct Normal Irradiance solar forecasting using genetic programming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

E. Ruano, “Prediction of the solar radiation evolution usingComputation of beam solar radiation at normal incidencein estimating global solar radiation,” Solar Energy, vol.

Queener, Benjamin Daniel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

www.mdpi.com/journal/ijms Physical Properties of Normal Grade Biodiesel and Winter Grade Biodiesel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: In this study, optical and thermal properties of normal grade and winter grade palm oil biodiesel were investigated. Surface Plasmon Resonance and Photopyroelectric technique were used to evaluate the samples. The dispersion curve and thermal diffusivity were obtained. Consequently, the variation of refractive index, as a function of wavelength in normal grade biodiesel is faster than winter grade palm oil biodiesel, and the thermal diffusivity of winter grade biodiesel is higher than the thermal diffusivity of normal grade biodiesel. This is attributed to the higher palmitic acid C16:0 content in normal grade than in winter grade palm oil biodiesel.

Amir Reza Sadrolhosseini; Mohd Maarof Moksin; Harrison Lau; Lik Nang; Monir Norozi; W. Mahmood; Mat Yunus; Azmi Zakaria

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Solar: monthly direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km resolution...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

visible irradiance, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total of the normal or beam...

351

Solar: annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km resolution...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

visible irradiance, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total of the normal or beam...

352

Intra-hour Direct Normal Irradiance solar forecasting using genetic programming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Intra-hour Direct NormalChair University of California, San Diego iii TABLE OFRPS,” Technical report, California Independent System

Queener, Benjamin Daniel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Optimizing Normal Tissue Sparing in Ion Therapy Using Calculated Isoeffective Dose for Ion Selection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To investigate how the selection of ion type affects the calculated isoeffective dose to the surrounding normal tissue as a function of both normal tissue and target tissue {alpha}/{beta} ratios. Methods and Materials: A microdosimetric biologic dose model was incorporated into a Geant4 simulation of parallel opposed beams of protons, helium, lithium, beryllium, carbon, and neon ions. The beams were constructed to give a homogeneous isoeffective dose to a volume in the center of a water phantom for target tissues covering a range of cobalt equivalent {alpha}/{beta} ratios of 1-20 Gy. Concomitant normal tissue isoeffective doses in the plateau of the ion beam were then compared for different ions across the range of normal tissue and target tissue radiosensitivities for a fixed isoeffective dose to the target tissue. Results: The ion type yielding the optimal normal tissue sparing was highly dependent on the {alpha}/{beta} ratio of both the normal and the target tissue. For carbon ions, the calculated isoeffective dose to normal tissue at a 5-cm depth varied by almost a factor of 5, depending on the {alpha}/{beta} ratios of the normal and target tissue. This ranges from a factor of 2 less than the isoeffective dose of a similar proton treatment to a factor of 2 greater. Conclusions: No single ion is optimal for all treatment scenarios. The heavier ions are superior in cases in which the {alpha}/{beta} ratio of the target tissue is low and the {alpha}/{beta} ratio of normal tissue is high, and protons are superior in the opposite circumstances. Lithium and beryllium appear to offer dose advantages similar to carbon, with a considerably lower normal tissue dose when the {alpha}/{beta} ratio in the target tissue is high and the {alpha}/{beta} ratio in the normal tissue is low.

Remmes, Nicholas B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Herman, Michael G., E-mail: Herman.Michael@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Kruse, Jon J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Superacid catalysis of light hydrocarbon conversion. Tenth quarterly report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transition metal promoters markedly increase the activity of sulfated zirconia for isomerization of butane. Data presented here demonstrate the effects of the promoters zinc, iron, and manganese; none of these is as effective as the iron/manganese combination. The effects of feed impurities (olefins and/or isobutane in n-butane) are consistent with those described in the preceding quarterly report: they lead to an improvement in catalytic activity. These observations are inferred to be of practical importance; they indicate the benefit of the impurities in increasing butane conversion. The product distribution data show that reactions accompanying isomerization and disproportionation are more important with some promoters (e.g., iron) than others (e.g., zinc). The data demonstrate that the iron- and manganese-promoted catalyst can be regenerated at least sever times with negligible loss of activity (within the experimental error). To apply this catalyst or a related catalyst industrially, it seems very likely to be necessary to reduce the rate of deactivation substantially and/or to regenerate the catalyst through many cycles.

Gates, B.C. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Superacid catalysis of light hydrocarbon conversion. Eleventh quarterly report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The new catalyst Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia is remarkably active for the low-temperature (even room temperature) isomerization of n-butane to give isobutane in the near absence of side products. Thus this catalyst offers excellent potential for practical application in this process. The catalyst is so active that it even converts smaller alkanes, including propane and ethane. The ethane conversion is orders of magnitude slower than the butane conversion, and the prospects for practical application with ethane are apparently negligible. However, the results for ethane conversion provide strong evidence that the alkane conversions proceed (at least under some conditions) by protonation of the alkane with the catalyst; thus the catalyst is comparable to superacids, and the chemistry is analogous to that occurring in superacid solutions. This insight will be useful in further improvement of the catalyst and the potential process for butane isomerization. The catalyst is active for alkane cracking at temperatures of typically 200-300{degrees}C, and evidence, summarized here, indicates that numerous reactions of alkanes begin as the catalyst protonates the alkane reactant. The kinetics data for this family of reactions fall on a linear compensation effect plot; such data for reactions that do not proceed via such a mechanism do not fall near the line representing the compensation effect. Thus the analysis of the kinetics data provides a good diagnostic tool for understanding the fundamental chemistry of the acid-catalyzed hydrocarbon conversions.

Gates, B.C. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

356

Normal Inverse Gaussian Error Distributions Applied for the Positioning of Petroleum Wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Normal Inverse Gaussian Error Distributions Applied for the Positioning of Petroleum Wells Tony In this paper we present a new statistical model for the positioning of petroleum wells using magnetic of a well. The normal inverse Gaussian gives a more realistic fit to the magnetic observatory data than

Eidsvik, Jo

357

Normal Mode Initialization for a Multilevel Grid-Point Model. Part I: Linear Aspects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Part I of this paper we review initialization methods for numerical weather prediction models, leading up to the development of schemes based on the normal modes of the forecast model. We present the derivation of the normal modes of ECMWF's ...

Clive Temperton; David L. Williamson

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

May 28-29, 2008/ARR Thermal Effect of Off-Normal Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

May 28-29, 2008/ARR 1 Thermal Effect of Off-Normal Energy Deposition on Bare Ferritic Steel First #12;May 28-29, 2008/ARR 2 Power Plant FW Under Energy Deposition from Off- Normal Conditions · Thermal Meeting) · Disruptions: ­ Parallel energy density for thermal quench = 28-45 MJ/m2 near X

Raffray, A. René

359

Parabolic geometries and normal Weyl structures First BGG operators and special solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Parabolic geometries and normal Weyl structures First BGG operators and special solutions structures & BGG solutions #12;Parabolic geometries and normal Weyl structures First BGG operators to a parabolic geometry. The first operator in each BGG sequence defines a geometric overdetermined system

Drmota, Michael

360

Recovery of normally gaseous hydrocarbons from net excess hydrogen in a catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for the catalytic reforming of hydrocarbons in the presence of hydrogen, preferably to produce high quality gasoline boiling range products. An improved recovery of normally gaseous hydrocarbons from the net excess hydrogen is realized by chilling and contacting said hydrogen with a normally liquid hydrocarbon stream in a plural stage absorption zone at an elevated pressure.

Scheifele, C.A.

1982-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal butane isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Asymptotic normality and Berry-Esseen results for conditional density estimator with censored and dependent data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we derive the asymptotic normality and a Berry-Esseen type bound for the kernel conditional density estimator proposed in Ould-Said and Cai (2005) [26] when the censored observations with multivariate covariates form a stationary @a-mixing ... Keywords: ?-mixing, 62G07, 62G20, Asymptotic normality, Berry-Esseen type bound, Censored data, Conditional density

Han-Ying Liang; Liang Peng

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Unsupervised gene/protein named entity normalization using automatically extracted dictionaries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gene and protein named-entity recognition (NER) and normalization is often treated as a two-step process. While the first step, NER, has received considerable attention over the last few years, normalization has received much less attention. We have ...

Aaron M. Cohen

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

On the Self-Interaction of a Geostrophic Current and its Inertia-Gravity Normal Modes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A shallow-water channel model on an f plane is used to study the interaction of barotropic inertia-gravity normal modes and geostrophic currents. Computed numerically are 1) the normal modes associated with a, zonal current, 2) the nonlinear wave ...

Richard A. Hyde

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Species and community response to above normal precipitation following prolonged drought in the northern Mojave Desert  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Little information is available on how desert plant communities that are dominated by perennial species respond to normal and above normal precipitation following prolonged drought. Intuitively, one would expect total canopy cover to increase. Whether a concomitant increase in the density of perennial species also occurs is unknown. Even less is known about how individual species respond to above normal precipitation following drought. From 1987 through 1991 a prolonged drought occurred in much of the western United States, including the northern Mojave Desert. In March 1991 the northern Mojave Desert received well above normal precipitation. The following two winters (December--March) also had above normal precipitation (150 to 200 % of normal, unpublished data). Ongoing vegetation characterization studies by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, allowed EG&G Energy Measurements to collect data that could be used to infer how both vegetation associations and individual species respond to above normal precipitation following prolonged drought. This paper reports the preliminary results.

Schultz, B.W. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Ostler, W.K. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

365

Fuel cell system logic for differentiating between rapid and normal shutdown commands  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method of controlling the operation of a fuel cell system wherein each shutdown command for the system is subjected to decision logic which determines whether the command should be a normal shutdown command or rapid shutdown command. If the logic determines that the shutdown command should be a normal shutdown command, then the system is shutdown in a normal step-by-step process in which the hydrogen stream is consumed within the system. If the logic determines that the shutdown command should be a rapid shutdown command, the hydrogen stream is removed from the system either by dumping to atmosphere or routing to storage.

Keskula, Donald H. (Webster, NY); Doan, Tien M. (Columbia, MD); Clingerman, Bruce J. (Palmyra, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Mapping local hippocampal changes in Alzheimer's disease and normal ageing with MRI at 3 Tesla  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mapping local hippocampal changes in Alzheimer's disease and normal ageing with MRI at 3 Tesla and Alzheimer's disease based on high resolution MRI at 3 Tesla. T1-weighted images were acquired from 19

Thompson, Paul

367

Guidance on Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization in an ESPC  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Guidance on Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization in an ESPC Guidance on Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization in an ESPC Subject: The use of estimated energy rates 1 and normalized weather 2 data in determining contractor (ESCO) payments under an energy savings performance contract (ESPC). Summary: As explained below, the use of estimated energy rates and normalized weather data is permitted when determining ESCO payments under an ESPC. Authority: The authority for ESPCs is established in the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA), as amended. (42 U.S.C. 8287 et seq.) Implementing regulations for ESPCs are at 10 CFR Part 436 subpart B. Guidance: Section 801(a)(2)(B) of NECPA requires that "[a]aggregate annual payments by an agency ... may not exceed the amount ... the agency would have paid (as estimated

368

Guidance on Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization in an ESPC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Guidance on Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization in an ESPC Guidance on Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization in an ESPC Subject: The use of estimated energy rates 1 and normalized weather 2 data in determining contractor (ESCO) payments under an energy savings performance contract (ESPC). Summary: As explained below, the use of estimated energy rates and normalized weather data is permitted when determining ESCO payments under an ESPC. Authority: The authority for ESPCs is established in the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA), as amended. (42 U.S.C. 8287 et seq.) Implementing regulations for ESPCs are at 10 CFR Part 436 subpart B. Guidance: Section 801(a)(2)(B) of NECPA requires that "[a]aggregate annual payments by an agency ... may not exceed the amount ... the agency would have paid (as estimated

369

Numerical Solution of the Vertical Structure Equation in the Normal Mode Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a diagnostic study by expanding global data in normal mode functions, Kasahara and Puri found that for zonal wavenumber one, even the seventh vertical mode (the highest mode they presented) contains about 50% of the energy of the external ...

Y. K. Sasaki; L. P. Chang

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Numerical Investigations with a Hybrid Isentropic–Sigma Model. Part I: Normal-Mode Characteristics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a validation experiment of a hybrid isentropic–sigma coordinate primitive equation model developed at the University of Wisconsin (the UW ??? model), an initial value technique is used to investigate numerically the normal-mode characteristics ...

