National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for nonmetallic mineral products

  1. Integrating Steel Production with Mineral Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klaus Lackner; Paul Doby; Tuncel Yegulalp; Samuel Krevor; Christopher Graves

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of the project were (i) to develop a combination iron oxide production and carbon sequestration plant that will use serpentine ores as the source of iron and the extraction tailings as the storage element for CO2 disposal, (ii) the identification of locations within the US where this process may be implemented and (iii) to create a standardized process to characterize the serpentine deposits in terms of carbon disposal capacity and iron and steel production capacity. The first objective was not accomplished. The research failed to identify a technique to accelerate direct aqueous mineral carbonation, the limiting step in the integration of steel production and carbon sequestration. Objective (ii) was accomplished. It was found that the sequestration potential of the ultramafic resource surfaces in the US and Puerto Rico is approximately 4,647 Gt of CO2 or over 500 years of current US production of CO2. Lastly, a computer model was developed to investigate the impact of various system parameters (recoveries and efficiencies and capacities of different system components) and serpentinite quality as well as incorporation of CO2 from sources outside the steel industry.

  2. Method for the Production of Mineral Wool andIron from Serpentine Ore

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Method for the Production of Mineral Wool and Iron from Serpentine Ore Overview This invention discloses a method to fabricate a product that has the potential to replace asbestos, which harbors health and environmental risks, with magnesium silicate-based mineral wools. The mineral wool product yields advantages similar to asbestos while eliminating its inherent detriments. Since the late 19th century and into the late 20th century, asbestos has been a commonly used building material for home

  3. Method for the Production of Mineral Wool and Iron from Serpentine Ore -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Method for the Production of Mineral Wool and Iron from Serpentine Ore Magnesium silicate-based mineral wool insulation National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Partnership Opportunity Notice for Mineral Wool (331 KB) PDF

  4. Test plan for the irradiation of nonmetallic materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brush, Laurence H.; Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Dahl, M.; Joslyn, C. C.; Venetz, T. J.

    2013-05-01

    A comprehensive test program to evaluate nonmetallic materials use in the Hanford tank farms is described in detail. This test program determines the effects of simultaneous multiple stressors at reasonable conditions on in-service configuration components by engineering performance testing.

  5. Test plan for the irradiation of nonmetallic materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brush, Laurence H.; Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Gelbard, Fred; Dahl, M.; Joslyn, C. C.; Venetz, T. J.

    2013-03-01

    A comprehensive test program to evaluate nonmetallic materials use in the Hanford Tank Farms is described in detail. This test program determines the effects of simultaneous multiple stressors at reasonable conditions on in-service configuration components by engineering performance testing.

  6. Muon neutrino charged current inclusive charged pion (CC?{sup }) production in MINER?A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberly, B.

    2015-05-15

    The production of charged pions by neutrinos interacting on nuclei is of great interest in nuclear physics and neutrino oscillation experiments. The MINER?A experiment is working towards releasing the worlds first high statistics neutrino pion production measurements in a few-GeV neutrino beam. We describe MINER?As CC?{sup } analysis event selection in both the neutrino and antineutrino beams, noting reconstruction resolutions and kinematic limits. We also show area-normalized data-simulation comparisons of the reconstructed muon and charged pion kinetic energy distributions.

  7. Methods of attaching erosion-resistant nonmetallic panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girzhel, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    Attachment methods for panels of wear-resistant nonmetallic materials, e.g. cast stone and slag, devitrified slag, and erosion-resistant and heat-resistant concretes to protect hopper, chute, and trough structures at metallurgical and coal industries have been investigated. Attachment methods can be divided into two groups, attachment by adhesives and by mechanical attachment. A new method of mechanical attachment, considered to be much superior to adhesive attachment, provides for reliable fastening without damage to the protected metal structure. Various panel designs may be used depending on the operating conditions.

  8. Method for the production of mineral wool and iron from serpentine ore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Connor, William K. (Albany, OR); Rush, Gilbert E. (Scio, OR); Soltau, Glen F. (Lebanon, OR)

    2011-10-11

    Magnesium silicate mineral wools having a relatively high liquidus temperature of at least about 1400.degree. C. and to methods for the production thereof are provided. The methods of the present invention comprise melting a magnesium silicate feedstock (e.g., comprising a serpentine or olivine ore) having a liquidus temperature of at least about 1400.degree. C. to form a molten magnesium silicate, and subsequently fiberizing the molten magnesium silicate to produce a magnesium silicate mineral wool. In one embodiment, the magnesium silicate feedstock contains iron oxide (e.g., up to about 12% by weight). Preferably, the melting is performed in the presence of a reducing agent to produce an iron alloy, which can be separated from the molten ore. Useful magnesium silicate feedstocks include, without limitation, serpentine and olivine ores. Optionally, silicon dioxide can be added to the feedstock to lower the liquidus temperature thereof.

  9. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: NMFs from WEEE were treated by incineration or land filling in the past. Environmental risks such as heavy metals and BFRs will be the major problems during the NMFs recycling processes. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glasses are reviewed. More environmental impact assessment should be carried out to evaluate the environmental risks of the recycling products. - Abstract: The worlds waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, which have drawn much attention from the public. However, the major economic driving force for recycling of WEEE is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs). The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up a large proportion of E-wastes, were treated by incineration or landfill in the past. NMFs from WEEE contain heavy metals, brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and other toxic and hazardous substances. Combustion as well as landfill may cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, research on resource reutilization and safe disposal of the NMFs from WEEE has a great significance from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Among the enormous variety of NMFs from WEEE, some of them are quite easy to recycle while others are difficult, such as plastics, glass and NMFs from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this paper, we mainly focus on the intractable NMFs from WEEE. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glass are reviewed in this paper. For WEEE plastics, the pyrolysis technology has the lowest energy consumption and the pyrolysis oil could be obtained, but the containing of BFRs makes the pyrolysis recycling process problematic. Supercritical fluids (SCF) and gasification technology have a potentially smaller environmental impact than pyrolysis process, but the energy consumption is higher. With regard to WEEE glass, lead removing is requisite before the reutilization of the cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass, and the recycling of liquid crystal display (LCD) glass is economically viable for the containing of precious metals (indium and tin). However, the environmental assessment of the recycling process is essential and important before the industrialized production stage. For example, noise and dust should be evaluated during the glass cutting process. This study could contribute significantly to understanding the recycling methods of NMFs from WEEE and serve as guidance for the future technology research and development.

  10. Reclaiming metallic material from an article comprising a non-metallic friable substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohland, John Raphael (Oregon, OH); Anisimov, Igor Ivanovich (Whitehouse, OH); Dapkus, Todd James (Toledo, OH); Sasala, Richard Anthony (Toledo, OH); Smigielski, Ken Alan (Toledo, OH); Kamm, Kristin Danielle (Swanton, OH)

    2000-01-01

    A method for reclaiming a metallic material from a article including a non-metallic friable substrate. The method comprising crushing the article into a plurality of pieces. An acidic solution capable of dissolving the metallic material is provided dissolving the metallic material in the acidic material to form an etchant effluent. The etchant effluent is separated from the friable substrate. A precipitation agent, capable of precipitating the metallic material, is added to the etchant effluent to precipitate out the metallic material from the etchant effluent. The metallic material is then recovered.

  11. China Gengsheng Minerals Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gengsheng Minerals Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Gengsheng Minerals Inc Place: Henan Province, China Product: China-based material technology company. References:...

  12. Capacitance probe for detection of anomalies in non-metallic plastic pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathur, Mahendra P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Spenik, James L. (Morgantown, WV); Condon, Christopher M. (Morgantown, WV); Anderson, Rodney (Grafton, WV); Driscoll, Daniel J. (Morgantown, WV); Fincham, Jr., William L. (Fairmont, WV); Monazam, Esmail R. (Morgantown, WV)

    2010-11-23

    The disclosure relates to analysis of materials using a capacitive sensor to detect anomalies through comparison of measured capacitances. The capacitive sensor is used in conjunction with a capacitance measurement device, a location device, and a processor in order to generate a capacitance versus location output which may be inspected for the detection and localization of anomalies within the material under test. The components may be carried as payload on an inspection vehicle which may traverse through a pipe interior, allowing evaluation of nonmetallic or plastic pipes when the piping exterior is not accessible. In an embodiment, supporting components are solid-state devices powered by a low voltage on-board power supply, providing for use in environments where voltage levels may be restricted.

  13. Minerals Yearbook: Minerals in the world economy. 1988 International review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimbell, C.L.; Zajac, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    In overview, 1988 appeared to be the best year for the world's mineral industry since 1980, although the all-important petroleum component suffered severely from low prices. With this notable exception, the traditional statistical measures of mineral industry performance, namely production, trade, and consumption, reflected growth in most elements of the world mineral industry from crude material extraction through the gamut of downstream processing. Moreover, the growth was reasonably well distributed geographically, with many countries sharing in the substantial upturn in activity. The report discusses production, trade, consumption, investment, transportation, prices, and statistical summary of world production and trade of major mineral commodities.

  14. Mineral industries of Australia, Canada, and Oceania (including a discussion of Antarctica's mineral resources). Mineral perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimbell, C.L.; Lyday, T.Q.; Newman, H.H.

    1985-12-01

    The Bureau of Mines report gives the mineral industry highlights of two of the world's major mineral producing countries, Australia and Canada, and seven Pacific island nations or territories--Fiji, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Republic of Nauru, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. The mineral resources of Antarctica are also discussed. Because of the size of the Australian and Canadian mineral industries, summary reviews are presented for each of the States, Provinces, or Territories. The most current information available from all nations is given on major minerals or mineral-commodity production, share of world production, and reserves. Reported also are significant mining companies, locations and capacities of their main facilities, and their share of domestic production. Other information is provided on mineral-related trade with the United States, government mineral policy, energy production-consumption and trade, the mining industry labor force, and prospects for the mineral industry. Maps show the locations of selected mineral deposits, oilfields and gasfields, mines, and processing facilities including iron and steel plants, nonferrous smelters and refineries, and cement plants, as well as infrastructure pertinent to the mineral industry.

  15. Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, Karl T.; Sanders, Rebecca L.; Washton, Nancy M.

    2014-03-14

    Clay minerals are important components of the environment and are involved or implicated in processes such as the uptake of pollutants and the release of nutrients and as potential platforms for a number of chemical reactions. Owing to their small particle sizes (typically, on the order of microns or smaller) and mixing with a variety of other minerals and soil components, advanced characterization methods are needed to study their structures, dynamics, and reactivities. In this article, we describe the use of solid-state NMR methods to characterize the structures and chemistries of clay minerals. Early one-pulse magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies of 27Al and 29Si have now been enhanced and extended with new studies utilizing advanced methodologies (such as Multiple Quantum MAS) as well as studies of less-sensitive nuclei. In additional work, the issue of reactivity of clay minerals has been addressed, including studies of reactive surface area in the environment. Utilizations of NMR-sensitive nuclides within the clay minerals themselves, and in molecules that react with speci?c sites on the clay mineral surfaces, have aided in understanding the reactivity of these complex aluminosilicate systems.

  16. Development of value-added products from alumina industry mineral wastes using low-temperature-setting phosphate ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagh, A.S.; Jeong, Seung-Young; Singh, D.

    1996-01-01

    A room-temperature process for stabilizing mineral waste streams has been developed, based on acid-base reaction between MgO and H3PO4 or acid phosphate solution. The resulting waste form sets into a hard ceramic in a few hours. In this way, various alumina industry wastes, such as red mud and treated potliner waste, can be solidified into ceramics which can be used as structural materials in waste management and construction industry. Red mud ceramics made by this process were low-porosity materials ({approx}2 vol%) with a compression strength equal to portland cement concrete (4944 psi). Bonding mechanism appears to be result of reactions of boehmite, goethite, and bayerite with the acid solution, and also encapsulation of red mud particles in Mg phosphate matrix. Possible applications include liners for ponds and thickned tailings disposal, dikes for waste ponds, and grouts. Compatability problems arising at the interface of the liner and the waste are avoided.

  17. Review of 1989 international mineral industry activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimbell, C.L. (US Bureau of Mines, Washington, DC (US))

    1990-07-01

    This article reviews global mineral industry activities for 1989. Production of coal, natural gas, and petroleum, as well as non-fuel minerals, is detailed regionally and for individual countries. The problems of changes in technology, economic and political systems are discussed where they have affected mineral production.

  18. Vietnam National Coal Mineral Industries Group Vinacomin | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    National Coal Mineral Industries Group Vinacomin Jump to: navigation, search Name: Vietnam National Coal-Mineral Industries Group (Vinacomin) Place: Vietnam Product: Vietnam-based...

  19. Proceedings of the sixteenth international symposium on mine planning and equipment selection (MPES 2007) and the tenth international symposium on environmental issues and waste management in energy and mineral production (SWEMP 2007)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singhal, R.K.; Fytas, K.; Jongsiri, S.; Ge, Hao

    2007-07-01

    Papers presented at MPES 2007 covered: coal mining and clean coal processing technologies; control, design and planning of surface and underground mines; drilling, blasting and excavation engineering; mining equipment selection; automation and information technology; maintenance and production management for mines and mining systems; health, safety and environment; cost effective methods of mine reclamation; mine closure and waste disposal; and rock mechanics and geotechnical issues. Papers from SWEMP 2007 discussed methods and technologies for assessing, minimizing and preventing environmental problems associated with mineral and energy production. Topics included environmental impacts of coal-fired power projects; emission control in thermal power plants; greenhouse gas abatement technologies; remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater; environmental issues in surface and underground mining of coal, minerals and ores; managing mine waste and mine water; and control of effluents from mineral processing, metallurgical and chemical plants.

  20. Catalyst Of A Metal Heteropoly Acid Salt That Is Insoluble In A Polar Solvent On A Non-Metallic Porous Support And Method Of Making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang. Yong (Richland, WA); Peden. Charles H. F. (West Richland, WA); Choi. Saemin (Richland, WA)

    2004-11-09

    The present invention includes a catalyst having (a) a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores; (b) a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on the non-metallic support; wherein at least a portion of the metal heteropoly acid salt is dispersed within said plurality of pores. The present invention also includes a method of depositing a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent onto a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores. The method has the steps of: (a) obtaining a first solution containing a first precursor of a metal salt cation; (b) obtaining a second solution containing a second precursor of a heteropoly acid anion in a solvent having a limited dissolution potential for said first precursor; (c) impregnating the non-metallic support with the first precursor forming a first precursor deposit within the plurality of pores, forming a first precursor impregnated support; (d) heating said first precursor impregnated support forming a bonded first precursor impregnated support; (e) impregnating the second precursor that reacts with the precursor deposit and forms the metal heteropoly acid salt.

  1. Catalyst of a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on a non-metallic porous support and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Peden, Charles H. F. [West Richland, WA; Choi, Saemin [Richland, WA

    2002-10-29

    The present invention includes a catalyst having (a) a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores; (b) a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on the non-metallic support; wherein at least a portion of the metal heteropoly acid salt is dispersed within said plurality of pores. The present invention also includes a method of depositing a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent onto a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores. The method has the steps of: (a) obtaining a first solution containing a first precursor of a metal salt cation; (b) obtaining a second solution containing a second precursor of a heteropoly acid anion in a solvent having a limited dissolution potential for said first precursor; (c) impregnating the non-metallic support with the first precursor forming a first precursor deposit within the plurality of pores, forming a first precursor impregnated support; (d) heating said first precursor impregnated support forming a bonded first precursor impregnated support; (e) impregnating the second precursor that reacts with the precursor deposit and forms the metal heteropoly acid salt.

  2. Mineral resources and mineral resource potential of the Panamint Dunes Wilderness Study Area, Inyo County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, G.L.; Kilburn, J.E.; Conrad, J.E.; Leszcykowski, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the Panamint Dunes Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-127), California Desert Conservation Area, Inyo County, California. The Panamint Dunes Wilderness Study Area has an identified volcanic cinder resource and few areas with mineral resource potential. Hydrothermal deposits of lead-zinc-silver occur in veins and small replacement bodies along and near the Lemoigne thrust fault on the eastern side of the wilderness study area. Two workings, the Big Four mine with 35,000 tons of inferred subeconomic lead-zinc-silver resources and a moderate potential for additional resources, and the Apple 1 claim with low potential for lead-zinc-silver resources, are surrounded by the study area but are specifically excluded from it. A low resource potential for lead-zinc-silver is assigned to other exposures along the Lemoigne thrust, although metallic minerals were not detected at these places. The Green Quartz prospect, located near the northern tip of the study area, has low resource potential for copper in quartz pegmatities in quartz monzonite of the Hunter Mountain batholith. Nonmetallic mineral resources consist of volcanic cinders and quartz sand. An estimated 900,000 tons of inferred cinder reserves are present at Cal Trans borrow pit MS 242, on the southern margin of the study area. The Panamint Valley dune field, encompassing 480 acres in the north-central part of the study area, has only low resource potential for silica because of impurities. Other sources of silica and outside the study area are of both higher purity and closer to possible markets. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Ferromagnetism and Nonmetallic Transport of Thin-Film α - FeSi 2 : A Stabilized Metastable Material

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cao, Guixin; Singh, D. J.; Zhang, X.-G.; Samolyuk, German; Qiao, Liang; Parish, Chad; Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen; Guo, Hangwen; Tang, Siwei; et al

    2015-04-07

    A metastable phase α-FeSi₂ was epitaxially stabilized on a silicon substrate using pulsed laser deposition. Nonmetallic and ferromagnetic behaviors are tailored on α-FeSi₂ (111) thin films, while the bulk material of α-FeSi₂ is metallic and nonmagnetic. The transport property of the films renders two different conducting states with a strong crossover at 50 K, which is accompanied by the onset of a ferromagnetic transition as well as a substantial magnetoresistance. These experimental results are discussed in terms of the unusual electronic structure of α-FeSi₂ obtained within density functional calculations and Boltzmann transport calculations with and without strain. Our finding shedsmore »light on achieving ferromagnetic semiconductors through both their structure and doping tailoring, and provides an example of a tailored material with rich functionalities for both basic research and practical applications.« less

  4. Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

  5. Proposed coal product valuation rules. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Mineral Resources Development and Production of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session, November 16, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The hearing was called to discuss the proposed rules issued by the Department of the Interior relating to the valuation of coal production from Federal and Indian leases for royalty purposes. The rules would base the value of coal on the gross proceeds obtained under a contract. The rules would exclude Federal black lung excise tax payments and abandoned mine payments from value, but would include state severance taxes. Considerable controversy arose such that Congress imposed a moratorium on implementation to allow further public comment. An alternative proposal from a joint industry group would base value on the depletable income provisions of the Internal Revenue Code. However, several western governors have voiced concerns over this alternative which analysis shows would result in significantly lower revenues to the Federal government, the states, and to the Tribes. Testimony was heard from eight witnesses, representing the DOI Land and Minerals Management, electric power associations, Western Organization of Resource Councils, the Navajo nation, National Coal Association, and Montana. Additional materials were submitted by the Energy Information Administration, the Western Coal Traffic League, the Western Fuels Association, and the States of Wyoming, North Dakota, Colorado, and New Mexico.

  6. Mineral Selection for Multicomponent Equilibrium Geothermometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plamer, C. D.; Ohly, S. R.; Smith, R. W.; Neupane, G.; McLing, T.; Mattson, E.

    2015-04-01

    Multicomponent geothermometry requires knowledge of the mineral phases in the reservoir with which the geothermal fluids may be equilibrated. These minerals phases are most often alteration products rather than primary minerals. We have reviewed the literature on geothermal systems representing most major geologic environments typically associated with geothermal activity and identified potential alteration products in various environments. We have included this information in RTEst, a code we have developed to estimate reservoir conditions (temperature, CO2 fugacity) from the geochemistry of near-surface geothermal waters. The information has been included in RTEst through the addition of filters that decrease the potential number of minerals from all possibilities based on the basis species to those that are more relevant to the particular conditions in which the user is interested. The three groups of filters include host rock type (tholeiitic, calc-alkaline, silicic, siliciclastic, carbonate), water type (acidic, neutral), and the temperature range over which the alteration minerals were formed (low, medium, high). The user-chosen mineral assemblage is checked to make sure that it does not violate the Gibbs phase rule. The user can select one of three mineral saturation weighting schemes that decrease the chance the optimization from being skewed by reaction stoichiometry or analytical uncertainty.

  7. Mineral Selection for Multicomponent Equilibrium Geothermometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Plamer, C. D.; Ohly, S. R.; Smith, R. W.; Neupane, G.; McLing, T.; Mattson, E.

    2015-04-01

    Multicomponent geothermometry requires knowledge of the mineral phases in the reservoir with which the geothermal fluids may be equilibrated. These minerals phases are most often alteration products rather than primary minerals. We have reviewed the literature on geothermal systems representing most major geologic environments typically associated with geothermal activity and identified potential alteration products in various environments. We have included this information in RTEst, a code we have developed to estimate reservoir conditions (temperature, CO2 fugacity) from the geochemistry of near-surface geothermal waters. The information has been included in RTEst through the addition of filters that decrease the potential numbermore » of minerals from all possibilities based on the basis species to those that are more relevant to the particular conditions in which the user is interested. The three groups of filters include host rock type (tholeiitic, calc-alkaline, silicic, siliciclastic, carbonate), water type (acidic, neutral), and the temperature range over which the alteration minerals were formed (low, medium, high). The user-chosen mineral assemblage is checked to make sure that it does not violate the Gibbs phase rule. The user can select one of three mineral saturation weighting schemes that decrease the chance the optimization from being skewed by reaction stoichiometry or analytical uncertainty.« less

  8. Recovery of minerals from US coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vanderborgh, N.E.

    1982-01-01

    Projections show that domestic coal will serve for the majority of energy supplies during the next decades. Thorough chemical cleaning of this coal can be accomplished in long residence time, slurry transport systems to produce high-quality fuel product. Concurrently, mineral recovery from coals will supplement existing ores. This paper describes this concept and given preliminary engineering considerations for mineral recovery during transport operations.

  9. Measurement of νμ-induced charged-current neutral pion production cross sections on mineral oil at Evϵ0.5–2.0 GeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Anderson, C. E.; Bazarko, A. O.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J. M.; Cox, D. C.; et al

    2011-03-23

    Using a custom 3-Cerenkov ring fitter, we report cross sections for νμ-induced charged-current single π⁰ production on mineral oil (CH₂) from a sample of 5810 candidate events with 57% signal purity over an energy range of 0.5–2.0 GeV. This includes measurements of the absolute total cross section as a function of neutrino energy, and flux-averaged differential cross sections measured in terms of Q², μ⁻ kinematics, and π⁰ kinematics. The sample yields a flux-averaged total cross section of (9.2±0.3stat±1.5syst)×10⁻³⁹ cm²/CH² at mean neutrino energy of 0.965 GeV.

  10. Minerals Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name: Minerals Technologies Place: Bethlehem, PA Website: www.mineralstechnologies.com References: Minerals Technologies1 Information...

  11. Nevada Division of Minerals | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Logo: Nevada Division of Minerals Name: Nevada Division of Minerals Address: 400 W. King St. 106 Place: Carson City, Nevada Zip: 89703 Website: minerals.state.nv.us...

  12. Hearing protection for miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulz, T.

    2008-10-15

    A NIOSH analysis showed that at age 50 approximately 90% of coal miners have a hearing impairment, yet noise included hearing loss is 100% preventable. The article discusses requirements of the MSHA regulations, 30 CFR Part 62 - occupational noise exposure (2000) and a 2008-MSHA document describing technologically achievable and promising controls for several types of mining machinery. Hearing protection is still required for exposure to greater than 90 dBA. These are now commercially available ways to determine how much attenuation an individual gets from a given hearing protector, known as 'fit testing'. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  13. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-06-22

    Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

  14. The estimation of the number of underground coal miners and the annual dose to coal miners in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, F.D.; Pan, Z.Q.; Liu, S.L.; Chen, L.; Ma, J.Z.; Yang, M.L.; Wang, N.P.

    2007-08-15

    This paper introduces an estimation method for the number of underground coal miners and the annual dose to coal miners in China. It shows that there are about 6 million underground miners at present and the proportion is about 1, 1 and 4 million for national key coal mines, state-owned local coal mines, and township and private-ownership coal mines, respectively. The collective dose is about 1.65 X 10{sup 4} person-Sv y{sup -1}, of which township and private-ownership coal mines contribute about 91%. This paper also points out that the 2000 UNSCEAR report gives the number of miners of coal production and their collective dose, which are underestimated greatly because the report only includes the number of underground miners in national key coal mines, which only accounts for 1/6 of the workers all working under the best ventilation conditions in China.

  15. Chemically Accelerated Carbon Mineralization: Chemical and Biological Catalytic Enhancement of Weathering of Silicate Minerals as Novel Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: Columbia University is developing a process to pull CO2 out of the exhaust gas of coal-fired power plants and turn it into a solid that can be easily and safely transported, stored above ground, or integrated into value-added products (e.g. paper filler, plastic filler, construction materials, etc.). In nature, the reaction of CO2 with various minerals over long periods of time will yield a solid carbonatethis process is known as carbon mineralization. The use of carbon mineralization as a CO2 capture and storage method is limited by the speeds at which these minerals can be dissolved and CO2 can be hydrated. To facilitate this, Columbia University is using a unique process and a combination of chemical catalysts which increase the mineral dissolution rate, and the enzymatic catalyst carbonic anhydrase which speeds up the hydration of CO2.

  16. Diagenesis and clay mineral formation at Gale Crater, Mars (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Diagenesis and clay mineral formation at Gale Crater, Mars Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Diagenesis and clay mineral formation at Gale Crater, Mars × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and

  17. A highly conspicuous mineralized composite photonic architecture in the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES A highly conspicuous mineralized composite photonic architecture in the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet « Prev Next » Title: A highly conspicuous mineralized composite photonic architecture in the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science (PAGES). This site is a product of DOE's Office of

  18. Abiotic/Biotic Degradation and Mineralization of N-Nitrosodimethylamine in Aquifer Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szecsody, James E.; McKinley, James P.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Crocker, Fiona H.

    2008-10-14

    The N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) degradation rate and mineralization rate were measured in two aquifer sediments that received treatments to create oxic, reducing, and sequential reducing/oxic environments. Chemically reduced sediments rapidly abiotically degraded NDMA to nontoxic dimethylamine (DMA) to parts per trillion levels, then degraded to further products. NDMA was partially mineralized in reduced sediments (6 to 28 percent) at a slow rate (half-life 3,460 h) by an unknown abiotic/biotic pathway. In contrast, NDMA was mineralized more rapidly (half-life 342 h) and to a greater extent (30 to 81 percent) in oxic sediments with propane addition, likely by a propane monooxygenase pathway. NDMA mineralization in sequential reduced sediment followed by oxic sediment treatment did result in slightly more rapid mineralization and a greater mineralization extent relative to reduced systems. These increases were minor, so aerobic NDMA mineralization with oxygen and propane addition was the most viable in situ NDMA mineralization strategy.

  19. Universal ripper miner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrell, Roger J. (Bloomington, MN); Larson, David A. (Minneapolis, MN)

    1991-01-01

    A universal ripper miner used to cut, collect and transfer material from an underground mine working face includes a cutter head that is vertically movable in an arcuate cutting cycle by means of drive members, such as hydraulically actuated pistons. The cutter head may support a circular cutter bit having a circular cutting edge that may be indexed to incrementally expose a fresh cutting edge. An automatic indexing system is disclosed wherein indexing occurs by means of a worm gear and indexing lever mechanism. The invention also contemplates a bi-directional bit holder enabling cutting to occur in both the upstroke and the downstroke cutting cycle. Another feature of the invention discloses multiple bits arranged in an in-line, radially staggered pattern, or a side-by-side pattern to increase the mining capacity in each cutting cycle. An on-board resharpening system is also disclosed for resharpening the cutting edge at the end of cutting stroke position. The aforementioned improvement features may be used either singly, or in any proposed combination with each other.

  20. Assessment of industrial minerals and rocks in the controlled area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castor, S.B.; Lock, D.E.

    1996-08-01

    Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada, is a potential site for a permanent repository for high-level nuclear waste in Miocene ash flow tuff. The Yucca Mountain controlled area occupies approximately 98 km{sup 2} that includes the potential repository site. The Yucca Mountain controlled area is located within the southwestern Nevada volcanic field, a large area of Miocene volcanism that includes at least four major calderas or cauldrons. It is sited on a remnant of a Neogene volcanic plateau that was centered around the Timber Mountain caldera complex. The Yucca Mountain region contains many occurrences of valuable or potentially valuable industrial minerals, including deposits with past or current production of construction aggregate, borate minerals, clay, building stone, fluorspar, silicate, and zeolites. The existence of these deposits in the region and the occurrence of certain mineral materials at Yucca Mountain, indicate that the controlled area may have potential for industrial mineral and rock deposits. Consideration of the industrial mineral potential within the Yucca Mountain controlled area is mainly based on petrographic and lithologic studies of samples from drill holes in Yucca Mountain. Clay minerals, zeolites, fluorite, and barite, as minerals that are produced economically in Nevada, have been identified in samples from drill holes in Yucca Mountain.

  1. Property:MineralManager | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MineralManager Jump to: navigation, search Property Name MineralManager Property Type Page Pages using the property "MineralManager" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous...

  2. Energy and Mineral Development Program

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    - Federal Register Solicitation ◦ FY 2012 very soon ◦ Average 60-90+ days response from tribes Annual Funding Program - Energy and Mineral Development Projects ◦ Renewable: Biomass (Woody, Waste-to-Energy), Wind, Hydroelectric, Geothermal, and Solar ◦ Oil, Gas, and Coal ◦ Mineral - Pre-Development work: ◦ Resource Assessment/Exploration studies ◦ Feasibility studies ◦ Market studies In previous years a por tion of the program has been earmarked for renewable energy projects and

  3. Minerals in the world economy. Minerals yearbook Volume 3. 1991 international review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimbell, C.L.

    1991-12-31

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook - International Review records the performance of the worldwide minerals industry during 1991 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume III, International Review, contains the latest available mineral data on more than 150 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations. The 1991 review is presented as five area reports and one world overview: Mineral Industries of Africa, Mineral Industries of Asia and the Pacific, Mineral Industries of Latin America and Canada, Mineral Industries of Europe and the U.S.S.R., Mineral Industries of the Middle East, and Minerals in the World Economy.

  4. CRYSTAL CHEMISTRY OF HYDROUS MINERALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. ZHAO; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    Hydrogen has long been appreciated for its role in geological processes of the Earth's crust. However, its role in Earth's deep interior has been neglected in most geophysical thinking. Yet it is now believed that most of our planet's hydrogen may be locked up in high pressure phases of hydrous silicate minerals within the Earth's mantle. This rocky interior (approximately 7/8 of Earth's volume) is conjectured to contain 1-2 orders of magnitude more water than the more obvious oceans (the ''hydrosphere'') and atmosphere. This project is aimed at using the capability of neutron scattering from hydrogen to study the crystal chemistry and stability of hydrogen-bearing minerals at high pressures and temperatures. At the most basic level this is a study of the atomic position and hydrogen bond itself. We have conducted experimental runs on hydrous minerals under high pressure and high temperature conditions. The crystallographic structure of hydrous minerals at extreme conditions and its structural stability, and hydrogen bond at high P-T conditions are the fundamental questions to be addressed. The behavior of the hydrous minerals in the deep interior of the Earth has been discussed.

  5. SkyMine Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christenson, Norm; Walters, Jerel

    2014-12-31

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 2b of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO2 from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO2 to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO2 capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to the point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and deployment. The overall process is carbon negative, resulting in mineralization of CO2 that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at the commercial scale. The project is being conducted in two phases. The primary objectives of Phase 1 were to evaluate proven SkyMine® process chemistry for commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2, complete a NEPA evaluation, and develop a comprehensive carbon life cycle analysis. The objective of Phase 2b was to build the pilot plant to be operated and tested in Phase 2c.

  6. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's penumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  7. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's pneumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  8. LOW TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL MINERAL RECOVERY PROGRAM 02/11/2014...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LOW TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL MINERAL RECOVERY PROGRAM 02112014 LOW TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL MINERAL RECOVERY PROGRAM 02112014 PDF icon mineral-webinar.pdf More Documents & ...

  9. New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Minerals and Natural Resources Department Jump to: navigation, search Logo: New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department Name: New Mexico Energy, Minerals...

