Sample records for normal appendages mirrors

  1. Synchrotron radiation damage observations in normal incidence copper mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Melendez, J.; Colbert, J.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water-cooled copper mirrors used at near-normal incidence on two beam lines at the NSLS are observed to undergo severe degradation upon exposure to the direct SR beam. These mirrors are used on beam lines designed to utilize radiation in the wavelength regions longer than 100 nm and are coated with a uv reflection-enhancing coating, consisting of one or more bilayers of aluminum with a MgF/sub 2/ overcoat. Beamline performance degrades very rapidly following installation of a new set of mirrors. Analysis of the mirror surfaces by various non-destructive techniques indicates severe degradation of the coating and surface along the central strip where most of the x-ray power is absorbed from the beam. In one case where the mirror had three bilayer coatings, the outer coating layer has disappeared along the central strip. Rutherford backscatter measurements indicate compositional changes between layers and confirm the existence of a carbon deposit on the surface. Thermal modeling suggests that most of the damage is caused by direct photon interaction, since the temperature rise in the energy deposition region is small.

  2. Ectodysplasin signaling in cutaneous appendage development: Dose, duration and diversity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Headon, Denis J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of several skin appendages is guided by prenatal Ectodysplasin signalling. Cui et al. (this issue, 2009) report on the dose and duration of Ectodysplasin signalling required for the maintenance and morphogenesis ...

  3. Mirror mount

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuklo, T.C.; Bender, D.A.

    1994-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A unique lens or mirror mount having adjustable constraints at two key locations to allow for ''X'' and ''Y'' tilts of the mirror only is disclosed. The device uses two pair of flexures of a type such that the pivots of the mirror gimble are rigidly fixed in all planes allowing the device to have zero stacking tolerance and zero wear over time. 4 figs.

  4. Mirror mount

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Humpal, H.H.

    1986-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A mirror mount is provided that allows free pitch, yaw and roll motion of the mirror while keeping the location of a point on the surface of the mirror fixed in the rest frame of reference of the mount. Yaw movement is provided by two yaw cylinders that are bearing mounted to provide rotation. Pitch and roll motion is provided by a spherically annular shell that is air bearing mounted to move between a clamp and an upper pedestal bearing. The centers of curvature of the spherical surfaces of the shell lie upon the point. Pitch motion and roll motion are separately and independently imparted to mirror by a pair of pitch paddles and a pair of roll paddles that are independently and separately moved by control rods driven by motors.

  5. Mirror mount

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Humpal, H.H.

    1987-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A mirror mount is provided that allows free pitch, yaw and roll motion of the mirror while keeping the location of a point on the surface of the mirror fixed in the rest frame of reference of the mount. Yaw movement is provided by two yaw cylinders that are bearing mounted to provide rotation. Pitch and roll motion is provided by a spherically annular shell that is air bearing mounted to move between a clamp and an upper pedestal bearing. The centers of curvature of the spherical surfaces of the shell lie upon the point. Pitch motion and roll motion are separately and independently imparted to mirror by a pair of pitch paddles and a pair of roll paddles that are independently and separately moved by control rods driven by motors. 5 figs.

  6. An Advanced Fast Steering Mirror for optical communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kluk, Daniel Joseph

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I describe in this thesis the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of an Advanced Fast Steering Mirror (AFSM) for precision optical platforms. The AFSM consists of a mirror driven in two rotational axes by normal ...

  7. Stellar reaction rate for (22)Mg + p -> (23)Al from the asymptotic normalization coefficient in the mirror nuclear system (22)Ne + n -> (23)Ne

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Abdullah, T.; Carstoiu, F.; Chen, X.; Clark, H. L.; Fu, C.; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Lui, Y. -W; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Tabacaru, G.; Tokimoto, Y.; Trache, L.; Tribble, Robert E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of (22)Na in ONe novae can be influenced by the (22)Mg(p,gamma)(23)Al reaction. To investigate this reaction rate at stellar energies, we have determined the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) for (22)Mg + p -> (23)Al through...

  8. Swimming and flying animals generate fluid-dynamic forces by flapping flexible appendages such as wings or fins. The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combes, Stacey A.

    Swimming and flying animals generate fluid-dynamic forces by flapping flexible appendages such as wings or fins. The stresses generated by motions of these structures can be resolved into vertical aerial and aquatic animals that propel themselves with wing-like appendages generate these vertical

  9. Thermal loading considerations for synchrotron radiation mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holdener, F.R.; Berglin, E.J.; Fuchs, B.A.; Humpal, H.H.; Karpenko, V.P.; Martin, R.W.; Tirsell, K.G.

    1986-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Grazing incidence mirrors used to focus synchrotron radiation beams through small distant apertures have severe optical requirements. The surface distortion due to heat loading of the first mirror in a bending magnet beam line is of particular concern when a large fraction of the incident beam is absorbed. In this paper we discuss mirror design considerations involved in minimizing the thermal/mechanical loading on vertically deflecting first surface mirrors required for SPEAR synchrotron radiation beam lines. Topics include selection of mirror material and cooling method, the choice of SiC for the substrate, optimization of the thickness, and the design of the mirror holder and cooling mechanism. Results obtained using two-dimensional, finite-element thermal/mechanical distortion analysis are presented for the case of a 6/sup 0/ grazing incidence SiC mirror absorbing up to 260 W at Beam Line VIII on the SPEAR ring. Test descriptions and results are given for the material used to thermally couple this SiC mirror to a water-cooled block. The interface material is limited to applications for which the equivalent normal heat load is less than 20 W/cm/sup 2/.

  10. Erected mirror optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, James J.

    2005-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) optical switching apparatus is disclosed that is based on an erectable mirror which is formed on a rotatable stage using surface micromachining. An electrostatic actuator is also formed on the substrate to rotate the stage and mirror with a high angular precision. The mirror can be erected manually after fabrication of the device and used to redirect an incident light beam at an arbitrary angel and to maintain this state in the absence of any applied electrical power. A 1.times.N optical switch can be formed using a single rotatable mirror. In some embodiments of the present invention, a plurality of rotatable mirrors can be configured so that the stages and mirrors rotate in unison when driven by a single micromotor thereby forming a 2.times.2 optical switch which can be used to switch a pair of incident light beams, or as a building block to form a higher-order optical switch.

  11. In China's Mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barros de Castro, Antônio

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of California, Berkeley In China’s Mirror * Antônio Barrosthe article “No Espelho da China,” which originally appearedThomas, “Produtos Baratos da China Facilitam a Vida de

  12. Laser correcting mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawicki, Richard H. (Danville, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved laser correction mirror (10) for correcting aberrations in a laser beam wavefront having a rectangular mirror body (12) with a plurality of legs (14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28) arranged into opposing pairs (34, 36, 38, 40) along the long sides (30, 32) of the mirror body (12). Vector force pairs (49, 50, 52, 54) are applied by adjustment mechanisms (42, 44, 46, 48) between members of the opposing pairs (34, 36, 38, 40) for bending a reflective surface 13 of the mirror body 12 into a shape defining a function which can be used to correct for comatic aberrations.

  13. Stable mirror mount

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cutburth, R.W.

    1983-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved mirror mount assembly is disclosed. The mirror mount assembly provides a post assembly slidable in a Y-axis orientation and a nut plate assembly slidable in an X-axis orientation and means for simultaneously locking said post assembly and said key assembly in a fixed position.

  14. Nanolaminate deformable mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Papavasiliou, Alexandros P. (Oakland, CA); Olivier, Scot S. (Santa Cruz, CA)

    2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A deformable mirror formed out of two layers of a nanolaminate foil attached to a stiff substrate is introduced. Deformation is provided by an electrostatic force between two of the layers. The internal stiffness of the structure allows for high-spatial-frequency shapes. The nanolaminate foil of the present invention allows for a high-quality mirror surface. The device achieves high precision in the vertical direction by using foils with accurately controlled thicknesses, but does not require high precision in the lateral dimensions, allowing such mirrors to be fabricated using crude lithography techniques. Such techniques allow structures up to about the meter scale to be fabricated.

  15. Nanolaminate deformable mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papavasiliou, Alexandros P.; Olivier, Scot S.

    2010-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A deformable mirror formed out of two layers of a nanolaminate foil attached to a stiff substrate is introduced. Deformation is provided by an electrostatic force between two of the layers. The internal stiffness of the structure allows for high-spatial-frequency shapes. The nanolaminate foil of the present invention allows for a high-quality mirror surface. The device achieves high precision in the vertical direction by using foils with accurately controlled thicknesses, but does not require high precision in the lateral dimensions, allowing such mirrors to be fabricated using crude lithography techniques. Such techniques allow structures up to about the meter scale to be fabricated.

  16. Effects of appendages and small currents on the hydrodynamic heave damping of TLP columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thiagarajan, K.P. [Australian Maritime Engineering CRC Ltd., Launceston (Australia); Troesch, A.W. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A previous paper by the authors reported on the estimation of resonant heave (springing) damping of tension leg platforms (TLPs) and a method of scaling for full scale prototypes. The present paper is a sequel to this work, and examines the effect of adding an appendage in the form of a disk to TLP columns, and the influence of a small uniform current. Model tests conducted on a cylinder+disk in heave show that the heave damping induced by the disk is linear with the amplitude of oscillation. The disk is found to increase the form drag coefficient two-fold, in accordance with published results based on isolated edge theory. The effects of a small uniform current were also examined during the model tests. Results show an increase in heave damping ratio that is linear with the current velocity. In the presence of a disk, the damping induced by the current is doubled as well. Scaling laws are proposed in this paper that enable extrapolation of heave damping due to appendages and small currents to full scale. An example calculation shows that for a full scale TLP column the heavy damping is increased by about 300% due to addition of the disk, and by 87% due to a small current. The combination of the disk and the current increases the heave damping of the column by a factor of six.

  17. Background-reducing X-ray multilayer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bloch, Jeffrey J. (Los Alamos, NM); Roussel-Dupre', Diane (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, Barham W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Background-reducing x-ray multilayer mirror. A multiple-layer "wavetrap" deposited over the surface of a layered, synthetic-microstructure soft x-ray mirror optimized for reflectivity at chosen wavelengths is disclosed for reducing the reflectivity of undesired, longer wavelength incident radiation incident thereon. In three separate mirror designs employing an alternating molybdenum and silicon layered, mirrored structure overlaid by two layers of a molybdenum/silicon pair anti-reflection coating, reflectivities of near normal incidence 133, 171, and 186 .ANG. wavelengths have been optimized, while that at 304 .ANG. has been minimized. The optimization process involves the choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs as well as the number thereof, and the distance therebetween for the mirror, and the simultaneous choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs, and their number and distance for the "wavetrap."

  18. Are mirror planets opaque?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Foot

    2001-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the last few years, many close orbiting ($\\sim 0.05$ A.U.) large mass planets ($\\sim M_{J}$) of nearby stars have been discovered. Their existence has been inferred from tiny Doppler shifts in the light from the star and in one case a transit has been observed. Because ordinary planets are not expected to be able to form this close to ordinary stars due to the high temperatures, it has been speculated that the close-in large planets are in fact exotic heavenly bodies made of mirror matter. We show that the accretion of ordinary matter onto the mirror planet (from e.g.the solar wind from the host star) should make the mirror planet opaque to ordinary radiation with an effective radius ($R_p$) large enough to explain the measured size of the transiting close-in extrasolar planet, HD209458b. Furthermore we obtain the rough prediction that $R_{p} \\propto \\sqrt{{T_s\\over M_p}}$ (where $T_s$, is the surface temperature of the ordinary matter in the mirror planet and $M_p$ is the mass of the mirror planet) which will be tested in the near future as more transiting planets are found. We also show that the mirror world interpretation of the close-in extra solar planets explains the low albedo of $\\tau$ Boo b because the large estimated mass of $\\tau$ Boo b ($\\sim 7M_J$) implies a small effective radius of $R_p \\approx 0.5R_J$ for $\\tau$ Boo.

  19. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

  20. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

  1. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

  2. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

  3. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, Paul O. (Golden, CO); Kennedy, Cheryl E. (Lafayette, CO); Jorgensen, Gary J. (Pine, CO); Shinton, Yvonne D. (Northglenn, CO); Goggin, Rita M. (Englewood, CO)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metallized polymer mirror construction having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate.

  4. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, P.O.; Kennedy, C.E.; Jorgensen, G.J.; Shinton, Y.D.; Goggin, R.M.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metallized polymer mirror construction is disclosed having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate. 6 figs.

  5. Mirror Symmetry Constructions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emily Clader; Yongbin Ruan

    2014-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    These expository notes are based on lectures by Yongbin Ruan during a special semester on the B-model at the University of Michigan in Winter 2014. They outline and compare the mirror symmetry constructions of Batyrev-Borisov, Hori-Vafa, and Bergland-Hubsch-Krawitz.

  6. Lithium-based electrochromic mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Thomas J.; Slack, Jonathan L.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LITHIUM-BASED ELECTROCHROMIC MIRRORS Thomas J. Richardson*with pure antimony films. Electrochromic cycling speed andand silver. INTRODUCTION Electrochromic devices that exhibit

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: Solar Mirrors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Mirrors Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) On April 13, 2011, in CSP R&D at Sandia Testing Facilities Software & Tools Resources Contacts News Concentrating Solar Power...

  8. Engineering problems of tandem-mirror reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moir, R.W.; Barr, W.L.; Boghosian, B.M.

    1981-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We have completed a comparative evaluation of several end plug configurations for tandem mirror fusion reactors with thermal barriers. The axi-cell configuration has been selected for further study and will be the basis for a detailed conceptual design study to be carried out over the next two years. The axi-cell end plug has a simple mirror cell produced by two circular coils followed by a transition coil and a yin-yang pair, which provides for MHD stability. This paper discusses some of the many engineering problems facing the designer. We estimated the direct cost to be 2$/W/sub e/. Assuming total (direct and indirect) costs to be twice this number, we need to reduce total costs by factors between 1.7 and 2.3 to compete with future LWRs levelized cost of electricity. These reductions may be possible by designing magnets producing over 20T made possible by use of combinations of superconducting and normal conducting coils as well as improvements in performance and cost of neutral beam and microwave power systems. Scientific and technological understanding and innovation are needed in the area of thermal barrier pumping - a process by which unwanted particles are removed (pumped) from certain regions of velocity and real space in the end plug. Removal of exhaust fuel ions, fusion ash and impurities by action of a halo plasma and plasma dump in the mirror end region is another challenging engineering problem discussed in this paper.

  9. Tilted-mirror semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salzman, J.; Lang, R.; Margalit, S.; Yariv, A.

    1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad-area GaAs heterostructure lasers with a tilted mirror were demonstrated for the first time, with the tilted mirror fabricated by etching. These lasers operate in a smooth and stable single lateral mode with a high degree of spatial coherence. The suppression of filamentation manifests itself in a high degree of reproducibility in the near-field pattern.

  10. Electrons and Mirror Symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Krishna (University of Massachusetts, Amherst) [University of Massachusetts, Amherst

    2007-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The neutral weak force between an electron and a target particle, mediated by the Z boson, can be isolated by measuring the fractional change under a mirror reflection of the scattering probability of relativistic longitudinally polarized electrons off unpolarized targets. This technique yields neutral weak force measurements at a length scale of 1 femtometer, in contrast to high energy collider measurements that probe much smaller length scales. Study of the variation of the weak force over a range of length scales provides a stringent test of theory, complementing collider measurements. We describe a recent measurement of the neutral weak force between two electrons by the E158 experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. While the weak force between an electron and positron has been extensively studied, that between two electrons had never directly been measured. We conclude by discussing prospects for even more precise measurements at future facilities.

  11. High stroke pixel for a deformable mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miles, Robin R.; Papavasiliou, Alexandros P.

    2005-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A mirror pixel that can be fabricated using standard MEMS methods for a deformable mirror. The pixel is electrostatically actuated and is capable of the high deflections needed for spaced-based mirror applications. In one embodiment, the mirror comprises three layers, a top or mirror layer, a middle layer which consists of flexures, and a comb drive layer, with the flexures of the middle layer attached to the mirror layer and to the comb drive layer. The comb drives are attached to a frame via spring flexures. A number of these mirror pixels can be used to construct a large mirror assembly. The actuator for the mirror pixel may be configured as a crenellated beam with one end fixedly secured, or configured as a scissor jack. The mirror pixels may be used in various applications requiring high stroke adaptive optics.

  12. Normal Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    User

    NORMAL DlSTRlBUTION TABLE. Entries represent the area under the standardized normal distribution from -w to z, Pr(Z

  13. Have mirror planets been observed?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Foot

    1999-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the last few years, several close orbiting ($\\sim 0.05$ AU) large mass planets ($M \\sim M_{Jupiter}$) of nearby stars have been discovered. Their existence has been inferred from tiny doppler shifts in the light from the star. We suggest that these planets may be made of mirror matter. We also suggest that some stars such as our sun may have a similar amount of mirror matter which has escaped detection.

  14. Compact neutron imaging system using axisymmetric mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khaykovich, Boris; Moncton, David E; Gubarev, Mikhail V; Ramsey, Brian D; Engelhaupt, Darell E

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A dispersed release of neutrons is generated from a source. A portion of this dispersed neutron release is reflected by surfaces of a plurality of nested, axisymmetric mirrors in at least an inner mirror layer and an outer mirror layer, wherein the neutrons reflected by the inner mirror layer are incident on at least one mirror surface of the inner mirror layer N times, wherein N is an integer, and wherein neutrons reflected by the outer mirror are incident on a plurality of mirror surfaces of the outer layer N+i times, where i is a positive integer, to redirect the neutrons toward a target. The mirrors can be formed by a periodically reversed pulsed-plating process.

  15. Periodic patterning stem cells and induction of skin appendages: p-ERK-dependent mes-enchymal condensation is coupled with Turing mechanism to convert stripes to spots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maini, Philip K.

    ABSTRACTS 931 Periodic patterning stem cells and induction of skin appendages: p-ERK-dependent mes patterns remains unknown. Using the feather model, here we show ERK activity-dependent mesenchymal cell chemotaxis toward initial peaks is essential for completing pattern formation. Adding ERK inhibitors produced

  16. Whispering-gallery mirrors for short-wavelength laser cavities: Shapes and tolerances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braud, J.P.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The whispering-gallery mirrors desired for use in short-wavelength laser cavities are seen to be highly aspheric and very different from the shapes encountered in conventional optics. Fabrication tolerance are established by examining the effects of various surface imperfections. The mirrors are found to be relatively insensitive to figures errors. The requirements on surface finish are shown to be fairly strict, though less severe than with normal-incidence optics.

  17. Whispering-gallery mirrors for short-wavelength laser cavities: Shapes and tolerances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braud, J.P.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The whispering-gallery mirrors desired for use in short-wavelength laser cavities are seen to be highly aspheric and very different from the shapes encountered in conventional optics. Fabrication tolerance are established by examining the effects of various surface imperfections. The mirrors are found to be relatively insensitive to figures errors. The requirements on surface finish are shown to be fairly strict, though less severe than with normal-incidence optics.

  18. Alpha Channeling in Mirror Machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisch N.J.

    2005-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of their engineering simplicity, high-?, and steady-state operation, mirror machines and related open-trap machines such as gas dynamic traps, are an attractive concept for achieving controlled nuclear fusion. In these open-trap machines, the confinement occurs by means of magnetic mirroring, without the magnetic field lines closing upon themselves within the region of particle confinement. Unfortunately, these concepts have not achieved to date very spectacular laboratory results, and their reactor prospects are dimmed by the prospect of a low Q-factor, the ratio of fusion power produced to auxiliary power. Nonetheless, because of its engineering promise, over the years numerous improvements have been proposed to enhance the reactor prospects of mirror fusion, such as tandem designs, end-plugging, and electric potential barriers.

  19. Compaction managed mirror bend achromat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Douglas, David (Yorktown, VA)

    2005-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for controlling the momentum compaction in a beam of charged particles. The method includes a compaction-managed mirror bend achromat (CMMBA) that provides a beamline design that retains the large momentum acceptance of a conventional mirror bend achromat. The CMMBA also provides the ability to tailor the system momentum compaction spectrum as desired for specific applications. The CMMBA enables magnetostatic management of the longitudinal phase space in Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs) thereby alleviating the need for harmonic linearization of the RF waveform.

  20. Localization of atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA and immunoreactivity in the rat heart and human atrial appendage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid, Q.; Wharton, J.; Terenghi, G.; Hassall, C.J.S.; Aimi, J.; Taylor, K.M.; Nakazato, H.; Dixon, J.E.; Burnstock, G.; Polak, J.M.

    1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The localization of mRNA encoding preproatrial natriuretic peptide was investigated in tissue sections and cultures of rat heart and in sections of human right atrial appendage using the technique of in situ hybridization with /sup 32/P- and /sup 35/S-labeled RNA probes. Rat atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) transcripts were demonstrated in numerous atrial myocytes and, to a lesser extent, in ventricular myocytes in both tissue sections and newborn rat heart cultures. These findings are consistent with those obtained by RNA blot analysis of rat heart total RNA, indicating that a single prepro-ANP transcript of approx. 900 nucleotides was present in the ventricles as well as the atria. Using a /sup 35/S-labeled RNA probe for human ANP mRNA, ANP transcripts were also localized to the majority of myocytes in the human right atrial appendage. Only background levels of autoradiographic labeling were obtained when RNA probes identical to the coding sequence of rat or human ANP mRNA were used. A close correlation was found between the distribution of ANP immunoreactivity and prepro-ANP mRNA in these preparations. These results provide unequivocal evidence for the expression of the ANP gene in the rat ventricles, as well as the atria, because myocytes in these tissues have been established as the sites of both ANP localization and precursor biosynthesis. The combined use of cardiac cultures and in situ hybridization may be of value in future studies investigating the regulation of ANP synthesis in cardiac myocytes.

  1. Mirror with thermally controlled radius of curvature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neil, George R.; Shinn, Michelle D.

    2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A radius of curvature controlled mirror for controlling precisely the focal point of a laser beam or other light beam. The radius of curvature controlled mirror provides nearly spherical distortion of the mirror in response to differential expansion between the front and rear surfaces of the mirror. The radius of curvature controlled mirror compensates for changes in other optical components due to heating or other physical changes. The radius of curvature controlled mirror includes an arrangement for adjusting the temperature of the front surface and separately adjusting the temperature of the rear surface to control the radius of curvature. The temperature adjustment arrangements can include cooling channels within the mirror body or convection of a gas upon the surface of the mirror. A control system controls the differential expansion between the front and rear surfaces to achieve the desired radius of curvature.

  2. CubeSat deformable mirror demonstration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cahoy, Kerri

    The goal of the CubeSat Deformable Mirror Demonstration (DeMi) is to characterize the performance of a small deformable mirror over a year in low-Earth orbit. Small form factor deformable mirrors are a key technology needed ...

  3. Mirror-Augmented Photovoltaic Designs and Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    or area of PV panels'. Replex Plastics has developed a high performance, low-cost solar mirror made seeks to provide low cost power, using flat-panel PV modules, which have mirror augmented irradiance through the addition of low cost solar mirrors. In order to harvest more incident solar irradiance

  4. Radius of curvature controlled mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neil, George R.; Rathke, John Wickham; Schultheiss, Thomas John; Shinn, Michelle D.; Dillon-Townes, Lawrence A.

    2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A controlled radius of curvature mirror assembly comprising: a distortable mirror having a reflective surface and a rear surface; and in descending order from the rear surface; a counter-distortion plate; a flow diverter having a flow diverter aperture at the center thereof; a flow return plate having a flow return aperture at the center thereof; a thermal isolation plate having a thermal isolation plate aperture at the center thereof and a flexible heater having a rear surface and a flexible heater aperture at the center thereof; a double walled tube defining a coolant feed chamber and a coolant return chamber; said coolant feed chamber extending to and through the flow diverter aperture and terminating at the counter-distortion plate and the coolant return chamber extending to and through the thermal isolation backplate and terminating at the flow diverter; and a coolant feed and a coolant return exit at the rear of said flexible heater.

  5. Passivation coating for flexible substrate mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A protective diffusion barrier for metalized mirror structures is provided by a layer or coating of silicon nitride which is a very dense, transparent, dielectric material that is impervious to water, alkali, and other impurities and corrosive substances that typically attack the metal layers of mirrors and cause degradation of the mirrors' reflectivity. The silicon nitride layer can be deposited on the substrate before metal deposition thereon to stabilize the metal/substrate interface, and it can be deposited over the metal to encapsulate it and protect the metal from corrosion or other degradation. Mirrors coated with silicon nitride according to this invention can also be used as front surface mirrors. Also, the silver or other reflective metal layer on mirrors comprising thin, lightweight, flexible substrates of metal or polymer sheets coated with glassy layers can be protected with silicon nitride according to this invention.

  6. Mirror Development for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Förster, A; Baba, H; Bähr, J; Bonardi, A; Bonnoli, G; Brun, P; Canestrari, R; Chadwick, P; Chikawa, M; Carton, P -H; De Souza, V; Dipold, J; Doro, M; Durand, D; Dyrda, M; Giro, E; Glicenstein, J -F; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Hrabovski, M; Jeanney, C; Kagaya, M; Katagiri, H; Lessio, L; MANDAT, D; Mariotti, M; Medina, C; Micha?owski, J; Micolon, P; Nakajima, D; Niemiec, J; Nozato, A; Palatka, M; Pareschi, G; Pech, M; Peyaud, B; Pühlhofer, G; Rataj, M; Rodeghiero, G; Rojas, G; Rousselle, J; Sakonaka, R; Schovanek, P; Seweryn, K; Schultz, C; Shu, S; Stinzing, F; Stodulski, M; Teshima, M; Travniczek, P; Van Eldik, C; Vassiliev, V; Wi?niewski, ?; Wörnlein, A; Yoshida, T

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a planned observatory for very-high energy gamma-ray astronomy. It will consist of several tens of telescopes of different sizes, with a total mirror area of up to 10,000 square meters. Most mirrors of current installations are either polished glass mirrors or diamond-turned aluminium mirrors, both labour intensive technologies. For CTA, several new technologies for a fast and cost-efficient production of light-weight and reliable mirror substrates have been developed and industrial pre-production has started for most of them. In addition, new or improved aluminium-based and dielectric surface coatings have been developed to increase the reflectance over the lifetime of the mirrors compared to those of current Cherenkov telescope instruments.

  7. Process for preparing improved silvered glass mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buckwalter, C.Q. Jr.

    1980-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass mirrors having improved weathering properties are prepared by an improvement in the process for making the mirrors. The glass surface after it has been cleaned but before it is silvered, is contacted with a solution of lanthanide rare earths in addition to a sensitization solution of tin or palladium. The addition of the rare earths produces a mirror which has increased resistance to delamination of the silver from the glass surface in the presence of water.

  8. Tandem mirror technology demonstration facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a facility for generating engineering data on the nuclear technologies needed to build an engineering test reactor (ETR). The facility, based on a tandem mirror operating in the Kelley mode, could be used to produce a high neutron flux (1.4 MW/M/sup 2/) on an 8-m/sup 2/ test area for testing fusion blankets. Runs of more than 100 h, with an average availability of 30%, would produce a fluence of 5 mW/yr/m/sup 2/ and give the necessary experience for successful operation of an ETR.

  9. LED structure with enhanced mirror reflectivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergmann, Michael; Donofrio, Matthew; Heikman, Sten; Schneider, Kevin S; Haberern, Kevin W; Edmond, John A

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Embodiments of the present invention are generally related to LED chips having improved overall emission by reducing the light-absorbing effects of barrier layers adjacent mirror contacts. In one embodiment, a LED chip comprises one or more LEDs, with each LED having an active region, a first contact under the active region having a highly reflective mirror, and a barrier layer adjacent the mirror. The barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that it does not extend beyond the periphery of the mirror. In another possible embodiment, an insulator is further provided, with the insulator adjacent the barrier layer and adjacent portions of the mirror not contacted by the active region or by the barrier layer. In yet another embodiment, a second contact is provided on the active region. In a further embodiment, the barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that the periphery of the mirror is at least 40% free of the barrier layer, and the second contact is below the first contact and accessible from the bottom of the chip.

  10. Trapping Light With Mirrors David Milovich Jr.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milovich, David

    Trapping Light With Mirrors David Milovich Jr. February 20, 2004 Abstract. We show that, given finitely many line-segment mirrors in the plane, that do not touch, and an arbitrary point source of light emitted light beams escape. This result is shown to imply that, for a given point source of light

  11. Three-point spherical mirror mount

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cutburth, R.W.

    1984-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-point spherical mirror mount for use with lasers is disclosed. The improved mirror mount is adapted to provide a pivot ring having an outer surface with at least three spaced apart mating points to engage an inner spherical surface of a support housing.

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: New Sandia Mirror Isn't Shiny:...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & CapabilitiesCapabilitiesNew Sandia Mirror Isn't Shiny: Instead It Reflects Infrared Light Using a Metamaterial New Sandia Mirror Isn't Shiny: Instead It Reflects...

  13. ancient bronze mirrors: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hydraulic system, the mirror is coupled to the cell structure with three degree 247 Mirror Mode Structures in the Solar Wind: STEREO Observations Physics Websites Summary:...

  14. Durable silver coating for mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Jesse D. (Discovery Bay, CA); Thomas, Norman L. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A durable multilayer mirror includes reflective layers of aluminum and silver and has high reflectance over a broad spectral range from ultraviolet to visible to infrared. An adhesion layer of a nickel and/or chromium alloy or nitride is deposited on an aluminum surface, and a thin layer of silver is then deposited on the adhesion layer. The silver layer is protected by a passivation layer of a nickel and/or chromium alloy or nitride and by one or more durability layers made of metal oxides and typically a first layer of metal nitride. The durability layers may include a composite silicon aluminum nitride and an oxinitride transition layer to improve bonding between nitride and oxide layers.

  15. Mirror Modes in the Heliosheath

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsurutani, B. T. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Calif. Inst. Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States); Guarnieri, F. L. [UNIVAP, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Echer, E. E. [INPE, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Lakhina, G. S. [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Navi Mumbai (India); Verkhoglyadova, O. P. [CSPAR, Univ. Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States)

    2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Mirror mode (MM) structures are identified in the Voyager 1 heliosheath magnetic field data. Their characteristics are: (1) quasiperiodic structures with a typical scale size of {approx}57 {rho}{sub p}(proton gyroradii), (2) little or no angular changes across the structures ({approx}3 deg. longitude and {approx}3 deg. latitude), and (3) a lack of sharp boundaries at the magnetic dip edges. It is proposed that the pickup of interstellar neutrals in the upstream region of the termination shock (TS) is the likely cause of MM instability during intervals when the IMF is nearly orthogonal to the solar wind flow direction. Concomitant (quasiperpendicular) shock compression of the MM structures at the TS and additional injection of pickup ions (PUIs) throughout the heliosheath will enhance MM growth.

  16. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study interim design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The status of the design of a tenth-of-a-kind commercial tandem-mirror fusion reactor is described at the midpoint of a two-year study. When completed, the design is to serve as a strategic goal for the mirror fusion program. The main objectives of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) are: (1) to design an attractive tandem-mirror fusion reactor producing electricity and synfuels (in alternate versions), (2) to identify key development and technology needs, and (3) to exploit the potential of fusion for safety, low activation, and simple disposal of radioactive waste. In the first year we have emphasized physics and engineering of the central cell and physics of the end cell. Design optimization and trade studies are continuing, and we expect additional modifications in the end cells to further improve the performance of the final design.

  17. Coating considerations for mirrors of CPV devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmauder, Torsten; Sauer, Peter; Ickes, Gerd [Leybold Optics GmbH, Siemensstr. 88, D-63755 Alzenau (Germany)

    2014-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the different optical concepts for concentrator devices is to place a focussing primary mirror behind a transparent front plate. In addition (also in case of Fresnel-diffractive main optics), further 'secondary' reflectors may be used further along the beam path. Such mirrors are usually implemented as coating stacks of a highly reflective metal - usually silver - and protective layers. The protective layers are preferably designed as reflection enhancing interference stack. The design of such protective layer stacks yields two difficulties, which are addressed in this paper: (a) vacuum coating of three-dimensional parts will result in a thickness distribution and the optical design of the stack should thus be tolerant to layer thickness variations, and (b) different places of the mirror will have different angle-of-incidence of the sunlight under operating conditions. As result, the layer stack has a different design at different places of the mirror.

  18. Motorized control for mirror mount apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cutburth, Ronald W. (Tracy, CA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A motorized control and automatic braking system for adjusting mirror mount apparatus is disclosed. The motor control includes a planetary gear arrangement to provide improved pitch adjustment capability while permitting a small packaged design. The motor control for mirror mount adjustment is suitable for laser beam propagation applications. The brake is a system of constant contact, floating detents which engage the planetary gear at selected between-teeth increments to stop rotation instantaneously when the drive motor stops.

  19. The mirror effect: Virginia Woolf's war writings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murchison, Marcia Wilkens

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    THE MIRROR EFFECT: VIRGINIA WOOLF'S WAR WRITINGS A Semor Honors Thesis By MARCIA WILKENS MURCHISON Submitted to the Office of Honors Programs & Academic Scholarships Texas A&M University In partial fulfillment of the requirements... of the UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOWS April 2000 Group: Humanities THE MIRROR EFFECT: VIRGINIA WOOLF'S WAR WRITINGS A Senior Honors Thesis By MARCIA WILKENS MURCHISON Submitted to the Office of Honors Programs & Academic Scholarships Texas Ak...

  20. Biennial Workshop on Digital Signal Processing for In-Vehicle Systems, Sep. 29-Oct. 2, 2013, Seoul, Korea Driver Mirror-Checking Action Detection Using Multi-Modal Signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Busso, Carlos

    are associated with the primary driving tasks (checking mirrors, monitoring speed, changing lines) or secondary are associated with the primary driving tasks (e.g., checking mirrors, monitoring speed, and changing lines extracted from various sensory signals that can be used to distinguish between normal and distracted driving

  1. Use of diamond-turned mirrors for synchrotron radiation (SR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howells, M.R.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The diamond turning technique has great interest for users of synchrotron radiation because of its ability to produce surfaces of arbitrary shape. It also has the advantage of being well adapted to producing metal optics. These are of interest because they lend themselves to water cooling and hence represent one approach to the problem of high synchrotron radiation power loadings on optical surfaces. The optical figure produced by diamond turning is generally adequate for synchrotron radiation applications. The main difficulty centers around the question of smoothness. Diamond turned surfaces must receive a final polish after machining before they are sufficiently smooth for use with ultra-violet or x-ray radiation. The manufacturing stages can be carried out by various groups in the optics industry and the National Synchrotron Light Source has procured a considerable number of mirrors and is having them polished for use on the vuv storage ring. At the time of writing one mirror has been completed and evaluated and we give the results for this and discuss the indications for the future. The important measurement of the r.m.s. height of the surface roughness has given a value of 3 +- 0.9A using total integrated scatter of visible light at normal incidence.

  2. Tape-Drive Based Plasma Mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokollik, Thomas; Shiraishi, Satomi; Osterhoff, Jens; Evans, Eugene; Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; vanTilborg, Jeroen; Lin, Chen; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We present experimental results on a tape-drive based plasma mirror which could be used for a compact coupling of a laser beam into a staged laser driven electron accelerator. This novel kind of plasma mirror is suitable for high repetition rates and for high number of laser shots. In order to design a compact, staged laser plasma based accelerator or collider [1], the coupling of the laser beam into the different stages represents one of the key issues. To limit the spatial foot print and thus to realize a high overall acceleration gradient, a concept has to be found which realizes this in-coupling within a few centimeters (cf. Fig 1). The fluence of the laser pulse several centimeters away from the acceleration stage (focus) exceeds the damage threshold of any available mirror coating. Therefore, in reference [2] a plasma mirror was suggested for this purpose. We present experiments on a tape-drive based plasma mirror which could be used to reflect the focused laser beam into the acceleration stage. Plasma mirrors composed of antireflection coated glass substrates are usually used to improve the temporal laser contrast of laser pulses by several orders of magnitudes [3,4]. This is particularly important for laser interaction with solid matter, such as ion acceleration [5,6] and high harmonic generation on surfaces [7]. Therefore, the laser pulse is weekly focused onto a substrate. The main pulse generates a plasma and is reflected at the critical surface, whereas the low intensity pre-pulse (mainly the Amplified Spontaneous Emission pedestal) will be transmitted through the substrate before the mirror has been triggered. Several publications [3,4] demonstrate a conservation of the spatial beam quality and a reflectivity of about 70 %. The drawback of this technique is the limited repetition rate since for every shot a fresh surface has to be provided. In the past years several novel approaches for high repetition rate plasma mirrors have been developed [2, 8]. Nevertheless, for the staged accelerator scheme a second important requirement has to be considered. Since the electron beam has to propagate through the mirror, the thickness of the substrate has to be as thin as possible to reduce the distortion of the electron beam. A tape of only several micrometer thickness can overcome these disadvantages. It can be used with a sufficient repetition rate while it allows the electron beam to propagate through with a minimum of scattering.

  3. ccsd00003444, Jordan Normal and Rational Normal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that the characteristic polynomial can be fully factorized (see e.g. Fortuna-Gianni for rational normal forms

  4. Alignment and focus of mirrored facets of a heliosat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yellowhair, Julius E; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Diver, Richard B; Moss, Timothy A

    2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Various technologies pertaining to aligning and focusing mirrored facets of a heliostat are described herein. Updating alignment and/or focus of mirrored facets is undertaken through generation of a theoretical image, wherein the theoretical image is indicative of a reflection of the target via the mirrored facets when the mirrored facets are properly aligned. This theoretical image includes reference points that are overlaid on an image of the target as reflected by the mirrored facets of the heliostat. A technician adjusts alignment/focus of a mirrored facet by causing reflected reference markings to become aligned with the reference points in the theoretical image.

  5. First principle analyses of direct bandgap solar cells with absorbing substrates versus mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirk, Alexander P. [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Kirk, Wiley P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019 (United States)

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct bandgap InP, GaAs, CdTe, and Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P solar cells containing backside mirrors as well as parasitically absorbing substrates are analyzed for their limiting open circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency with comparison to record solar cells. From the principle of detailed balance, it is shown quantitatively that mirror solar cells have greater voltage and power conversion efficiency than their substrate counterparts. Next, the radiative recombination coefficient and maximum radiative lifetime of GaAs mirror and substrate solar cells are calculated and compared to the nonradiative Auger and Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) lifetimes. Mirror solar cells have greater radiative lifetime than their substrate variants. Auger lifetime exceeds radiative lifetime for both substrate and mirror cells while SRH lifetime may be less or greater than radiative lifetime depending on trap concentration and capture cross section. Finally, the change in free energy of the photogenerated carriers is analyzed in a comparison between InP, GaAs, CdTe, and Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P mirror and substrate solar cells in order to characterize the relationship between solar photon quality and free energy management in solar cells with differing bandgaps. Wider bandgap visible threshold Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P solar cells make better use of the available change in free energy of the photogenerated charge carriers, even when normalized to the bandgap energy, than narrower bandgap near-IR threshold InP, GaAs, and CdTe solar cells.

  6. alloy mirrors obtained: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a large region of the sky Astrophysics (arXiv) Summary: We investigate whether a three-mirror system, having secondary and the tertiary mirrors with surfaces warped by Zernike...

  7. Quantum radiation from a partially reflecting moving mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nistor Nicolaevici

    2000-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the quantum radiation from a partially reflecting moving mirror for the massless scalar field in 1+1 Minkowski space. Partial reflectivity is achieved by localizing a delta-type potential at the mirror's position. The radiated flux is exactly obtained for arbitrary motions as an integral functional of the mirror's past trajectory. Partial reflectivity corrections to the perfect mirror result are discussed.