R. Bradley Pierce; Fred M. Reames; Tom H. Zapotocny; Donald R. Johnson; Bart J. Wolf

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Normalization and Calibration of Geostationary Satellite Radiances for the international Satellite Cloud Climatology Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Procedures are described for normalizing the radiometric calibration of image radiances obtained from the suite of geostationary weather satellites that contributed data to the international Satellite Cloud Climatology Project. The key step is ...

Yves Desormeaux; William B. Rossow; Christopher L. Brest; G. Garrett Campbell

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

On the Role of Ozone in the Stability of Rossby Normal Modes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of ozone in the linear stability of Rossby normal modes is examined in a continuously stratified, extratropical baroclinic atmosphere. The flow is described by coupled equations for the quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity and ozone ...

Terrence R. Nathan

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

NOAA's 1981–2010 U.S. Climate Normals: An Overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) released the 1981–2010 U.S. Climate Normals in July 2011, representing the latest decadal installment of this long-standing product line. Climatic averages (and other statistics) of temperature, ...

Anthony Arguez; Imke Durre; Scott Applequist; Russell S. Vose; Michael F. Squires; Xungang Yin; Richard R. Heim Jr.; Timothy W. Owen

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Spectral Representation of Three-Dimensional Global Data by Expansion in Normal Mode Functions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To represent atmospheric data spectrally in three indices (zonal wavenumber, and meridional and vertical modal indices), we propose to use three-dimensional normal mode functions (NMF's) to express the wind and mass fields simultaneously. The NMF'...

Akira Kasahara; Kamal Puri

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

A Synoptic Evaluation of Normal Mode Initialization Experiments with the NMC Nested Grid Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Regional Analysis and Forecast System at the National Meteorological Center consists of an optimum interpolation objective analysis scheme, an adiabatic nonlinear normal model initialization (NNMI) and a hemispheric Nested Grid Model (NGM) to ...

Frederick H. Carr; Richard L. Wobus; Ralph A. Petersen

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Lagrangian Drifter Dispersion in the Surf Zone: Directionally Spread, Normally Incident Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lagrangian drifter statistics in a surf zone wave and circulation model are examined and compared to single- and two-particle dispersion statistics observed on an alongshore uniform natural beach with small, normally incident, directionally ...

Matthew Spydell; Falk Feddersen

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Method for distinguishing normal and transformed cells using G1 kinase inhibitors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A G{sub 1} phase kinase inhibitor is applied in a low concentration to a population of normal and transformed mammalian cells. The concentration of G{sub 1} phase kinase inhibitor is selected to reversibly arrest normal mammalian cells in the G{sub 1} cell cycle without arresting growth of transformed cells. The transformed cells may then be selectively identified and/or cloned for research or diagnostic purposes. The transformed cells may also be selectively killed by therapeutic agents that do not affect normal cells in the G{sub 1} phase, suggesting that such G{sub 1} phase kinase inhibitors may form an effective adjuvant for use with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy for optimizing the killing dose of chemotherapeutic agents while minimizing undesirable side effects on normal cells.

Crissman, H.A.; Gadbois, D.M.; Tobey, R.A.; Bradbury, E.M.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

378

An Attempt to Normalize the Hailstorm Variability for the Evaluation of Cloud Seeding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Procedures have been developed from relationships between parameters of hailstone size distributions and storm thermodynamics to normalize the effects of storm thermodynamics of integral hail parameters observed at the ground. Hail parameters ...

Lawrence Cheng

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Method for distinguishing normal and transformed cells using G1 kinase inhibitors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitor is applied in a low concentration to a population of normal and transformed mammalian cells. The concentration of G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitor is selected to reversibly arrest normal mammalian cells in the G.sub.1 cell cycle without arresting growth of transformed cells. The transformed cells may then be selectively identified and/or cloned for research or diagnostic purposes. The transformed cells may also be selectively killed by therapeutic agents that do not affect normal cells in the G.sub.1 phase, suggesting that such G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitors may form an effective adjuvant for use with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy for optimizing the killing dose of chemotherapeutic agents while minimizing undesirable side effects on normal cells.

Crissman, Harry A. (Los Alamos, NM); Gadbois, Donna M. (Los Alamos, NM); Tobey, Robert A. (Los Alamos, NM); Bradbury, E. Morton (Santa Fe, NM)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Blood Vessel Normalization in the Hamster Oral Cancer Model for Experimental Cancer Therapy Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Normalization of tumor blood vessels improves drug and oxygen delivery to cancer cells. The aim of this study was to develop a technique to normalize blood vessels in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Tumor-bearing hamsters were treated with thalidomide and were compared with controls. Results: Twenty eight hours after treatment with thalidomide, the blood vessels of premalignant tissue observable in vivo became narrower and less tortuous than those of controls; Evans Blue Dye extravasation in tumor was significantly reduced (indicating a reduction in aberrant tumor vascular hyperpermeability that compromises blood flow), and tumor blood vessel morphology in histological sections, labeled for Factor VIII, revealed a significant reduction in compressive forces. These findings indicated blood vessel normalization with a window of 48 h. Conclusion: The technique developed herein has rendered the hamster oral cancer model amenable to research, with the potential benefit of vascular normalization in head and neck cancer therapy.

Ana J. Molinari; Romina F. Aromando; Maria E. Itoiz; Marcela A. Garabalino; Andrea Monti Hughes; Elisa M. Heber; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; David W. Nigg; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal butane isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Method for distinguishing normal and transformed cells using G1 kinase inhibitors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitor is applied in a low concentration to a population of normal and transformed mammalian cells. The concentration of G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitor is selected to reversibly arrest normal mammalian cells in the G[sub 1] cell cycle without arresting growth of transformed cells. The transformed cells may then be selectively identified and/or cloned for research or diagnostic purposes. The transformed cells may also be selectively killed by therapeutic agents that do not affect normal cells in the G[sub 1] phase, suggesting that such G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitors may form an effective adjuvant for use with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy for optimizing the killing dose of chemotherapeutic agents while minimizing undesirable side effects on normal cells.

Crissman, H.A.; Gadbois, D.M.; Tobey, R.A.; Bradbury, E.M.

1993-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

382

Global Normal-Mode Rossby Waves Observed in Stratospheric Ozone Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Westward-propagating Rossby normal-mode planetary waves are documented in stratospheric ozone data using Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) satellite measurements. These modes are evidenced by enhanced spectral power and near-global coherence ...

William J. Randel

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

EA-1123: Transfer of Normal and Low-Enriched Uranium Billets...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to transfer approximately 710,000 kilograms (1,562,000 pounds) of unneeded normal and low-enriched uranium to the United...

384

The Fueling of Nuclear Activity: II. The Bar Properties of Seyfert and Normal Galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use a recent near-infrared imaging survey of samples of Seyfert and normal galaxies to study the role of bars in the fueling of nuclear activity. The active galaxy sample includes Seyfert galaxies in the Revised Shapely-Ames (RSA) and Sandage & Tammann's (1987) extension to this catalog. The normal galaxies were selected to match the Seyfert sample in Hubble type, redshift, inclination and blue luminosity. All the galaxies in both samples classified as barred in the RSA catalog are also barred in the near-infrared. In addition, ~55% of the galaxies classified as non-barred in the RSA show evidence for bars at 2.1 microns. Overall, ~70% of the galaxies observed show evidence for bar structures. The incidence of bars in the Seyfert and normal galaxies is similar, suggesting Seyfert nuclei do not occur preferentially in barred systems. Furthermore, a slightly higher percentage of normal galaxies have multiple-bar structures.

John S. Mulchaey; Michael W. Regan

1997-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

385

Asymptotic normality and efficiency of the maximum likelihood estimator for the parameter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a distant site. We prove an asymptotic normality result for this consistent estimator as the distant site tends to infinity and establish that it achieves the Cramér-Rao bound. We also explore in a simulation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

386

CRITICAL FIELD FOR SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND LOW-TEMPERATURE NORMAL-STATE HEAT CAPACITY OF TUNGSTEN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LOW-TEMPERATURE NORMAL-STATE HEAT CAPACITY OF TUNGSTEN B. B.Temperature Nonnal-State Heat Capacity of Tungsten* B. n.single crystal This work, heat capacity 57,000a 4 d' 1&11.

Triplett, B.B.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Normal Mode Initialization and the Generation of Gravity Waves by Quasi-Geostrophic Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several numerical weather prediction models now use nonlinear normal-mode initialization schemes. These schemes describe balanced states which act to limit the initial presence of high-frequency gravity waves and their subsequent growth by ...

Ronald M. Errico

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

The Binormal Distribution: A Distribution for Representing Asymmetrical but Normal-like Weather Elements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new probability distribution, which has some of the advantages of the normal distribution but avoids the constraint of symmetry undesired in many applications, is presented. The distribution, called binormal, has three parameters, as the ...

Zoltan Toth; Tamas Szentimrey

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

The Scaling Exponent Distinguishes the Injured Sick Hearts Against Normal Healthy Hearts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We analyzed heartbeat?intervals with our own program of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to quantify the irregularity of the heartbeat. The present analysis revealed that normal healthy subjects have the scaling exponent of 1.0

Toru Yazawa; Katsunori Tanaka

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

A Review of Radionuclide Release From HTGR Cores During Normal Operation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The release of radionuclides from the core of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) -- especially direct-cycle HTGRs -- during normal plant operation has significant design, O&M, and safety implications. A hallmark philosophy of all modern HTGRs is to design the plant so that radionuclides are retained in the core during normal operation and postulated accidents. The key to achieving this safety goal is twofold: (1) a reliance on ceramic-coated fuel particles for primary fission product containmen...

2004-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

391

Inverse measurement of stiffness by the normalization technique for J-integral fracture toughness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The single specimen normalization technique for J-integral fracture toughness has been successfully employed by several researchers to study the strongly non-linear fracture response of ductile semicrystalline polymers. As part of the normalization technique the load and the plastic component of displacement are normalized. The normalized data is then fit with a normalization function that approximates a power law for small displacements that are dominated by blunting and smoothly transitions to a linear relationship for large displacements that are dominated by stable crack extension. Particularly for very ductile polymers the compliance term used to determine the plastic displacement can dominate the solution and small errors in determining the elastic modulus can lead to large errors in the normalization or even make it ill-posed. This can be further complicated for polymers where the elastic modulus is strong strain rate dependent and simply using a 'quasistatic' modulus from a dogbone measurement may not equate to the dominant strain rate in the compact tension specimen. The current work proposes directly measuring the compliance of the compact tension specimen in the solution of J-integral fracture toughness and then solving for the elastic modulus. By comparison with a range of strain rate data the dominant strain rate can then be determined.

Brown, Eric [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

392

Effects of burial history, rock ductility and recovery magnitude on inversion of normal faulted strata  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inversion of normal faults at different burial depths is studied using physical models constructed with rock and deformed at confining pressure. Models consist of a 1 cm thick limestone layer above a fault dipping 70° in a rigid medium, and are subjected to a two-stage deformation path of layer-parallel extension followed by coaxial contraction. To investigate the effects of burial depth and relative ductility on kinematics of inversion, five model suites were run in which confining pressure and recovery magnitudes were varied. In all models, a normal fault forms in the limestone during extension. Subsequent inversion is accommodated in the limestone by reverse slip on the normal fault, creation and movement along new reverse faults, and distributed fracturing and folding. The relative contribution of these mechanisms depends on the relative ductility of the rock and magnitude of inversion. Reverse slip on the normal fault and distributed fracturing occur during early stages of inversion and new reverse faults form at intermediate stages. During late stage inversion, strata with low mean ductility shorten primarily by reverse slip on the pre-existing normal fault, whereas strata with high mean ductility shorten by continued slip on reverse faults. Evidence for inversion is provided by superposed fracture fabrics in the footwall at early stages (100% recovery). This change in fracture fabric during inversion could lead to an overpressured footwall in natural inversion structures. Reverse reactivation of the normal faults may occur during coaxial contraction even though such faults are unfavorably oriented assuming typical rock friction behavior and a homogeneous stress state. Localized reverse slip on normal faults is favored when strata display low ductility and less favored when strata work-harden during extension, however, the models show that the final inversion geometry is dependent on the ductility during both phases of deformation. Even a fault that is work-hardened during extension can reactivate if the ductility during contraction is low enough.