  10. Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geology and Mineral Industries Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries Name: Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries...

  11. Utilization of coal associated minerals. Quarterly report No. 11, April 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slonaker, J. F.; Akers, D. J.; Alderman, J. K.

    1980-08-29

    The purpose of this research program is to examine the effects of coal mineral materials on coal waste by-product utilization and to investigate new and improved methods for the utilization of waste by-products from cleaning, combustion and conversion processing of coal. The intermediate objectives include: (1) the examination of the effects of cleaning, gasification and combustion on coal mineral materials; and (2) the changes which occur in the coal wastes as a result of both form and distribution of mineral materials in feed coals in conjunction with the coal treatment effects resulting from coal cleaning or either gasification or combustion.

  12. Mineralization of Carbon Dioxide: Literature Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanov, V; Soong, Y; Carney, C; Rush, G; Nielsen, B; O'Connor, W

    2015-01-01

    CCS research has been focused on CO2 storage in geologic formations, with many potential risks. An alternative to conventional geologic storage is carbon mineralization, where CO2 is reacted with metal cations to form carbonate minerals. Mineralization methods can be broadly divided into two categories: in situ and ex situ. In situ mineralization, or mineral trapping, is a component of underground geologic sequestration, in which a portion of the injected CO2 reacts with alkaline rock present in the target formation to form solid carbonate species. In ex situ mineralization, the carbonation reaction occurs above ground, within a separate reactor or industrial process. This literature review is meant to provide an update on the current status of research on CO2 mineralization. 2

  13. Strata control in mineral engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1986-01-01

    This book covers the state-of-the-art of strata control practice both in the United States and abroad with respect to strata reinforcement by rock bolting, long wall mining technology and innovations in energy development, such as mining for oil and tunneling for storage of high-level nuclear waste in deep underground repositories. It features coverage of design concepts in rock engineering and rockbolt systems, stability of rock pillars, rockbursts, shaft design and construction and a detailed consideration of mineral and energy needs in the United States.

  14. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- International Minerals and Chemical

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Corp - Pilot Plant - FL 02 and Chemical Corp - Pilot Plant - FL 02 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: International Minerals and Chemical Corp - Pilot Plant (FL.02) Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Mulberry , Florida FL.02-1 Evaluation Year: 1985 FL.02-2 Site Operations: Erected and operated a pilot plant to process material from the leached zone of the Florida pebble phosphate field for the recovery of uranium and other saleable products and also conducted

  15. Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration We have approached the long-standing geochemical question why anhydrous high-Mg carbonate minerals (i.e., magnesite and dolomite) cannot be formed at

  16. Geology and Minerals | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleGeologyandMinerals&oldid612244" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating...

  17. Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration Teng, H. Henry PI, The George Washington University PI, The George...

  18. Microbial and Chemical Enhancement of In-Situ Carbon Mineralization in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Geological Formation (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Microbial and Chemical Enhancement of In-Situ Carbon Mineralization in Geological Formation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microbial and Chemical Enhancement of In-Situ Carbon Mineralization in Geological Formation × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service.

  19. Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration Mica, biotite, muscovite, diopside, tremolite, ultramafic rock, hematite, Ca-Mg-carbonate, calcite, aragonite, dolomite, crystal nucleation,

  20. SkyMine Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Jones; Clive Barton; Mark Clayton; Al Yablonsky; David Legere

    2010-09-30

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 1 of the SkyMine{reg_sign} Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO{sub 2} from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO{sub 2} to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO{sub 2} capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to a point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and proliferation. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at commercial scale. The primary objectives of Phase 1 of the project were to elaborate proven SkyMine{reg_sign} process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design ('Reference Plant Design') for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2. Additionally, during Phase 1, information necessary to inform a DOE determination regarding NEPA requirements for the project was developed, and a comprehensive carbon lifecycle analysis was completed. These items were included in the formal application for funding under Phase 2. All Phase 1 objectives were successfully met on schedule and within budget.

  1. End-Use Sector Flowcharts, Energy Intensity Indicators

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Economy Transportation Sector Commercial Sector Residential Sector Electric Power Sector Industrial Sector Manufacturing NAICS 311-339 Food, Beverages, & Tobacco NAICS 311/312 Textile Mills and Products NAICS 313/314 Apparel & Leather Products NAICS 315/316 Wood Products NAICS 321 Paper NAICS 322 Printing & Related Support NAICS 323 Petroleum & Coal Products NAICS 324 Chemicals NAICS 325 Plastics & Rubber Products NAICS 326 Nonmetallic Mineral Products NAICS 327 Primary

  2. Process for the physical segregation of minerals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yingling, Jon C.; Ganguli, Rajive

    2004-01-06

    With highly heterogeneous groups or streams of minerals, physical segregation using online quality measurements is an economically important first stage of the mineral beneficiation process. Segregation enables high quality fractions of the stream to bypass processing, such as cleaning operations, thereby reducing the associated costs and avoiding the yield losses inherent in any downstream separation process. The present invention includes various methods for reliably segregating a mineral stream into at least one fraction meeting desired quality specifications while at the same time maximizing yield of that fraction.

  3. Division of Energy and Mineral Resources Management - Projects

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    BIA - - Division of Energy and Mineral Division of Energy and Mineral Resources Management Resources Management 1 1 Assistant Secretary Assistant Secretary - - Indian Affairs Indian Affairs Office of Indian Office of Indian Energy and Economic Energy and Economic Development Development Division of Energy and Division of Energy and Mineral Resources Mineral Resources Management Management BIA BIA - - Division of Energy and Mineral Division of Energy and Mineral Resources Management Resources

  4. Bashfords Hot Mineral Spa Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bashfords Hot Mineral Spa Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Bashfords Hot Mineral Spa Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  5. Mineral Recovery Creates Revenue Stream for Geothermal Energy...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Mineral Recovery Creates Revenue Stream for Geothermal Energy Development Mineral Recovery Creates Revenue Stream for Geothermal Energy Development December 1, 2015 - 8:00am...

  6. Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands of 1947 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the Mineral Leasing Act and the authority of the Secretary of the Interior over oil and gas operations to federal "acquired lands." References Mineral Leasing Act for...

  7. ITP Mining: Mining Industry of the Future Mineral Processing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the Future Mineral Processing Technology Roadmap ITP Mining: Mining Industry of the Future Mineral Processing Technology Roadmap PDF icon mptroadmap.pdf More Documents & ...

  8. Buckhorn Mineral Wells Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Buckhorn Mineral Wells Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Buckhorn Mineral Wells Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  9. Indian Mineral Leasing Act of 1938 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Provides for leasing of minerals on tribal lands References IMLA1 United States v. Navajo Nation2 The Indian Mineral Leasing Act of 1938 (IMLA) provides that "unallotted...

  10. Geology and Mineral Deposits of Churchill County, Nevada | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mineral Deposits of Churchill County, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Geology and Mineral Deposits of Churchill County, Nevada...

  11. H. R. S. 182 - Reservation and Disposition of Government Mineral...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mineral Rights (2012). Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleH.R.S.182-ReservationandDispositionofGovernmentMineralRights&oldid801574" ...

  12. Relations Of Ammonium Minerals At Several Hydrothermal Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to mineralization. Submicroscopic analysis of ammonium minerals from two mercury- and gold-bearing hot-springs deposits at Ivanhoe, Nevada and McLaughlin, California shows that...

  13. Dissolving the mineral calcite | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    calcite Share Topic Programs Chemical sciences & engineering Synchrotron radiation X-ray imaging & holography Argonne's X-ray Reflection Interfacial Microscope allows researchers to observe mineral surfaces. Powered by the Advanced Photon Source, the microscope allows researchers to "see" the surface structure in real time as "etch pits," or surface holes, developed on the mineral calcite

  14. Division of Energy and Mineral Development

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development Division of Energy and Mineral Development DOE Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Tribal Energy Program November 14 th , 2011 Winter Jojola-Talburt, Electrical Engineer Assistant Secretary - Indian Affairs (Larry Echo Hawk) Director Bureau of Indian Affairs Director Bureau of Indian Education Deputy Assistant Secretary Policy and Economic Development (Jodi Gillette) Division of Energy and Mineral Development Division of Economic Development

  15. MINER{nu}A Test Beam Commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higuera, A.; Castorena, J.; Urrutia, Z.; Felix, J.; Zavala, G.

    2009-12-17

    MINER{nu}A Main INjector ExpeRiment {nu}-A is a high-statistic neutrino scattering experiment that will ran in the NuMI Beam Hall at Fermilab. To calibrate the energy response of the MINER{nu}A detector, a beamline is being designed for the MINER{nu}A Test Beam Detector (TBD). The TBD is a replica of the full MINER{nu}A detector at small scale for calibration studies of the main detector. The beamline design consists of the following parts: a copper target, used to generate tertiaries from an incoming secondary beam; a steel collimator for tertiaries, which also serves as a dump for the incoming beam; a time of fight system (scintillator planes); four wire chambers, for angle measurements and tracking; and two dipole magnets, used as an spectrometer. During last October, the first commissioning run of the MINER{nu}A Test Beam took place in the Meson Test Beam Facility at Fermilab. We commissioned the target and collimator of the new tertiary beamline.

  16. Metallic and nonmetallic coatings for ICF targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendricks, C.D.; Crane, J.K.; Hsieh, E.J.; Meyer, S.F.

    1981-04-17

    Some fusion targets designed to be driven by 0.35 to 1 ..mu..m laser light are glass spheres coated with layers of various materials such as hydrocarbons, fluorocarbons, beryllium, copper, gold, platinum, etc. The glass shell, which is filled with gas, liquid or solid deuterium-tritium fuel, must have remarkably good surface and wall thickness uniformity. Methods for depositing the various materials will be discussed. They include plasma polymerization, electro-deposition, sputtering and evaporation. Many of the difficulties encountered in the coating processes are the result of coating on free spheres with very small radii - 35 to 500 micrometers. Several means of overcoming the problems will be described and experimental results presented.

  17. Utilization of coal-associated minerals. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slonaker, J. F.; Akers, D. J.; Alderman, J. K.

    1980-01-01

    Under contract number DE-AS21-77ET10533 with the US-DOE several methods of utilizing coal associated by-products were examined for potential commercial use. Such use could transform a costly waste disposal situation into new materials for further use and could provide incentive for the adoption of new coal utilization processes. Several utilization processes appear to have merit and are recommended for further study. Each process is discussed separately in the text of this report. Common coal cleaning processes were also examined to determine the effect of such processes on the composition of by-products. Data obtained in this portion of the research effort are reported in the Appendix. Information of this type is required before utilization processes can be considered. A knowledge of the mineral composition of these materials is also required before even simple disposal methods can be considered.

  18. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMED MINERAL WASTE FORMS: CHARACTERIZATION AND DURABILITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C; Troy Lorier, T; John Pareizs, J; James Marra, J

    2006-12-06

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of high sodium low activity wastes (LAW) such as those existing at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants with the waste denitrates the aqueous wastes and forms a granular mineral waste form that can subsequently be made into a monolith for disposal if necessary. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The mineralization occurs at moderate temperatures between 650-750 C in the presence of superheated steam. The cage and ring structured feldspathoid minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and Cs-137 and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Granular mineral waste forms were made from (1) a basic Hanford Envelope A low activity waste (LAW) simulant and (2) an acidic INL simulant commonly referred to as sodium bearing waste (SBW) in pilot scale facilities at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID. The FBSR waste forms were characterized and the durability tested via ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the Single Pass Flow Through (SPFT) test. The results of the SPFT testing and the activation energies for dissolution are discussed in this study.

  19. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMED MINERAL WASTE FORMS: CHARACTERIZATION AND DURABILITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C; Troy Lorier, T; John Pareizs, J; James Marra, J

    2007-03-31

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of high sodium low activity wastes (LAW) such as those existing at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants with the waste denitrates the aqueous wastes and forms a granular mineral waste form that can subsequently be made into a monolith for disposal if necessary. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The mineralization occurs at moderate temperatures between 650-750 C in the presence of superheated steam. The cage and ring structured feldspathoid minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and Cs-137 and anions such as SO4, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Granular mineral waste forms were made from (1) a basic Hanford Envelope A low-activity waste (LAW) simulant and (2) an acidic INL simulant commonly referred to as sodium bearing waste (SBW) in pilot scale facilities at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID. The FBSR waste forms were characterized and the durability tested via ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the Single Pass Flow Through (SPFT) test. The results of the SPFT testing and the activation energies for dissolution are discussed in this study.

  20. Molecular Characterization of Bacterial Respiration on Minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, Robert C.

    2013-04-26

    The overall aim of this project was to contribute to our fundamental understanding of proteins and biological processes under extreme environmental conditions. We sought to define the biochemical and physiological mechanisms that underlie biodegradative and other cellular processes in normal, extreme, and engineered environments. Toward that end, we sought to understand the substrate oxidation pathways, the electron transport mechanisms, and the modes of energy conservation employed during respiration by bacteria on soluble iron and insoluble sulfide minerals. In accordance with these general aims, the specific aims were two-fold: To identify, separate, and characterize the extracellular biomolecules necessary for aerobic respiration on iron under strongly acidic conditions; and to elucidate the molecular principles whereby these bacteria recognize and adhere to their insoluble mineral substrates under harsh environmental conditions. The results of these studies were described in a total of nineteen manuscripts. Highlights include the following: 1. The complete genome of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 (type strain) was sequenced in collaboration with the DOE Joint Genome Institute; 2. Genomic and mass spectrometry-based proteomic methods were used to evaluate gene expression and in situ microbial activity in a low-complexity natural acid mine drainage microbial biofilm community. This was the first effort to successfully analyze a natural community using these techniques; 3. Detailed functional and structural studies were conducted on rusticyanin, an acid-stable electron transfer protein purified from cell-free extracts of At. ferrooxidans. The three-dimensional structure of reduced rusticyanin was determined from a combination of homonuclear proton and heteronuclear 15N- and 13C-edited NMR spectra. Concomitantly, the three-dimensional structure of oxidized rusticyanin was determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 1.9 A by multiwavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) phasing; 4. An acid-stable red cytochrome with a novel absorbance peak at 579 nm was purified from cell-free extracts of L. ferriphilum. Functional studies demonstrated that this cytochrome was an important component of the aerobic iron respiratory chain in this organism; 5. The specific adhesion of At. ferrooxidans to pyrite is mediated by an extracellular protein that was identified as aporusticyanin. The adhesion of At. ferrooxidans to minerals was characterized by high affinity binding that exhibited a high specificity for pyrite over other sulfide minerals. The principal biopolymer involved in this high-affinity adhesion to pyrite was isolated by mineral affinity chromatography and identified as aporusticyanin. The adhesion of purified aporusticyanin to minerals was observed to adhere to different mineral with a pattern of reactivity identical to that observed with the intact bacterium. Further, preincubation of pyrite with excess exogenous aporusticyanin served to inhibit the adherence of intact cells to the surface of the mineral, indicating that the protein and the cells adhered to the pyrite in a mutually exclusive manner. Taken together, these observations support a model where aporusticyanin located on the surface of the bacterial cell acts as a mineral-specific receptor for the initial adherence of At. ferrooxidans to solid pyrite; 6. The specific adhesion of L. ferriphilum to pyrite was mediated by a different acid-stable extracellular protein than aporusticyanin; and 7. A prototype integrating cavity absorption meter (ICAM) was assembled to determine whether this novel spectrophotometer could be used to study cellular respiration in situ.

  1. Process for removal of mineral particulates from coal-derived liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, William J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1980-01-01

    Suspended mineral solids are separated from a coal-derived liquid containing the solids by a process comprising the steps of: (a) contacting said coal-derived liquid containing solids with a molten additive having a melting point of 100.degree.-500.degree. C. in an amount of up to 50 wt. % with respect to said coal-derived liquid containing solids, said solids present in an amount effective to increase the particle size of said mineral solids and comprising material or mixtures of material selected from the group of alkali metal hydroxides and inorganic salts having antimony, tin, lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, beryllium, aluminum, zinc, molybdenum, cobalt, nickel, ruthenium, rhodium or iron cations and chloride, iodide, bromide, sulfate, phosphate, borate, carbonate, sulfite, or silicate anions; and (b) maintaining said coal-derived liquid in contact with said molten additive for sufficient time to permit said mineral matter to agglomerate, thereby increasing the mean particle size of said mineral solids; and (c) recovering a coal-derived liquid product having reduced mineral solids content. The process can be carried out with less than 5 wt. % additive and in the absence of hydrogen pressure.

  2. Title 11 Alaska Administrative Code 82 Mineral Leasing Procedures...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2 Mineral Leasing Procedures Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: Title 11 Alaska Administrative Code 82 Mineral...

  3. Indian Mineral Development Act of 1982 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    agreements with DOI approval References Indian Mineral Development Act of 19821 Bureau of Indian Affairs2 The Indian Mineral Development Act of 1982 (IMDA) 25 U.S.C. Secs....

  4. Title 36 CFR 228 Minerals | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Regulation: Title 36 CFR 228 MineralsLegal Abstract Part 228 Minerals under Title 36: Parks, Forests, and Public Property of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, current as of...

  5. File:03AKDStateNoncompetitiveMineralLeasingProcess.pdf | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    3AKDStateNoncompetitiveMineralLeasingProcess.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:03AKDStateNoncompetitiveMineralLeasingProcess.pdf Size of...

  6. H. R. S. 182 - Reservation and Disposition of Government Mineral...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Redirected from Hawaii Revised Statute 182-1, Definitions for Reservation and Disposition of Government Mineral Rights)...

  7. Diagenesis and clay mineral formation at Gale Crater, Mars (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Diagenesis and clay mineral formation at Gale Crater, Mars Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Diagenesis and clay mineral formation at Gale Crater, Mars The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity found host rocks of basaltic composition and alteration assemblages containing clay minerals at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater. On the basis of the observed host rock and alteration minerals, we present results of equilibrium thermochemical modeling

  8. IEED Energy and Mineral Development Grants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Secretary of the Interior, through the Office of lndian Energy and Economic Development (IEED), is soliciting grant proposals from federally recognized Indian tribes and tribal energy resource development organizations for projects that assess, evaluate, or otherwise promote the processing, use, or development of energy and mineral resources on Indian lands. Grant awards are subject to the availability of funds as appropriated by Congress and allotted to IEED.

  9. NM Energy Minerals & Natural Resources Department

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Minerals & Natural Resources Department - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste

  10. LOW TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL MINERAL RECOVERY PROGRAM

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This targeted initiative focuses on critical mineral extraction as a path to optimize the value stream of low-to-moderate temperature resources. The FOA aims to promote the advancement of thermal energy processes capable of converting geothermal heat sources into power, in conjunction with the development or exploitation of technologies capable of capturing, concentrating, and/or purifying valuable materials contained within geothermal brines to economically extract resources that can provide additional revenue streams to geothermal operators.

  11. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA as well as flue gas from coal combustion. This topical report covers Phase 2b, which is the construction phase of pilot demonstration subsystems that make up the integrated plant. The subsystems included are the mineralization subsystem, the Alkalinity Based on Low Energy (ABLE) subsystem, the waste calcium oxide processing subsystem, and the fiber cement board production subsystem. The fully integrated plant is now capable of capturing CO2 from various sources (gas and coal) and mineralizing into a reactive calcium carbonate binder and subsequently producing commercial size (4ftx8ft) fiber cement boards. The topical report provides a description of the “as built” design of these subsystems and the results of the commissioning activities that have taken place to confirm operability. At the end of Phase 2b, the CCMP pilot demonstration is fully ready for testing.

  12. Overview of mineral waste form development for the electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pereira, C.; Lewis, M.A.; Ackerman, J.P.

    1996-05-01

    Argonne is developing a method to treat spent nuclear fuel in a molten salt electrorefiner. Wastes from this treatment will be converted into metal and mineral forms for geologic disposal. A glass-bonded zeolite is being developed to serve as the mineral waste form that will contain the fission products that accumulate in the electrorefiner salt. Fission products are ion exchanged from the salt into the zeolite A structure. The crystal structure of the zeolite after ion exchange is filled with salt ions. The salt-loaded zeolite A is mixed with glass frit and hot pressed. During hot pressing, the zeolite A may be converted to sodalite which also retains the waste salt. The glass-bonded zeolite is leach resistant. MCC-1 testing has shown that it has a release rate below 1 g/(m{sup 2}day) for all elements.

  13. Oil Shale Mining Claims Conversion Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Mineral Resources Development and Production of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session on S. 2089, H. R. 1039, April 22, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The hearing was called to examine two bills which address the processing of oil shale mining claims and patents by the Department of the Interior under the General Mining Law of 1872. S.2089 would provide for certain requirements relating to the conversion of oil shale mining claims located under the Mining Law of 1872 to leases and H.R.1039 would amend section 37 of the Mineral Lands Leasing Act of 1920 relating to oil shale claims. Under the new bills the owners of oil shale mining claims must make an election within 180 days after enactment as to whether to convert their claims to leases or to maintain their claims by performing 1000 dollars of annual assessment work on the claim, filing annually an affidavit of assessment work performed, and producing oil shale in significant marketable amounts within 10 years from the date of enactment of the legislation.

  14. Mineral formation and redox-sensitive trace elements in a near-surface hydrothermal alteration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gehring, A.U.; Schosseler, P.M.; Weidler, P.G.

    1999-07-01

    A recent hydrothermal mudpool at the southwestern slope of the Rincon de la Vieja volcano in Northwest Costa Rica exhibits an argillic alteration system formed by intense interaction of sulfuric acidic fluids with wall rock materials. Detailed mineralogical analysis revealed an assemblage with kaolinite, alunite, and opal-C as the major mineral phases. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) showed 3 different redox-sensitive cations associated with the mineral phases, Cu{sup +} is structure-bound in opal-C, whereas VO{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} are located in the kaolinite structure. The location of the redox-sensitive cations in different minerals of the assemblage is indicative of different chemical conditions. The formation of the alteration products can be described schematically as a 2-step process. In a first step alunite and opal-C were precipitated in a fluid with slightly reducing conditions and a low chloride availability. The second step is characterized by a decrease in K{sup +} activity and subsequent formation of kaolinite under weakly oxidizing to oxidizing redox conditions as indicated by structure-bound VO{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}. The detection of paramagnetic trace elements structure-bound in mineral phases by EPR provide direct information about the prevailing redox conditions during alteration and can, therefore, be used as additional insight into the genesis of the hydrothermal, near-surface system.

  15. Selective flotation of phosphate minerals with hydroxamate collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Jan D.; Wang, Xuming; Li, Minhua

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for separating phosphate minerals from a mineral mixture, particularly from high-dolomite containing phosphate ores. The method involves conditioning the mineral mixture by contacting in an aqueous in environment with a collector in an amount sufficient for promoting flotation of phosphate minerals. The collector is a hydroxamate compound of the formula; ##STR1## wherein R is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms. M is a cation, typically hydrogen, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. Preferably, the collector also comprises an alcohol of the formula, R'--OH wherein R' is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties so that it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms.

  16. CMI Course Inventory: Mineral Economics and Business | Critical Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Institute Mineral Economics and Business Mineral Economics and Business Of the six CMI Team members that are educational institutions, two offer courses in Mineral Economics and Business. These are Colorado School of Mines and Brown University. The following links go to the class list on the CMI page for that school. Colorado School of Mines offers a major in these areas At Brown University, the Institute of Environment and Society offers several courses on economics and policy CMI Education

  17. Before the House Natural Resources Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Resources | Department of Energy Natural Resources Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral Resources Before the House Natural Resources Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral Resources Before the House Natural Resources Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral Resources By: Dr. Ray Boswell, Senior Management and Technology Advisor, National Energy Technology Laboratory Subject: Unconventional Fuels, Part II: The Promise of Methane Hydrates PDF icon 7-30-09_Final_Testimony_(Boswell).pdf More Documents &

  18. Production taxes: stealthy killer of revenue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohrenz, J.; Dougherty, E.L.; Burzlaff, B.H.

    1983-02-07

    A model of the rate of oil and gas production from a given piece of property in terms of the development cost and net operating revenues illustrates that high taxes and royalties diminish the optimal production rate and ultimately render valueless an otherwise potentially valuable productive property. The economic viability of a mineral prospect is much more sensitive to production taxes and royalties than to other factors affecting a prospect's value.

  19. Division of Energy and Mineral Development | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in Lakewood, Colorado. The Division assists Tribes with the exploration, development and management of their energy and mineral resources to create sustainable economies for...

  20. National Mineral Development Corporation Ltd NMDC | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corporation Ltd NMDC Jump to: navigation, search Name: National Mineral Development Corporation Ltd. (NMDC) Place: Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India Zip: 500028 Sector: Solar, Wind...

  1. Clay Minerals Related To The Hydrothermal Activity Of The Bouillante...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Minerals Related To The Hydrothermal Activity Of The Bouillante Geothermal Field (Guadeloupe) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  2. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral Interactions and Determination of Contact Angles. Abstract not provided. Authors: Tenney, Craig M ; Cygan, ...

  3. Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Oxygen...

  4. Buckhorn Mineral Wells Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Buckhorn Mineral Wells Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Buckhorn...

  5. Thermally Speciated Mercury in Mineral Exploration | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Speciated Mercury in Mineral Exploration Abstract Abstract unavailable. Author S.C. Smith Conference IGES; Dublin, CA; 20030901 Published IGES, 2003 DOI Not Provided Check...

  6. Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Leasing Act established the authority of the Secretary of the Interior to oversee oil and gas operations on federal land. References Federal Oil and Gas Statutes1 Mineral...

  7. Mining and Minerals Policy Act of 1970 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Act, this statute encompasses both hard rock mining and oil and gas and established modern federal policy regarding mineral resources in the United States. The Act articulates a...

  8. Radioactive Mineral Occurences in Nevada | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Radioactive Mineral Occurences in Nevada Abstract Abstract unavailable. Author Larry J. Garside Organization Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Published Nevada Bureau of...

  9. Hawaii Revised Statute 523A-2, Definition of Mineral Resources...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Not provided DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Hawaii Revised Statute 523A-2, Definition of Mineral Resources Citation...

  10. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- International Minerals and...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    (The Former International Minerals and Chemical Corporation) Bartow, Florida; November 26, 1985 FL.03-4 - Memorandum; McKereghan to Campbell; ERDA (AEC) Inspection; April 11, 1977...

  11. Astoria Mineral Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Astoria Mineral Hot Springs Sector Geothermal energy Type Pool and Spa Location Jackson, Wyoming Coordinates 43.4799291, -110.7624282 Show Map Loading map......

  12. Mineral County, West Virginia: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    West Virginia Keyser, West Virginia Piedmont, West Virginia Ridgeley, West Virginia Wiley Ford, West Virginia Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleMineralCou...

  13. Request for Information explores mineral recovery from geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Information explores mineral recovery from geothermal fluids May 12, 2015 - 11:01am Addthis Geothermal energy below the boiling point is now being harnessed to generate electricity ...

  14. Cooperative Reorganization of Mineral and Template during Directed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    prepared from organic thiol molecules on metal substrates are known to exert substantial influence over mineralization and, as such, provide model systems for investigating the...

  15. Australasian Code for Reporting of Exploration Results, Mineral...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (JORC) Published The Joint Ore Reserves Committee of The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Australian Institute of Geoscientists, and Minerals Council of...

  16. Hyperspectral Mineral Mapping In Support Of Geothermal Exploration...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CA and Dixie Valley, NV, USA Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Hyperspectral Mineral Mapping In Support Of Geothermal...

  17. Discovery of bridgmanite, the most abundant mineral in Earth...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Discovery of bridgmanite, the most abundant mineral in Earth, in a shocked meteorite Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  18. Stewart Mineral Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Stewart Mineral Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Stewart...

  19. GIS-technologies for integrated assessment of the productive mining areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zamaraev, R.Y.; Oparin, V.N.; Popov, S.E.; Potapov, V.P.; Pyastunovich,O.L.

    2008-05-15

    The paper describes the bases of a new application of GIS-technologies for integrated assessment and comparison of the productive mining areas, involving a wide range of mining and technological factors, considering mineral properties, mineral occurrence conditions and geographical advantages of a mineral deposit location. The model capabilities are exemplified by a comparison of technological characteristics of coals, transportation and power supply infrastructure of the productive mining areas at the Kuznetsk Coal Basin.

  20. US Minerals Databrowser | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Databrowser is a web-based tool which provides visualizations of the United States' consumption, production, exports, and imports of various minterals. It uses data from the U.S....

  1. Degradation of dome cutting minerals in Hanford waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, Jacob G.; Huber, Heinz J.; Cooke, Gary A.

    2013-01-11

    At the Hanford Tank Farms, recent changes in retrieval technology require cutting new risers in several single-shell tanks. The Hanford Tank Farm Operator is using water jet technology with abrasive silicate minerals such as garnet or olivine to cut through the concrete and rebar dome. The abrasiveness of these minerals, which become part of the high-level waste stream, may enhance the erosion of waste processing equipment. However, garnet and olivine are not thermodynamically stable in Hanford waste, slowly degrading over time. How likely these materials are to dissolve completely in the waste before the waste is processed in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant can be evaluated using theoretical analysis for olivine and collected direct experimental evidence for garnet. Based on an extensive literature study, a large number of primary silicates decompose into sodalite and cancrinite when exposed to Hanford waste. Given sufficient time, the sodalite also degrades into cancrinite. Even though cancrinite has not been directly added to any Hanford tanks during process times, it is the most common silicate observed in current Hanford waste. By analogy, olivine and garnet are expected to ultimately also decompose into cancrinite. Garnet used in a concrete cutting demonstration was immersed in a simulated supernate representing the estimated composition of the liquid retrieving waste from Hanford tank 241-C-107 at both ambient and elevated temperatures. This simulant was amended with extra NaOH to determine if adding caustic would help enhance the degradation rate of garnet. The results showed that the garnet degradation rate was highest at the highest NaOH concentration and temperature. At the end of 12 weeks, however, the garnet grains were mostly intact, even when immersed in 2 molar NaOH at 80 deg C. Cancrinite was identified as the degradation product on the surface of the garnet grains. In the case of olivine, the rate of degradation in the high-pH regimes of a waste tank is expected to depend on two main parameters: carbonate is expected to slow olivine degradation rates, whereas hydroxide is expected to enhance olivine dissolution rates. Which of these two competing dissolution drivers will have a larger impact on the dissolution rate in the specific environment of a waste tank is currently not identifiable. In general, cancrinite is much smaller and less hard than either olivine or garnet, so would be expected to be less erosive to processing equipment. Complete degradation of either garnet or olivine prior to being processed at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant cannot be confirmed, however.

  2. Report for Treating Hanford LAW and WTP SW Simulants: Pilot Plant Mineralizing Flowsheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arlin Olson

    2012-02-28

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for managing the disposal of radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in Washington State. The Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant (WPT) will separate the waste into a small volume of high level waste (HLW), containing most of the radioactive constituents, and a larger volume of low activity waste (LAW), containing most of the non-radioactive chemical and hazardous constituents. The HLW and LAW will be converted into immobilized waste forms for disposal. Currently there is inadequate LAW vitrification capacity planned at the WTP to complete the mission within the required timeframe. Therefore additional LAW capacity is required. One candidate supplemental treatment technology is the fluidized bed steam reformer process (FBSR). This report describes the demonstration testing of the FBSR process using a mineralizing flowsheet for treating simulated Hanford LAW and secondary waste from the WTP (WTP SW). The FBSR testing project produced leach-resistant solid products and environmentally compliant gaseous effluents. The solid products incorporated normally soluble ions into an alkali alumino-silicate (NaS) mineral matrix. Gaseous emissions were found to be within regulatory limits. Cesium and rhenium were captured in the mineralized products with system removal efficiencies of 99.999% and 99.998 respectively. The durability and leach performance of the FBSR granular solid were superior to the low activity reference material (LMR) glass standards. Normalized product consistency test (PCT) release rates for constituents of concern were approximately 2 orders of magnitude less than that of sodium in the Hanford glass [standard].