  8. Mirror Symmetry, D-Branes and Counting Holomorphic Discs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mina Aganagic; Cumrun Vafa

    2000-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a class of special Lagrangian subspaces of Calabi-Yau manifolds and identify their mirrors, using the recent derivation of mirror symmetry, as certain holomorphic varieties of the mirror geometry. This transforms the counting of holomorphic disc instantons ending on the Lagrangian submanifold to the classical Abel-Jacobi map on the mirror. We recover some results already anticipated as well as obtain some highly non-trivial new predictions.

  9. Solid State Replacement of Rotating Mirror Cameras

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, A M; Bartolick, J M

    2006-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Rotating mirror cameras have been the mainstay of mega-frame per second imaging for decades. There is still no electronic camera that can match a film based rotary mirror camera for the combination of frame count, speed, resolution and dynamic range. The rotary mirror cameras are predominantly used in the range of 0.1 to 100 micro-seconds per frame, for 25 to more than a hundred frames. Electron tube gated cameras dominate the sub microsecond regime but are frame count limited. Video cameras are pushing into the microsecond regime but are resolution limited by the high data rates. An all solid state architecture, dubbed ''In-situ Storage Image Sensor'' or ''ISIS'', by Prof. Goji Etoh, has made its first appearance into the market and its evaluation is discussed. Recent work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has concentrated both on evaluation of the presently available technologies and exploring the capabilities of the ISIS architecture. It is clear though there is presently no single chip camera that can simultaneously match the rotary mirror cameras, the ISIS architecture has the potential to approach their performance.

  10. Simultaneous imaging/reflectivity measurements to assess diagnostic mirror cleaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, C. H.; Gentile, C. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Doerner, R. [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Practical methods to clean ITER's diagnostic mirrors and restore reflectivity will be critical to ITER's plasma operations. We describe a technique to assess the efficacy of mirror cleaning techniques and detect any damage to the mirror surface. The method combines microscopic imaging and reflectivity measurements in the red, green, and blue spectral regions and at selected wavelengths. The method has been applied to laser cleaning of single crystal molybdenum mirrors coated with either carbon or beryllium films 150-420 nm thick. It is suitable for hazardous materials such as beryllium as the mirrors remain sealed in a vacuum chamber.

  11. Silicon nitride protective coatings for silvered glass mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A protective diffusion barrier for metalized mirror structures is provided by a layer or coating of silicon nitride which is a very dense, transparent, dielectric material that is impervious to water, alkali, and other impurities and corrosive substances that typically attack the metal layers of mirrors and cause degradation of the mirrors' reflectivity. The silicon nitride layer can be deposited on the substrate before metal deposition to stabilize the metal/substrate interface, and it can be deposited over the metal to encapsulate it and protect the metal from corrosion or other degradation. Mirrors coated with silicon nitride according to this invention can also be used as front surface mirrors.

  12. Silicon nitride protective coatings for silvered glass mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.

    1984-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A protective diffusion barrier for metalized mirror structures is provided by a layer or coating of silicon nitride which is a very dense, transparent, dielectric material that is impervious to water, alkali, and other impurities and corrosive substances that typically attack the metal layers of mirrors and cause degradation of the mirrors' reflectivity. The silicon nitride layer can be deposited on the substrate prior to metal deposition thereon to stabilize the metal/substrate interface, and it can be deposited over the metal to encapsulate it and protect the metal from corrosion or other degradation. Mirrors coated with silicon nitride according to this invention can also be used as front surface mirrors.

  13. Do mirror planets exist in our solar system?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Foot; Z. K. Silagadze

    2001-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Mirror matter is predicted to exist if parity is an unbroken symmetry of nature. Currently, there is a large amount of evidence that mirror matter actually exists coming from astrophysics and particle physics. One of the most fascinating (but speculative) possibilities is that there is a significant abundance of mirror matter within our solar system. If the mirror matter condensed to form a large body of planatary or stellar mass then there could be interesting observable effects. Indeed studies of long period comets suggest the existence of a solar companion which has escaped direct detection and is therefore a candidate for a mirror body. Nemesis, hypothetical "death star" companion of the Sun, proposed to explain biological mass extinctions, may potentially be a mirror star. We examine the prospects for detecting these objects if they do indeed exist and are made of mirror matter.

  14. Silicon carbide mirrors for high power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takacs, P.Z.

    1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The advent of synchrotron radiation (SR) sources and high energy lasers (HEL) in recent years has brought about the need for optical materials that can withstand the harsh operating conditions in such devices. SR mirrors must be ultra-high vacuum compatible, must withstand intense x-ray irradiation without surface damage, must maintain surface figure under thermal loading and must be capable of being polished to an extremely smooth surface finish. Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide in combination with sintered substrate material meets these requirements and offers additional benefits as well. It is an extremely hard material and offers the possibility of being cleaned and recoated many times without degradation of the surface finish, thereby prolonging the lifetime of expensive optical components. It is an extremely strong material and offers the possibility of weight reduction over conventional mirror materials.

  15. Mirror Symmetry in Physics: The Basics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Callum Quigley

    2014-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    These notes are aimed at mathematicians working on topics related to mirror symmetry, but are unfamiliar with the physical origins of this subject. We explain the physical concepts that enable this surprising duality to exist, using the torus as an illustrative example. Then, we develop the basic foundations of conformal field theory so that we can explain how mirror symmetry was first discovered in that context. Along the way we will uncover a deep connection between conformal field theories with (2,2) supersymmetry and Calabi-Yau manifolds. (Based on lectures given during the "Thematic Program on Calabi-Yau Varieties: Arithmetic, Geometry and Physics" at the Fields Institute in Toronto, October 10-11, 2013.)

  16. Strong light-matter coupling in ultrathin double dielectric mirror GaN microcavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bejtka, K.; Martin, R. W. [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); CRHEA-CNRS, Rue Bernard Gregory, Parc Sophia Antipolis, 06560 Valbonne (France); Reveret, F.; Vasson, A.; Leymarie, J. [LASMEA, UMR 6602 UBP/CNRS, 24 Avenue des Landais, F-63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Edwards, P. R. [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Sellers, I. R.; Duboz, J. Y.; Leroux, M.; Semond, F. [CRHEA-CNRS, Rue Bernard Gregory, Parc Sophia Antipolis, 06560 Valbonne (France)

    2008-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Strong light-matter coupling is demonstrated at low temperature in an ultrathin GaN microcavity fabricated using two silica/zirconia Bragg mirrors, in addition to a three-period epitaxial (Al,Ga)N mirror serving as an etch stop and assuring good quality of the overgrown GaN. The {lambda}/2 cavity is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a Si substrate. Analysis of angle-resolved data reveal key features of the strong coupling regime in both reflectivity and transmission spectra at 5 K: anticrossing with a normal mode splitting of 43{+-}2 meV and 56{+-}2 meV for reflectivity and transmission, respectively, and narrowing of the lower polariton linewidth near resonance.

  17. Fiber optics welder having movable aligning mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Higgins, Robert W. (Los Alamos, NM); Robichaud, Roger E. (Jemez Springs, NM)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for welding fiber optic waveguides together. The ends of the two fibers to be joined together are accurately, collinearly aligned in a vertical orientation and subjected to a controlled, diffuse arc to effect welding and thermal conditioning. A front-surfaced mirror mounted at a 45.degree. angle to the optical axis of a stereomicroscope mounted for viewing the junction of the ends provides two orthogonal views of the interface during the alignment operation.

  18. Transport Phenomena in Stochastic Magnetic Mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malyshkin, Leonid; Kulsrud; Russell

    2000-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Parallel thermal conduction along stochastic magnetic field lines may be reduced because the heat conducting electrons become trapped and detrapped between regions of strong magnetic field (magnetic mirrors). The problem reduces to a simple but realistic model for diffusion of mono-energetic electrons based on the fact that when there is a reduction of diffusion, it is controlled by a subset of the mirrors, the principle mirrors. The diffusion reduction can be considered as equivalent to an enhancement of the pitch angle scattering rate. Therefore, in deriving the collision integral, the authors modify the pitch angle scattering term. They take into account the full perturbed electron-electron collision integral, as well as the electron-proton collision term. Finally, they obtain the four plasma transport coefficients and the effective thermal conductivity. They express them as reductions from the classical values. They present these reductions as functions of the ratio of the magnetic field decorrelation length to the electron mean free path at the thermal speed V{sub T} = {radical}2kT/m{sub e}. They briefly discuss an application of the results to clusters of galaxies.

  19. Elliptically Bent X-ray Mirrors with Active Temperature Stabilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Sheng

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    stabilization based on a Peltier element attached directlyof the mirror with a Peltier element attached directly tostabilization based on a Peltier element have shown a

  20. aspheric mirror fabrication: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    We explore the possibility that these slow moving dark matter particles are small mirror matter dust particles originating from our solar system. Ways of further testing our...

  1. Electrocurtain coating process for coating solar mirrors | OSTI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrocurtain coating process for coating solar mirrors Re-direct Destination: An electrically conductive protective coating or film is provided over the surface of a reflective...

  2. Composite mirror facets for ground based gamma ray astronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brun, P; Durand, D; Glicenstein, J-F; Jeanney, C; Medina, M C; Micolon, P; Peyaud, B

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Composite mirrors for gamma-ray astronomy have been developed to fulfill the specifications required for the next generation of Cherenkov telescopes represented by CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array). In addition to the basic requirements on focus and reflection efficiency, the mirrors have to be stiff, lightweight, durable and cost efficient. In this paper, the technology developed to produce such mirrors is described, as well as some tests that have been performed to validate them. It is shown that these mirrors comply with the needs of CTA, making them good candidates for use on a significant part of the array.

  3. Nondispersive neutron focusing method beyond the critical angle of mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ice, Gene E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention extends the Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirror focusing geometry to allow nondispersive focusing of neutrons with a convergence on a sample much larger than is possible with existing KB optical schemes by establishing an array of at least three mirrors and focusing neutrons by appropriate multiple deflections via the array. The method may be utilized with supermirrors, multilayer mirrors, or total external reflection mirrors. Because high-energy x-rays behave like neutrons in their absorption and reflectivity rates, this method may be used with x-rays as well as neutrons.

  4. Electrocurtain coating process for coating solar mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Boyd, Donald W.; Buchanan, Michael J.; Kelly, Patrick; Kutilek, Luke A.; McCamy, James W.; McPheron, Douglas A.; Orosz, Gary R.; Limbacher, Raymond D.

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conductive protective coating or film is provided over the surface of a reflective coating of a solar mirror by flowing or directing a cation containing liquid and an anion containing liquid onto the conductive surface. The cation and the anion containing liquids are spaced from, and preferably out of contact with one another on the surface of the reflective coating as an electric current is moved through the anion containing liquid, the conductive surface between the liquids and the cation containing liquid to coat the conductive surface with the electrically conductive coating.

  5. Imperfect relativistic mirrors in the quantum regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendonça, J. T., E-mail: titomend@ist.utl.pt [IPFN, Instituto Superior Técnico, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Serbeto, A., E-mail: serbeto@if.uff.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-340 RJ (Brazil); Galvão, R. M. O., E-mail: rgalvao@if.usp.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-090 SP (Brazil)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The collective backscattering of intense laser radiation by energetic electron beams is considered in the relativistic quantum regime. Exact solutions for the radiation field are obtained, for arbitrary electron pulse shapes and laser intensities. The electron beams act as imperfect nonlinear mirrors on the incident laser radiation. This collective backscattering process can lead to the development of new sources of ultra-short pulse radiation in the gamma-ray domain. Numerical examples show that, for plausible experimental conditions, intense pulses of gamma-rays, due to the double Doppler shift of the harmonics of the incident laser radiation, can be produced using the available technology, with durations less than 1 as.

  6. X-ray beam-shaping via deformable mirrors: analytical computation of the required mirror profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spiga, Daniele; Svetina, Cristian; Zangrando, Marco; 10.1016/j.nima.2012.10.117

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray mirrors with high focusing performances are in use in both mirror mod- ules for X-ray telescopes and in synchrotron and FEL (Free Electron Laser) beamlines. A degradation of the focus sharpness arises in general from geo- metrical deformations and surface roughness, the former usually described by geometrical optics and the latter by physical optics. In general, technological developments are aimed at a very tight focusing, which requires the mirror profile to comply with the nominal shape as much as possible and to keep the roughness at a negligible level. However, a deliberate deformation of the mirror can be made to endow the focus with a desired size and distribution, via piezo actuators as done at the EIS-TIMEX beamline of FERMI@Elettra. The resulting profile can be characterized with a Long Trace Profilometer and correlated with the expected optical quality via a wavefront propagation code. However, if the roughness contribution can be neglected, the com- putation can be performed via a ray-tracin...

  7. Evaluation of CVD silicon carbide for synchrotron radiation mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takacs, P.Z.

    1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical vapor deposited silicon carbide (CVD SiC) is a recent addition to the list of materials suitable for use in the harsh environment of synchrotron radiation (SR) beam lines. SR mirrors for use at normal incidence must be ultrahigh vacuum compatible, must withstand intense x-ray irradiation without surface damage, must be capable of being polished to an extremely smooth surface finish, and must maintain surface figure under thermal loading. CVD SiC exceeds the performance of conventional optical materials in all these areas. It is, however, a relatively new optical material. Few manufacturers have experience in producing optical quality material, and few opticians have experience in figuring and polishing the material. The CVD material occurs in a variety of forms, sensitively dependent upon reaction chamber production conditions. We are evaluating samples of CVD SiC obtained commercially from various manufacturers, representing a range of deposition conditions, to determine which types of CVD material are most suitable for superpolishing. At the time of this writing, samples are being polished by several commercial vendors and surface finish characteristics are being evaluated by various analytical methods.

  8. Principles of passive and active cooling of mirror-based hybrid systems employing liquid metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anglart, Henryk [Div. of Nuclear Technology, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology Roslagstullsbacken 21, 106-91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents principles of passive and active cooling that are suitable to mirrorbased hybrid, nuclear fission/fusion systems. It is shown that liquid metal lead-bismuth cooling of the mirror machine with 25 m height and 1.5 GW thermal power is feasible both in the active mode during the normal operation and in the passive mode after the reactor shutdown. In the active mode the achievable required pumping power can well be below 50 MW, whereas the passive mode provides enough coolant flow to keep the clad temperature below the damage limits.

  9. Mirror contamination and secondary electron effects during EUV reflectivity analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Mirror contamination and secondary electron effects during EUV reflectivity analysis M. Catalfanoa, USA; b SEMATECH Inc., Albany, NY 12203, USA ABSTRACT We investigated Ru mirror contamination film at different angles. During the contamination process, the EUV reflectivity of the Ru film

  10. MEASUREMENT OF MIRROR PANELS USING COLOURED PATTERN DEFLECTOMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and parabolic dish solar concentrators. Factory production of mirror panels also requires accurate measurementsMEASUREMENT OF MIRROR PANELS USING COLOURED PATTERN DEFLECTOMETRY Paul M. Scott1 , and Greg Burgess2 1 Research Assistant, Solar Thermal Group, Australian National University (ANU), Building 32 North

  11. THORIUM-BASED MIRRORS IN THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET Nicole Farnsworth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    THORIUM-BASED MIRRORS IN THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET by Nicole Farnsworth Submitted to Brigham Young Ultraviolet and Thorium-based Mirrors . . . 1 1.2 Project Background the Optical Constants of Thorium Oxide 34 3.1 Reflectance and Transmittance Measurements

  12. Waves for alpha channeling in mirror machines A. I. Zhmoginova

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    instabilities,10,11 par- ticle injection,12,13 and plasma diagnostics.14­17 Alpha chan- neling is a recently and fuel ion injection.24,33 The -channeling effect in a mirror machine was shown24­26 to be possible-dimensional ray-tracing equations to study wave propa- gation in the central cell of a mirror machine. Assuming

  13. Fiber optic hydrophone sensor arrays using low reflectance internal mirrors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong-Seo

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new design of fiber optic hydrophone sensor arrays phics. using low reflectance internal mirrors in optical fibers is investigated. The mirrors are produced by fusion arc splicing of two fibers, one of which has a thin film of TiO2 on the end. A...

  14. Potential of Mirror Systems as Future Fusion Power Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kessler, Guenter; Kulcinski, Gerald L. [University of Madison (United States)

    2005-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Mirror based fusion reactors - as other fusion reactor concepts - have considerable environmental and safety advantages. They could make available energy resources for many 1000 years. Mirror type fusion reactors have additional technical advantages over other fusion reactor concepts. These are: simple design topology, steady state power generation, decoupling of end plugs from central power producing regions, small power units as demonstration facilities.

  15. Thermoptic analysis of bimetallic mirrors Daniel Vukobratovich and Allen Gerzoff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    plated with electroless nickel to reduce light scattering. The thermal coefficient of expansion of electroless nickel, 13.5 x 10 ­6 m/m­K, is significantly different from that of a typical mirror substrate in an electroless nickel plated mirror, which can induce optical surface distortion. Possible solutions to the ``bi

  16. Engineering and manufacturing of ITER first mirror mock-ups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joanny, M.; Travere, J. M.; Salasca, S.; Corre, Y. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Marot, L. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Thellier, C.; Gallay, G.; Cammarata, C.; Passier, B.; Ferme, J. J. [SESO, 305 Rue Louis Armand CS 30504, 13593 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 3 (France)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the ITER optical diagnostics aiming at viewing and monitoring plasma facing components will use in-vessel metallic mirrors. These mirrors will be exposed to a severe plasma environment and lead to an important tradeoff on their design and manufacturing. As a consequence, investigations are carried out on diagnostic mirrors toward the development of optimal and reliable solutions. The goals are to assess the manufacturing feasibility of the mirror coatings, evaluate the manufacturing capability and associated performances for the mirrors cooling and polishing, and finally determine the costs and delivery time of the first prototypes with a diameter of 200 and 500 mm. Three kinds of ITER candidate mock-ups are being designed and manufactured: rhodium films on stainless steel substrate, molybdenum on TZM substrate, and silver films on stainless steel substrate. The status of the project is presented in this paper.

  17. Contained Modes In Mirrors With Sheared Rotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In mirrors with E × B rotation, a fixed azimuthal perturbation in the lab frame can appear as a wave in the rotating frame. If the rotation frequency varies with radius, the plasma-frame wave frequency will also vary radially due to the Doppler shift. A wave that propagates in the high rotation plasma region might therefore be evanescent at the plasma edge. This can lead to radially localized Alfven eigenmodes with high azimuthal mode numbers. Contained Alfven modes are found both for peaked and non-peaked rotation profiles. These modes might be useful for alpha channeling or ion heating, as the high azimuthal wave number allows the plasma wave frequency in the rotating frame to exceed the ion cyclotron frequency. __________________________________________________

  18. Resonant normal form and asymptotic normal form behavior in magnetic bottle Hamiltonians

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Efthymiopoulos; M. Harsoula; G. Contopoulos

    2015-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider normal forms in `magnetic bottle' type Hamiltonians of the form $H=\\frac{1}{2}(\\rho^2_\\rho+\\omega^2_1\\rho^2) +\\frac{1}{2}p^2_z+hot$ (second frequency $\\omega_2$ equal to zero in the lowest order). Our main results are: i) a novel method to construct the normal form in cases of resonance, and ii) a study of the asymptotic behavior of both the non-resonant and the resonant series. We find that, if we truncate the normal form series at order $r$, the series remainder in both constructions decreases with increasing $r$ down to a minimum, and then it increases with $r$. The computed minimum remainder turns to be exponentially small in $\\frac{1}{\\Delta E}$, where $\\Delta E$ is the mirror oscillation energy, while the optimal order scales as an inverse power of $\\Delta E$. We estimate numerically the exponents associated with the optimal order and the remainder's exponential asymptotic behavior. In the resonant case, our novel method allows to compute a `quasi-integral' (i.e. truncated formal integral) valid both for each particular resonance as well as away from all resonances. We applied these results to a specific magnetic bottle Hamiltonian. The non resonant normal form yields theorerical invariant curves on a surface of section which fit well the empirical curves away from resonances. On the other hand the resonant normal form fits very well both the invariant curves inside the islands of a particular resonance as well as the non-resonant invariant curves. Finally, we discuss how normal forms allow to compute a critical threshold for the onset of global chaos in the magnetic bottle.

  19. High-accuracy measurements of the normal specular reflectance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voarino, Philippe; Piombini, Herve; Sabary, Frederic; Marteau, Daniel; Dubard, Jimmy; Hameury, Jacques; Filtz, Jean Remy

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The French Laser Megajoule (LMJ) is designed and constructed by the French Commissariata l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Its amplifying section needs highly reflective multilayer mirrors for the flash lamps. To monitor and improve the coating process, the reflectors have to be characterized to high accuracy. The described spectrophotometer is designed to measure normal specular reflectance with high repeatability by using a small spot size of 100 {mu}m. Results are compared with ellipsometric measurements. The instrument can also perform spatial characterization to detect coating nonuniformity.

  20. Magnetic moments of T=3/2 mirror pairs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, S. M. [Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa); iThemba LABS, P. O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Richter, W. A. [Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Brown, B. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1321 (United States); Horoi, M. [Department of Physics, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, Michigan 48859 (United States)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We predict values of the magnetic moments of T=3/2 proton-rich fp-shell nuclei in the mass range A=43-53, by using known values for their neutron-rich mirrors together with shell-model estimates for small quantities. We extend the analysis to those T=3/2 sd-shell mirror pairs for which both the T{sub z}=-3/2 and T{sub z}=+3/2 magnetic moments have been measured. We find that these obey the same linear relation as previously deduced for T=1/2 mirror pairs.

  1. Gamma-ray Bursts Produced by Mirror Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Blinnikov

    1999-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    I argue that cosmic Gamma-ray Bursts (GRB) may be produced by collapses or mergers of stars made of `mirror' matter. The mirror neutrinos (which are sterile for our matter) produced at these events can oscillate into ordinary neutrinos. The annihilations or decays of the latter create an electron-positron plasma and subsequent relativistic fireball with a very low baryon load needed for GRBs. The concept of mirror matter is able to explain several key problems of modern astrophysics: neutrino anomalies, the missing mass, MACHO microlensing events and GRBs. Thus this concept becomes very appealing and should be considered quite seriously and attentively.

  2. Quantum Mirrors and Crossing Symmetry as Heart of Ghost Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. B. Ion; M. L. Ion; L. Rusu

    2009-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper it is proved that the key to understanding the ghost imaging mystery are the crossing symmetric photon reactions in the nonlinear media. Hence, the laws of the plane quantum mirror (QM) and that of spherical quantum mirror, observed in the ghost imaging experiments, are obtained as natural consequences of the energy-momentum conservation laws. So, it is shown that the ghost imaging laws depend only on the energy-momentum conservation and not on the photons entanglement. The extension of these results to the ghost imaging with other kind of light is discussed. Some fundamental experiments for a decisive tests of the [SPDC-DFG]-quantum mirror are suggested.

  3. Two-Mirror Apodization for High-Contrast Imaging Wesley A. Traub

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vanderbei, Robert J.

    " the secondary mirror in designs of large two- mirror telescopes with fast spherical primaries. As an applicationTwo-Mirror Apodization for High-Contrast Imaging Wesley A. Traub Harvard-Smithsonian Center times needed for planet detection. A recently proposed alternative is to use two mirrors to accomplish

  4. Design and Implementation of the Primary and Secondary Mirror Control System for NST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Design and Implementation of the Primary and Secondary Mirror Control System for NST G. Yang*a a by adjusting the figure of primary mirror and the position of the secondary mirror. The Active Optics Control the wavefront sensor and corresponding corrections will be applied to the primary mirror and the secondary

  5. Degradation of Back-Surface Acrylic Mirrors for Low Concentration and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    : Mirror Augmentation, Acrylic Mirror, Degradation, Scattering, Photovoltaics, Stress and Response 1Degradation of Back-Surface Acrylic Mirrors for Low Concentration and Mirror-Augmented Photovoltaics Myles P Murray1 , Laura S. Bruckman1 , Devin Gordon1 , Samuel Richardson1 , Greg Reinbolt2 , Mark

  6. Electroless nickel and ion-plated protective coatings for silvered glass mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lind, M.A.; Chaudiere, D.A.; Stewart, T.L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two methods of protecting second surface silvered glass mirrors from environmental degradation have been evaluated. One method employed silver mirrors overcoated with Al, Ni, 304 stainless steel, Cr, and an Al/Cu alloy prepared by ion-plating. The other method used conventional wet process silver mirrors protected with a thin electroless nickel coating. These mirrors were compared with conventional paint backed silver/copper mirrors after exposure to elevated temperatures and water vapor. The electroless nickel mirrors showed consistently more resistance to these stresses than either the conventional or ion-plated mirrors suggesting that they may provide more durable field service.

  7. Vibroacoustic launch analysis and alleviation of lightweight, active mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohan, Lucy E.

    Lightweight, active, silicon carbide mirrors can increase the capability of space-based optical systems. However, launch survival is a serious concern for such systems, with the vibrations and acoustics from launch threatening ...

  8. Mystic Self: Margery Kempe and the Mirror of Narrative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yates, Julian

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MYSTIC SELF: MARGERY KEMPE AND T H E MIRROR OF NARRATIVEend o f The Book of Margery Kempe, as Margery cries and sobsAll references will be to Margery Kempe, The Book of Margery

  9. Minimizing High Spatial Frequency Residual in Active Space Telescope Mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Miller June 2008 SSL # 4-08 #12;#12;Minimizing High Spatial Frequency Residual in Active Space Telescope Mirrors Thomas Gray, David W. Miller June 2008 SSL # 4-08 This work is based on the unaltered text

  10. Lightweight diaphragm mirror module system for solar collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, Barry L. (Golden, CO)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mirror module system is provided for accurately focusing solar radiation on a point or a line as defined by an array of solar collectors. Each mirror module includes a flexible membrane stretched over a frame in a manner similar to that of a drum or a trampoline and further includes a silvered glass or plastic mirror for forming an optical reflecting surface. The configuration of the optical reflecting surface is variably adjustable to provide for the accurate focusing of the solar energy on a given collector array, e.g., a point or a linear array arrangement. The flexible mirror-membrane combination is lightweight to facilitate installation and reduce system cost yet structurally strong enough to provide for the precise focusing of the incident solar radiation in a semi-rigid reflector system in which unwanted reflector displacement is minimized.

  11. Lightweight diaphragm mirror module system for solar collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, B.L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mirror module system is provided for accurately focusing solar radiation on a point or a line as defined by an array of solar collectors. Each mirror module includes a flexible membrane stretched over a frame in a manner similar to that of a drum or a trampoline and further includes a silvered glass or plastic mirror for forming an optical reflecting surface. The configuration of the optical reflecting surface is variably adjustable to provide for the accurate focusing of the solar energy on a given collector array, e.g., a point or a linear array arrangement. The flexible mirror-membrane combination is lightweight to facilitate installation and reduce system cost yet structurally strong enough to provide for the precise focusing of the incident solar radiation in a semi-rigid reflector system in which unwanted reflector displacement is minimized.

  12. asymmetric mirror dark: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 GeV Scale Asymmetric Dark Matter from Mirror Universe: Direct Detection and LHC Signatures HEP - Experiment (arXiv)...

  13. Integrated modeling for design of lightweight, active mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohan, Lucy E.

    Lightweight, active, silicon carbide mirrors have the potential to enable larger primary aperture, space-based optical systems, hence improving the resolution and sensitivity of such systems. However, due to the lack of ...

  14. The Use of Genetic Algorithms in Multilayer Mirror Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    The Use of Genetic Algorithms in Multilayer Mirror Optimization by Shannon Lunt March 1999.3 Optimization Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.3.1 Local Optimizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.3.2 Global Optimizers

  15. Mechanical Design of the HER Synchrotron Light Monitor Primary Mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daly, Edward F.; /SLAC; Fisher, Alan S.; Kurita, Nadine R.; Langton, J.; /SLAC

    2011-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the primary mirror that images the visible portion of the synchrotron radiation (SR) extracted from the High Energy Ring (HER) of the PEP-II B-Factory. During off-axis operation, the water-cooled GlidCop mirror is subjected to a heat flux in excess of 2000 W/cm2. When on-axis imaging occurs, the heat flux due to scattered SR, resistive wall losses and Higher-Order-Mode (HOM) heating is estimated at 1 W/cm2. The imaging surface is plated with Electroless Nickel to improve its optical characteristics. The design requirements for the primary mirror are listed and discussed. Calculated mechanical distortions and stresses experienced by the mirror during on-axis and off-axis operation will be presented.

  16. Durable Corrosion and Ultraviolet-Resistant Silver Mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, G. J.; Gee, R.

    2006-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosion and ultra violet-resistant silver mirror for use in solar reflectors; the silver layer having a film-forming protective polymer bonded thereto, and a protective shield overlay comprising a transparent multipolymer film that incorporates a UV absorber. The corrosion and ultraviolet resistant silver mirror retains spectral hemispherical reflectance and high optical clarity throughout the UV and visible spectrum when used in solar reflectors.

  17. Wave-particle Interactions In Rotating Mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Wave-particle interactions in E×B rotating plasmas feature an unusual effect: particles are diffused by waves in both potential energy and kinetic energy. This wave-particle interaction generalizes the alpha channeling effect, in which radio frequency waves are used to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. In rotating plasmas, the alpha particles may be removed at low energy through the loss cone, and the energy lost may be transferred to the radial electric field. This eliminates the need for electrodes in the mirror throat, which have presented serious technical issues in past rotating plasma devices. A particularly simple way to achieve this effect is to use a high azimuthal mode number perturbation on the magnetic field. Rotation can also be sustained by waves in plasmas without a kinetic energy source. This type of wave has been considered for plasma centrifuges used for isotope separation. Energy may also be transferred from the electric field to particles or waves, which may be useful for ion heating and energy generation.

  18. Plasma heating and hot ion sustaining in mirror based hybrids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moiseenko, V. E.; Agren, O. [Institute of Plasma Physics, National Science Center 'Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology', Akademichna St. 1, 61108 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Uppsala University, Angstroem Laboratory, Division of Electricity, Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Possibilities of plasma heating and sloshing ion sustaining in mirror based hybrids are briefly reviewed. Sloshing ions, i.e. energetic ions with a velocity distribution concentrated to a certain pitch-angle, play an important role in plasma confinement and generation of fusion neutrons in mirror machines. Neutral beam injection (NBI) is first discussed as a method to generate sloshing ions. Numerical results of NBI modeling for a stellarator-mirror hybrid are analyzed. The sloshing ions could alternatively be sustained by RF heating. Fast wave heating schemes, i.e. magnetic beach, minority and second harmonic heating, are addressed and their similarities and differences are described. Characteristic features of wave propagation in mirror hybrid devices including both fundamental harmonic minority and second harmonic heating are examined. Minority heating is efficient for a wide range of minority concentration and plasma densities; it allows one to place the antenna aside from the hot ion location. A simple-design strap antenna suitable for this has good performance. However, this scenario is appropriate only for light minority ions. The second harmonic heating can be applied for the heavy ion component. Arrangements are similar for minority and second harmonic heating. The efficiency of second harmonic heating is influenced by a weaker wave damping than for minority heating. Numerical calculations show that in a hybrid reactor scaled mirror machine the deuterium sloshing ions could be heated within the minority heating scheme, while the tritium ions could be sustained by second harmonic heating.

  19. Method for providing mirror surfaces with protective strippable polymeric film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edwards, Charlene C. (Powell, TN); Day, Jack R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a method for forming a protective, strippable, elastomeric film on a highly reflective surface. The method is especially well suited for protecting diamond-machined metallic mirrors, which are susceptible not only to abrasion and mechanical damage but also to contamination and corrosion by various fluids. In a typical use of the invention, a diamond-machined copper mirror surface is coated uniformly with a solution comprising a completely polymerized and completely cured thermoplastic urethane elastomer dissolved in tetrahydrofuran. The applied coating is evaporated to dryness, forming a tough, adherent, impermeable, and transparent film which encapsulates dust and other particulates on the surface. The film may be left in place for many months. When desired, the film may be stripped intact, removing the entrapped particulates and leaving no residue on the mirror surface.

  20. Method for providing mirror surfaces with protective strippable polymeric film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, C.C.; Day, J.R.

    1980-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a method for forming a protective, strippable, elastomeric film on a highly reflective surface. The method is especially well suited for protecting diamond-machined metallic mirrors, which are susceptible not only to abrasion and mechanical damage but also to contamination and corrosion by various fluids. In a typical use of the invention, a diamond-machined copper mirror surface is coated uniformly with a solution comprising a completely polymerized and completely cured thermoplastic urethane elastomer dissolved in tetrahydrofuran. The applied coating is evaporated to dryness, forming a tough, adherent, impermeable, and transparent film which encapsulates dust and other particulates on the surface. The film may be left in place for many months. When desired, the film may be stripped intact, removing the entrapped particulates and leaving no residue on the mirror surface.

  1. Switchable mirrors based on nickel-magnesium films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson,Thomas J.; Slack, Jonathan L.; Armitage, Robert D.; Kostecki, Robert; Farangis, Baker; Rubin, Michael D.

    2001-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of electrochromic mirror electrode based on reversible uptake of hydrogen in nickel magnesium alloy films is reported. Thin,magnesium-rich Ni-Mg films prepared on glass substrates by cosputtering from Ni and Mg targets are mirror-like in appearance and have low visible transmittance. Upon exposure to hydrogen gas or on reduction in alkaline electrolyte, the films take up hydrogen and become transparent. When hydrogen is removed, the mirror properties are recovered. The transition is believed to result from reversible formation of Mg2NiH4 and MgH2. A thin overlayer of palladium was found to enhance the kinetics of hydrogen insertion and extraction,and to protect the metal surface against oxidation.

  2. High repetition rate plasma mirror device for attosecond science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borot, A.; Douillet, D.; Iaquaniello, G.; Lefrou, T.; Lopez-Martens, R. [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquée, ENSTA-ParisTech, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR 7639, 91761 Palaiseau (France)] [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquée, ENSTA-ParisTech, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR 7639, 91761 Palaiseau (France); Audebert, P.; Geindre, J.-P. [Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)] [Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes an active solid target positioning device for driving plasma mirrors with high repetition rate ultra-high intensity lasers. The position of the solid target surface with respect to the laser focus is optically monitored and mechanically controlled on the nm scale to ensure reproducible interaction conditions for each shot at arbitrary repetition rate. We demonstrate the target capabilities by driving high-order harmonic generation from plasma mirrors produced on glass targets with a near-relativistic intensity few-cycle pulse laser system operating at 1 kHz. During experiments, residual target surface motion can be actively stabilized down to 47?nm (root mean square), which ensures sub-300-as relative temporal stability of the plasma mirror as a secondary source of coherent attosecond extreme ultraviolet radiation in pump-probe experiments.

  3. Mirror-induced decoherence in hybrid quantum-classical theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aniello Lampo; Lorenzo Fratino; Hans-Thomas Elze

    2014-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We re-analyse the optomechanical interferometer experiment proposed by Marshall, Simon, Penrose and Bouwmeester with the help of a recently developed quantum-classical hybrid theory. This leads to an alternative evaluation of the mirror induced decoherence. Surprisingly, we find that it behaves essentially in the same way for suitable initial conditions and experimentally relevant parameters, no matter whether the mirror is considered a classical or quantum mechanical object. We discuss the parameter ranges where this result holds and possible implications for a test of spontaneous collapse models, for which this experiment has been designed.

  4. Mechanical and Thermal Tests of the Containers of Liquid Mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. F. Borra; R. Content; G. Tremblay; A. Daigle; Y. Huot

    2004-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a generic description of a liquid mirror system and summarize some practical information useful to making them. We compare laboratory measurements of deformations, due to the weight of mercury on the container of a 3.7-m mirror and to temperature changes on a 1-m container, to finite element computer simulations. We find that the measurements agree reasonably well with the numerical simulations. The measurements on the 1-m container show no evidence of fatigue after a few thermal cycles. These results validate the computer models of containers described in a companion article.

  5. Can mirror matter solve the the cosmological lithium problem?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coc, Alain [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière (CSNSM), CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris Sud 11, UMR 8609, Bâtiment 104, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Vangioni, Elisabeth [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR-7095 du CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris, France and Sorbonne Universités, Institut Lagrange de Paris, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

    2014-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The abundance of lithium-7 confronts cosmology with a long lasting inconsistency between the predictions of standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis with the baryonic density determined from the Cosmic Microwave Background observations on the one hand, and the spectroscopic determination of the lithium-7 abundance on the other hand. We investigated the influence of the existence of a mirror world, focusing on models in which mirror neutrons can oscillate into ordinary neutrons. Such a mechanism allows for an effective late time neutron injection, which induces an increase of the destruction of beryllium-7and thus a lower final lithium-7 abundance.

  6. Inverse Compton scattering from plasma mirror experiment Hai-En Tsai, Joseph Shaw, Xiaoming Wang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shvets, Gennady

    Inverse Compton scattering from plasma mirror experiment Hai-En Tsai, Joseph Shaw, Xiaoming Wang 1 experiment, we tried to generate inverse Compton x-ray by reflecting driving pulse from plasma mirrors

  7. Minimizing actuator-induced residual error in active space telescope primary mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Matthew William, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heritage space telescope mirror technology-i.e. large, monolithic glass primary mirrors-has reached an upper limit on allowable aperture diameter given launch vehicle volume and mass constraints. The next generation of ...

  8. On the Kinematics of Solar Mirrors Using Massively Parallel Binary Actuation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dubowsky, Steven

    Precision mirrors are required for effective solar energy collectors. Manufacturing such mirrors and making them robust to disturbances such as thermal gradients is expensive. In this paper, the use of parallel binary ...

  9. A color spatial display based on a Raster framebuffer and varifocal mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carson, Kenneth M

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A very simple 30 color display has been constructed. It consists of a 20 display viewed in a rapidly vibrating varifocal mirror. The changing focal length of the mirror is responsible for providing the depth; when the ...

  10. Ion implantation for figure correction of high-resolution x-ray telescope mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chalifoux, Brandon D

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabricating mirrors for future high-resolution, large-aperture x-ray telescopes continues to challenge the x-ray astronomy instrumentation community. Building a large-aperture telescope requires thin, lightweight mirrors; ...

  11. Debris and Radiation-Induced Damage Effects on EUV Nanolithography Source Collector Mirror Optics Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Debris and Radiation-Induced Damage Effects on EUV Nanolithography Source Collector Mirror Optics, Argonne, Illinois ABSTRACT Exposure of collector mirrors facing the hot, dense pinch plasma in plasma region of the lamp are known to induce serious damage to nearby collector mirrors. Candidate collector

  12. AlGaAs lasers with micro-cleaved mirrors suitable for monolithic integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blauvelt, H.; Bar-Chaim, N.; Fekete, D.; Margalit, S.; Yariv, A.

    1982-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique has been developed for cleaving the mirrors of AlGaAs lasers without cleaving the substrate. Micro-cleaving involves cleaving a suspended heterostructure cantilever by ultrasonic vibrations. Lasers with microcleaved mirrors have threshold currents and quantum efficiencies identical to those of similar devices with conventionally cleaved mirrors.

  13. Doppler-induced dynamics of fields in FabryPerot cavities with suspended mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    The Doppler effect in Fabry­Perot cavities with suspended mirrors is analyzed. The Doppler shift, which by the Doppler effect that appears in a Fabry­Perot cavity with moving mirrors. The Doppler shift, whichDoppler-induced dynamics of fields in Fabry­Perot cavities with suspended mirrors Malik Rakhmanov

  14. Low energy electron bombardment induced surface contamination of Ru mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Low energy electron bombardment induced surface contamination of Ru mirrors A. Al-Ajlonya , A., Albany, NY 12203, USA ABSTRACT The impact of secondary electrons induced contamination of the Ru surface, carbon contamination, Ruthenium capping 1. INTRODUCTION Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation induced

  15. Mirror Film Company Has 'Concentrated' Plans for Expansion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ReflecTech Inc. is using a silvered polymer-based film -- instead of glass -- to make mirror panels for focusing sunlight onto a heat generator. Their innovation helped them land a Recovery Act tax credit to expand their Colorado company.