Kuhle, Nathan John

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

A method for estimating direct normal solar irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment  

SciTech Connect

In order to investigate a potential use of concentrating solar power technologies and select an optimum site for these technologies, it is necessary to obtain information on the geographical distribution of direct normal solar irradiation over an area of interest. In this work, we have developed a method for estimating direct normal irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment. The method starts with the estimation of global irradiation on a horizontal surface from MTSAT-1R satellite data and other ground-based ancillary data. Then a satellite-based diffuse fraction model was developed and used to estimate the diffuse component of the satellite-derived global irradiation. Based on this estimated global and diffuse irradiation and the solar radiation incident angle, the direct normal irradiation was finally calculated. To evaluate its performance, the method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation at seven pyrheliometer stations in Thailand. It was found that values of monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation from the measurements and those estimated from the proposed method are in reasonable agreement, with a root mean square difference of 16% and a mean bias of -1.6%, with respect to mean measured values. After the validation, this method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation over Thailand by using MTSAT-1R satellite data for the period from June 2005 to December 2008. Results from the calculation were displayed as hourly and yearly irradiation maps. These maps reveal that the direct normal irradiation in Thailand was strongly affected by the tropical monsoons and local topography of the country. (author)

Janjai, Serm [Solar Energy Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

394

Gas flux and carbonate occurrence at a shallow seep of thermogenic natural gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dioxide, ethane, propane, and butane. Hydrocarbon seeps havemethane, ethane, propane and butane. Geochim Cosmochim Acta

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Distinct p53 genomic binding patterns in normal and cancer-derived human cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report here genome-wide analysis of the tumor suppressor p53 binding sites in normal human cells. 743 high-confidence ChIP-seq peaks representing putative genomic binding sites were identified in normal IMR90 fibroblasts using a reference chromatin sample. More than 40% were located within 2 kb of a transcription start site (TSS), a distribution similar to that documented for individually studied, functional p53 binding sites and, to date, not observed by previous p53 genome-wide studies. Nearly half of the high-confidence binding sites in the IMR90 cells reside in CpG islands, in marked contrast to sites reported in cancer-derived cells. The distinct genomic features of the IMR90 binding sites do not reflect a distinct preference for specific sequences, since the de novo developed p53 motif based on our study is similar to those reported by genome-wide studies of cancer cells. More likely, the different chromatin landscape in normal, compared with cancer-derived cells, influences p53 binding via modulating availability of the sites. We compared the IMR90 ChIPseq peaks to the recently published IMR90 methylome1 and demonstrated that they are enriched at hypomethylated DNA. Our study represents the first genome-wide, de novo mapping of p53 binding sites in normal human cells and reveals that p53 binding sites reside in distinct genomic landscapes in normal and cancer-derived human cells.

Botcheva K.; McCorkle S. R.; McCombie W. R.; Dunn J. J.; Anderson C. W.

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

396

Utilization of Normal Mode Initial Conditions for Detecting Errors in the Dynamics Part of Primitive Equation Global Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When a global atmospheric basic state has constant angular velocity and its temperature varies with attitude only, there exist normal mode solutions to the linearized global primitive equations. The use of these normal modes, which have known ...

Winston C. Chao; Marvin A. Geller

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Nonlinear Normal Mode Initialization of a Limited-Area Model: Inclusion of All Beta Terms in the Linearized Model Equations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A nonlinear normal mode initialization method with all of the beta terms included in the linearized model equations is formulated for a limited-area model. It is the extension of an earlier method examining the sensitivity of nonlinear normal ...

S. J. Bijlsma

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Global stability of the normal state of superconductors in the presence of a strong electric current  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau model of superconductivity in the presence of an electric current flowing through a two-dimensional wire. We show that when the current is sufficiently strong the solution converges in the long-time limit to the normal state. We provide two types of upper bounds for the critical current where such global stability is achieved: by using the principal eigenvalue of the magnetic Laplacian associated with the normal magnetic field, and through the norm of the resolvent of the linearized steady-state operator. In the latter case we estimate the resolvent norm in large domains by the norms of approximate operators defined on the plane and the half-plane. We also obtain a lower bound, in large domains, for the above critical current by obtaining the current for which the normal state looses its local stability.

Yaniv Almog; Bernard Helffer

2013-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

399

Solar: annual and seasonal average direct normal (DNI) GIS data (contours)  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

direct normal (DNI) GIS data (contours) direct normal (DNI) GIS data (contours) for Brazil from INPE and LABSOLAR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Annual and seasonal mean of Direct Normal Solar Radiation in kWh/m2/day based on data from 1995 to 2002 (Purpose): To provide a set of consistent, reliable, verifiable, and accessible global data sets for international and in-country investors and other stakeholders (Supplemental Information): The cross-calibration process worked with data from 3 ground stations: CaicĂł (located in the Northeast of Brazil), FlorianĂłpolis (located in the South) and Balbina (located in Amazonia). These data have been used for validation and comparison of radiation transfer models operated in SWERA to estimate the incidence of solar radiation on the surface of the country from satellite images obtained from 1995 to 2002

400

Comparison of Model Estimated and Measured Direct-Normal Solar Irradiance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct-normal solar irradiance (DNSI), the total energy in the solar spectrum incident in unit time on a unit area at the earth's surface perpendicular to the direction to the Sun, depends only on atmospheric extinction of solar energy without regard to the details of the extinction - whether absorption or scattering. Here we report a set of closure experiments performed in north-central Oklahoma in April 1996, under cloud-free conditions, wherein measured atmospheric composition and aerosol optical thickness are input to a radiative transfer model, MODTRAN-3, to estimate DNSI, which is then compared with measured values obtained with normal incidence pyrheliometers and absolute cavity radiometers. Uncertainty in aerosol optical thickness (AOT) dominates the uncertainty in DNSI calculation. AOT measured by an independently calibrated sunphotometer and a rotating Direct-Normal Solar Irradiance - A Closure Experiment, Halthore et al. 2 shadow-band radiometer agree to within the uncerta...

Rangasayi Halthore; Schwartz; S. E.; Michalsky; J. J.; Anderson; G. P.; Gail P. Anderson; Ferrare R. A.; ten Brink H. M; Holben B. N.; Harry M. Ten Brink

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal butane isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Comparing of Normal Stress Distribution in Static and Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction Analyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is important to consider the vertical component of earthquake loading and inertia force in soil-structure interaction analyses. In most circumstances, design engineers are primarily concerned about the analysis of behavior of foundations subjected to earthquake-induced forces transmitted from the bedrock. In this research, a single rigid foundation with designated geometrical parameters located on sandy-clay soil has been modeled in FLAC software with Finite Different Method and subjected to three different vertical components of earthquake records. In these cases, it is important to evaluate effect of footing on underlying soil and to consider normal stress in soil with and without footing. The distribution of normal stress under the footing in static and dynamic states has been studied and compared. This Comparison indicated that, increasing in normal stress under the footing caused by vertical component of ground excitations, has decreased dynamic vertical settlement in comparison with static state.

Kholdebarin, Alireza; Massumi, Ali [Graduate School of Engineering, Tarbiat Moallem University of Tehran (Kharazmi), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davoodi, Mohammad [Dept. of Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, IIEES, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tabatabaiefar, Hamid Reza

2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

402

In lesion diagnostics, it is sometimes hard to choose which data normalization is the best among the other ones.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract In lesion diagnostics, it is sometimes hard to choose which data normalization is the best part of the useful information can be lost. Different normalization techniques retrieve different information about the data classes. Sometimes it is quite hard to single out a normalization technique

Duin, Robert P.W.

403

Pelvic Normal Tissue Contouring Guidelines for Radiation Therapy: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Panel Atlas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To define a male and female pelvic normal tissue contouring atlas for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials. Methods and Materials: One male pelvis computed tomography (CT) data set and one female pelvis CT data set were shared via the Image-Guided Therapy QA Center. A total of 16 radiation oncologists participated. The following organs at risk were contoured in both CT sets: anus, anorectum, rectum (gastrointestinal and genitourinary definitions), bowel NOS (not otherwise specified), small bowel, large bowel, and proximal femurs. The following were contoured in the male set only: bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles, and penile bulb. The following were contoured in the female set only: uterus, cervix, and ovaries. A computer program used the binomial distribution to generate 95% group consensus contours. These contours and definitions were then reviewed by the group and modified. Results: The panel achieved consensus definitions for pelvic normal tissue contouring in RTOG trials with these standardized names: Rectum, AnoRectum, SmallBowel, Colon, BowelBag, Bladder, UteroCervix, Adnexa{sub R}, Adnexa{sub L}, Prostate, SeminalVesc, PenileBulb, Femur{sub R}, and Femur{sub L}. Two additional normal structures whose purpose is to serve as targets in anal and rectal cancer were defined: AnoRectumSig and Mesorectum. Detailed target volume contouring guidelines and images are discussed. Conclusions: Consensus guidelines for pelvic normal tissue contouring were reached and are available as a CT image atlas on the RTOG Web site. This will allow uniformity in defining normal tissues for clinical trials delivering pelvic radiation and will facilitate future normal tissue complication research.

Gay, Hiram A., E-mail: hgay@radonc.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Barthold, H. Joseph [Commonwealth Hematology and Oncology, Weymouth, MA (United States); Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (Israel); O'Meara, Elizabeth [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bosch, Walter R. [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); El Naqa, Issam [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Al-Lozi, Rawan [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Rosenthal, Seth A. [Radiation Oncology Centers, Radiological Associates of Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (United States); Lawton, Colleen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Lee, W. Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Sandler, Howard [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Zietman, Anthony [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Myerson, Robert [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Dawson, Laura A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Willett, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Kachnic, Lisa A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Jhingran, Anuja [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Portelance, Lorraine [University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Ryu, Janice [Radiation Oncology Centers, Radiological Associates of Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (United States); and others

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Low-dose computed tomography image restoration using previous normal-dose scan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: In current computed tomography (CT) examinations, the associated x-ray radiation dose is of a significant concern to patients and operators. A simple and cost-effective means to perform the examinations is to lower the milliampere-seconds (mAs) or kVp parameter (or delivering less x-ray energy to the body) as low as reasonably achievable in data acquisition. However, lowering the mAs parameter will unavoidably increase data noise and the noise would propagate into the CT image if no adequate noise control is applied during image reconstruction. Since a normal-dose high diagnostic CT image scanned previously may be available in some clinical applications, such as CT perfusion imaging and CT angiography (CTA), this paper presents an innovative way to utilize the normal-dose scan as a priori information to induce signal restoration of the current low-dose CT image series. Methods: Unlike conventional local operations on neighboring image voxels, nonlocal means (NLM) algorithm utilizes the redundancy of information across the whole image. This paper adapts the NLM to utilize the redundancy of information in the previous normal-dose scan and further exploits ways to optimize the nonlocal weights for low-dose image restoration in the NLM framework. The resulting algorithm is called the previous normal-dose scan induced nonlocal means (ndiNLM). Because of the optimized nature of nonlocal weights calculation, the ndiNLM algorithm does not depend heavily on image registration between the current low-dose and the previous normal-dose CT scans. Furthermore, the smoothing parameter involved in the ndiNLM algorithm can be adaptively estimated based on the image noise relationship between the current low-dose and the previous normal-dose scanning protocols. Results: Qualitative and quantitative evaluations were carried out on a physical phantom as well as clinical abdominal and brain perfusion CT scans in terms of accuracy and resolution properties. The gain by the use of the previous normal-dose scan via the presented ndiNLM algorithm is noticeable as compared to a similar approach without using the previous normal-dose scan. Conclusions: For low-dose CT image restoration, the presented ndiNLM method is robust in preserving the spatial resolution and identifying the low-contrast structure. The authors can draw the conclusion that the presented ndiNLM algorithm may be useful for some clinical applications such as in perfusion imaging, radiotherapy, tumor surveillance, etc.

Ma, Jianhua; Huang, Jing; Feng, Qianjin; Zhang, Hua; Lu, Hongbing; Liang, Zhengrong; Chen, Wufan [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515, China and Department of Radiology, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'An, Shanxi 710032 (China); Department of Radiology, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515 (China)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

405

Natural Gas - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S. Energy  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

15, 2013 | Release Date: May 16, 15, 2013 | Release Date: May 16, 2013 | Next Release: May 23, 2013 Previous Issues Week: 12/29/2013 (View Archive) JUMP TO: In The News | Overview | Prices/Demand/Supply | Storage In the News: Natural gas liquids price information added to the Natural Gas Weekly Upd Starting today, the Natural Gas Weekly Update will include a graph and a brief text overview of natural gas liquids (NGL) spot prices for five products: ethane, propane, butane, isobutane, and natural gasoline, as well as a volume-weighted composite of these prices. The natural gas plant liquids (NGPL) composite price is calculated by applying the proportionate yield of liquids produced at natural gas processing plants to the daily spot prices. Next week's Natural Gas Weekly Update will feature the NGL

406

Computer program for determining the thermodynamic properties of light hydrocarbons  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This program was written to be used as a subroutine. The program determines the thermodynamics of light hydrocarbons. The following light hydrocarbons can be analyzed: butane, ethane, ethylene, heptane, hexane, isobutane, isopentane, methane, octane, pentane, propane and propylene. The subroutine can evaluate a thermodynamic state for the light hydrocarbons given any of the following pairs of state quantities: pressure and quality, pressure and enthalpy, pressure and entropy, temperature and pressure, temperature and quality and temperature and specific volume. These six pairs of knowns allow the user to analyze any thermodynamic cycle utilizing a light hydrocarbon as the working fluid. The Starling--Benedict--Webb--Rubin equation of state was used. A brief description, flowchart, listing and required equations for each subroutine are included.