  3. A Novel Approach to Experimental Studies of Mineral Dissolution Kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Zhu

    2006-08-31

    Currently, DOE is conducting pilot CO{sub 2} injection tests to evaluate the concept of geological sequestration. One strategy that potentially enhances CO{sub 2} solubility and reduces the risk of CO{sub 2} leak back to the surface is dissolution of indigenous minerals in the geological formation and precipitation of secondary carbonate phases, which increases the brine pH and immobilizes CO{sub 2}. Clearly, the rates at which these dissolution and precipitation reactions occur directly determine the efficiency of this strategy. However, one of the fundamental problems in modern geochemistry is the persistent two to five orders of magnitude discrepancy between laboratory measured and field derived feldspar dissolution rates. To date, there is no real guidance as to how to predict silicate reaction rates for use in quantitative models. Current models for assessment of geological carbon sequestration have generally opted to use laboratory rates, in spite of the dearth of such data for compositionally complex systems, and the persistent disconnect between laboratory and field applications. Therefore, a firm scientific basis for predicting silicate reaction kinetics in CO2 injected geological formations is urgently needed to assure the reliability of the geochemical models used for the assessments of carbon sequestration strategies. The funded experimental and theoretical study attempts to resolve this outstanding scientific issue by novel experimental design and theoretical interpretation to measure silicate dissolution rates and iron carbonate precipitation rates at conditions pertinent to geological carbon sequestration. In the second year of the project, we completed CO{sub 2}-Navajo sandstone interaction batch and flow-through experiments and a Navajo sandstone dissolution experiment without the presence of CO{sub 2} at 200 C and 250-300 bars, and initiated dawsonite dissolution and solubility experiments. We also performed additional 5-day experiments at the same conditions as alkali-feldspar dissolution experiments with and without the presence of CO{sub 2} performed in the first year to check the validation of the experiments and analysis. The changes of solution chemistry as dissolution experiments progressed were monitored with on-line sampling of the aqueous phase at the constant temperature and pressure. These data allow calculating overall apparent mineral (feldspars and sandstones) dissolution rates and secondary mineral precipitation rates as a function of saturation states. State-of-the-art atomic resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron microprobe was used to characterize the products and reactants. Reaction-path geochemical modeling was used to interpret the experimental results of alkali-feldspar dissolution experiments without the presence of CO{sub 2}. Two manuscripts are near completion. Also during the second year, our education goal of graduate student training has been advanced. A Ph. D. student at Indiana University is progressing well in the degree program and has taken geochemical modeling, SEM, and TEM courses, which will facilitate research in the third year. A Ph. D. student at University of Minnesota had graduated. With the success of training of graduate students and excellent experimental data in the second year, we anticipate a more fruitful year in the third year.

  4. Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-05-06

    The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

  5. Impact of antitrust enforcement on the Country's minerals posture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-10-07

    This review found that there have not been a significant number of nonfuel-minerals-industry-related antitrust cases litigated at FTC or Justice over the last several years. In addition, officials interviewed in the nonfuel minerals industries generally do not view antitrust enforcement as a serious obstacle to their activities. The Department of Justice and FTC's Bureau of Competition comments on this report are included in enclosure II. Enclosure I presents a background discussion on antitrust enforcement, followed by detailed findings and conclusions. Enclosure III summarizes several antitrust investigations and cases cited by minerals industry spokesmen as examples of antitrust problems. (PSB)

  6. Integrated Experimental and Modeling Studies of Mineral Carbonation as a Mechanism for Permanent Carbon Sequestration in Mafic/Ultramafic Rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhengrong; Qiu, Lin; Zhang, Shuang; Bolton, Edward; Bercovici, David; Ague, Jay; Karato, Shun-Ichiro; Oristaglio, Michael; Zhu, Wen-Iu; Lisabeth, Harry; Johnson, Kevin

    2014-09-30

    A program of laboratory experiments, modeling and fieldwork was carried out at Yale University, University of Maryland, and University of Hawaii, under a DOE Award (DE-FE0004375) to study mineral carbonation as a practical method of geologic carbon sequestration. Mineral carbonation, also called carbon mineralization, is the conversion of (fluid) carbon dioxide into (solid) carbonate minerals in rocks, by way of naturally occurring chemical reactions. Mafic and ultramafic rocks, such as volcanic basalt, are natural candidates for carbonation, because the magnesium and iron silicate minerals in these rocks react with brines of dissolved carbon dioxide to form carbonate minerals. By trapping carbon dioxide (CO2) underground as a constituent of solid rock, carbonation of natural basalt formations would be a secure method of sequestering CO2 captured at power plants in efforts to mitigate climate change. Geochemical laboratory experiments at Yale, carried out in a batch reactor at 200C and 150 bar (15 MPa), studied carbonation of the olivine mineral forsterite (Mg2SiO4) reacting with CO2 brines in the form of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) solutions. The main carbonation product in these reactions is the carbonate mineral magnesite (MgCO3). A series of 32 runs varied the reaction time, the reactive surface area of olivine grains and powders, the concentration of the reacting fluid, and the starting ratio of fluid to olivine mass. These experiments were the first to study the rate of olivine carbonation under passive conditions approaching equilibrium. The results show that, in a simple batch reaction, olivine carbonation is fastest during the first 24 hours and then slows significantly and even reverses. A natural measure of the extent of carbonation is a quantity called the carbonation fraction, which compares the amount of carbon removed from solution, during a run, to the maximum amount that could have been removed if the olivine initially present had fully dissolved and the cations released had subsequently precipitated in carbonate minerals. The carbonation fractions observed in batch experiments with olivine grains and powders varied significantly, from less than 0.01 (1%) to more than 0.5 (50%). Over time, the carbonation fractions reached an upper limit after about 24 to 72 hours of reaction, then stayed constant or decreased. The peak Final Scientific/Technical Report DE-FE0004275 | Mineral Carbonation | 4 coincided with the appearance of secondary magnesium-bearing silicate minerals, whose formation competes for magnesium ions in solution and can even promote conditions that dissolve magnesite. The highest carbonation fractions resulted from experiments with low ratios of concentrated solution to olivine, during which amorphous silica spheres or meshes formed, instead of secondary silicate minerals. The highest carbonation fractions appear to result from competing effects. Precipitation of silica layers on olivine reduces the reactive surface area and, thus, the rate of olivine dissolution (which ultimately limits the carbonation rate), but these same silica layers can also inhibit the formation of secondary silicate minerals that consume magnesite formed in earlier stages of carbonation. Simulation of these experiments with simple geochemical models using the software program EQ3/6 reproduces the general trends observedespecially the results for the carbonation fraction in short-run experiments. Although further experimentation and better models are needed, this study nevertheless provides a framework for understanding the optimal conditions for sequestering carbon dioxide by reacting CO2-bearing fluids with rocks containing olivine minerals. A series of experiments at the Rock Physics Laboratory at the University of Maryland studied the carbonation process during deformation of thermally cracked olivine-rich rock samples (dunit

  7. Fundamental study of CO2-H2O-mineral interactions for carbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    sequestration, with emphasis on the nature of the supercritical fluid-mineral interface. ... sequestration, with emphasis on the nature of the supercritical fluid-mineral interface. ...

  8. H.R.S. 182-1 - Reservation and Disposition of Government Mineral...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Government Mineral Rights, DefinitionsLegal Abstract Hawaii statute governing the administration of government mineral rights, including rights for geothermal resources. Published...

  9. Evolution of a Mineralized Geothermal System, Valles Caldera...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Journal Article: Evolution of a Mineralized Geothermal System, Valles Caldera, New Mexico Abstract The 20-km-diam Valles caldera formed at 1.13 Ma and had continuous...

  10. A Review Of Water Contents Of Nominally Anhydrous Natural Minerals...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Of Water Contents Of Nominally Anhydrous Natural Minerals In The Mantles Of Earth, Mars And The Moon Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

  11. ORS 516 - Department of Geology and Mineral Industries | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    6 - Department of Geology and Mineral Industries Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: ORS 516 - Department of Geology...

  12. Mercury Contents of Natural Thermal and Mineral Fluids, In- U...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Paper 713 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Book Section: Mercury Contents of Natural Thermal and Mineral Fluids, In- U.S. Geological...

  13. Hyperspectral Mineral Mapping In Support Of Geothermal Exploration...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ca And Dixie Valley, Nv, Usa Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Book: Hyperspectral Mineral Mapping In Support Of Geothermal Exploration- Examples...

  14. Underground radio technology saves miners and emergency response personnel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Underground radio technology saves miners and emergency response personnel Underground radio technology saves miners and emergency response personnel Founded through LANL, Vital Alert Technologies, Inc. (Vital Alert) has launched a wireless, two-way real-time voice communication system that is effective through 1,000+ feet of solid rock. April 3, 2012 Vital Alert's C1000 mine and tunnel radios use magnetic induction, advanced digital communications techniques and ultra-low frequency transmission

  15. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral Interactions

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Determination of Contact Angles. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral Interactions and Determination of Contact Angles. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral Interactions and Determination of Contact Angles. Abstract not provided. Authors: Tenney, Craig M ; Cygan, Randall T. Publication Date: 2013-08-01 OSTI Identifier: 1106710 Report Number(s):

  16. Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 Earth is a dynamic planet in which convection takes place on the scale of thousands of kilometers. Because Earth is mostly solid (except for its liquid-iron outer core), this convection causes deformation of solid rocks by plastic flow. At the core-mantle boundary (CMB), 2900 km deep, seismologists have discovered that seismic waves travel faster in

  17. Thermodynamic stability of actinide pyrochlore minerals in deep geologic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    repository environments (Conference) | SciTech Connect Thermodynamic stability of actinide pyrochlore minerals in deep geologic repository environments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermodynamic stability of actinide pyrochlore minerals in deep geologic repository environments Crystalline phases of pyrochlore (e.g., CaPuTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}, CaUTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}) have been proposed as a durable ceramic waste form for disposal of high level radioactive wastes including surplus

  18. Request for Information explores mineral recovery from geothermal fluids |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Request for Information explores mineral recovery from geothermal fluids Request for Information explores mineral recovery from geothermal fluids May 12, 2015 - 11:01am Addthis Geothermal energy below the boiling point is now being harnessed to generate electricity and a host of applications. Source: NREL/Ted Clutter Geothermal energy below the boiling point is now being harnessed to generate electricity and a host of applications. Source: NREL/Ted Clutter The DOE

  19. Low-Temperature Mineral Recovery Program FOA Selections | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Temperature Mineral Recovery Program FOA Selections Low-Temperature Mineral Recovery Program FOA Selections This early exploration well, drilled in Montana to find oil, has yielded over 1000 gallons per minute of hot goethermal fluid. The Energy Department is finding new ways to tap these natural energy streams to generate power and a number of direct use applications. Source: Geothermal Resources Council This early exploration well, drilled in Montana to find oil, has yielded over

  20. Mineral Recovery Creates Revenue Stream for Geothermal Energy Development |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Mineral Recovery Creates Revenue Stream for Geothermal Energy Development Mineral Recovery Creates Revenue Stream for Geothermal Energy Development December 1, 2015 - 8:00am Addthis Critical materials like rare-earth elements and lithium play a vital role in many clean-energy technologies, including solar panels, wind turbines, electric vehicles, and energy-saving lighting. The Energy Department is pursuing a range of research and development efforts to secure and

  1. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Foote Mineral Co - PA 27

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Foote Mineral Co - PA 27 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Foote Mineral Co. (PA.27 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Exton , Pennsylvania PA.27-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 PA.27-1 Site Operations: Processed rare earth, principally zirconium and monazite sand was processed on a pilot-plant scale. PA.27-2 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Limited quantity of material handled - Potential for contamination considered remote

  2. LOW TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL MINERAL RECOVERY PROGRAM 02/11/2014 | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy LOW TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL MINERAL RECOVERY PROGRAM 02/11/2014 LOW TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL MINERAL RECOVERY PROGRAM 02/11/2014 PDF icon mineral-webinar.pdf More Documents & Publications LOW TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL MINERAL RECOVERY PROGRAM Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis

  3. Minerals yearbook, 1992: Vanadium. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hilliard, H.E.

    1993-09-01

    In 1992, steelmaking continued to account for more than 80% of domestic vanadium demand. Consumption showed a modest increase, from 3,300 tons in 1991 to 4,032 tons in 1992. Although overall imports of vanadium raw materials decreased when compared with 1991, imports of ash, residues, and spent catalysts increased. Total U.S. exports of vanadium materials increased from 1,560 tons in 1991 to about 1,700 tons in 1992. The oversupply of vanadium that began in late 1989 persisted throughout 1992 despite reduced production by the world's largest producer, Highveld Steel Vanadium Corp. of the Republic of South Africa. A result of the oversupply was continuously lower prices in 1992.

  4. Diagenesis and clay mineral formation at Gale Crater, Mars

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bridges, J. C.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Leveille, R.; Westall, F.; Wiens, R. C.; Mangold, N.; Bristow, T.; Edwards, P.; Berger, G.

    2015-01-18

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity found host rocks of basaltic composition and alteration assemblages containing clay minerals at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater. On the basis of the observed host rock and alteration minerals, we present results of equilibrium thermochemical modeling of the Sheepbed mudstones of Yellowknife Bay in order to constrain the formation conditions of its secondary mineral assemblage. Building on conclusions from sedimentary observations by the Mars Science Laboratory team, we assume diagenetic, in situ alteration. The modeling shows that the mineral assemblage formed by the reaction of a CO₂-poor and oxidizing, dilute aqueous solution (Gale Portage Water)more » in an open system with the Fe-rich basaltic-composition sedimentary rocks at 10–50°C and water/rock ratio (mass of rock reacted with the starting fluid) of 100–1000, pH of ~7.5–12. Model alteration assemblages predominantly contain phyllosilicates (Fe-smectite, chlorite), the bulk composition of a mixture of which is close to that of saponite inferred from Chemistry and Mineralogy data and to that of saponite observed in the nakhlite Martian meteorites and terrestrial analogues. To match the observed clay mineral chemistry, inhomogeneous dissolution dominated by the amorphous phase and olivine is required. We therefore deduce a dissolving composition of approximately 70% amorphous material, with 20% olivine, and 10% whole rock component.« less

  5. Evaluation of coal-mineral association and coal cleanability by using SEM-based automated image analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straszheim, W.E.; Younkin, K.A.; Markuszewski, R. ); Smith, F.J. )

    1988-06-01

    A technique employing SEM-based automated image analysis (AIA) has been developed for assessing the association of mineral particles with coal, and thus the cleanability of that coal, when the characteristics of the separation process are known. Data resulting from AIA include the mineral distribution by particle size, mineral phase, and extent of association with coal. This AIA technique was applied to samples of -325 mesh (-44 ..mu..m) coal from the Indiana No. 3, Upper Freeport, and Sunnyside (UT) seams. The coals were subjected to cleaning by float-sink separations at 1.3, 1.4, 1.6, and 1.9 specific gravity and by froth flotation. For the three coals, the float-sink procedure at a given specific gravity produced different amounts of clean coal, but with similar ash content. Froth flotation removed much less ash, yielding a product ash content of --8% for the Upper Freeport coal, regardless of recovery, while reducing the ash content to less than 5% for the other two coals. The AIA results documented significantly more association of minerals with the Upper Freeport coal, which thus led to the poor ash reduction.

  6. "Terrywallaceite" now in official roster of known minerals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    » June » "Terrywallaceite" Now In Official Roster Of Known Minerals "Terrywallaceite" now in official roster of known minerals The slender, needle-like metallic-black crystals of Terrywallaceite were found in the Julcani Mining District of Peru. June 8, 2011 The mineral "Terrywallaceite" The mineral "Terrywallaceite" I am honored and humbled that a group of geoscientists and peers would suggest naming a mineral after me and that the international

  7. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, Maggie C.Y.; Stackhouse, B.; Layton, Alice C.; Chauhan, Archana; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chourey, Karuna; Mykytczuk, N. C.S.; Bennett, Phil C.; Lamarche-Gagnon, G.; Burton, N.; Renholm, J.; Hettich, R. L.; Pollard, W. H.; Omelon, C. R.; Medvigy, David M.; Pffifner, Susan M.; Whyte, L. G.; Onstott, T. C.

    2015-04-14

    The transition of Arctic carbon-rich cryosols into methane (CH?)-emitting wetlands due to global warming is a rising concern. However, the spatially predominant mineral cryosols and their CH? emission potential are poorly understood. Fluxes measured in situ and estimated under laboratory conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH?-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH? uptake flux increases with ground temperature; and, as a result, (3) the atmospheric CH? sink strength will increase by a factor of 5-30 as the Arctic warms by 5-15 C over a century. We demonstrated that acidic mineral cryosols have previously unrecognized potential of negative CH? feedback.

  8. Durability Testing of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JANTZEN, CAROL M.; PAREIZS, JOHN M.; LORIER, TROY H.; MARRA, JAMES C.

    2005-07-01

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of radioactive wastes but especially aqueous high sodium wastes at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The FBSR technology converts organic compounds to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, converts nitrate/nitrite species to N{sub 2}, and produces a solid residue through reactions with superheated steam, the fluidizing media. If clay is added during processing a ''mineralized'' granular waste form can be produced. The mineral components of the waste form are primarily Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The cage and ring structured minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc{sup 99} and Cs{sup 137} and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals appear to stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Durability testing of the FBSR products was performed using ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The FBSR mineral products (bed and fines) evaluated in this study were found to be two orders of magnitude more durable than the Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass requirement of 2 g/m{sup 2} release of Na{sup +}. The PCT responses for the FBSR samples tested were consistent with results from previous FBSR Hanford LAW product testing. Differences in the response can be explained by the minerals formed and their effects on PCT leachate chemistry.

  9. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Heavy Minerals Inc - IL 14

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Heavy Minerals Inc - IL 14 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Heavy Minerals, Inc. ( IL.14 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: W.R. Grace Company IL.14-1 Location: 836 South Michigan Avenue , Chicago , Illinois IL.14-2 Evaluation Year: 1990 IL.14-1 Site Operations: Submitted a proposal to supply thorium hydroxide to the AEC; no indication that the bid was accepted. IL.14-2 Site Disposition: Eliminated - No indication of work done with

  10. Modeling the global emission, transport and deposition of trace elements associated with mineral dust

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Y.; Mahowald, N.; Scanza, R.; Journet, E.; Desboeufs, K.; Albani, S.; Kok, J.; Zhuang, G.; Chen, Y.; Cohen, D. D.; et al

    2014-12-17

    Trace element deposition from desert dust has important impacts on ocean primary productivity. In this study, emission inventories for 8 elements, which are primarily of soil origin, Mg, P, Ca, Mn, Fe, K, Al, and Si were determined based on a global mineral dataset and a soils dataset. Datasets of elemental fractions were used to drive the desert dust model in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) in order to simulate the elemental concentrations of atmospheric dust. Spatial variability of mineral dust elemental fractions was evident on a global scale, particularly for Ca. Simulations of global variations in the Camore » / Al ratio, which typically ranged from around 0.1 to 5.0 in soil sources, were consistent with observations, suggesting this ratio to be a good signature for dust source regions. The simulated variable fractions of chemical elements are sufficiently different that estimates of deposition should include elemental variations, especially for Ca, Al and Fe. The model results have been evaluated with observational elemental aerosol concentration data from desert regions and dust events in non-dust regions, providing insights into uncertainties in the modeling approach. The ratios between modeled and observed elemental fractions ranged from 0.7 to 1.6 except for 3.4 and 3.5 for Mg and Mn, respectivly. Using the soil data base improved the correspondence of the spatial hetereogeneity in the modeling of several elements (Ca, Al and Fe) compared to observations. Total and soluble dust associated element fluxes into different ocean basins and ice sheets regions have been estimated, based on the model results. Annual inputs of soluble Mg, P, Ca, Mn, Fe and K associated with dust using mineral dataset were 0.28 Tg, 16.89 Gg, 1.32 Tg, 22.84 Gg, 0.068 Tg, and 0.15 Tg to global oceans and ice sheets.« less

  11. Federal offshore statistics: leasing - exploration - production - revenue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Essertier, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    Federal Offshore Statistics is a numerical record of what has happened since Congress gave authority to the Secretary of the Interior in 1953 to lease the Federal portion of the Continental Shelf for oil and gas. The publication updates and augments the first Federal Offshore Statistics, published in December 1983. It also extends a statistical series published annually from 1969 until 1981 by the US Geological Survey (USGS) under the title Outer Continental Shelf Statistics. The USGS collected royalties and supervised operation and production of minerals on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) until the Minerals Management Service (MMS) took over these functions in 1982. Statistics are presented under the following topics: (1) highlights, (2) leasing, (3) exploration and development, (4) production and revenue, (5) federal offshore production by ranking operator, 1983, (6) reserves and undiscovered recoverable resources, and (7) oil pollution in the world's oceans.

  12. Mineral density volume gradients in normal and diseased human tissues

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Djomehri, Sabra I.; Candell, Susan; Case, Thomas; Browning, Alyssa; Marshall, Grayson W.; Yun, Wenbing; Lau, S. H.; Webb, Samuel; Ho, Sunita P.; Aikawa, Elena

    2015-04-09

    Clinical computed tomography provides a single mineral density (MD) value for heterogeneous calcified tissues containing early and late stage pathologic formations. The novel aspect of this study is that, it extends current quantitative methods of mapping mineral density gradients to three dimensions, discretizes early and late mineralized stages, identifies elemental distribution in discretized volumes, and correlates measured MD with respective calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) and Ca to zinc (Zn) elemental ratios. To accomplish this, MD variations identified using polychromatic radiation from a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) benchtop unit were correlated with elemental mapping obtained from a microprobe X-raymore » fluorescence (XRF) using synchrotron monochromatic radiation. Digital segmentation of tomograms from normal and diseased tissues (N=5 per group; 40-60 year old males) contained significant mineral density variations (enamel: 2820-3095mg/cc, bone: 570-1415mg/cc, cementum: 1240-1340mg/cc, dentin: 1480-1590mg/cc, cementum affected by periodontitis: 1100-1220mg/cc, hypomineralized carious dentin: 345-1450mg/cc, hypermineralized carious dentin: 1815-2740mg/cc, and dental calculus: 1290-1770mg/cc). A plausible linear correlation between segmented MD volumes and elemental ratios within these volumes was established, and Ca/P ratios for dentin (1.49), hypomineralized dentin (0.32-0.46), cementum (1.51), and bone (1.68) were observed. Furthermore, varying Ca/Zn ratios were distinguished in adapted compared to normal tissues, such as in bone (855-2765) and in cementum (595-990), highlighting Zn as an influential element in prompting observed adaptive properties. Hence, results provide insights on mineral density gradients with elemental concentrations and elemental footprints that in turn could aid in elucidating mechanistic processes for pathologic formations.« less

  13. Mineral density volume gradients in normal and diseased human tissues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djomehri, Sabra I.; Candell, Susan; Case, Thomas; Browning, Alyssa; Marshall, Grayson W.; Yun, Wenbing; Lau, S. H.; Webb, Samuel; Ho, Sunita P.; Aikawa, Elena

    2015-04-09

    Clinical computed tomography provides a single mineral density (MD) value for heterogeneous calcified tissues containing early and late stage pathologic formations. The novel aspect of this study is that, it extends current quantitative methods of mapping mineral density gradients to three dimensions, discretizes early and late mineralized stages, identifies elemental distribution in discretized volumes, and correlates measured MD with respective calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) and Ca to zinc (Zn) elemental ratios. To accomplish this, MD variations identified using polychromatic radiation from a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) benchtop unit were correlated with elemental mapping obtained from a microprobe X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using synchrotron monochromatic radiation. Digital segmentation of tomograms from normal and diseased tissues (N=5 per group; 40-60 year old males) contained significant mineral density variations (enamel: 2820-3095mg/cc, bone: 570-1415mg/cc, cementum: 1240-1340mg/cc, dentin: 1480-1590mg/cc, cementum affected by periodontitis: 1100-1220mg/cc, hypomineralized carious dentin: 345-1450mg/cc, hypermineralized carious dentin: 1815-2740mg/cc, and dental calculus: 1290-1770mg/cc). A plausible linear correlation between segmented MD volumes and elemental ratios within these volumes was established, and Ca/P ratios for dentin (1.49), hypomineralized dentin (0.32-0.46), cementum (1.51), and bone (1.68) were observed. Furthermore, varying Ca/Zn ratios were distinguished in adapted compared to normal tissues, such as in bone (855-2765) and in cementum (595-990), highlighting Zn as an influential element in prompting observed adaptive properties. Hence, results provide insights on mineral density gradients with elemental concentrations and elemental footprints that in turn could aid in elucidating mechanistic processes for pathologic formations.

  14. Fundamental study of CO2-H2O-mineral interactions for carbon sequestration,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with emphasis on the nature of the supercritical fluid-mineral interface. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Fundamental study of CO2-H2O-mineral interactions for carbon sequestration, with emphasis on the nature of the supercritical fluid-mineral interface. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fundamental study of CO2-H2O-mineral interactions for carbon sequestration, with emphasis on the nature of the supercritical fluid-mineral interface. In the supercritical CO2-water-mineral

  15. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming of Hanford LAW Using THORsm Mineralizing Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, Arlin L.; Nicholas R Soelberg; Douglas W. Marshall; Gary L. Anderson

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documented, in 2002, a plan for accelerating cleanup of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, by at least 35 years. A key element of the plan was acceleration of the tank waste program and completion of ''tank waste treatment by 2028 by increasing the capacity of the planned Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) and using supplemental technologies for waste treatment and immobilization.'' The plan identified steam reforming technology as a candidate for supplemental treatment of as much as 70% of the low-activity waste (LAW). Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was completed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel. The pilot scale facility was equipped with a highly efficient cyclone separator and heated sintered metal filters for particulate removal, a thermal oxidizer for reduced gas species and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for residual volatile species capture. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, but located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Pilot scale testing was performed August 25, 2004. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Science Application International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, personnel performed actual pilot scale operation. The pilot scale test achieved a total of 68.7 hrs of cumulative/continuous processing operation before termination in response to a bed de-fluidization condition. 178 kg of LAW surrogate were processed that resulted in 148 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 17%. The process achieved essentially complete bed turnover within approximately 40 hours. Samples of mineralized solid product materials were analyzed for chemical/physical properties. SRNL will report separately the results of product performance testing that were accomplished.

  16. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming of INEEL SBW Using THORsm Mineralizing Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arlin L. Olson; Nicholas R. Soelberg; Douglas W. Marshall; Gary L. Anderson

    2004-12-01

    Sodium bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Offices (NE-ID) and State of Idahos top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Many studies have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. DOE desired further experimental data, with regard to steam reforming technology, to make informed decisions concerning selection of treatment technology for SBW. Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was performed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel September 27 through October 1, 2004. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, and located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Personnel from Science Applications International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, operated the pilot plant. The pilot scale test was terminated as planned after achieving a total of 100 hrs of cumulative/continuous processing operation. About 230 kg of SBW surrogate were processed that resulted in about 88 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 62%. The process achieved about a 90% turnover of the starting bed. Samples of mineralized solid product materials were analyzed for chemical/physical properties. Results of product performance testing conducted by SRNL will be reported separately by SRNL.

  17. Identification of concrete deteriorating minerals by polarizing and scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregerova, Miroslava; Vsiansky, Dalibor

    2009-07-15

    The deterioration of concrete represents one of the most serious problems of civil engineering worldwide. Besides other processes, deterioration of concrete consists of sulfate attack and carbonation. Sulfate attack results in the formation of gypsum, ettringite and thaumasite in hardened concrete. Products of sulfate attack may cause a loss of material strength and a risk of collapse of the concrete constructions. The authors focused especially on the microscopical research of sulfate attack. Concrete samples were taken from the Charles Bridge in Prague, Czech Republic. A succession of degrading mineral formation was suggested. Microscope methods represent a new approach to solving the deterioration problems. They enable evaluation of the state of concrete constructions and in cooperation with hydro-geochemistry, mathematics and statistics permit prediction of the durability of a structure. Considering the number of concrete constructions and their age, research of concrete deterioration has an increasing importance. The results obtained can also be useful for future construction, because they identify the risk factors associated with formation of minerals known to degrade structures.

  18. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA. This topical report covers Subphase 2a which is the design phase of pilot demonstration subsystems. Materials of construction have been selected and proven in both lab scale and prototype testing to be acceptable for the reagent conditions of interest. The target application for the reactive carbonate material has been selected based upon small-scale feasibility studies and the design of a continuous fiber board production line has been completed. The electrochemical cell architecture and components have been selected based upon both lab scale and prototype testing. The appropriate quality control and diagnostic techniques have been developed and tested along with the required instrumentation and controls. Finally the demonstrate site infrastructure, NEPA categorical exclusion, and permitting is all ready for the construction and installation of the new units and upgrades.

  19. Method of producing submicron size particles and product produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, R.S.; Eichman, C.C.; Welbon, W.W.

    1988-05-11

    Submicron size particles are produced by using a sputtering process to deposit particles into a liquid. The liquid is processed to recover the particles therefrom, and the particles have sizes in the range of twenty to two hundred Angstroms. Either metallic or non-metallic particles can be produced, and the metallic particles can be used in ''metallic inks.'' 4 figs.

  20. Method for the production of mineral wool and iron from serpentine ore -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal 8,033,140 Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Find More Like This Return to Search Method

  1. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

    2015-06-30

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA as well as flue gas from coal combustion. This final report details all development, analysis, design and testing of the project. Also included in the final report are an updated Techno-Economic Analysis and CO2 Lifecycle Analysis. The subsystems included in the pilot demonstration plant are the mineralization subsystem, the Alkalinity Based on Low Energy (ABLE) subsystem, the waste calcium oxide processing subsystem, and the fiber cement board production subsystem. The fully integrated plant was proven to be capable of capturing CO2 from various sources (gas and coal) and mineralizing it into a reactive calcium carbonate binder and subsequently producing commercial size (4ftx8ft) fiber cement boards. The final report provides a description of the “as built” design of these subsystems and the results of the commissioning activities that have taken place to confirm operability. The report also discusses the results of the fully integrated operation of the facility. Fiber cement boards have been produced in this facility exclusively using reactive calcium carbonate from captured CO2 from flue gas. These boards meet all US and China appropriate acceptance standards. Use demonstrations for these boards are now underway.

  2. Rend Lake College celebrates the opening of a new coal miner training facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2009-09-15

    The Coal Miner Training Center at Rend Lake College recently hosted the Illinois Mining Institute's annual conference and a regional mine rescue competition. The article gives an outline of the coal miner training and refresher course offered. 3 photos.

  3. File:Land sale mineral release complete.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Land sale mineral release complete.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage File:Land sale mineral release complete.pdf Size of this preview: 463 599 pixels....

  4. Geophysical technique for mineral exploration and discrimination based on electromagnetic methods and associated systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhdanov; Michael S.

    2008-01-29

    Mineral exploration needs a reliable method to distinguish between uneconomic mineral deposits and economic mineralization. A method and system includes a geophysical technique for subsurface material characterization, mineral exploration and mineral discrimination. The technique introduced in this invention detects induced polarization effects in electromagnetic data and uses remote geophysical observations to determine the parameters of an effective conductivity relaxation model using a composite analytical multi-phase model of the rock formations. The conductivity relaxation model and analytical model can be used to determine parameters related by analytical expressions to the physical characteristics of the microstructure of the rocks and minerals. These parameters are ultimately used for the discrimination of different components in underground formations, and in this way provide an ability to distinguish between uneconomic mineral deposits and zones of economic mineralization using geophysical remote sensing technology.

  5. RCW 79.14 Mineral, Coal, Oil and Gas Leases | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    79.14 Mineral, Coal, Oil and Gas Leases Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: RCW 79.14 Mineral, Coal, Oil and Gas...

  6. File:03HIAReservedLandMineralLeasingProcess.pdf | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    HIAReservedLandMineralLeasingProcess.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:03HIAReservedLandMineralLeasingProcess.pdf Size of this preview: 463...

  7. File:03HIBStateMineralLeasingProcess.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    3HIBStateMineralLeasingProcess.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:03HIBStateMineralLeasingProcess.pdf Size of this preview: 463 599...

  8. File:03AKAStateCompetitiveMineralLeasingProcess.pdf | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    3AKAStateCompetitiveMineralLeasingProcess.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:03AKAStateCompetitiveMineralLeasingProcess.pdf Size of this...