  16. Electroless nickel and ion-plated protective coatings for silvered glass mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lind, M.A.; Chaudiere, D.A.; Dake, L.S.; Stewart, T.L.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary examination of two methods of protecting second surface silvered glass mirrors from environmental degradation is presented. One method employed silver mirrors overcoated with Al, Ni, 304 stainless steel, Cr, or an Al/Cu alloy prepared by ion-plating. The other method used conventional wet process silver mirrors protected with a thin electroless nickel coating. No attempt was made to optimize the coatings for either method. These experimental mirrors were compared with conventional paint backed silver/copper mirrors after exposure to elevated temperatures and water vapor in order to estimate their relative environmental stability. The electroless nickel mirrors showed consistently more resistance to these stresses than either the conventional or ion-plated mirrors, suggesting that they may provide more durable field service.

  17. Modal analysis of semiconductor lasers with nonplanar mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lang, R.J.; Salzman, J.; Yariv, A.

    1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors present a formalism for analyzing laser resonators which possess nonplanar mirrors and lateral waveguiding (e.g., and unstable resonator semiconductor laser (URSL)). The electric field is expanded in lateral modes of the complex-index waveguide and is required to reproduce itself after one roundtrip of the cavity. They show how the waveguide modes, their gain and loss, and hence the criterion for truncation of the infinite set of modes can be derived from the Green's function of the one-dimensional eigenvalue equation for the waveguide. Examples are presented for three cases of interest-a purely gain-guided URSL, and index-guided URSL, and a gain-guided tilted-mirror resonator. They compare theoretical calculations to previous experiments.

  18. Standardization of Solar Mirror Reflectance Measurements - Round Robin Test: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyen, S.; Lupfert, E.; Fernandez-Garcia, A.; Kennedy, C.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the SolarPaces Task III standardization activities, DLR, CIEMAT, and NREL have concentrated on optimizing the procedure to measure the reflectance of solar mirrors. From this work, the laboratories have developed a clear definition of the method and requirements needed of commercial instruments for reliable reflectance results. A round robin test was performed between the three laboratories with samples that represent all of the commercial solar mirrors currently available for concentrating solar power (CSP) applications. The results show surprisingly large differences in hemispherical reflectance (sh) of 0.007 and specular reflectance (ss) of 0.004 between the laboratories. These differences indicate the importance of minimum instrument requirements and standardized procedures. Based on these results, the optimal procedure will be formulated and validated with a new round robin test in which a better accuracy is expected. Improved instruments and reference standards are needed to reach the necessary accuracy for cost and efficiency calculations.

  19. Modeling for deformable mirrors and the adaptive optics optimization program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henesian, M.A.; Haney, S.W.; Trenholme, J.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Thomas, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center

    1997-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss aspects of adaptive optics optimization for large fusion laser systems such as the 192-arm National Ignition Facility (NIF) at LLNL. By way of example, we considered the discrete actuator deformable mirror and Hartmann sensor system used on the Beamlet laser. Beamlet is a single-aperture prototype of the 11-0-5 slab amplifier design for NIF, and so we expect similar optical distortion levels and deformable mirror correction requirements. We are now in the process of developing a numerically efficient object oriented C++ language implementation of our adaptive optics and wavefront sensor code, but this code is not yet operational. Results are based instead on the prototype algorithms, coded-up in an interpreted array processing computer language.

  20. Figure and finish characterization of high performance metal mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takacs, P.Z. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Church, E.L. [Army Armament Research and Development Command, Dover, NJ (United States)

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most metal mirrors currently used in synchrotron radiation (SR) beam lines to reflect soft x-rays are made of electroless nickel plate on an aluminum substrate. This material combination has allowed optical designers to incorporate exotic cylindrical aspheres into grazing incidence x-ray beam-handling systems by taking advantage of single-point diamond machining techniques. But the promise of high-quality electroless nickel surfaces has generally exceeded the performance. We will examine the evolution of electroless nickel surfaces through a study of the quality of mirrors delivered for use at the National Synchrotron Light Source over the past seven years. We have developed techniques to assess surface quality based on the measurement of surface roughness and figure errors with optical profiling instruments. It is instructive to see how the quality of the surface is related to the complexity of the machine operations required to produce it.

  1. On Normal Numbers Veronica Becher

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figueira, Santiago

    ends with all zeros; hence, q is not simply normal to base b. 3/23 #12;The problem is still open Theorem (Borel 1909) Almost all real numbers are absolutely normal. Problem (Borel 1909) Give an example transducers. Huffman 1959 calls them lossless compressors. A direct proof of the above theorem Becher

  2. Normal matter storage of antiprotons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, L.J.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various simple issues connected with the possible storage of anti p in relative proximity to normal matter are discussed. Although equilibrium storage looks to be impossible, condensed matter systems are sufficiently rich and controllable that nonequilibrium storage is well worth pursuing. Experiments to elucidate the anti p interactions with normal matter are suggested. 32 refs.

  3. Wave-driven Rotation in Supersonically Rotating Mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch

    2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Supersonic rotation in mirrors may be produced by radio frequency waves. The waves produce coupled diffusion in ion kinetic and potential energy. A population inversion along the diffusion path then produces rotation. Waves may be designed to exploit a natural kinetic energy source or may provide the rotation energy on their own. Centrifugal traps for fusion and isotope separation may benefit from this wave-driven rotation.

  4. Global sound modes in mirror traps with anisotropic pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skovorodin, D. I.; Zaytsev, K. V.; Beklemishev, A. D. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)] [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Global oscillations of inhomogeneous plasma with frequencies close to the bounce frequency of ions in mirror traps have been studied. It has been shown that, in some cases, the sound can be reflected from the axial plasma inhomogeneity. The ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model with Chew-Goldberger-Low approximation has been utilized to determine conditions of existence of the standing waves in the mirror-confined plasma. Linearized wave equation for the longitudinal plasma oscillations in thin anisotropic inhomogeneous plasma with finite ? has been derived. The wave equation has been treated numerically. The oscillations are studied for the case of the trap with partially filled loss-cone and the trap with sloshing ions. It has been shown that in cells of the multiple-mirror trap standing waves can exist. The frequency of the wave is of the order of the mean bounce-frequency of ions. In the trap with sloshing ions, the mode supported by the pressure of fast ions could exist. The results of oscillations observation in the experiment on the Gas Dynamic Trap have been presented.

  5. Optimal alignment of mirror based pentaprisms for scanning deflectometric devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, Samuel K.; Geckeler, Ralf D.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Buchheim, Jana; Siewert, Frank; Zeschke, Thomas

    2011-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In the recent work [Proc. of SPIE 7801, 7801-2/1-12 (2010), Opt. Eng. 50(5) (2011), in press], we have reported on improvement of the Developmental Long Trace Profiler (DLTP), a slope measuring profiler available at the Advanced Light Source Optical Metrology Laboratory, achieved by replacing the bulk pentaprism with a mirror based pentaprism (MBPP). An original experimental procedure for optimal mutual alignment of the MBPP mirrors has been suggested and verified with numerical ray tracing simulations. It has been experimentally shown that the optimally aligned MBPP allows the elimination of systematic errors introduced by inhomogeneity of the optical material and fabrication imperfections of the bulk pentaprism. In the present article, we provide the analytical derivation and verification of easily executed optimal alignment algorithms for two different designs of mirror based pentaprisms. We also provide an analytical description for the mechanism for reduction of the systematic errors introduced by a typical high quality bulk pentaprism. It is also shown that residual misalignments of an MBPP introduce entirely negligible systematic errors in surface slope measurements with scanning deflectometric devices.

  6. Equations of a Moving Mirror and the Electromagnetic Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luis Octavio Castaños; Ricardo Weder

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a slab of a material that is linear, isotropic, non-magnetizable, ohmic, and electrically neutral when it is at rest. The slab interacts with the electromagnetic field through radiation pressure. Using a relativistic treatment, we deduce the exact equations governing the dynamics of the field and of the slab, as well as, approximate equations to first order in the velocity and the acceleration of the slab. As a consequence of the motion of the slab, the field must satisfy a wave equation with damping and slowly varying coefficients plus terms that are small when the time-scale of the evolution of the mirror is much smaller than that of the field. Moreover, the dynamics of the mirror involve a time-dependent mass arising from the interaction with the field and it is related to the effective mass of mechanical oscillators used in optomechanics. By the same reason, the mirror is subject to a velocity dependent force which is related to the much sought cooling of mechanical oscillators in optomechanics.

  7. Mirror mounts designed for the Advanced Photon Source SRI-CAT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu, D.; Benson, C.; Chang, J. [and others

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Use of a mirror for beamlines at third-generation synchrotron radiation facilities, such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National laboratory, has many advantages. A mirror as a first optical component provides significant reduction in the beam peak heat flux and total power on the downstream monochromator and simplifies the bremsstrahlung shielding design for the beamline transport. It also allows one to have a system for multibeamline branching and switching. More generally, a mirror is used for beam focusing and/or low-pass filtering. Six different mirror mounts have been designed for the SRI-CAT beamlines. Four of them are designed as water-cooled mirrors for white or pink beam use, and the other two are for monochromatic beam use. Mirror mount designs, including vacuum vessel structure and precision supporting stages, are presented in this paper.

  8. A magnetic liquid deformable mirror for high stroke and low order axially symmetrical aberrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brousseau, D; Parent, J; Ruel, H J; Borra, Ermanno F.; Brousseau, Denis; Parent, Jocelyn; Ruel, Hubert-Jean

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new class of magnetically shaped deformable liquid mirrors made of a magnetic liquid (ferrofluid). Deformable liquid mirrors offer advantages with respect to deformable solid mirrors: large deformations, low costs and the possibility of very large mirrors with added aberration control. They have some disadvantages (e.g. slower response time). We made and tested a deformable mirror, producing axially symmetrical wavefront aberrations by applying electric currents to 5 concentric coils made of copper wire wound on aluminum cylinders. Each of these coils generates a magnetic field which combines to deform the surface of a ferrofluid to the desired shape. We have carried out laboratory tests on a 5 cm diameter prototype mirror and demonstrated defocus as well as Seidel and Zernike spherical aberrations having amplitudes up to 20 microns, which was the limiting measurable amplitude of our equipment

  9. A magnetic liquid deformable mirror for high stroke and low order axially symmetrical aberrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denis Brousseau; Ermanno F. Borra; Hubert-Jean Ruel; Jocelyn Parent

    2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new class of magnetically shaped deformable liquid mirrors made of a magnetic liquid (ferrofluid). Deformable liquid mirrors offer advantages with respect to deformable solid mirrors: large deformations, low costs and the possibility of very large mirrors with added aberration control. They have some disadvantages (e.g. slower response time). We made and tested a deformable mirror, producing axially symmetrical wavefront aberrations by applying electric currents to 5 concentric coils made of copper wire wound on aluminum cylinders. Each of these coils generates a magnetic field which combines to deform the surface of a ferrofluid to the desired shape. We have carried out laboratory tests on a 5 cm diameter prototype mirror and demonstrated defocus as well as Seidel and Zernike spherical aberrations having amplitudes up to 20 microns, which was the limiting measurable amplitude of our equipment

  10. Intermediate Mirrors to Reach Theoretical Efficiency Limits of Multi-Bandgap Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapati, Vidya; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Creating a single bandgap solar cell that approaches the Shockley-Queisser limit requires a highly reflective rear mirror. This mirror enhances the voltage of the solar cell by providing photons with multiple opportunities for escaping out the front surface. Efficient external luminescence is a pre-requisite for high voltage. Intermediate mirrors in a multijunction solar cell can enhance the voltage for each cell in the stack. These intermediate mirrors need to have the added function of transmitting the below bandgap photons to the next cell in the stack. In this work, we quantitatively establish the efficiency increase possible with the use of intermediate selective reflectors between cells in a tandem stack. The absolute efficiency increase can be up to ~6% in dual bandgap cells with optimal intermediate and rear mirrors. A practical implementation of an intermediate selective mirror is an air gap sandwiched by antireflection coatings. The air gap provides perfect reflection for angles outside the escape c...

  11. Mirror-Field Entanglement in a Microscopic model for Quantum Optomechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanupriya Sinha; Shih-Yuin Lin; B. L. Hu

    2015-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We use a microscopic model, the Mirror-Oscillator-Field (MOF) model proposed by Galley, Behunin and Hu [Phys. Rev. A 87, 043832 (2013)], to describe the quantum entanglement between a mirror's center of mass (CoM) motion and a field. In contrast with the conventional approach where the mirror-field entanglement is understood as arising from the radiation pressure of an optical field inducing the motion of the mirror's CoM, the MOF model incorporates the dynamics of the internal degrees of freedom of the mirror that couple to the optical field directly. The major advantage in this approach is that it provides a self-consistent treatment of the three pertinent subsystems (the mirror's CoM motion, its internal degrees of freedom and the field) including their back-actions on each other, thereby giving a more accurate account of the quantum correlations between the individual subsystems. The optical and the mechanical properties of a mirror arising from its dynamical interaction with a quantum field are obtained without imposing any boundary conditions on the field additionally, as is done in the conventional way. As one of the new physical features that arise from this self-consistent treatment of the coupled optics and mechanics behavior we observe a coherent transfer of quantum correlations from the field to the mirror via its internal degrees of freedom. We find the quantum entanglement between the optical field and the mirror's center of mass motion upon coarse-graining over the internal degree of freedom. Further, we show that in certain parameter regimes the mirror-field entanglement is enhanced when the field interacts resonantly with the mirror's internal degree of freedom, a new result which highlights the importance of including the internal structure of the mirror in quantum optomechanical studies.

  12. Glass-Coated Beryllium Mirrors for the LHCb RICH1 Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barber, G J; Cameron, W; D'Ambrosio, C; Frei, C; Harnew, N; Head, R; Khimitch, Y P; Khmelnikov, V A; Loveridge, P W; Metlica, F; Obraztsov, V F; Piedigrossi, D; Sizenev, V; Kompozit Joint Stock Company, Moscow, Russia; Szczypka, P M; Ullaland, O; Vygosky, E; Websdale, D M

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design, manufacture and testing of lightweight glass-coated beryllium spherical converging mirrors for the RICH1 detector of LHCb are described. The mirrors need to be lightweight to minimize the material budget and fluorocarbon-compatible to avoid degradation in the RICH1 C4F10 gas radiator. Results of the optical measurements for the small-sized prototypes and for the first full-sized prototype mirror are reported.

  13. High-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with multiple deformable mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Diana C. (Fremont, CA); Olivier, Scot S. (Livermore, CA); Jones; Steven M. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopes is introduced to produce non-invasive views of the human retina. The use of dual deformable mirrors improved the dynamic range for correction of the wavefront aberrations compared with the use of the MEMS mirror alone, and improved the quality of the wavefront correction compared with the use of the bimorph mirror alone. The large-stroke bimorph deformable mirror improved the capability for axial sectioning with the confocal imaging system by providing an easier way to move the focus axially through different layers of the retina.

  14. Perspectives of Use of Diagnostic Mirrors with Transparent Protection Layer in Burning Plasma Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhin, Eugene E.; Razdobarin, Gennadiy T.; Semenov, Vladimir V.; Tolstyakov, Sergey Yu.; Kochergin, Mikhail M.; Kurskiev, Gleb S.; Podushnikova, Klara A. [Department of Plasma Physics, Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical lnstitute, SPb, 194021 (Russian Federation); Andreev, Alexandr N.; Davydov, Denis V.; Rastegaeva, Marina G. [Division of Solid State Physics, A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, SPb, 194021 (Russian Federation); Khimich, Yuriy P.; Gorshkov, Vladimir N.; Nikitin, Dmitriy B. [Research Institute of Optical Design, Federal Research Center Vavilov State Optical Institute, SPb, 199034 (Russian Federation); Litnovsky, Andrej M. [Institute fur Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Julich, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Ass EURATOM-FZ Julich, D-52425 Julich (Germany)

    2008-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We evaluate using of metal mirrors over-coated with transparent protection layer for the in-vessel diagnostic systems in reactor-grade fusion devices. Ideally, these should satisfy the contradictory demands of high reflectivity and small rate degradation when being bombarded by CX atoms. The serious threat to the performance of diagnostic mirrors is surface contamination with carbon-based material eroded from carbon tiles. Via coupling the protective layer to a bulk mirror we can mitigate the deposit infiuence on the reflectance spectra. The regards are given to survivability in plasma environment of protected coated metallic mirrors.

  15. Short cavity InGaAsP/InP lasers with dielectric mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koren, U.; Rav-Noy, Z.; Hasson, A.; Chen, T.R.; Yu, K.L.; Chiu, L.C.; Margalit, S.; Yariv, A.

    1983-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Short cavity length (38 ..mu..m) lasers have been fabricated using a recently developed microcleavage technique. SiO/sub 2/-amorphous Si multilayer coatings have been evaported on the lasers to obtain high reflectivity mirrors. The lasers have current thresholds as low as 3.8 mA with 85% reflecting front mirror and high reflectivity rear mirror and 2.9 mA with two high reflectivity mirrors. Single longitudinal mode operation is observed over a wide range of driving currents and temperatures.

  16. UV-Shifted Durable Silver Coating for Astronomical Mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, N.L.; Wolfe, J.

    2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Silver has the highest reflectance of all of the metals, but it tarnishes in the presence of sulfides, chlorides, and oxides in the atmosphere. Also, the silver reflectance is very low at wavelengths below 400 nm making aluminum more desirable mirror coating for the UV region. They have found a way to prevent silver tarnishing by sandwiching the silver layer between two thin layers of NiCrN{sub x}, and to extend the metal's high reflectance down to 200 nm by depositing the (thin) Ag layer on top of Al. Thus, the uv is transmitted through the thin Ag layer below 400 nm wavelength, and is reflected from the Al layer underneath. This UV-shifted durable coating provides a valuable alternative to the aluminum coating for telescope mirror coatings where high throughput and durability are important considerations. The throughput for a telescope with, say, six reflections from silver coatings is (0.97){sup 6} = 83% compared to (0.92){sup 6} = 60% for aluminum coatings, or 28% less. The use of silver coatings allows more photons to be collected by primary mirror. Aluminum also has a reflectance dip at 850 nm caused by inter-band transitions which is eliminated by placing the thin Ag layer on top. This paper describes a non-tarnishing silver coating having high reflectance down into the UV region. The average specular reflectance is 70%-97% in the near-UV, 95%-99% in the visible region, and {ge} 99% in the infrared region covering the total wavelength range 200 nm to 10,000 nm. Figure 1 compares the reflectance of the UVHR-LLNL silver coating to bare silver and aluminum over-coated with magnesium fluoride over the wavelength range 300 nm to 2000 nm.

  17. Modularity, quaternion-Kähler spaces, and mirror symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexandrov, Sergei; Banerjee, Sibasish [Université Montpellier 2, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221, F-34095 Montpellier (France)] [Université Montpellier 2, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221, F-34095 Montpellier (France)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide an explicit twistorial construction of quaternion-Kähler manifolds obtained by deformation of c-map spaces and carrying an isometric action of the modular group SL(2,Z). The deformation is not assumed to preserve any continuous isometry and therefore this construction presents a general framework for describing NS5-brane instanton effects in string compactifications with N= 2 supersymmetry. In this context the modular invariant parametrization of twistor lines found in this work yields the complete non-perturbative mirror map between type IIA and type IIB physical fields.

  18. Hidden Photon Dark Matter Search with a Large Metallic Mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babette Döbrich; Kai Daumiller; Ralph Engel; Marek Kowalski; Axel Lindner; Javier Redondo; Markus Roth

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    If Dark Matter is composed of hidden-sector photons that kinetically mix with photons of the visible sector, then Dark Matter has a tiny oscillating electric field component. Its presence would lead to a small amount of visible radiation being emitted from a conducting surface, with the photon frequency given approximately by the mass of the hidden photon. Here, we report on experimental efforts that have started recently to search for such hidden photon Dark Matter in the (sub-)eV regime with a prototype mirror for the Auger fluorescence detector at the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology.

  19. Fiber optic hydrophone sensor arrays using low reflectance internal mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong-Seo

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -Perot Interferometer 4 The Quadrature Point Page 5 Phase Fading in a 2x2 Coupler 6 Phase Fading a 3x3 Coupler 7 The Configuration of Electric Arc Fusion Splicer 8 The Theoretical Calculation of the Thin Film Thickness 10 15 17 9 Thin Film Thickness... film of Ti02 is used for making a mirror on a cleaved end surface of a fiber [3, 4], because this material has a high refractive index over visible and infrared ranges and strong molecular bonding on glass-based materials [5]. In addition, it has low...

  20. Magnetic ripple correction in tandem mirrors by ferromagnetic inserts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, G.W.

    1985-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic ripple of 1% or more caused by discrete solenoid coils in the central cells of tandem mirrors may severely affect the MHD stability. The ripple amplitude can be reduced by an order of magnitude by ferromagnetic annuli inserted within the coils at the regions of ripple maxima. The inserts need not affect the accessibility, coil diameter, or capital cost, since large quantities of steel are required within the coils for the neutron blanket and shield. Design of the ripple correction is simplified and linearized by the cylindrical geometry and by the saturation of the ferromagnetic steel.

  1. A HIGH REPETITION PLASMA MIRROR FOR STAGED ELECTRON ACCELERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokollik, Thomas; Shiraishi, Satomi; Osterhoff, Jens; Evans, Eugene; Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; vanTilborg, Jeroen; Lin, Chen; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to build a compact, staged laser plasma accelerator the in-coupling of the laser beam to the different stages represents one of the key issues. To limit the spatial foot print and thus to realize a high overall acceleration gradient, a concept has to be found which realizes this in-coupling within a few centimeters. We present experiments on a tape-drive based plasma mirror which could be used to reflect the focused laser beam into the acceleration stage.

  2. Boron-doped superlattices and Bragg mirrors in diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiori, A. [University of Grenoble Alpes, Inst. NEEL, 38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Inst. NEEL, 25 rue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Bousquet, J.; Eon, D.; Omnès, F.; Bustarret, E., E-mail: Etienne.bustarret@neel.cnrs.fr [University of Grenoble Alpes, Inst. NEEL, 38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Inst. NEEL, 25 rue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); Bellet-Amalric, E. [University of Grenoble Alpes, Inst. NEEL, 38042 Grenoble (France); CEA-Grenoble, INAC/SP2M, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A periodic modulation of the boron doping level of single crystal diamond multilayers over more than three orders of magnitude during epitaxial growth by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is shown to yield Bragg mirrors in the visible. The thicknesses and doping level of the individual layers were controlled by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, enabling to tune the reflectance peak to the wavelength range of diamond color centers, such as NV{sup 0} or NV{sup ?}. The crystalline quality, periodicity, and sharpness of the doping transitions in these doping superlattices over tens of periods were confirmed by high resolution X-ray diffraction.

  3. Compensation for thermal effects in mirrors of Gravitational Wave Interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Hello

    2001-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we study several means of compensating for thermal lensing which, otherwise, should be a source of concern for future upgrades of interferometric detectors of gravitational waves. The methods we develop are based on the principle of heating the cold parts of the mirrors. We find that thermal compensation can help a lot but can not do miracles. It seems finally that the best strategy for future upgrades (``advanced configurations'') is maybe to use thermal compensation together with another substrate materials than Silica, for example Sapphire.

  4. Normalized cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

    1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3{prime} noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 4 figs.

  5. Normalized cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soares, Marcelo B. (New York, NY); Efstratiadis, Argiris (Englewood, NJ)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  6. header for SPIE use Performance of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are coated with silicon carbide (SiC) and two are coated with lithium fluoride over aluminum (Al:LiF). We of the SiC­ and Al:LiF­coated mirrors decreased about 6% and 3%, respectively, between coating and launch a two­stage planetary gear train. We also discuss the mechanical performance of the mirror assemblies

  7. header for SPIE use Performance of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are coated with silicon carbide (SiC) and two are coated with lithium fluoride over aluminum (Al:LiF). We of the SiC- and Al:LiF-coated mirrors decreased about 6% and 3%, respectively, between coating and launch a two-stage planetary gear train. We also discuss the mechanical performance of the mirror assemblies

  8. Wind buffeting effects on the Gemini 8m primary mirrors M. K. Cho1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wind buffeting effects on the Gemini 8m primary mirrors M. K. Cho1,2 , L. Stepp1 , and S. Kim3 and Mechanical Engineering, University of Arizona, 1130 N. Mountain, Tucson, AZ 85721 #12;Wind buffeting effects mirror distortion caused by wind pressure variations. To quantify telescope wind loading effects

  9. MIRROR: A StateConscious Concurrency Control Protocol for Replicated RealTime Databases \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stankovic, John A.

    University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 22903 stankovic@cs.virginia.edu Abstract Data replication can help MIRROR (Managing Isolation in Replicated Real­time Object Repositories), a con­ currency control protocol Foundation Grant EIA­9900895. 1 #12; (non­real­time) database system, (b) MIRROR provides the best

  10. Doppler Effect Associated with the Reflection of Light on a Moving Mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernhard Rothenstein; Ioan Damian

    2005-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Doppler Effect associated with the reflection on a moving mirror is reduced to two Doppler Effect experiments involving the incoming incident ray and the outgoing reflected ray or vice-versa. The dependence of the corresponding Doppler factors on the incidence angle on the stationary mirror.

  11. Therm-optic analysis of bi-metallic mirrors Daniel Vukobratovich and Allen Gerzoff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    plated with electroless nickel to reduce light scattering. The thermal coefficient of expansion of electroless nickel, 13.5 x 10-6 m/m-K, is significantly different from that of a typical mirror substrate in an electroless nickel plated mirror, which can induce optical surface distortion. Possible solutions to the "bi

  12. Further Analysis of Accelerated Exposure Testing of Thin-Glass Mirror Matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, C. E.; Terwilliger, K.; Jorgensen, G. J.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) companies have deployed thin-glass mirrors produced by wet-silver processes on {approx}1-mmthick, relatively lightweight glass. These mirrors are bonded to metal substrates in commercial installations and have the confidence of the CSP industry. Initial hemispherical reflectance is {approx}93%-96%, and the cost is {approx}$16.1/m{sup 2}-$43.0/m{sup 2}. However, corrosion was observed in mirror elements of operational solar systems deployed outdoors for 2 years. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Advanced Materials Team has been investigating this problem. First, it was noted that this corrosion is very similar to the corrosion bands and spots observed on small (45 mm x 67 mm) thin-glass mirrors laminated to metal substrates with several different types of adhesives and subjected to accelerated exposure testing (AET) at NREL. The corrosion appears as dark splotches in the center of the mirror, with a corresponding 5%-20% loss in reflectivity. Secondly, two significant changes in mirror manufacture have occurred in the wet-chemistry process because of environmental concerns. The first is the method of forming a copper-free reflective mirror, and the second is the use of lead-free paints. However, the copper-free process requires stringent quality control and the lead-free paints were developed for interior applications. A test matrix of 84 combinations of sample constructions (mirror type/backprotective paint/adhesive/substrate) was devised for AET as a designed experiment to identify the most-promising mirrors, paints, and adhesives for use with concentrator designs. Two types of accelerated exposure were used: an Atlas Ci5000 WeatherOmeter (CI5000) and a BlueM damp-heat chamber. Based on an analysis of variance (ANOVA), the various factors and interactions were modeled. These samples now have more than 36 months of accelerated exposure, and most samples have completed their test cycle. We will discuss the results of the final exposure testing of these mirror samples. Glass mirrors with copper back-layers and heavily leaded paints have been considered robust for outdoor use. However, the basic mirror composition of the new mirrors is radically different from that of historically durable solar mirrors, and the outdoor durability must be determined.

  13. High damage-resistant Mo mirror for high-power TEA CO/sub 2/ laser systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ichikawa, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Tsunawaki, Y.; Yamanaka, M.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamanaka, C.; Okamoto, H.; Matsusue, N.; Kitajima, K.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-purity molybdenum (Mo) mirror was developed by an electron-beam melting method (e.b.m. Mo mirror). For high-power TEA CO/sub 2/ laser, the e.b.m. Mo mirror has two to four times higher surface damage threshold than that of an Au-coated glass mirror and three times longer lifetime than that of a powder metallurgy Mo mirror (p.m. Mo mirror) when laser energy density lower than 60 J/cm/sup 2/ was irradiated with a 0.5-pps repetition rate. It was found that the difference between the e.b.m. Mo mirror and the p.m. Mo mirror at the laser-damage threshold was due to the five surface without voids and the small amount of impurities.

  14. Opto-thermal analysis of a lightweighted mirror for solar telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banyal, Ravinder K; Chatterjee, S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, an opto-thermal analysis of a moderately heated lightweighted solar telescope mirror is carried out using 3D finite element analysis (FEA). A physically realistic heat transfer model is developed to account for the radiative heating and energy exchange of the mirror with surroundings. The numerical simulations show the non-uniform temperature distribution and associated thermo-elastic distortions of the mirror blank clearly mimicking the underlying discrete geometry of the lightweighted substrate. The computed mechanical deformation data is analyzed with surface polynomials and the optical quality of the mirror is evaluated with the help of a ray-tracing software. The thermal print-through distortions are further shown to contribute to optical figure changes and mid-spatial frequency errors of the mirror surface. A comparative study presented for three commonly used substrate materials, namely, Zerodur, Pyrex and Silicon Carbide (SiC) is relevant to vast area of large optics requirements in gro...

  15. Design of Optical Metamaterial Mirror with Metallic Nanoparticles for Broadband Light Absorption in Graphene Optoelectronic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Seungwoo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A general metallic mirror (i.e., a flat metallic surface) has been a popular optical component that can contribute broadband light absorption to thin-film optoelectronic devices; nonetheless, such electric mirror with a reversal of reflection phase inevitably causes the problem of minimized electric field near at the mirror surface (maximized electric field at one quarter of wavelength from mirror). This problem becomes more elucidated, when the deep-subwavelength-scaled two-dimensional (2D) material (e.g., graphene and molybdenum disulfide) is implemented into optoelectronic device as an active channel layer. The purpose of this work was to conceive the idea for using a charge storage layer (spherical Au nanoparticles (AuNPs), embedded into dielectric matrix) of the floating-gate graphene photodetector as a magnetic mirror, which allows the device to harness the increase in broadband light absorption. In particular, we systematically examined whether the versatile assembly of spherical AuNP monolayer within ...

  16. Acquisition, tracking, pointing, and line-of-sight control laboratory experiments for a space-based bifocal relay mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as well as the development of a test bed for a bifocal relay mirror spacecraft. Figure 1. Bifocal Relay-based bifocal relay mirror M. G. Spencer*, B. N. Agrawal, M. Romano Spacecraft Research and Design Center Naval ABSTRACT Space based bifocal relay mirrors are potentially an enabling/enhancing piece of any architecture

  17. Economic Mass Producible Mirror Panels for Solar Concentrators G Johnston, G. Burgess, K. Lovegrove and A. Luzzi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Economic Mass Producible Mirror Panels for Solar Concentrators G Johnston, G. Burgess, K. Lovegrove to the success of all solar concentrators of this nature are cost effective and durable mirror panel components World Solar Congress 743 #12;Economic Mass Producible Mirror Panels for Solar Concentrators Johnston

  18. Mechanical Loss in Tantala/Silica Dielectric Mirror Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steven D. Penn; Peter H. Sneddon; Helena Armandula; Joseph C. Betzwieser; Gianpietro Cagnoli; Jordan Camp; D. R. M. Crooks; Martin M. Fejer; Andri M. Gretarsson; Gregory M. Harry; Jim Hough; Scott E. Kittelberger; Michael J. Mortonson; Roger Route; Sheila Rowan; Christophoros C. Vassiliou

    2003-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Current interferometric gravitational wave detectors use test masses with mirror coatings formed from multiple layers of dielectric materials, most commonly alternating layers of SiO2 (silica) and Ta2O5 (tantala). However, mechanical loss in the Ta2O5/SiO2 coatings may limit the design sensitivity for advanced detectors. We have investigated sources of mechanical loss in the Ta2O5/SiO2 coatings, including loss associated with the coating-substrate interface, with the coating-layer interfaces, and with the bulk material. Our results indicate that the loss is associated with the bulk coating materials and that the loss of Ta2O5 is substantially larger than that of SiO2.

  19. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dane, Clifford B. (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases.

  20. Part One: Mirrors; Part Two: Synthesis of Camphor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kent, Robert C.

    1908-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . One of the latest and most important synthesis of an organic compound i s that of camphor. Camphor i s obtained i n Japan and China from different species of the genus ©"amphora of the laurus family,by d i s ­ t i l l a t i o n of the chips... £m for from f i f t e e n to twenty minutes. Copper,which i n the cuprous state i s quite l i k e s i l v e r i n i t s properties has been deposited on glass i n various ways. Paraday i n 1857, when s i l v e r mirrors were attracting wide...

  1. Time Dependence of Particle Creation from Accelerating Mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael R. R. Good; Paul R. Anderson; Charles R. Evans

    2013-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle production due to a quantized, massless, minimally coupled scalar field in two-dimensional flat spacetime with an accelerating mirror is investigated, with a focus on the time dependence of the process. We analyze first the classes of trajectories previously investigated by Carlitz and Willey and by Walker and Davies. We then analyze four new classes of trajectories, all of which can be expressed analytically and for which several ancillary properties can be derived analytically. The time dependence is investigated through the use of wave packets for the modes of the quantized field that are in the out vacuum state. It is shown for most of the trajectories studied that good time resolution of the particle production process can be obtained.

  2. Mirror Symmetry and Other Miracles in Superstring Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean Rickles

    2010-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The dominance of string theory in the research landscape of quantum gravity physics (despite any direct experimental evidence) can, I think, be justified in a variety of ways. Here I focus on an argument from mathematical fertility, broadly similar to Hilary Putnam's 'no miracles argument' that, I argue, many string theorists in fact espouse. String theory leads to many surprising, useful, and well-confirmed mathematical 'predictions' - here I focus on mirror symmetry. These predictions are made on the basis of general physical principles entering into string theory. The success of the mathematical predictions are then seen as evidence for framework that generated them. I attempt to defend this argument, but there are nonetheless some serious objections to be faced. These objections can only be evaded at a high (philosophical) price.

  3. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.

    1999-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases. 8 figs.

  4. Dark matter, mirror world, and E{sub 6} unification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Ch. R., E-mail: crdas@pku.edu.c [Beijing University (China); Laperashvili, L. V., E-mail: laper@itep.r [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The idea that the ordinary (O) and mirror (M) worlds exist simultaneously is developed. It is shown that, in the case of a violated mirror parity (MP), the renormalization-group evolution of the coupling constants, which is represented in the O world by the dependence {alpha}{sub i}{sup -1} ({mu}) ({mu} is an energy variable), is not identical to the evolution of the coupling constants {alpha}'{sub i}{sup -1}({mu}) in the M world. Here, the index i labels the symmetry group under consideration, while a dash labels quantities defined in the M world. It is assumed that E{sup 6} unification predicted by superstring theory restores MP at the unification scale M{sub SGUT} {approx} 10{sup 18} GeV, this inevitably leading to the difference in the violation of E{sup 6} unification in the O and M worlds at lower energies: E{sup 6} {yields} SO(10) x U(1){sub Z} and E'{sub 6} {yields} SU(6)' x SU(2)'{sub Z}. Considering only asymptotically free theories, we present the evolution of all the inverse coupling constants {alpha}{sub i}{sup -1}({mu}) in the one-loop approximation. In dealing with the M world involving MP violation, we then arrive at the model of the accelerating expansion of our Universe, where the axion ('acceleron') belongs to the SU(2)'{sub Z} group of the M world. The coupling constant g'{sub Z}, which grows indefinitely at the scale {Lambda}'{sub Z} {approx} 10{sup -3} eV, is associated with this group. Within this theory, our Universe is in the false vacuum of the M world, in agreement with the phenomenologically observed cosmological constant of about (3 x 10{sup -3} eV){sup 4}.

  5. Recap Weak Normal EC Strong Normal EC Robustness Combined with WCT Equivalence Class Testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mousavi, Mohammad

    Recap Weak Normal EC Strong Normal EC Robustness Combined with WCT Equivalence Class Testing: Equivalence Class Testing #12;Recap Weak Normal EC Strong Normal EC Robustness Combined with WCT Outline Recap Weak Normal EC Strong Normal EC Robustness Combined with WCT Mousavi: Equivalence Class Testing #12

  6. Fabrication of mitigation pits for improving laser damage resistance in dielectric mirrors by femtosecond laser machining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, Justin E.; Qiu, S. Roger; Stolz, Christopher J.

    2011-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Femtosecond laser machining is used to create mitigation pits to stabilize nanosecond laser-induced damage in multilayer dielectric mirror coatings on BK7 substrates. In this paper, we characterize features and the artifacts associated with mitigation pits and further investigate the impact of pulse energy and pulse duration on pit quality and damage resistance. Our results show that these mitigation features can double the fluence-handling capability of large-aperture optical multilayer mirror coatings and further demonstrate that femtosecond laser macromachining is a promising means for fabricating mitigation geometry in multilayer coatings to increase mirror performance under high-power laser irradiation.

  7. DISPLACEMENT SENSORS AND ACTUATORS NEEDED TO CONTROL A SEGMENTED PRIMARY MIRROR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabor, George

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy under Contract W-7405-ENG-48. References to a comp~~YEnergy under Contract W-7405-ENG-48 DISCLAIMER This documentof Under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48 rgy TO CONTROL A MIRROR

  8. Robust relativistic electron mirrors in laser wakefields for enhanced Thomson backscattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mu, Jie; Li, Fei-Yu; Zeng, Ming; Chen, Min [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MoE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MoE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Sheng, Zheng-Ming [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MoE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China) [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MoE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Zhang, Jie [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MoE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China) [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MoE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    By adopting an up-ramp density profile, we propose to generate relativistic electron mirrors from laser-driven underdense plasma waves, which are insensitive to finite thermal temperature within a certain range. Along the density ramp, premature wavebreaking due to thermal effects is shown to be well mitigated. Under sufficiently high amplitudes of wake excitation, overcritical dense electron mirrors can pile up when approaching the end of the up-ramp. The consequent mirror speed can be stably driven to the group velocity of the laser propagating in a corresponding uniform plasma. Compared with using purely uniform but thermal plasmas, the present thermal-insensitive mirrors can provide enhanced scattering efficiency and spectral upshift for a counter-propagating probe pulse. These observations are confirmed by multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.

  9. Method for pulse control in a laser including a stimulated brillouin scattering mirror system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dane, C. Brent (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA); Harris, Fritz B. (Rocklin, CA)

    2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser system, such as a master oscillator/power amplifier system, comprises a gain medium and a stimulated Brillouin scattering SBS mirror system. The SBS mirror system includes an in situ filtered SBS medium that comprises a compound having a small negative non-linear index of refraction, such as a perfluoro compound. An SBS relay telescope having a telescope focal point includes a baffle at the telescope focal point which blocks off angle beams. A beam splitter is placed between the SBS mirror system and the SBS relay telescope, directing a fraction of the beam to an alternate beam path for an alignment fiducial. The SBS mirror system has a collimated SBS cell and a focused SBS cell. An adjustable attenuator is placed between the collimated SBS cell and the focused SBS cell, by which pulse width of the reflected beam can be adjusted.

  10. Design and Characterization of a Field-Switchable Nanomagnetic Atom Mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayward, T J; Weatherill, K J; Curran, P J; Fry, P W; Fundi, P M; Gibbs, M R J; Schrefl, T; Adams, C S; Hughes, I G; Bending, S J; Allwood, D A

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a design for a switchable nanomagnetic atom mirror formed by an array of 180{\\deg} domain walls confined within Ni80Fe20 planar nanowires. A simple analytical model is developed which allows the magnetic field produced by the domain wall array to be calculated. This model is then used to optimize the geometry of the nanowires so as to maximize the reflectivity of the atom mirror. We then describe the fabrication of a nanowire array and characterize its magnetic behavior using magneto-optic Kerr effect magnetometry, scanning Hall probe microscopy and micromagnetic simulations, demonstrating how the mobility of the domain walls allow the atom mirror to be switched "on" and "off" in a manner which would be impossible for conventional designs. Finally, we model the reflection of 87Rb atoms from the atom mirror's surface, showing that our design is well suited for investigating interactions between domain walls and cold atoms.