Riemer, D.H.; Jacobs, H.R.; Boehm, R.F.; Cook, D.S.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Computer program for determining the thermodynamic properties of light hydrocarbons  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This program was written to be used as a subroutine. The program determines the thermodynamics of light hydrocarbons. The following light hydrocarbons can be analyzed: butane, ethane, ethylene, heptane, hexane, isobutane, isopentane, methane, octane, pentane, propane and propylene. The subroutine can evaluate a thermodynamic state for the light hydrocarbons given any of the following pairs of state quantities: pressure and quality, pressure and enthalpy, pressure and entropy, temperature and pressure, temperature and quality and temperature and specific volume. These six pairs of knowns allow the user to analyze any thermodynamic cycle utilizing a light hydrocarbon as the working fluid. The Starling-Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation of state was used. This report contains a brief description, flowchart, listing and required equations for each subroutine.

Riemer, D.H.; Jacobs, H.R.; Boehm, R.F.; Cook, D.S.

1976-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

PABS: A Computer Program to Normalize Emission Probabilities and Calculate Realistic Uncertainties  

SciTech Connect

The program PABS normalizes relative particle emission probabilities to an absolute scale and calculates the relevant uncertainties on this scale. The program is written in Java using the JDK 1.6 library. For additional information about system requirements, the code itself, and compiling from source, see the README file distributed with this program. The mathematical procedures used are given below.

Caron, D. S.; Browne, E.; Norman, E. B.

2009-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

409

Application of the normalization data analysis technique for single specimen R-curve determination  

SciTech Connect

The authors conclude that the normalization technique for single specimen R-curve and J{sub IC} determination can be very effective. Much like EPD, this technique requires some user interpretation/judgement during data analysis and may be difficult to standardize or fully automate even with strict analysis rules.

Porr, W.C.; Mills, W.J.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

A Comparison of the Bounded Derivative and the Normal-Mode Initialization Methods Using Real Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Application of the bounded-derivative and normal-mode methods to a simple linear barotropic model at a typical middle latitude shows that the two methods lead to identical constraints up to a certain degree of approximation. Beyond this accuracy ...

F. H. M. Semazzi; I. M. Navon

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

A novel approach to determine normal variation in gene expression data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Animal models for human diseases are of crucial importance for studying gene expression and regulation. In the last decade the development of mouse models for cancer, diabetes, neuro-degenerative and many other diseases has been on steady rise. Microarray ... Keywords: gene expression, hypertension, immune response, mouse models, normal variance, principal component analysis, replicates

Vinay Nadimpally; Mohammed J. Zaki

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Unraveling the microenvironmental influences on the normal mammary gland and induction and progression of breast cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The normal mammary gland and invasive breast cancer are both complex 'organs' composed of multiple cell types as well as extracellular matrix (ECM) in three-dimensional (3D) space. Conventionally, both normal and malignant breast cells are studied in vitro as two-dimensional (2D) monolayers of epithelial cells, which results in the loss of structure and tissue function. Many laboratories are now investigating regulation of signaling function in normal mammary gland using 3D cultures. However, it is important also to assay malignant breast cells ex vivo in a physiologically relevant environment to more closely mimic tumor architecture, signal transduction regulation and tumor behavior in vivo. Here we present the potential of these 3D models for drug testing, target validation and guidance of patient selection for clinical trials. We argue also that in order to get full insight into the biology of the normal and malignant breast, and to create in vivo-like models for therapeutic approaches in humans, we need to continue to create more complex heterotypic models to approach the full context the cells encounter in the human body.

Weigelt, Britta; Bissell, Mina J.

2008-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

413

Image segmentation using quadtree-based similarity graph and normalized cut  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The graph cuts in image segmentation have been widely used in recent years because it regards the problem of image partitioning as a graph partitioning issue, a well-known problem in graph theory. The normalized cut approach uses spectral graph properties ... Keywords: graph partitioning, image segmentation, quadtree, spectral graph

Marco Antonio Garcia De Carvalho; Anselmo Castelo Branco Ferreira; André Luis Costa

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Normalized cut segmentation of thyroid tumor image based on fractional derivatives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the clinical diagnosis of thyroid tumor, ultrasound image may provide anatomical detail of the tumor, and radionuclide image may provide functional information about activity distribution of the tumor. Fusion of the two-modality medical image doesn't ... Keywords: fractional derivatives, image segmentation, normalized cut, thyroid tumor image

Jie Zhao; Li Zhang; Wei Zheng; Hua Tian; Dong-mei Hao; Song-hong Wu

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Non-Normal Mode Initialization: Formulation and Application to Inclusion of the ?-Terms in the Linearization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The non-normal mode initialization, i.e., an initialization scheme which does not require an explicit computation of the eigenmodes of the linearized equations, is reviewed. The formulation of such a scheme is given in abstract form, in the case ...

Régis Juvanon Du Vachat

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

A Cautionary Note on the Use of the Kolmogorov–Smirnov Test for Normality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Kolmogorov–Smirnov goodness-of-fit test is used in many applications for testing normality in climate research. This note shows that the test usually leads to systematic and drastic errors. When the mean and the standard deviation are ...

Dag J. Steinskog; Dag B. Tjřstheim; Nils G. Kvamstř

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Normal Monthly Wind Stress Over the World Ocean with Error Estimates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over 35 million surface observations covering the world ocean from 1870–1976 have been processed for the purpose of calculating monthly normals and standard errors of the eastward and northward components of the wind stress and work done by the ...

Sol Hellerman; Mel Rosenstein

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Physics 116C Fall 2012 The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Physics 116C Fall 2012 The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution 1. Properties of the binomial distribution Consider a the binomial distribution, f(x) = C(n, x)px qn-x , where C(n, x) n! x of the binomial distribution can be computed using the follow- ing trick. Consider the binomial expansion (p + q

California at Santa Cruz, University of

419

Physics 116C Fall 2012 The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Physics 116C Fall 2012 The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution 1. Properties of the binomial distribution Consider a the binomial distribution, f(x) = C(n, x)p x q n-x , where C(n, x) # n! x. The expectation value of the binomial distribution can be computed using the follow­ ing trick. Consider

California at Santa Cruz, University of

420

Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Imports by Area of Entry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

by Area of Entry by Area of Entry Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Ethylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane Butylene Isobutane Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Finished Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene-Type Bonded Aircraft Fuel Other Bonded Aircraft Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., Bonded, 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., Other, 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Bonded, Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Other, Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Bonded, Greater than 500 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Other, Greater than 500 ppm to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Bonded, Greater than 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Other, Greater than 2000 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Bonded Ship Bunkers, Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., Bonded Ship Bunkers, 0.31 to 1.00% Sulfur Residual F.O., Bonded Ship Bunkers, Greater than 1.00% Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petrochem. Feed. Use Other Oils for Petrochem Feed. Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal butane isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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421

Hepatoscintiangiography of normal liver and its alteration in hepatomas and liver abscess  

SciTech Connect

This study was performed to establish normal hepatoscintiangiographic (HSA) pattern of hepatic blood flow and to investigate differential HSA findings of primary and metastatic carcinomas and abscess of the liver. HSA was carried out after intravenous bolus injection of l0 mCi of Tc-99m-phytate by obtaining sequential anterior images of 1-second exposure for 16 seconds. Observations included (1) baseline study of normal hepatic blood flow patterns by correlating with contrast angiogram, (2) time-sequence phasing of normal HSA, and (3) analysis of altered patterns in primary and metastatic carcinomas and abscess of the liver. Results were: (1) Normal HSA demonstrated 3 distinct phases of arterialization (AP), arterial hepatrogram (AHP), and portal venous hepatogram (PVHP). The means of each phase were 5.3, 6.3, and 8.3 seconds, respectively. Portal vein could be seen in all but one of 20 normal subjects. (2) Pattern changes in disease groups were early start of AP in carcinomas and very early start of AP in abscess. AP became prolonged in all disease groups. (3) Distinction between AHP and PVHP was sharp in metastasis and abscess but was unsharp in primary hepatoma. Cold area or areas became vascularized in primary hepatoma but not in abscess. Cold areas of metastasis were inhomogenously vascularized in late AP and throughout AHP and became relatively avascular as PVHP began. The cold area of abscess showed rim enhancement during AH and APH. These differences in HSA pattern were very useful in differential diagnosis of the diseases studied.

Bahk, Y.W.; Chung, S.K.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

High and Low LET Radiation Differentially Induce Normal Tissue Damage Signals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Radiotherapy using high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation is aimed at efficiently killing tumor cells while minimizing dose (biological effective) to normal tissues to prevent toxicity. It is well established that high LET radiation results in lower cell survival per absorbed dose than low LET radiation. However, whether various mechanisms involved in the development of normal tissue damage may be regulated differentially is not known. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate whether two actions related to normal tissue toxicity, p53-induced apoptosis and expression of the profibrotic gene PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1), are differentially induced by high and low LET radiation. Methods and Materials: Cells were irradiated with high LET carbon ions or low LET photons. Cell survival assays were performed, profibrotic PAI-1 expression was monitored by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and apoptosis was assayed by annexin V staining. Activation of p53 by phosphorylation at serine 315 and serine 37 was monitored by Western blotting. Transfections of plasmids expressing p53 mutated at serines 315 and 37 were used to test the requirement of these residues for apoptosis and expression of PAI-1. Results: As expected, cell survival was lower and induction of apoptosis was higher in high -LET irradiated cells. Interestingly, induction of the profibrotic PAI-1 gene was similar with high and low LET radiation. In agreement with this finding, phosphorylation of p53 at serine 315 involved in PAI-1 expression was similar with high and low LET radiation, whereas phosphorylation of p53 at serine 37, involved in apoptosis induction, was much higher after high LET irradiation. Conclusions: Our results indicate that diverse mechanisms involved in the development of normal tissue damage may be differentially affected by high and low LET radiation. This may have consequences for the development and manifestation of normal tissue damage.

Niemantsverdriet, Maarten [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, Section of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Goethem, Marc-Jan van [Department of Cell Biology, Section of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Bron, Reinier; Hogewerf, Wytse [Department of Cell Biology, Section of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Brandenburg, Sytze [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A.; Luijk, Peter van [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Coppes, Robert P., E-mail: r.p.coppes@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, Section of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

423

Catalytic conversion of light alkanes - phase V. Topical report, February 1993--October 1994  

SciTech Connect

We have made excellent progress toward a practical route from field butanes to MTBE, the oxygenate of choice for high-octane, clean-burning, environmentally acceptable reformulated gasoline. We have evaluated two proprietary process possibilities with a potential commercial partner and have conducted a joint catalyst evaluation program. The first of the two potential processes considered during the past quarter utilizes a two-step route from isobutane to tert-butyl alcohol, TBA. Not only is TBA an intermediate for MTBE production but is equally applicable for ETBE-an oxygenate which utilizes renewable ethanol in its` manufacture. In the two-step process, isobutane is oxidized in a non-catalytic reaction to a roughly equal mixture of TBA and tert-butyl hydroperoxide. TBHP, eq. 1. We have developed an inexpensive new catalyst system based on an electron-deficient macrocyclic metal complex that selectively converts TBHP to TBA, eq. 2, and meets or exceeds all of the process criteria that we have set.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

424

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

601 601 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142256601 Varnish cache server Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km resolution for Ethiopia from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) for Ethiopia for the years 2000, 2001 and 2002. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional background information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country.

425

Calculation of two-phase dispersed droplet-in-vapor flows including normal shock waves  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method for calculating quasi-one-dimensional, steady-state, two-phase dispersed droplet-in-vapor flow has been developed. The technique is applicable to both subsonic and supersonic single component flow in which normal shock waves may occur, and is the basis for a two-dimensional model. The flow is assumed to be inviscid except for droplet drag. Temperature and pressure equilibrium between phases is assumed, although this is not a requirement of the technique. Example calculations of flow in one-dimensional nozzles with and without normal shocks are given and compared with experimentally measured pressure profiles for both low quality and high quality two-phase steam/water flow.