  9. Radiolysis of alanine adsorbed in a clay mineral

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguilar-Ovando, Ellen Y.; Negron-Mendoza, Alicia

    2013-07-03

    Optical activity in molecules is a chemical characteristic of living beings. In this work, we examine the hypothesis of the influence of different mineral surfaces on the development of a specific chirality in organic molecules when subjected to conditions simulating the primitive Earth during the period of chemical evolution. By using X-ray diffraction techniques and HPLC/ELSD to analyze aqueous suspensions of amino acids adsorbed on minerals irradiated in different doses with a cobalt-60 gamma source, the experiments attempt to prove the hypothesis that some solid surfaces (like clays and meteorite rocks) may have a concentration capacity and protective role against external sources of ionizing radiation (specifically {gamma}-ray) for some organic compounds (like some amino acids) adsorbed on them. Preliminary results show a slight difference in the adsorption and radiolysis of the D-and L-alanine.

  10. Investigating Radiation Shielding Properties of Different Mineral Origin Heavyweight Concretes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basyigit, Celalettin; Uysal, Volkan; Kilincarslan, Semsettin; Akkas, Ayse; Mavi, Betuel; Guenoglu, Kadir; Akkurt, Iskender

    2011-12-26

    The radiation although has hazardous effects for human health, developing technologies bring lots of usage fields to radiation like in medicine and nuclear power station buildings. In this case protecting from undesirable radiation is a necessity for human health. Heavyweight concrete is one of the most important materials used in where radiation should be shielded, like those areas. In this study, used heavyweight aggregates of different mineral origin (Limonite, Siderite), in order to prepare different series in concrete mixtures and investigated radiation shielding properties. The experimental results on measuring the radiation shielding, the heavyweight concrete prepared with heavyweight aggregates of different mineral origin show that, are useful radiation absorbents when they used in concrete mixtures.

  11. Method of analysis of asbestiform minerals by thermoluminescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisher, Gerald L. (Davis, CA); Bradley, Edward W. (Davis, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of asbestiform minerals, including the steps of subjecting a sample to be analyzed to the thermoluminescent analysis, annealing the sample, subjecting the sample to ionizing radiation, and subjecting the sample to a second thermoluminescent analysis. Glow curves are derived from the two thermoluminescent analyses and their shapes then compared to established glow curves of known asbestiform minerals to identify the type of asbestiform in the sample. Also, during at least one of the analyses, the thermoluminescent response for each sample is integrated during a linear heating period of the analysis in order to derive the total thermoluminescence per milligram of sample. This total is a measure of the quantity of asbestiform in the sample and may also be used to identify the source of the sample.

  12. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lau, Maggie C.Y.; Stackhouse, B.; Layton, Alice C.; Chauhan, Archana; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chourey, Karuna; Mykytczuk, N. C.S.; Bennett, Phil C.; Lamarche-Gagnon, G.; Burton, N.; et al

    2015-04-14

    The transition of Arctic carbon-rich cryosols into methane (CH₄)-emitting wetlands due to global warming is a rising concern. However, the spatially predominant mineral cryosols and their CH₄ emission potential are poorly understood. Fluxes measured in situ and estimated under laboratory conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH₄-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH⁺ uptake flux increases with ground temperature; and, as a result, (3) the atmospheric CH₄ sink strength will increase by a factor of 5-30 as the Arctic warms by 5-15 °C over a century. We demonstrated that acidic mineralmore » cryosols have previously unrecognized potential of negative CH₄ feedback.« less

  13. Hydrodesulfurization and hydrodenitrogenation catalysts obtained from coal mineral matter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Kindtoken H. D. (Newark, DE); Hamrin, Jr., Charles E. (Lexington, KY)

    1982-01-01

    A hydrotreating catalyst is prepared from coal mineral matter obtained by low temperature ashing coals of relatively low bassanite content by the steps of: (a) depositing on the low temperature ash 0.25-3 grams of an iron or nickel salt in water per gram of ash and drying a resulting slurry; (b) crushing and sizing a resulting solid; and (c) heating the thus-sized solid powder in hydrogen.

  14. Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary Print Earth is a dynamic planet in which convection takes place on the scale of thousands of kilometers. Because Earth is mostly solid (except for its liquid-iron outer core), this convection causes deformation of solid rocks by plastic flow. At the core-mantle boundary (CMB), 2900 km deep, seismologists have discovered that seismic waves travel faster in certain directions. This seismic anisotropy appears to be related to the deformation of

  15. Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary Print Earth is a dynamic planet in which convection takes place on the scale of thousands of kilometers. Because Earth is mostly solid (except for its liquid-iron outer core), this convection causes deformation of solid rocks by plastic flow. At the core-mantle boundary (CMB), 2900 km deep, seismologists have discovered that seismic waves travel faster in certain directions. This seismic anisotropy appears to be related to the deformation of

  16. Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary Print Earth is a dynamic planet in which convection takes place on the scale of thousands of kilometers. Because Earth is mostly solid (except for its liquid-iron outer core), this convection causes deformation of solid rocks by plastic flow. At the core-mantle boundary (CMB), 2900 km deep, seismologists have discovered that seismic waves travel faster in certain directions. This seismic anisotropy appears to be related to the deformation of

  17. Dissolving the mineral calcite: Reaction front instability | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory calcite: Reaction front instability Share Topic Programs Chemical sciences & engineering Synchrotron radiation X-ray imaging & holography Using the X-ray Reflection Interfacial Microscope powered by the Advanced Photon Source, researchers can both watch and drive the nanoscale changes of the surface of a calcite mineral as it dissolves in real-time. In this image, researchers observe distortions in the reaction front (the boundary between the blue and red regions)

  18. Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary Print Earth is a dynamic planet in which convection takes place on the scale of thousands of kilometers. Because Earth is mostly solid (except for its liquid-iron outer core), this convection causes deformation of solid rocks by plastic flow. At the core-mantle boundary (CMB), 2900 km deep, seismologists have discovered that seismic waves travel faster in certain directions. This seismic anisotropy appears to be related to the deformation of

  19. Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary Print Earth is a dynamic planet in which convection takes place on the scale of thousands of kilometers. Because Earth is mostly solid (except for its liquid-iron outer core), this convection causes deformation of solid rocks by plastic flow. At the core-mantle boundary (CMB), 2900 km deep, seismologists have discovered that seismic waves travel faster in certain directions. This seismic anisotropy appears to be related to the deformation of

  20. Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary Print Earth is a dynamic planet in which convection takes place on the scale of thousands of kilometers. Because Earth is mostly solid (except for its liquid-iron outer core), this convection causes deformation of solid rocks by plastic flow. At the core-mantle boundary (CMB), 2900 km deep, seismologists have discovered that seismic waves travel faster in certain directions. This seismic anisotropy appears to be related to the deformation of

  1. Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary Print Earth is a dynamic planet in which convection takes place on the scale of thousands of kilometers. Because Earth is mostly solid (except for its liquid-iron outer core), this convection causes deformation of solid rocks by plastic flow. At the core-mantle boundary (CMB), 2900 km deep, seismologists have discovered that seismic waves travel faster in certain directions. This seismic anisotropy appears to be related to the deformation of

  2. Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary Print Earth is a dynamic planet in which convection takes place on the scale of thousands of kilometers. Because Earth is mostly solid (except for its liquid-iron outer core), this convection causes deformation of solid rocks by plastic flow. At the core-mantle boundary (CMB), 2900 km deep, seismologists have discovered that seismic waves travel faster in certain directions. This seismic anisotropy appears to be related to the deformation of

  3. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- International Minerals and Chemicals

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Corp - Bonnie Mill Plant - FL 03 and Chemicals Corp - Bonnie Mill Plant - FL 03 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: International Minerals and Chemicals Corp., Bonnie Mill Plant (FL.03) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: CF Industries Bonnie Uranium Plant FL.03-2 Location: Approximately 2 miles south of Highway 60 between Mulberry and Bartow , Bartow , Florida FL.03-2 Evaluation Year: 1985 FL.03-2 Site Operations: Recovered uranium

  4. Division of Energy and Mineral Development - Project Overviews

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Secretary-Indian Affairs Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development Project Overviews Scott Haase Renewable Energy Engineer ASIA, Division of Energy and Mineral Development Presented at: U.S. DOE Tribal Energy Program Annual Meeting October 26, 2006 Prior to April 14, 2005 the Division was under the Office of Trust Services. The Division now reports to a newly formed office - The Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development Bureau of Indian Affairs Secretary, Policy and Economic

  5. Yemen Ministry of Oil and Minerals | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Website contains some content in English. Associated Organizations Yemeni Company for Oil-Product Distribution Petroleum Exploration and Production Authority Safr Company for...

  6. Products of an Artificially Induced Hydrothermal System at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Levy

    2000-08-07

    Studies of mineral deposition in the recent geologic past at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, address competing hypotheses of hydrothermal alteration and deposition from percolating groundwater. The secondary minerals being studied are calcite-opal deposits in fractures and lithophysal cavities of ash-flow tuffs exposed in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), a 7.7-km tunnel excavated by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project within Yucca Mountain. An underground field test in the ESF provided information about the minerals deposited by a short-lived artificial hydrothermal system and an opportunity for comparison of test products with the natural secondary minerals. The heating phase lasted nine months, followed by a nine-month cooling period. Natural pore fluids were the only source of water during the thermal test. Condensation and reflux of water driven away from the heater produced fluid flow in certain fractures and intersecting boreholes. The mineralogic products of the thermal test are calcite-gypsum aggregates of less than 4-micrometer crystals and amorphous silica as glassy scale less than 0.2 mm thick and as mounds of tubules with diameters less than 0.7 micrometers. The minute crystal sizes of calcite and gypsum from the field test are very different from the predominantly coarser calcite crystals (up to cm scale) in natural secondary-mineral deposits at the site. The complex micrometer-scale textures of the amorphous silica differ from the simple forms of opal spherules and coatings in the natural deposits, even though some natural spherules are as small as 1 micrometer. These differences suggest that the natural minerals, especially if they were of hydrothermal origin, may have developed coarser or simpler forms during subsequent episodes of dissolution and redeposition. The presence of gypsum among the test products and its absence from the natural secondary-mineral assemblage may indicate a higher degree of evaporation during the test than during the deposition of natural calcite-opal deposits.

  7. Fundamental study of CO2-H2O-mineral interactions for carbon sequestration,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with emphasis on the nature of the supercritical fluid-mineral interface. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Fundamental study of CO2-H2O-mineral interactions for carbon sequestration, with emphasis on the nature of the supercritical fluid-mineral interface. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fundamental study of CO2-H2O-mineral interactions for carbon sequestration, with emphasis on the nature of the supercritical fluid-mineral interface. In the supercritical

  8. Fundamental study of CO2-H2O-mineral interactions for carbon sequestration,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with emphasis on the nature of the supercritical fluid-mineral interface. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Fundamental study of CO2-H2O-mineral interactions for carbon sequestration, with emphasis on the nature of the supercritical fluid-mineral interface. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fundamental study of CO2-H2O-mineral interactions for carbon sequestration, with emphasis on the nature of the supercritical fluid-mineral interface. × You are accessing a document from the

  9. nemsoverview_928.vp

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (NAICS 2121) Glass and Glass Products (NAICS 3272) Oil and Gas Extraction (NAICS 211) Hydraulic Cement (NAICS 32731) Metal and Other Nonmetallic Mining (NAICS 2122-2123) Blast...

  10. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brent Constantz; Randy Seeker; Martin Devenney

    2010-06-30

    Calera's innovative Mineralization via Aqueous Precipitation (MAP) technology for the capture and conversion of CO{sub 2} to useful materials for use in the built environment was further developed and proven in the Phase 1 Department of Energy Grant. The process was scaled to 300 gallon batch reactors and subsequently to Pilot Plant scale for the continuous production of product with the production of reactive calcium carbonate material that was evaluated as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM). The Calera SCM{trademark} was evaluated as a 20% replacement for ordinary portland cement and demonstrated to meet the industry specification ASTM 1157 which is a standard performance specification for hydraulic cement. The performance of the 20% replacement material was comparable to the 100% ordinary portland cement control in terms of compressive strength and workability as measured by a variety of ASTM standard tests. In addition to the performance metrics, detailed characterization of the Calera SCM was performed using advanced analytical techniques to better understand the material interaction with the phases of ordinary portland cement. X-ray synchrotron diffraction studies at the Advanced Photon Source in Argonne National Lab confirmed the presence of an amorphous phase(s) in addition to the crystalline calcium carbonate phases in the reactive carbonate material. The presence of carboaluminate phases as a result of the interaction of the reactive carbonate materials with ordinary portland cement was also confirmed. A Life Cycle Assessment was completed for several cases based on different Calera process configurations and compared against the life cycle of ordinary portland cement. In addition to the materials development efforts, the Calera technology for the production of product using an innovative building materials demonstration plant was developed beyond conceptual engineering to a detailed design with a construction schedule and cost estimate.

  11. NOVEL IN-SITU METAL AND MINERAL EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn O'Gorman; Hans von Michaelis; Gregory J. Olson

    2004-09-22

    This white paper summarizes the state of art of in-situ leaching of metals and minerals, and describes a new technology concept employing improved fragmentation of ores underground in order to prepare the ore for more efficient in-situ leaching, combined with technology to continuously improve solution flow patterns through the ore during the leaching process. The process parameters and economic benefits of combining the new concept with chemical and biological leaching are described. A summary is provided of the next steps required to demonstrate the technology with the goal of enabling more widespread use of in-situ leaching.

  12. Rare earth element patterns in biotite, muscovite and tourmaline minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C.; Lepel, E.A.

    1986-04-21

    Rare earth element concentrations in the minerals biotite and muscovite from the mica schist country rocks of the Etta pegmatite and tourmalines from the Bob Ingersoll pegmatite have been measured by INAA and CNAA. The concentrations range from 10/sup -4/ g/g to 10/sup -10g//sub g/. The REE patterns of biotite, muscovite and tourmaline reported herein are highly fractionated from light to heavy REE. The REE concentrations in biotite and muscovite are high and indigenous. The pegmatite tourmalines contain low concentrations of REE. Variations in tourmaline REE patterns reflect the geochemical evolution of pegmatite melt/fluid system during crystallization.

  13. Modeling the global emission, transport and deposition of trace elements associated with mineral dust

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Y.; Mahowald, N.; Scanza, R. A.; Journet, E.; Desboeufs, K.; Albani, S.; Kok, J. F.; Zhuang, G.; Chen, Y.; Cohen, D. D.; et al

    2015-10-12

    Trace element deposition from desert dust has important impacts on ocean primary productivity, the quantification of which could be useful in determining the magnitude and sign of the biogeochemical feedback on radiative forcing. However, the impact of elemental deposition to remote ocean regions is not well understood and is not currently included in global climate models. In this study, emission inventories for eight elements primarily of soil origin, Mg, P, Ca, Mn, Fe, K, Al, and Si are determined based on a global mineral data set and a soil data set. The resulting elemental fractions are used to drive themore » desert dust model in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) in order to simulate the elemental concentrations of atmospheric dust. Spatial variability of mineral dust elemental fractions is evident on a global scale, particularly for Ca. Simulations of global variations in the Ca / Al ratio, which typically range from around 0.1 to 5.0 in soils, are consistent with observations, suggesting that this ratio is a good signature for dust source regions. The simulated variable fractions of chemical elements are sufficiently different; estimates of deposition should include elemental variations, especially for Ca, Al and Fe. The model results have been evaluated with observations of elemental aerosol concentrations from desert regions and dust events in non-dust regions, providing insights into uncertainties in the modeling approach. The ratios between modeled and observed elemental fractions range from 0.7 to 1.6, except for Mg and Mn (3.4 and 3.5, respectively). Using the soil database improves the correspondence of the spatial heterogeneity in the modeling of several elements (Ca, Al and Fe) compared to observations. Total and soluble dust element fluxes to different ocean basins and ice sheet regions have been estimated, based on the model results. The annual inputs of soluble Mg, P, Ca, Mn, Fe and K associated with dust using the mineral data set are 0.30 Tg, 16.89 Gg, 1.32 Tg, 22.84 Gg, 0.068 Tg, and 0.15 Tg to global oceans and ice sheets.« less

  14. Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produce hydrogen. It includes an overview of research goals as well as “quick facts” about hydrogen energy resources and production technologies.

  15. Active Layer Soil Carbon and Nutrient Mineralization, Barrow, Alaska, 2012

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Stan D. Wullschleger; Holly M. Vander Stel; Colleen Iversen; Victoria L. Sloan; Richard J. Norby; Mallory P. Ladd; Jason K. Keller; Ariane Jong; Joanne Childs; Deanne J. Brice

    2015-10-29

    This data set consists of bulk soil characteristics as well as carbon and nutrient mineralization rates of active layer soils manually collected from the field in August, 2012, frozen, and then thawed and incubated across a range of temperatures in the laboratory for 28 day periods in 2013-2015. The soils were collected from four replicate polygons in each of the four Areas (A, B, C, and D) of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Soil samples were coincident with the established Vegetation Plots that are located in center, edge, and trough microtopography in each polygon. Data included are 1) bulk soil characteristics including carbon, nitrogen, gravimetric water content, bulk density, and pH in 5-cm depth increments and also by soil horizon, 2) carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus mineralization rates for soil horizons incubated aerobically (and in one case both aerobically and anaerobically) for 28 days at temperatures that included 2, 4, 8, and 12 degrees C. Additional soil and incubation data are forthcoming. They will be available when published as part of another paper that includes additional replicate analyses.

  16. Fly ash and coal mineral matter surface transformations during heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baer, D R; Smith, R D

    1982-05-01

    A study is reported of surface segregation phenomena for fly ash and aluminosilicates representative of coal mineral matter during heating. The materials studied included a 20-..mu..m average diameter fly ash powder, a glass prepared from the fly ash, and Ca- and K-rich aluminosilicate minerals. The samples were heated both in air and under vacuum for extended periods at temperatures up to 1100/sup 0/C. XPS, Auger and SIMS methods were used to obtain relative surface elemental concentrations for major and minor components and depth profiles for some of the samples. Major differences were noted between samples heated in air (oxidizing) and those heated in vacuum (reducing) environments. For the fly ash glass heated in air Fe, Ti and Mg become enriched on the surfaces while heating in vacuum leads to Si surface segregation. Different trends upon heating were also observed for the Ca- and K-rich aluminosilicates. The results indicate two levels of surface enrichment upon the fly ash glass; a thin (< 500 A) layer and a thicker (1- to 2-..mu..m) layer most evident for heating in air where an Fe-rich layer is formed. The present results indicate that the rates of surface segregation may not be sufficiently fast on the time scale of fly ash formation to result in equilibrium surface segregation. It is concluded that condensation processes during fly ash formation probably play a major role in the observed fly ash surface enrichments.

  17. How EIA Estimates Natural Gas Production

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2004-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes estimates monthly and annually of the production of natural gas in the United States. The estimates are based on data EIA collects from gas producing states and data collected by the U. S. Minerals Management Service (MMS) in the Department of Interior. The states and MMS collect this information from producers of natural gas for various reasons, most often for revenue purposes. Because the information is not sufficiently complete or timely for inclusion in EIA's Natural Gas Monthly (NGM), EIA has developed estimation methodologies to generate monthly production estimates that are described in this document.

  18. Isotopes Products

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotopes Products Isotopes Products Isotopes produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory are saving lives, advancing cutting-edge research and keeping the U.S. safe. Products stress and rest Stress and rest Rb-82 PET images in a patient with dipyridamole stress-inducible lateral wall and apical ischemia. (http://www.fac.org.ar/scvc/llave/image/machac/machaci.htm#f2,3,4) Strontium-82 is supplied to our customers for use in Sr-82/Rb-82 generator technologies. The generators in turn are supplied to

  19. Isotopes Products

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are saving lives, advancing cutting-edge research and keeping the U.S. safe. Products stress and rest Stress and rest Rb-82 PET images in a patient with dipyridamole...

  20. Hydrogen Production

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produ

  1. Quantitative determination of mineral composition by powder X-ray diffraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pawloski, Gayle A. (Livermore, CA)

    1986-01-01

    An external standard intensity ratio method is used for quantitatively determining mineralogic compositions of samples by x-ray diffraction. The method uses ratios of x-ray intensity peaks from a single run. Constants are previously determined for each mineral which is to be quantitatively measured. Ratios of the highest intensity peak of each mineral to be quantified in the sample and the highest intensity peak of a reference mineral contained in the sample are used to calculate sample composition.

  2. Quantitative determination of mineral composition by powder x-ray diffraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pawloski, G.A.

    1984-08-10

    An external standard intensity ratio method is used for quantitatively determining mineralogic compositions of samples by x-ray diffraction. The method uses ratios of x-ray intensity peaks from a single run. Constants are previously determined for each mineral which is to be quantitatively measured. Ratios of the highest intensity peak of each mineral to be quantified in the sample and the highest intensity peak of a reference mineral contained in the sample are used to calculate sample composition.

  3. Composition and method for self-assembly and mineralization of peptide amphiphiles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stupp, Samuel I. (Chicago, IL); Beniash, Elia (Newton, MA); Hartgerink, Jeffrey D. (Houston, TX)

    2009-06-30

    The present invention is directed to a composition useful for making homogeneously mineralized self assembled peptide-amphiphile nanofibers and nanofiber gels. The composition is generally a solution comprised of a positively or negatively charged peptide-amphiphile and a like signed ion from the mineral. Mixing this solution with a second solution containing a dissolved counter-ion of the mineral and/or a second oppositely charged peptide amphiphile, results in the rapid self assembly of the peptide-amphiphiles into a nanofiber gel and templated mineralization of the ions. Templated mineralization of the initially dissolved mineral cations and anions in the mixture occurs with preferential orientation of the mineral crystals along the fiber surfaces within the nanofiber gel. One advantage of the present invention is that it results in homogenous growth of the mineral throughout the nanofiber gel. Another advantage of the present invention is that the nanofiber gel formation and mineralization reactions occur in a single mixing step and under substantially neutral or physiological pH conditions. These homogeneous nanostructured composite materials are useful for medical applications especially the regeneration of damaged bone in mammals. This invention is directed to the synthesis of peptide-amphiphiles with more than one amphiphilic moment and to supramolecular compositions comprised of such multi-dimensional peptide-amphiphiles. Supramolecular compositions can be formed by self assembly of multi-dimensional peptide-amphiphiles by mixing them with a solution comprising a monovalent cation.

  4. Composition and method for self-assembly and mineralization of peptide-amphiphiles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stupp, Samuel I. (Chicago, IL); Beniash, Elia (Newton, MA); Hartgerink, Jeffrey D. (Pearland, TX)

    2012-02-28

    The present invention is directed to a composition useful for making homogeneously mineralized self assembled peptide-amphiphile nanofibers and nanofiber gels. The composition is generally a solution comprised of a positively or negatively charged peptide-amphiphile and a like signed ion from the mineral. Mixing this solution with a second solution containing a dissolved counter-ion of the mineral and/or a second oppositely charged peptide amphiphile, results in the rapid self assembly of the peptide-amphiphiles into a nanofiber gel and templated mineralization of the ions. Templated mineralization of the initially dissolved mineral cations and anions in the mixture occurs with preferential orientation of the mineral crystals along the fiber surfaces within the nanofiber gel. One advantage of the present invention is that it results in homogenous growth of the mineral throughout the nanofiber gel. Another advantage of the present invention is that the nanofiber gel formation and mineralization reactions occur in a single mixing step and under substantially neutral or physiological pH conditions. These homogeneous nanostructured composite materials are useful for medical applications especially the regeneration of damaged bone in mammals. This invention is directed to the synthesis of peptide-amphiphiles with more than one amphiphilic moment and to supramolecular compositions comprised of such multi-dimensional peptide-amphiphiles. Supramolecular compositions can be formed by self assembly of multi-dimensional peptide-amphiphiles by mixing them with a solution comprising a monovalent cation.

  5. Fundamental study of CO2-H2O-mineral interactions for carbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    E.; Wang, Yifeng; Matteo, Edward N.; Meserole, Stephen P.; Tallant, David Robert In the supercritical CO2-water-mineral systems relevant to subsurface CO2 sequestration,...

  6. Plutonium Oxidation and Subsequent Reduction by Mn (IV) Minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KAPLAN, DANIEL

    2005-09-13

    Plutonium sorbed to rock tuff was preferentially associated with manganese oxides. On tuff and synthetic pyrolusite (Mn{sup IV}O{sub 2}), Pu(IV) or Pu(V) was initially oxidized, but over time Pu(IV) became the predominant oxidation state of sorbed Pu. Reduction of Pu(V/VI), even on non-oxidizing surfaces, is proposed to result from a lower Gibbs free energy of the hydrolyzed Pu(IV) surface species versus that of the Pu(V) or Pu(VI) surface species. This work suggests that despite initial oxidation of sorbed Pu by oxidizing surfaces to more soluble forms, the less mobile form of Pu, Pu(IV), will dominate Pu solid phase speciation during long term geologic storage. The safe design of a radioactive waste or spent nuclear fuel geologic repository requires a risk assessment of radionuclides that may potentially be released into the surrounding environment. Geochemical knowledge of the radionuclide and the surrounding environment is required for predicting subsurface fate and transport. Although difficult even in simple systems, this task grows increasingly complicated for constituents, like Pu, that exhibit complex environmental chemistries. The environmental behavior of Pu can be influenced by complexation, precipitation, adsorption, colloid formation, and oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions (1-3). To predict the environmental mobility of Pu, the most important of these factors is Pu oxidation state. This is because Pu(IV) is generally 2 to 3 orders of magnitude less mobile than Pu(V) in most environments (4). Further complicating matters, Pu commonly exists simultaneously in several oxidation states (5, 6). Choppin (7) reported Pu may exist as Pu(IV), Pu(V), or Pu(VI) oxic natural groundwaters. It is generally accepted that plutonium associated with suspended particulate matter is predominantly Pu(IV) (8-10), whereas Pu in the aqueous phase is predominantly Pu(V) (2, 11-13). The influence of the character of Mn-containing minerals expected to be found in subsurface repository environments on Pu oxidation state distributions has been the subject of much recent research. Kenney-Kennicutt and Morse (14), Duff et al. (15), and Morgenstern and Choppin (16) observed oxidation of Pu facilitated by Mn(IV)-bearing minerals. Conversely, Shaughnessy et al. (17) used X-ray Absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) to show reduction of Pu(VI) by hausmannite (Mn{sup II}Mn{sub 2}{sup III}O{sub 4}) and manganite ({gamma}-Mn{sup III}OOH) and Kersting et al., (18) observed reduction of Pu(VI) by pyrolusite (Mn{sup IV}O{sub 2}). In this paper, we attempt to reconcile the apparently conflicting datasets by showing that Mn-bearing minerals can indeed oxidize Pu, however, if the oxidized species remains on the solid phase, the oxidation step competes with the formation of Pu(IV) that becomes the predominant solid phase Pu species with time. The experimental approach we took was to conduct longer term (approximately two years later) oxidation state analyses on the Pu sorbed to Yucca Mountain tuff (initial analysis reported by Duff et al., (15)) and measure the time-dependant changes in the oxidation state distribution of Pu in the presence of the Mn mineral pyrolusite.

  7. Catalytic effects of minerals on NOx emission from coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, M.Y.; Che, D.F.

    2007-07-01

    The catalytic effects of inherent mineral matters on NOx emissions from coal combustion have been investigated by a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) equipped with a gas analyzer. The effect of demineralization and the individual effect of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe on the formation of NOx are studied as well as the combined catalytic effects of Ca + Na and Ca + Ti. Demineralization causes more Fuel-N to retain in the char, and reduction of NOx mostly. But the mechanistic effect on NOx formation varies from coal to coal. Ca and Mg promote NOx emission. Na, K, Fe suppress NOx formation to different extents. The effect of transition element Fe is the most obvious. The combination of Ca + Na and Ca + Ti can realize the simultaneous control of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions.

  8. Osage oil: Mineral law, murder, mayhem, and manipulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strickland, R.

    1995-12-31

    The greatest of the 20th century Osage chiefs, Fred Lookout, feared what the rich oil bonanza under tribal lands would do to his people. He forsaw that oil wealth could turn into a curse as well as a blessing, and it was both. The story of Osage oil is a case history in the failure of law, the failure of Indian policy and the struggle for survival of the indomitable spirit of a great Native people force to deal with both the curse and the blessing of black gold. This article examines law and policy as seen in Osage oil regulation, outlining the legal controls of the land and mineral regulatory system and briefly exploring the breakdowns of the system.

  9. Uranium mineralization in fluorine-enriched volcanic rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burt, D.M.; Sheridan, M.F.; Bikun, J.; Christiansen, E.; Correa, B.; Murphy, B.; Self, S.

    1980-09-01

    Several uranium and other lithophile element deposits are located within or adjacent to small middle to late Cenozoic, fluorine-rich rhyolitic dome complexes. Examples studied include Spor Mountain, Utah (Be-U-F), the Honeycomb Hills, Utah (Be-U), the Wah Wah Mountains, Utah (U-F), and the Black Range-Sierra Cuchillo, New Mexico (Sn-Be-W-F). The formation of these and similar deposits begins with the emplacement of a rhyolitic magma, enriched in lithophile metals and complexing fluorine, that rises to a shallow crustal level, where its roof zone may become further enriched in volatiles and the ore elements. During initial explosive volcanic activity, aprons of lithicrich tuffs are erupted around the vents. These early pyroclastic deposits commonly host the mineralization, due to their initial enrichment in the lithophile elements, their permeability, and the reactivity of their foreign lithic inclusions (particularly carbonate rocks). The pyroclastics are capped and preserved by thick topaz rhyolite domes and flows that can serve as a source of heat and of additional quantities of ore elements. Devitrification, vapor-phase crystallization, or fumarolic alteration may free the ore elements from the glassy matrix and place them in a form readily leached by percolating meteoric waters. Heat from the rhyolitic sheets drives such waters through the system, generally into and up the vents and out through the early tuffs. Secondary alteration zones (K-feldspar, sericite, silica, clays, fluorite, carbonate, and zeolites) and economic mineral concentrations may form in response to this low temperature (less than 200 C) circulation. After cooling, meteoric water continues to migrate through the system, modifying the distribution and concentration of the ore elements (especially uranium).

  10. Bottom production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  11. Large fluxes and rapid turnover of mineral-associated carbon across topographic gradients in a humid tropical forest: insights from paired 14C analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hall, S. J.; McNicol, G.; Natake, T.; Silver, W. L.

    2015-04-29

    It has been proposed that the large soil carbon (C) stocks of humid tropical forests result predominantly from C stabilization by reactive minerals, whereas oxygen (O2) limitation of decomposition has received much less attention. We examined the importance of these factors in explaining patterns of C stocks and turnover in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, using radiocarbon (14C) measurements of contemporary and archived samples. Samples from ridge, slope, and valley positions spanned three soil orders (Ultisol, Oxisol, Inceptisol) representative of humid tropical forests, and differed in texture, reactive metal content, O2 availability, and root biomass. Mineral-associated C comprised themore » large majority (87 ± 2%, n = 30) of total soil C. Turnover of most mineral-associated C (66 ± 2%) was rapid (11 to 26 years; mean and SE: 18 ± 3 years) in 25 of 30 soil samples across surface horizons (0–10 and 10–20 cm depths) and all topographic positions, independent of variation in reactive metal concentrations and clay content. Passive C with centennial–millennial turnover was typically much less abundant (34 ± 3%), even at 10–20 cm depths. Carbon turnover times and concentrations significantly increased with concentrations of reduced iron (Fe(II)) across all samples, suggesting that O2 availability may have limited the decomposition of mineral-associated C over decadal scales. Steady-state inputs of mineral-associated C were statistically similar among the three topographic positions, and could represent 10–25% of annual litter production. Observed trends in mineral-associated Δ14C over time could not be fit using the single-pool model used in many other studies, which generated contradictory relationships between turnover and Δ14C as compared with a more realistic two-pool model. The large C fluxes in surface and near-surface soils documented here are supported by findings from paired 14C studies in other types of ecosystems, and suggest that most mineral-associated C cycles relatively rapidly (decadal scales) across ecosystems that span a broad range of state factors.« less

  12. Large fluxes and rapid turnover of mineral-associated carbon across topographic gradients in a humid tropical forest: insights from paired 14C analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hall, S. J.; McNicol, G.; Natake, T.; Silver, W. L.