  11. Adsorption dynamics and angular dependency of contaminants on Ru mirror surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Adsorption dynamics and angular dependency of contaminants on Ru mirror surfaces M. Catalfano,a) A of the adsorption dynamics and of the emission angle (h from the target surface) dependency are still scarce

  12. Synfuels from fusion: producing hydrogen with the Tandem Mirror Reactor and thermochemical cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werner, R.W.; Ribe, F.L.

    1981-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains the following sections: (1) the Tandem Mirror fusion driver, (2) the Cauldron blanket module, (3) the flowing microsphere, (4) coupling the reactor to the process, (5) the thermochemical cycles, and (6) chemical reactors and process units. (MOW)

  13. A point-scanning confocal system features multiple laser lines, galvanometric scanning mirrors, beamsplitters, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Napp, Nils

    molecules with novel imaging strategies reveals molecular dynamics. Photoactivatable fluorophores (which mirrors, beamsplitters, and dichroic elements to guide excitation and emission light on their respective in order to follow their dynamics. FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) uses intense

  14. Stimulated Brillouin scattering mirror system, high power laser and laser peening method and system using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dane, C. Brent (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA); Harris, Fritz B. (Rocklin, CA)

    2007-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser system, such as a master oscillator/power amplifier system, comprises a gain medium and a stimulated Brillouin scattering SBS mirror system. The SBS mirror system includes an in situ filtered SBS medium that comprises a compound having a small negative non-linear index of refraction, such as a perfluoro compound. An SBS relay telescope having a telescope focal point includes a baffle at the telescope focal point which blocks off angle beams. A beam splitter is placed between the SBS mirror system and the SBS relay telescope, directing a fraction of the beam to an alternate beam path for an alignment fiducial. The SBS mirror system has a collimated SBS cell and a focused SBS cell. An adjustable attenuator is placed between the collimated SBS cell and the focused SBS cell, by which pulse width of the reflected beam can be adjusted.

  15. Minimizing Actuator-Induced Residual Error in Active Space Telescope Primary Mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Smith, David W. Miller September 2010 SSL #12-10 #12;#12;Minimizing Actuator-Induced Residual Error in Active Space Telescope Primary Mirrors Matthew W. Smith, David W. Miller September 2010 SSL #12

  16. Demonstration of achromatic cold-neutron microscope utilizing axisymmetric focusing mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Dazhi

    An achromatic cold-neutron microscope with magnification 4 is demonstrated. The image-forming optics is composed of nested coaxial mirrors of full figures of revolution, so-called Wolter optics. The spatial resolution, ...

  17. Design and shape control of lightweight mirrors for dynamic performance and athermalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jordan, Elizabeth (Elizabeth O.)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The next generation of space telescopes will need to meet increasingly challenging science goals. For these new systems to meet resolution goals, the collecting area of the primary mirror will need to be increased. However, ...

  18. Design of a small fast steering mirror for airborne and aerospace applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boulet, Michael Thomas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents the analysis and design of a small advanced fast steering mirror (sAFSM) for airborne and aerospace platforms. The sAFSM provides feedback-controlled articulation of two rotational axes for precision ...

  19. Planar feasibility study for primary mirror control of large imaging space systems using binary actuators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Seung Jae, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The greatest discoveries in astronomy have come with advancements in ground-based observatories and space telescopes. Latest trends in ground-based observatories have been ever increasing size of the primary mirror, providing ...

  20. Device Overview The Smart Mirror system consists of a depth camera, a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Deli

    applications that require a rapid, non-intrusive method to scan 3D models. Business Opportunities Clothing technology lie in rapid, non-intrusive data capture, which allow the Smart Mirror to be easily applied

  1. Design of optimal dispersive mirrors for femtosecond enhancement cavities and compressors by minimizing phase distortion power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birge, Jonathan R.

    The optimization of phase distortion spectral power density is proposed as an alternative to GDD minimization of ultrafast cavity mirrors. This criterion is shown to minimize the detuning of cavity resonances from a uniform comb.

  2. LCLS X-ray mirror measurements using a large aperture visible light interferometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarville, T; Soufli, R; Pivovaroff, M

    2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Synchrotron or FEL X-ray mirrors are required to deliver an X-ray beam from its source to an experiment location, without contributing significantly to wave front distortion. Accurate mirror figure measurements are required prior to installation to meet this intent. This paper describes how a 300 mm aperture phasing interferometer was calibrated to <1 nm absolute accuracy and used to mount and measure 450 mm long flats for the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Measuring focus mirrors with an interferometer requires additional calibration, because high fringe density introduces systematic errors from the interferometer's imaging optics. This paper describes how these errors can be measured and corrected. The calibration approaches described here apply equally well to interferometers larger than 300 mm aperture, which are becoming more common in optics laboratories. The objective of this effort was to install LCLS flats with < 10 nm of spherical curvature, and < 2 nm rms a-sphere. The objective was met by measuring the mirrors after fabrication, coating and mounting, using a 300 mm aperture phasing interferometer calibrated to an accuracy < 1 nm. The key to calibrating the interferometer accurately was to sample the error using independent geometries that are available. The results of those measurements helped identify and reduce calibration error sources. The approach used to measure flats applies equally well to focus mirrors, provided an additional calibration is performed to measure the error introduced by fringe density. This calibration has been performed on the 300 mm aperture interferometer, and the measurement correction was evaluated for a typical focus mirror. The 300 mm aperture limitation requires stitching figure measurements together for many X-ray mirrors of interest, introducing another possible error source. Stitching is eliminated by applying the calibrations described above to larger aperture instruments. The authors are presently extending this work to a 600 mm instrument. Instruments with 900 mm aperture are now becoming available, which would accommodate the largest mirrors of interest.

  3. Measuring the quantum efficiency of single radiating dipoles using a scanning mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. C. Buchler; T. Kalkbrenner; C. Hettich; V. Sandoghdar

    2005-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Using scanning probe techniques, we show the controlled manipulation of the radiation from single dipoles. In one experiment we study the modification of the fluorescence lifetime of a single molecular dipole in front of a movable silver mirror. A second experiment demonstrates the changing plasmon spectrum of a gold nanoparticle in front of a dielectric mirror. Comparison of our data with theoretical models allows determination of the quantum efficiency of each radiating dipole.

  4. Relative radiant heat absorption characteristics of two types of mirror shields and a polished aluminum shield 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herron, Steven Douglas

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RELATIVE RADIANT HEAT ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO TYPES OF MIRROR SHIELDS AND A POLISHED ALUMINUM SHIELD A Thesis by STEVEN DOUGLAS HERRON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1973 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene RELATIVE RADIANT HEAT ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO TYPES OF MIRROR SHIELDS AND A POLISHED ALUMINUM SHIELD A Thesis by STEVEN DOUGLAS HERRON Approved...

  5. Integrated Fiber-Mirror Ion Trap for Strong Ion-Cavity Coupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birgit Brandstätter; Andrew McClung; Klemens Schüppert; Bernardo Casabone; Konstantin Friebe; Andreas Stute; Piet O. Schmidt; Christian Deutsch; Jakob Reichel; Rainer Blatt; Tracy E. Northup

    2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We present and characterize fiber mirrors and a miniaturized ion-trap design developed to integrate a fiber-based Fabry-Perot cavity (FFPC) with a linear Paul trap for use in cavity-QED experiments with trapped ions. Our fiber-mirror fabrication process not only enables the construction of FFPCs with small mode volumes, but also allows us to minimize the influence of the dielectric fiber mirrors on the trapped-ion pseudopotential. We discuss the effect of clipping losses for long FFPCs and the effect of angular and lateral displacements on the coupling efficiencies between cavity and fiber. Optical profilometry allows us to determine the radii of curvature and ellipticities of the fiber mirrors. From finesse measurements we infer a single-atom cooperativity of up to $12$ for FFPCs longer than $200 \\mu$m in length; comparison to cavities constructed with reference substrate mirrors produced in the same coating run indicates that our FFPCs have similar scattering losses. We discuss experiments to anneal fiber mirrors and explore the influence of the atmosphere under which annealing occurs on coating losses, finding that annealing under vacuum increases the losses for our reference substrate mirrors. Our unique linear Paul trap design provides clearance for such a cavity and is miniaturized to shield trapped ions from the dielectric fiber mirrors. We numerically calculate the trap potential in the absence of fibers. In the experiment additional electrodes can be used to compensate distortions of the potential due to the fibers. Home-built fiber feedthroughs connect the FFPC to external optics, and an integrated nanopositioning system affords the possibility of retracting or realigning the cavity without breaking vacuum.

  6. Study of fusion product effects in field-reversed mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Driemeyer, D.E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of fusion products (fps) on Field-Reversed Mirror (FRM) reactor concepts has been evaluated through the development of two new computer models. The first code (MCFRM) treats fps as test particles in a fixed background plasma, which is represented as a fluid. MCFRM includes a Monte Carlo treatment of Coulomb scattering and thus provides an accurate treatment of fp behavior even at lower energies where pitch-angle scattering becomes important. The second code (FRMOD) is a steady-state, globally averaged, two-fluid (ion and electron), point model of the FRM plasma that incorporates fp heating and ash buildup values which are consistent with the MCFRM calculations. These codes have been used extensively in the development of an advanced-fuel FRM reactor design (SAFFIRE). A Catalyzed-D version of the plant is also discussed along with an investigation of the steady-state energy distribution of fps in the FRM. User guides for the two computer codes are also included.

  7. A tandem mirror hybrid plume plasma propulsion facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang-Diaz, F.R.; Yang, T.F.; Krueger, W.A.; Peng, S.; Urbahn, J.; Yao, X.; Griffin, D.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A concept in electrodeless plasma propulsion, which is also capable of delivering a variable Isp, is presented. The concept involves a three-stage system of plasma injection, heating, and subsequent ejection through a magnetic nozzle. The nozzle produces the hybrid plume by the coaxial injection of hypersonic neutral gas. The gas layer, thus formed, protects the material walls from the hot plasma and, through increased collisions, helps detach it from the diverging magnetic field. The physics of this concept is evaluated numerically through full spatial and temporal simulations; these explore the operating characteristics of such a device over a wide region of parameter space. An experimental facility to study the plasma dynamics in the hybrid plume was built. The device consists of a tandem mirror operating in an asymmetric mode. A later upgrade of this system will incorporate a cold plasma injector at one end of the machine. Initial experiments involve the full characterization of the operating envelope, as well as extensive measurements of plasma properties at the exhaust. The results of the numerical simulations are described.

  8. Understanding the performance of x-ray mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takacs, P.Z.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The manufacture of x-ray mirrors is a rather specialized branch of the optical fabrication industry. As those who have had to deal with the procurement of these components well know, there are only a handful of optical companies who supply most of the grazing incidence optics in use at the synchrotron light source facilities in this country. There is relatively little information available of practical use to guide the user through any of the above steps. We have been ''forced'' to develop our own foundation for assessing the performance of various vendors and determining the quality of the components produced by them. Our approach has been to concentrate on the area of metrology of grazing incidence optics and to develop instruments and techniques that can be used to improve the quality of components delivered to us. The major problem hindering the production of grazing incidence optics is the lack of specialized metrology instrumentation that can be used by the small manufacturing shop to assess the quality of the component under production. We have been engaged over the past several years in developing the theoretical framework and practical measurement techniques to link the metrology to actual performance, providing much-needed feedback to the manufacture and also educating users and manufacturers in the proper understanding of the language of surface figure and finish metrology.

  9. Development of metrology instruments for grazing incidence mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takacs, P.Z. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Church, E.L. (Army Research and Development Command, Dover, NJ (USA)); Qian, Shi-nan (China Univ. of Science and Technology, Hefei, AH (China). Hefei National Synchrotron Radiation Lab.); Liu, Wuming (Academia Sinica, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics)

    1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effective utilization of synchrotron radiation (SR) from high-brightness sources requires the use of optical components with very smooth surfaces and extremely precise shapes. Most manufacturers are not capable of measuring the figure and finish quality of the aspheric optics required for use in grazing incidence beam lines. Over the past several years we have developed measurement techniques and metrology instrumentation that have allowed us to measure the surface profile and roughness of large cylinder optics, up to one meter in length. Based on our measurements and feedback, manufacturers have been able to advance the state-of-the-art in mirror fabrication and are now able to produce acceptable components. Our analysis techniques enable designers to write meaningful specifications and predict the performance of real surfaces in their particular beamline configurations. Commercial instruments are now available for measuring surface microroughness with spatial periods smaller than about one millimeter. No commercial instruments are available for measuring the surface figure on cylindrical aspheres over long spatial periods, from one millimeter up to one meter. For that reason we developed a Long Trace Profiler (LTP) that measures surface profile over the long period range in a non-contact manner to extremely high accuracy. Examples of measured surfaces and data analysis techniques will be discussed, and limitations on the quality of optical surfaces related to intrinsic material properties will also be discussed. 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Turing's normal numbers: towards randomness Veronica Becher

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    presumably in 1938 Alan Turing gave an algorithm that produces real numbers normal to every integer base- putable normal numbers, and this result should be attributed to Alan Turing. His manuscript entitled "A

  11. Waveguide QED: Two Photons, Many Qubits, and a Mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao-Lung L. Fang; Harold U. Baranger

    2015-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We study two-level systems (2LS) coupled at different points to a one-dimensional waveguide in which one end is open and the other is either open (infinite waveguide) or closed by a mirror (semi-infinite). Upon injection of two photons (corresponding to weak coherent driving), the resonance fluorescence and photon correlations are shaped by the effective qubit transition frequencies and decay rates, which are substantially modified by interference effects. In contrast to the well-known result in an infinite waveguide, photons reflected by a single 2LS coupled to a semi-infinite waveguide are initially bunched, a result that can be simply explained by stimulated emission. As the number of 2LS increases (up to 10 are considered here), rapid oscillations build up in the correlations that persist for a very long time. For instance, when the incoming photons are slightly detuned, the transmitted photons in the infinite waveguide are highly antibunched. On the other hand, upon resonant driving, incoherently reflected photons are mostly distributed within the photonic band gap and several sharp side peaks. These features can be explained by considering the poles of the single particle Green function in the Markovian regime combined with the time delay. Our calculation is not restricted to the Markovian regime, and we obtain several fully non-Markovian results. We show that a single 2LS in a semi-infinite waveguide can not be decoupled by placing it at the node of the photonic field, in contrast to recent results in the Markovian regime. Our results illustrate the complexities that ensue when several qubits are strongly coupled to a bus (the waveguide) as might happen in quantum information processing.

  12. Characterization Of High-Stroke High-Aspect Ratio Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Deformable Mirrors For Adaptive Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouchti, Mohamed Amine

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mirrors For Adaptive Optics, PhD Thesis, University ofFabrication Adaptive  optics  applications  in  astronomy  Max, Center for Adaptive Optics, University of California,

  13. Testing the mirror world hypothesis for the close-in extrasolar planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Foot

    2004-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Because planets are not expected to be able to form close to stars due to the high temperatures, it has been suggested that the observed close orbiting ($\\sim 0.05$ AU) large mass planets ($\\sim M_J$) might be mirror worlds -- planets composed predominately of mirror matter. The accretion of ordinary matter onto the mirror planet (from e.g. the solar wind from the host star) will make the mirror planet opaque to ordinary radiation with an effective radius $R_p$. It was argued in a previous paper, astro-ph/0101055, that this radius was potentially large enough to explain the measured size of the first transiting close-in extrasolar planet, HD209458b. Furthermore, astro-ph/0101055, made the rough prediction: $R_p \\propto \\sqrt{{T_s \\over M_p}}$, where $T_s$ is the surface temperature of the ordinary matter in the mirror planet and $M_p$ is the mass of the planet (the latter dependence being the more robust prediction). We compare this prediction with the recently discovered transiting planets, OGLE-TR-56b and OGLE-TR-113b.

  14. Fusion neutron generation computations in a stellarator-mirror hybrid with neutral beam injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moiseenko, V. E.; Agren, O. [Institute of Plasma Physics, National Science Center 'Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology', Akademichna St. 1, 61108 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Uppsala University, Angstroem Laboratory, Division of Electricity, Box 534, SE-7512 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In the paper [Moiseenko V.E., Noack K., Agren O. 'Stellarator-mirror based fusion driven fission reactor' J Fusion Energy 29 (2010) 65.], a version of a fusion driven system (FDS), i.e. a sub-critical fast fission assembly with a fusion plasma neutron source, is proposed. The plasma part of the reactor is based on a stellarator with a small mirror part. Hot ions with high perpendicular energy are assumed to be trapped in the magnetic mirror part. The stellarator part which connects to the mirror part and provides confinement for the bulk (deuterium) plasma. In the magnetic well of the mirror part, fusion reactions occur from collisions between a of hot ion component (tritium) with cold background plasma ions. RF heating is one option to heat the tritium. A more conventional method to sustain the hot ions is neutral beam injection (NBI), which is here studied numerically for the above-mentioned hybrid scheme. For these studies, a new kinetic code, KNBIM, has been developed. The code takes into account Coulomb collisions between the hot ions and the background plasma. The geometry of the confining magnetic field is arbitrary for the code. It is accounted for via a numerical bounce averaging procedure. Along with the kinetic calculations the neutron generation intensity and its spatial distribution are computed.

  15. Some ideas on the choice of designs and materials for cooled mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howells, M.R.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper expresses some views on the fabrication of future synchrotron beam-line optics; more particularly the metallurgical issues in high-quality metal mirrors. A simple mirror with uniform cooling channels is first analyzed theoretically, followed by the cullular-pin-post system with complex coolant flow path. Choice of mirror material is next considered. For the most challenging situations (need for intensive cooling), the present practice is to use nickel-plated glidcop or silicon; for less severe challenges, Si carbide may be used and cooling may be direct or indirect; and for the mildest heat loads, fused silica or ulf are popular. For the highest performance mirrors (extreme heat load), the glidcop developments should be continued perhaps to cellular-pin-post systems. For extreme distortion, Si is indicated and invar offers both improved performance and lower price. For less extreme challenges but still with cooling, Ni-plated metals have the cost advantage and SXA and other Al alloys can be added to glidcop and invar. For mirrors with mild cooling requirements, stainless steel would have many advantages. Once the internal cooling designs are established, they will be seen as more cost-effective and reliable than clamp-on schemes. Where no cooling is needed, Si, Si carbide, and the glasses can be used. For the future, the effect of electroless Ni layers on cooling design need study, and a way to finish nickel that is compatible with multilayers should be developed.

  16. Lambda hyperonic effect on the normal driplines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Samanta; P. Roy Chowdhury; D. N. Basu

    2008-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A generalized mass formula is used to calculate the neutron and proton drip lines of normal and lambda hypernuclei treating non-strange and strange nuclei on the same footing. Calculations suggest existence of several bound hypernuclei whose normal cores are unbound. Addition of Lambda or, Lambda-Lambda hyperon(s) to a normal nucleus is found to cause shifts of the neutron and proton driplines from their conventional limits.

  17. Surface-emitting superconductor laser spectroscopy for characterizing normal and sickled red blood cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gourley, P.L.; Meissner, K.E.; Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gourley, M.F. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a new intracavity laser technique that uses a living or a fixed cell as an integral component of the laser. The cells are placed on an AlGaAs/GaAs surface-emitting semiconductor wafer and covered with a glass dielectric mirror to form a laser resonator. In this arrangement, the cells serve as optical waveguides (or lens elements) to confine (or focus) light generated in the resonator by the semiconductor. Because of the high transparency, the cells aid the lasing process to generate laser light. This ultra sensitive laser provides a novel imaging/spectroscopic technique for histologic examination which we demonstrate with normal and sickled human red blood cells. Extremely high contrast microscopic images of the cells are observed near 830-850 nm. These images correspond to electromagnetic modes of cell structures and are sensitive to shape of the cell. Using a high resolution spectrometer, we resolve the light emitted from these images into very narrow spectral peaks associated with the lasing modes. Analysis of the spectra reveals that the distribution of peaks is quite different for normal and sickled red blood cells. This technique, in a more developed form, may be useful for the rapid analysis of other kinds of normal and abnormal cells.

  18. Metrology for x-ray telescope mirrors in a vertical configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Haizhang; Li, Xiaodan; Grindel, M.W.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mirrors used in x-ray telescope systems for observations outside of the earth`s atmosphere are usually made of several thin nested shells, each formed by a pair of paraboloidal and hyperboloidal surfaces. The thin shells are very susceptible to self-weight deflection caused by gravity and are nearly impossible to test by conventional interferometric techniques. The metrology requirements for these mirrors are extremely challenging. This paper presents a prototype of a Vertical Scanning Long Trace Profiler (VSLTP) which is optimized to measure the surface figure of x-ray telescope mirrors in a vertical orientation. The optical system of the VSLTP is described. Experimental results from measurements on an x-ray telescope mandrel and tests of the accuracy and repeatability of the prototype VSLTP are presented. The prototype instrument has achieved a height measurement accuracy of about 50 nanometers with a repeatability of better than 20 nanometers, and a slope measurement accuracy of about 1 microradian.

  19. Scalable stacked array piezoelectric deformable mirror for astronomy and laser processing applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wlodarczyk, Krystian L., E-mail: K.L.Wlodarczyk@hw.ac.uk; Maier, Robert R. J.; Hand, Duncan P. [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)] [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Bryce, Emma; Hutson, David; Kirk, Katherine [School of Engineering and Science, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE (United Kingdom)] [School of Engineering and Science, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Schwartz, Noah; Atkinson, David; Beard, Steven; Baillie, Tom; Parr-Burman, Phil [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)] [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Strachan, Mel [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom) [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A prototype of a scalable and potentially low-cost stacked array piezoelectric deformable mirror (SA-PDM) with 35 active elements is presented in this paper. This prototype is characterized by a 2 ?m maximum actuator stroke, a 1.4 ?m mirror sag (measured for a 14 mm × 14 mm area of the unpowered SA-PDM), and a ±200 nm hysteresis error. The initial proof of concept experiments described here show that this mirror can be successfully used for shaping a high power laser beam in order to improve laser machining performance. Various beam shapes have been obtained with the SA-PDM and examples of laser machining with the shaped beams are presented.

  20. Method of bonding silver to glass and mirrors produced according to this method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J.R.; Thomas, T.M.; Czanderna, A.W.

    1984-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for adhering silver to a glass substrate for producing mirrors includes attaining a silicon enriched substrate surface by reducing the oxygen therein in a vacuum and then vacuum depositing a silver layer onto the silicon enriched surface. The silicon enrichment can be attained by electron beam bombardment, ion beam bombardment, or neutral beam bombardment. It can also be attained by depositing a metal, such as aluminum, on the substrate surface, allowing the metal to oxidize by pulling oxygen from the substrate surface, thereby leaving a silicon enriched surface, and then etching or eroding the metal oxide layer away to expose the silicon enriched surface. Ultraviolet rays can be used to maintain dangling silicon bonds on the enriched surface until covalent bonding with the silver can occur. This disclosure also includes encapsulated mirrors with diffusion layers built therein. One of these mirrors is assembled on a polymer substrate.

  1. Method of bonding silver to glass and mirrors produced according to this method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, John R. (Golden, CO); Thomas, Terence M. (Arvada, CO); Czanderna, Alvin W. (Lakewood, CO)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for adhering silver to a glass substrate for producing mirrors includes attaining a silicon enriched substrate surface by reducing the oxygen therein in a vacuum and then vacuum depositing a silver layer onto the silicon enriched surface. The silicon enrichment can be attained by electron beam bombardment, ion beam bombardment, or neutral beam bombardment. It can also be attained by depositing a metal, such as aluminum, on the substrate surface, allowing the metal to oxidize by pulling oxygen from the substrate surface, thereby leaving a silicon enriched surface, and then etching or eroding the metal oxide layer away to expose the silicon enriched surface. Ultraviolet rays can be used to maintain dangling silicon bonds on the enriched surface until covalent bonding with the silver can occur. This disclosure also includes encapsulated mirrors with diffusion layers built therein. One of these mirrors is assembled on a polymer substrate.

  2. Quantum feedback cooling of a single trapped ion in front of a mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Steixner; P. Rabl; P. Zoller

    2005-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a theory of quantum feedback cooling of a single ion trapped in front of a mirror. By monitoring the motional sidebands of the light emitted into the mirror mode we infer the position of the ion, and act back with an appropriate force to cool the ion. We derive a feedback master equation along the lines of the quantum feedback theory developed by Wiseman and Milburn, which provides us with cooling times and final temperatures as a function of feedback gain and various system parameters.

  3. Demonstration of achromatic cold-neutron microscope utilizing axisymmetric focusing mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, D.; Khaykovich, B. [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 138 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 138 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Hussey, D.; Jacobson, D.; Arif, M. [Physical Measurement Laboratory, NIST, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8461 (United States)] [Physical Measurement Laboratory, NIST, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8461 (United States); Gubarev, M. V.; Ramsey, B. D. [Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA, VP62, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States)] [Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA, VP62, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States); Moncton, D. E. [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 138 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States) [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 138 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An achromatic cold-neutron microscope with magnification 4 is demonstrated. The image-forming optics is composed of nested coaxial mirrors of full figures of revolution, so-called Wolter optics. The spatial resolution, field of view, and depth of focus are measured and found consistent with ray-tracing simulations. Methods of increasing the resolution and magnification are discussed, as well as the scientific case for the neutron microscope. In contrast to traditional pinhole-camera neutron imaging, the resolution of the microscope is determined by the mirrors rather than by the collimation of the beam, leading to possible dramatic improvements in the signal rate and resolution.

  4. Narrow linewidth, single frequency semiconductor laser with a phase conjugate external cavity mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vahala, K.; Kyuma, K.; Yariv, A.; Kwong, S.; Cronin-Golomb, M.; Lau, K.Y.

    1986-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We measure the spectral characteristics of an external cavity semiconductor laser which uses a phase conjugate mirror for its external reflection. This device has significant advantages over the conventional external cavity system owing to the self-aligning nature of the phase conjugate mirror. The fiber delay line self-heterodyne technique is used to measure the fundamental linewidth for single mode operation of this device. It shows the linewidth to be at least as narrow as the instrumental resolution of 100 kHz.

  5. Elliptical magnetic mirror generated via resistivity gradients for fast ignition inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, A. P. L.; Schmitz, H. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)] [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The elliptical magnetic mirror scheme for guiding fast electrons for Fast Ignition proposed by Schmitz et al. (Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 085016 (2012)) is studied for conditions on the multi-kJ scale which are much closer to full-scale Fast Ignition. When scaled up, the elliptical mirror scheme is still highly beneficial to Fast Ignition. An increase in the coupling efficiency by a factor of 3–4 is found over a wide range of fast electron divergence half-angles.

  6. Editorials and fiction in "The Craftsman Magazine" (1901-1916): mirror of an age

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holm, Judith Stout

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EDITORIALS AND FICTION IN THE CRAFI'SMAN MAGAZINE (1901 ? 1916): MIRROR OF AN AGE A Thesis by JUDITH STOUT HOLM Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF ARTS December 1975 Major Subject: English EDITORIALS AND FICTION IN THE CRAFTSMAN MAGAZINE (1901 ? 1916): MIRROR OF AN AGE A Thesis by JUDITH STOUT HOLM Approved as to style and content by: t (Chairman of Committee) (He of D pa tment...

  7. Demonstration of a plasma mirror based on a laminar flow water film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panasenko, Dmitriy; Shu, Anthony; Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Matlis, Nicholas; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A plasma mirror based on a laminar water film with low flow speed 0.5-2 cm/s has been developed and characterized, for use as an ultrahigh intensity optical reflector. The use of flowing water as atarget surface automatically results in each laser pulse seeing a new interaction surface and avoids the need for mechanical scanning of the target surface. In addition, the breakdown of water does notproduce contaminating debris that can be deleterious to vacuum chamber conditions and optics, such as is the case when using conventional solid targets. The mirror exhibits 70percent reflectivity, whilemaintaining high-quality of the reflected spot.

  8. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics BIFOCAL RELAY MIRROR EXPERIMENTS ON THE NPS THREE AXIS SPACECRAFT SIMULATOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics BIFOCAL RELAY MIRROR EXPERIMENTS ON THE NPS. The Bifocal Relay Mirror spacecraft system is composed of two optically coupled telescopes used to redirect was integrated onto the TASS as an auxiliary payload. The objective of this research was to develop and test

  9. Stable roommates matchings, mirror posets, median graphs, and the local/global median phenomenon in stable matchings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Christine

    rise to mirror posets and vice versa, and mirror posets give rise to SR stable matchings and vice versa to as the bipartite version of SR, is the stable marriage problem (SM). There are n men and n women each of whom ranks-0830678. 1 #12;preference list, append an arbitrary ordering of the other men; do the same for the women

  10. Stable roommates matchings, mirror posets, median graphs, and the local/global median phenomenon in stable matchings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Christine

    rise to mirror posets and vice versa, and mirror posets give rise to SR stable matchings and vice versa problem (SM). There are n men and n women each of whom ranks participants from the opposite sex only the same for the women. It is straightforward to check that both instances have exactly the same stable

  11. Optical and Durability Evaluation for Silvered Polymeric Mirrors and Reflectors: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number, CRD-08-316

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, M.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3M is currently developing silvered polymeric mirror reflectors as low-cost replacements for glass mirrors in concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. This effort is focused on development of reflectors comprising both metallized polymeric mirror films based on improved versions of ECP-305+ or other durable mirror film concepts and appropriate mechanically robust substrates. The objectives for this project are to reduce the system capital and operating costs and to lower the levelized cost of energy for CSP installations. The development of mirror reflectors involves work on both full reflectors and mirror films with and without coatings. Mirror reflectors must meet rigid optical specifications in terms of radius of curvature, slope errors and specularity. Mirror films must demonstrate long-term durability and maintain high reflectivity. 3M would like to augment internal capabilities to validate product performance with methods and tools developed at NREL to address these areas.

  12. Estimation of the Parameters of Skew Normal Distribution by Approximating the Ratio of the Normal Density and Distribution Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dey, Debarshi

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2 1.2 Normal Distribution and Simple Linear5 1.3 Skew Normal Distribution andthe Standard Normal Density and Distribution Functions 3.1

  13. Mirror-mediated cooling: a paradigm for particle cooling via the retarded dipole force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tim Freegarde; James Bateman; André Xuereb; Peter Horak

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling forces result from the retarded dipole interaction between an illuminated particle and its reflection. For a one-dimensional example, we find cooling times of milliseconds and limiting temperatures in the millikelvin range. The force, which may be considered the prototype for cavity-mediated cooling, may be enhanced by plasmon and geometric resonances at the mirror.

  14. WAVE-DRIVEN ROTATION IN CENTRIFUGAL MIRRORS Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by harnessing alpha particle energy. This is an exten- sion of the alpha channeling effect. The alpha particleWAVE-DRIVEN ROTATION IN CENTRIFUGAL MIRRORS Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch Department frequency waves. A fixed azimuthal ripple is a simple and efficient wave that could produce rotation

  15. Soft X-ray Mirrors for the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pivovaroff, M J; Bionta, R M; Mccarville, T J; Soufli, R; Stefan, P M

    2007-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a 0.15-1.5 nm wavelength free-electron laser (FEL) being constructed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) by a multi-institution consortium, including Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). One of LLNL's responsibilities involves the design and construction of two grazing-incidence mirror systems whose primary intent is to reduce radiation levels in the experimental halls by separating the FEL beam from unwanted high-energy photons. This paper discusses one of these systems, the Soft X-ray Offset Mirror System (SOMS) that will operate in the wavelength range 0.62-1.5 nm (0.827-2.00 keV). The unusual properties of the FEL beam translate to stringent specifications in terms of stability, material choice and mirror properties. It also precludes using approaches previously developed for synchrotron light sources. This situation has led us to a unique mirror design, consisting of a reflective boron carbide layer deposited on a silicon substrate. In the first part of this paper, we discuss the basic system requirements for the SOMS and motivate the need for these novel reflective elements. In the second part of this paper, we discuss the development work we have performed, including simulation and experimental verification of the boron carbide coating properties, and the expected performance of the final system.

  16. September 15, 1997 / Vol. 22, No. 18 / OPTICS LETTERS 1433 Optical bistability induced by mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang-Yen, Christopher

    September 15, 1997 / Vol. 22, No. 18 / OPTICS LETTERS 1433 Optical bistability induced by mirror, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 Received May 2, 1997 We have observed optical bistability caused in 106 (ppm) have been successfully measured. © 1997 Optical Society of America Optical bistability

  17. Active Optics Performance Study of the Primary Mirror of the Gemini Telescopes Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Active Optics Performance Study of the Primary Mirror of the Gemini Telescopes Project Myung K. Cho Optical Sciences Center in the University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85721 and Gemini Telescopes Project P. O. Box 26732 Tucson, AZ 85726­6732 Gemini Preprint #9 #12; Active optics performance study of the primary

  18. Reinforcement Learning in MirrorBot Cornelius Weber, David Muse, Mark Elshaw, and Stefan Wermter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Cornelius

    Reinforcement Learning in MirrorBot Cornelius Weber, David Muse, Mark Elshaw, and Stefan Wermter Hybrid Intelligent Systems, SCAT, University of Sunderland, UK {cornelius.weber, david.muse, mark C. Weber et al. 2 A Visually Guided Robotic Docking Task Grasping of an object is a fundamental task

  19. Reinforcement Learning in MirrorBot Cornelius Weber, David Muse, Mark Elshaw, and Stefan Wermter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Cornelius

    Reinforcement Learning in MirrorBot Cornelius Weber, David Muse, Mark Elshaw, and Stefan Wermter Hybrid Intelligent Systems, SCAT, University of Sunderland, UK {cornelius.weber, david.muse, mark. Weber et al. 2 A Visually Guided Robotic Docking Task Grasping of an object is a fundamental task

  20. Mirror mode waves: Messengers from the coronal heating region C. T. Russell,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    , but except for some evidence of perpendicular heating of heavy ions obtained by remote sensing, it has provenMirror mode waves: Messengers from the coronal heating region C. T. Russell,1 L. K. Jian,1 J. G problem in heliospheric physics is the mechanism for the heating and acceleration of the solar wind. One

  1. Object Dependent Properties of Mirrors for PV Applications Studied Under Accelerated Weathering Protocols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    University, Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA Abstract--Lifetime and degradation science (L&DS) has been implemented-surface aluminum mirrors for photovoltaic applications and to apprise PV de- velopers of their implications. Using weathering protocols that induce degradation through heat, humidity, ultraviolet light and exposure

  2. Proton transport model in the ionosphere. 2. Inuence of magnetic mirroring and collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lummerzheim, Dirk

    Proton transport model in the ionosphere. 2. In¯uence of magnetic mirroring and collisions on the angular redistribution in a proton beam M. Galand1 , J. Lilensten2 , W. Kofman2 , D. Lummerzheim3 1 High in a proton/hydrogen beam by using a transport code in comparison with observations. H-emission Doppler pro

  3. Global Structure of Mirror Modes in the Magnetosheath Jay R. Johnson and C. Z. Cheng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that wave energy accumulates against the magnetopause boundary, and the amplitude is skewed large scale wave energy into small scale kinetic Alfv'en waves with perpendicular wavelength of wave energy from the magnetosheath to waves at the magnetopause. The mirror modes are unstable and can

  4. High-performance polyimide waveguide array with micro mirror coupler for guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ray

    High-performance polyimide waveguide array with micro mirror coupler for guided-wave optoelectronicTexas at Austin, Austin, TX 78758 ABSTRACT We report the formation of high-performance polyimide waveguide array. We employed the Si CMOS process compatible polyimide as the fabrication material, which is relatively

  5. DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF BACK SURFACE ACRYLIC SOLAR MIRRORS TO ASSURE 25 YEAR LIFETIME PERFORMANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF BACK SURFACE ACRYLIC SOLAR MIRRORS TO ASSURE 25 YEAR LIFETIME of this work. Explicit thanks to Mark A. Schuetz, Kara Shell and Dave Hollingshead for their diligence 1 Lifetime and Degradation Science: Applicability to Renewable energy 1 Lifetime and Degradation

  6. Simultaneous compression and characterization of ultrashort laser pulses using chirped mirrors and glass wedges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miranda, Miguel; Arnold, Cord; L'Huillier, Anne; Crespo, Helder

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a simple and robust technique to retrieve the phase of ultrashort laser pulses, based on a chirped mirror and glass wedges compressor. It uses the compression system itself as a diagnostic tool, thereby making unnecessary the use of complementary diagnostic tools. We used this technique to compress and characterize 7.1 fs laser pulses from an ultrafast laser oscillator.

  7. Tilting mirror strips in a linear Fresnel reector Gang Xiao (University of Nice, France)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Tilting mirror strips in a linear Fresnel reector Gang Xiao (University of Nice, France) February 29, 2012 Abstract When a linear Fresnel reector solar concentrator is installed in a site with high of the linear Fresnel reector. Technical restrictions and diculties of this method are also discussed

  8. Residential Location Choice--a Search in the Mirror of the Past

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    Residential Location Choice--a Search in the Mirror of the Past Cynthia Chen University environment · Residential self-selection, but · What do we know about residential self- selection? ­ When · Behavioral studies · Life course research · Human memory· Human memory · The current state of residential

  9. Group delay of electromagnetic pulses through multilayer dielectric mirrors beyond special relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang-Tao Liu; Wu Xin; Nian-Hua Liu; Jun Li; Fu-Hai Su

    2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Letter, we investigate the group delay of optical pulses through multilayer dielectric mirrors (MDM) combined with gravitational wave (GW). We find that the delay increases linearly with MDM length for the transmitted wave packet, whereas the Hartman effect disappears. Our study provides insight into the nature of both quantum tunnelling and GW.

  10. Transport phenomena in stochastic magnetic mirrors Leonid Malyshkin 1 and Russell Kulsrud 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Transport phenomena in stochastic magnetic mirrors Leonid Malyshkin 1 and Russell Kulsrud 2 as the electron­proton collision term. Finally, we obtain the four plasma transport coefficients and the effective magnetic field lines, and as a result, they have to go larger distances between hot and cold regions

  11. Climate changes mirror global warming predictions BY THOMAS CROWLEY Guest columnist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate changes mirror global warming predictions BY THOMAS CROWLEY Guest columnist The Herald" and must reflect, at least in part, the climate system response to the increase in global warming. What if we wanted to prevent global warming. This is just doomsday speaking of the same type that he

  12. A Mirror of Our World: Google Earth and the History of Cartography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, David Y.

    2009-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Google Earth is widely admired as one of the most advanced and powerful products of modern computerized cartography. It has been praised as a revolutionary new way of viewing the earth, as the first convincing attempt at a mirror-world or a...

  13. Heat-pipe liquid-pool-blanket concept for the Tandem Mirror Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, M.A.; Werner, R.W.; Johnson, G.L.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The blanket concept for the tandem mirror reactor described in this paper was developed to produce the medium temperature heat (approx. 850 to 950 K) for the General Atomic sulfur-iodine thermochemical process for producing hydrogen. This medium temperature heat from the blanket constitutes about 81% of the total power output of the fusion reactor.