Comfort, W.J.; Alger, T.W.; Giedt, W.H.; Crowe, C.T.

1976-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

426

Experimental Modeling of VHTR Plenum Flows during Normal Operation and Pressurized Conduction Cooldown  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is the leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Project in the U.S. which has the goal of demonstrating the production of emissions free electricity and hydrogen by 2015. The present document addresses experimental modeling of flow and thermal mixing phenomena of importance during normal or reduced power operation and during a loss of forced reactor cooling (pressurized conduction cooldown) scenario. The objectives of the experiments are, 1), provide benchmark data for assessment and improvement of codes proposed for NGNP designs and safety studies, and, 2), obtain a better understanding of related phenomena, behavior and needs. Physical models of VHTR vessel upper and lower plenums which use various working fluids to scale phenomena of interest are described. The models may be used to both simulate natural convection conditions during pressurized conduction cooldown and turbulent lower plenum flow during normal or reduced power operation.

Glenn E McCreery; Keith G Condie

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Recent work on normal and superconducting inductive energy storage switching at the Efremov Institute, Leningrad, USSR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Various forms of switches for both normal and superconducting inductive energy storage have been devised and developed at NIIEFA. At the present time, however, a major portion of the efforts of the Institute in these fields is being applied to the design and construction of coils for tokamak ''T-10M.'' The superconducting toroidal field coils (the design of which is still uncertain) will be switched by simple switches made of Nb-Ti ribbon. The normal coils for the poloidal field will be switched by a simple metal contactor breaker. As the ''T-10M'' project proceeds, perhaps some of the innovative inductive storage and switching work can continue and when ''T-10M'' is complete, the basic research can resume at full level.

Machalek, M.D.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Gamma Ray Bursts, The Principle of Relative Locality and Connection Normal Coordinates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The launch of the Fermi telescope in 2008 opened up the possibility of measuring the energy dependence of the speed of light by considering the time delay in the arrival of gamma ray bursts emitted simultaneously from very distant sources.The expected time delay between the arrival of gamma rays of significantly different energies as predicted by the framework of relative locality has already been calculated in Riemann normal coordinates. In the following, we calculate the time delay in more generality and then specialize to the connection normal coordinate system as a check that the results are coordinate independent. We also show that this result does not depend on the presence of torsion.

A. E. McCoy

2012-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

429

Normal matrix models, dbar-problem, and orthogonal polynomials on the complex plane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce a dbar-formulation of the orthogonal polynomials on the complex plane, and hence of the related normal matrix model, which is expected to play the same role as the Riemann-Hilbert formalism in the theory of orthogonal polynomials on the line and for the related Hermitian model. We propose an analog of Deift-Kriecherbauer-McLaughlin-Venakides-Zhou asymptotic method for the analysis of the relevant dbar-problem, and indicate how familiar steps for the Hermitian model, e.g. the g-function ``undressing'', might look like in the case of the normal model. We use the particular model considered recently by P. Elbau and G. Felder as a case study.

Alexander R. Its; Leon A. Takhtajan

2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

430

Computed and conventional arthrotomography of the glenohumeral joint: normal anatomy and clinical experience  

SciTech Connect

The glenohumeral joint was studied in 25 cadavers and 136 patients using computed arthrotomography (CAT) and conventional arthrotomography (AT) to assess shoulder instability. Cadaver shoulders were injected with air or latex, sectioned with a band saw, and normal articular anatomy outlined. CAT was performed in 81 patients and characterized the glenoid labrum as normal, abnormal, or detached. Hill-Sachs defects were seen in 20 out of 29 patients with anterior labral abnormalities, while bicipital tendon abnormalities were evident on CAT in 6. Of 55 patients who had AT, the status of the labrum was clarified in 13 of the 16 patients who had surgery or arthroscopy. Both methods can characterize the labrum; however, CAT is more comprehensive and appears ideal for both detection of Hill-Sachs defects and imaging the bicipital tendon. CAT requires less technical expertise and radiation than AT and is tolerated better by patients in pain.

Deutsch, A.L.; Resnick, D.; Mink, J.H.; Berman, J.L.; Cone, R.O. III; Resnik, C.S.; Danzig, L.; Guerra, J. Jr.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Conformal Form of Pseudo-Riemannian Metrics by Normal Coordinate Transformations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we extend the Cartan's approach of Riemannian normal coordinates and show that all n-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian metrics are conformal to a flat manifold, when, in normal coordinates, they are well-behaved in the origin and in its neighborhood. We show that for this condition all n-dimensioanl pseudo-Riemannian metrics can be embedded in a hyper-cone of an n+2-dimensional flat manifold. Based on the above conditions we show that each n-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian manifolds is conformal to an n-dimensional manifold of constant curvature. As a consequence of geometry, without postulates, we obtain the classical and the quantum angular momenta of a particle.

A. C. V. V. de Siqueira

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

432

Electron-Cloud Effects in Transport Lines of a Normal Conducting Linear Collider  

SciTech Connect

In the transport lines of a normal conducting linear collider, the long positron bunch train can generate an electron cloud which can then amplify intra-train offsets. This is a transient effect which is similar to the electron-cloud driven coupled bunch instabilities in a positron storage ring. In this paper, we study this phenomenon analytically. Some criteria on the critical cloud density with respect to given collider parameters are discussed.

Wu, Juhao; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Pivi, M.T.F.; Seryi, A.; /SLAC

2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

433

Alpha-Particle Condensate in Nuclear Matter at Normal Density and Statistics of Composite Bosons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is proved that alpha-particle states are well described by the Elliott SU(3) model. This result is used to analyze the alpha-particle condensation effect. It is shown that these states possess the basic attributes of the alpha-condensate and, also, the normal nuclear density on frequent occasions. The statistics of alpha-particles (and of arbitrary composite bosons) turns out to be something other than the Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac statistics, and parastatistics.

I. A. Gnilozub; S. D. Kurgalin; Yu. M. Tchuvil'sky

2004-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

434

Doses delivered to normal brain under different treatment protocols at Brookhaven National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

As of October 31, 1996, 23 glioblastoma multiforme patients underwent BNCT under several treatment protocols at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor. For treatment planning and dosimetry purposes, these protocols may be divided into four groups. The first group comprises protocols that used an 8-cm collimator and allowed a peak normal brain dose of 10.5 Gy-Eq to avolume of 1 cm{sup 3} were the thermal neutron flux was maximal (even if it happened to be in the tumor volume). The second group differs from the first in that it allowed a peak normal brain dose of 12.6 Gy-Eq. The protocols of the third and fourth groups allowed the prescribed peak normal brain dose of 12.6 Gy-Eq to be outside of the tumor volume, used a 12-cm collimator and, respectively, uni- or bilateral irradiations. We describe the treatment planning procedures and report the doses delivered to various structures of the brain.

Capala, J.; Coderre, J.A.; Liu, H.B. [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

435

Normal-state Hall effect in YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3[minus][ital x  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have measured the normal-state Hall effect on single crystals of YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3[minus][ital x

Lan, M.D.; Liu, J.Z.; Jia, Y.X.; Zhang, L.; Shelton, R.N. (Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Normalization of the scattered light from an isolated defect illuminated by a Gaussian beam  

SciTech Connect

The intensity distribution of the beam from a laser operated in the zero order configuration for the transverse electromagnetic field (TEM/sub 00/ mode) is Gaussian in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the beam. In some applications it is desirable to have a uniform intensity over a certain region in space. For example, when a Gaussian beam is incident on a smooth surface containing small isolated defects, the light scattered by a defect will depend on the position of the defect relative to the center of the beam. In the past, several techniques have been devised to convert a Gaussian intensity profile into a uniform intensity over a specified region in space. In the present work a different approach is taken. A method of normalization is described which makes direct use of the Gaussian intensity distribution of the TEM/sub 00/ mode. By this method the amount of light scattered by a defect can be normalized to the value which would be observed if the defect were located at the center of the beam, for a defect small in size compared with the 1/e/sup 2/ diameter of the Gaussian profile. The normalization requires that three measurements be made of the scattering by the defect for an arbitrary location of the defect relative to the center of the Gaussian beam, and that the 1/e/sup 2/ radius of the Gaussian beam and the interval between adjacent illuminated spots on the surface are known. Experimental data verifying the theory were obtained from isolated defects on a superfinished spherical surface.

Klingsporn, P.E.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Accumulation of DNA Double-Strand Breaks in Normal Tissues After Fractionated Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: There is increasing evidence that genetic factors regulating the recognition and/or repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are responsible for differences in radiosensitivity among patients. Genetically defined DSB repair capacities are supposed to determine patients' individual susceptibility to develop adverse normal tissue reactions after radiotherapy. In a preclinical murine model, we analyzed the impact of different DSB repair capacities on the cumulative DNA damage in normal tissues during the course of fractionated irradiation. Material and Methods: Different strains of mice with defined genetic backgrounds (SCID{sup -/-} homozygous, ATM{sup -/-} homozygous, ATM{sup +/-}heterozygous, and ATM{sup +/+}wild-type mice) were subjected to single (2 Gy) or fractionated irradiation (5 x 2 Gy). By enumerating gammaH2AX foci, the formation and rejoining of DSBs were analyzed in organs representative of both early-responding (small intestine) and late-responding tissues (lung, kidney, and heart). Results: In repair-deficient SCID{sup -/-} and ATM{sup -/-}homozygous mice, large proportions of radiation-induced DSBs remained unrepaired after each fraction, leading to the pronounced accumulation of residual DNA damage after fractionated irradiation, similarly visible in early- and late-responding tissues. The slight DSB repair impairment of ATM{sup +/-}heterozygous mice was not detectable after single-dose irradiation but resulted in a significant increase in unrepaired DSBs during the fractionated irradiation scheme. Conclusions: Radiation-induced DSBs accumulate similarly in acute- and late-responding tissues during fractionated irradiation, whereas the whole extent of residual DNA damage depends decisively on the underlying genetically defined DSB repair capacity. Moreover, our data indicate that even minor impairments in DSB repair lead to exceeding DNA damage accumulation during fractionated irradiation and thus may have a significant impact on normal tissue responses in clinical radiotherapy.

Ruebe, Claudia E., E-mail: claudia.ruebe@uks.e [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Fricke, Andreas; Wendorf, Juliane; Stuetzel, Annika; Kuehne, Martin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Ong, Mei Fang [Institute of Medical Biometrics, Epidemiology and Medical Informatics, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Lipp, Peter [Institute for Molecular Cell Biology, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Ruebe, Christian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

438

On the Law of Distribution of Energy in the Normal Spectrum Annalen der Physik, vol. 4, p. 553 ff (1901)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On the Law of Distribution of Energy in the Normal Spectrum Max Planck Annalen der Physik, vol. 4 at Kyoto University (ando@kuchem.kyoto-u.ac.jp). #12;On the Law of Distribution of Energy in the Normal confirmed an earlier result obtained by H. Beck- mann3 , show that the law of energy distribution

Moeck, Peter

439

PMC42, a breast progenitor cancer cell line, has normal-like mRNA and miRNA transcriptomes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

normal breast epithelium, and PMC42, a breast cancer cell line that retains progenitor pluripotency allowing in-culture differentiation to both secretory and myoepithelial fates. In contrast, only PMC42 exhibits a normal-like miRNA expression profile. We...

Git, Anna; Spiteri, Inmaculada; Blenkiron, Cherie; Dunning, Mark J; Pole, Jessica C M; Chin, Suet-Feung; Wang, Yanzhong; Smith, James C; Livesey, Frederick J; Caldas, Carlos

2008-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

440

Multistage Gene Normalization and SVM-Based Ranking for Protein Interactor Extraction in Full-Text Articles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interactor normalization task (INT) is to identify genes that play the interactor role in protein-protein interactions (PPIs), to map these genes to unique IDs, and to rank them according to their normalized confidence. INT has two subtasks: gene ... Keywords: Data mining, feature evaluation and selection, mining methods and algorithms, text mining, scientific databases.

Hong-Jie Dai; Po-Ting Lai; Richard Tzong-Han Tsai

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal butane isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Separation and recovery of hydrogen and normally gaseous hydrocarbons from net excess hydrogen from a catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for the catalytic reforming of hydrocarbons in the presence of hydrogen, preferably to produce high quality gasoline boiling range products. An improved recovery of normally gaseous hydrocarbons from the net excess hydrogen is realized by chilling and contacting said hydrogen with a normally liquid hydrocarbon stream in a plural stage absorption zone at an elevated pressure.

Scheifele, C.A.