    2015-01-16

    It has been proposed that the large soil carbon (C) stocks of humid tropical forests result predominantly from C stabilization by reactive minerals, whereas oxygen (O2) limitation of decomposition has received much less attention. We examined the importance of these factors in explaining patterns of C stocks and turnover in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, using radiocarbon (14C) measurements of contemporary and archived samples. Samples from ridge, slope, and valley positions spanned three soil orders (Ultisol, Oxisol, Inceptisol) representative of humid tropical forests, and differed in texture, reactive metal content, O2 availability, and root biomass. Mineral-associated C comprised themore » large majority (87 ± 2%, n = 30) of total soil C. Turnover of most mineral-associated C (74 ± 4%) was rapid (9 to 29 years, mean and SE 20 ± 2 years) in 25 of 30 soil samples across surface horizons (0–10 and 10–20 cm depths) and all topographic positions, independent of variation in reactive metal concentrations and clay content. Passive C with centennial – millennial turnover was much less abundant (26%), even at 10–20 cm depths. Carbon turnover times and concentrations significantly increased with concentrations of reduced iron (Fe(II)) across all samples, suggesting that O2 availability may have limited the decomposition of mineral associated C over decadal scales. Steady-state inputs of mineral-associated C were similar among the three topographic positions, and could represent 10–30% of annual litterfall production (estimated by doubling aboveground litterfall). Observed trends in mineral-associated Δ14C over time could not be fit using the single pool model used in many other studies, which generated contradictory relationships between turnover and Δ14C as compared with a more realistic constrained two-pool model. The large C fluxes in surface and near-surface soils implied by our data suggest that other studies using single-pool Δ14C models of mineral-associated C dynamics, unconstrained by multiple time points, may have systematically underestimated C turnover.« less

  13. Applications of scanning electron microscopy to the study of mineral matter in peat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond, R. Jr.; Andrejko, M.J.; Bardin, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) have been used for in situ analysis of minerals in peats by combining methods for producing oriented microtome sections of peat with methods for critical point drying. The combined technique allows SEM analysis of the inorganic components and their associated botanical constituents, along with petrographic identification of the botanical constituents. In peat deposits with abundant fluvial- or marine-derived minerals, one may use the above technique and/or medium- or low-temperature ashing followed by x-ray diffraction to readily identify the various mineral components. However, in some freshwater environments the scarcity of non-silica minerals makes the above techniques impractical. By separating the inorganic residues from the peat, one can isolate the non-silica mineral matter in the SEM for analysis by EDS. Furthermore, such separation allows SEM analysis of features and textures of both silica and non-silica mineral particles that might otherwise be unidentifiable. Results indicate the occurrence of detritial minerals in both Okefenokee and Snuggedy Swamp peats, the presence of authigenic or diagenetic minerals growing within peats, and dissolution features on freshwater sponge spicules that may account for the absence of spicules in Tertiary lignites.

  14. An epidemiological study of salt miners in diesel and nondiesel mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamble, J.; Jones, W.; Hudak, J.

    1983-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 5 NaCl mines and 259 miners addressed the following questions: 1) Is there an association of increased respiratory symptoms, radiographic findings, and reduced pulmonary function with exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and/or respirable particulate (RP) among these miners. 2) Is there increased morbidity of these miners compared to other working populations. Personal samples of NO2 and respirable particulate for jobs in each mine were used to estimate cumulative exposure. NO2 is used as a surrogate measure of diesel exposure. Cough was associated with age and smoking, dyspnea with age; neither symptom was associated with exposure (years worked, estimated cumulative NO2 or RP exposure). Phlegm was associated with age, smoking, and exposure. Reduced pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1, peak, flow, FEF50, FEF75) showed no association with exposure. There was one case of small rounded and one case of small irregular opacities; pneumoconiosis was not analyzed further. Compared to underground coal miners, above ground coal miners, potash miners, and nonmining workers, the study population after adjustment for age and smoking generally showed no increased prevalence of cough, phlegm, dyspnea, or obstruction (FEV1/FVC less than 0.7). Obstruction in younger salt miners and phlegm in older salt miners was elevated compared to nonmining workers. Mean predicted pulmonary function was reduced 2-4% for FEV1 and FVC, 7-13% for FEF50, and 18-22% for FEF75 below all comparison populations.

  15. Process for recovery of aluminum from carbonaceous waste products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapolyi, L.

    1984-03-13

    A carbonaceous waste product, preferably containing 30 to 60% mineral substances, 35 to 55% carbonaceous materials, 5 to 20% water, and having a calorific value of 2,000 to 3,500 k cal/kg is fired to produce thermal energy and a combustion residue. The residue is adjusted, if necessary, by addition of mineral containing additives so that it contains 15 to 50% alumina, 15 to 20% silica and 13 to 45% other oxides (mainly iron oxide, manganese oxide and calcium oxide). Sufficient limestone is added to produce a mixture containing 1.8 to 2.2 moles of calcium oxide per mole of silica and 1.1 to 1.3 moles of calcium oxide per mole of alumina. The mixture is then sintered. The total energy requirements of the sintering step are supplied by the energy generated in the firing step. Useful products such as cement and cast stone can be produced from the sintered product.

  16. Reactivity of iron-bearing minerals and CO2 sequestration: A multi-disciplinary experimental approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoonen, Martin A.

    2014-12-22

    The reactivity of sandstones was studied under conditions relevant to the injection of supercritical carbon dioxide in the context of carbon geosequestration. The emphasis of the study was on the reactivity of iron-bearing minerals when exposed to supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and scCO2 with commingled aqueous solutions containing H2S and/or SO2. Flow through and batch experiments were conducted. Results indicate that sandstones, irrespective of their mineralogy, are not reactive when exposed to pure scCO2 or scCO2 with commingled aqueous solutions containing H2S and/or SO2 under conditions simulating the environment near the injection point (flow through experiments). However, sandstones are reactive under conditions simulating the edge of the injected CO2 plume or ahead of the plume (batch experiments). Sandstones containing hematite (red sandstone) are particularly reactive. The composition of the reaction products is strongly dependent on the composition of the aqueous phase. The presence of dissolved sulfide leads to the conversion of hematite into pyrite and siderite. The relative amount of the pyrite and siderite is influenced by the ionic strength of the solution. Little reactivity is observed when sulfite is present in the aqueous phase. Sandstones without hematite (grey sandstones) show little reactivity regardless of the solution composition.

  17. Analysis of stream sediment reconnaissance data for mineral resources from the Montrose NTMS Quadrangle, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beyth, M.; Broxton, D.; McInteer, C.; Averett, W.R.; Stablein, N.K.

    1980-06-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis to support the National Uranium Resource Evaluation and to evaluate strategic and other commercially important mineral resources was carried out on Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data from the Montrose quadrangle, Colorado. The analysis suggests that: (1) the southern Colorado Mineral Belt is an area favorable for uranium mineral occurrences; (2) carnotite-type occurrences are likely in the nose of the Gunnison Uplift; (3) uranium mineral occurrences may be present along the western and northern margins of the West Elk crater; (4) a base-metal mineralized area is associated with the Uncompahgre Uplift; and (5) uranium and base metals are associated in some areas, and both are often controlled by faults trending west-northwest and north.

  18. Swelling properties of montmorillonite and beidellite clay minerals from molecular simulation: Comparison of temperature interlayer cation, and charge location effects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie L.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2015-08-27

    In this study, the swelling properties of smectite clay minerals are relevant to many engineering applications including environmental remediation, repository design for nuclear waste disposal, borehole stability in drilling operations, and additives for numerous industrial processes and commercial products. We used molecular dynamics and grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations to study the effects of layer charge location, interlayer cation, and temperature on intracrystalline swelling of montmorillonite and beidellite clay minerals. For a beidellite model with layer charge exclusively in the tetrahedral sheet, strong ion–surface interactions shift the onset of the two-layer hydrate to higher water contents. In contrast, for amore » montmorillonite model with layer charge exclusively in the octahedral sheet, weaker ion–surface interactions result in the formation of fully hydrated ions (two-layer hydrate) at much lower water contents. Clay hydration enthalpies and interlayer atomic density profiles are consistent with the swelling results. Water adsorption isotherms from grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations are used to relate interlayer hydration states to relative humidity, in good agreement with experimental findings.« less

  19. Swelling properties of montmorillonite and beidellite clay minerals from molecular simulation: Comparison of temperature interlayer cation, and charge location effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie L.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2015-08-27

    In this study, the swelling properties of smectite clay minerals are relevant to many engineering applications including environmental remediation, repository design for nuclear waste disposal, borehole stability in drilling operations, and additives for numerous industrial processes and commercial products. We used molecular dynamics and grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations to study the effects of layer charge location, interlayer cation, and temperature on intracrystalline swelling of montmorillonite and beidellite clay minerals. For a beidellite model with layer charge exclusively in the tetrahedral sheet, strong ion–surface interactions shift the onset of the two-layer hydrate to higher water contents. In contrast, for a montmorillonite model with layer charge exclusively in the octahedral sheet, weaker ion–surface interactions result in the formation of fully hydrated ions (two-layer hydrate) at much lower water contents. Clay hydration enthalpies and interlayer atomic density profiles are consistent with the swelling results. Water adsorption isotherms from grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations are used to relate interlayer hydration states to relative humidity, in good agreement with experimental findings.

  20. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- International Minerals and...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    field for the recovery of uranium and other saleable products and also conducted experimental investigations to recover uranium from phosphates. FL.02-3 FL.02-4 Site...

  1. Oil Production

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1989-07-01

    A horizontal and slanted well model was developed and incorporated into BOAST, a black oil simulator, to predict the potential production rates for such wells. The HORIZONTAL/SLANTED WELL MODEL can be used to calculate the productivity index, based on the length and location of the wellbore within the block, for each reservoir grid block penetrated by the horizontal/slanted wellbore. The well model can be run under either pressure or rate constraints in which wellbore pressuresmore » can be calculated as an option of infinite-conductivity. The model can simulate the performance of multiple horizontal/slanted wells in any geometric combination within reservoirs.« less

  2. Electrical properties of dispersions of graphene in mineral oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monteiro, O. R.

    2014-02-03

    Dispersions of graphene in mineral oil have been prepared and electrical conductivity and permittivity have been measured. The direct current (DC) conductivity of the dispersions depends on the surface characteristics of the graphene platelets and followed a percolation model with a percolation threshold ranging from 0.05 to 0.1?wt. %. The difference in DC conductivities can be attributed to different states of aggregation of the graphene platelets and to the inter-particle electron transfer, which is affected by the surface radicals. The frequency-dependent conductivity (?(?)) and permittivity (?(?)) were also measured. The conductivity of dispersions with particle contents much greater than the percolation threshold remains constant and equal to the DC conductivity at low frequencies ? with and followed a power-law ?(?)???{sup s} dependence at very high frequencies with s?0.9. For dispersions with graphene concentration near the percolation threshold, a third regime was displayed at intermediate frequencies indicative of interfacial polarization consistent with Maxwell-Wagner effect typically observed in mixtures of two (or more) phases with very distinct electrical and dielectric properties.

  3. Geothermal Geodatabase for Wagon Wheel Hot Springs, Mineral County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zehner, Richard

    2012-11-01

    Geothermal Geodatabase for Wagon Wheel Hot Springs, Mineral County, Colorado By Richard Rick Zehner Geothermal Development Associates Reno Nevada USA 775.737.7806 rzehner@gdareno.com For Flint Geothermal LLC, Denver Colorado Part of DOE Grant EE0002828 2013 This is an ESRI geodatabase version 10, together with an ESRI MXD file version 10.2 Data is in UTM Zone 13 NAD27 projection North boundary: approximately 4,189,000 South boundary: approximately 4,170,000 West boundary: approximately 330,000 East boundary: approximately 351,000 This geodatabase was built to cover several geothermal targets developed by Flint Geothermal in 2012 during a search for high-temperature systems that could be exploited for electric power development. Several of the thermal springs at Wagon Wheel Gap have geochemistry and geothermometry values indicative of high-temperature systems. The datasets in the geodatabase are a mixture of public domain data as well as data collected by Flint Geothermal, now being made public. It is assumed that the user has internet access, for the mxd file accesses ESRIs GIS servers. Datasets include: 1. Results of reconnaissance shallow (2 meter) temperature surveys 2. Air photo lineaments 3. Groundwater geochemistry 4. Power lines 5. Georeferenced geologic map of Routt County 6. Various 1:24,000 scale topographic maps

  4. Hydrogen Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production Hydrogen is an energy carrier, not an energy source-hydrogen stores and delivers energy in a usable form, but it must be produced from hydrogen- containing compounds. Hydrogen can be produced using diverse, domestic resources including fossil fuels, such as natural gas and coal (preferentially with carbon capture, utilization, and storage); biomass grown from renewable, non-food crops; or using nuclear energy and renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar, geothermal, and

  5. Hydrogen Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Production - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  6. Micro-Analysis of Actinide Minerals for Nuclear Forensics and Treaty Verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Morey, M. Manard, R. Russo, G. Havrilla

    2012-03-22

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy has been demonstrated to be a viable tool for nondestructive determination of the crystal phase of relevant minerals. Collecting spectra on particles down to 5 microns in size was completed. Some minerals studied were weak scatterers and were better studied with the other techniques. A decent graphical software package should easily be able to compare collected spectra to a spectral library as well as subtract out matrix vibration peaks. Due to the success and unequivocal determination of the most common mineral false positive (zircon), it is clear that Raman has a future for complementary, rapid determination of unknown particulate samples containing actinides.

  7. Fluidized bed steam reformed mineral waste form performance testing to support Hanford Supplemental Low Activity Waste Immobilization Technology Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C. M.; Pierce, E. M.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Crawford, C. L.; Daniel, W. E.; Fox, K. M.; Herman, C. C.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.; Brown, C. F.; Qafoku, N. P.; Neeway, J. J.; Valenta, M. M.; Gill, G. A.; Swanberg, D. J.; Robbins, R. A.; Thompson, L. E.

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the benchscale testing with simulant and radioactive Hanford Tank Blends, mineral product characterization and testing, and monolith testing and characterization. These projects were funded by DOE EM-31 Technology Development & Deployment (TDD) Program Technical Task Plan WP-5.2.1-2010-001 and are entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-Level Waste Form Qualification”, Inter-Entity Work Order (IEWO) M0SRV00054 with Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Savannah River Site (SRS) Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”, and IEWO M0SRV00080, “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form Qualification Testing Using SRS Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”. This was a multi-organizational program that included Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), THOR® Treatment Technologies (TTT), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Office of River Protection (ORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS). The SRNL testing of the non-radioactive pilot-scale Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) products made by TTT, subsequent SRNL monolith formulation and testing and studies of these products, and SRNL Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) radioactive campaign were funded by DOE Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) Phase 2 Project in connection with a Work-For-Others (WFO) between SRNL and TTT.

  8. Multivariate statistical analysis of stream sediments for mineral resources from the Craig NTMS Quadrangle, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beyth, M.; McInteer, C.; Broxton, D.E.; Bolivar, S.L.; Luke, M.E.

    1980-06-01

    Multivariate statistical analyses were carried out on Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data from the Craig quadrangle, Colorado, to support the National Uranium Resource Evaluation and to evaluate strategic or other important commercial mineral resources. A few areas for favorable uranium mineralization are suggested for parts of the Wyoming Basin, Park Range, and Gore Range. Six potential source rocks for uranium are postulated based on factor score mapping. Vanadium in stream sediments is suggested as a pathfinder for carnotite-type mineralization. A probable northwest trend of lead-zinc-copper mineralization associated with Tertiary intrusions is suggested. A few locations are mapped where copper is associated with cobalt. Concentrations of placer sands containing rare earth elements, probably of commercial value, are indicated for parts of the Sand Wash Basin.

  9. H.R.S. 182-6 - Mineral Exploration | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: H.R.S. 182-6 - Mineral ExplorationLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 2012 Legal...

  10. Cal. PRC Section 6910 - Oil and Gas and Mineral Leases | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    PRC Section 6910 - Oil and Gas and Mineral Leases Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: Cal. PRC Section 6910 - Oil and...

  11. Cal. PRC Section 6909 - Oil and Gas and Mineral Leases: Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    09 - Oil and Gas and Mineral Leases: Geothermal Resources Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: Cal. PRC Section 6909 -...

  12. Title 25 CFR 225 Oil and Gas, Geothermal, and Solid Minerals...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    5 Oil and Gas, Geothermal, and Solid Minerals Agreements Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- Federal RegulationFederal Regulation:...

  13. Diffraction Studies from Minerals to Organics - Lessons Learned from Materials Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitfield, Pamela S

    2014-01-01

    In many regards the study of materials and minerals by powder diffraction techniques are complimentary, with techniques honed in one field equally applicable to the other. As a long-time materials researcher many of the examples are of techniques developed for materials analysis applied to minerals. However in a couple of cases the study of new minerals was the initiation into techniques later used in materials-based studies. Hopefully they will show that the study of new minerals structures can provide opportunities to add new methodologies and approaches to future problems. In keeping with the AXAA many of the examples have an Australian connection, the materials ranging from organics to battery materials.

  14. Application Of Fluid Inclusion And Rock-Gas Analysis In Mineral...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to analyze these gases in fluid inclusions in jasperoid around the Pueblo Viejo gold-silver deposit, in vein minerals from the Creede silver-lead-zinc deposit, and from...

  15. Analysis of Mineral Trapping for CO2 Disposal in Deep Aquifers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... The deepest aquifers in the United States usually contain ... Mineral Society of America, v. 31, p. 291-351, ... D.K., 1978, Summary and critique of the thermodynamic ...

  16. Revenue ruling 73-538: the service's assault on percentage depletion for ''D'' miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the Internal Revenue Service's ruling that storage and loading for shipment at the mine site are nonmining processes for ores and minerals described in section 613(c)(4)(D) of the Internal Revenue Code. He explains the tax consequences of the ruling and discusses the correctness of the position taken by the Internal Revenue Service in light of the relevant case law and the language and legislative history of the statute. The effect of the ruling is to reduce the percentage depletion deduction available to many miners of ores and minerals described in section 613(c)(4)(D), including miners of lead, zinc, copper, gold, silver, uranium, fluorspar, potash, soda ash, garnet and tungsten. (JMT)

  17. Discovery of bridgmanite, the most abundant mineral in Earth, in a shocked

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    meteorite (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Discovery of bridgmanite, the most abundant mineral in Earth, in a shocked meteorite Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Discovery of bridgmanite, the most abundant mineral in Earth, in a shocked meteorite Authors: Tschauner, Oliver ; Ma, Chi ; Beckett, John R. ; Prescher, Clemens ; Prakapenka, Vitali B. ; Rossman, George R. [1] ; UNLV) [2] ; CIT) [2] + Show Author Affiliations (UC) (

  18. Identification of Fragile Microscopic Structures during Mineral Transformations in Wet Supercritical CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arey, Bruce W.; Kovarik, Libor; Qafoku, Odeta; Wang, Zheming; Hess, Nancy J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2013-04-01

    In this study we examine the nature of highly fragile reaction products that form in low water content super critical carbon dioxide (scCO2) using a combination of scanning electron microscopy/focus ion beam (SEM/FIB), confocal Raman spectroscopy, helium ion microscopy (HeIM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). HeIM images show these precipitates to be fragile rosettes that can readily decompose even under slight heating from an electron beam. Using the TEM revealed details on the interfacial structure between the newly formed surface precipitates and the underlying initial solid phases. The detailed microscopic analysis revealed that the growth of the precipitates either followed a tip growth mechanism with precipitates forming directly on the forsterite surface if the initial solid was non-porous (natural forsterite) or growth from the surface of the precipitates where fluid was conducted through the porous (nanoforsterite) agglomerates to the growth center. The mechanism of formation of the hydrated/hydroxylated magnesium carbonate compound (HHMC) phases offers insight into the possible mechanisms of carbonate mineral formation from scCO2 solutions which has recently received a great deal of attention as the result of the potential for CO2 to act as an atmospheric greenhouse gas and impact overall global warming. The techniques used here to examine these fragile structures an also be used to examine a wide range of fragile material surfaces. SEM and FIB technologies have now been brought together in a single instrument, which represents a powerful combination for the studies in biological, geological and materials science.

  19. Neurotoxicological effects of cinnabar (a Chinese mineral medicine, HgS) in mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, C.-F.; Liu, S.-H.; Lin-Shiau, S.-Y.

    2007-10-15

    Cinnabar, a naturally occurring mercuric sulfide (HgS), has long been used in combination with traditional Chinese medicine as a sedative for more than 2000 years. Up to date, its pharmacological and toxicological effects are still unclear, especially in clinical low-dose and long-term use. In this study, we attempted to elucidate the effects of cinnabar on the time course of changes in locomotor activities, pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, motor equilibrium performance and neurobiochemical activities in mice during 3- to 11-week administration at a clinical dose of 10 mg/kg/day. The results showed that cinnabar was significantly absorbed by gastrointestinal (G-I) tract and transported to brain tissues. The spontaneous locomotor activities of male mice but not female mice were preferentially suppressed. Moreover, frequencies of jump and stereotype-1 episodes were progressively decreased after 3-week oral administration in male and female mice. Pentobarbital-induced sleeping time was prolonged and the retention time on a rotating rod (60 rpm) was reduced after treatment with cinnabar for 6 weeks and then progressively to a greater extent until the 11-week experiment. In addition, the biochemical changes in blood and brain tissues were studied; the inhibition of Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activities, increased production of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) were found with a greater extent in male mice than those in female mice, which were apparently correlated with their differences in the neurological responses observed. In conclusion, these findings, for the first time, provide evidence of the pharmacological and toxicological basis for understanding the sedative and neurotoxic effects of cinnabar used as a Chinese mineral medicine for more than 2000 years.

  20. Federal offshore statistics: leasing, exploration, production, revenue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Essertier, E.P.

    1984-09-01

    This publication is a numerical record of what has happened since Congress gave authority to the Secretary of the Interior in 1953 to lease the federal portion of the Continental Shelf for oil and gas. The publication updates and augments the first Federal Offshore Statistics, published in December 1983. It also extends a statistical series published annually from 1969 until 1981 by the US Geological Survey (USGS) under the title Outer Continental Shelf Statistics. The USGS collected royalties and supervised operation and production of minerals on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) until the Minerals Management Service (MMS) took over these functions in 1982. Some of the highlights are: of the 329.5 million acres offered for leasing, 37.1 million acres were actually leased; total revenues for the 1954 to 1983 period were $68,173,112,563 and for 1983 $9,161,435,540; a total of 22,095 wells were drilled in federal waters and 10,145 wells were drilled in state waters; from 1954 through 1983, federal offshore areas produced 6.4 billion barrels of oil and condensate, and 62.1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas; in 1983 alone production was 340.7 million barrels of oil and condensate, and 3.9 trillion cubic feet of gas; and for the second straight year, no oil was lost in 1983 as a result of blowouts in federal waters. 8 figures, 66 tables.

  1. Multiple soil nutrient competition between plants, microbes, and mineral surfaces: model development, parameterization, and example applications in several tropical forests

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Q.; Riley, W. J.; Tang, J.; Koven, C. D.

    2015-03-05

    Soil is a complex system where biotic (e.g., plant roots, micro-organisms) and abiotic (e.g., mineral surfaces) consumers compete for resources necessary for life (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus). This competition is ecologically significant, since it regulates the dynamics of soil nutrients and controls aboveground plant productivity. Here we develop, calibrate, and test a nutrient competition model that accounts for multiple soil nutrients interacting with multiple biotic and abiotic consumers. As applied here for tropical forests, the Nutrient COMpetition model (N-COM) includes three primary soil nutrients (NH4+, NO3?, and POx (representing the sum of PO43?, HPO42?, and H2PO4?)) and five potential competitors (plantmoreroots, decomposing microbes, nitrifiers, denitrifiers, and mineral surfaces). The competition is formulated with a quasi-steady-state chemical equilibrium approximation to account for substrate (multiple substrates share one consumer) and consumer (multiple consumers compete for one substrate) effects. N-COM successfully reproduced observed soil heterotrophic respiration, N2O emissions, free phosphorus, sorbed phosphorus, and free NH4+ at a tropical forest site (Tapajos). The overall model posterior uncertainty was moderately well constrained. Our sensitivity analysis revealed that soil nutrient competition was primarily regulated by consumer-substrate affinity rather than environmental factors such as soil temperature or soil moisture. Our results imply that the competitiveness (from most to least competitive) followed this order: (1) for NH4+, nitrifiers ~ decomposing microbes > plant roots, (2) for NO3?, denitrifiers ~ decomposing microbes > plant roots, (3) for POx, mineral surfaces > decomposing microbes ~ plant roots. Although smaller, plant relative competitiveness is of the same order of magnitude as microbes. We then applied the N-COM model to analyze field nitrogen and phosphorus perturbation experiments in two tropical forest sites (in Hawaii and Puerto Rico) not used in model development or calibration. Under soil inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus elevated conditions, the model accurately replicated the experimentally observed competition among different nutrient consumers. Although we used as many observations as we could obtain, more nutrient addition experiments in tropical systems would greatly benefit model testing and calibration. In summary, the N-COM model provides an ecologically consistent representation of nutrient competition appropriate for land BGC models integrated in Earth System Models.less

  2. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Biodiesel production capacity and production million gallons Period Annual Production ... B100 is the industry designation for pure biodiesel; a biodiesel blend contains both pure ...

  3. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2016-01-01

    Presents monthly data on inventory held by biodiesel producers, production capacity, production, and sales quantities. Production capacity is reported at the national and state levels.

  4. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank SX-105, Tank AN-103, And AZ-101/102) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation (FBSR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Daniel, W. E.; Hall, H. K.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.

    2013-09-18

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is a robust technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of radioactive wastes. Applications have been tested at the pilot scale for the high sodium, sulfate, halide, organic and nitrate wastes at the Hanford site, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the Savannah River Site (SRS). Due to the moderate processing temperatures, halides, sulfates, and technetium are retained in mineral phases of the feldspathoid family (nepheline, sodalite, nosean, carnegieite, etc). The feldspathoid minerals bind the contaminants such as Tc-99 in cage (sodalite, nosean) or ring (nepheline) structures to surrounding aluminosilicate tetrahedra in the feldspathoid structures. The granular FBSR mineral waste form that is produced has a comparable durability to LAW glass based on the short term PCT testing in this study, the INL studies, SPFT and PUF testing from previous studies as given in the columns in Table 1-3 that represent the various durability tests. Monolithing of the granular product was shown to be feasible in a separate study. Macro-encapsulating the granular product provides a decrease in leaching compared to the FBSR granular product when the geopolymer is correctly formulated.

  5. Mineral Dissolution and Secondary Precipitation on Quartz Sand in Simulated Hanford Tank Solutions Affecting Subsurface Porosity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Guohui; Um, Wooyong

    2012-11-23

    Highly alkaline nuclear waste solutions have been released from underground nuclear waste storage tanks and pipelines into the vadose zone at the U.S. Department of Energys Hanford Site in Washington, causing mineral dissolution and re-precipitation upon contact with subsurface sediments. High pH caustic NaNO3 solutions with and without dissolved Al were reacted with quartz sand through flow-through columns stepwise at 45, 51, and 89C to simulate possible reactions between leaked nuclear waste solution and primary subsurface mineral. Upon reaction, Si was released from the dissolution of quartz sand, and nitrate-cancrinite [Na8Si6Al6O24(NO3)2] precipitated on the quartz surface as a secondary mineral phase. Both steady-state dissolution and precipitation kinetics were quantified, and quartz dissolution apparent activation energy was determined. Mineral alteration through dissolution and precipitation processes results in pore volume and structure changes in the subsurface porous media. In this study, the column porosity increased up to 40.3% in the pure dissolution column when no dissolved Al was present in the leachate, whereas up to a 26.5% porosity decrease was found in columns where both dissolution and precipitation were observed because of the presence of Al in the input solution. The porosity change was also confirmed by calculation using the dissolution and precipitation rates and mineral volume changes.

  6. Licensees and economic interest in minerals after Swank and revenue ruling 83-160

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMahon, M.J. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    In the three years since the Supreme Court decided in United States v. Swank that a coal operator mining a coal deposit under a written lease terminable without cause on 30 days notice held an economic interest in the mineral in place, tax literature began noting that this decision rejected a long-held position of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). The author assesses the impact of Revenue Ruling 83-88, in which the IRS went beyond Swank in concluding that there is no minimum period during which a lessee must have a legal right to extract minerals as a prerequisite to an economic interest. He examines the proposition that, after Swank and Revenue Ruling 83-160, licensees who previously were considered not to have acquired an economic interest, should now be found to have an economic interest in the mineral deposit they are extracting.

  7. Mineral resources of the Buffalo Hump and Sand Dunes Addition Wilderness Study Areas, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbons, A.B.; Barbon, H.N.; Kulik, D.M. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)); McDonnell, J.R. Jr. (US Bureau of Mines (US))

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a study to assess the potential for undiscovered mineral resources and appraise the identified resources of the Buffalo Hump and Sand Dunes Addition Wilderness Study Areas, southwestern Wyoming, There are no mines, prospects, or mineralized areas nor any producing oil or gas wells; however, there are occurrences of coal, claystone and shale, and sand. There is a moderate resource potential for oil shale and natural gas and a low resource potential for oil, for metals, including uranium, and for geothermal sources.

  8. Iron speciation in minerals and glasses probed by M [subscript 2/3] -edge

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-ray Raman scattering spectroscopy (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Iron speciation in minerals and glasses probed by M [subscript 2/3] -edge X-ray Raman scattering spectroscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Iron speciation in minerals and glasses probed by M [subscript 2/3] -edge X-ray Raman scattering spectroscopy Authors: Nyrow, A. ; Sternemann, C. ; Wilke, M. ; Gordon, R.A. ; Mende, K. ; Yava ; #351 ; , H. ; Simonelli, L. ; Hiraoka, N. ; Sahle, Ch.J. ; Huotari, S. ;

  9. Type B Accident Investigation Board Report on the Head Injury to a Miner at

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, New Mexico - August 25, 2004 | Department of Energy on the Head Injury to a Miner at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, New Mexico - August 25, 2004 Type B Accident Investigation Board Report on the Head Injury to a Miner at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, New Mexico - August 25, 2004 October 15, 2004 On August 25, 2004, an employee of Washington TRU Solution, LLC (WTS) sustained a head injury when he was struck by a C-clamp and

  10. EVALUATION OF THOR MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR THE DOE ADVANCED REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES PHASE 2 PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW Vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product, which is one of the objectives of this current study, is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage but is not necessary for performance. FBSR testing of a Hanford LAW simulant and a WTP-SW simulant at the pilot scale was performed by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC at Hazen Research Inc. in April/May 2008. The Hanford LAW simulant was the Rassat 68 tank blend and the target concentrations for the LAW was increased by a factor of 10 for Sb, As, Ag, Cd, and Tl; 100 for Ba and Re (Tc surrogate); 1,000 for I; and 254,902 for Cs based on discussions with the DOE field office and the environmental regulators and an evaluation of the Hanford Tank Waste Envelopes A, B, and C. It was determined through the evaluation of the actual tank waste metals concentrations that some metal levels were not sufficient to achieve reliable detection in the off-gas sampling. Therefore, the identified metals concentrations were increased in the Rassat simulant processed by TTT at HRI to ensure detection and enable calculation of system removal efficiencies, product retention efficiencies, and mass balance closure without regard to potential results of those determinations or impacts on product durability response such as Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP). A WTP-SW simulant based on melter off-gas analyses from Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was also tested at HRI in the 15-inch diameter Engineering Scale Test Demonstration (ESTD) dual reformer at HRI in 2008. The target concentrations for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals were increased by 16X for Se, 29X for Tl, 42X for Ba, 48X for Sb, by 100X for Pb and Ni, 1000X for Ag, and 1297X for Cd to ensure detection by the an

  11. Biological production of products from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2002-01-22

    A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  12. Covered Product Category: Cool Roof Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including cool roof products, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  13. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, K.

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board, and is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit processes. The guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations.

  14. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, K.

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board. The Measure Guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations. This Measure Guideline is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit.

  15. Airflow Resistance of Loose-Fill Mineral Fiber Insulations in Retrofit Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, C. J.; Fox, M. J.; Lstiburek, J.

    2015-02-01

    This report expands on Building America Report 1109 by applying the experimental apparatus and test method to dense-pack retrofit applications using mineral fiber insulation materials. Three (3) fiber glass insulation materials and one (1) stone wool insulation material were tested, and the results compared to the cellulose results from the previous study.