  14. Differentiated state of normal and malignant cells or how to define a normal cell in culture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bissell, M.J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Described are cytological techniques to differentiate malignant and normal cells in culture. Emphasis is placed upon cell function and gene expression for determinative procedures. (DLS)

  15. Magnetic mirror fusion-fission early history and applicability to other systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moir, R

    2009-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In the mid 1970s to mid 1980s the mirror program was stuck with a concept, the Standard Mirror that was Q {approx} 1 where Q=P{sub fusion}/P{sub injection}. Heroic efforts were put into hybridizing thinking added energy and fuel sales would make a commercial product. At the same time the tokamak was thought to allow ignition and ultrahigh Q values of 20 or even higher. There was an effort to use neutral beams to drive the tokamak just like the mirror machines were driven in which case the Q value plunged to a few, however this was thought to be achievable decades earlier than the high Q versions. Meanwhile current drive and other features of the tokamak have seen the projected Q values come down to the range of 10. Meanwhile the mirror program got Q enhancement into high gear and various tandem mirrors projected Q values up towards 10 and with advanced features over 10 with axi-symmetric magnets (See R. F. Post papers), however the experimental program is all but non-existent. Meanwhile, the gas dynamic trap mirror system which is present day state-of-the-art can with low risk produce Q of {approx}0.1 useful for a low risk, low cost neutron source for materials development useful for the development of materials for all fusion concepts (see Simonen white paper: 'A Physics-Based Strategy to Develop a Mirror Fusion-Fission Hybrid' and D.D. Ryutov, 'Axisymmetric MHD-stable mirror as a neutron source and a driver for a fusion-fission hybrid'). Many early hybrid designs with multi-disciplinary teams were carried out in great detail for the mirror system with its axi-symmetric blanket modules. It is recognized that most of these designs are adaptable to tokamak or inertial fusion geometry. When Q is low (1 to 2) economics gives a large economic penalty for high recirculating power. These early studies covered the three design types: Power production, fuel production and waste burning. All three had their place but power production fell away because every study showed fusion machines that were extensively studied by multidisciplinary teams came up with power costs much higher than for existing fission plants except in very large sizes (3 GWe). There was lots of work on waste burning - Ted Parrish - comes to mind. However, fuel production along with power production became nearly everyone's goals. First, fast-fission blankets were favored but later to enhance safety, fission-suppressed blankets came into vogue. Both fuel producing and waste burning hybrid studies were terminated with the advent of accidents, high interest rates, rising 'green like' movement and cheap natural gas for power production. For waste burning and fast-fission fuel producing designs, the blanket energy multiplication was about 10 and economics was OK relative to recirculating power for Q over 2. For fission-suppressed fuel producers, where the blanket multiplication is under 2, the Q needed was over 5. In the mirror program we came at this problem by trying to find a product for mirror fusion technology. We hoped we had a product and studied and promoted it. There was no market pull and when the mirror program collapsed in the US, so did both hybrid programs for mirrors and tokamaks and IFE by the mid 1980s. Today, the problem of what to do with wastes that were supposed to be accepted by the government appears to be a high value market pull. It remains to be shown if fusion neutrons can be generated at low enough cost so that economics will not be a showstopper. For burning only the minor actinides, the economics will be the most favorable. Burning the Pu as well will lower the number of fission reactors supported by each burner fusion machine and hurt economics of the system. The fuel-producing role of fusion to fuel fission reactors remains an important possible use of fusion especially in the early stages of fusion development. It is not clear that burning fission wastes in a fusion machine is more appropriate than burning these wastes in specially designed fission machines. Fusion can produce U-233 along with over 2.4%U-232 making the material large

  16. Computing Instantaneous Frequency by normalizing Hilbert Transform

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Norden E.

    2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention presents Normalized Amplitude Hilbert Transform (NAHT) and Normalized Hilbert Transform(NHT), both of which are new methods for computing Instantaneous Frequency. This method is designed specifically to circumvent the limitation set by the Bedorsian and Nuttal Theorems, and to provide a sharp local measure of error when the quadrature and the Hilbert Transform do not agree. Motivation for this method is that straightforward application of the Hilbert Transform followed by taking the derivative of the phase-angle as the Instantaneous Frequency (IF) leads to a common mistake made up to this date. In order to make the Hilbert Transform method work, the data has to obey certain restrictions.

  17. One-wave optical time-reversal mirror by actively coupling arbitrary light fields into a single-mode reflector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, KyeoReh; Park, Jung-Hoon; Park, Ji-Ho; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rewinding the arrow of time via phase conjugation is an intriguing phenomena made possible by the wave property of light. To exploit this phenomenon, many diverse research fields have pursed the realization of an ideal phase conjugation mirror, but the ideal phase conjugation mirror - an optical system that requires a single-input and a single-output beam, like natural conventional mirrors - has never been demonstrated. Here, we demonstrate the realization of a one-wave optical time-reversal mirror using a spatial light modulator and a single-mode reflector. Our method is simple, alignment free, and fast while allowing unlimited power throughput in the time reversed wave, which have not been simultaneously demonstrated before. Using our method, we demonstrate high throughput time-reversal full-field light delivery through highly scattering biological tissue and multimode fibers, even for quantum dot fluorescence.

  18. Morphology, microstructure, stress and damage properties of thin film coatings for the LCLS x-ray mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soufli, R; Baker, S L; Robinson, J C; Gullikson, E M; McCarville, T J; Pivovaroff, M J; Stefan, P; Hau-Riege, S P; Bionta, R

    2009-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The development and properties of reflective coatings for the x-ray offset mirror systems of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free-electron laser (FEL) are discussed in this manuscript. The uniquely high instantaneous dose of the LCLS FEL beam translates to strict limits in terms of materials choice, thus leading to an x-ray mirror design consisting of a reflective coating deposited on a silicon substrate. Coherent wavefront preservation requirements for these mirrors result in stringent surface figure and finish specifications. DC-magnetron sputtered B{sub 4}C and SiC thin film coatings with optimized stress, roughness and figure properties for the LCLS x-ray mirrors are presented. The evolution of microstructure, morphology, and stress of these thin films versus deposition conditions is discussed. Experimental results on the performance of these coatings with respect to FEL damage are also presented.

  19. A Mirror Neuron Inspired Hierarchical Network for Action Selection Mark Elshaw, Cornelius Weber, Alex Zochios, Stefan Wermter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Cornelius

    A Mirror Neuron Inspired Hierarchical Network for Action Selection Mark Elshaw, Cornelius Weber of Sunderland, UK [Mark.Elshaw,Cornelius.Weber,Stefan.Wermter]@sunderland.ac.uk Abstract In this paper we

  20. Textual Alchemy: The Transformation of Pseudo-Albertus Magnus’s Semita Recta into the Mirror of Lights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grund, Peter

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article explores the strategies of and the reasons behind the reworking of pseudo-Albertus Magnus's Semita recta into the Mirror of Lights. I argue that the redactor sought to provide a more comprehensive defence of ...

  1. A review of "Mirrors of Revolution: Conflict and Political Identity in Early Modern Europe" by Francesco Benigno

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worcester, Thomas

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , various groups saw individual opportunities within supporting the King. e work is solid and straightforward and works to expand our understanding of the other side of the British Civil Wars. Francesco Benigno. Mirrors of Revolution: Con#29;ict...

  2. The reality of virtual limbs: does mirror technique for hand has functional consequences for the motor output? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bienkiewicz, Marta

    2008-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    motor imagery brings objectively measurable effects on the motor behaviour, and whether these effects can be enhanced by the application of the mirror technique. Three experiments were conducted involving 32 neurologically healthy participants...

  3. Continuous flow photocatalysis enhanced using an aluminum mirror: rapid and selective synthesis of 2?-deoxy and 2?,3?-dideoxynucleosides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Bo

    A unique photochemical flow reactor featuring quartz tubing, an aluminum mirror and temperature control has been developed for the photo-induced electron-transfer deoxygenation reaction to produce 2?-deoxy and 2?,3?-dide ...

  4. Photothermal and thermo-refractive effects in high reflectivity mirrors at room and cryogenic temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alessandro Farsi; Mario Siciliani de Cumis; Francesco Marino; Francesco Marin

    2011-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing requirements in the sensitivity of interferometric measurements is a common feature of several research fields, from gravitational wave detection to quantum optics. This motivates refined studies of high reflectivity mirrors and of noise sources that are tightly related to their structure. In this work we present an experimental characterization of photothermal and thermo-refractive effects in high reflectivity mirrors, i.e., of the variations in the position of their effective reflection plane due to weak residual power absorption. The measurements are performed by modulating the impinging power in the range 10 Hz $\\div$ 100 kHz. The experimental results are compared with an expressly derived theoretical model in order to fully understand the phenomena and exploit them to extract useful effective thermo-mechanical parameters of the coating. The measurements are extended at cryogenic temperature, where most high sensitivity experiments are performed (or planned in future versions) and where characterizations of dielectric film coatings are still poor.

  5. Vectorial velocity filter for ultracold neutrons based on a surface-disordered mirror system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. A. Chizhova; S. Rotter; T. Jenke; G. Cronenberg; P. Geltenbort; G. Wautischer; H. Filter H. Abele; J. Burgdörfer

    2014-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform classical three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations of ultracold neutrons scattering through an absorbing-reflecting mirror system in the Earth's gravitational field. We show that the underlying mixed phase space of regular skipping motion and random motion due to disorder scattering can be exploited to realize a vectorial velocity filter for ultracold neutrons. The absorbing-reflecting mirror system proposed allows beams of ultracold neutrons with low angular divergence to be formed. The range of velocity components can be controlled by adjusting the geometric parameters of the system. First experimental tests of its performance are presented. One potential future application is the investigation of transport and scattering dynamics in confined systems downstream of the filter.

  6. Potential of the neutron lloyd's mirror interferometer for the search for new interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pokotilovski, Yu. N., E-mail: pokot@nf.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the potential of the neutron Lloyd's mirror interferometer in a search for new interactions at small scales. We consider three hypothetical interactions that may be tested using the interferometer. The chameleon scalar field proposed to solve the enigma of accelerating expansion of the Universe produces interaction between particles and matter. The axion-like spin-dependent coupling between a neutron and nuclei or/and electrons may result in a P- and T-noninvariant interaction with matter. Hypothetical non-Newtonian gravitational interactions mediates an additional short-range potential between neutrons and bulk matter. These interactions between the neutron and the mirror of a Lloyd-type neutron interferometer cause a phase shift of neutron waves. We estimate the sensitivity and systematic effects of possible experiments.

  7. Performance of 3-Sun Mirror Modules on Sun Tracking Carousels on Flat Roof Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraas, Dr. Lewis [JX Crystals, Inc.; Avery, James E. [JX Crystals, Inc.; Minkin, Leonid M [ORNL; Maxey, L Curt [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Hurt, Rick A [ORNL; Boehm, Robert F [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial buildings represent a near term market for cost competitive solar electric power provided installation costs and solar photovoltaic module costs can be reduced. JX Crystals has developed a carousel sun tracker that is prefabricated and can easily be deployed on building flat roof tops without roof penetration. JX Crystals is also developing 3-sun PV mirror modules where less expensive mirrors are substituted for two-thirds of the expensive single crystal silicon solar cell surface area. Carousels each with four 3-sun modules have been set up at two sites, specifically at Oak Ridge National Lab and at the University of Nevada in Las Vegas. The test results for these systems are presented.

  8. Probing the quantum vacuum with an artificial atom in front of a mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. -C. Hoi; A. F. Kockum; L. Tornberg; A. Pourkabirian; G. Johansson; P. Delsing; C. M. Wilson

    2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum fluctuations of the vacuum are both a surprising and fundamental phenomenon of nature. Understood as virtual photons flitting in and out of existence, they still have a very real impact, \\emph{e.g.}, in the Casimir effects and the lifetimes of atoms. Engineering vacuum fluctuations is therefore becoming increasingly important to emerging technologies. Here, we shape vacuum fluctuations using a "mirror", creating regions in space where they are suppressed. As we then effectively move an artificial atom in and out of these regions, measuring the atomic lifetime tells us the strength of the fluctuations. The weakest fluctuation strength we observe is 0.02 quanta, a factor of 50 below what would be expected without the mirror, demonstrating that we can hide the atom from the vacuum.

  9. A mirror for lab-based quasi-monochromatic parallel x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Thanhhai; Lu, Xun; Lee, Chang Jun; Jeon, Insu, E-mail: i-jeon@chonnam.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jin-Ho [Pro-optics Co., Ltd., 475 Ami-ri, Bubal-eup, Icheon 467-866 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Gye-Hwan [Department of Radiology, Nambu University, 76 Chumdan Jungang 1-ro, Gwangsan-gu, Gwangju 506-706 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Youb [School of Mechanical and Advanced Materials Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A multilayered parabolic mirror with six W/Al bilayers was designed and fabricated to generate monochromatic parallel x-rays using a lab-based x-ray source. Using this mirror, curved bright bands were obtained in x-ray images as reflected x-rays. The parallelism of the reflected x-rays was investigated using the shape of the bands. The intensity and monochromatic characteristics of the reflected x-rays were evaluated through measurements of the x-ray spectra in the band. High intensity, nearly monochromatic, and parallel x-rays, which can be used for high resolution x-ray microscopes and local radiation therapy systems, were obtained.

  10. Optical performance of the TBC-2 solar collector before and after the 1993 mirror lustering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houser, R.; Strachan, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Solar Thermal Test Dept.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1993, the mirror facets of one of Sandia`s point-focusing solar collectors, the Test Bed Concentrator {number_sign}2 (TBC-2), were reconditioned. The concentrator`s optical performance was evaluated before and after this operation. This report summarizes and compares the results of these tests. The tests demonstrated that the concentrator`s total power and peak flux were increased while the overall flux distribution in the focal plane remained qualitatively the same.

  11. Linearization of scan velocity of resonant vibrating-mirror beam deflectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA); Chen, Shun-Le (Long Island City, NY)

    1991-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A means and method for producing linerization of scan velocity of resonant vibrating-mirror beam deflectors in laser scanning system including presenting an elliptical convex surface to the scanning beam to reflect the scanning beam to the focal plane of the scanning line. The elliptical surface is shaped to produce linear velocity of the reflective scanning beam at the focal plane. Maximization of linerization is accomplished by considering sets of criteria for different scanning applications.

  12. Linearization of scan velocity of resonant vibrating-mirror beam deflectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeung, E.S.; Chen, S.L.

    1991-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A means and method for producing linearization of scan velocity of resonant vibrating-mirror beam deflectors in laser scanning system including presenting an elliptical convex surface to the scanning beam to reflect the scanning beam to the focal plane of the scanning line. The elliptical surface is shaped to produce linear velocity of the reflective scanning beam at the focal plane. Maximization of linearization is accomplished by considering sets of criteria for different scanning applications. 6 figures.

  13. Multilayer deposition and EUV reflectance characterization of 131 ? flight mirrors for AIA at LLNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soufli, R; Robinson, J C; Spiller, E; Baker, S L; Dollar, F J; Gullikson, E M

    2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Mo/Si multilayer coatings reflecting at 131 {angstrom} were deposited successfully on the AIA primary and secondary flight mirrors and on two coating witness Si wafers, on November 16, 2005, at LLNL. All coatings were characterized by means of EUV reflectance measurements at beamline 6.3.2 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron at LBNL, and were found to be well within specifications.

  14. Synfuels from fusion: using the tandem mirror reactor and a thermochemical cycle to produce hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werner, R.W. (ed.)

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is concerned with the following area: (1) the tandem mirror reactor and its physics; (2) energy balance; (3) the lithium oxide canister blanket system; (4) high-temperature blanket; (5) energy transport system-reactor to process; (6) thermochemical hydrogen processes; (7) interfacing the GA cycle; (8) matching power and temperature demands; (9) preliminary cost estimates; (10) synfuels beyond hydrogen; and (11) thermodynamics of the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O system. (MOW)

  15. Advanced ultraviolet-resistant silver mirrors for use in solar reflectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, Gary J. (Pine, CO); Gee, Randy (Arvada, CO)

    2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A silver mirror construction that maintains a high percentage of hemispherical reflectance throughout the UV and visible spectrum when used in solar reflectors, comprising:a) a pressure sensitive adhesive layer positioned beneath a silver overlay;b) a polymer film disposed on the silver overlay;c) an adhesive layer positioned on the polymer film; andd) a UV screening acrylic film disposed on the adhesive layer.

  16. The Chandra Xray Observatory (Chandra) and the Xray Multimirror Mirror telescope (XMM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    ://cxc.harvard.edu/ 2.2 High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) Hardware: 4 nested paraboloid­hyperboloid (Wolter Type 1 of the HRMA. Effective area: 800 cm 2 below 2 keV and about 200 cm 2 at 6.6 keV. Encircled energy: 80% within transmission gratings that can be inserted into the beam between the HRMA and HRC­S. Spectral range: 1.7 to 170

  17. A microwave tomography system using a tunable mirror for beam steering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tayebi, A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Non-Destructive Evaluation Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physic (United States); Tang, J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Paladhi, P. Roy; Udpa, L.; Udpa, S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Non-Destructive Evaluation Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Microwave tomography is a fast-growing technique in the fields of NDE and medical industry. This paper presents a new microwave tomography system which reduces the complexities of conventional microwave imaging systems by utilizing a reconfigurable mirror, a tunable reflectarray antenna. In order to build a tunable reflectarray with beam steering capabilities, the unit cell characteristics should dynamically alter. Modelling and experimental results of a single unit cell are presented in this work.

  18. Relative radiant heat absorption characteristics of two types of mirror shields and a polished aluminum shield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herron, Steven Douglas

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    compared. The relative absorptivities of two types of rear?silvered safety plate mirrors and a polished aluminum sheet will be compared in this research. LITERATURE REVIEW Modes of Heat Transmission It is well understood that heat may flow only... of vasomotor tone, peripheral venous blood pooling, hypotension, and cerebral anoxia. This instability results in nausea, giddi- 19 ness, universal discomfort, acute physical fatigue, and sometimes fainting. Salt deficiency from any of several possible...

  19. Support mechanism for a mirrored surface or other arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cutburth, R.W.

    1985-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An adjustment mechanism such as a three point spherical mount for adjustably supporting a planer mirror or other type of arrangement relative to a plane defined by a given pair of perpendicular axes is described in this disclosure. This mechanism provides for positioning within the plane defined by the given pair of intersecting perpendicular axes. Limited positioning is possible about either of these axes and provides for a ''non-floating'' center of adjustment.

  20. Cross-check of ex-situ and in-situ metrology of a bendable temperature stabilized KB mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Sheng Sam; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Celestre, Richard; McKinney, Wayne R.; Morrison, Gregory; Macdougall, James; Mochi, Iacopo; Warwick, Tony

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    At the Advanced Light Source (ALS), we are developing broadly applicable, high-accuracy, in-situ, at-wavelength wavefront slope measurement techniques for Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirror nano-focusing. In this paper, we report an initial cross-check of ex-situ and in-situ metrology of a bendable temperature stabilized KB mirror. This cross-check provides a validation of the in-situ shearing interferometry currently under development at the ALS.

  1. Application Of The Phase Shifting Diffraction Interferometer For Measuring Convex Mirrors And Negative Lenses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA); Campbell, Eugene W. (Livermore, CA)

    2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    To measure a convex mirror, a reference beam and a measurement beam are both provided through a single optical fiber. A positive auxiliary lens is placed in the system to give a converging wavefront onto the convex mirror under test. A measurement is taken that includes the aberrations of the convex mirror as well as the errors due to two transmissions through the positive auxiliary lens. A second measurement provides the information to eliminate this error. A negative lens can also be measured in a similar way. Again, there are two measurement set-ups. A reference beam is provided from a first optical fiber and a measurement beam is provided from a second optical fiber. A positive auxiliary lens is placed in the system to provide a converging wavefront from the reference beam onto the negative lens under test. The measurement beam is combined with the reference wavefront and is analyzed by standard methods. This measurement includes the aberrations of the negative lens, as well as the errors due to a single transmission through the positive auxiliary lens. A second measurement provides the information to eliminate this error.

  2. Application of the phase shifting diffraction interferometer for measuring convex mirrors and negative lenses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, Gary E.; Campbell, Eugene W.

    2004-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    To measure a convex mirror, a reference beam and a measurement beam are both provided through a single optical fiber. A positive auxiliary lens is placed in the system to give a converging wavefront onto the convex mirror under test. A measurement is taken that includes the aberrations of the convex mirror as well as the errors due to two transmissions through the positive auxiliary lens. A second, measurement provides the information to eliminate this error. A negative lens can also be measured in a similar way. Again, there are two measurement set-ups. A reference beam is provided from a first optical fiber and a measurement beam is provided from a second optical fiber. A positive auxiliary lens is placed in the system to provide a converging wavefront from the reference beam onto the negative lens under test. The measurement beam is combined with the reference wavefront and is analyzed by standard methods. This measurement includes the aberrations of the negative lens, as well as the errors due to a single transmission through the positive auxiliary lens. A second measurement provides the information to eliminate this error.

  3. Development of Hard X-ray Imaging Optics with Two Pairs of Elliptical and Hyperbolic Mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuyama, S.; Fujii, M.; Wakioka, T.; Mimura, H.; Handa, S.; Kimura, T. [Department of Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nishino, Y.; Tamasaku, K.; Makina, Y.; Ishikawa, T. [SPring-8/RIKEN, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayoucho, Sayogun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Yamauchi, K. [Department of Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Research Center for Ultra-Precision Science and Technology, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    To form a magnified hard X-ray image with a 50 nm resolution, we have studied total reflection mirror optics with two pairs of elliptical and hyperbolic mirrors, which is called 'Advanced Kirkpatrick-Baez system'. A designed optical system has 200x and 300x magnifications in vertical and horizontal directions. Also diffraction limit size in the optical system is 40 nmx45 nm. We fabricated a pair of elliptical and hyperbolic mirrors for horizontal imaging with a figure accuracy of 2 nm using elastic emission machining (EEM), microstitching interferometry (MSI) and relative-angle-determinable stitching interferometry (RADSI). One-dimensional tests for forming a demagnified image of a slit were carried out at an X-ray energy of 11.5 keV at BL29XUL (EH2) of SPring-8. As a result, a shape beam with a FWHM of 78 nm was observed. This demonstrates that we realized one-dimensional Wolter optics that has a spatial resolution of 78 nm.

  4. Lifetime Prediction for Degradation of Solar Mirrors using Step-Stress Accelerated Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J.; Elmore, R.; Kennedy, C.; Gray, M.; Jones, W.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research is to illustrate the use of statistical inference techniques in order to quantify the uncertainty surrounding reliability estimates in a step-stress accelerated degradation testing (SSADT) scenario. SSADT can be used when a researcher is faced with a resource-constrained environment, e.g., limits on chamber time or on the number of units to test. We apply the SSADT methodology to a degradation experiment involving concentrated solar power (CSP) mirrors and compare the results to a more traditional multiple accelerated testing paradigm. Specifically, our work includes: (1) designing a durability testing plan for solar mirrors (3M's new improved silvered acrylic "Solar Reflector Film (SFM) 1100") through the ultra-accelerated weathering system (UAWS), (2) defining degradation paths of optical performance based on the SSADT model which is accelerated by high UV-radiant exposure, and (3) developing service lifetime prediction models for solar mirrors using advanced statistical inference. We use the method of least squares to estimate the model parameters and this serves as the basis for the statistical inference in SSADT. Several quantities of interest can be estimated from this procedure, e.g., mean-time-to-failure (MTTF) and warranty time. The methods allow for the estimation of quantities that may be of interest to the domain scientists.

  5. Two-port multimode interference reflectors based on aluminium mirrors in a thick SOI platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fandiño, Javier S; Muñoz, Pascual

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multimode interference reflectors (MIRs) were recently introduced as a new type of photonic integrated devices for on-chip, broadband light reflection. In the original proposal, different MIRs were demonstrated based on total internal reflection mirrors made of two deep-etched facets. Although simpler to fabricate, this approach imposes certain limits on the shape of the field pattern at the reflecting facets, which in turn restricts the types of MIRs that can be implemented. In this work, we propose and experimentally demonstrate the use of aluminium-based mirrors for the design of 2-port MIRs with variable reflectivity. These mirrors do not impose any restrictions on the incident field, and thus give more flexibility at the design stage. Different devices with reflectivities between~0~and~0.5 were fabricated in a 3~um thick SOI platform, and characterization of multiple dies was performed to extract statistical data about their performance. Our measurements show that, on average, losses both in the aluminiu...

  6. A Harmonic Approach for Calculating Daily Temperature Normals Constrained by2 Homogenized Monthly Temperature Normals3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 1 A Harmonic Approach for Calculating Daily Temperature Normals Constrained by2 Homogenized a constrained harmonic technique that forces the daily30 temperature normals to be consistent with the monthly, or harmonic even though the annual march of temperatures for some locations can be highly asymmetric. Here, we

  7. Normality: A Consistency Condition for Concurrent Objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garg, Vijay

    Normality: A Consistency Condition for Concurrent Objects Vijay K. GARG \\Lambda Michel RAYNAL ECE for concurrent objects (objects shared by con­ current processes) that exploits the semantics of abstract data types. It provides the illusion that each operation applied by concurrent processes takes effect

  8. Control of normal chirality at hexagonal interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haraldsen, Jason T [ORNL; Fishman, Randy Scott [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the net chirality created by the Dzyaloshinkii-Moriya interaction (DMI) at the boundary between hexagonal layers of magnetic and non-magnetic materials. It is shown that another mechanism besides elastic torsion is required to understand the change in chirality observed in Dy/Y multilayers during field-cooling. The paper shows that due to the overlap between magnetic and non-magnetic atoms, interfacial steps may produce a DMI normal to the interface in magnetic heterostructures.

  9. Surface Roughness of Stainless Steel Bender Mirrors for FocusingSoft X-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; Irick, Steve C.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Salmassi,Farhad; Warwick, Tony; Metz, James P.; Tonnessen, Thomas W.

    2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used polished stainless steel as a mirror substrate to provide focusing of soft x-rays in grazing incidence reflection. The substrate is bent to an elliptical shape with large curvature and high stresses in the substrate require a strong elastic material. Conventional material choices of silicon or of glass will not withstand the stress required. The use of steel allows the substrates to be polished and installed flat, using screws in tapped holes. The ultra-high-vacuum bender mechanism is motorized and computer controlled. These mirrors are used to deliver focused beams of soft x-rays onto the surface of a sample for experiments at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). They provide an illumination field that can be as small as the mirror demagnification allows, for localized study, and can be enlarged, under computer control,for survey measurements over areas of the surface up to several millimeters. The critical issue of the quality of the steel surface, polished and coated with gold, which limits the minimum achievable focused spot size is discussed in detail. Comparison is made to a polished, gold coated, electroless nickel surface, which provides a smoother finish. Surface measurements are presented as power spectral densities, as a function of spatial frequency. The surface height distributions measured with an interferometric microscope, and complemented by atomic force microscope measurements, are used to compute power spectral densities and then to evaluate the surface roughness. The effects of roughness in reducing the specular reflectivity are verified by soft x-ray measurements.

  10. Casimir interaction between normal or superfluid grains in the Fermi sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas Wirzba; Aurel Bulgac; Piotr Magierski

    2005-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on a new force that acts on cavities (literally empty regions of space) when they are immersed in a background of non-interacting fermionic matter fields. The interaction follows from the obstructions to the (quantum mechanical) motions of the fermions caused by the presence of bubbles or other (heavy) particles in the Fermi sea, as, for example, nuclei in the neutron sea in the inner crust of a neutron star or superfluid grains in a normal Fermi liquid. The effect resembles the traditional Casimir interaction between metallic mirrors in the vacuum. However, the fluctuating electromagnetic fields are replaced by fermionic matter fields. We show that the fermionic Casimir problem for a system of spherical cavities can be solved exactly, since the calculation can be mapped onto a quantum mechanical billiard problem of a point-particle scattered off a finite number of non-overlapping spheres or disks. Finally we generalize the map method to other Casimir systems, especially to the case of a fluctuating scalar field between two spheres or a sphere and a plate under Dirichlet boundary conditions.

  11. Enhanced visible and near-infrared capabilities of the JET mirror-linked divertor spectroscopy system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomanowski, B. A., E-mail: b.a.lomanowski@durham.ac.uk; Sharples, R. M. [Centre for Advanced Instrumentation, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Meigs, A. G.; Conway, N. J.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Heesterman, P.; Kinna, D. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Center, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Collaboration: JET-EFDA Team

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The mirror-linked divertor spectroscopy diagnostic on JET has been upgraded with a new visible and near-infrared grating and filtered spectroscopy system. New capabilities include extended near-infrared coverage up to 1875 nm, capturing the hydrogen Paschen series, as well as a 2 kHz frame rate filtered imaging camera system for fast measurements of impurity (Be II) and deuterium D?, D?, D? line emission in the outer divertor. The expanded system provides unique capabilities for studying spatially resolved divertor plasma dynamics at near-ELM resolved timescales as well as a test bed for feasibility assessment of near-infrared spectroscopy.

  12. Cleanable and Hardcoat Coatings for Increased Durability of Silvered Polymeric Mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padiyath, Raghunath

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have successfully developed coating formulations which significantly increasethe abrasion resistance of mirror films. We have demonstrated manufacturing scale-up of these films to full width andproduction volumes. Implementation of these films in commercial test sites is planned for Q2 2013(Abengoa, Gossamer Space Frames). This slide show outlines the background and objectives of the project, technical approach and results, and key lessons. It also presents the need and opportunity for reduction of costs for CSP and collectors. It also presents an approach for a large aperture parabolic trough collector with reflective film and a high concentration factor, including demonstration and results.

  13. Isorotation and differential rotation in a magnetic mirror with imposed E Multiplication-Sign B rotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero-Talamas, C. A.; Elton, R. C.; Young, W. C.; Reid, R.; Ellis, R. F. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Doppler spectroscopy of helium impurities in the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment reveals the simultaneous existence of isorotating and differentially rotating magnetic surfaces. Differential rotation occurs at the innermost surfaces and is conjectured to cause plasma voltage oscillations of hundreds of kilohertz by periodically changing the current path inductance. High-speed images show the periodic expulsion of plasma near the mirror ends at the same frequencies. In spite of this, the critical ionization velocity limit is exceeded, with respect to the vacuum field definition, for at least 0.5 ms.

  14. The use of a high-order MEMS deformable mirror in the Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poyneer, L A; Bauman, B; Cornelissen, S; Jones, S; Macintosh, B; Palmer, D; Isaacs, J

    2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We briefly review the development history of the Gemini Planet Imager's 4K Boston Micromachines MEMS deformable mirror. We discuss essential calibration steps and algorithms to control the MEMS with nanometer precision, including voltage-phase calibration and influence function characterization. We discuss the integration of the MEMS into GPI's Adaptive Optics system at Lawrence Livermore and present experimental results of 1.5 kHz closed-loop control. We detail mitigation strategies in the coronagraph to reduce the impact of abnormal actuators on final image contrast.

  15. Light-Induced Metal-Insulator Transition in a Switchable Mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoekstra, A. F. Th.; Roy, A. S.; Rosenbaum, T. F.; Griessen, R.; Wijngaarden, R. J.; Koeman, N. J.

    2001-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Rare earth hydride films can be converted reversibly from metallic mirrors to insulating windows simply by changing the surrounding hydrogen gas pressure at room temperature. At low temperatures, in situ doping is not possible in this way as hydrogen cannot diffuse. However, our finding of persistent photoconductivity under ultraviolet illumination offers an attractive possibility to tune yttrium hydride through the T=0 metal-insulator transition. Conductivity and Hall measurements are used to determine critical exponents. The unusually large value for the product of the static and dynamical critical exponents appears to signify the important role played by electron-electron interactions.

  16. Durable silver mirror with ultra-violet thru far infra-red reflection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Jesse D. (Discovery Bay, CA)

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A durable highly reflective silver mirror characterized by high reflectance in a broad spectral range of about 300 nm in the UV to the far infrared (.about.10000 nm), as well as exceptional environmental durability. A high absorptivity metal underlayer is used which prevents the formation of a galvanic cell with a silver layer while increasing the reflectance of the silver layer. Environmentally durable overcoat layers are provided to enhance mechanical and chemical durability and protect the silver layer from corrosion and tarnishing, for use in a wide variety of surroundings or climates, including harsh or extreme environments.

  17. Development of fast steering mirror control system for plasma heating and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okada, K., E-mail: okada.kohta@LHD.nifs.ac.jp; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, K.; Kobayashi, S.; Ito, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Ogasawara, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Nishiura, M. [Department of Advanced Energy, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A control system for a fast steering mirror has been newly developed for the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) launchers in the large helical device. This system enables two-dimensional scan during a plasma discharge and provides a simple feedback control function. A board mounted with a field programmable gate array chip has been designed to realize feedback control of the ECH beam position to maintain higher electron temperature by ECH. The heating position is determined by a plasma diagnostic signal related to the electron temperature such as electron cyclotron emission and Thomson scattering.

  18. On the mirror instability in the presence of electron temperature anisotropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuznetsov, E. A. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, 53 Leninsky Ave., 119991 Moscow, Russia and Space Research Institute, 84/31 Profsoyuznaya St., 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L. [Universite de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, B.P. 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Computation of the mirror instability growth rate in an ion-electron bi-Maxwellian plasma is revisited, starting from the low-frequency kinetic theory. The role of the electron finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on the instability quenching is shown to possibly be dominant, even near threshold where the smallest unstable scales significantly exceed the electron gyroscale. Validation of the results by comparison with predictions of the fully kinetic whamp software is also presented. The influence of the electron temperatures on the ion FLR effects very near threshold, where the electron kinetic effects are negligible, is also pointed out.

  19. Flexural Stiffnesses of and Dimensional Stability in Circular Quasi-isotropic Laminate Mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Kyungpyo

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    have been made primarily from glass, ceramics and/or metals; the most common metal being used is beryllium (Table 1). Table 1: Mirror Substrate Material Data. Preferred Small Large Large Small Large 22 (0.38) 2.3 112 (1.93) 0....106 (2.92) 45 (310) 4.25 1.47 (2.64) 91 (1.58) 14.5 (3.1) 0.05 (0.09) Thermal Conductivity (K) English (SI) Beryllium I-70A SiC RB 30% Si lb/in3 (g/cm3) Msi (Gpa) 10E8 in ppm/F (ppm/K) Btu...

  20. Surface roughness of stainless-steel mirrors for focusing soft x rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; Irick, Steve C.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Salmassi, Farhad; Warwick, Tony; Metz, James P.; Tonnessen, Thomas W

    2006-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used polished stainless steel as a mirror substrate to provide focusing of soft x rays in grazing-incidence reflection. The critical issue of the quality of the steel surface,polished and coated with gold, is discussed in detail. A comparison is made to a polished,gold-coated, electroless nickel surface, which provides a smoother finish. We used the surface height distributions, measured with an interferometric microscope and complemented by atomic-force microscope measurements, to compute power spectral densities and then to evaluate the surface roughness. The effects of roughness in reducing the specular reflectivity were verified by soft-x-ray measurements.

  1. Photo of the Week: The Mirror Fusion Test Facility | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO Overview OCHCO Overview OCHCO OCHCOControlGuide to aEnergy Living LargeThe Mirror

  2. NORMALITY VERSUS COUNTABLE PARACOMPACTNESS IN PERFECT SPACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wage, M. L.; Fleissner, William G.; Reed, G. M.

    1976-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    spaces, Proc. Topology Conf. (Memphis State Univ., 1975) (to appear). 3. H. Cook, Cartesian products and continuous semi-metrics, Proc. Conf. on Topology (1967), Arizona State Univ., Tempe, Ariz., 1968, pp. 5 8 - 6 3 . MR 38 #5152. 4. C. H. Dowker.... Pittsburgh Internat. Conf., 1972), Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 378, Springer-Verlag, Berlin and New York, 1974, pp. 243-247. MR 49 #1457. 9. A. J. Ostaszewski, On countably compact, perfectly normal spaces, J. London Math. Soc. (to appear). 10. C. W...

  3. Normal, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRoseConcerns Jump to:NeppelsourceNormal, Illinois: Energy Resources

  4. Local asymptotic normality in quantum statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madalin Guta; Anna Jencova

    2007-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The theory of local asymptotic normality for quantum statistical experiments is developed in the spirit of the classical result from mathematical statistics due to Le Cam. Roughly speaking, local asymptotic normality means that the family varphi_{\\theta_{0}+ u/\\sqrt{n}}^{n} consisting of joint states of n identically prepared quantum systems approaches in a statistical sense a family of Gaussian state phi_{u} of an algebra of canonical commutation relations. The convergence holds for all "local parameters" u\\in R^{m} such that theta=theta_{0}+ u/sqrt{n} parametrizes a neighborhood of a fixed point theta_{0}\\in Theta\\subset R^{m}. In order to prove the result we define weak and strong convergence of quantum statistical experiments which extend to the asymptotic framework the notion of quantum sufficiency introduces by Petz. Along the way we introduce the concept of canonical state of a statistical experiment, and investigate the relation between the two notions of convergence. For reader's convenience and completeness we review the relevant results of the classical as well as the quantum theory.

  5. Optimization and test of a 120mm LARP Nb3Sn quadrupole coil using magnetic mirror structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bossert, R.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; /Fermilab; Anerella, M.; /Brookhaven; Barzi, E.; /Fermilab; Caspi, S.; /LBL, Berkeley; Cheng, D.; Chlachidze, G.; /Fermilab; Dietderich, D.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; /LBL, Berkeley /Brookhaven /LBL, Berkeley /Fermilab /LBL, Berkeley /Brookhaven

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US-LARP collaboration is developing a new generation of large-aperture high-field quadrupoles based on Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductor for the LHC upgrades. The development and implementation of this new technology involves the fabrication and testing of series of model magnets, coils and other components with various design and processing features. New 120-mm HQ coils made of Rutherford cable, one with an interlayer resistive core, and both with optimized reaction processes, were fabricated and tested using a quadrupole mirror structure under operating conditions similar to those in a real magnet. The coils were instrumented with voltage taps and strain gauges to study the mechanical and quench performance. Quench antenna and temperature gauges were installed in the mirror structure to measure the coil temperature and locate quench origins. This paper presents details of the coil design and fabrication procedures, coil assembly and pre-stress in the quadrupole mirror structure, and coil test results.

  6. Excitons in a mirror: Formation of “optical bilayers” using MoS{sub 2} monolayers on gold substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mertens, Jan; Baumberg, Jeremy J., E-mail: jjb12@cam.ac.uk [Nanophotonics Centre, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Shi, Yumeng; Yang, Hui Ying, E-mail: yanghuiying@sutd.edu.sg [Pillar of Engineering Product Development, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 138682 (Singapore); Molina-Sánchez, Alejandro; Wirtz, Ludger [Physics and Materials Science Research Unit, University of Luxembourg, L-1511 Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

    2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We report coupling of excitons in monolayers of molybdenum disulphide to their mirror image in an underlying gold substrate. Excitons at the direct band gap are little affected by the substrate whereas strongly bound C-excitons associated with a van-Hove singularity change drastically. On quartz substrates only one C-exciton is visible (in the blue) but on gold substrates a strong red-shifted extra resonance in the green is seen. Exciton coupling to its image leads to formation of a “mirror biexciton” with enhanced binding energy. Estimates of this energy shift in an emitter-gold system match experiments well. The absorption spectrum of MoS{sub 2} on gold thus resembles a bilayer of MoS{sub 2} which has been created by optical coupling. Additional top-mirrors produce an “optical bulk.”.

  7. Geometric Engineering, Mirror Symmetry and 6d (1,0) -> 4d, N=2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Zotto, Michele; Xie, Dan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study compactification of 6 dimensional (1,0) theories on T^2. We use geometric engineering of these theories via F-theory and employ mirror symmetry technology to solve for the effective 4d N=2 geometry for a large number of the (1,0) theories including those associated with conformal matter. Using this we show that for a given 6d theory we can obtain many inequivalent 4d N=2 SCFTs. Some of these respect the global symmetries of the 6d theory while others exhibit SL(2,Z) duality symmetry inherited from global diffeomorphisms of the T^2. This construction also explains the 6d origin of moduli space of 4d affine ADE quiver theories as flat ADE connections on T^2. Among the resulting 4d N=2 CFTs we find theories whose vacuum geometry is captured by an LG theory (as opposed to a curve or a local CY geometry). We obtain arbitrary genus curves of class S with punctures from toroidal compactification of (1,0) SCFT's where the curve of the class S theory emerges through mirror symmetry. We also show that toroidal...