1982-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

442

Fuel damage during off-normal transients in metal-fueled fast reactors  

SciTech Connect

Fuel damage during off-normal transients is a key issue in the safety of fast reactors because the fuel pin cladding provides the primary barrier to the release of radioactive materials. Part of the Safety Task of the Integral Fast Reactor Program is to provide assessments of the damage and margins to failure for metallic fuels over the wide range of transients that must be considered in safety analyses. This paper reviews the current status of the analytical and experimental programs that are providing the bases for these assessments. 13 refs., 2 figs.

Kramer, J.M.; Bauer, T.H.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Initial RF measurements of the CW normal-conducting RF injector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The LANL 2.5-cell, normal-conducting radio-frequency (NCRF) injector has been fabricated. We present initial results of low-power RF measurements (cavity Q, cavity field map, coupling beta, etc.) of the NCRF injector. The measured cavity Q and relative fields are found to be in good agreement with the design calculations and earlier measurements of Glidcop properties. However, the coupling beta of the ridge-loaded waveguides is found to be significantly higher than the design point. The impact of these low-power measurement results on the planned high-power RF and electron beam tests will be discussed.

Krawcyk, Frank L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moody, Nathan A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Felix A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nguyen, Dinh C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bolme, Gerald [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Young, Karen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Toung, Lloyd [AES

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Separation of normally gaseous hydrocarbons from a catalytic reforming effluent and recovery of purified hydrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process for the catalytic reforming of a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock, preferably to produce high quality gasoline boiling range products, is disclosed. Relatively impure hydrogen is separated from the reforming zone effluent, compressed, and recontacted with at least a portion of the liquid reformate product to provide relatively pure hydrogen, a portion of which is recycled to the reforming zone. The balance is further compressed and recontacted with at least a portion of the liquid reformate product to provide an improved recovery of normally gaseous hydrocarbons as well as an improved recovery of purified hydrogen at a pressure suitable for use in the relatively high pressure hydrotreating of sulfur-containing feedstocks.

Coste, A.C.

1982-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

445

Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Environmental Regulations and Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale Contents * Introduction * Motor Gasoline Summer Volatility (RVP) Regulations o Table 1. Summer Volatility Regulations for Motor Gasoline o Table 2. Refinery Inputs and Production of Normal Butane o Figure 1. Refinery Inputs and Production of Normal Butane o Table 3. Price Relationship Between Normal Butane and Motor Gasoline o Table 4. Market Price Premium for Low Vapor Pressure (RVP) Gasoline * Oxygenate Content of Motor Gasoline o Figure 2. Oxygenate Content of Motor Gasoline o Table 5. Oxygenated and Conventional Motor Gasoline Price Relationship o Table 6. Reformulated and Conventional Motor Gasoline Price Relationship o Figure 3. Price Differences Between RFG or MTBE and Conventional Gasoline

446

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal irradiance GIS data at  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

irradiance GIS data at irradiance GIS data at one-degree resolution of the World from NASA/SSE Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Direct Normal Irradiance (kWh/m^2/day)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005) Parameter: Direct Normal Radiation (kWh/m^2/day) Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/ Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections online Note 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; positive values are north and east. Boundaries of the -90/-180 region are -90 to -89 (south) and -180 to -179 (west). The last region, 89/180, is bounded by 89 to 90 (north) and 179 to 180 (east). The mid-point of the region is +0.5 added to the the Lat/Lon value. These data are

447

Normal zone propagation in superconducting focusing solenoids and related quench protection issues  

SciTech Connect

Superconducting solenoids are increasingly used as focusing lenses in transport channels of proton linear RF accelerators. If these accelerators employ superconducting RF cavities, each focusing lens is usually comprised of three coils connected in series: a main coil, which provides the needed focusing strength, and two bucking coils, that help to reduce magnetic field outside the lens. When a normal zone develops in any of the coils in a focusing lens, it propagates with a direction and a rate which depends on the coil and the specific part of the coil in which the quench first occurred. As a result of this propagation process (quenching), the temperature and/or voltage of parts of the lens can exceed safe limits, thus compromising lens reliability. On the other hand, the negative impact of quench events can be significantly mitigated if an external resistor is used to absorb a part of the energy stored in the magnetic field. This paper presents the main results of a solenoid quench protection study based on computational modeling of normal zone propagation in solenoid lenses being built for a superconducting linear RF accelerator under development at Fermilab.

Terechkine, I.; /Fermilab

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Nonlinear normal modes of a two degree of freedom oscillator with a bilateral elastic stop  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A study of the non linear modes of a two degree of freedom mechanical system with bilateral elastic stop is considered. The issue related to the non-smoothness of the impact force is handled through a regularization technique. In order to obtain the Nonlinear Normal Mode (NNM), the harmonic balance method with a large number of harmonics, combined with the asymptotic numerical method, is used to solve the regularized problem. These methods are present in the software "package" MANLAB. The results are validated from periodic orbits obtained analytically in the time domain by direct integration of the non regular problem. The two NNMs starting respectively from the two linear normal modes of the associated underlying linear system are discussed. The energy-frequency plot is used to present a global vision of the behavior of the modes. The dynamics of the modes are also analyzed comparing each periodic orbits and modal lines. The first NNM shows an elaborate dynamics with the occurrence of multiple impacts per period. On the other hand, the second NNM presents a more simple dynamics with a localization of the displacement on the first mass.

El Hadi Moussi; Sergio Bellizzi; Bruno Cochelin; I. Nistor

2013-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

449

Ultimate capacity of suction caisson in normally and lightly overconsolidated clays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Petroleum exploration and production in recent years have moved into increasingly deeper water off the continental shelf. Some of these facilities are anchored in water depths in excess of 1000 meters. Exploration and production in deep water present new technological challenges where traditional fixed platforms have given way to floating structures. Today suction caissons are the most commonly used anchorage system for permanent offshore oil production facility. The objective of this study is to numerically predict the ultimate capacity of suction caissons in normally consolidated and lightly overconsolidated clays. Representative soil profile from the Gulf of Mexico and the North Sea are taken and analyzed for suction caissons with length over diameter ratios of 2, 4, 6 & 8. Normalized failure load interaction diagrams are generated for each of the cases. The location of optimum attachment point is also reported for each of the cases. General purpose finite element computer program ABAQUS is used for the numerical prediction. The finite element study is carried out with three-dimensional models using hybrid elements. A simplified elastic perfectly plastic model with von-Mises yield criterion is used for the study. The saturated clay is treated as an incompressible material. Results of the study compares well with existing simplified method for estimating load capacity of suction caisson anchors.

Sharma, Partha Pratim

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Standard Test Method for Normal Spectral Emittance at Elevated Temperatures of Nonconducting Specimens  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This test method describes an accurate technique for measuring the normal spectral emittance of electrically nonconducting materials in the temperature range from 1000 to 1800 K, and at wavelengths from 1 to 35 ?m. It is particularly suitable for measuring the normal spectral emittance of materials such as ceramic oxides, which have relatively low thermal conductivity and are translucent to appreciable depths (several millimetres) below the surface, but which become essentially opaque at thicknesses of 10 mm or less. 1.2 This test method requires expensive equipment and rather elaborate precautions, but produces data that are accurate to within a few percent. It is particularly suitable for research laboratories, where the highest precision and accuracy are desired, and is not recommended for routine production or acceptance testing. Because of its high accuracy, this test method may be used as a reference method to be applied to production and acceptance testing in case of dispute. 1.3 This test metho...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Hydrodesulfurization of Thiophene and Benzothiophene to Butane and Ethylbenzene by a Homogeneous Iridium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

)(SC4H6) (3), which was also structurally character- ized. Introduction The hydroprocessing of crude oil impurities such as thio- phenes, mercaptans, and quinolines are removed, mak- ing the oil amenable to further such as benzothiophene. This led us to explore the reactivity of the bis(µ-hydrido)- bis

Jones, William D.

452

Field pilot tests for tertiary recovery using butane and propane injection  

SciTech Connect

This work describes a pilot project for tertiary recovery of liquid hydrocarbons through LPG injection in water-out sections of the Bolivar reservoir in La Pena Field, Santa Cruz, Boliva. The promising results obtained in the initial field miscibility tests, as well as the results from a mathematical model built to stimulate and evaluate the tertiary recovery project, directed subsequent work into a cyclic scheme for enhanced recovery. This scheme is explained and injection production data is presented. Field facilities built to handle both the injected LPG and the produced oil-LPG mixture are described. The oil/LPG ratio and the LPG recovered/injected fraction are the main factors measured in this to make further considerations for a full scale project.

Pacheco, E.F.; Garcia, A.I.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of 0-A12O3- Supported Vanadium Oxide Catalysts for Butane Dehydrogenation  

SciTech Connect

This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction; Structure of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Supported Vanadia Catalysts; Quantification of Surface VOx Species on Supported Vanadia Catalysts; Conclusion; Acknowledgements; and References.

Wu, Zili [ORNL; Kim, Hack-Sung [Northwestern University, Evanston; Stair, Peter [Northwestern University, Evanston

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Planar laser-induced fluorescence of nitric oxide in isomeric butanol and butane stagnation flames.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The significant efforts to reduce global fossil fuel dependence have led to the development of biofuels as an alternative. Despite their growing significance, alcohol biofuels… (more)

Chung, Gregory

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

PCR Primers for The Detection of Propane and Butane-Oxidizing Microorganisms.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? In an increasingly energy-hungry world, our capacity to meet the heightened energy demands of the future has become a pressing matter. The most urgent… (more)

Chan, Brian Jeremy

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

N-butane activation over ruthenium and iron promoted VPO catalysts.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Fe- and Ru-promoted vanadium phosphorus oxide (VPO) catalysts were synthesized via the organic route in iso-butanol to form the VPO precursor, VOHPO4·0.5H2O. The resulting… (more)

Masilo, Neoentle.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

EIA-800 - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Isobutane - NGPL Isobutane - LRG 247 644 Reformulated, Blended with Fuel Ethanol 127 Reformulated, Other Conventional, Blended with Fuel Ethanol Ed55 ...

458

Optimization of accelerator parameters using normal form methods on high-order transfer maps  

SciTech Connect

Methods of analysis of the dynamics of ensembles of charged particles in collider rings are developed. The following problems are posed and solved using normal form transformations and other methods of perturbative nonlinear dynamics: (1) Optimization of the Tevatron dynamics: (a) Skew quadrupole correction of the dynamics of particles in the Tevatron in the presence of the systematic skew quadrupole errors in dipoles; (b) Calculation of the nonlinear tune shift with amplitude based on the results of measurements and the linear lattice information; (2) Optimization of the Muon Collider storage ring: (a) Computation and optimization of the dynamic aperture of the Muon Collider 50 x 50 GeV storage ring using higher order correctors; (b) 750 x 750 GeV Muon Collider storage ring lattice design matching the Tevatron footprint. The normal form coordinates have a very important advantage over the particle optical coordinates: if the transformation can be carried out successfully (general restrictions for that are not much stronger than the typical restrictions imposed on the behavior of the particles in the accelerator) then the motion in the new coordinates has a very clean representation allowing to extract more information about the dynamics of particles, and they are very convenient for the purposes of visualization. All the problem formulations include the derivation of the objective functions, which are later used in the optimization process using various optimization algorithms. Algorithms used to solve the problems are specific to collider rings, and applicable to similar problems arising on other machines of the same type. The details of the long-term behavior of the systems are studied to ensure the their stability for the desired number of turns. The algorithm of the normal form transformation is of great value for such problems as it gives much extra information about the disturbing factors. In addition to the fact that the dynamics of particles is represented in a way that is easy to understand, such important characteristics as the strengths of the resonances and the tune shifts with amplitude and various parameters of the system are calculated. Each major section is supplied with the results of applying various numerical optimization methods to the problems stated. The emphasis is made on the efficiency comparison of various approaches and methods. The main simulation tool is the arbitrary order code COSY INFINITY written by M. Berz, K. Makino, et al. at Michigan State University. Also, the code MAD is utilized to design the 750 x 750 GeV Muon Collider storage ring baseline lattice.

Snopok, Pavel; /Michigan State U.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Tumor blood vessel "normalization" improves the therapeutic efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in experimental oral cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We previously demonstrated the efficacy of BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) to treat tumors in a hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer with no normal tissue radiotoxicity and moderate, albeit reversible, mucositis in precancerous tissue around treated tumors. It is known that boron targeting of the largest possible proportion of tumor cells contributes to the success of BNCT and that tumor blood vessel normalization improves drug delivery to the tumor. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of blood vessel normalization on the therapeutic efficacy and potential radiotoxicity of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer.