  16. Airflow Resistance of Loose-Fill Mineral Fiber Insulations in Retrofit Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, C. J.; Fox, M. J.; Lstiburek, J.

    2015-02-01

    This report expands on Building America Report 1109 by applying the experimental apparatus and test method to dense-pack retrofit applications using mineral fiber insulation materials. Three fiber glass insulation materials and one stone wool insulation material were tested, and the results compared to the cellulose results from the previous study.

  17. Mineral-Surfactant Interactions for Minimum Reagents Precipitation and Adsorption for Improved Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Somasundaran

    2008-09-20

    Chemical EOR can be an effective method for increasing oil recovery and reducing the amount of produced water; however, reservoir fluids are chemically complex and may react adversely to the polymers and surfactants injected into the reservoir. While a major goal is to alter rock wettability and interfacial tension between oil and water, rock-fluid and fluid-fluid interactions must be understood and controlled to minimize reagent loss, maximize recovery and mitigate costly failures. The overall objective of this project was to elucidate the mechanisms of interactions between polymers/surfactants and the mineral surfaces responsible for determining the chemical loss due to adsorption and precipitation in EOR processes. The role of dissolved inorganic species that are dependent on the mineralogy is investigated with respect to their effects on adsorption. Adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension are studied with the aim to control chemical losses, the ultimate goal being to devise schemes to develop guidelines for surfactant and polymer selection in EOR. The adsorption behavior of mixed polymer/surfactant and surfactant/surfactant systems on typical reservoir minerals (quartz, alumina, calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, gypsum, pyrite, etc.) was correlated to their molecular structures, intermolecular interactions and the solution conditions such as pH and/or salinity. Predictive models as well as general guidelines for the use of polymer/surfactant surfactant/surfactant system in EOR have been developed The following tasks have been completed under the scope of the project: (1) Mineral characterization, in terms of SEM, BET, size, surface charge, and point zero charge. (2) Study of the interactions among typical reservoir minerals (quartz, alumina, calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, gypsum, pyrite, etc.) and surfactants and/or polymers in terms of adsorption properties that include both macroscopic (adsorption density, wettability) and microscopic (orientation/conformation of the adsorbed layers), as well as precipitation/abstraction characteristics. (3) Investigation of the role of dissolved species, especially multivalent ions, on interactions between reservoir minerals and surfactants and/or polymers leading to surfactant precipitation or activated adsorption. (4) Solution behavior tests--surface tension, interaction, ultra filtration, and other tests. (5) Surfactant-mineral interactions relative to adsorption, wettability, and electrophoresis. (6) Work on the effects of multivalent ions, pH, temperature, salinity, and mixing ratio on the adsorption. Developments of adsorption models to explain interactions between surfactants/polymers/minerals. (7) General guidelines for the use of certain surfactants, polymers and their mixtures in micelle flooding processes.

  18. THE PRODUCT CONSISTENCY TEST HOW AND WHY IT WAS DEVELOPED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C; Ned Bibler, N

    2008-12-15

    The Product Consistency Test (PCT), American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Standard C1285, is currently used world wide for testing glass and glass-ceramic waste forms for high level waste (HLW), low level waste (LLW), and hazardous wastes. Development of the PCT was initiated in 1986 because HLW glass waste forms required extensive characterization before actual production began and required continued characterization during production ({ge}25 years). Non-radioactive startup was in 1994 and radioactive startup was in 1996. The PCT underwent extensive development from 1986-1994 and became an ASTM consensus standard in 1994. During the extensive laboratory testing and inter- and intra-laboratory round robins using non-radioactive and radioactive glasses, the PCT was shown to be very reproducible, to yield reliable results rapidly, to distinguish between glasses of different durability and homogeneity, and to easily be performed in shielded cell facilities with radioactive samples. In 1997, the scope was broadened to include hazardous and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) waste glasses. In 2002, the scope was broadened to include glass-ceramic waste forms which are currently being recommended for second generation nuclear wastes yet to be generated in the nuclear renaissance. Since the PCT has proven useful for glass-ceramics with up to 75% ceramic component and has been used to evaluate Pu ceramic waste forms, the use of this test for other ceramic/mineral waste forms such as geopolymers, hydroceramics, and fluidized bed steam reformer mineralized product is under investigation.

  19. Communications Product Governance Team

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Product Governance Team (PGT) reviews and approves the publications, exhibits, logos, and templates for all EERE communications products. The PGT manages the product review process.

  20. Grid-based Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grid-based Production Grid-based Production PDSF is a Tier 2 site for ALICE and as such has the infrastructure in place to run automated grid-based ALICE production jobs. The main...

  1. Appraisal of selected epidemiologic issues from studies of lung cancer among uranium and hard rock miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, G R; Sever, L E

    1982-04-01

    An extensive body of published information about lung cancer among uranium miners was reviewed and diverse information, useful in identifying important issues but not in resolving them was found. Measuring exposure and response; thresholds of exposure; latency or the period from first mining experience to death; effort to predict excess risk of death, using a model; effects of smoking and radon daughter exposure on the histology of lung tumors; and the interplay of factors on the overall risk of death were all examined. The general concept of thresholds; that is, an exposure level below which risk does not increase was considered. The conclusion is that it should be possible to detect and estimate an epidemiologic threshold when the cohorts have been followed to the death of all members. Issues concerning latency in the studies of uranium miners published to date were examined. It is believed that the induction-latent period for lung cancer among uranium miners may be: as little as 10 to more than 40 years; dependent on age at which exposure begins; exposure rate; and ethnicity or smoking habits. Although suggested as factual, their existence is uncertain. An effect due to the exposure rate may exist although it has not been factual, their existence is uncertain. An effect due to the exposure rate may exist although it has not been confirmed. The median induction-latent period appears to be in excess of the 15 years frequently cited for US uranium miner. A distinct pattern of shorter induction-latent periods with increasing age at first mining exposure is reported. The evidence for and against an unusual histologic pattern of lung cancers among uranium miners was examined. The ratio of epidermoid to small cell types was close to 1:2; the ratio in the general population is nearer 2:1. The histologic pattern warrants closer attention of pathologists and epidemiologists. (ERB) (ERB)

  2. Crude Oil Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    revised monthly production estimates by state published in Petroleum Navigator. Crude oil production quantities are estimated by state and summed to the PADD and the U.S....

  3. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel (B100) production by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-22M "Monthly Biodiesel Production ...

  4. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, December 2015 State Number of ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-22M "Monthly Biodiesel Production ...

  5. MINERALIZATION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR): COMPARISONS TO VITREOUS WASTE FORMS, AND PERTINENT DURABILITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C

    2008-12-26

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to generate a document for the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that would cover the following topics: (1) A description of the mineral structures produced by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) of Hanford type Low Activity Waste (LAW including LAWR which is LAW melter recycle waste) waste, especially the cage structured minerals and how they are formed. (2) How the cage structured minerals contain some contaminants, while others become part of the mineral structure (Note that all contaminants become part of the mineral structure and this will be described in the subsequent sections of this report). (3) Possible contaminant release mechanisms from the mineral structures. (4) Appropriate analyses to evaluate these release mechanisms. (5) Why the appropriate analyses are comparable to the existing Hanford glass dataset. In order to discuss the mineral structures and how they bond contaminants a brief description of the structures of both mineral (ceramic) and vitreous waste forms will be given to show their similarities. By demonstrating the similarities of mineral and vitreous waste forms on atomic level, the contaminant release mechanisms of the crystalline (mineral) and amorphous (glass) waste forms can be compared. This will then logically lead to the discussion of why many of the analyses used to evaluate vitreous waste forms and glass-ceramics (also known as glass composite materials) are appropriate for determining the release mechanisms of LAW/LAWR mineral waste forms and how the durability data on LAW/LAWR mineral waste forms relate to the durability data for LAW/LAWR glasses. The text will discuss the LAW mineral waste form made by FBSR. The nanoscale mechanism by which the minerals form will be also be described in the text. The appropriate analyses to evaluate contaminant release mechanisms will be discussed, as will the FBSR test results to date and how they compare to testing performed on LAW glasses. Other details about vitreous waste form durability and impacts of REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) on durability are given in Appendix A. Details about the FBSR process, various pilot scale demonstrations, and applications are given in Appendix B. Details describing all the different leach tests that need to be used jointly to determine the leaching mechanisms of a waste form are given in Appendix C. Cautions regarding the way in which the waste form surface area is measured and in the choice of leachant buffers (if used) are given in Appendix D.

  6. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maher, K.; Steefel, C. I.; White, A.F.; Stonestrom, D.A.

    2009-02-25

    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka marine terrace chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized (White et al., 2008, GCA) and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisser and [2006] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [1994], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at the depth and time where the reaction fronts of the primary minerals overlap. The modeling indicates that the argillic horizon at Santa Cruz can be explained almost entirely by weathering of primary minerals and in situ clay precipitation accompanied by undersaturation of kaolinite at the top of the profile. The rate constant for kaolinite precipitation was also determined based on model simulations of mineral abundances and dissolved Al, SiO{sub 2}(aq) and pH in pore waters. Changes in the rate of kaolinite precipitation or the flow rate do not affect the gradient of the primary mineral weathering profiles, but instead control the rate of propagation of the primary mineral weathering fronts and thus total mass removed from the weathering profile. Our analysis suggests that secondary clay precipitation is as important as aqueous transport in governing the amount of dissolution that occurs within a profile because clay minerals exert a strong control over the reaction affinity of the dissolving primary minerals. The modeling also indicates that the weathering advance rate and the total mass of mineral dissolved is controlled by the thermodynamic saturation of the primary dissolving phases plagioclase and K-feldspar, as is evident from the difference in propagation rates of the reaction fronts for the two minerals despite their very similar kinetic rate laws.

  7. Understanding the chemical properties of macerals and minerals in coal and its potential application for occupational lung disease prevention

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, X.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this review was to assess whether some chemical parameters in coal play a role in producing environmental health problems. Basic properties of coal - such as chemical forms of the organic materials, structure, compositions of minerals - vary from one coal mine region to another as well as from coals of different ranks. Most importantly, changes in chemical properties of coals due to exposure to air and humidity after mining - a dynamic process - significantly affect toxicity attributed to coal and environmental fate. Although coal is an extremely complex and heterogeneous material, the fundamental properties of coal responsible for environmental and adverse health problems are probably related to the same inducing components of coal. For instance, oxidation of pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) in the coal forms iron sulfate and sulfuric acid, which produces occupational lung diseases (e.g., pneumoconiosis) and other environmental problems (e.g., acid mine drainage and acid rain). Calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) contained in certain coals alters the end products of pyrite oxidation, which may make these coals less toxic to human inhalation and less hazardous to environmental pollution. Finally, knowledge gained on understanding of the chemical properties of coals is illustrated to apply for prediction of toxicity due to coal possibly before large-scale mining and prevention of occupational lung disease during mining.

  8. Transmission Losses Product (pbl/products)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Smoothing and Intertie Service (Pilot) Firstgov Pricing for Transmission Losses Product Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Power Services offers to sell transmission...

  9. Investigation of Mineral Transformations in Wet Supercritical CO2 by Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arey, Bruce W.; Kovarik, Libor; Wang, Zheming; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2011-10-10

    The capture and storage of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in deep geologic formations represents one of the most promising options for mitigating the impacts of greenhouse gases on global warming. In this regard, mineral-fluid interactions are of prime importance since such reactions can result in the long term sequestration of CO2 by trapping in mineral phases. Recently it has been recognized that interactions with neat to water-saturated non-aqueous fluids are of prime importance in understanding mineralization reactions since the introduced CO2 is likely to contain water initially or soon after injection and the supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is less dense than the aqueous phase which can result in a buoyant scCO2 plume contacting the isolating caprock. As a result, unraveling the molecular/microscopic mechanisms of mineral transformation in neat to water saturated scCO2 has taken on an added important. In this study, we are examining the interfacial reactions of the olivine mineral forsterite (Mg2SiO4) over a range of water contents up to and including complete water saturation in scCO2. The surface precipitates that form on the reacted forsterite grains are extremely fragile and difficult to experimentally characterize. In order to address this issue we have developed experimental protocols for preparing and imaging electron-transparent samples from fragile structures. These electron-transparent samples are then examined using a combination of STEM/EDX, FIB-TEM, and helium ion microscope (HIM) imaging (Figures 1-3). This combination of capabilities has provided unique insight into the geochemical processes that occur on scCO2 reacted mineral surfaces. The experimental procedures and protocols that have been developed also have useful applications for examining fragile structures on a wide variety of materials. This research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  10. New Mexico's energy resources '81. Annual report of Bureau of Geology in the Mining and Minerals Division of New Mexico Energy and Minerals Department

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, E.C.; Hill, J.M.

    1981-09-03

    Although production of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ declined only slightly in 1980, New Mexico's share of domestic production has declined from 48% in 1976 to 35% in 1980. Production projections indicate a continued decline in 1981 and lower production until at least 1984. New Mexico has 41% of total domestic reserves producible in the $50-per-lb cost category. In keeping with the anticipated steady depletion of reserves, production of crude oil in New Mexico was 69.9 million bls, a 6.3% decline in production from 1979. Condensate production of 5.4 million bbls in 1980, however, represented an increase of 7% from 1979 production. Although natural gas production was the lowest since 1970 and declined by 2.6% from 1979 production, 1980 was the 15th year that production exceeded 1 trillion cu ft. Despite declines in production, the valuation of oil and gas production has increased significantly with oil sales doubling from the previous year and gas sales increasing by $409 million because of higher prices. Reserves have been estimated to be 959 million bbls of crude oil and 17.667 trillion cu ft of natural gas. Production of 19.5 million short tons of coal in 1980 represented a 33% increase over 1979 production and an increase of 157% since 1970. Coal resources in New Mexico are estimated to be 180.79 billion short tons, and production is projected to incease to 39.61 million tons in 1985 and 67.53 million tons in 1990. The most notable developments in geothermal energy have been in technical advances in drilling, testing, and applications, especially in the area of hot dry rock systems. The US Bureau of Land Management has issued 113 geothermal leases that remain active. Recent geothermal exploration activity has been detailed for 21 companies.

  11. One-pion production in neutrino-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernndez, E.; Nieves, J.; Vicente-Vacas, J. M.

    2015-05-15

    We use our model for neutrino pion production on the nucleon to study pion production on a nucleus. The model is conveniently modified to include in-medium corrections and its validity is extended up to 2 GeV neutrino energies by the inclusion of new resonant contributions in the production process. Our results are compared with recent MiniBooNE data measured in mineral oil. Our total cross sections are below data for neutrino energies above ? 1 GeV. As with other theoretical calculations, the agreement with data improves if we neglect pion final state interaction. This is also the case for differential cross sections convoluted over the neutrino flux.

  12. Mineral resources of the Cross Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Moffat County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, K.V.; Frisken, J.G.; Kulik, D.M.; Thompson, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Cross Mountain Wilderness Study Area, in northwestern Colorado, contains high-purity limestone suitable for industrial and agricultural use; dolomitic limestone suitable for agricultural use; and limestone, dolomite, sandstone, and sand and gravel suitable for use as construction materials. There has been no mining within this study area. This entire study area has a low mineral resource potential for sediment-hosted copper in the Uinta Mountain Group, and parts of this study area have a low resource potential for sandstone-type uranium-vanadium in sedimentary rocks. The entire study area has a low resource potential for all other metals and geothermal resources. It has a high energy resource potential for oil and gas in the eastern part of the area and moderate potential elsewhere. This study area has no mineral resource potential for coal.

  13. Comparison of Caprock Mineral Characteristics at Field Demonstration Sites for Saline Aquifer Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, C.A.; Lowry, G. (Carnegie Mellon University); Dzombak, D. (Carnegie Mellon University); Soong, Yee; Hedges, S.W.

    2008-10-01

    In 2003 the U.S Department of Energy initiated regional partnership programs to address the concern for rising atmospheric CO2. These partnerships were formed to explore regional and economical means for geologically sequestering CO2 across the United States and to set the stage for future commercial applications. Several options exist for geological sequestration and among these sequestering CO2 into deep saline aquifers is one of the most promising. This is due, in part, to the possibility of stabilized permanent storage through mineral precipitation from chemical interactions of the injected carbon dioxide with the brine and reservoir rock. There are nine field demonstration sites for saline sequestration among the regional partnerships in Phase II development to validate the overall commercial feasibility for CO2 geological sequestration. Of the nine sites considered for Phase II saline sequestration demonstration, seven are profiled in this study for their caprock lithologic and mineral characteristics.

  14. Contact metasomatic and hydrothermal minerals in the SH2 deep well, Sabatini Volcanic District, Latium, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavarretta, G.; Tecce, F.

    1987-01-01

    Metasomatic and hydrothermal minerals were logged throughout the SH2 geothermal well, which reached a depth of 2498 m in the Sabatini volcanic district. Below 460 m of volcanics, where the newly formed minerals were mainly chlorite, calcite and zeolites (mostly phillipsite), drilling entered the Allochthonous Flysch Complex. Evidence of the ''Cicerchina facies'' was found down to 1600 m depth. Starting from 1070 m, down to hole bottom, a contact metasomatic complex was defined by the appearance of garnet. Garnet together with K-fledspar, vesuvianite, wilkeite, cuspidine, harkerite, wollastonite and apatite prevail in the top part of the contact metasomatic complex. Vesuvianite and phlogopite characterize the middle part. Phlogopite, pyroxene, spinel and cancrinite predominate in the bottom part. The 1500 m thick metasomatic complex indicates the presence at depth of the intrusion of a trachytic magma which released hot fluids involved in metasomatic mineral-forming reactions. Minerals such as harkerite, wilkeite, cuspidine, cancrinite, vesuvianite and phlogopite indicate the intrusive melt had a high volatile content which is in agreement with the very high explosivity index of this volcanic district. The system is at present sealed by abundant calcite and anhydrite. It is proposed that most, if not all, of the sulphates formed after reaction of SO/sub 2/ with aqueous calcium species rather than from sulphates being remobilized from evaporitic (Triassic) rocks as previously inferred. The hypothesis of a CO/sub 2/-rich deep-derived fluid ascending through major fracture systems and contrasting cooling in the hottest areas of Latium is presented.

  15. Synchrotron X-ray Investigations of Mineral-Microbe-Metal Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemner, Kenneth M.; O'Loughlin, Edward J.; Kelly, Shelly D.; Boyanov, Maxim I.

    2008-06-06

    Interactions between microbes and minerals can play an important role in metal transformations (i.e. changes to an element's valence state, coordination chemistry, or both), which can ultimately affect that element's mobility. Mineralogy affects microbial metabolism and ecology in a system; microbes, in turn, can affect the system's mineralogy. Increasingly, synchrotron-based X-ray experiments are in routine use for determining an element's valence state and coordination chemistry, as well as for examining the role of microbes in metal transformations.

  16. Dewatering: Coal and mineral processing. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology of dewatering. Included is coverage of techniques, processes, and evaluations applied to coal processing, coal slurry preparation, ash treatments, and processing of other mineral ores. Mechanical devices, heating devices, filtering techniques, air drying, the use of surfactants and flocculants, and design techniques in dewatering systems are discussed. Dewatering of peats, sewage sludges, and industrial sludges are referenced in related bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Understanding Mineral Transport in Switchgrass | U.S. DOE Office of Science

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    (SC) Understanding Mineral Transport in Switchgrass Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) Community Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301)

  18. Method to enhance the concentration of valuable minerals in froth flotation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    process used in mining - Energy Innovation Portal Find More Like This Return to Search Method to enhance the concentration of valuable minerals in froth flotation process used in mining Enhancing Selectivity and Recovery in the Fractional Flotation of Flotation Column Particles National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Method for Enhancing Selectivity and Recovery in the Fractional Flotation of Flotation Column Particles

  19. Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Analysis of Interfacial Water at Selected Sulfide Mineral Surfaces under Anaerobic Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Jiaqi; Miller, Jan D.; Dang, Liem X.

    2014-04-10

    In this paper, we report on a molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) study of the behavior of interfacial water at selected sulfide mineral surfaces under anaerobic conditions. The study revealed the interfacial water structure and wetting characteristics of the pyrite (100) surface, galena (100) surface, chalcopyrite (012) surface, sphalerite (110) surface, and molybdenite surfaces (i.e., the face, armchair-edge, and zigzag-edge surfaces), including simulated contact angles, relative number density profiles, water dipole orientations, hydrogen-bonding, and residence times. For force fields of the metal and sulfur atoms in selected sulfide minerals used in the MDS, we used the universal force field (UFF) and another set of force fields optimized by quantum chemical calculations for interactions with interfacial water molecules at selected sulfide mineral surfaces. Simulation results for the structural and dynamic properties of interfacial water molecules indicate the natural hydrophobic character for the selected sulfide mineral surfaces under anaerobic conditions as well as the relatively weak hydrophobicity for the sphalerite (110) surface and two molybdenite edge surfaces. Part of the financial support for this study was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Basic Science Grant No. DE-FG-03-93ER14315. The Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), of the DOE, funded work performed by Liem X. Dang. Battelle operates Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for DOE. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by BES. The authors are grateful to Professor Tsun-Mei Chang for valuable discussions.

  20. I HEAVY MINERALS CO. 836 South Michigan Avenue Chic&o-5, Illinois

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .,., f.IE.' ,4-L ,.4 ., " - * _ .c - ,: ~, , .' " I HEAVY MINERALS CO. / 836 South Michigan Avenue Chic&o-5, Illinois December 1, 1954 , etomic Energy Commiesion Raw Materials Division Washington, D. C. - - Attention: Mr. Radford Faulkner Gentlemen: CRUDE THORIUM HYDROXIDE We propose to sell crude thorium hydroxide to the Atomic Energy Commission over a four year period, starting during the fourth quarter of 1955. The crude thorium hydroxide we propose to supply will be produced by

  1. Spirometry variability criteria--association with respiratory morbidity and mortality in a cohort of coal miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kellie, S.E.; Attfield, M.D.; Hankinson, J.L.; Castellan, R.M.

    1987-03-01

    To clarify the association between spirometry variability and respiratory morbidity and mortality, the authors analyzed data for miners examined in the first round of the National Coal Study, 1969-1971, and they compared groups of miners who failed with those who met each of two spirometry variability criteria: a 5% criterion recommended by the American Thoracic Society, and a 200 ml criterion used in prior research studies. Compared with miners who met the 5% criterion (the best two forced vital capacities must be within 5% or 100 ml of one another), the group that failed had a lower mean for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and odds ratios for cough, phlegm, wheeze, shortness of breath, and death of 1.75, 1.67, 1.76, 2.71, and 1.30, respectively. The findings for the 200 ml criterion (the best two FEV1s must be within 200 ml of one another) were somewhat different. The group that failed versus the group that met this criterion had a higher mean for FEV1, and odds ratios for cough, phlegm, wheeze, shortness of breath, and death of 1.13, 1.07, 1.15, 1.43, and 0.94, respectively. Although the findings differ for the two criteria, the findings demonstrate that increased spirometry variability is associated with poorer health.

  2. Oxidative Mineralization and Characterization of Polyvinyl Alcohol Solutions for Wastewater Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L.N.

    2003-08-07

    Photochemical and ultrasonic treatment of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), derived from PVA fabric material, with hydrogen peroxide was evaluated as a primary method for PVA mineralization into simpler organic molecules. PVA-based waste streams have been found to be compatible with nuclear process wastewater treatment facilities only when solubilized PVA is more than 90 percent mineralized with hydrogen peroxide. No undesirable solid particles are formed with other nuclear process liquid waste when they are mixed, pH adjusted, evaporated and blended with this type of oxidized PVA waste streams. The presence of oxidized PVA in a typical nuclear process wastewater has been found to have no detrimental effect on the efficiency of ion exchange resins, inorganic, and precipitation agents used for the removal of radionuclides from nuclear waste streams. The disappearance of PVA solution in hydrogen peroxide with ultrasonic/ ultraviolet irradiation treatment was characterized by pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. Radioactive waste contaminated PVA fabric can be solubilized and mineralized to produce processible liquid waste, hence, no bulky solid waste disposal cost can be incurred and the radionuclides can be effectively recovered. Therefore, PVA fabric materials can be considered as an effective substitute for cellulose fabrics that are currently used in radioactive waste decontamination processes.

  3. Fundamental Thermodynamics of Actinide-Bearing Mineral Waste Forms - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, Mark A.; Ebbinghaus, Bartley B.; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2001-03-01

    The end of the Cold War raised the need for the technical community to be concerned with the disposition of excess nuclear weapon material. The plutonium will either be converted into mixed-oxide fuel for use in nuclear reactors or immobilized in glass or ceramic waste forms and placed in a repository. The stability and behavior of plutonium in the ceramic materials as well as the phase behavior and stability of the ceramic material in the environment is not well established. In order to provide technically sound solutions to these issues, thermodynamic data are essential in developing an understanding of the chemistry and phase equilibria of the actinide-bearing mineral waste form materials proposed as immobilization matrices. Mineral materials of interest include zircon, zirconolite, and pyrochlore. High temperature solution calorimetry is one of the most powerful techniques, sometimes the only technique, for providing the fundamental thermodynamic data needed to establish optimum material fabrication parameters, and more importantly understand and predict the behavior of the mineral materials in the environment. The purpose of this project is to experimentally determine the enthalpy of formation of actinide orthosilicates, the enthalpies of formation of actinide substituted zirconolite and pyrochlore, and develop an understanding of the bonding characteristics and stabilities of these materials.

  4. Wilderness study area, mineral resources of the Sleeping Giant, Lewis and Clark County, Montana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tysdal, G.; Reynold, M.W.; Carlson, R.R.; Kleinkopf, M.D.; Rowan, L.C. ); Peters, T.J. )

    1991-01-01

    A Mineral resource survey was conducted in 1987 by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines to evaluate mineral resources (known) and mineral resource potential (undiscovered) of the Sleeping Giant Wilderness Study Area (MT-075-111) in Lewis and Clark County, Montana. The only economic resource in the study area is an inferred 1.35-million-ton reserve of decorative stone (slate); a small gold placer resource is subeconomic. A high resource potential for decorative slate exists directly adjacent to the area of identified slate resource and in the northeastern part of the study area. The rest of the study area has a low potential for decorative slate. The westernmost part of the study area has a moderate resource potential for copper and associated silver in state-bound deposits in green beds and limestone; potential is low in the rest of the study are. The study area has a low resource potential for sapphires in placer deposits, gold in placer deposits (exclusive of subeconomic resource mentioned above), phosphate in the Spokane Formation, diatomite in lake deposits, uranium, oil, gas, geothermal energy, and no resource potential for phosphate in the Phosphoria Formation.

  5. Summary of Historical Production for Nevada Binary Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mines, Greg; Hanson, Hillary

    2014-09-01

    The analysis described was initiated to validate inputs used in the US Department of Energys (DOE) economic modeling tool GETEM (Geothermal Electricity Technology Evaluation Model) by using publically available data to identify production trends at operating geothermal binary facilities in the state of Nevada. Data required for this analysis was obtained from the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG), whom received the original operator reports from the Nevada Division of Minerals (NDOM). The data from the NBMG was inputted into Excel files that have been uploaded to the DOEs National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). Once data was available in an Excel format, production trends for individual wells and facilities could be established for the periods data was available (thru 2009). Additionally, this analysis identified relationships existing between production (temperature and flow rates), power production and plant conversion efficiencies. The data trends showed that temperature declines have a significant impact on power production, and that in some instances operators increased production flow rate to offset power declines. The production trends with time that were identified are being used to update GETEMs default inputs.

  6. State Energy Production Estimates

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2012 2012 Summary Tables Table P1. Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2012 Alabama 19,455 215,710 9,525 0 Alaska 2,052 351,259...

  7. Energy Efficiency Product Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Jersey Energy Efficiency Product Standards, enacted in 2005, include minimum standards for eight products, which were preempted by the federal Energy Policy Act of 2005. Future standards, if...

  8. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Biodiesel production, sales, and stocks million gallons Period B100 production Sales of B100 Sales of B100 included in biodiesel blends Ending stocks of B100 B100 stock change ...

  9. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Inputs to biodiesel production million pounds Period Canola oil Corn oil Cottonseed ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-22M "Monthly Biodiesel Production ...

  10. Hydrogen Production: Photobiological

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The photobiological hydrogen production process uses microorganisms and sunlight to turn water, and sometimes organic matter, into hydrogen.

  11. Smoking cessation among coal miners as predicted by baseline respiratory function and symptoms: a 5-year prospective study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ames, R.G.; Hall, D.S.

    1985-03-01

    A prospective analysis was used to test whether respiratory impairment or the presence of respiratory symptoms predicts 5-year cigarette smoking cessation in a sample of 1,118 U.S. white, male, underground coal miners. Miners were examined in 1977 and re-examined in 1982 by NIOSH, and all miners with test abnormalities were so informed by letter. Respiratory impairment was measured by an index of airways obstruction combining the spirometric measures of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 sec (FEV1). Bronchitis symptoms were measured by an index that combined chronic cough (3+ months/year) and chronic phlegm (3 + months/year). Among these coal miners, the presence of chronic respiratory symptoms initially was inversely associated with cigarette smoking cessation. Respiratory impairment, however, was positively associated with cigarette smoking cessation but did not reach statistical significance.

  12. Coal production 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  13. The use of the scanning electron microscope in the determination of the mineral composition of Ballachulish slate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, Joan A.

    2007-11-15

    Slate is a fine-grained, low-grade metamorphic rock derived from argillaceous sediments or occasionally volcanic ash. Although most slates contain mainly quartz, chlorite and white mica, they vary considerably in their durability, some lasting centuries while others fail after a few years of service. A detailed characterisation of their mineralogy is required for the assessment of performance, and to establish the provenance of a used slate. A combination of methods was used to examine Ballachulish slates; XRD analysis to determine the principal minerals present, XRF analysis to determine the total chemical composition, and scanning electron microscopy to determine the chemical composition of individual minerals. It was found that the white mica in Ballachulish slate is phengite and the chlorite is ripidolite. Feldspar is present as albite and carbonate as ferroan dolomite. Several accessory minerals were also identified, including chloritoid, monzonite and zircon. There was considerable variation in the ratio of the principal minerals, making it impossible to identify used slates by this criterion. Instead, chemical composition of the individual minerals, and possibly key accessory minerals, should be used to determine the provenance of slates.

  14. Federal Offshore Statistics, 1993. Leasing, exploration, production, and revenue as of December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francois, D.K.

    1994-12-31

    This document contains statistical data on the following: federal offshore lands; offshore leasing activity and status; offshore development activity; offshore production of crude oil and natural gas; federal offshore oil and natural gas sales volume and royalties; revenue from federal offshore leases; disbursement of federal offshore revenue; reserves and resource estimates of offshore oil and natural gas; oil pollution in US and international waters; and international activities and marine minerals. A glossary is included.

  15. Mineral resources of the North Algodones Dunes Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-360), Imperial County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.S.U.; Yeend, W.; Dohrenwend, J.C.; Gese, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the North Algodones Dunes Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-360), California Desert Conservation Area, Imperial County, California. The potential for undiscovered base and precious metals, and sand and gravel within the North Algodones Dunes Wilderness Study Area is low. The study area has a moderate potential for geothermal energy. One small sand-free area between the Coachella Canal and the west edge of the dune field would probably be the only feasible exploration site for geothermal energy. The study area has a moderate to high potential for the occurrence of undiscovered gas/condensate within the underlying rocks. 21 refs.

  16. Calibrating the ChemCam LIBS for carbonate minerals on Mars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiens, Roger C; Clegg, Samuel M; Ollila, Ann M; Barefield, James E; Lanza, Nina; Newsom, Horton E

    2009-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument suite on board the NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover includes the first LIBS instrument for extraterrestrial applications. Here we examine carbonate minerals in a simulated martian environment using the LIDS technique in order to better understand the in situ signature of these materials on Mars. Both chemical composition and rock type are determined using multivariate analysis (MVA) techniques. Composition is confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Our initial results suggest that ChemCam can recognize and differentiate between carbonate materials on Mars.

  17. Pseudophasic extraction method for the separation of ultra-fine minerals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J. (Naperville, IL)

    2002-01-01

    An improved aqueous-based extraction method for the separation and recovery of ultra-fine mineral particles. The process operates within the pseudophase region of the conventional aqueous biphasic extraction system where a low-molecular-weight, water soluble polymer alone is used in combination with a salt and operates within the pseudo-biphase regime of the conventional aqueous biphasic extraction system. A combination of low molecular weight, mutually immiscible polymers are used with or without a salt. This method is especially suited for the purification of clays that are useful as rheological control agents and for the preparation of nanocomposites.