  8. Geometric Engineering, Mirror Symmetry and 6d (1,0) -> 4d, N=2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michele Del Zotto; Cumrun Vafa; Dan Xie

    2015-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We study compactification of 6 dimensional (1,0) theories on T^2. We use geometric engineering of these theories via F-theory and employ mirror symmetry technology to solve for the effective 4d N=2 geometry for a large number of the (1,0) theories including those associated with conformal matter. Using this we show that for a given 6d theory we can obtain many inequivalent 4d N=2 SCFTs. Some of these respect the global symmetries of the 6d theory while others exhibit SL(2,Z) duality symmetry inherited from global diffeomorphisms of the T^2. This construction also explains the 6d origin of moduli space of 4d affine ADE quiver theories as flat ADE connections on T^2. Among the resulting 4d N=2 CFTs we find theories whose vacuum geometry is captured by an LG theory (as opposed to a curve or a local CY geometry). We obtain arbitrary genus curves of class S with punctures from toroidal compactification of (1,0) SCFT's where the curve of the class S theory emerges through mirror symmetry. We also show that toroidal compactification of the little string version of these theories can lead to class S theories with no punctures on arbitrary genus Riemann surface.

  9. Geometric Engineering, Mirror Symmetry and 6d (1,0) -> 4d, N=2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michele Del Zotto; Cumrun Vafa; Dan Xie

    2015-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We study compactification of 6 dimensional (1,0) theories on T^2. We use geometric engineering of these theories via F-theory and employ mirror symmetry technology to solve for the effective 4d N=2 geometry for a large number of the (1,0) theories including those associated with conformal matter. Using this we show that for a given 6d theory we can obtain many inequivalent 4d N=2 SCFTs. Some of these respect the global symmetries of the 6d theory while others exhibit SL(2,Z) duality symmetry inherited from global diffeomorphisms of the T^2. This construction also explains the 6d origin of moduli space of 4d affine ADE quiver theories as flat ADE connections on T^2. Among the resulting 4d N=2 CFTs we find theories whose vacuum geometry is captured by an LG theory (as opposed to a curve or a local CY geometry). We obtain arbitrary genus curves of class S with punctures from toroidal compactification of (1,0) SCFTs where the curve of the class S theory emerges through mirror symmetry. We also show that toroidal compactification of the little string version of these theories can lead to class S theories with no punctures on arbitrary genus Riemann surface.

  10. A spinning mirror for fast angular scans of EBW emission for magnetic pitch profile measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volpe, Francesco [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A tilted spinning mirror rapidly steers the line of sight of the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) emission radiometer at the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). In order to resist high mechanical stresses at rotation speeds of up to 12 000 rpm and to avoid eddy current induced magnetic braking, the mirror consists of a glass-reinforced nylon substrate of a special self-balanced design, coated with a reflecting layer. By completing an angular scan every 2.5-10 ms, it allows one to characterize with good time resolution the Bernstein-extraordinary-ordinary mode-conversion efficiency as a function of the view angles. Angular maps of conversion efficiency are directly related to the magnetic pitch angle at the cutoff layer for the ordinary mode. Hence, measurements at various frequencies provide the safety factor profile at the plasma edge. Initial measurements and indications of the feasibility of the diagnostic are presented. Moreover, angular scans indicate the best launch conditions for EBW heating.

  11. Approximate Mirror Symmetry in Heliospheric Plasma Flow Explains VOYAGER 2 Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grygorczuk, Jolanta; Grzedzielski, Stan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sun and the undisturbed interstellar magnetic field and plasma velocity vectors (Bis,Vis) define a mirror symmetry plane of the flow at large heliospheric distances. We show that for the Bis direction defined by IBEX Ribbon center, the radial direction of Voyager 2 over the last decade, and the (thermal proton) plasma velocity measured by the spacecraft since 2010.5, are almost parallel to the (Bis,Vis)-plane, which coincides in practice with the Hydrogen Deflection Plane. These facts can be simply explained if approximate mirror symmetry is also maintained on the inner side of the heliopause. Such approximate symmetry is possible since the solar wind ram pressure is almost spherically symmetric and the plasma beta value in the inner heliosheath is high. In the proposed symmetry, the plasma flow speed measured by Voyager 2 in the inner heliosheath is expected to rotate more in the transverse than in the polar direction (explanation alternative to McComas & Schwadron (2014)), in evident agreement with ...

  12. Passive faraday mirror attack in practical two-way quantum key distribution system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi-Hai Sun; Mu-Sheng Jiang; Lin-Mei Liang

    2012-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The faraday mirror (FM) plays a very important role in maintaining the stability of two way plug-and-play quantum key distribution (QKD) system. However, the practical FM is imperfect, which will not only introduce additional quantum bit error rate (QBER) but also leave a loophole for Eve to spy the secret key. In this paper, we propose a passive faraday mirror attack in two way QKD system based on the imperfection of FM. Our analysis shows that, if the FM is imperfect, the dimension of Hilbert space spanned by the four states sent by Alice is three instead of two. Thus Eve can distinguish these states with a set of POVM operators belonging to three dimension space, which will reduce the QBER induced by her attack. Furthermore, a relationship between the degree of the imperfection of FM and the transmittance of the practical QKD system is obtained. The results show that, the probability that Eve loads her attack successfully depends on the degree of the imperfection of FM rapidly, but the QBER induced by Eve's attack changes with the degree of the imperfection of FM slightly.

  13. Passive Faraday-mirror attack in a practical two-way quantum-key-distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Shihai; Jiang Musheng; Liang Linmei [Department of Physics, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Faraday mirror (FM) plays a very important role in maintaining the stability of two-way plug-and-play quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. However, the practical FM is imperfect, which will not only introduce an additional quantum bit error rate (QBER) but also leave a loophole for Eve to spy the secret key. In this paper we propose a passive Faraday mirror attack in two-way QKD system based on the imperfection of FM. Our analysis shows that if the FM is imperfect, the dimension of Hilbert space spanned by the four states sent by Alice is three instead of two. Thus Eve can distinguish these states with a set of Positive Operator Valued Measure (POVM) operators belonging to three-dimension space, which will reduce the QBER induced by her attack. Furthermore, a relationship between the degree of the imperfection of FM and the transmittance of the practical QKD system is obtained. The results show that the probability that Eve loads her attack successfully depends on the degree of the imperfection of FM rapidly, but the QBER induced by Eve's attack changes slightly with the degree of the FM imperfection.

  14. Morphologies of laser-induced damage in hafnia-silica multilayer mirror and polarizer coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Genin, F.Y.; Stolz, C.J.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hafnium-silica multilayer mirrors and polarizers were deposited by e-beam evaporation onto BK7 glass substrates. The mirrors and polarizers were coated for operation at 1053 nm at 45{degree} and at Brewster`s angle (56{degree}), respectively. They were tested with a single 3-ns laser pulse. Morphology of the laser-induced damage was characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Four distinct damage morphologies were found: pits, flatbottom pits, scalds, and delaminates. The pits and flat bottom pits (<30{mu}m dia) were detected at lower fluences (as low as 5 J/cm{sup 2}). The pits seemed to result from ejection of nodular defects by causing local enhancement of the electric field. Scalds and delaminates could be observed at higher fluences (above 13 J/cm{sup 2}) and seemed to result from the formation of plasmas on the surface. These damage types often originated at pits and were less than 300 {mu}m diameter; their size increased almost linearly with fluence. Finally, effects of the damage on the beam (reflectivity degradation and phase modulations) were measured.

  15. Development of mirrors made of chemically tempered glass foils for future X-ray telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salmaso, B; Brizzolari, B; Basso, S; Ghigo, M; Pareschi, G; Spiga, D; Proserpio, L; Suppiger, Y

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin slumped glass foils are considered good candidates for the realization of future X-ray telescopes with large effective area and high spatial resolution. However, the hot slumping process affects the glass strength, and this can be an issue during the launch of the satellite because of the high kinematical and static loads occurring during that phase. In the present work we have investigated the possible use of Gorilla glass (produced by Corning), a chemical tempered glass that, thanks to its strength characteristics, would be ideal. The un-tempered glass foils were curved by means of an innovative hot slumping technique and subsequently chemically tempered. In this paper we show that the chemical tempering process applied to Gorilla glass foils does not affect the surface micro-roughness of the mirrors. On the other end, the stress introduced by the tempering process causes a reduction in the amplitude of the longitudinal profile errors with a lateral size close to the mirror length. The effect of the ov...

  16. Photo-Thermal Transfer Function of Dielectric Mirrors for Precision Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan W. Ballmer

    2015-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The photo-thermal transfer function from absorbed power incident on a dielectric mirror to the effective mirror position is calculated using the coating design as input. The effect is found to change in amplitude and sign for frequencies corresponding to diffusion length comparable to the coating thickness. Transfer functions are calculated for the $Ti$-doped ${\\rm Ta_2O_5:SiO_2}$ coating used in Advanced LIGO and for a crystalline ${\\rm Al_xGa_{1-x}As}$ coating. The shape of the transfer function at high frequencies is shown to be a sensitive indicator of the effective absorption depth, providing a potentially powerful tool to distinguish coating-internal absorption from surface contamination related absorption. The sign change of the photo-thermal effect could also be useful to stabilize radiation pressure-based opto-mechanical systems. High frequency corrections to the previously published thermo-optic noise estimates are also provided. Finally, estimating the quality of the thermo-optic noise cancellation occurring in fine-tuned ${\\rm Al_xGa_{1-x}As}$ coatings requires the detailed heat flow analysis done in this paper.

  17. Narrow-linewidth, single-frequency semiconductor laser with a phase-conjugate external-cavity mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vahala, K.; Kyuma, K.; Yariv, A.; Kwong, S.K.; Cronin-Golomb, M.

    1986-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectral characteristics of an external-cavity semiconductor laser, which uses a phase-conjugate mirror for its external reflection were measured. This device has significant advantages over the conventional external-cavity system owing to the self-aligning nature of the phase-conjugate mirror. The fiber delay line self-heterodyne technique is used to measure the fundamental linewidth for single-mode operation of this device. It shows the linewidth to be at least as narrow as the instrumental resolution of 100 kHz.

  18. Effect of quark exchange on the structure function of A = 3 mirror nuclei and neutron/proton structure function ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zolfagharpour, F.; Modarres, M. [Physics Department, University of Tehran, 1439955961, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yazdanpanah, M.M. [Physics Department, Shahid-Ba-Honar University, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    By using quark-exchange formalism and realistic Faddeev wave functions, we investigate deep inelastic electron scattering from A = 3 mirror nuclei. The initial valence quarks input are taken from the GRV's calculations on F{sub 2}{sup P}(x, Q{sup 2}) which gives very good fit to the available data in the (x, Q2)-plane. It is shown that the free neutron to proton structure functions ratio can be extracted from corresponding EMC ratios for 3He and 3H mirror nuclei. The results are in good agreement with other theoretical models as well as present available experimental data.

  19. The Normal/Bloomington Amtrak passenger station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, C.E. [Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The new Normal/Bloomington, Illinois Amtrak railroad passenger station was completed in 1990. A number of energy conservation technologies have been combined to provide for efficient railroad operations, passenger comfort, and a pleasing atmosphere. Passive solar heating, shading, and the building`s thermal efficiency have substantially reduced the amount of energy required for space conditions. The use of daylighting high efficiency fluorescent and high pressure sodium lighting as well as electronic load management have reduced energy requirements for lighting more than 70%. A stand-alone PV system provides energy for a portion of the building`s electrical requirement. An average monthly output of 147 kWh accounts for approximately 7.5% of the total electrical load. Overall, this station requires less than 25% of the energy required by a recently built `typical` station of similar size in a similar climate.

  20. Overview Report: Normal and Emergency Operation Visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is an overview report to document and illustrate methods used in a project entitled “Normal and Emergency Operations Visualization” for a utility company, conducted in 2009-2010 timeframe with funding from the utility company and the U.S. Department of Energy. The original final report (about 180 pages) for the project is not available for distribution because it alludes to findings that assessed the design of an operational system that contained proprietary information; this abridged version contains descriptions of methods and some findings to illustrate the approach used, while avoiding discussion of sensitive or proprietary information. The client has approved this abridged version of the report for unlimited distribution to give researchers and collaborators the benefit of reviewing the research concepts and methods that were applied in this study.

  1. Normalizing Weather Data to Calculate Energy Savings Peer Exchange...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Normalizing Weather Data to Calculate Energy Savings Peer Exchange Call Normalizing Weather Data to Calculate Energy Savings Peer Exchange Call February 26, 2015 3:00PM to 4:3...

  2. Computation of Hermite and Smith Normal Forms of Matrices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Storjohann, Arne

    Computation of Hermite and Smith Normal Forms of Matrices; Abstract We study the problem of computing Hermite and Smith normal forms of ma- trices over. One first result is a fast Las Vegas probabilistic algorithm to compute the * *Smith normal form

  3. Computation of Hermite and Smith Normal Forms of Matrices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Storjohann, Arne

    Computation of Hermite and Smith Normal Forms of Matrices by Arne Storjohann A thesis presented the problem of computing Hermite and Smith normal forms of ma­ trices over principal ideal domains. The main probabilistic algorithm to compute the Smith normal form of a polynomial matrix for those cases where pre

  4. EIGENVALUES AND THE SMITH NORMAL FORM Joseph J. Rushanan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rushanan, Joe J.

    EIGENVALUES AND THE SMITH NORMAL FORM Joseph J. Rushanan The MITRE Corporation, M/S E025, Bedford, MA 01730 Abstract. Results are shown that compare the Smith Normal Form (SNF) over the integers and its Smith Normal Form (SNF) over the integers. Our goals are more general than those results

  5. Lyapunov Exponents and Uniform Weak Normally Repelling Invariant Sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Hal

    Lyapunov Exponents and Uniform Weak Normally Repelling Invariant Sets Paul Leonard Salceanu and Hal repelling in directions normal to the boundary in which M resides provided all normal Lyapunov exponents that Lyapunov exponents can be used to establish the requisite repelling properties for both discrete

  6. Gene Expression Profiles in a Panel of Childhood Leukemia Cell Lines Mirror Critical Features of the Disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ringnér, Markus

    to be represented. In this study, we have examined these aspects for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A panel lymphoblastic leukemia subtypes in childhood leukemia patients. Introduction Cancer therapy has optimal chanceGene Expression Profiles in a Panel of Childhood Leukemia Cell Lines Mirror Critical Features

  7. Probing temporal evolution of extreme ultraviolet assisted contamination on Ru mirror by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    of hydrocarbons8 and the oxidation of the near sur- face atomic layers of Ru eventually lead to the degradation and oxidation of the Ru mirror surface, and the corresponding impact on reflectivity were studied. In particular analyses show a slight increase in Ru oxide, whereas the concentration of water molecules decreases

  8. Grazing incidence liquid metal mirrors (GILMM) for radiation hardened final optics for laser inertial fusion energy power plants*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    1 Grazing incidence liquid metal mirrors (GILMM) for radiation hardened final optics for laser final optics in a laser inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. The amount of laser light the GILMM substrate, adaptive (deformable) optics, surface tension and low Reynolds number, laminar flow in the film

  9. Wavenumber-frequency analysis of the wall pressure fluctuations in the wake of a rear view mirror using a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    problems leading to expensive late design changes, together with the high cost of wind tunnel sessionsWavenumber-frequency analysis of the wall pressure fluctuations in the wake of a rear view mirror method for the numerical prediction of the wind noise inside a car is the coupling of an unsteady

  10. Application of optical triangulation profilometry and optical phase ranging profilometry to the figure evaluation of solar mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, J.W.; Lind, M.A.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The techniques of optical triangulation profilometry (OTP) and optical phase ranging profilometry (OPRP) are proposed for evaluation of the figure of solar mirrors. The theoretical basis for each method is discussed and the results of initial feasibility experiments are reported. In OTP and OPRP the de-specularized mirror surface is probed with one or more visible laser beams. In OTP, two beams are required for the triangulation of coordinates on the mirror surface. In OPRP the second laser beam is retained within the instrument to form the reference leg of a long wavelength interferometer. Both methods are particularly adaptable to computer control for fast, automated analysis of mirror surfaces. In addition the proposed devices are compact and sturdy enough for easy implementation in field evaluation programs. The experimental resolution capability of the unoptimized OTP system is greater than or equal to 0.1 inch (2.54 mm). With further improvement of the beam projection and coincidence assessment systems, the design resolution goal of greater than or equal to 0.1 mm appears achievable. The results of the preliminary resolution capability experiments on the OPRP system are inconclusive. This is thought to be a result of poor performance of components comprising the modulation and detection subsystems. A full assessment of OPRP capability will require a further investigation effort.

  11. Mirrors for X-ray telescopes: Fresnel diffraction-based computation of Point Spread Functions from metrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raimondi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The imaging sharpness of an X-ray telescope is chiefly determined by the optical quality of its focusing optics, which in turn mostly depends on the shape accuracy and the surface finishing of the grazing incidence X-ray mirrors that compose the optical modules. In order to ensure the imaging performance during the mirror manufacturing, a fundamental step is represented by the prediction of the mirror Point Spread Function (PSF) from the metrology of its surface. Traditionally, the PSF computation in X-rays is assumed to be different depending on whether the surface defects are classified as figure errors or roughness [...] The aim of this work is to overcome this limit, providing analytical formulae, valid at any light wavelength, to compute the PSF of an X-ray mirror shell from the measured longitudinal profiles and the roughness Power Spectral Density (PSD), without distinguishing spectral ranges with different treatments. The method we adopted is based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle to compute the diffr...

  12. July 1, 2001 / Vol. 26, No. 13 / OPTICS LETTERS 989 Waveguide grating mirror for large-area semiconductor lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avrutsky, Ivan

    was demonstrated in Ref. 7. A similar scheme with near-infrared dye was reported in Ref. 8 On a smaller scale a waveguide grating mirror that uses anomalous reflection of light associ- ated with excitation of waveguide. Anomalous reflection in the case of a lossless waveguide can approach 100% close to resonant wave- guide

  13. 620 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 29, No. 6 / March 15, 2004 Damage to extreme-ultraviolet Sc Si multilayer mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocca, Jorge J.

    620 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 29, No. 6 / March 15, 2004 Damage to extreme-ultraviolet Sc Si multilayer, Russia Received August 21, 2003 The damage threshold and damage mechanism of extreme-ultraviolet Sc Si multilayer mirror coatings are investigated with focused nanosecond pulses at 46.9-nm radiation from

  14. Evolving Imitating Agents and the Emergence of a Neural Mirror System Elhanan Borenstein1 and Eytan Ruppin1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Elhanan

    are activated during movement observations was also demonstrated in humans using TMS, MEG, EEG and fMRI (e applied by re- searchers in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics in various experiments and human psychology. In particular, studies in monkeys and humans have discovered a neural mirror system

  15. Fractal Fluctuations and Statistical Normal Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Selvam

    2008-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamical systems in nature exhibit selfsimilar fractal fluctuations and the corresponding power spectra follow inverse power law form signifying long-range space-time correlations identified as self-organized criticality. The physics of self-organized criticality is not yet identified. The Gaussian probability distribution used widely for analysis and description of large data sets underestimates the probabilities of occurrence of extreme events such as stock market crashes, earthquakes, heavy rainfall, etc. The assumptions underlying the normal distribution such as fixed mean and standard deviation, independence of data, are not valid for real world fractal data sets exhibiting a scale-free power law distribution with fat tails. A general systems theory for fractals visualizes the emergence of successively larger scale fluctuations to result from the space-time integration of enclosed smaller scale fluctuations. The model predicts a universal inverse power law incorporating the golden mean for fractal fluctuations and for the corresponding power spectra, i.e., the variance spectrum represents the probabilities, a signature of quantum systems. Fractal fluctuations therefore exhibit quantum-like chaos. The model predicted inverse power law is very close to the Gaussian distribution for small-scale fluctuations, but exhibits a fat long tail for large-scale fluctuations. Extensive data sets of Dow Jones index, Human DNA, Takifugu rubripes (Puffer fish) DNA are analysed to show that the space/time data sets are close to the model predicted power law distribution.

  16. Electronic film with embedded micro-mirrors for solar energy concentrator systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario Rabinowitz; Mark Davidson

    2004-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel electronic film solar energy concentrator with embedded micro-mirrors that track the sun is described. The potential viability of this new concept is presented. Due to miniaturization, the amount of material needed for the optical system is minimal. Because it is light-weight and flexible, it can easily be attached to the land or existing structures. This presents an economic advantage over conventional concentrators which require the construction of a separate structure to support them, and motors to orient them to intercept and properly reflect sunlight. Such separate structures must be able to survive gusts, windstorms, earthquakes, etc. This concentrator utilizes the ground or existing edifices which are already capable of withstanding such vicissitudes of nature.

  17. Configuring the thermochemical hydrogen sulfuric acid process step for the Tandem Mirror Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper identifies the sulfuric acid step as the critical part of the thermochemical cycle in dictating the thermal demands and temperature requirements of the heat source. The General Atomic Sulfur-Iodine Cycle is coupled to a Tandem Mirror. The sulfuric acid decomposition process step is focused on specifically since this step can use the high efficiency electrical power of the direct converter together with the other thermal-produced electricity to Joule-heat a non-catalytic SO/sub 3/ decomposer to approximately 1250/sup 0/K. This approach uses concepts originally suggested by Dick Werner and Oscar Krikorian. The blanket temperature can be lowered to about 900/sup 0/K, greatly alleviating materials problems, the level of technology required, safety problems, and costs. A moderate degree of heat has been integrated to keep the cycle efficiency around 48%, but the number of heat exchangers has been limited in order to keep hydrogen production costs within reasonable bounds.

  18. OPTIMIZING CENTRIFUGAL BARREL POLISHING FOR MIRROR FINISH SRF CAVITY AND RF TESTS AT JEFFERSON LAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ari Palczewski, Rongli Geng, Hui Tian

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed Centrifugal Barrel Polishing (CBP) on a 1.3 GHz fine grain TESLA single cell cavity and 1.5 GHz fine grain CEBAF high gradient superconducting radio frequency (SRF) single cell cavity following a modified recipe originally developed at Fermi National Accelerator Lab (FNAL). We were able to obtain a mirror like surface similar to that obtained at FNAL, while reducing the number of CBP steps and total processing time. This paper will discuss the change in surface and subsequent cavity performance post CBP, after a 800 C bake (no pre-bake chemistry) and minimal controlled electro-polishing (10 micron). In addition to Q vs. E{sub ACC} thermometry mapping with preheating characteristics and optical inspection of the cavity after CBP will also be shown.

  19. Dynamics of photorefractive self-pumped phase-conjugate mirrors with a linear resonator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vakhdani, M Mekhran; Rudenko, K V; Shuvalov, V V [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The phase-conjugation dynamics in a self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror (SP PCM) based on a BaTiO{sub 3} photorefractive crystal (PRC) with a linear resonator is simulated numerically. It is shown that a phased array of dynamic holograms is formed in such a SP PCM under optimal conditions, and the interference of the waves scattered by this array provides the very high stationary phase-conjugation efficiency (the nonlinear reflection coefficient and overlap integral exceeding 80% and 95%, respectively). It is found that the development of instabilities is caused both by the violation of phase relations in this array and the formation of additional dynamic holograms in the PRC in the geometry typical of a SP PCM with a semi-linear resonator and by the self-bending effect typical of PRCs. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  20. Synfuels from fusion: producing hydrogen with the tandem mirror reactor and thermochemical cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ribe, F.L.; Werner, R.W.

    1981-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines, for technical merit, the combination of a fusion reactor driver and a thermochemical plant as a means for producing synthetic fuel in the basic form of hydrogen. We studied: (1) one reactor type - the Tandem Mirror Reactor - wishing to use to advantage its simple central cell geometry and its direct electrical output; (2) two reactor blanket module types - a liquid metal cauldron design and a flowing Li/sub 2/O solid microsphere pellet design so as to compare the technology, the thermal-hydraulics, neutronics and tritium control in a high-temperature operating mode (approx. 1200 K); (3) three thermochemical cycles - processes in which water is used as a feedstock along with a high-temperature heat source to produce H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/.

  1. Achievement of a record electron temperature for a magnetic mirror device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bagryansky, P A; Lizunov, A A; Maximov, V V; Prikhodko, V V; Shalashov, A G; Soldatkina, E I; Solomakhin, A L; Yakovlev, D V

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate plasma discharges with extremely high temperature of bulk electrons at the large axially symmetric magnetic mirror device GDT (Budker Institute, Novosibirsk). According to Thomson scattering measurements, the on-axis electron temperature averaged over several sequential shots is 660 $\\pm$ 50 eV with peak values exceeding 900 eV in few shots. This corresponds to at least threefold increase as compared to previous experiments both at the GDT and at other comparable machines, thus demonstrating the maximum quasi-stationary (~1 ms) electron temperature achieved in open traps. The breakthrough is made possible with application of sophisticated electron cyclotron resonance heating in addition to standard heating by neutral beams. The reported increase of the electron temperature along with previous experiments, which demonstrated high-density plasma confinement with $\\beta\\approx$ 60%, provide a firm basis for extrapolating to fusion relevant applications of open magnetic systems.

  2. Software for reflectivity calculations of x-ray mirrors. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auerbach, J.M.; Tirsell, K.G.

    1984-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    With VAX software and the data libraries of Henke and Biggs-Lighthill, we have created a library of atomic scattering factors f/sub 1/ and f/sub 2/ in the energy range 0.1 keV to 10.0 keV. Scattering factor values for the elements Z = 1 to Z = 94 and in the above energy range are stored in a keyed access library (key = element symbol). This library allows one to calculate reflectivity rapidly and fold it with other components in an x-ray detector channel. Additional software allows the library data to be easily extended to higher energies. Applications have so far included KB x-ray microscopes and low energy spectrometers with mirror channels.

  3. Diagnostic control, data acquisition and data processing at MFTF-B (Mirror Fusion Test Facility)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preckshot, G.G.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diagnostic instruments at the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) are operated by a distributed computer system which provides an integrated control, data acquisition and data processing interface. Instrument control settings, operator inputs and lists of data to be acquired are combined with data acquired by instrument data recorders, to be used downstream by data processing codes; data processing programs are automatically informed of operator control and setpoint actions without operator intervention. The combined diagnostic control and results presentation interface is presented to experimentalist users by a network of high-resolution graphics workstations. Control coordination, data processing and database management are handled by a shared-memory network of 32-bit super minicomputers. Direct instrument control, data acquisition, data packaging and instrument status monitoring are performed by a network of dedicated local control microcomputers.

  4. Status of the technologies for the production of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pareschi, G; Baba, H; Bähr, J; Bonardi, A; Bonnoli, G; Brun, P; Canestrari, R; Chadwick, P; Chikawa, M; Carton, P -H; de Souza, V; Dipold, J; Doro, M; Durand, D; Dyrda, M; Förster, A; Garczarczyk, M; Giro, E; Glicenstein, J -F; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Hrabovski, M; Jeanney, C; Kagaya, M; Katagiri, H; Lessio, L; Mandat, D; Mariotti, M; Medina, C; Micha?owski, J; Micolon, P; Nakajima, D; Niemiec, J; Nozato, A; Palatka, M; Pech, M; Peyaud, B; Pühlhofer, G; Rataj, M; Rodeghiero, G; Rojas, G; Rousselle, J; Sakonaka, R; Schovanek, P; Seweryn, K; Schultz, C; Shu, S; Stinzing, F; Stodulski, M; Teshima, M; Travniczek, P; van Eldik, C; Vassiliev, V; Wi?niewski, ?; Wörnlein, A; Yoshida, T

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation very high-energy gamma-ray observatory, with at least 10 times higher sensitivity than current instruments. CTA will comprise several tens of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) operated in array-mode and divided into three size classes: large, medium and small telescopes. The total reflective surface could be up to 10,000 m2 requiring unprecedented technological efforts. The properties of the reflector directly influence the telescope performance and thus constitute a fundamental ingredient to improve and maintain the sensitivity. The R&D status of lightweight, reliable and cost-effective mirror facets for the CTA telescope reflectors for the different classes of telescopes is reviewed in this paper.

  5. Deep Inelastic Electron Scattering Off the Helium and Tritium Mirror Nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holt, Roy J. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Petratos, Gerassimos G. [Department of Physics, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242 (United States)

    2011-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss a possible measurement of the ratio of nucleon structure functions, F{sub 2}{sup n}/F{sub 2}{sup p}, and the ratio of up to down quark distributions, u/d, at large Bjorken x, by performing deep inelastic electron scattering from the {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He mirror nuclei with the 11 GeV upgraded beam of Jefferson Lab. The measurement is expected to be almost free of nuclear effects, which introduce a significant uncertainty in the extraction of these two ratios from deep inelastic scattering off the proton and deuteron. The results are expected to test perturbative and non-perturbative mechanisms of spin-flavor symmetry breaking in the nucleon, and constrain the structure function parametrizations needed for the interpretation of high energy collider and neutrino oscillations data. The precision of the expected data can also test models of the nuclear EMC effect and provide valuable input for its full explanation.

  6. Mirror symmetry at high spin in {sup 51}Fe and {sup 51}Mn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bentley, M. A.; Williams, S. J.; Joss, D. T.; O'Leary, C. D.; Bruce, A. M.; Cameron, J. A.; Carpenter, M. P.; Fallon, P.; Frankland, L.; Gelletly, W. (and others)

    2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gamma decays from excited states in the T{sub z}=-1/2 nucleus {sup 51}Fe have been observed for the first time. The differences in excitation energies as compared with those of the mirror partner, {sup 51}Mn, have been interpreted in terms of Coulomb effects and the resulting Coulomb energy differences (CED) can be understood intuitively in terms of particle-alignment effects. A new CED effect has been observed, in which different CED trends have been measured for each signature of the rotational structures that characterize these mid-f{sub 7/2} shell nuclei. Large-scale fp-shell model calculations have been used to compute the trends of the CED as a function of spin. The result of comparing these calculations with the data demonstrates an ability to reproduce the fine details of the Coulomb effects with a precision far greater than has been previously achieved.

  7. Feasibility study of a fission supressed blanket for a tandem-mirror hybrid reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Barr, W.L.

    1981-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of fission suppressed blankets for the tandem mirror not only showed such blankets to be feasible but also to be safer than fissioning blankets. Such hybrids could produce enough fissile material to support up to 17 light water reactors of the same nuclear power rating. Beryllium was compared to /sup 7/Li for neutron multiplication; both were considered feasible but the blanket with Li produced 20% less fissile fuel per unit of nuclear power in the reactor. The beryllium resource, while possibly being too small for extensive pure fusion application, would be adequate (with carefully planned industrial expansion) for the hybrid because of the large support ratio, and hence few hybrids required. Radiation damage and coatings for beryllium remain issues to be resolved by further study and experimentation.

  8. appendage domain critical: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Information Sciences Websites Summary: is that of slowly adding simulated sand to a simulated sand pile Bak. The controlling parameter is the slope. The system...

  9. appendage system continued: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are no restrictions on the dimensionality of the investigated system, allowing for the analysis of high-dimensional chaotic as well as transient dynamics. The demands on the...

  10. allometric appendage growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 PERSPECTIVES Allometric growth, life-history invariants and population energetics Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: IDEAS AND PERSPECTIVES Allometric growth,...

  11. atrial appendage system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    work by estimating a novel algorithm for extracting atrial activity from single lead electrocardiogram (ECG) signal sustained subtraction (ABS) method using synthetic AF...

  12. atrial appendage volumes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    work by estimating a novel algorithm for extracting atrial activity from single lead electrocardiogram (ECG) signal sustained subtraction (ABS) method using synthetic AF...

  13. atrial appendage exclusion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    work by estimating a novel algorithm for extracting atrial activity from single lead electrocardiogram (ECG) signal sustained subtraction (ABS) method using synthetic AF...

  14. atrial appendage flow: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    work by estimating a novel algorithm for extracting atrial activity from single lead electrocardiogram (ECG) signal sustained subtraction (ABS) method using synthetic AF...

  15. Comparison of slope and height profiles for flat synchrotron x-ray mirrors measured with a long trace profiler and a Fizeau interferometer.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, J.; Assoufid, L.; Macrander, A.; X-Ray Science Division

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Long trace profilers (LTPS) have been used at many synchrotron radiation laboratories worldwide for over a decade to measure surface slope profiles of long grazing incidence x-ray mirrors. Phase measuring interferometers (PMIs) of the Fizeau type, on the other hand, are being used by most mirror manufacturers to accomplish the same task. However, large mirrors whose dimensions exceed the aperture of the Fizeau interferometer require measurements to be carried out at grazing incidence, and aspheric optics require the use of a null lens. While an LTP provides a direct measurement of ID slope profiles, PMIs measure area height profiles from which the slope can be obtained by a differentiation algorithm. Measurements of the two types of instruments have been found by us to be in good agreement, but to our knowledge there is no published work directly comparing the two instruments. This paper documents that comparison. We measured two different nominally flat mirrors with both the LTP in operation at the Advanced Photon Source (a type-II LTP) and a Fizeau-type PMI interferometer (Wyko model 6000). One mirror was 500 mm long and made of Zerodur, and the other mirror was 350 mm long and made of silicon. Slope error results with these instruments agree within nearly 100% (3.11 {+-} 0.15 {micro}rad for the LTP, and 3.11 {+-} 0.02 {micro}rad for the Fizeau PMI interferometer) for the medium quality Zerodur mirror with 3 {micro}rad rms nominal slope error. A significant difference was observed with the much higher quality silicon mirror. For the Si mirror, slope error data is 0.39 {+-} 0.08 {micro}rad from LTP measurements but it is 0.35 {+-} 0.01 {micro}rad from PMI interferometer measurements. The standard deviations show that the Fizeau PMI interferometer has much better measurement repeatability.

  16. allowing normal bone: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    assays. Correlations of fluoride levels between normal bone near the Nancy Medina; Chester W. Douglass; Gary M. Whitford; Robert N. Hoover; Thomas R. Fears 6 Differential...

  17. Data Collection and Normalization for the Development of Cost...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This chapter discusses considerations for data collection and normalization. g4301-1chp19.pdf -- PDF Document, 21 KB Writer: John Makepeace Subjects: Administration Management...

  18. asymptotical normalization coefficients: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    zeilbergtokhniotSameSexMarriages Zeilberger, Doron 114 Journal of Multivariate Analysis 74, 49 68 (2000) Asymptotic Normality of Posterior Distributions for...

  19. asymptotically normal estimators: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    first order inclusion probabilities, H Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 160 Journal of Multivariate Analysis 74, 49 68 (2000) Asymptotic Normality of Posterior Distributions for...

  20. asymptotic normalization coefficients: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    zeilbergtokhniotSameSexMarriages Zeilberger, Doron 114 Journal of Multivariate Analysis 74, 49 68 (2000) Asymptotic Normality of Posterior Distributions for...

  1. astrophysics asymptotic normalization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    www.math.rutgers.eduzeilbergtokhniotSameSexMarriages Zeilberger, Doron 74 Journal of Multivariate Analysis 74, 49 68 (2000) Asymptotic Normality of Posterior Distributions for...

  2. asymptotic normalization coefficient: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    zeilbergtokhniotSameSexMarriages Zeilberger, Doron 114 Journal of Multivariate Analysis 74, 49 68 (2000) Asymptotic Normality of Posterior Distributions for...

  3. SciTech Connect: Effect of radiation on normal hematopoiesis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of radiation on normal hematopoiesis and on viral induced cancer of the hematopoietic system. Technical progress report, August 1, 1973--July 31, 1974 Citation Details...

  4. B-2 Bomber During In-flight Refueling Normal Heart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Bomber During In-flight Refueling Normal Heart Image Technology to Detect Concealed Nuclear Material in Trucks and Cargo Containers Single Abnormality Possible Heart Attack Disc...

  5. Log-normal distribution for correlators in lattice QCD?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas DeGrand

    2012-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Many hadronic correlators used in spectroscopy calculations in lattice QCD simulations appear to show a log-normal distribution at intermediate time separations.

  6. adjacent normal skin: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    tangential mechanics SAI mechanoreceptor depth actuator strain energy density James Biggs; Mandayam A. Srinivasan 5 Expression and function of small RNAs in normal and...

  7. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Demonstration of Approach and Results of Used Fuel Performance Characterization Used...

  8. Terahertz free electron superradiation from mimicking surface plasmons-two electron beams interaction within a 3-mirror quasi-optical cavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Ya-Xin; Zhou, Y.; Dong, L.; Liu, Sheng-Gang [Terahertz Science and Technology Research Center, School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)] [Terahertz Science and Technology Research Center, School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2013-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Interaction between mimicking surface plasmons and electron beams provides a good opportunity to develop terahertz (THz) radiation sources. In this paper, such an interaction in a special 3-mirror quasi-optical cavity is presented and explored. The 3-mirror quasi-optical cavity acts as a resonant tunable system, the resonance frequency of which can be tuned by adjusting the distance between mirrors. The study demonstrated THz free electron superradiation from the interaction of mimicking surface plasmons and two electron beams that formed a resonance within the structure, with the 3-mirror cavity enhancing the intensity of superradiation. Moreover, this system can work in the high-harmonic superradiation region with relatively high efficiency and low current density. This concept thus shows the application potential for electron-beam-driven terahertz sources.

  9. Conceptual design study FY 1981: synfuels from fusion - using the tandem mirror reactor and a thermochemical cycle to produce hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krikorian, O.H. (ed.)

    1982-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This report represents the second year's effort of a scoping and conceptual design study being conducted for the express purpose of evaluating the engineering potential of producing hydrogen by thermochemical cycles using a tandem mirror fusion driver. The hydrogen thus produced may then be used as a feedstock to produce fuels such as methane, methanol, or gasoline. The main objective of this second year's study has been to obtain some approximate cost figures for hydrogen production through a conceptual design study.

  10. Survey mirrors and lenses and their required surface accuracy. Volume 2. Concentrator optical performance software (COPS) user's manual. Final report for September 15, 1978-December 1, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mathematical modeling of 11 different concentrating collectors is documented and instructions are given for use of the computer code. The 11 concentrators modeled are: faceted mirror concentration; fixed mirror, two-axis tracking receiver; parabolic trough collector; linear Fresnel; incremental reflector; inflated cylindrical concentrator; CPC-involute reflector with evacuated receiver; CPC-parabolic/involute reflector; V trough collectors, imaging collapsing concentrator; and parabolic dish collector. (MHR)

  11. Optimal tuning and calibration of bendable mirrors with slope measuring profilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinney, Wayne; Kirschman, Jonathan; MacDowell, Alastair; Warwick, Tony; Yashchuk, Valeriy

    2009-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a technique to optimally tune and calibrate bendable x-ray optics for sub-micron focusing. The focusing is divided between two elliptically cylindrical reflecting elements, a Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) pair. Each optic is shaped by applying unequal bending couples to each end of a flat mirror. The developed technique allowsoptimal tuning of these systems using surface slope data obtained with a slope measuring instrument, the long trace profiler (LTP). Due to the near linearity of the problem, the minimal set of data necessary for the tuning of each bender, consists of only three slope traces measured before and after a single adjustment of each bending couple. The data are analyzed with software realizing a method of regression analysis with experimentally found characteristic functions of the benders. The resulting approximation to the functional dependence of the desired shape provides nearly final settings. Moreover, the characteristic functions of the benders found in the course of tuning, can be used for retuning to a new desired shape without removal from the beamline and re-measuring. We perform a ray trace, using profiler data for the finally tuned optics, predicting the performance to be expected during use of the optics on the beamline.