D. W. Nigg

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

China from DLR China from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) for China for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional background information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum fĂĽr Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords China CRED CREIA DLR DNI GEF GIS solar SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 8.8 MiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 4.4 MiB)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal butane isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sri Lanka from DLR Sri Lanka from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) for Sri Lanka for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional background information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum fĂĽr Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI GEF GIS solar Sri Lanka SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 155.1 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 295.7 KiB)

462

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

22 22 Varnish cache server Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km resolution for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is

463

Solar: monthly direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km resolution for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

for for Bangladesh from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) for Bangladesh for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional background information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum fĂĽr Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords Bangladesh DLR DNI GEF solar SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 915.2 KiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 488 KiB)

464

Solar: annual average direct normal (DNI) map at 40km resolution for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

map at 40km resolution for map at 40km resolution for Central America from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): A map depicting model estimates of monthly average daily total radiation using inputs derived from satellite and surface observations of cloud cover, aerosol optical depth, precipitable water vapor, albedo, atmospheric pressure and ozone sampled at a 40km resolution. (Purpose): A visual depiction of solar energy resource for concentrating solar power systems. Source NREL Date Released December 11th, 2003 (11 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords Central America direct normal DNI map NREL solar SWERA UNEP Data application/pdf icon Download Map (pdf, 67.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency

465

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenya from DLR Kenya from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) for Kenya for the years 2000, 2001 and 2002. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional background information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum fĂĽr Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI GEF GIS Kenya solar SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 2.5 MiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 1.3 MiB)

466

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ghana from DLR Ghana from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) for Ghana for the years 2000, 2001 and 2002. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional background information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum fĂĽr Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI Ghana solar SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 1 MiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 519.6 KiB)

467

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nepal from DLR Nepal from DLR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Data of high resolution (10kmx10km) Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) for Nepal for the years 2000, 2002 and 2003. The data are available for monthly and annual sums stored in a ESRI-Shapefile. Please read the country report for additional background information. (Purpose): The data are helpful for the assessment of the solar potential of the country and can give project developer a first impression of the solar resource of the country. Source DLR - Deutsches Zentrum fĂĽr Luft- und Raumfahrt Date Released October 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords DLR DNI GIS Nepal solar SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 1.2 MiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 600.4 KiB)

468

Autonomous monitoring of control hardware to predict off-normal conditions using NIF automatic Alignment Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a high power laser system capable of supporting high-energy-density experimentation as a user facility for the next 30 years. In order to maximize the facility availability, preventive maintenance enhancements are being introduced into the system. An example of such an enhancement is a camera-based health monitoring system, integrated into the automated alignment system, which provides an opportunity to monitor trends in measurements such as average beam intensity, size of the beam, and pixel saturation. The monitoring system will generate alerts based on observed trends in measurements to allow scheduled pro-active maintenance before routine off-normal detection stops system operations requiring unscheduled intervention.

Awwal, A; Wilhelmsen, K; Leach, R; Kamm, V M; Burkhart, S; Lowe-Webb, R; Cohen, S

2011-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

469

Comparison of Direct Normal Irradiance Derived from Silicon and Thermopile Global Hemispherical Radiation Detectors: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Concentrating solar applications utilize direct normal irradiance (DNI) radiation, a measurement rarely available. The solar concentrator industry has begun to deploy numerous measurement stations to prospect for suitable system deployment sites. Rotating shadowband radiometers (RSR) using silicon photodiodes as detectors are typically deployed. This paper compares direct beam estimates from RSR to a total hemispherical measuring radiometer (SPN1) multiple fast thermopiles. These detectors simultaneously measure total and diffuse radiation from which DNI can be computed. Both the SPN1 and RSR-derived DNI are compared to DNI measured with thermopile pyrheliometers. Our comparison shows that the SPN1 radiometer DNI estimated uncertainty is somewhat greater than, and on the same order as, the RSR DNI estimates for DNI magnitudes useful to concentrator technologies.

Myers, D. R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Coexistence and efficiency of normal and anomalous transport by molecular motors in living cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent experiments reveal both passive subdiffusion of various nanoparticles and anomalous active transport of such particles by molecular motors in the molecularly crowded environment of living biological cells. Passive and active microrheology reveals that the origin of this anomalous dynamics is due to the viscoelasticity of the intracellular fluid. How do molecular motors perform in such a highly viscous, dissipative environment? Can we explain the observed co-existence of the anomalous transport of relatively large particles of 100 to 500 nm in size by kinesin motors with the normal transport of smaller particles by the same molecular motors? What is the efficiency of molecular motors in the anomalous transport regime? Here we answer these seemingly conflicting questions and consistently explain experimental findings in a generalization of the well-known continuous diffusion model for molecular motors with two conformational states in which viscoelastic effects are included.

Igor Goychuk; Vasyl O. Kharchenko; R. Metzler

2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

471

Twisted-light-induced intersubband transitions in quantum wells at normal incidence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine theoretically the intersubband transitions induced by laser beams of light with orbital angular momentum (twisted light) in semiconductor quantum wells at normal incidence. These transitions become possible in the absence of gratings thanks to the fact that collimated laser beams present a component of the light's electric field in the propagation direction. We derive the matrix elements of the light-matter interaction for a Bessel-type twisted-light beam represented by its vector potential in the paraxial approximation. Then, we consider the dynamics of photo-excited electrons making intersubband transitions between the first and second subbands of a standard semiconductor quantum well. Finally, we analyze the light-matter matrix elements in order to evaluate which transitions are more favorable for given orbital angular momentum of the light beam in the case of small semiconductor structures.

Sbierski, B; Tamborenea, P I

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Strong Evidence of Normal Heat Conduction in a one-Dimensional Quantum System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate how the normal energy transport is realized in one-dimensional quantum systems using a quantum spin system. The direct investigation of local energy distribution under thermal gradient is made using the quantum master equation, and the mixing properties and the convergence of the Green-Kubo formula are investigated when the number of spin increases. We find that the autocorrelation function in the Green-Kubo formula decays as $\\sim t^{-1.5}$ to a finite value which vanishes rapidly with the increase of the system size. As a result, the Green-Kubo formula converges to a finite value in the thermodynamic limit. These facts strongly support the realization of Fourier heat law in a quantum system.

Keiji Saito

2002-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

473

Separation of normally gaseous hydrocarbons from a catalytic reforming effluent and recovery of purified hydrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process for the catalytic reforming of a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock, preferably to produce high quality gasoline boiling range products, is disclosed. Relatively impure hydrogen is separated from the reforming zone effluent, compressed, and recontacted with at least a portion of the liquid reformate product to provide relatively pure hydrogen, a portion of which is recycled to the reforming zone. The balance is further compressed and recontacted with at least a portion of the liquid reformate product in a plural stage absorption zone to provide an improved recovery of normally gaseous hydrocarbons as well as an improved recovery of purified hydrogen at a pressure suitable, for example, the relatively high pressure hydrotreating of sulfur-containing feedstocks.

O'brien, D.E.

1982-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

474

Shock and vibration environments encountered during normal rail transportation of heavy cargo  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study was conducted to obtain vibration and superimposed shock data during normal rail shipment of heavy cargo. The data were obtained during a regularly scheduled rail shipment of a 45-tonne (50-ton) cargo which consisted of an empty spent-fuel container, its supporting structure, and associated hoisting devices. The shipment was made over rail lines which are operated by the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway Company between Denver, Colorado and Albuquerque, New Mexico. The instrumented rail car was equipped with 0.38-m (15-in.) hydraulic end-of-car coupling devices. The 99 percentile levels of vibration acceleration amplitudes and single degree-of-freedom superimposed shock response spectra for the longitudinal, transverse, and vertical axes are presented.

Magnuson, C.F.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Hydrogen bonding and coordination in normal and supercritical water from X-ray inelastic scattering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A direct measure of hydrogen bonding in water under conditions ranging from the normal state to the supercritical regime is derived from the Compton scattering of inelastically-scattered X-rays. First, we show that a measure of the number of electrons $n_e$ involved in hydrogen bonding at varying thermodynamic conditions can be directly obtained from Compton profile differences. Then, we use first-principles simulations to provide a connection between $n_e$ and the number of hydrogen bonds $n_{HB}$. Our study shows that over the broad range studied the relationship between $n_e$ and $n_{HB}$ is linear, allowing for a direct experimental measure of bonding and coordination in water. In particular, the transition to supercritical state is characterized by a sharp increase in the number of water monomers, but also displays a significant number of residual dimers and trimers.

Patrick H. -L. Sit; Christophe Bellin; Bernardo Barbiellini; D. Testemale; J. -L. Hazemann; T. Buslaps; Nicola Marzari; Abhay Shukla

2007-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

476

Three-dimensional numerical investigation of a droplet impinging normally onto a wall film  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents a three-dimensional numerical investigation of a droplet impinging normally onto a wall film. The numerical method is based on the finite volume solution of the Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the volume of fluid method (VOF) and utilizing an adaptive local grid refinement technique for tracking more accurately the liquid-gas interface. The results are compared with available experimental data for integral quantities such as the lamella temporal development. Two mechanisms are identified leading to secondary droplet formation; in the initial and intermediate stages of splashing secondary droplet formation is according to Rayleigh instability while at later times surface tension effects contribute further to secondary atomization. Moreover, the influence of Weber number on the impingement process is investigated and correlations for the diameter and number of secondary droplets are proposed.

Nikolopoulos, N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nat. Technical University of Athens, 15740 Zografos (Greece)]. E-mail: niknik@fluid.mech.ntua.gr; Theodorakakos, A. [Fluid Research Co., H. Trikoupi 25, Athens, 10681 (Greece)]. E-mail: andreas@fluid-research.com; Bergeles, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nat. Technical University of Athens, 15740 Zografos (Greece)]. E-mail: bergeles@fluid.mech.ntua.gr

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

POWER COST NORMALIZATION STUDIES CIVILIAN POWER REACTOR PROGRAM--Sept. 1, 1959  

SciTech Connect

In connection with the development of a comprehensive plan for a ten- year civilian power reactor program, the AEC has had a series of status reports prepared to present a comprehensive review of the technical and economic status of various nuclear power reactor concepts. In as much as the economic data reported by the various contractors reflected different design philosophies, different estimating policies, and in some cases a technology not verified by the AEC definition of current status, Sargent and Lundy was requested to review the aforementioned status reports and to prepare normalized cost estimates of each of eight reactor concepts. The reactors were studied in three plant sizes: 75, 200, and 300 Mw(e). The reactor concepts considered were pressurized water, boiling water, organic cooled, sodium graphite, liquid metal cooled, fluid fuel (aqueous homogeneous), heavy water moderated, and gas cooled. (W.D.M.)

1960-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

478

Comparison of model estimated and measured direct-normal solar irradiance  

SciTech Connect

Direct-normal solar irradiance (DNSI), the energy in the solar spectrum incident in unit time at the Earth{close_quote}s surface on a unit area perpendicular to the direction to the Sun, depends only on atmospheric extinction of solar energy without regard to the details of the extinction, whether absorption or scattering. Here we report a set of closure experiments performed in north central Oklahoma in April 1996 under cloud-free conditions, wherein measured atmospheric composition and aerosol optical thickness are input to a radiative transfer model, MODTRAN 3, to estimate DNSI, which is then compared with measured values obtained with normal incidence pyrheliometers and absolute cavity radiometers. Uncertainty in aerosol optical thickness (AOT) dominates the uncertainty in DNSI calculation. AOT measured by an independently calibrated Sun photometer and a rotating shadow-band radiometer agree to within the uncertainties of each measurement. For 36 independent comparisons the agreement between measured and model-estimated values of DNSI falls within the combined uncertainties in the measurement (0.3{endash}0.7{percent}) and model calculation (1.8{percent}), albeit with a slight average model underestimate ({minus}0.18{plus_minus}0.94){percent}; for a DNSI of 839Wm{sup {minus}2} this corresponds to {minus}1.5{plus_minus}7.9Wm{sup {minus}2}. The agreement is nearly independent of air mass and water-vapor path abundance. These results thus establish the accuracy of the current knowledge of the solar spectrum, its integrated power, and the atmospheric extinction as a function of wavelength as represented in MODTRAN 3. An important consequence is that atmospheric absorption of short-wave energy is accurately parametrized in the model to within the above uncertainties. {copyright} 1997 American Geophysical Union