  18. Calibrating the ChemCam LIBS for Carbonate Minerals on Mars

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Wiens, Roger C.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Ollila, Ann M.; Barefield, James E.; Lanza, Nina; Newsom, Horton E.

    2009-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument suite on board the NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover includes the first LIBS instrument for extraterrestrial applications. Here we examine carbonate minerals in a simulated martian environment using the LIDS technique in order to better understand the in situ signature of these materials on Mars. Both chemical composition and rock type are determined using multivariate analysis (MVA) techniques. Composition is confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Our initial results suggest that ChemCam can recognize and differentiate between carbonate materials on Mars.

  19. Progress report on inelastic deformation in crystalline non-metallic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohlstedt, D.L.

    1980-04-01

    Densification of polycrystalline TiC was studied during hot-pressing and sintering of powders. Starting powders of Ti plus C, TiC, and TiC plus Ti have been reacted at 1700 to 1835/sup 0/C above the melting point of Ti metal (T/sub m/ = 1675/sup 0/C for Ti). The bulk C:Ti ratio was maintained in the range 0.97 to 0.6 in order to allow the possibility of producing a single phase material. All of the resulting microstructures, examined in the scanning electron microscope, contain press both along the grain boundaries and within the grains. However, the samples fabricated from Ti metal plus TiC contain substantially fewer pores than those produced from TiC powder alone. Debye-Scherrer x-ray diffraction analyses demonstrate that in the TiC plus Ti runs, all of the Ti is transformed to substoichiometric TiC after a few minutes at 1800/sup 0/C. While sintering time and temperature have a small influence on the final density, increasing the weight percent of Ti metal added to TiC dramatically increases the final density and the hardness.

  20. Coal Production 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  1. ARM - VAP Product - armbestns

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Productsarmbestnsarmbestns Documentation Data Management Facility Plots (Quick Looks) Citation DOI: 10.5439/1178332 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send VAP Output : ARMBESTNS Station-based Surface Products Active Dates 2011.01.01 - 2011.12.31 Originating VAP Process Station-based Surface Products : ARMBESTNS Measurements The measurements below provided by this product

  2. Microbial production of epoxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Thomas R.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2003-06-10

    A method for microbial production of epoxides and other oxygenated products is disclosed. The method uses a biocatalyst of methanotrophic bacteria cultured in a biphasic medium containing a major amount of a non-aqueous polar solvent. Regeneration of reducing equivalents is carried out by using endogenous hydrogenase activity together with supplied hydrogen gas. This method is especially effective with gaseous substrates and cofactors that result in liquid products.

  3. Production | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research & Development » Algal Biofuels » Production Production PNNL image Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of cultivation systems. Resource Use Resources necessary to grow algae sustainably include non-arable land, non-potable water, waste nutrient streams, waste carbon dioxide, sufficient sunlight, and supporting infrastructure

  4. Production | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production Production PNNL image Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of cultivation systems. Resource Use Resources necessary to grow algae sustainably include non-arable land, non-potable water, waste nutrient streams, waste carbon dioxide, sufficient sunlight, and supporting infrastructure to access downstream processing operations.

  5. Security Administration Production Office,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Services: Victoria Steward 43 years Facilities, Infrastructure and Services: Erby L. Harris and David Vann Production: Charles H. Neal Quality Assurance: Gary W. Eckert 41...

  6. Microsystem product development.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polosky, Marc A.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2006-04-01

    Over the last decade the successful design and fabrication of complex MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems), optical circuits and ASICs have been demonstrated. Packaging and integration processes have lagged behind MEMS research but are rapidly maturing. As packaging processes evolve, a new challenge presents itself, microsystem product development. Product development entails the maturation of the design and all the processes needed to successfully produce a product. Elements such as tooling design, fixtures, gages, testers, inspection, work instructions, process planning, etc., are often overlooked as MEMS engineers concentrate on design, fabrication and packaging processes. Thorough, up-front planning of product development efforts is crucial to the success of any project.

  7. J/ψ Production

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    much larger than possible excitation, temperature for example, of the system created in ... Therefore, study- ing open charm and charmonium production will yield important ...

  8. Furfuryl alcohol cellular product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1982-05-26

    Self-extinguishing rigid foam products are formed by polymerization of furfuryl alcohol in the presence of a lightweight, particulate, filler, zinc chloride and selected catalysts.

  9. Procurable Products, Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    printed wiring boards (PWB) using performance and design specifications. Commercial products and services procurement The following items are purchased through Just-In-Time...

  10. Product Efficiency Cases

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    granting an Application for Exception filed by Technical Consumer Products, Inc. (TCP) for relief from the provisions of 10 C.F.R. Part 430, Energy Conservation Program:...

  11. ,"Weekly Blender Net Production"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Blender Net Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Weekly Blender Net ...

  12. Weekly Blender Net Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Blender Net Production (Thousand Barrels per Day) Period: Weekly 4-Week Average Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & ...

  13. Crude Oil Domestic Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Series: Crude Oil Domestic Production Refinery Crude Oil Inputs Refinery Gross Inputs Refinery Operable Capacity (Calendar Day) Refinery Percent Operable Utilization Net ...

  14. Shale Gas Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes 2009 2010 2011 2012...

  15. Water Management Strategies for Improved Coalbed Methane Production in the Black Warrior Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pashin, Jack; McIntyre-Redden, Marcella; Mann, Steven; Merkel, David

    2013-10-31

    The modern coalbed methane industry was born in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama and has to date produced more than 2.6 trillion cubic feet of gas and 1.6 billion barrels of water. The coalbed gas industry in this area is dependent on instream disposal of co-produced water, which ranges from nearly potable sodium-bicarbonate water to hypersaline sodium-chloride water. This study employed diverse analytical methods to characterize water chemistry in light of the regional geologic framework and to evaluate the full range of water management options for the Black Warrior coalbed methane industry. Results reveal strong interrelationships among regional geology, water chemistry, and gas chemistry. Coalbed methane is produced from multiple coal seams in Pennsylvanian-age strata of the Pottsville Coal Interval, in which water chemistry is influenced by a structurally controlled meteoric recharge area along the southeastern margin of the basin. The most important constituents of concern in the produced water include chlorides, ammonia compounds, and organic substances. Regional mapping and statistical analysis indicate that the concentrations of most ionic compounds, metallic substances, and nonmetallic substances correlate with total dissolved solids and chlorides. Gas is effectively produced at pipeline quality, and the only significant impurity is N{sub 2}. Geochemical analysis indicates that the gas is of mixed thermogenic-biogenic origin. Stable isotopic analysis of produced gas and calcite vein fills indicates that widespread late-stage microbial methanogenesis occurred primarily along a CO{sub 2} reduction metabolic pathway. Organic compounds in the produced water appear to have helped sustain microbial communities. Ammonia and ammonium levels increase with total dissolved solids content and appear to have played a role in late-stage microbial methanogenesis and the generation of N{sub 2}. Gas production tends to decline exponentially, whereas water production tends to decline hyperbolically. Hyperbolic decline indicates that water volume is of greatest concern early in the life of a coalbed methane project. Regional mapping indicates that gas production is controlled primarily by the ability to depressurize permeable coal seams that are natively within the steep part of the adsorption isotherm. Water production is greatest within the freshwater intrusion and below thick Cretaceous cover strata and is least in areas of underpressure. Water management strategies include instream disposal, which can be applied effectively in most parts of the basin. Deep disposal may be applicable locally, particularly where high salinity limits the ability to dispose into streams. Artificial wetlands show promise for the management of saline water, especially where the reservoir yield is limited. Beneficial use options include municipal water supply, agricultural use, and industrial use. The water may be of use to an inland shrimp farming industry, which is active around the southwestern coalbed methane fields. The best opportunities for beneficial use are reuse of water by the coalbed methane industry for drilling and hydraulic fracturing. This research has further highlighted opportunities for additional research on treatment efficiency, the origin of nitrogen compounds, organic geochemistry, biogenic gas generation, flow modeling, and computer simulation. Results of this study are being disseminated through a vigorous technology transfer program that includes web resources, numerous presentations to stakeholders, and a variety of technical publications.

  16. Sunforce Products | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    energy Product: Manufacturer and distributor of solar and wind power generation and battery charging products. References: Sunforce Products1 This article is a stub. You can...

  17. Evidence for an unsaturated-zone origin of secondary minerals in Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whelan, Joseph F.; Roedder, Edwin; Paces, James B.

    2001-04-29

    The unsaturated zone (UZ) in Miocene-age welded tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is under consideration as a potential site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Secondary calcite and silica minerals deposited on fractures and in cavities in the UZ tuffs are texturally, isotopically, and geochemically consistent with UZ deposition from meteoric water infiltrating at the surface and percolating through the UZ along fractures. Nonetheless, two-phase fluid inclusions with small and consistent vapor to liquid (V:L) ratios that yield consistent temperatures within samples and which range from about 35 to about 80 C between samples have led some to attribute these deposits to formation from upwelling hydrothermal waters. Geochronologic studies have shown that calcite and silica minerals began forming at least 10 Ma and continued to form into the Holocene. If their deposition were really from upwelling water flooding the UZ, it would draw into question the suitability of the site as a waste repository.

  18. Stable isotopes of authigenic minerals in variably-saturated fractured tuff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, D.S.; Evans, D.D.

    1988-11-01

    Identifying stable isotope variation and mineralogical changes in fractured rock may help establish the history of climatic and geomorphological processes that might affect the isolation properties of a waste repository site. This study examines the use of the stable isotope ratios of oxygen ({sup 18}O/{sup 16}O) and carbon ({sup 13}C/{sup 12}C) in authigenic minerals as hydrogeochemical tools tracing low-temperature rock-water interaction in variably-saturated fractured stuff. Isotopic compositions of fracture-filling and rock matrix minerals in the Apache Leap tuff, near Superior, Arizona were concordant with geothermal temperatures and in equilibrium with water isotopically similar to present-day meteoric water and groundwater. Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of fracture-filling, in unsaturated fractured tuff, displayed an isotopic gradient believed to result from near-surface isotopic enrichment due to evaporation rather than the effects of rock-water interaction. Oxygen isotope ratios of rock matrix opal samples exhibited an isotopic gradient believed to result from, leaching and reprecipitation of silica at depth. Methods and results can be used to further define primary flowpaths and the movement of water in variably-saturated fractured rock. 71 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Defending mining claims and mineral leases in environmental suits against federal land managers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Twelker, E. )

    1989-01-01

    Suits in the last 4-5 years jeopardize the title of thousands of mining claims and mineral leases. The cases presenting the most striking examples are National Wildlife Federation v. Burford, Connor v. Burford, Sierra Club V. Watt, and Bob Marshall Alliance v. Watt. From the claimants' and lessees' point of view, these decisions granted environmental groups sweeping, though somewhat ill-defined, relief. The challenges by environmental groups are based on statutes designed to bring environmental considerations before federal decision makers. The claimants and lessees are caught in the middle of the exchange between environmentalists and federal agencies. Lawsuits that indirectly challenge leases and claims are unlike environmental challenges to fixed projects such as highways or dams. Those affected often times do not know exactly what is at stake. When the challenge is indirect, unexplored, or partially explored, proper ties have only speculative value and the claimants and lessees are often unwilling or unable to engage in a fight with well-heeled environmental public interest law firms. While the federal government has defended the suits, their interests and those of the claimants and lessees may diverge. In the context of the four cases mentioned above, this paper addresses the rights and remedies of claimants and lessees before, during, and after environmental procedural suits that indirectly challenge federal mining claims and mineral leases.

  20. Chemical analyses of rocks, minerals, and detritus, Yucca Mountain--Preliminary report, special report No. 11

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, C.A.; Livingston, D.E.

    1993-09-01

    This chemical analysis study is part of the research program of the Yucca Mountain Project intended to provide the State of Nevada with a detailed assessment of the geology and geochemistry of Yucca Mountain and adjacent regions. This report is preliminary in the sense that more chemical analyses may be needed in the future and also in the sense that these chemical analyses should be considered as a small part of a much larger geological data base. The interpretations discussed herein may be modified as that larger data base is examined and established. All of the chemical analyses performed to date are shown in Table 1. There are three parts to this table: (1) trace element analyses on rocks (limestone and tuff) and minerals (calcite/opal), (2) rare earth analyses on rocks (tuff) and minerals (calcite/opal), and (3) major element analyses + CO{sub 2} on rocks (tuff) and detritus sand. In this report, for each of the three parts of the table, the data and its possible significance will be discussed first, then some overall conclusions will be made, and finally some recommendations for future work will be offered.

  1. Associations of symptoms related to isocyanate, ureaformol, and formophenolic exposures with respiratory symptoms and lung function in coal miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertrand, J.P.; Simon, V.; Chau, N.

    2007-04-15

    The respiratory effects of diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI)-based resins and ureaformol- and formophenolic-based resins, used in coal mining, are unknown. This cross-sectional study of 354 miners evaluated respiratory health in miners with MDI-related symptoms (IS) and ureaformol/formophenolic-related symptoms (UFS). The protocol included clinical examination, chest radiograph, questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, smoking habit, job history, resin handling, and spirometry. Resin handling concerned 27.7% of the miners. IS affected 5.6%, and 1.4% also after work. UFS affected 22.6%, and 2.3% also after work. Wheezing affected 35.6%; chronic cough, expectoration, or bronchitis about 10%; dyspnea 5.4%; and asthma 2.8%. The miners with UFS had significantly more frequent chronic cough, expectoration, chronic bronchitis, dyspnea, and wheezing, whereas those with IS at and after work had markedly lower FVC, FEV1, MMEF, FEF50% and FEF25%. These findings raise the possibility of deleterious effects of exposures to MDI and ureaformol/ ormophenolic resins on respiratory health and lung function in coal miners during their working life.

  2. The Origin of Refractory Minerals in Comet 81P/Wild 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chi, M; Ishii, H A; Simon, S B; Bradley, J P; Dai, Z R; Joswiak, D J; Browning, N D; Matrajt, G

    2008-11-20

    Refractory Ti-bearing minerals in the calcium-, aluminium-rich inclusion (CAI) Inti, recovered from the comet 81P/Wild 2 sample, were examined using analytical (scanning) transmission electron microscopy (STEM) methods including imaging, nanodiffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Inti fassaite (Ca(Mg,Ti,Al)(Si,Al){sub 2}O{sub 6}) was found to have a Ti{sup 3+}/Ti{sup 4+} ratio of 2.0 {+-} 0.2, consistent with fassaite in other solar system CAIs. The oxygen fugacity (log f{sub O{sub 2}}) of formation estimated from this ratio, assuming equilibration among phases at 1509K, is -19.4 {+-} 1.3. This value is near the canonical solar nebula value (-18.1 {+-} 0.3) and in close agreement with that reported for fassaite-bearing Allende CAIs (-19.8 {+-} 0.9) by other researchers using the same assumptions. Nanocrystals of osbornite (Ti(V)N), 2-40 nm in diameter, are embedded as inclusions within anorthite, spinel and diopside in Inti. Vanadium is heterogeneously distributed within some osbornite crystals. Compositions range from pure TiN to Ti{sub 0.36}V{sub 0.64}N. The possible presence of oxide and carbide in solid solution with the osbornite was evaluated. The osbornite may contain O but does not contain C. The presence of osbornite, likely a refractory early condensate, together with the other refractory minerals in Inti, indicates that the parent comet contains solids that condensed closer to the proto-sun than the distance at which the parent comet itself accreted. The estimated oxygen fugacity and the reported isotopic and chemical compositions are consistent with Inti originating in the inner solar system as opposed to it being a surviving CAI from an extrasolar source. These results provide insight for evaluating the validity of models of radial mass transport dynamics in the early solar system. The oxidation environments inferred for the Inti mineral assemblage are inconsistent with an X-wind formation scenario. In contrast, radial mixing models allowing accretion of components from different heliocentric distances can satisfy the observations from the cometary CAI Inti.

  3. Strain-guided mineralization in the bone–PDL–cementum complex of a rat periodontium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grandfield, Kathryn; Herber, Ralf -Peter; Chen, Ling; Djomehri, Sabra; Tam, Caleb; Lee, Ji -Hyun; Brown, Evan; Woolwine III, Wood R.; Curtis, Don; Ryder, Mark; Schuck, Jim; Webb, Samuel; Landis, William; Ho, Sunita P.

    2015-04-18

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of mechanical strain by mapping physicochemical properties at periodontal ligament (PDL)–bone and PDL–cementum attachment sites and within the tissues per se. Design: Accentuated mechanical strain was induced by applying a unidirectional force of 0.06 N for 14 days on molars in a rat model. The associated changes in functional space between the tooth and bone, mineral forming and resorbing events at the PDL–bone and PDL–cementum attachment sites were identified by using micro-X-ray computed tomography (micro-XCT), atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic histomorphometry, Raman microspectroscopy, and AFM-based nanoindentation technique. Results from these analytical techniques were correlated with histochemical strains specific to low and high molecular weight GAGs, including biglycan, and osteoclast distribution through tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. Results: Unique chemical and mechanical qualities including heterogeneous bony fingers with hygroscopic Sharpey's fibers contributing to a higher organic (amide III — 1240 cm⁻¹) to inorganic (phosphate — 960 cm⁻¹) ratio, with lower average elastic modulus of 8 GPa versus 12 GPa in unadapted regions were identified. Furthermore, an increased presence of elemental Zn in cement lines and mineralizing fronts of PDL–bone was observed. Adapted regions containing bony fingers exhibited woven bone-like architecture and these regions rich in biglycan (BGN) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) also contained high-molecular weight polysaccharides predominantly at the site of polarized bone growth. Conclusions: From a fundamental science perspective the shift in local properties due to strain amplification at the soft–hard tissue attachment sites is governed by semiautonomous cellular events at the PDL–bone and PDL–cementum sites. Over time, these strain-mediated events can alter the physicochemical properties of tissues per se, and consequently the overall biomechanics of the bone–PDL–tooth complex. From a clinical perspective, the shifts in magnitude and duration of forces on the periodontal ligament can prompt a shift in physiologic mineral apposition in cementum and alveolar bone albeit of an adapted quality owing to the rapid mechanical translation of the tooth.

  4. Strain-guided mineralization in the bone–PDL–cementum complex of a rat periodontium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Grandfield, Kathryn; Herber, Ralf -Peter; Chen, Ling; Djomehri, Sabra; Tam, Caleb; Lee, Ji -Hyun; Brown, Evan; Woolwine III, Wood R.; Curtis, Don; Ryder, Mark; et al

    2015-04-18

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of mechanical strain by mapping physicochemical properties at periodontal ligament (PDL)–bone and PDL–cementum attachment sites and within the tissues per se. Design: Accentuated mechanical strain was induced by applying a unidirectional force of 0.06 N for 14 days on molars in a rat model. The associated changes in functional space between the tooth and bone, mineral forming and resorbing events at the PDL–bone and PDL–cementum attachment sites were identified by using micro-X-ray computed tomography (micro-XCT), atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic histomorphometry, Raman microspectroscopy, and AFM-based nanoindentation technique. Results frommore » these analytical techniques were correlated with histochemical strains specific to low and high molecular weight GAGs, including biglycan, and osteoclast distribution through tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. Results: Unique chemical and mechanical qualities including heterogeneous bony fingers with hygroscopic Sharpey's fibers contributing to a higher organic (amide III — 1240 cm⁻¹) to inorganic (phosphate — 960 cm⁻¹) ratio, with lower average elastic modulus of 8 GPa versus 12 GPa in unadapted regions were identified. Furthermore, an increased presence of elemental Zn in cement lines and mineralizing fronts of PDL–bone was observed. Adapted regions containing bony fingers exhibited woven bone-like architecture and these regions rich in biglycan (BGN) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) also contained high-molecular weight polysaccharides predominantly at the site of polarized bone growth. Conclusions: From a fundamental science perspective the shift in local properties due to strain amplification at the soft–hard tissue attachment sites is governed by semiautonomous cellular events at the PDL–bone and PDL–cementum sites. Over time, these strain-mediated events can alter the physicochemical properties of tissues per se, and consequently the overall biomechanics of the bone–PDL–tooth complex. From a clinical perspective, the shifts in magnitude and duration of forces on the periodontal ligament can prompt a shift in physiologic mineral apposition in cementum and alveolar bone albeit of an adapted quality owing to the rapid mechanical translation of the tooth.« less

  5. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

  6. Development of Advanced Surface Enhancement Technology for Decreasing Wear and Corrosion of Equipment Used for Mineral Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel Tao; Craig A. Blue

    2004-08-01

    Equipment wear is a major concern in the mineral processing industry, which dramatically increases the maintenance cost and adversely affects plant operation efficiency. In this research, wear problems of mineral processing equipment including screens, sieve bends, heavy media vessel, dewatering centrifuge, etc., were identified. A novel surface treatment technology, high density infrared (HDI) surface coating process was proposed for the surface enhancement of selected mineral processing equipment. Microstructural and mechanical properties of the coated samples were characterized. Laboratory-simulated wear tests were conducted to evaluate the tribological performance of the coated components. Test results indicate that the wear resistance of AISI 4140 and ASTM A36 steels can be increased 3 and 5 folds, respectively by the application of HDI coatings.

  7. GaMin11 an international inter-laboratory comparison for geochemical CO? - saline fluid - mineral interaction experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ostertag-Henning, C. [Federal Inst. for Geosciences and Natural Resesources (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Risse, A. [Federal Inst. for Geosciences and Natural Resesources (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Thomas, B. [United States Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Rosenbauer, R. [United States Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Rochelle, C. [British Geological Survey, Nottinghamshire (United Kingdom); Purser, G. [British Geological Survey, Nottinghamshire (United Kingdom); Kilpatrick, A. [British Geological Survey, Nottinghamshire (United Kingdom); Rosenqvist, J. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom); Yardley, B. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom); Karamalidis, A. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Griffith, C. [National Energy Technology Lab., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hedges, S. [National Energy Technology Lab., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Dilmore, R. [National Energy Technology Lab., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Goodman, A. [National Energy Technology Lab., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Black, J. [Univ. of Melbourne, (Austrialia); Haese, R. [Univ. of Melbourne, (Austrialia); Deusner, C. [hGEOMAR Helmholtz Center for Ocean Research, Kiel (Germany); Bigalke, N. [hGEOMAR Helmholtz Center for Ocean Research, Kiel (Germany); Haeckel, M. [hGEOMAR Helmholtz Center for Ocean Research, Kiel (Germany); Fischer, S. [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam (Germany); Liebscher, A. [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam (Germany); Icenhower, J. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Daval, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Saldi, G. D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Knauss, K. G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schmidt, M. [Martin Luther Univ., Halle (Germany); Mito, S. [Research Inst. of Innovative Tech. for the Earth (RITE), Kyoto (Japan); Sorai, M. [National Inst. of Advanced Science and Tech. (AIST) Tsukuba (Japan); Truche, L. [GeoRessources, Universite de Lorraine, Nancy (France)

    2014-12-31

    Due to the strong interest in geochemical CO?-fluid-rock interaction in the context of geological storage of CO? a growing number of research groups have used a variety of different experimental ways to identify important geochemical dissolution or precipitation reactions and if possible quantify the rates and extent of mineral or rock alteration. In this inter-laboratory comparison the gas-fluid-mineral reactions of three samples of rock-forming minerals have been investigated by 11 experimental labs. The reported results point to robust identification of the major processes in the experiments by most groups. The dissolution rates derived from the changes in composition of the aqueous phase are consistent overall, but the variation could be reduced by using similar corrections for changing parameters in the reaction cells over time. The comparison of experimental setups and procedures as well as of data corrections identified potential improvements for future gas-fluid-rock studies.

  8. Product Realization Environment

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-06-12

    PRE provides a common framework for information flow and product information management based on Common Object Request Brokering Architecture (CORBA). More specific goals for PRE are using the technologies to improve business practices, to decrease product cycle time, and developing tools to rapidly access specialists (e.g. designers, engineers, scientists) expertise both as preserved knowledge and for real time collaboration. The PRE framework will utilize an object based approach (CORBA) to integrate product development with themore »enterprise by providing software integration for business, engineering, and manufacturing practices across organizational boundaries.« less

  9. Simplified subsea production wellhead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, H.R.

    1980-10-28

    A simplified subsea production wellhead which permits (1) pumpdown tool operations for routine well maintenance and (2) vertical entry to the wellbore for major workover operations. The wellhead can be lowered by the production pipeline to a wellhead site on the sea floor. The production wellhead includes a diverter spool for releasably attaching to a subsea well. Pumpdown tools can be used with the diverter spool. If vertical entry of the subsea well is required, the diverter spool can be released, raised and moved horizontally to one side of the subsea well, giving vertical entry. After workover operations, the diverter spool is again moved over the subsea well and reattached.

  10. Mineral dissolution and precipitation during CO2 injection at the Frio-I Brine Pilot: Geochemical modeling and uncertainty analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ilgen, A. G.; Cygan, R. T.

    2015-12-07

    During the Frio-I Brine Pilot CO2 injection experiment in 2004, distinct geochemical changes in response to the injection of 1600 tons of CO2 were recorded in samples collected from the monitoring well. Previous geochemical modeling studies have considered dissolution of calcite and iron oxyhydroxides, or release of adsorbed iron, as the most likely sources of the increased ion concentrations. We explore in this modeling study possible alternative sources of the increasing calcium and iron, based on the data from the detailed petrographic characterization of the Upper Frio Formation “C”. Particularly, we evaluate whether dissolution of pyrite and oligoclase (anorthitemore » component) can account for the observed geochemical changes. Due to kinetic limitations, dissolution of pyrite and anorthite cannot account for the increased iron and calcium concentrations on the time scale of the field test (10 days). However, dissolution of these minerals is contributing to carbonate and clay mineral precipitation on the longer time scales (1000 years). The one-dimensional reactive transport model predicts carbonate minerals, dolomite and ankerite, as well as clay minerals kaolinite, nontronite and montmorillonite, will precipitate in the Frio Formation “C” sandstone as the system progresses towards chemical equilibrium during a 1000-year period. Cumulative uncertainties associated with using different thermodynamic databases, activity correction models (Pitzer vs. B-dot), and extrapolating to reservoir temperature, are manifested in the difference in the predicted mineral phases. Furthermore, these models are consistent with regards to the total volume of mineral precipitation and porosity values which are predicted to within 0.002%.« less

  11. Modeling dust as component minerals in the Community Atmosphere Model: development of framework and impact on radiative forcing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Scanza, Rachel; Mahowald, N.; Ghan, Steven J.; Zender, C. S.; Kok, J. F.; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Y.; Albani, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The mineralogy of desert dust is important due to its effect on radiation, clouds and biogeochemical cycling of trace nutrients. This study presents the simulation of dust radiative forcing as a function of both mineral composition and size at the global scale, using mineral soil maps for estimating emissions. Externally mixed mineral aerosols in the bulk aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4) and internally mixed mineral aerosols in the modal aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5) embedded in the Community Earth System Model version 1.0.5 (CESM) are speciated into common mineral componentsmorein place of total dust. The simulations with mineralogy are compared to available observations of mineral atmospheric distribution and deposition along with observations of clear-sky radiative forcing efficiency. Based on these simulations, we estimate the all-sky direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere as + 0.05 Wm? for both CAM4 and CAM5 simulations with mineralogy. We compare this to the radiative forcing from simulations of dust in release versions of CAM4 and CAM5 (+0.08 and +0.17 Wm?) and of dust with optimized optical properties, wet scavenging and particle size distribution in CAM4 and CAM5, -0.05 and -0.17 Wm?, respectively. The ability to correctly include the mineralogy of dust in climate models is hindered by its spatial and temporal variability as well as insufficient global in situ observations, incomplete and uncertain source mineralogies and the uncertainties associated with data retrieved from remote sensing methods.less

  12. Modeling dust as component minerals in the Community Atmosphere Model: development of framework and impact on radiative forcing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Scanza, R. A.; Mahowald, N.; Ghan, S.; Zender, C. S.; Kok, J. F.; Liu, X.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-07-02

    The mineralogy of desert dust is important due to its effect on radiation, clouds and biogeochemical cycling of trace nutrients. This study presents the simulation of dust radiative forcing as a function of both mineral composition and size at the global scale using mineral soil maps for estimating emissions. Externally mixed mineral aerosols in the bulk aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4) and internally mixed mineral aerosols in the modal aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5) embedded in the Community Earth System Model version 1.0.5 (CESM) are speciated into common mineral componentsmore » in place of total dust. The simulations with mineralogy are compared to available observations of mineral atmospheric distribution and deposition along with observations of clear-sky radiative forcing efficiency. Based on these simulations, we estimate the all-sky direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere as +0.05 W m−2 for both CAM4 and CAM5 simulations with mineralogy and compare this both with simulations of dust in release versions of CAM4 and CAM5 (+0.08 and +0.17 W m−2) and of dust with optimized optical properties, wet scavenging and particle size distribution in CAM4 and CAM5, −0.05 and −0.17 W m−2, respectively. The ability to correctly include the mineralogy of dust in climate models is hindered by its spatial and temporal variability as well as insufficient global in-situ observations, incomplete and uncertain source mineralogies and the uncertainties associated with data retrieved from remote sensing methods.« less

  13. Modeling dust as component minerals in the Community Atmosphere Model: development of framework and impact on radiative forcing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Scanza, R. A.; Mahowald, N.; Ghan, S.; Zender, C. S.; Kok, J. F.; Liu, X.; Zhang, Y.; Albani, S.

    2015-01-15

    The mineralogy of desert dust is important due to its effect on radiation, clouds and biogeochemical cycling of trace nutrients. This study presents the simulation of dust radiative forcing as a function of both mineral composition and size at the global scale, using mineral soil maps for estimating emissions. Externally mixed mineral aerosols in the bulk aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4) and internally mixed mineral aerosols in the modal aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5) embedded in the Community Earth System Model version 1.0.5 (CESM) are speciated into common mineral componentsmore » in place of total dust. The simulations with mineralogy are compared to available observations of mineral atmospheric distribution and deposition along with observations of clear-sky radiative forcing efficiency. Based on these simulations, we estimate the all-sky direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere as + 0.05 Wm−2 for both CAM4 and CAM5 simulations with mineralogy. We compare this to the radiative forcing from simulations of dust in release versions of CAM4 and CAM5 (+0.08 and +0.17 Wm−2) and of dust with optimized optical properties, wet scavenging and particle size distribution in CAM4 and CAM5, −0.05 and −0.17 Wm−2, respectively. The ability to correctly include the mineralogy of dust in climate models is hindered by its spatial and temporal variability as well as insufficient global in situ observations, incomplete and uncertain source mineralogies and the uncertainties associated with data retrieved from remote sensing methods.« less

  14. Modeling dust as component minerals in the Community Atmosphere Model: development of framework and impact on radiative forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scanza, Rachel; Mahowald, N.; Ghan, Steven J.; Zender, C. S.; Kok, J. F.; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Y.; Albani, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The mineralogy of desert dust is important due to its effect on radiation, clouds and biogeochemical cycling of trace nutrients. This study presents the simulation of dust radiative forcing as a function of both mineral composition and size at the global scale, using mineral soil maps for estimating emissions. Externally mixed mineral aerosols in the bulk aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4) and internally mixed mineral aerosols in the modal aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5) embedded in the Community Earth System Model version 1.0.5 (CESM) are speciated into common mineral components in place of total dust. The simulations with mineralogy are compared to available observations of mineral atmospheric distribution and deposition along with observations of clear-sky radiative forcing efficiency. Based on these simulations, we estimate the all-sky direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere as + 0.05 Wm? for both CAM4 and CAM5 simulations with mineralogy. We compare this to the radiative forcing from simulations of dust in release versions of CAM4 and CAM5 (+0.08 and +0.17 Wm?) and of dust with optimized optical properties, wet scavenging and particle size distribution in CAM4 and CAM5, -0.05 and -0.17 Wm?, respectively. The ability to correctly include the mineralogy of dust in climate models is hindered by its spatial and temporal variability as well as insufficient global in situ observations, incomplete and uncertain source mineralogies and the uncertainties associated with data retrieved from remote sensing methods.