  12. Neutral Beam Injection Experiments and Related Behavior of Neutral Particles in the GAMMA 10 Tandem Mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakashima, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Watanabe, K. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Higashizono, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Ohki, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Ogita, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Shoji, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science(Japan); Kobayashi, S. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University (Japan); Islam, M.K. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Kubota, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Yoshikawa, M. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Kobayashi, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Yamada, M. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Murakami, R. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Cho, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan)

    2005-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of neutral beam injection (NBI) experiments in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror plasmas are presented together with the neutral particle behavior observed in the experiments. A hydrogen neural beam was injected into the hot-ion-mode plasmas by using the injector installed in the central-cell for the plasma heating and fueling. High-energy ions produced by NBI were observed and its energy distribution was measured for the first time with a neutral particle analyzer installed in the central-cell. The temporal and spatial behavior of hydrogen was observed with axially aligned H{sub {alpha}} detectors installed from the central midplane to anchor-cell. Enhancement of hydrogen recycling due to the beam injection and the cause of the observed decrease in plasma diamagnetism are discussed. The Monte-Carlo code DEGAS for neutral transport simulation was applied to the GAMMA 10 central-cell and a 3-dimensional simulation was performed in the NBI experiment. Localization of neutral particle during the beam injection is investigated based on the simulation and it was found that the increased recycling due to the beam injection was dominant near the injection port.

  13. Fusion reactor control study. Volume 3. Tandem mirror reactors. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, F.R.; DeCanio, F.; Fisher, J.L.; Madden, P.A.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the control requirements of the Tandem Mirror Reactor concept is reported. The study describes the development of a control simulator that is based upon a spatially averaged physics code of the reactor concept. The simulator portrays the evolution of the plasma through the complete reactor operating cycle; it includes models of the control and measurement system, thus allowing the exploration of various strategies for reactor control. Startup, shutdown, and control during the quasi-steady-state power producing phase were explored. Configurations are described which use a variety of control effectors including modulation of the refueling rate, beam current, and electron cyclotron resonance heating. Multivariable design techniques were used to design the control laws and compensators for the feedback controllers and presume the practical measurement of only a subset of the plasma and machine variables. Performance of the various controllers is explored using the nonlinear control simulator. Derivative control strategies using new or developed sensors and effectors appropriate to a power reactor environment are postulated, based upon the results of the control configurations tested. Research and development requirements for these controls are delineated.

  14. Proposal for a Universal Test Mirror for Characterization of SlopeMeasuring Instruments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Warwick, Tony; Noll,Tino; Siewert, Frank; Zeschke, Thomas; Geckeler, Ralf D.

    2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of third generation light sources like theAdvanced Light Source (ALS) or BESSY II brought to a focus the need forhigh performance synchrotron optics with unprecedented tolerances forslope error and micro roughness. Proposed beam lines at Free ElectronLasers (FEL) require optical elements up to a length of one meter,characterized by a residual slope error in the range of 0.1murad (rms),and rms values of 0.1 nm for micro roughness. These optical elements mustbe inspected by highly accurate measuring instruments, providing ameasurement uncertainty lower than the specified accuracy of the surfaceunder test. It is essential that metrology devices in use at synchrotronlaboratories be precisely characterized and calibrated to achieve thistarget. In this paper we discuss a proposal for a Universal Test Mirror(UTM) as a realization of a high performance calibration instrument. Theinstrument would provide an ideal calibration surface to replicate aredundant surface under test of redundant figure. The application of asophisticated calibration instrument will allow the elimination of themajority of the systematic error from the error budget of an individualmeasurement of a particular optical element. We present the limitationsof existing methods, initial UTM design considerations, possiblecalibration algorithms, and an estimation of the expectedaccuracy.

  15. Doppler Ghosts in a Hall of Mirrors: Polarisation Profiles of Scattered Emission Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. J. Henney

    1994-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Doppler shifts of optical emission lines which have been scattered by surrounding dust and electrons can provide useful information about the kinematics, geometry and physical conditions of astrophysical flows. In principle, the scatterers can provide views of the line-emitting gas from different directions, allowing the 3-d velocity field of the emitting gas to be determined and revealing sources which are hidden from direct view. Unfortunately, as in a Hall of Mirrors, the resultant multiple images can be confusing and hard to interpret. In general, the scattering geometry will be unknown, which makes it difficult to disentangle the effect of the motion of the scatterers from that of the motion of the emitting source. In this situation, spectropolarimetric observations can be a great help, since the scattered light will be partially polarised to a degree dependent on the angle of scattering and on the details of the scattering process. Analysis of the polarisation profiles of the scattered emission lines can then determine the relative orientation and velocity of the source and the scatterers. Such techniques are applied to the upstream scattered emission lines in the HH 1 jet, where it is shown that spectropolarimetric measurements would allow an independent determination of the bowshock velocity with respect to the upstream matter, which would test ``multiple outburst'' models of the jet.

  16. Rational reductions of the 2D-Toda hierarchy and mirror symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Brini; Guido Carlet; Stefano Romano; Paolo Rossi

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce and study a two-parameter family of symmetry reductions of the two-dimensional Toda lattice hierarchy, which are characterized by a rational factorization of the Lax operator into a product of an upper diagonal and the inverse of a lower diagonal formal difference operator. They subsume and generalize several classical 1 + 1 integrable hierarchies, such as the bigraded Toda hierarchy, the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy and E. Frenkel's q-deformed Gelfand-Dickey hierarchy. We establish their characterization in terms of block Toeplitz matrices for the associated factorization problem, and study their Hamiltonian structure. At the dispersionless level, we show how the Takasaki-Takebe classical limit gives rise to a family of non-conformal Frobenius manifolds with flat identity. We use this to generalize the relation of the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy to Gromov-Witten theory by proving an analogous mirror theorem for rational reductions: in particular, we show that the dual-type Frobenius manifolds we obtain are isomorphic to the equivariant quantum cohomology of a family of toric Calabi-Yau threefolds obtained from minimal resolutions of the local orbifold line.

  17. Explicit Expressions for Moments of Log Normal Order Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sidorov, Nikita

    Explicit Expressions for Moments of Log Normal Order Statistics Saralees Nadarajah First version: 31 December 2006 Research Report No. 23, 2006, Probability and Statistics Group School of Mathematics, The University of Manchester #12;Explicit Expressions for Moments of Log Normal Order Statistics by Saralees

  18. Numerical algorithms for the computation of the Smith normal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seberry, Jennifer

    Numerical algorithms for the computation of the Smith normal form of integral matrices C of the Smith normal form of integral matrices are described. More specifically, the com­ pound matrix method of the algorithms. AMS Subject Classification: Primary 65F30, Secondary 15A21, 15A36. Key words and phrases: Smith

  19. Oil production models with normal rate curves Dudley Stark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stark, Dudley

    Oil production models with normal rate curves Dudley Stark School of Mathematical Sciences Queen;Abstract The normal curve has been used to fit the rate of both world and U.S.A. oil production sizes are lognormally distributed, and the starting time of the production of a field is approximately

  20. Normalized k-means clustering of hyper-rectangles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Normalized k-means clustering of hyper-rectangles Marie Chavent Math´ematiques Appliqu´ees de-rectangles and their use in two normalized k-means clustering algorithms. Keywords: Interval data, Standardization [Diday, 1988], [Bock and Diday, 2000]. Several works on k-means clustering of interval data sets have

  1. New Equipartition Results for Normal Mode Energies of Anharmonic Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henry, Bruce Ian

    New Equipartition Results for Normal Mode Energies of Anharmonic Chains B.I. Henry 1 and T. Szeredi 2;3 Date: 26 September 1995 The canonical and micro­canonical distribution of energy among. If the inter­particle potential is an even function then energy is distributed uniformly among the normal modes

  2. Laser-induced differential normalized fluorescence method for cancer diagnosis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, T.; Panjehpour, M.; Overholt, B.F.

    1996-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample. 5 figs.

  3. Laser-induced differential normalized fluorescence method for cancer diagnosis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan (Knoxville, TN); Panjehpour, Masoud (Knoxville, TN); Overholt, Bergein F. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample.

  4. Direct Integration for Mirror Curves of Genus Two and an Almost Meromorphic Siegel Modular Form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albrecht Klemm; Maximilian Poretschkin; Thorsten Schimannek; Martin Westerholt-Raum

    2015-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This work considers aspects of almost holomorphic and meromorphic Siegel modular forms from the perspective of physics and mathematics. The first part is concerned with (refined) topological string theory and the direct integration of the holomorphic anomaly equations. Here, a central object to compute higher genus amplitudes, which serve as the generating functions of various enumerative invariants, is provided by the so-called propagator. We derive a universal expression for the propagator for geometries that have mirror curves of genus two which is given by the derivative of the logarithm of Igusa's cusp form of weight 10. In addition, we illustrate our findings by solving the refined topological string on the resolutions of the three toric orbifolds of order three, five and six. In the second part, we give explicit expressions for lowering and raising operators on Siegel modular forms, and define almost holomorphic Siegel modular forms based on them. Extending the theory of Fourier-Jacobi expansions to almost holomorphic Siegel modular forms and building up on recent work by Pitale, Saha, and Schmidt, we can show that there is no analogue of the almost holomorphic elliptic second Eisenstein series. In the case of genus 2, we provide an almost meromorphic substitute for it. This, in particular, leads us to a generalization of Ramanujan's differential equation for the second Eisenstein series. The two parts are intertwined by the observation that the meromorphic analogue of the almost holomorphic second Eisenstein series coincides with the physical propagator. In addition, the generalized Ramanujan identities match precisely the physical consistency conditions that need to be imposed on the propagator.

  5. NORMALITY OF NILPOTENT VARIETIES IN E6 ERIC SOMMERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sommers, Eric

    NORMALITY OF NILPOTENT VARIETIES IN E6 ERIC SOMMERS ABSTRACT. We determine which nilpotent orbits for a careful reading of the paper leading to its improvement. 1 #12;2 ERIC SOMMERS Our proof is direct

  6. Paducah and Portsmouth Off-Specification Enriched and Normal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enriched and Normal UF 6 Inventory 1 3B refers to a 30B cylinder size and 4A refers to a 48A size cylinder. Table 1 PORTS Enriched Inventory Container ID Sample Transfer Gross lbs...

  7. Stone-Cech remainder which make continuous images normal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleissner, William G.; Levy, Ronnie

    1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , it is not necessary that every intermediate space Z be normal; it is enough to require that countably compact intermediate spaces be normal. 2. Proposition. If ßX\\X is sequential and Y is Tychonov, then P\\X is closed in ßX\\X. Hence, Y is normal. Proof. Suppose that q... , Clßx,x(Bn) is not compact. Since Clßx(Bn) is compact, we may choose distinct xn e Clßx(Bn) n X. Then {xln : n e to} and {x2n+x : n e to} axe disjoint closed subsets of X, both of whose closures in ßX contain p . This contradicts the normality of X. o...

  8. Characteristics of Wind Turbines Under Normal and Fault Conditions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Parsons, B.; Ellis, A.

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the characteristics of a variable-speed wind turbine connected to a stiff or weak grid under normal and fault conditions and the role of reactive power compensation.

  9. Normality of Monte Carlo criticality eigenfunction decomposition coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toth, B. E.; Martin, W. R. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Griesheimer, D. P. [Bechtel Bettis, Inc., P.O. Box 79, West Mifflin, PA 15122 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A proof is presented, which shows that after a single Monte Carlo (MC) neutron transport power method iteration without normalization, the coefficients of an eigenfunction decomposition of the fission source density are normally distributed when using analog or implicit capture MC. Using a Pearson correlation coefficient test, the proof is corroborated by results from a uniform slab reactor problem, and those results also suggest that the coefficients are normally distributed with normalization. The proof and numerical test results support the application of earlier work on the convergence of eigenfunctions under stochastic operators. Knowledge of the Gaussian shape of decomposition coefficients allows researchers to determine an appropriate level of confidence in the distribution of fission sites taken from a MC simulation. This knowledge of the shape of the probability distributions of decomposition coefficients encourages the creation of new predictive convergence diagnostics. (authors)

  10. Proving Termination of Normalization Functions for Conditional Expressions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haddadi, Hamed

    Boyer and Moore have discussed a recursive function that puts con- ditional expressions software correctness) Keywords: Boyer/Moore Theorem Prover, LCF, total correctness, well 12 1 #12; 1 A normalization function Boyer

  11. Stirling numbers of graphs, and the normal ordering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayfield, John

    Stirling numbers of graphs, and the normal ordering problem Galvin earned his PhD in mathematics correlations in discrete random structures. The Stirling number of the second kind ${n \\brace k}$ counts

  12. Use of Normalized Radial Basis Function in Hydrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cotar, Anton; Brilly, Mitja [Chair of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Jamova 2, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article we will present a use of normalized radial basis function in hydrology for prediction of missing river Reka runoff data. The method is based on multidimensional normal distribution, where standard deviation is first optimized and later the whole prediction process is learned on existing data [5]. We can conclude, that the method works very well for middle ranges of data, but not so well for extremes because of its interpolating nature.

  13. Two-stream cyclotron radiative instabilities due to the marginally mirror-trapped fraction for fustion alphas in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arunasalam, V.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown here that the marginally mirror-trapped fraction of the newly-born fusion alpha particles in the deuterium-tritium (DT) reaction dominated tokamak plasmas can induce a two-stream cyclotron radiative instability for the fast Alfven waves propagating near the harmonics of the alpha particle cyclotron frequency {omega}{sub c{alpha}}. This can explain both the experimentally observed time behavior and the spatially localized origin of the fusion product ion cyclotron emission (ICE) in TFTR at frequencies {omega} {approx} m{omega}{sub c{alpha}}.

  14. Integrated operations plan for the MFTF-B Mirror Fusion Test Facility. Volume II. Integrated operations plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document defines an integrated plan for the operation of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B). The plan fulfills and further delineates LLNL policies and provides for accomplishing the functions required by the program. This plan specifies the management, operations, maintenance, and engineering support responsibilities. It covers phasing into sustained operations as well as the sustained operations themselves. Administrative and Plant Engineering support, which are now being performed satisfactorily, are not part of this plan unless there are unique needs.

  15. Application of structural-mechanics methods to the design of large tandem-mirror fusion devices (MFTF-B)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpenko, V.N.; Ng, D.S.

    1985-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory requires state-of-the-art structural-mechanics methods to deal with access constraints for plasma heating and diagnostics, alignment requirements, and load complexity and variety. Large interactive structures required an integrated analytical approach to achieve a reasonable level of overall system optimization. The Tandem Magnet Generator (TMG) creates a magnet configuration for the EFFI calculation of electromagnetic-field forces that, coupled with other loads, form the input loading to magnet and vessel finite-element models. The analytical results provide the data base for detailed design of magnet, vessel, foundation, and interaction effects.

  16. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

    1998-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3` noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to appropriate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. This invention also provides normalized cDNA libraries generated by the above-described method and uses of the generated libraries. 19 figs.

  17. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soares, Marcelo B. (New York, NY); Efstratiadis, Argiris (Englewood, NJ)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to appropriate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. This invention also provides normalized cDNA libraries generated by the above-described method and uses of the generated libraries.

  18. Strong light-matter coupling in bulk GaN-microcavities with double dielectric mirrors fabricated by two different methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reveret, F.; Disseix, P.; Vasson, A.; Leymarie, J. [Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, LASMEA, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6602, LASMEA, F-63177 Aubiere (France); Bejtka, K. [CRHEA-CNRS, Rue Bernard Gregory, Parc Sophia Antipolis, 06560 Valbonne (France); Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Edwards, P. R.; Martin, R. W. [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Chenot, S.; Sellers, I. R.; Duboz, J. Y.; Leroux, M.; Semond, F. [CRHEA-CNRS, Rue Bernard Gregory, Parc Sophia Antipolis, 06560 Valbonne (France)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Two routes for the fabrication of bulk GaN microcavities embedded between two dielectric mirrors are described, and the optical properties of the microcavities thus obtained are compared. In both cases, the GaN active layer is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (111) Si, allowing use of selective etching to remove the substrate. In the first case, a three period Al{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}N/AlN Bragg mirror followed by a {lambda}/2 GaN cavity are grown directly on the Si. In the second case, a crack-free 2 {mu}m thick GaN layer is grown, and progressively thinned to a final thickness of {lambda}. Both devices work in the strong coupling regime at low temperature, as evidenced by angle-dependent reflectivity or transmission experiments. However, strong light-matter coupling in emission at room temperature is observed only for the second one. This is related to the poor optoelectronic quality of the active layer of the first device, due to its growth only 250 nm above the Si substrate and its related high defect density. The reflectivity spectra of the microcavities are well accounted for by using transfer matrix calculations.

  19. Defining the normal turbine inflow within a wind park environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, N.D.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This brief paper discusses factors that must be considered when defining the {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} (as opposed to {open_quotes}extreme{close_quotes}) loading conditions seen in wind turbines operating within a wind park environment. The author defines the {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} conditions to include fatigue damage accumulation as a result of: (1) start/stop cycles, (2) emergency shutdowns, and (3) the turbulence environment associated with site and turbine location. He also interprets {open_quotes}extreme{close_quotes} loading conditions to include those events that can challenge the survivability of the turbine.

  20. Defining the normal turbine inflow within a wind park environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, N.D.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This brief paper discusses factors that must be considered when defining the [open quotes]normal[close quotes] (as opposed to [open quotes]extreme[close quotes]) loading conditions seen in wind turbines operating within a wind park environment. The author defines the [open quotes]normal[close quotes] conditions to include fatigue damage accumulation as a result of: (1) start/stop cycles, (2) emergency shutdowns, and (3) the turbulence environment associated with site and turbine location. He also interprets [open quotes]extreme[close quotes] loading conditions to include those events that can challenge the survivability of the turbine.

  1. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soares, Marcelo B. (New York, NY); Efstratiadis, Argiris (Englewood, NJ)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  2. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

    1996-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form. The method comprises: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3` noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 4 figs.

  3. Vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting 625-nm laser upon optical pumping of an InGaP/AlGaInP nanostructure with a Bragg mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozlovskii, Vladimir I; Lavrushin, B M; Skasyrsky, Yan K [P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tiberi, M D [Principia Light Works Inc., Woodland Hills, CA (United States)

    2009-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulsed lasing is obtained in a multilayer quantum-well InGaP/AlGaInP structure in a cavity with an external mirror and a Bragg AlAs/AlGaAs mirror pumped by the 532-nm second harmonic from a diode-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Lasing is obtained at the TEM{sub 00} fundamental transverse mode of the cavity at a wavelength of 625 nm. The pulse beam power was 3.1 W and the radiation divergence achieved a diffraction limit of 10-12 mrad for 5-ns pulses with a repetition rate of 6 kHz. (lasers)

  4. Variable ventilation induces endogenous surfactant release in normal guinea pigs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutchen, Kenneth

    Variable ventilation induces endogenous surfactant release in normal guinea pigs Stephen P. Arold,1. Alencar, Kenneth R. Lutchen, and Edward P. Ingenito. Variable ventilation induces endogenous surfactant.00036.2003.--Variable or noisy ventilation, which includes random breath-to-breath variations in tidal

  5. PAS kinase is required for normal cellular energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutter, Jared

    PAS kinase is required for normal cellular energy balance Huai-Xiang Hao*, Caleb M. Cardon*, Wojtek, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 Edited by Steven L. McKnight, University in a cell-autonomous manner to maintain cellular energy homeostasis and is a potential therapeutic target

  6. Rigid Shape Interpolation Using Normal Equations William Baxter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Rigid Shape Interpolation Using Normal Equations William Baxter OLM Digital, Inc. Pascal Barla INRIA Bordeaux University Ken-ichi Anjyo OLM Digital, Inc. Figure 1: Rigid Morphing with large rotations works well and is a very practical way e-mail: baxter@olm.co.jp e-mail: pascal.barla@labri.fr e

  7. Auditory Responses in Normal-Hearing, Noise-Exposed Ears

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stamper, Greta

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    ....................................................................................... 29 Influence of ABR Recording Electrode ......................................................................................... 31 ABR Wave V Amplitude... membrane electrode (Ferguson and Ferraro, 1989; Schwartz et al., 1994; Hall, 2007b; Gaddam and Ferraro, 2008). Variability is commonly seen in ABR response amplitude, even in normal-hearing ears (Schwartz et al., 1994). In light of the recent animal data...

  8. RADIO PROCEDURES DURING NORMAL OPERATING CONDITIONS CALLING AND COMMUNICATING TECHNIQUES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brody, James P.

    RADIO PROCEDURES DURING NORMAL OPERATING CONDITIONS CALLING AND COMMUNICATING TECHNIQUES The secret are going to say. Many people with radios have a tendency to talk and/or repeat too much. Say what you need until it is second nature. Practicing proper day-to-day radio procedures will make emergency radio

  9. Determination of normalized magnetic eigenfields in microwave cavities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helsing, Johan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The magnetic field integral equation for axially symmetric cavities with perfectly conducting surfaces is discretized according to a high-order convergent Fourier--Nystr\\"om scheme. The resulting solver is used to determine eigenwavenumbers and normalized magnetic eigenfields to very high accuracy in the entire computational domain.

  10. Water-Energy Shortages in the West: The New Normal?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Junshan

    Water-Energy Shortages in the West: The New Normal? Tuesday, November 19, 2013 12:00 - 1:30 p, Kristen Averyt, director of the Western Water Assessment, a NOAA program based at CIRES, will discuss the connections between climate science and decision- making across the West , in particular, the water

  11. CONCENTRATED SOLID SOLUTIONS OF NORMAL METALS By H. JONES,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    637. CONCENTRATED SOLID SOLUTIONS OF NORMAL METALS By H. JONES, Imperial College. Department and Heine [1] in the light of the new knowledge of the Fermi surface revealed by experi- ments alloys is reviewed in the light of modern work on the nature of the Fermi surfaces in the noble metals

  12. Proving Termination of Normalization Functions for Conditional Expressions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haddadi, Hamed

    Computer Laboratory University of Cambridge 3 June 1985 Boyer and Moore have discussed a recursive function: Boyer/Moore Theorem Prover, LCF, total correctness, well-founded relations. #12;Contents 1 Conclusions 12 1 #12;1 A normalization function Boyer and Moore have published a machine-assisted proof

  13. Computational Model for Forced Expiration from Asymmetric Normal Lungs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutchen, Kenneth

    Computational Model for Forced Expiration from Asymmetric Normal Lungs ADAM G. POLAK 1 losses along the airway branches. Calculations done for succeeding lung volumes result in the semidynamic to the choke points, characteristic differences of lung regional pressures and volumes, and a shape

  14. 60. LUNG .13 NORMAL VARIANT .31 BENIGN NEOPI,J.SM, CYST, 6l. RIGHT .131 NORMAL VARIANT, OTHER NEOPLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    [ ~;{(, (1) Lungs 60. LUNG .13 NORMAL VARIANT .31 BENIGN NEOPI,J.SM, CYST, 6l. RIGHT .131 IN LUNG BRONCHI .221 SARCOIDOSIS, 672. SUPERIOR ADENOPATHY MEDIASTINUN .222 SARCOIDOSIS, 673 68. MORE THAN 1 LUNG PLRA, MEDIAST. , LOCATION (GNRLIZED) 69. OTHER-(LUNG, PLRA, MEDIAST

  15. SciTech Connect: Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel Assembly. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel...

  16. Low-Oxygen Induction of Normally Cryptic psbA Genes in Cyanobacteria...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxygen Induction of Normally Cryptic psbA Genes in Cyanobacteria. Low-Oxygen Induction of Normally Cryptic psbA Genes in Cyanobacteria. Abstract: Microarray analysis indicated...

  17. Wildfire Policy in Transition: Where There's Smoke, There's .... Mirrors James E. Hubbard, State Forester, Colorado State Forest Service, Colorado State University,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubbard -1 Wildfire Policy in Transition: Where There's Smoke, There's .... Mirrors 3/26/03 James E-5060 Policy-making is a reflection of the public's perceived need for change. For much of the 20th century, wildfire policy in the United States was "all fires out by 10 A.M." This policy was instituted in 1935

  18. Abstract--Grazing incidence metal mirrors in laser-driven IFE power plants are subject to a variety of threats that result

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tillack, Mark

    Abstract--Grazing incidence metal mirrors in laser-driven IFE power plants are subject to a variety [4] at UCSD, and help define design windows for the GIMM in a laser-driven IFE power plant of threats that result in damages leading to increased laser absorption, beam quality degradation and reduced

  19. hal-00162568,version1-13Jul2007 Self-cooling of a movable mirror to the ground state using radiation pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ) for the Heisenberg operators of the system and we will show that ground state self- cooling is possible in the goodhal-00162568,version1-13Jul2007 Self-cooling of a movable mirror to the ground state using radiation pressure A. Dantan,1 C. Genes,2 D. Vitali,2 and M. Pinard3 1 QUANTOP, Danish National Research

  20. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS--II: ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 50, NO. 4, APRIL 2003 181 A Current Mirroring Integration Based Readout Circuit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akin, Tayfun

    Applications Haluk Kulah and Tayfun Akin Abstract--This paper reports a current mirroring integration (CMI capacitance for larger charge storage capacity and dynamic range. The CMI unit cell allows almost rail be adjusted independently for various detector re- quirements. By virtue of current feedback in the CMI

  1. Trade-off between quantum and thermal fluctuations in mirror coatings yields improved sensitivity of gravitational-wave interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. V. Voronchev; S. L. Danilishin; F. Ya. Khalili

    2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a simple way to improve the laser gravitational-wave detectors sensitivity by means of reduction of the number of reflective coating layers of the core optics mirrors. This effects in the proportional decrease of the coating thermal noise, the most notorious among the interferometers technical noise sources. The price for this is the increased quantum noise, as well as high requirements for the pump laser power and power at the beamsplitter. However, as far as these processes depend differently on the coating thickness, we demonstrate that a certain trade-off is possible, yielding a 20-30% gain (for diverse gravitational wave signal types and interferometer configurations), providing that feasible values of laser power and power on the beamsplitter are assumed.

  2. Development of polarization-controlled multi-pass Thomson scattering system in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshikawa, M.; Morimoto, M.; Shima, Y.; Kohagura, J.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakashima, Y.; Imai, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Yasuhara, R.; Yamada, I.; Kawahata, K.; Funaba, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Minami, T. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror, the typical electron density is comparable to that of the peripheral plasma of torus-type fusion devices. Therefore, an effective method to increase Thomson scattering (TS) signals is required in order to improve signal quality. In GAMMA 10, the yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG)-TS system comprises a laser, incident optics, light collection optics, signal detection electronics, and a data recording system. We have been developing a multi-pass TS method for a polarization-based system based on the GAMMA 10 YAG TS. To evaluate the effectiveness of the polarization-based configuration, the multi-pass system was installed in the GAMMA 10 YAG-TS system, which is capable of double-pass scattering. We carried out a Rayleigh scattering experiment and applied this double-pass scattering system to the GAMMA 10 plasma. The integrated scattering signal was made about twice as large by the double-pass system.

  3. Streaked spectrometry using multilayer x-ray-interference mirrors to investigate energy transport in laser-plasma applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stradling, G.L.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Henke, B.L.; Campbell, E.M.; Mead, W.C.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transport of energy in laser-produced plasmas is scrutinized by devising spectrally and temporally identifiable characteristics in the x-ray emission history which identify the heat-front position at various times in the heating process. Measurements of the relative turn-on times of these characteristics show the rate of energy transport between various points. These measurements can in turn constrain models of energy transport phenomena. We are time-resolving spectrally distinguishable subkilovolt x-ray emissions from different layers of a disk target to examine the transport rate of energy into the target. A similar technique is used to measure the lateral expansion rate of the plasma spot. A soft x-ray streak camera with 15-psec temporal resolution is used to make the temporal measurements. Spectral discrimination of the incident signal is provided by multilayer x-ray interference mirrors.

  4. Measurement of normal contact stiffness of fractal rough surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chongpu Zhai; Sébastien Bevand; Yixiang Gan; Dorian Hanaor; Gwénaëlle Proust; Bruno Guelorget; Delphine Retraint

    2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effects of roughness and fractality on the normal contact stiffness of rough surfaces. Samples of isotropically roughened aluminium surfaces are considered. The roughness and fractal dimension were altered through blasting using different sized particles. Subsequently, surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) was applied to the surfaces in order to modify the surface at the microscale. The surface topology was characterised by interferometry based profilometry. The normal contact stiffness was measured through nanoindentation with a flat tip utilising the partial unloading method. We focus on establishing the relationships between surface stiffness and roughness, combined with the effects of fractal dimension. The experimental results, for a wide range of surfaces, showed that the measured contact stiffness depended very closely on surfaces' root mean squared (RMS) slope and their fractal dimension, with correlation coefficients of around 90\\%, whilst a relatively weak correlation coefficient of 57\\% was found between the contact stiffness and RMS roughness.

  5. Procedure for normalization of cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonaldo, Maria DeFatima (New York, NY); Soares, Marcelo Bento (New York, NY)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a method to normalize a cDNA library constructed in a vector capable of being converted to single-stranded circles and capable of producing complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles comprising: (a) converting the cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles; (c) hybridizing the single-stranded circles converted in step (a) with complementary nucleic acid molecules of step (b) to produce partial duplexes to an appropriate Cot; (e) separating the unhybridized single-stranded circles from the hybridized single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  6. Procedure for normalization of cDNA libraries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonaldo, M.D.; Soares, M.B.

    1997-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a method to normalize a cDNA library constructed in a vector capable of being converted to single-stranded circles and capable of producing complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles comprising: (a) converting the cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles; (c) hybridizing the single-stranded circles converted in step (a) with complementary nucleic acid molecules of step (b) to produce partial duplexes to an appropriate Cot; (e) separating the unhybridized single-stranded circles from the hybridized single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 1 fig.

  7. Quasi-Degenerate Neutrino Masses with Normal and Inverted Hierarchy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francis, Ng K

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of CP-phases on the three absolute quasi-degenerate Majorana neutrino (QDN) masses are stud-ied with neutrino mass matrices obeying {\\mu} - {\\tau} symmetry for normal as well as inverted hierarchical mass patterns. We have made further investigations on 1) the prediction of solar mixing angle which lies below tri-bimaximal mixing value in consistent with neutrino oscillation observational data, 2) the prediction on absolute neutrino mass parameter (mee) in 0{\

  8. A frequency-domain transient stability criterion for normal contingencies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marceau, R.J.; Rizzi, J.C. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering] [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Mailhot, R. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)] [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a previous paper, a simple frequency-domain stability criterion was proposed for networks near the stability limit subjected to a 3-phase fault with no loss of line. The criterion can be summarized as follows: if a system is stable, the phase angle of the Fourier transform of a network`s transient voltage response exhibits a clockwise polar plot behavior at all buses (i.e. for increasing frequency); if the system is unstable, it exhibits a counterclockwise behavior in at least one location. Though these results are of interest, the criterion would be of greater practical use in mechanizing dynamic security analysis if it could be extended to the types of contingencies actually used in security analysis, namely normal contingencies. Normal contingencies are commonly defined as the loss of any element in a power system, either spontaneously or preceded by a fault, and such changes in topology impact post-contingency steady-state voltages in addition to their transient behavior. The present paper shows how such cases can be treated, thereby extending the applicable range of the criterion to normal contingencies.

  9. Surface tension with Normal Curvature in Curved Space-Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Himanshu kumar; Sharf Alam; Suhail Ahmad

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With an aim to include the contribution of surface tension in the action of the boundary, we define the tangential pressure in terms of surface tension and Normal curvature in a more naturally geometric way. First, we show that the negative tangential pressure is independent of the four-velocity of a very thin hyper-surface. Second, we relate the 3-pressure of a surface layer to the normal curvature and the surface tension. Third, we relate the surface tension to the energy of the surface layer. Four, we show that the delta like energy flows across the hyper-surface will be zero for such a representation of intrinsic 3-pressure. Five, for the weak field approximation and for static spherically symmetric configuration, we deduce the classical Kelvin's relation. Six, we write a modified action for the boundary having contributions both from surface tension and normal curvature of the surface layer. Also we propose a method to find the physical action assuming a reference background, where the background is not flat.

  10. Physics of collisionless scrape-off-layer plasma during normal and off-normal Tokamak operating conditions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, I.

    1999-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure of a collisionless scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasma in tokamak reactors is being studied to define the electron distribution function and the corresponding sheath potential between the divertor plate and the edge plasma. The collisionless model is shown to be valid during the thermal phase of a plasma disruption, as well as during the newly desired low-recycling normal phase of operation with low-density, high-temperature, edge plasma conditions. An analytical solution is developed by solving the Fokker-Planck equation for electron distribution and balance in the SOL. The solution is in good agreement with numerical studies using Monte-Carlo methods. The analytical solutions provide an insight to the role of different physical and geometrical processes in a collisionless SOL during disruptions and during the enhanced phase of normal operation over a wide range of parameters.

  11. SRS reactor control rod cooling without normal forced convection cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.C. (SAIC, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Easterling, T.C. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an analytical study of the coolability of the control rods in the Savannah River site (SRS) K production reactor under conditions of loss of normal forced convection cooling. The study was performed as part of the overall safety analysis of the reactor supporting its restart. The analysis addresses the buoyancy-driven boiling flow over the control rods that occurs when forced cooling is lost. The objective of the study was to demonstrate that the control rods will remain cooled (i.e., no melting) at powers representative of those anticipated for restart of the reactor.

  12. Fitting Parton Distribution Data with Multiplicative Normalization Uncertainties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The NNPDF Collaboration; Richard D. Ball; Luigi Del Debbio; Stefano Forte; Alberto Guffanti; Jose I. Latorre; Juan Rojo; Maria Ubiali

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the generic problem of performing a global fit to many independent data sets each with a different overall multiplicative normalization uncertainty. We show that the methods in common use to treat multiplicative uncertainties lead to systematic biases. We develop a method which is unbiased, based on a self--consistent iterative procedure. We demonstrate the use of this method by applying it to the determination of parton distribution functions with the NNPDF methodology, which uses a Monte Carlo method for uncertainty estimation.

  13. The normal levels of immunoglobulins of the mare's uterus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergeron, Helene

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    [IgG, IgA, IgG(T)) were prepared. The plates were kept at 4 C in a moist chamber for at least 24 hours before being used. 32 Table 3 ? Approximate final concentration of antisera against horse IgG, IgA and IgG(T) after dilution Antrserum (against...) Charle L. d (Head of Department) August 1984 The Normal Levels of Immunoglobulins of the Mare's Uterus (August, 1984) Helene Bergeron, D. M. V. , Universite de Montreal, Quebec, Canada Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. John M. Bowen The levels...

  14. Termination of a Major Normal Fault | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolar JumpTennessee/Wind Resources < Tennessee Jump to:TensasNormal

  15. Apex or Salient of Normal Fault | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcatAntrim County, Michigan: EnergySalient of Normal Fault Jump to:

  16. Manufacture of and Apparatus for Nearly Frictionless Operation of a Rotatable Array of Micro-Mirrors in a Solar Concentrator Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabinowitz, M; Overhauser, David V.; Rabinowitz, Mario

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to an ever growing shortage of conventional energy sources, there is an increasingly intense interest in harnessing solar energy. The instant invention can contribute to the goal of achieving environmentally clean solar energy to be competitive with conventional energy sources. A novel method is described for manufacturing a transparent sheet with an embedded array of mirrored spheroidal micro-balls for use in a solar energy concentrator, and analogous applications such as optical switches and solar rocket assist. The micro-balls are covered with a thin spherical shell of lubricating liquid so that they are free to rotate in an almost frictionless encapsulation in the sheet. Novel method and apparatus are presented for producing the preferred embodiment of a close-packed monolayer of the array of mirrored micro-balls.

  17. Manufacture of and Apparatus for Nearly Frictionless Operation of a Rotatable Array of Micro-Mirrors in a Solar Concentrator Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario Rabinowitz; David V. Overhauser

    2006-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to an ever growing shortage of conventional energy sources, there is an increasingly intense interest in harnessing solar energy. The instant invention can contribute to the goal of achieving environmentally clean solar energy to be competitive with conventional energy sources. A novel method is described for manufacturing a transparent sheet with an embedded array of mirrored spheroidal micro-balls for use in a solar energy concentrator, and analogous applications such as optical switches and solar rocket assist. The micro-balls are covered with a thin spherical shell of lubricating liquid so that they are free to rotate in an almost frictionless encapsulation in the sheet. Novel method and apparatus are presented for producing the preferred embodiment of a close-packed monolayer of the array of mirrored micro-balls.

  18. THE NEED FOR A PARADIGM SHIFT IN OPTICAL ASTRONOMY: A SOLUTION GIVEN BY LIQUID MIRRORS AND EXAMPLES OF THEIR APPLICATIONS TO COSMOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. F. Borra

    1995-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    I argue that there is a crisis in optical Astronomy due to a paucity of telescopes and thus the need for a paradigm shift in telescope technology. Large increases in collecting areas and observing time/astronomer are only possible if we forgo the fully steerable multipurpose telescope with a glass primary mirror that has dominated astronomical research. Only by adopting entirely novel technologies that allow one to build large and inexpensive telescopes can we achieve truly large improvements. This may come at the expense of versatility and may entail changes in the observing strategies astronomers are now accustomed to. I build my case around a new technology, liquid mirrors, that although in its infancy has achieved credibility. I argue that forthcoming technological improvements will make Liquid Mirror Telescopes (LMTs) nearly as versatile as conventional telescopes. I address the issue of the fields accessible to LMTs equipped with novel optical correctors. Optical design work and exploratory laboratory work indicate that a single LMT should be able to access, with excellent images, subregions anywhere inside fields as large as 45 degrees. As a practical example of what an LMT can do with the present technology, I examine the expected performance of a 5-m liquid mirror telescope, presently under construction, dedicated to a cosmological survey. It is rather impressive, due to the fact that the instrument works full-time on a four-year survey: Spectrophotometry reaches B=24 with a signal to noise ratio of 10 within a 200\\AA bandpass for all objects within 300 square degrees and wide-band photometry reaches about B=27. I give three examples of cosmological projects that can be done with the data.

  19. EUV reflectance characterization of the 94/304 ? flight secondary AIA mirror at beamline 6.3.2 of the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soufli, R; Spiller, E; Aquila, A L; Gullikson, E M; Windt, D L

    2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The AIA secondary flight mirror, previously coated at Columbia University with Mg/SiC for the 303.8 {angstrom} channel and Mo/Y for the 93.9 {angstrom} channel was characterized by means of EUV reflectance measurements at beamline 6.3.2 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron at LBNL on January 10, 2006. Paul Boerner (LMSAL) also participated in these measurements.

  20. Design and analysis of the reflection grating arrays for the X-Ray Multi-Mirror Mission (XMM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkinson, D.P.; Bixler, J.V.; Geraghty, P.; Hailey, C.J.; Klingmann, J.; Montesanti, R.C. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Kahn, S.M.; Paerels, F.B.S. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA))

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Reflection Grating Spectrometer Experiment (RGS), which has been selected for flight on the European Space Agency's X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission (XMM), includes two arrays of reflection gratings that are placed in the X-ray optical path behind two separate grazing incidence X-ray telescopes. Each of the gratings arrays picks off roughly half the X-ray light emanating from its telescope and diffracts it to a dedicated strip of charge-coupled device (CCD) detectors offset from the telescope focal plane. The arrays contain 224 100 mm X 200 mm gratings, each mounted at a graze angle of 1.58{degree} to the incident beam. The gratings are produced by epoxy replication of a common master onto very thin substrates. Both the gratings and the detector are mounted on a Rowland circle which also includes the telescope focus. In this paper, we review the current state of both the engineering and the optical designs for the grating arrays. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Development of scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope with spatial resolution of 30 nm using Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuyama, S.; Mimura, H.; Yumoto, H.; Sano, Y.; Yamamura, K.; Yabashi, M.; Nishino, Y.; Tamasaku, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Yamauchi, K. [Department of Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Research Center for Ultra-Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); SPring-8/Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayoucho, Sayogun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); SPring-8/RIKEN, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayoucho, Sayogun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Department of Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We developed a high-spatial-resolution scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope (SXFM) using Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors. As a result of two-dimensional focusing tests at BL29XUL of SPring-8, the full width at half maximum of the focused beam was achieved to be 50x30 nm{sup 2} (VxH) under the best focusing conditions. The measured beam profiles were in good agreement with simulated results. Moreover, beam size was controllable within the wide range of 30-1400 nm by changing the virtual source size, although photon flux and size were in a trade-off relationship. To demonstrate SXFM performance, a fine test chart fabricated using focused ion beam system was observed to determine the best spatial resolution. The element distribution inside a logo mark of SPring-8 in the test chart, which has a minimum linewidth of approximately 50-60 nm, was visualized with a spatial resolution better than 30 nm using the smallest focused x-ray beam.