Halthore, R.N.; Schwartz, S.E. [Department of Applied Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York (United States)] [Department of Applied Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York (United States); Michalsky, J.J. [Atmospheric Sciences Research Center, State University of New York at Albany (United States)] [Atmospheric Sciences Research Center, State University of New York at Albany (United States); Anderson, G.P. [Phillips Laboratory/Geophysics Directorate, Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts (United States)] [Phillips Laboratory/Geophysics Directorate, Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts (United States); Ferrare, R.A. [Hughes STX Corporation, Lanham, Maryland (United States)] [Hughes STX Corporation, Lanham, Maryland (United States); Holben, B.N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland (United States)] [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland (United States); Ten Brink, H.M. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, ECN, Petten (Netherlands)] [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, ECN, Petten (Netherlands)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Variability of Gas Composition and Flux Intensity in Natural Marine Hydrocarbon Seeps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2 Methane Ethane Propane Butane nd nd nd nd October 4, 2004methane, ethane, propane, and butane. Methods The flux buoyfor methane, ethane, propane, butane, oxygen, nitrogen, and

Clark, J F; Schwager, Katherine; Washburn, Libe

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

The role of Entamoeba histolytica Cysteine Proteinase 1 (EhCP1) in the pathogenesis of amebiasis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

leucylamido (4-guanidino) butane (E- 64) and its analoguesleucylamido-(4- guanidino) butane ECM Extracellular Matrixleucylamido-(4-guanidino) butane (E-64) and not by the

Melendez-Lopez, Samuel G.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "normal butane isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Clearing the Air? The Effects of Gasoline Content Regulation on Air Quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

components—particularly butane—in the gasoline they sell (times more reactive than butane, the compound that refinersprimarily by removing the VOC butane from their gasoline, as

Auffhammer, Maximilian; Kellogg, Ryan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as ethane, propane, butane, naphtha or gasoline. AnOthers Losses Ethane Propane Butane Naphtha Gas oil Source:by dehydrogenation of propane and butane respectively. The

Neelis, Maarten

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

HOSPITAL VENTILATION STANDARDS AND ENERGY CONSERVATION: A SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE WITH CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS, FY 78 FINAL REPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Agents used by painters include butane, calcium carbonate,Benzene* Laboratory - Reagent Butane* Painters - PropellentBenzene* Laboratory - Reagent Butane* Painters - Propellent

DeRoos, R.L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Final Report for completed IPP-0110 and 0110A Projects: "High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

methane-hydrogen mixtures, butane, and benzol vapors wereglow discharge instability in butane and benzol vapors makessccm. Methane and a propane-butane mixture were also used as

Brown, Ian

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Developments in Normal Mode Initialization. Part II: A New Method and its Comparison with Currently Used Schemes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The analysis of Part I suggested that the temporal characteristics of the nonlinear terms in the equations of motion could introduce convergence problems in currently used schemes for normal mode initialization (NMI). In Part II we 1) introduce a ...

Philip J. Rasch

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Timing and patterns of ENSO signal in Africa over the last 30 years: insights from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A more complete picture of the timing and patterns of ENSO signal during the seasonal cycle for the whole of Africa over the three last decades is provided using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. Indeed, NDVI has a higher spatial ...

N Philippon; N Martiny; P Camberlin; M. T Hoffman; V Gond

487

Initialization of a Limited Area Model: A Comparison between the Nonlinear Normal Mode and Bounded Derivative Methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A nonlinear normal mode initialization method is applied to a baroclinic limited arm forecast model. This method is very effective in reducing the amplitude of the rapid oscillations during the first hours of the forecast. The results are ...

S. J. Bijlsma; L. M. Hafkenscheid

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

NOAA’s 1981–2010 U.S. Climate Normals: Monthly Precipitation, Snowfall, and Snow Depth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 1981–2010 “U.S. Climate Normals” released by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Climatic Data Center include a suite of monthly, seasonal, and annual statistics that are based on precipitation, snowfall, and ...

Imke Durre; Michael F. Squires; Russell S. Vose; Xungang Yin; Anthony Arguez; Scott Applequist

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

The Aging Brain: Are two pathologies worse than one? White matter hyperintensities, beta-amyloid, and cognition in normal elderly  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

related with cognition in aging and early Alzheimer disease,is normal, Neurobiology of Aging, 26.4, 9. Jeerakathil, T. ,related with cognition in aging and early Alzheimer disease,

Onami, Susan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

EA-1123: Transfer of Normal and Low-Enriched Uranium Billets to the United Kingdom, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to transfer approximately 710,000 kilograms (1,562,000 pounds) of unneeded normal and low-enriched uranium to the United Kingdom; thus,...

491

Improved Normalization of the Size Distribution of Atmospheric Particles Retrieved from Aureole Measurements Using the Diffraction Approximation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes an improvement in the diffraction approximation used to retrieve the size distribution of atmospheric particles from solar aureole radiance measurements. Normalization using total optical thickness based on measurement of the ...

J. G. DeVore

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

NOAA’s 1981-2010 U.S. Climate Normals: Monthly Precipitation, Snowfall, and Snow Depth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 1981-2010 United States Climate Normals released by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA’s) National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) include a suite of monthly, seasonal, and annual statistics based on precipitation, ...

Imke Durre; Michael F. Squires; Russell S. Vose; Xungang Yin; Anthony Arguez; Scott Applequist

493

TABLE17.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7. 7. Refinery Net Production of Finished Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, January 1998 Liquefied Refinery Gases ........................................... 576 -7 569 2,415 -51 392 2,756 Ethane/Ethylene ..................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ethane ............................................................... W W W W W W W Ethylene ............................................................ W W W W W W W Propane/Propylene ................................................ 1,656 33 1,689 2,645 329 628 3,602 Propane ............................................................. W W W 1,979 W W W Propylene .......................................................... W W W 666 W W W Normal Butane/Butylene ........................................ -804 -39 -843 -320 -337 -180 -837 Normal Butane ..................................................

494

Testing the normality of the gravitational wave data with a low cost recursive estimate of the kurtosis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a monitoring indicator of the normality of the output of a gravitational wave detector. This indicator is based on the estimation of the kurtosis (i.e., the 4th order statistical moment normalized by the variance squared) of the data selected in a time sliding window. We show how a low cost (because recursive) implementation of such estimation is possible and we illustrate the validity of the presented approach with a few examples using simulated random noises.

E. Chassande-Mottin

2002-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

495

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

49031 49031 Varnish cache server Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km resolution for China from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for China. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to

496

Rapid and transient stimulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species by melatonin in normal and tumor leukocytes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Melatonin is a modified tryptophan with potent biological activity, exerted by stimulation of specific plasma membrane (MT1/MT2) receptors, by lower affinity intracellular enzymatic targets (quinone reductase, calmodulin), or through its strong anti-oxidant ability. Scattered studies also report a perplexing pro-oxidant activity, showing that melatonin is able to stimulate production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we show that on U937 human monocytes melatonin promotes intracellular ROS in a fast (< 1 min) and transient (up to 5-6 h) way. Melatonin equally elicits its pro-radical effect on a set of normal or tumor leukocytes; intriguingly, ROS production does not lead to oxidative stress, as shown by absence of protein carbonylation, maintenance of free thiols, preservation of viability and regular proliferation rate. ROS production is independent from MT1/MT2 receptor interaction, since a) requires micromolar (as opposed to nanomolar) doses of melatonin; b) is not contrasted by the specific MT1/MT2 antagonist luzindole; c) is not mimicked by a set of MT1/MT2 high affinity melatonin analogues. Instead, chlorpromazine, the calmodulin inhibitor shown to prevent melatonin-calmodulin interaction, also prevents melatonin pro-radical effect, suggesting that the low affinity binding to calmodulin (in the micromolar range) may promote ROS production.

Radogna, Flavia [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, via Ricerca Scientifica, 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Paternoster, Laura [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, via Ricerca Scientifica, 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Istitututo di Chimica Biologica, Universita di Urbino Carlo Bo (Italy); De Nicola, Milena; Cerella, Claudia [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, via Ricerca Scientifica, 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Ammendola, Sergio [Ambiotec (Italy); Bedini, Annalida; Tarzia, Giorgio [Istituto di Chimica Farmaceutica, Universita di Urbino Carlo Bo (Italy); Aquilano, Katia; Ciriolo, Maria [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, via Ricerca Scientifica, 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Ghibelli, Lina [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, via Ricerca Scientifica, 1, 00133 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: ghibelli@uniroma2.it

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

497

Brazil Direct Normal Solar Radiation Model (40km) from INPE and LABSOLAR |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

40km) from INPE and LABSOLAR 40km) from INPE and LABSOLAR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Normal direct solar radiation in kWh/m2/day for 1 year organized into cells with 40km x 40km (Purpose): To provide a set of consistent, reliable, verifiable, and accessible global data sets for international and in-country investors and other stakeholders (Supplemental Information): The BRASIL-SR model and the SPRING software (both developed by INPE - National Institute for Space Research) were used to produce the dataset and SHAPE files. The assessment of reliability levels of the BRASIL-SR model were performed through the evaluation of the deviations shown by the estimated values for solar radiation flux vis-Ă -vis the values measured at the surface (ground truth). This evaluation was done in two phases. The first phase consisted in an inter-comparison between the core radiation transfer models adopted by the SWERA Project to map the solar energy in the various countries participating in the project. The HELIOSAT model took part in this phase like benchmark due to its employment to map solar energy resources in countries from European Union. In the second phase, the solar flux estimates provided by the BRASIL-SR model were compared with measured values acquired at several solarimetric stations spread along the Brazilian territory.

498

Brazil Direct Normal Solar Radiation Model (10km) from INPE and LABSOLAR |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

10km) from INPE and LABSOLAR 10km) from INPE and LABSOLAR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Normal direct solar radiation in kWh/m2/day for 1 year organized into cells with 10km x 10km (Purpose): The BRASIL-SR model and the SPRING software (both developed by INPE - National Institute for Space Research) were used to produce the dataset and SHAPE files (Supplemental Information): The assessment of reliability levels of the BRASIL-SR model were performed through the evaluation of the deviations shown by the estimated values for solar radiation flux vis-Ă -vis the values measured at the surface (ground truth). This evaluation was done in two phases. The first phase consisted in an inter-comparison between the core radiation transfer models adopted by the SWERA Project to map the solar energy in the various countries participating in the project. The HELIOSAT model took part in this phase like benchmark due to its employment to map solar energy resources in countries from European Union. In the second phase, the solar flux estimates provided by the BRASIL-SR model were compared with measured values acquired at several solarimetric stations spread along the Brazilian territory

499

Determination of cohesive and normal stresses and simulation of fluidization using kinetic theory  

SciTech Connect

The general objective of this study is focused on the solid stresses involved in gas-solid flow. These stresses are generally included in the momentum conservation equations, essentially for stability and to prevent particles from collapsing to unreasonably low values of gas volume fraction. The first half of this work undertakes the measurement of the stresses in various powders by direct means, while the second part uses a newly developed kinetic theory constitutive equation for stress to predict the flow and also the solids viscosity in a CFB. The cohesive or tensile stress found to exist in some classes of powders is measured using a Cohetester, based on which a cohesive force model is derived, which is sensitive to the characteristic properties of the powder material. The normal stress is measured using a Consolidometer, and the powder solids modulus is obtained as a function of the volume fraction. The solids modulus is seen to vary with particle size and particle type, with the smaller size particles being more compressible. The simulation of flow in the CFB using Gidaspow's (1991) extension of Ding's (1990) kinetic theory model to dilute phase flow, predicts realistic values of solids viscosity that are comparable to viscosities obtained experimentally by Miller (1991). However, to obtain a match between the two the value of the restitution coefficient has to be close to unity. The flow behavior showed periodic oscillations of flow (turbulence) as seen in a real system. 26 refs., 51 figs., 1 tab.

Bezbaruah, R.

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Automatic segmentation of histological structures in normal and neoplastic mammary gland tissue sections  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present a scheme for real time segmentation of histological structures in microscopic images of normal and neoplastic mammary gland sections. Paraffin embedded or frozen tissue blocks are sliced, and sections are stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The sections are then imaged using conventional bright field microscopy. The background of the images is corrected by arithmetic manipulation using a ''phantom.'' Then we use the fast marching method with a speed function that depends on the brightness gradient of the image to obtain a preliminary approximation to the boundaries of the structures of interest within a region of interest (ROI) of the entire section manually selected by the user. We use the result of the fast marching method as the initial condition for the level set motion equation. We run this last method for a few steps and obtain the final result of the segmentation. These results can be connected from section to section to build a three-dimensional reconstruction of the entire tissue block that we are studying.

Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Deschamps, Thomas; Idica, Adam K.; Malladi, Ravi; Ortiz de Solorzano, Carlos

2003-01-18T23:59:59.000Z