  2. Statistical Inference for Models with Intractable Normalizing Constants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Ick Hoon

    2011-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    be calculated by S1(y) = X 1?inormalizing constant ratio R(?t, ?) = ?(?)/?(?t) by bRm(?t,yt, ?) = 1 m mX i=1 g(y(t)i , ?) g(y(t)i , ?t) . 4. Calculate the Monte Carlo MH ratio r...

  3. Hard Sphere Dynamics for Normal and Granular Fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James W. Dufty; Aparna Baskaran

    2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluid of N smooth, hard spheres is considered as a model for normal (elastic collisions) and granular (inelastic collisions) fluids. The potential energy is discontinuous for hard spheres so the pairwise forces are singular and the usual forms of Newtonian and Hamiltonian mechanics do not apply. Nevertheless, particle trajectories in the N particle phase space are well defined and the generators for these trajectories can be identified. The first part of this presentation is a review of the generators for the dynamics of observables and probability densities. The new results presented in the second part refer to applications of these generators to the Liouville dynamics for granular fluids. A set of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the generator for this Liouville dynamics is identified in a special "stationary representation". This provides a class of exact solutions to the Liouville equation that are closely related to hydrodynamics for granular fluids.

  4. The Properties of Normal Conducting Cathodes in FZD Superconducting Gun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang, R; Buettig, H; Janssen, D; Justus, M; Lehnert, U; Michel, P; Murcek, P; Schamlott, A; Schneider, Ch; Schurig, R; Staufenbiel, F; Teichert, J

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The superconducting radio frequency photoinjector (SRF photoinjector) is one of the latest applications of SC technology in the accelerator field. Since superconducting cathodes with high QE are not available up to now, normal conducting cathode material is the main choice for the SRF photoinjectors. However, the compatibility between the cathode and the cavity is one of the challenges for this concept. The SRF gun with Cs2Te cathode has been successfully operated under the collaboration of BESSY, DESY, FZD, and MBI. In this paper, some experience gained in the gun commissioning will be concluded. The results of the properties of Cs2Te photocathode in the cavity will be presented, such as the Q.E., the life time, the dark current and the thermal emittance.

  5. Tunneling from super- to normal-deformed minima in nuclei.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khoo, T. L.

    1998-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An excited minimum, or false vacuum, gives rise to a highly elongated superdeformed (SD) nucleus. A brief review of superdeformation is given, with emphasis on the tunneling from the false to the true vacuum, which occurs in the feeding and decay of SD bands. During the feeding process the tunneling is between hot states, while in the decay it is from a cold to a hot state. The {gamma} spectra connecting SD and normal-deformed (ND) states provide information on several physics issues: the decay mechanism; the spin/parity quantum numbers, energies and microscopic structures of SD bands; the origin of identical SD bands; the quenching of pairing with excitation energy; and the chaoticity of excited ND states at 2.5-5 MeV. Other examples of tunneling in nuclei, which are briefly described, include the possible role of tunneling in {Delta}I = 4 bifurcation in SD bands, sub-barrier fusion and proton emitters.

  6. Phenomenology of electrostatically charged droplet combustion in normal gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Eric K.; Koch, Jeremy A.; Kyritsis, Dimitrios C. [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental findings are provided on the effect of electrostatically charging a fuel on single-burning droplet combustion in normal gravity. It was established that significant modification of the flame morphology and the droplet burning time could be achieved, solely by the droplet charge, without the application of external electric fields. Negative charging of the droplets of mixtures of isooctane with either ethanol or a commercially available anti-static additive generated intense motion of the flame and abbreviated the droplet burning time by as much as 40% for certain blend compositions. Positive charging of the droplets generated almost spherical flames, because electrostatic attraction toward the droplets countered the effect of buoyancy. By comparing combustion of droplets of the same conductivity but different compositions, coupling of electrostatics with combustion chemistry was established. (author)

  7. Normal modes analysis of the microscopic dynamics in hard discs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carolina Brito; Matthieu Wyart

    2008-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We estimate numerically the normal modes of the free energy in a glass of hard discs. We observe that, near the glass transition or after a rapid quench deep in the glass phase, the density of states (i) is characteristic of a marginally stable structure, in particular it di splays a frequency scale $\\omega^*\\sim p^{1/2}$, where $p$ is the pressure and (ii) gives a faithful representation of the short-time dyn amics. This brings further evidences that the boson peak near the glass transition corresponds to the relaxation of marginal modes of a we akly-coordinated structure, and implies that the mean square displacement in the glass phase is anomalously large and goes as $ \\sim p^{-3/2}$, a prediction that we check numerically.

  8. Fermi Normal Coordinates and Fermion Curvature Couplings in General Relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anshuman Dey; Abhisek Samanta; Tapobrata Sarkar

    2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We study gravitational curvature effects in circular and radial geodesics in static, spherically symmetric space-times, using Fermi normal coordinates. We first set up these coordinates in the general case, and then use this to study effective magnetic fields due to gravitational curvature in the exterior and interior Schwarzschild, Janis-Newman-Winicour, and Bertrand space-times. We show that these fields can be large for specific parameter values in the theories, and thus might have observational significance. We discuss the qualitative differences of the magnetic field for vacuum space-times and for those seeded by matter. We estimate the magnitude of these fields in realistic galactic scenarios and discuss their possible experimental relevance. Gravitational curvature corrections to the Hydrogen atom spectrum for these space-times are also discussed briefly.

  9. Insolation data manual and direct normal solar radiation data manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Insolation Data Manual presents monthly averaged data which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service (NWS) stations, principally in the United States. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24--25 years of data, generally from 1952--1975, and listed for each location. Insolation values represent monthly average daily totals of global radiation on a horizontal surface and are depicted using the three units of measurement: kJ/m{sup 2} per day, Btu/ft{sup 2} per day and langleys per day. Average daily maximum, minimum and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3 C (65 F). For each station, global {bar K}{sub T} (cloudiness index) values were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. Global {bar K}{sub T} is an index of cloudiness and indicates fractional transmittance of horizontal radiation, from the top of the atmosphere to the earth's surface. The second section of this volume presents long-term monthly and annual averages of direct normal solar radiation for 235 NWS stations, including a discussion of the basic derivation process. This effort is in response to a generally recognized need for reliable direct normal data and the recent availability of 23 years of hourly averages for 235 stations. The relative inaccessibility of these data on microfiche further justifies reproducing at least the long-term averages in a useful format. In addition to a definition of terms and an overview of the ADIPA model, a discussion of model validation results is presented.

  10. Cubic AlGaN/GaN Hetero-Junction Field-Effect Transistors with Normally-on and Normally-off

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    As, Donat Josef

    Cubic AlGaN/GaN Hetero-Junction Field-Effect Transistors with Normally-on and Normally-effect transistors (HFETs) in GaN technology. HFET structures were fabricated of non-polar cubic AlGaN/GaN hetero insulation of 3C-SiC was realized by Ar+ implantation before c-AlGaN/GaN growth. HFETs with normally

  11. Determination of the 3He+alpha\\to 7Be asymp. normalization coefficients (nucl. vertex constants) and their application for extrapolation of the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be astroph. S-factors to the solar energy region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. B. Igamov; Q. I. Tursunmahatov; R. Yarmukhamedov

    2010-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A new analysis of the modern precise measured astrophysical $S$ factors for the direct capture $^3He(\\alpha,\\gamma)^7{\\rm {Be}}$ reaction [B.S. Nara Singh {\\it et al.}, Phys.Rev.Lett. {\\bf 93}, 262503 (2004); D. Bemmerer {\\it et al.}, Phys.Rev.Lett. {\\bf 97}, 122502 (2006); F.Confortola {\\it et al.}, Phys.Rev.C {\\bf 75}, 065803 (2007), T.A.D.Brown {\\it et al.}, Phys.Rev. C {\\bf 76}, 055801 (2007) and A Di Leva, {\\it et al.},Phys.Rev.Lett. {\\bf 102}, 232502 (2009)] populating to the ground and first excited states of $^7{\\rm Be}$ is carried out based on the modified two - body potential approach. New estimates are obtained for the $^{\\glqq}$indirectly determined\\grqq\\, values of the asymptotic normalization constants (the nuclear vertex constants) for $^3{\\rm {He}}+\\alpha\\to{\\rm {^7Be}}$(g.s.) and $^3{\\rm {He}}+\\alpha\\to{\\rm {^7Be}}$(0.429 MeV) as well as the astrophysical $S$ factors $S_{34}(E)$ at E$\\le$ 90 keV, including $E$=0. The values of asymptotic normalization constants have been used for getting information about the $\\alpha$-particle spectroscopic factors for the mirror (${\\rm{^7Li}}{\\rm {^7Be}}$)-pair.

  12. SPEECH-CODING AND TRAINING-INDUCED PLASTICITY IN AUDITORY CORTEX OF NORMAL AND DYSLEXIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilgard, Michael P.

    SPEECH-CODING AND TRAINING-INDUCED PLASTICITY IN AUDITORY CORTEX OF NORMAL AND DYSLEXIA MODEL RATS anymore... #12;SPEECH-CODING AND TRAINING-INDUCED PLASTICITY IN AUDITORY CORTEX OF NORMAL AND DYSLEXIA

  13. Imaging of normal and pathologic joint synovium using nonlinear optical microscopy as a potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    , and gout at 3.0 million. Arthritis can result in irreversible destruction and loss of normal articular

  14. Modeling and Generating Daily Changes in Market Variables Using A Multivariate Mixture of Normal Distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jin

    Distributions Jin Wang Department of Mathematics and Computer Science Valdosta State University Valdosta, GA 31698-0040 January 28, 2000 Abstract The mixture of normal distributions provides a useful extension of the normal distribution for modeling of daily changes in market variables with fatter-than-normal tails

  15. Direct-Normal Solar Irradiance -A Closure Experiment, Halthore et al. 1 Comparison of Model Estimated and Measured Direct-Normal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    ). This is the energy in the solar spectrum falling per unit time on a unit area of a surface oriented normal to the Sun Direct-normal solar irradiance (DNSI), the total energy in the solar spectrum incident in unit time extinction of solar energy without regard to the details of the extinction - whether absorption or scattering

  16. The dust mass in z > 6 normal star forming galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mancini, Mattia; Graziani, Luca; Valiante, Rosa; Dayal, Pratika; Maio, Umberto; Ciardi, Benedetta; Hunt, Leslie K

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We interpret recent ALMA observations of z > 6 normal star forming galaxies by means of a semi-numerical method, which couples the output of a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation with a chemical evolution model which accounts for the contribution to dust enrichment from supernovae, asymptotic giant branch stars and grain growth in the interstellar medium. We find that while stellar sources dominate the dust mass of small galaxies, the higher level of metal enrichment experienced by galaxies with Mstar > 10^9 Msun allows efficient grain growth, which provides the dominant contribution to the dust mass. Even assuming maximally efficient supernova dust production, the observed dust mass of the z = 7.5 galaxy A1689-zD1 requires very efficient grain growth. This, in turn, implies that in this galaxy the average density of the cold and dense gas, where grain growth occurs, is comparable to that inferred from observations of QSO host galaxies at similar redshifts. Although plausible, the upper limits on the dust ...

  17. Rap G protein signal in normal and disordered lymphohematopoiesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minato, Nagahiro, E-mail: minato@imm.med.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Rap proteins (Rap1, Rap2a, b, c) are small molecular weight GTPases of the Ras family. Rap G proteins mediate diverse cellular events such as cell adhesion, proliferation, and gene activation through various signaling pathways. Activation of Rap signal is regulated tightly by several specific regulatory proteins including guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase-activating proteins. Beyond cell biological studies, increasing attempts have been made in the past decade to define the roles of Rap signal in specific functions of normal tissue systems as well as in cancer. In the immune and hematopoietic systems, Rap signal plays crucial roles in the development and function of essentially all lineages of lymphocytes and hematopoietic cells, and importantly, deregulated Rap signal may lead to unique pathological conditions depending on the affected cell types, including various types of leukemia and autoimmunity. The phenotypical studies have unveiled novel, even unexpected functional aspects of Rap signal in cells from a variety of tissues, providing potentially important clues for controlling human diseases, including malignancy.

  18. Normal and lateral Casimir forces between deformed plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emig, Thorsten; Hanke, Andreas; Golestanian, Ramin; Kardar, Mehran [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Strasse 77, D-50937 Cologne (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan 45195-159 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Casimir force between macroscopic bodies depends strongly on their shape and orientation. To study this geometry dependence in the case of two deformed metal plates, we use a path-integral quantization of the electromagnetic field which properly treats the many-body nature of the interaction, going beyond the commonly used pairwise summation (PWS) of van der Waals forces. For arbitrary deformations we provide an analytical result for the deformation induced change in the Casimir energy, which is exact to second order in the deformation amplitude. For the specific case of sinusoidally corrugated plates, we calculate both the normal and the lateral Casimir forces. The deformation induced change in the Casimir interaction of a flat and a corrugated plate shows an interesting crossover as a function of the ratio of the mean plate distance H to the corrugation length {lambda}: For {lambda}<>H. The amplitude of the lateral force between two corrugated plates which are out of registry is shown to have a maximum at an optimal wavelength of {lambda}{approx_equal}2.5 H. With increasing H/{lambda} > or approx. 0.3 the PWS approach becomes a progressively worse description of the lateral force due to many-body effects. These results may be of relevance for the design and operation of novel microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and other nanoscale devices.

  19. Modeling pore corrosion in normally open gold- plated copper connectors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Moffat, Harry K.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Enos, David George; Serna, Lysle M.; Sorensen, Neil Robert

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this study is to model the electrical response of gold plated copper electrical contacts exposed to a mixed flowing gas stream consisting of air containing 10 ppb H{sub 2}S at 30 C and a relative humidity of 70%. This environment accelerates the attack normally observed in a light industrial environment (essentially a simplified version of the Battelle Class 2 environment). Corrosion rates were quantified by measuring the corrosion site density, size distribution, and the macroscopic electrical resistance of the aged surface as a function of exposure time. A pore corrosion numerical model was used to predict both the growth of copper sulfide corrosion product which blooms through defects in the gold layer and the resulting electrical contact resistance of the aged surface. Assumptions about the distribution of defects in the noble metal plating and the mechanism for how corrosion blooms affect electrical contact resistance were needed to complete the numerical model. Comparisons are made to the experimentally observed number density of corrosion sites, the size distribution of corrosion product blooms, and the cumulative probability distribution of the electrical contact resistance. Experimentally, the bloom site density increases as a function of time, whereas the bloom size distribution remains relatively independent of time. These two effects are included in the numerical model by adding a corrosion initiation probability proportional to the surface area along with a probability for bloom-growth extinction proportional to the corrosion product bloom volume. The cumulative probability distribution of electrical resistance becomes skewed as exposure time increases. While the electrical contact resistance increases as a function of time for a fraction of the bloom population, the median value remains relatively unchanged. In order to model this behavior, the resistance calculated for large blooms has been weighted more heavily.

  20. Determination of the 3He+alpha\\to 7Be asymp. normalization coefficients (nucl. vertex constants) and their application for extrapolation of the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be astroph. S-factors to the solar energy region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. B. Igamov; K. I. Tursunmakhatov; R. Yarmukhamedov

    2008-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A new analysis of the precise experimental astrophysical $S$-factors for the direct capture $^3He(\\alpha,\\gamma)^7{\\rm {Be}}$ reaction [B.S. Nara Singh et al., Phys.Rev.Lett. {\\bf 93} (2004) 262503; D. Bemmerer et al., Phys.Rev.Lett. {\\bf 97} (2006) 122502; F.Confortola et al., Phys.Rev. {\\bf C 75} (2007) 065803 and T.A.D.Brown et al., Phys.Rev. {\\bf C 76} (2007) 055801] populating to the ground and first excited states of $^7{\\rm Be}$ is carried out based on the modified two - body potential approach in which the direct astrophysical $S$-factor, $S_{34}(E)$, is expressed in terms of the asymptotic normalization constants for $^3{\\rm {He}}+\\alpha\\to ^7{\\rm {Be}}$ and two additional conditions are involved to verify the peripheral character of the reaction under consideration. The Woods--Saxon potential form is used for the bound ($\\alpha+^3{\\rm {He}}$)- state and the $^3{\\rm {He}}\\alpha$- scattering wave functions. New estimates are obtained for the "indirectly measured", values of the asymptotic normalization constants (the nuclear vertex constants) for $^3{\\rm {He}}+\\alpha\\to^7{\\rm {Be}}(g.s.)$ and $^3{\\rm {He}}+\\alpha\\to^7{\\rm {Be}}(0.429 MeV)$ as well as the astrophysical $S$-factors $S_{34}(E)$ at E$\\le$ 90 keV, including $E$=0. The values of asymptotic normalization constants have been used for getting information about the $\\alpha$-particle spectroscopic factors for the mirror ($^7Li^7{\\rm {Be}}$)-pair.

  1. Soft x-ray intensity profile measurements of electron cyclotron heated plasmas using semiconductor detector arrays in GAMMA 10 tandem mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minami, R., E-mail: minami@prc.tsukuba.ac.jp; Imai, T.; Kariya, T.; Numakura, T.; Eguchi, T.; Kawarasaki, R.; Nakazawa, K.; Kato, T.; Sato, F.; Nanzai, H.; Uehara, M.; Endo, Y.; Ichimura, M. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Temporally and spatially resolved soft x-ray analyses of electron cyclotron heated plasmas are carried out by using semiconductor detector arrays in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. The detector array has 16-channel for the measurements of plasma x-ray profiles so as to make x-ray tomographic reconstructions. The characteristics of the detector array make it possible to obtain spatially resolved plasma electron temperatures down to a few tens eV and investigate various magnetohydrodynamic activities. High power electron cyclotron heating experiment for the central-cell region in GAMMA 10 has been started in order to reduce the electron drag by increasing the electron temperature.

  2. Application of structural-mechanics methods to the design of large tandem-mirror fusion devices (MFTF-B). Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpenko, V.N.; Ng, D.S.

    1985-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory requires state-of-the-art structural-mechanics methods to deal with access constraints for plasma heating and diagnostics, alignment requirements, and load complexity and variety. Large interactive structures required an integrated analytical approach to achieve a reasonable level of overall system optimization. The Tandem Magnet Generator (TMG) creates a magnet configuration for the EFFI calculation of electromagnetic-field forces that, coupled with other loads, form the input loading to magnet and vessel finite-element models. The analytical results provide the data base for detailed design of magnet, vessel, foundation, and interaction effects. 13 refs.

  3. Damage threshold and focusability of mid-infrared free-electron laser pulses gated by a plasma mirror with nanosecond switching pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Nakajima, Takashi; Zen, Heishun; Kii, Toshiteru; Ohgaki, Hideaki [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of a pulse train structure of an oscillator-type free-electron laser (FEL) results in the immediate damage of a solid target upon focusing. We demonstrate that the laser-induced damage threshold can be significantly improved by gating the mid-infrared FEL pulses with a plasma mirror. Although the switching pulses we employ have a nanosecond duration which does not guarantee the clean wavefront of the gated FEL pulses, the high focusability is experimentally confirmed through the observation of spectral broadening by a factor of 2.1 when we tightly focus the gated FEL pulses onto the Ge plate.

  4. Laboratory-size three-dimensional x-ray microscope with Wolter type I mirror optics and an electron-impact water window x-ray source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohsuka, Shinji, E-mail: ohsuka@crl.hpk.co.jp [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); The Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, 1955-1 Kurematsu-cho, Nishi-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 431-1202 (Japan); Ohba, Akira; Onoda, Shinobu; Nakamoto, Katsuhiro [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); Nakano, Tomoyasu [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); Ray-Focus Co. Ltd., 6009 Shinpara, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-0003 (Japan); Miyoshi, Motosuke; Soda, Keita; Hamakubo, Takao [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We constructed a laboratory-size three-dimensional water window x-ray microscope that combines wide-field transmission x-ray microscopy with tomographic reconstruction techniques, and observed bio-medical samples to evaluate its applicability to life science research fields. It consists of a condenser and an objective grazing incidence Wolter type I mirror, an electron-impact type oxygen K? x-ray source, and a back-illuminated CCD for x-ray imaging. A spatial resolution limit of around 1.0 line pairs per micrometer was obtained for two-dimensional transmission images, and 1-?m scale three-dimensional fine structures were resolved.

  5. Determination of the asymptotic normalization coefficients for 14C + n <--> 15C, the 14C(n, gamma)15C reaction rate, and evaluation of a new method to determine spectroscopic factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCleskey, M. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); Mukhamedzhanov, A. M. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); Trache, L. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); Tribble, R. E. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); Banu, A. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); Eremenko, V. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); Goldberg, V. Z. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); Lui, Y. W. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); McCleskey, E. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); Roeder, B. T. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); Spiridon, A. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); Carstoiu, F. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Burjan, V. [Nuclear Physics Inst., Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Hons, Z. [Nuclear Physics Inst., Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Thompson, I. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The 14C + n <--> 15C system has been used as a test case in the evaluation of a new method to determine spectroscopic factors that uses the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC). The method proved to be unsuccessful for this case. As part of this experimental program, the ANCs for the 15C ground state and first excited state were determined using a heavy-ion neutron transfer reaction as well as the inverse kinematics (d,p) reaction, measured at the Texas A&M Cyclotron Institute. The ANCs were used to evaluate the astrophysical direct neutron capture rate on 14C, which was then compared with the most recent direct measurement and found to be in good agreement. A study of the 15C SF via its mirror nucleus 15F and a new insight into deuteron stripping theory are also presented.

  6. One Way Mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenk, Barbara

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    controlled. "So fake it!" she said fiercely. "You'd better." She began a cautious exploration of the cabin, walking around slowly, her hands clasped behind her back. There were two spacious rooms, plus bathroom and closet areas. It seemed like an awfully...

  7. Tribological degradation of fluorocarbon coated silicon microdevice surfaces in normal and sliding contact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krim, Jacqueline

    Tribological degradation of fluorocarbon coated silicon microdevice surfaces in normal and sliding degradation of the contact interface of a fluorocarbon monolayer-coated polycrystalline silicon microdevice

  8. Pentose fermentation of normally toxic lignocellulose prehydrolysate with strain of Pichia stipitis yeast using air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, Jr., Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Nguyen, Quang A. (Golden, CO)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis NPw9 (ATCC PTA-3717) useful for the production of ethanol using oxygen for growth while fermenting normally toxic lignocellulosic prehydrolysates.

  9. Optimizing Normal Tissue Sparing in Ion Therapy Using Calculated Isoeffective Dose for Ion Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remmes, Nicholas B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Herman, Michael G., E-mail: Herman.Michael@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Kruse, Jon J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To investigate how the selection of ion type affects the calculated isoeffective dose to the surrounding normal tissue as a function of both normal tissue and target tissue {alpha}/{beta} ratios. Methods and Materials: A microdosimetric biologic dose model was incorporated into a Geant4 simulation of parallel opposed beams of protons, helium, lithium, beryllium, carbon, and neon ions. The beams were constructed to give a homogeneous isoeffective dose to a volume in the center of a water phantom for target tissues covering a range of cobalt equivalent {alpha}/{beta} ratios of 1-20 Gy. Concomitant normal tissue isoeffective doses in the plateau of the ion beam were then compared for different ions across the range of normal tissue and target tissue radiosensitivities for a fixed isoeffective dose to the target tissue. Results: The ion type yielding the optimal normal tissue sparing was highly dependent on the {alpha}/{beta} ratio of both the normal and the target tissue. For carbon ions, the calculated isoeffective dose to normal tissue at a 5-cm depth varied by almost a factor of 5, depending on the {alpha}/{beta} ratios of the normal and target tissue. This ranges from a factor of 2 less than the isoeffective dose of a similar proton treatment to a factor of 2 greater. Conclusions: No single ion is optimal for all treatment scenarios. The heavier ions are superior in cases in which the {alpha}/{beta} ratio of the target tissue is low and the {alpha}/{beta} ratio of normal tissue is high, and protons are superior in the opposite circumstances. Lithium and beryllium appear to offer dose advantages similar to carbon, with a considerably lower normal tissue dose when the {alpha}/{beta} ratio in the target tissue is high and the {alpha}/{beta} ratio in the normal tissue is low.

  10. ANALYTIC EQUIVALENCE OF NORMAL CROSSING FUNCTIONS ON A REAL ANALYTIC MANIFOLD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ANALYTIC EQUIVALENCE OF NORMAL CROSSING FUNCTIONS ON A REAL ANALYTIC MANIFOLD Goulwen Fichou crossing singularities after a modification. We focus on the analytic equivalence of such functions with only normal crossing singularities. We prove that for such functions C right equivalence implies

  11. A Filtering Mechanism for Normal Fish Trajectories Cigdem Beyan, Robert B. Fisher

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Bob

    A Filtering Mechanism for Normal Fish Trajectories Cigdem Beyan, Robert B. Fisher IPAB, School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh, UK C.Beyan@sms.ed.ac.uk, rbf@inf.ed.ac.uk Abstract Understanding fish surveillance, etc. However, the literature is very limited in terms of normal/abnormal fish behavior

  12. Quantum Cavitation: a comparison between superfluid helium-4 and normal liquid helium-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caupin, Frédéric

    Quantum Cavitation: a comparison between superfluid helium-4 and normal liquid helium-3 S. Balibar in superfluid helium-4 and in normal liquid helium-3, both theoretically and experimentally. We compare the two by tunneling, to classical cavitation where their nu- cleation is thermally activated. In helium-3, where

  13. All proper normal extensions of S5{square have the polynomial size model property

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amsterdam, University of

    All proper normal extensions of S5{square have the polynomial size model property Nick extensions of the bi-modal system S5 2 have the poly-size model property. In fact, every normal proper extension L of S5 2 is complete with respect to a class of #12;nite frames FL . To each such class

  14. Assessing Non-Normal Effects in Thermoacoustic Systems with Mean Flow. K. Wieczorek,1, a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicoud, Franck

    Assessing Non-Normal Effects in Thermoacoustic Systems with Mean Flow. K. Wieczorek,1, a) C this paper, non-normal interactions in a thermoacoustic system are studied, using a low-order expansion. INTRODUCTION Over the last decades, thermoacoustic instabilities have been the subject of intense re- search

  15. Assessing Non-Normal Effects in Thermoacoustic Systems with Mean Flow. K. Wieczorek,1, a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Assessing Non-Normal Effects in Thermoacoustic Systems with Mean Flow. K. Wieczorek,1, a) C.1063/1.3650418 #12;In this paper, non-normal interactions in a thermoacoustic system are studied, using a low,version1-19Mar2013 #12;I. INTRODUCTION Over the last decades, thermoacoustic instabilities have been

  16. Asymptotic normality of urn models for clinical trials with delayed response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Li-Xin

    normality of Yn in the GFU model. Typically, clinical trials do not result in immediate outcomes ­ that isAsymptotic normality of urn models for clinical trials with delayed response F E I FA N G H U 1, Zhejiang, Hangzhou 310028, P. R. China. E-mail: lxzhang@mail.hz.zj.cn For response-adaptive clinical trials

  17. Normalized Microwave Reflection Index: A Vegetation Measurement Derived From GPS Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Small, Eric

    is known as Normalized Differ- ence Water Index (NDWI) [12]. It is calculated using reflectance in two near infrared (NIR) channels. Similar indices have been proposed that use reflectance at other NIR wavelengthsNormalized Microwave Reflection Index: A Vegetation Measurement Derived From GPS Networks Kristine

  18. Projective re-normalization for improving the behavior of a homogeneous conic linear system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belloni, Alexandre

    In this paper we study the homogeneous conic system F : Ax = 0, x ? C \\ {0}. We choose a point ¯s ? intC? that serves as a normalizer and consider computational properties of the normalized system F¯s : Ax = 0, ¯sT x = 1, ...

  19. Interpolating wind speed normals from the sparse Dutch network to a high resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    , we had potential wind speed time series with 30 years of data (with at least 20 yearly and monthly by Verkaik (Verkaik, 2001). The method is a five-step procedure: 1 Use series of (potential) wind to calculate (potential) normals at measuring sites 2 Calculate wind speed normals at the top of the surface

  20. Elastin protein levels are a vital modifier affecting normal lung development and susceptibility to emphysema

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mecham, Robert

    Elastin protein levels are a vital modifier affecting normal lung development and susceptibility modifier affecting normal lung development and susceptibility to emphysema. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol-induced emphysema is highly variable, and numerous genetic and environmental factors are thought to mitigate lung

  1. An approach to the problem of network synthesis utilizing normal coordinates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baird, Jack Anthony

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN APPROACH TO THE PROBLEM OF NETWORK SYNTHESIS UTILIZING NORMAL COORDINATES A NPRROCHTHPEB LM FTWK ABHSEBM LTPCY Approved as to style and content by: A N P u __________IUSTPCZBTB of Commit teNETWORK SYNTHESIS UTILIZING NORMAL COORDINATES LM Jack Anthony Baird u * A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas In partial fulfillment...

  2. Computer Graphics International 2004 (CGI), June 1619, Crete, Greece. IEEE Computer Society Press. Consistent Normal Orientation for Polygonal Meshes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zachmann, Gabriel

    . Consistent Normal Orientation for Polygonal Meshes Pavel Borodin Gabriel Zachmann Reinhard Klein Institute

  3. Optical Characterization ofMEMS Deformable Mirror Array Structures Soe-Mie F. Nee*a, Lewis F. DeSandrea, Thomas Bifano**b, Linda F. johnsona and Mark B. Morana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandrea, Thomas Bifano**b, Linda F. johnsona and Mark B. Morana aResearch Department, Naval Air Warfare Center. The mirror arrays are micro-electronic-mechanical system (MEMS) devices which were fabricated by Boston and electronic elements were fabricated through conventional surface micro-machining using polycrystalline

  4. Normalizer circuits and a Gottesman-Knill theorem for infinite-dimensional systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juan Bermejo-Vega; Cedric Yen-Yu Lin; Maarten Van den Nest

    2015-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    $\\textit{Normalizer circuits}$ [1,2] are generalized Clifford circuits that act on arbitrary finite-dimensional systems $\\mathcal{H}_{d_1}\\otimes ... \\otimes \\mathcal{H}_{d_n}$ with a standard basis labeled by the elements of a finite Abelian group $G=\\mathbb{Z}_{d_1}\\times... \\times \\mathbb{Z}_{d_n}$. Normalizer gates implement operations associated with the group $G$ and can be of three types: quantum Fourier transforms, group automorphism gates and quadratic phase gates. In this work, we extend the normalizer formalism [1,2] to infinite dimensions, by allowing normalizer gates to act on systems of the form $\\mathcal{H}_\\mathbb{Z}^{\\otimes a}$: each factor $\\mathcal{H}_\\mathbb{Z}$ has a standard basis labeled by $\\textit{integers}$ $\\mathbb{Z}$, and a Fourier basis labeled by $\\textit{angles}$, elements of the circle group $\\mathbb{T}$. Normalizer circuits become hybrid quantum circuits acting both on continuous- and discrete-variable systems. We show that infinite-dimensional normalizer circuits can be efficiently simulated classically with a generalized $\\textit{stabilizer formalism}$ for Hilbert spaces associated with groups of the form $\\mathbb{Z}^a\\times \\mathbb{T}^b \\times \\mathbb{Z}_{d_1}\\times...\\times \\mathbb{Z}_{d_n}$. We develop new techniques to track stabilizer-groups based on normal forms for group automorphisms and quadratic functions. We use our normal forms to reduce the problem of simulating normalizer circuits to that of finding general solutions of systems of mixed real-integer linear equations [3] and exploit this fact to devise a robust simulation algorithm: the latter remains efficient even in pathological cases where stabilizer groups become infinite, uncountable and non-compact. The techniques developed in this paper might find applications in the study of fault-tolerant quantum computation with superconducting qubits [4,5].

  5. Roll stabilization for fast monohulls by using passive and active lifting appendages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulusoy, Talha

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Roll stabilization for monohulls is an important issue in naval architecture. Several methods including roll stabilization tanks, active control fins, rudder roll stabilization systems, and bilge keels are commonly used ...

  6. Sonic hedgehog function in chondrichthyan fins and the evolution of appendage patterning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Marcus C.

    Randall D. Dahn1 , Marcus C. Davis1 , William N. Pappano2 & Neil H. Shubin1,3 The genetic mechanisms

  7. Thermo-mechanical analysis of ITER first mirrors and its use for the ITER equatorial visible/infrared wide angle viewing system optical design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joanny, M.; Salasca, S.; Dapena, M.; Cantone, B.; Travere, J. M. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Thellier, C.; Ferme, J. J. [THALES SESO, 13593 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 3 (France); Marot, L. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Buravand, O. [Institut d'Optique Graduate School, 91127 Palaiseau (France); Perrollaz, G. [AMETRA, 13770 Venelles (France); Zeile, C. [INR, KIT, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ITER first mirrors (FMs), as the first components of most ITER optical diagnostics, will be exposed to high plasma radiation flux and neutron load. To reduce the FMs heating and optical surface deformation induced during ITER operation, the use of relevant materials and cooling system are foreseen. The calculations led on different materials and FMs designs and geometries (100 mm and 200 mm) show that the use of CuCrZr and TZM, and a complex integrated cooling system can limit efficiently the FMs heating and reduce their optical surface deformation under plasma radiation flux and neutron load. These investigations were used to evaluate, for the ITER equatorial port visible/infrared wide angle viewing system, the impact of the FMs properties change during operation on the instrument main optical performances. The results obtained are presented and discussed.

  8. Top-emission Si-based phosphor organic light emitting diode with Au doped ultrathin n-Si film anode and bottom Al mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Y. Z.; Xu, W. J.; Ran, G. Z. [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Qin, G. G. [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Key Lab of Semiconductor Materials, CAS, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a highly efficient top-emission Si-based phosphor organic light emitting diode (PhOLED) with an ultrathin polycrystalline n-Si:Au film anode and a bottom Al mirror. This anode is formed by magnetron sputtering followed by Ni induced crystallization and then Au diffusion. By optimizing the thickness of the n-Si:Au film anode, the Au diffusion temperature, and the other parameters of the PhOLED, the highest current and power efficiencies of the n-Si:Au film anode PhOLED reached 85{+-}9 cd/A and 80{+-}8 lm/W, respectively, corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of 21{+-}2% and a power conversion efficiency of 15{+-}2%, respectively, which are about 60% and 110% higher than those of the indium tin oxide anode counterpart and 70% and 50% higher than those of the bulk n{sup +}-Si:Au anode counterpart, respectively.

  9. Fuel cell system logic for differentiating between rapid and normal shutdown commands

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keskula, Donald H. (Webster, NY); Doan, Tien M. (Columbia, MD); Clingerman, Bruce J. (Palmyra, NY)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of controlling the operation of a fuel cell system wherein each shutdown command for the system is subjected to decision logic which determines whether the command should be a normal shutdown command or rapid shutdown command. If the logic determines that the shutdown command should be a normal shutdown command, then the system is shutdown in a normal step-by-step process in which the hydrogen stream is consumed within the system. If the logic determines that the shutdown command should be a rapid shutdown command, the hydrogen stream is removed from the system either by dumping to atmosphere or routing to storage.

  10. Multi-phase decline curve analysis with normalized rate and time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraim, Michael Lee

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Material Balance Equation. The purpose of the current work is to develop a normalized time and a normalized rate which can be applied to the Fetkovich type curve or any other decline type curve. From a Fetkovich type curve analysis, an engineer can...MULTI-PHASE DECLINE CURVE ANALYSIS WITH NORMALIZED RATE AND TIME A Thesis by MICHAEL LEE FRAIM Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University &n partial fulf 111ment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August...

  11. Mapping local hippocampal changes in Alzheimer's disease and normal ageing with MRI at 3 Tesla

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Paul

    Mapping local hippocampal changes in Alzheimer's disease and normal ageing with MRI at 3 Tesla and Alzheimer's disease based on high resolution MRI at 3 Tesla. T1-weighted images were acquired from 19

  12. Field measurements of a swell band, shore normal, flux divergence reversal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Link, Shmuel G

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Throughout this thesis we will discuss the theoretical background and empirical observation of a swell band shore normal flux divergence reversal. Specifically, we will demonstrate the existence and persistence of the ...

  13. A Novel Approach to Determine Normal Variation in Gene Expression Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaki, Mohammed Javeed

    among identical mice, thus enabling a comprehensive database of normal variations in gene expression EIA-0103708 under-appreciated problem in microarray analysis is the in- cidence of microarrays

  14. Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan Ecole Doctorale Sciences Pratiques Etude mathematique et numerique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Professeur, ´Ecole Normale Sup´erieure de Cachan Marcel FILOCHE Directeur de recherche CNRS, ´Ecole en premier lieu à remercier mes deux directeurs de thèse : Laurent Desvillettes et Marcel Filoche

  15. Blood Vessel Normalization in the Hamster Oral Cancer Model for Experimental Cancer Therapy Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ana J. Molinari; Romina F. Aromando; Maria E. Itoiz; Marcela A. Garabalino; Andrea Monti Hughes; Elisa M. Heber; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; David W. Nigg; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Normalization of tumor blood vessels improves drug and oxygen delivery to cancer cells. The aim of this study was to develop a technique to normalize blood vessels in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Tumor-bearing hamsters were treated with thalidomide and were compared with controls. Results: Twenty eight hours after treatment with thalidomide, the blood vessels of premalignant tissue observable in vivo became narrower and less tortuous than those of controls; Evans Blue Dye extravasation in tumor was significantly reduced (indicating a reduction in aberrant tumor vascular hyperpermeability that compromises blood flow), and tumor blood vessel morphology in histological sections, labeled for Factor VIII, revealed a significant reduction in compressive forces. These findings indicated blood vessel normalization with a window of 48 h. Conclusion: The technique developed herein has rendered the hamster oral cancer model amenable to research, with the potential benefit of vascular normalization in head and neck cancer therapy.

  16. On reconciling ground-based with spaceborne normalized radar cross section measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baumgartner, F.; Munk, J.; Jezek, K. C.; Gogineni, Sivaprasad

    2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines differences in the normalized radar cross section, derived from ground-based versus spaceborne radar data. A simple homogeneous half-space model, indicates that agreement between the two improves as 1) ...

  17. CRITICAL FIELD FOR SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND LOW-TEMPERATURE NORMAL-STATE HEAT CAPACITY OF TUNGSTEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Triplett, B.B.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NORMAL-STATE HEAT CAPACITY OF TUNGSTEN B. B. Triplett, N. E.State Heat Capacity of Tungsten* B. n. Triplett,t N. E.I. ;\\feasurement Properties of tungsten sa~ples. ~feasured

  18. regulation. Buoys and ship-based sensors are normally used to measure the amount of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Eric

    regulation. Buoys and ship-based sensors are normally used to measure the amount of water of many neurons at once. But researchers based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, have painstakingly mapped

  19. Yield and leaf blade area comparisons of extra leafy to normal leafed maize (Zea mays L.) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rushing, Ronald Wayne

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    relationships between extra leaf production and rain yield of the leafy 9 hybrids. Fourteen hybrids were compared, including, eight Lfy and six normal-leafed industry standard hybrids. The fourteen hybrids were replicated four times in a randomized block design...

  20. Effects of burial history, rock ductility and recovery magnitude on inversion of normal faulted strata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhle, Nathan John

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inversion of normal faults at different burial depths is studied using physical models constructed with rock and deformed at confining pressure. Models consist of a 1 cm thick limestone layer above a fault dipping 70° in a rigid medium...