  15. Stoichiometry and temperature sensitivity of methanogenesis and CO2 production from saturated polygonal tundra in Barrow, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy Chowdhury, Taniya; Herndon, Elizabeth M; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Elias, Dwayne A; Gu, Baohua; Liang, Liyuan; Wullschleger, Stan D; Graham, David E

    2015-01-01

    Arctic permafrost ecosystems store ~50% of global belowground carbon (C) that is vulnerable to increased microbial degradation with warmer active layer temperatures and thawing of the near surface permafrost. We used anoxic laboratory incubations to estimate anaerobic CO2 production and methanogenesis in active layer (organic and mineral soil horizons) and permafrost samples from center, ridge and trough positions of water-saturated low-centered polygon in Barrow Environmental Observatory, Barrow AK, USA. Methane (CH4) and CO2 production rates and concentrations were determined at 2, +4, or +8 C for 60 day incubation period. Temporal dynamics of CO2 production and methanogenesis at 2 C showed evidence of fundamentally different mechanisms of substrate limitation and inhibited microbial growth at soil water freezing points compared to warmer temperatures. Nonlinear regression better modeled the initial rates and estimates of Q10 values for CO2 that showed higher sensitivity in the organic-rich soils of polygon center and trough than the relatively drier ridge soils. Methanogenesis generally exhibited a lag phase in the mineral soils that was significantly longer at 2 C in all horizons. Such discontinuity in CH4 production between 2 C and the elevated temperatures (+4 and +8 C) indicated the insufficient representation of methanogenesis on the basis of Q10 values estimated from both linear and nonlinear models. Production rates for both CH4 and CO2 were substantially higher in organic horizons (20% to 40% wt. C) at all temperatures relative to mineral horizons (<20% wt. C). Permafrost horizon (~12% wt. C) produced ~5-fold less CO2 than the active layer and negligible CH4. High concentrations of initial exchangeable Fe(II) and increasing accumulation rates signified the role of iron as terminal electron acceptors for anaerobic C degradation in the mineral horizons.

  16. Stoichiometry and temperature sensitivity of methanogenesis and CO2 production from saturated polygonal tundra in Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Roy Chowdhury, Taniya; Herndon, Elizabeth M; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Elias, Dwayne A; Gu, Baohua; Liang, Liyuan; Wullschleger, Stan D; Graham, David E

    2015-01-01

    Arctic permafrost ecosystems store ~50% of global belowground carbon (C) that is vulnerable to increased microbial degradation with warmer active layer temperatures and thawing of the near surface permafrost. We used anoxic laboratory incubations to estimate anaerobic CO2 production and methanogenesis in active layer (organic and mineral soil horizons) and permafrost samples from center, ridge and trough positions of water-saturated low-centered polygon in Barrow Environmental Observatory, Barrow AK, USA. Methane (CH4) and CO2 production rates and concentrations were determined at 2, +4, or +8 C for 60 day incubation period. Temporal dynamics of CO2 production and methanogenesis at 2 Cmore » showed evidence of fundamentally different mechanisms of substrate limitation and inhibited microbial growth at soil water freezing points compared to warmer temperatures. Nonlinear regression better modeled the initial rates and estimates of Q10 values for CO2 that showed higher sensitivity in the organic-rich soils of polygon center and trough than the relatively drier ridge soils. Methanogenesis generally exhibited a lag phase in the mineral soils that was significantly longer at 2 C in all horizons. Such discontinuity in CH4 production between 2 C and the elevated temperatures (+4 and +8 C) indicated the insufficient representation of methanogenesis on the basis of Q10 values estimated from both linear and nonlinear models. Production rates for both CH4 and CO2 were substantially higher in organic horizons (20% to 40% wt. C) at all temperatures relative to mineral horizons (<20% wt. C). Permafrost horizon (~12% wt. C) produced ~5-fold less CO2 than the active layer and negligible CH4. High concentrations of initial exchangeable Fe(II) and increasing accumulation rates signified the role of iron as terminal electron acceptors for anaerobic C degradation in the mineral horizons.« less

  17. Experimental study of the Self-Advancing Miner for coal (SAM). Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas, S.B.

    1981-08-01

    The design, fabrication, and field testing of the Rapidex Self-Advancing Miner (SAM) are discussed in detail. The SAM concept utilizes a unique conical screw geometry to excavate coal by first slotting the face and then breaking free the weakened material between slots. Field tests proved that the technique works well in coal and that the SAM does self advance along the face. Using the experimental data obtained, full scale estimates are made for four mining applications. Longwall mining with SAM cutterheads appears the most feasible and offers many operational advantages, including improved dust control. Other key SAM features are increased cutting efficiency, improved face control to minimize slabbing, and low methane emission and risk of face ignitions.

  18. Enchanted Clays: 44th Annual Meeting of the Clay Minerals Society (June 2007)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall T. Cygan

    2007-06-01

    Enchanted Clays: 44th Annual Meeting of the Clay Minerals Society was held in early June 2007 in beautiful and historic Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Santa Fe provided an idyllic location in the southwestern United States for the attendees to enjoy technical and social sessions while soaking up the diverse culture and wonderful climate of New MexicoThe Land of Enchantment. The meeting included a large and varied group of scientists, sharing knowledge and ideas, benefitting from technical interactions, and enjoying the wonderful historic and enchanted environs of Santa Fe. Including significant number of international scientists, the meeting was attended by approximately two hundred participants. The meeting included three days of technical sessions (oral and poster presentations), three days of field trips to clay and geological sites of northern New Mexico, and a full day workshop on the stabilization of carbon by clays. Details can be found at the meeting web site: www.sandia.gov/clay.

  19. Preliminary assessment report for Fort Jacob F. Wolters, Installation 48555, Mineral Wells, Texas. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, C.B.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Texas Army National Guard (TXARNG) property near Mineral Wells, Texas. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Fort Wolters property, the requirement of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program.

  20. Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) held a Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop on September 24–25, 2013, in Golden, Colorado. The workshop...

  1. Forest products technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2006-07-18

    Report highlights DOE Industrial Technology Program co-funded R&D resulting in commercial energy-efficient technologies and emerging technologies helping the forest products industry save energy.

  2. Offshore Development and Production

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    Natural gas production in the federal offshore has increased substantially in recent years, gaining more than 400 billion cubic feet between 1993 and 1997 to a level of 5.14 trillion cubic feet.

  3. Biomass Energy Production Incentive

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2007 South Carolina enacted the Energy Freedom and Rural Development Act, which provides production incentives for certain biomass-energy facilities. Eligible systems earn $0.01 per kilowatt-h...

  4. Product Pipeline Reports Tutorial

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Petroleum > Petroleum Survey Forms> Petroleum Survey Forms Tutorial Product Pipeline Reports Tutorial Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player

  5. Modelling of mineral dust for interglacial and glacial climate conditions with a focus on Antarctica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudarchikova, Natalia; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Timmreck, C.; O'Donnell, D.; Schurgers, G.; Sein, Dmitry; Zhang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Mineral dust cycle responds to insolation-induced climate change and plays an important role in the climate system by affecting the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Polar ice cores provide unique information about deposition of aeolian dust particles in the past which indicates climate variability. In the current study the dust cycle in different climate conditions simulated by ECHAM5-HAM is analyzed. The study is focused on the Southern Hemisphere with emphasis on the Antarctic region. The investigated periods include four interglacial time-slices: the pre-industrial control (CTRL), mid-Holocene (6,000 years BP), Eemian (126,000 years BP), last glacial inception (115,000 years BP) and one glacial time interval: Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) (21,000 years BP). This study is a first attempt to simulate past interglacial dust cycles and to understand the quantitative contribution of different processes, such as emission, atmospheric transport and precipitation to the total dust deposition in Antarctica. Results suggest increased deposition of mineral dust globally and in Antarctica in the past interglacial periods relative to the preindustrial CTRL simulation. Maximum dust deposition in Antarctica was simulated for the glacial period. One of the major factors responsible for the increase of dust deposition in the mid-Holocene and Eemian is enhanced Southern Hemisphere dust emissions. The moderate change of dust deposition in Antarctica in the last glacial inception period is caused by the slightly stronger poleward atmospheric transport efficiency compared to the pre-industrial. In the LGM simulation, dust deposition over Antarctica is substantially increased due to 2.6 times higher Southern Hemisphere dust emissions, 2 times stronger atmospheric transport towards Antarctica, and 30% weaker precipitation over the Southern Ocean. The model is able to reproduce the order of magnitude of dust deposition globally and in Antarctica for the pre-industrial and LGM climate. However more records are needed to validate simulated dust deposition for the past interglacial time-slices.

  6. Ethanol production from lignocellulose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Wood, Brent E. (Gainesville, FL)

    2001-01-01

    This invention presents a method of improving enzymatic degradation of lignocellulose, as in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, through the use of ultrasonic treatment. The invention shows that ultrasonic treatment reduces cellulase requirements by 1/3 to 1/2. With the cost of enzymes being a major problem in the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, this invention presents a significant improvement over presently available methods.

  7. Pretreated densified biomass products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2014-03-18

    A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

  8. MTBE Production Economics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MTBE Production Economics Tancred C. M. Lidderdale Contents 1. Summary 2. MTBE Production Costs 3. Relationship between price of MTBE and Reformulated Gasoline 4. Influence of Natural Gas Prices on the Gasoline Market 5. Regression Results 6. Data Sources 7. End Notes 1. Summary Last year the price of MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) increased dramatically on two occasions (Figure 1) (see Data Sources at end of article.): 1. Between April and June 2000, the price (U.S. Gulf Coast waterborne

  9. LENNOX HEARTH PRODUCTS

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    LENNOX HEARTH PRODUCTS April 1, 2011 Mr. Daniel Cohen U.S. Department of Energy Assistant General Council for Legislation, Regulation and Energy Efficiency Office of the General Counsel 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 RE: Regulatory Burden RFI Dear Mr. Cohen: Lennox Hearth Products (LHP) is hereby responding to the Department of Energy's (DOE's) request for information - published at 76 Fed. Reg. 6123 (February 3, 2011) - seeking comment and information to assist the DOE in

  10. Coal production, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Coal production in the United States in 1991 declined to a total of 996 million short tons, ending the 6-year upward trend in coal production that began in 1985. The 1991 figure is 33 million short tons below the record level of 1.029 billion short tons produced in 1990 (Table 1). Tables 2 through 33 in this report include data from mining operations that produced, prepared, and processed 10,000 or more short tons during the year. These mines yielded 993 million short tons, or 99.7 percent of the total coal production in 1991, and their summary statistics are discussed below. The majority of US coal (587 million short tons) was produced by surface mining (Table 2). Over half of all US surface mine production occurred in the Western Region, though the 60 surface mines in this area accounted for only 5 percent of the total US surface mines. The high share of production was due to the very large surface mines in Wyoming, Texas and Montana. Nearly three quarters of underground production was in the Appalachian Region, which accounted for 92 percent of underground mines. Continuous mining methods produced the most coal among those underground operations that responded. Of the 406 million short tons, 59 percent (239 million short tons) was produced by continuous mining methods, followed by longwall (29 percent, or 119 million short tons), and conventional methods (11 percent, or 46 million short tons).

  11. Federal offshore statistics: 1992. Leasing, exploration, production, and revenues as of December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francois, D.K.

    1993-12-31

    The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, enacted in 1953 and amended several times, charges the Secretary of the Interior with the responsibility for administering and managing mineral exploration and development of the outer continental shelf, as well as for conserving its natural resources. This report documents the following: Federal offshore lands; offshore leasing activity and status; offshore development activity; offshore production of crude oil and natural gas; Federal offshore oil and natural gas sales volume and royalties; revenue from Federal offshore leases; disbursement of Federal offshore revenue; reserves and resource estimates of offshore oil and natural gas; oil pollution in US and international waters; and international activities and marine minerals. 11 figs., 83 tabs.

  12. Technology's Impact on Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachel Amann; Ellis Deweese; Deborah Shipman

    2009-06-30

    As part of a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) - entitled Technology's Impact on Production: Developing Environmental Solutions at the State and National Level - the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has been tasked with assisting state governments in the effective, efficient, and environmentally sound regulation of the exploration and production of natural gas and crude oil, specifically in relation to orphaned and abandoned wells and wells nearing the end of productive life. Project goals include: (1) Developing (a) a model framework for prioritization and ranking of orphaned or abandoned well sites; (b) a model framework for disbursement of Energy Policy Act of 2005 funding; and (c) a research study regarding the current status of orphaned wells in the nation. (2) Researching the impact of new technologies on environmental protection from a regulatory perspective. Research will identify and document (a) state reactions to changing technology and knowledge; (b) how those reactions support state environmental conservation and public health; and (c) the impact of those reactions on oil and natural gas production. (3) Assessing emergent technology issues associated with wells nearing the end of productive life. Including: (a) location of orphaned and abandoned well sites; (b) well site remediation; (c) plugging materials; (d) plug placement; (e) the current regulatory environment; and (f) the identification of emergent technologies affecting end of life wells. New Energy Technologies - Regulating Change, is the result of research performed for Tasks 2 and 3.

  13. ARM - Evaluation Product - MICROBASE Ensemble Data Products (MICROBASEEN)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Cloud Retrievals ProductsMICROBASE Ensemble Data Products (MICROBASEEN) for Cloud Retrievals ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : MICROBASE Ensemble Data Products (MICROBASEEN) for Cloud Retrievals [ ARM research - evaluation data product ] MICROBASE Ensemble Data Products (MICROBASEEN)

  14. "Period","Annual Production Capacity",,"Monthly B100 Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel production capacity and production" "million gallons" "Period","Annual ... is the industry designation for pure biodiesel; a biodiesel blend contains both pure ...

  15. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2. U.S. uranium mine production and number of mines and sources, 2003-14 Production / Mining method 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Underground (estimated contained thousand pounds U3O8) W W W W W W W W W W W W Open Pit (estimated contained thousand pounds U3O8) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 In-Situ Leaching (thousand pounds U3O8) W W 2,681 4,259 W W W W W W W W Other1 (thousand pounds U3O8) W W W W W W W W W W W W Total Mine Production (thousand pounds U3O8) E2,200 2,452

  16. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9. Summary production statistics of the U.S. uranium industry, 1993-2014 Year Exploration and development surface drilling (million feet) Exploration and development drilling expenditures 1 (million dollars) Mine production of uranium (million pounds U3O8) Uranium concentrate production (million pounds U3O8) Uranium concentrate shipments (million pounds U3O8) Employment (person-years) 1993 1.1 5.7 2.1 3.1 3.4 871 1994 0.7 1.1 2.5 3.4 6.3 980 1995 1.3 2.6 3.5 6.0 5.5 1,107 1996 3.0 7.2 4.7 6.3

  17. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Old Hydrofracture Facility Waste Remediation Using the Borehole-Miner Extendible-Nozzle Sluicer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Boris, G.F.

    1999-10-07

    A borehole-miner extendible-nozzle sluicing system was designed, constructed, and deployed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to remediate five horizontal underground storage tanks containing sludge and supernate at the ORNL Old Hydrofracture Facility site. The tanks were remediated in fiscal year 1998 to remove {approx}98% of the waste, {approx}3% greater than the target removal of >95% of the waste. The tanks contained up to 18 in. of sludge covered by supernate. The 42,000 gal of low level liquid waste were estimated to contain 30,000 Ci, with 97% of this total located in the sludge. The retrieval was successful. At the completion of the remediation, the State of Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation agreed that the tanks were cleaned to the maximum extent practicable using pumping technology. This deployment was the first radioactive demonstration of the borehole-miner extendible-nozzle water-jetting system. The extendible nozzle is based on existing bore hole-miner technology used to fracture and dislodge ore deposits in mines. Typically borehole-miner technology includes both dislodging and retrieval capabilities. Both dislodging, using the extendible-nozzle water-jetting system, and retrieval, using a jet pump located at the base of the mast, are deployed as an integrated system through one borehole or riser. Note that the extendible-nozzle system for Oak Ridge remediation only incorporated the dislodging capability; the retrieval pump was deployed through a separate riser. The borehole-miner development and deployment is part of the Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements project under the direction of the US Department of Energy's EM-50 Tanks Focus Area. This development and deployment was conducted as a partnership between RPD and E and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's US DOE EM040 Old Hydrofracture Facility remediation project team.

  18. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Mineralization for High Organic and Nitrate Waste Streams for the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Williams, M.R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Waste streams that may be generated by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Advanced Energy Initiative may contain significant quantities of organics (0-53 wt%) and/or nitrates (0-56 wt%). Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce the NOx in the off-gas to N{sub 2} to meet the Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during waste form stabilization regardless of which GNEP processes are chosen, e.g. organics in the feed or organics for nitrate destruction. High organic containing wastes cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by preprocessing. Alternative waste stabilization processes such as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operate at moderate temperatures (650-750 deg. C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 deg. C). FBSR converts organics to CAA compliant gases, creates no secondary liquid waste streams, and creates a stable mineral waste form that is as durable as glass. For application to the high Cs-137 and Sr-90 containing GNEP waste streams a single phase mineralized Cs-mica phase was made by co-reacting illite clay and GNEP simulated waste. The Cs-mica accommodates up to 30% wt% Cs{sub 2}O and all the GNEP waste species, Ba, Sr, Rb including the Cs-137 transmutation to Ba-137. For reference, the cesium mineral pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), currently being studied for GNEP applications, can only be fabricated at {>=}1000 deg. C. Pollucite mineralization creates secondary aqueous waste streams and NOx. Pollucite is not tolerant of high concentrations of Ba, Sr or Rb and forces the divalent species into different mineral host phases. The pollucite can accommodate up to 33% wt% Cs{sub 2}O. (authors)

  19. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING MINERALIZATION FOR HIGH ORGANIC AND NITRATE WASTE STREAMS FOR THE GLOBAL NUCLEAR ENERGY PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-01-11

    Waste streams that may be generated by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Advanced Energy Initiative may contain significant quantities of organics (0-53 wt%) and/or nitrates (0-56 wt%). Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce the NO{sub x} in the off-gas to N{sub 2} to meet the Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during waste form stabilization regardless of which GNEP processes are chosen, e.g. organics in the feed or organics for nitrate destruction. High organic containing wastes cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by preprocessing. Alternative waste stabilization processes such as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operate at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). FBSR converts organics to CAA compliant gases, creates no secondary liquid waste streams, and creates a stable mineral waste form that is as durable as glass. For application to the high Cs-137 and Sr-90 containing GNEP waste streams a single phase mineralized Cs-mica phase was made by co-reacting illite clay and GNEP simulated waste. The Cs-mica accommodates up to 30% wt% Cs{sub 2}O and all the GNEP waste species, Ba, Sr, Rb including the Cs-137 transmutation to Ba-137. For reference, the cesium mineral pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), currently being studied for GNEP applications, can only be fabricated at {ge} 1000 C. Pollucite mineralization creates secondary aqueous waste streams and NO{sub x}. Pollucite is not tolerant of high concentrations of Ba, Sr or Rb and forces the divalent species into different mineral host phases. The pollucite can accommodate up to 33% wt% Cs{sub 2}O.

  20. The Effect of Bicarbonate on the Microbial Dissolution of Autunite Mineral in the Presence of Gram-Positive Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sepulveda-Medina, Paola; Katsenovich, Yelena; Wellman, Dawn M.; Lagos, Leonel

    2015-06-01

    Bacteria are key players in the processes that govern fate and transport of contaminants. The uranium release from Na and Ca-autunite by Arthrobacter oxydans strain G968 was evaluated in the presence of bicarbonate ions. This bacterium was previously isolated from Hanford Site soil and in earlier prescreening tests demonstrated low tolerance to U(VI) toxicity compared to other A.oxydans isolates. Experiments were conducted using glass serum bottles as mixed bioreactors and sterile 6-well cell culture plates with inserts separating bacteria cells from mineral solids. Reactors containing phosphorus-limiting media were amended with bicarbonate ranging between 0-10 mM and metaautunite solids to provide a U(VI) concentration of 4.4 mmol/L. Results showed that in the presence of bicarbonate, A.oxydans G968 was able to enhance the release of U(VI) from Na and Ca autunite at the same capacity as other A.oxydans isolates with relatively high tolerance to U(VI). The effect of bacterial strains on autunite dissolution decreases as the concentration of bicarbonate increases. The results illustrate that direct interaction between the bacteria and the mineral is not necessary to result in U (VI) biorelease from autunite. The formation of secondary calcium-phosphate mineral phases on the surface of the mineral during the dissolution can ultimately reduce the natural autunite mineral contact area, which bacterial cells can access. This thereby reduces the concentration of uranium released into the solution. This study provides a better understanding of the interactions between meta-autunite and microbes in conditions mimicking arid and semiarid subsurface environments of western U.S.

  1. PRODUCTION OF PURIFIED URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burris, L. Jr.; Knighton, J.B.; Feder, H.M.

    1960-01-26

    A pyrometallurgical method for processing nuclear reactor fuel elements containing uranium and fission products and for reducing uranium compound; to metallic uranium is reported. If the material proccssed is essentially metallic uranium, it is dissolved in zinc, the sulution is cooled to crystallize UZn/sub 9/ , and the UZn/sub 9/ is distilled to obtain uranium free of fission products. If the material processed is a uranium compound, the sollvent is an alloy of zinc and magnesium and the remaining steps are the same.

  2. Fuel Ethanol Oxygenate Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product: Fuel Ethanol Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Merchant Plants Captive Plants Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History U.S. 30,256 29,621 28,543 30,139 29,594 31,075 1981-2015 East Coast (PADD 1) 876 854 692 664 664

  3. Measurement of the numu Charged Current pi+ to Quasi-Elastic Cross Section Ratio on Mineral Oil in a 0.8 GeV Neutrino Beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linden, Steven K.; /Yale U.

    2011-01-01

    Charged current single pion production (CC{pi}{sup +}) and charged current quasi-elastic scattering (CCQE) are the most abundant interaction types for neutrinos at energies around 1 GeV, a region of great interest to oscillation experiments. The cross-sections for these processes, however, are not well understood in this energy range. This dissertation presents a measurement of the ratio of CC{pi}{sup +} to CCQE cross-sections for muon neutrinos on mineral oil (CH{sub 2}) in the MiniBooNE experiment. The measurement is presented here both with and without corrections for hadronic re-interactions in the target nucleus and is given as a function of neutrino energy in the range 0.4 GeV < E{sub {nu}} < 2.4 GeV. With more than 46,000 CC{pi}{sup +} events collected in MiniBooNE, and with a fractional uncertainty of roughly 11% in the region of highest statistics, this measurement represents a dramatic improvement in statistics and precision over previous CC{pi}{sup +} and CCQE measurements.

  4. 3D Reconstruction of Biological Organization and Mineralization in Sediment Attached Biofilms During Uranium Bioremediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banfield, Jillian; Comolli, Luis R.; Singer, Steve

    2014-11-17

    Of central interest in this study were microbial communities attached to sediment particles and in associated groundwater. Are the communities similar? What do the organisms look like and how do they associated with each other? Research was conducted on samples collected from the Department of Energy's (DOE) Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Rifle, Colorado, USA. This site served first as a test case for in situ bioremediation via biostimulation, and more recently as a location for studying the role of microbial communities in the carbon and other linked biogeochemical cycles. We addressed the question of the nature of planktonic to sediment-attached microbial communities using field and laboratory experimental studies with a range of methods that provide 2- and 3-dimensional topological information coupled to information about chemical speciation, organism type, and activity levels. The research leveraged data from metagenomics and proteomics analyses that obtained through parallel work at the Rifle site in the context of the IFRC. In this project we integrated characterization methods with extensive genomic sequence information and associated environmental data to better understand the processes that occur within groundwater and sediment-attached communities. Notable is the range of characterization methods, including scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM), micro-EXAFS/XANES and microdiffraction and 2D and 3D cryo-electron tomographic analysis, and high-resolutino transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) analysis to characterize these natural microbial communities. A cryo-TEM work was unique because samples for electron microscopic characterization were cryo-plunged directly on site immediately after sampling. This step minimizes post-collection alterations, including cell damages and change of redox state. Among many achievements documented in publications listed at the end of this report, we highlight the following: 1) The development of a platform for routine correlative cryogenic microscopy and spectroscopy with samples prepared on-site. 2) The determination of which organisms dominate planktonic and biofilm communities in the subsurface. 3) Identification of microorganism-mineral associations and discovery of a novel mechanism that sustains activity of iron-reducing bacteria. 4) The detection of bacteria from the OP11-OD1-WWE3 (etc.) radiation and elucidation of their remarkable structural organization by cryog-TEM cryo-electron tomograhpy (cryo-ET). 5) Extensive analysis of biofilms and documentation of the association of cells and Se minerals. 6) The comparison of expressed c-type cytochromes between pure cultures of G. bemidjiensis and related field populations, provided insight into possible molecular mechanisms for U(VI) reduction in the aquifer. At least sixteen publications will result from this project (partial support), which provide both graduate student and post doctoral training.

  5. Modelling of mineral dust for interglacial and glacial climate conditions with a focus on Antarctica

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sudarchikova, Natalia; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Timmreck, C.; O'Donnell, D.; Schurgers, G.; Sein, Dmitry; Zhang, Kai

    2015-05-19

    The mineral dust cycle responds to climate variations and plays an important role in the climate system by affecting the radiative balance of the atmosphere and modifying biogeochemistry. Polar ice cores provide unique information about deposition of aeolian dust particles transported over long distances. These cores are a palaeoclimate proxy archive of climate variability thousands of years ago. The current study is a first attempt to simulate past interglacial dust cycles with a global aerosol–climate model ECHAM5-HAM. The results are used to explain the dust deposition changes in Antarctica in terms of quantitative contribution of different processes, such as emission,more » atmospheric transport and precipitation, which will help to interpret palaeodata from Antarctic ice cores. The investigated periods include four interglacial time slices: the pre-industrial control (CTRL), mid-Holocene (6000 yr BP; hereafter referred to as \\"6 kyr\\"), last glacial inception (115 000 yr BP; hereafter \\"115 kyr\\") and Eemian (126 000 yr BP; hereafter \\"126 kyr\\"). One glacial time interval, the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) (21 000 yr BP; hereafter \\"21 kyr\\"), was simulated as well to be a reference test for the model. Results suggest an increase in mineral dust deposition globally, and in Antarctica, in the past interglacial periods relative to the pre-industrial CTRL simulation. Approximately two-thirds of the increase in the mid-Holocene and Eemian is attributed to enhanced Southern Hemisphere dust emissions. Slightly strengthened transport efficiency causes the remaining one-third of the increase in dust deposition. The moderate change in dust deposition in Antarctica in the last glacial inception period is caused by the slightly stronger poleward atmospheric transport efficiency compared to the pre-industrial. Maximum dust deposition in Antarctica was simulated for the glacial period. LGM dust deposition in Antarctica is substantially increased due to 2.6 times higher Southern Hemisphere dust emissions, 2 times stronger atmospheric transport towards Antarctica, and 30% weaker precipitation over the Southern Ocean. The model is able to reproduce the order of magnitude of dust deposition globally and in Antarctica for the pre-industrial and LGM climates.« less

  6. Modelling of mineral dust for interglacial and glacial climate conditions with a focus on Antarctica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudarchikova, Natalia; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Timmreck, C.; O'Donnell, D.; Schurgers, G.; Sein, Dmitry; Zhang, Kai

    2015-05-19

    The mineral dust cycle responds to climate variations and plays an important role in the climate system by affecting the radiative balance of the atmosphere and modifying biogeochemistry. Polar ice cores provide unique information about deposition of aeolian dust particles transported over long distances. These cores are a palaeoclimate proxy archive of climate variability thousands of years ago. The current study is a first attempt to simulate past interglacial dust cycles with a global aerosol–climate model ECHAM5-HAM. The results are used to explain the dust deposition changes in Antarctica in terms of quantitative contribution of different processes, such as emission, atmospheric transport and precipitation, which will help to interpret palaeodata from Antarctic ice cores. The investigated periods include four interglacial time slices: the pre-industrial control (CTRL), mid-Holocene (6000 yr BP; hereafter referred to as \\"6 kyr\\"), last glacial inception (115 000 yr BP; hereafter \\"115 kyr\\") and Eemian (126 000 yr BP; hereafter \\"126 kyr\\"). One glacial time interval, the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) (21 000 yr BP; hereafter \\"21 kyr\\"), was simulated as well to be a reference test for the model. Results suggest an increase in mineral dust deposition globally, and in Antarctica, in the past interglacial periods relative to the pre-industrial CTRL simulation. Approximately two-thirds of the increase in the mid-Holocene and Eemian is attributed to enhanced Southern Hemisphere dust emissions. Slightly strengthened transport efficiency causes the remaining one-third of the increase in dust deposition. The moderate change in dust deposition in Antarctica in the last glacial inception period is caused by the slightly stronger poleward atmospheric transport efficiency compared to the pre-industrial. Maximum dust deposition in Antarctica was simulated for the glacial period. LGM dust deposition in Antarctica is substantially increased due to 2.6 times higher Southern Hemisphere dust emissions, 2 times stronger atmospheric transport towards Antarctica, and 30% weaker precipitation over the Southern Ocean. The model is able to reproduce the order of magnitude of dust deposition globally and in Antarctica for the pre-industrial and LGM climates.

  7. Accelerate Energy Productivity 2030 Launch

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Today, the Department of Energy kicked off Accelerate Energy Productivity 2030. This initiative supports President Obama’s goal to double our energy productivity by 2030.

  8. Reporting LED Luminaire Product Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-12-01

    This brochure on LED product performance is an outcome of a joint DOE-NGLIA effort to assure and improve the quality of SSL products.

  9. Going Global: Tight Oil Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    oil and unconventional techniques Global tight oil production has significant energy security implications 2 GOING GLOBAL: TIGHT OIL PRODUCTION Top Ten Countries with Largest ...

  10. Covered Product Categories (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    Overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program Energy-Efficient Product Procurement Program and its designated product category list.

  11. Coal Combustion Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge.

  12. Product Guide Product Guide Volumes Category Prices Table Crude...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    suppliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -- 49 Product Guide Volumes Category Prices Table Energy Information Administration Petroleum...

  13. Product Guide Product Guide Volumes Category Prices Table Crude...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -- 49 Product Guide Volumes Category Prices Table Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing...

  14. Redox linked flavin sites in extracellular decaheme proteins involved in microbe-mineral electron transfer.

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Edwards, Marcus J.; White, Gaye F.; Norman, Michael; Tome-Fernandez, Alice; Ainsworth, Emma; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.; et al

    2015-07-01

    Extracellular microbe-mineral electron transfer is a major driving force for the oxidation of organic carbon in many subsurface environments. Extracellular multi-heme cytochromes of the Shewenella genus play a major role in this process but the mechanism of electron exchange at the interface between cytochrome and acceptor is widely debated. The 1.8 Å x-ray crystal structure of the decaheme MtrC revealed a highly conserved CX₈C disulfide that, when substituted for AX₈A, severely compromised the ability of S. oneidensis to grow under aerobic conditions. Reductive cleavage of the disulfide in the presence of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) resulted in the reversible formation ofmore » a stable flavocytochrome. Similar results were also observed with other decaheme cytochromes, OmcA, MtrF and UndA. The data suggest that these decaheme cytochromes can transition between highly reactive flavocytochromes or less reactive cytochromes, and that this transition is controlled by a redox active disulfide that responds to the presence of oxygen.« less

  15. Stable-isotope probe of nano-scale mineral-fluid redox interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kavner, Abby

    2014-11-26

    The project examined how stable isotopes fractionate at an aqueous/solid interface during electrochemical reduction reactions. Measurements in a wide variety of metal deposition systems including Fe, Zn, Li, Mo, and Cu, have led to observations of large isotope fractionations which strongly vary as a function of rate and temperature. For the Fe, Zn, and Li systems, our electrochemical deposition methods provide the largest single-pass fractionation factors that are observed for these systems. Based on these and other experiments and theory showing and predicting significant and rate-dependent fractionations of isotopes at reacting interfaces, we have developed a simple statistical mechanics framework that predicts the kinetic isotope effect accompanying phase transformations in condensed systems. In addition, we have begun to extend our studies of mineral-fluid redox interactions to high pressures and temperatures in the diamond anvil cell. We performed a series of experiments to determine solubilities of Cu and Ni at elevated pressure and temperature conditions relevant to ore-formation.

  16. Application of Radial Basis Functional Link Networks to Exploration for Proterozoic Mineral Deposits in Central Iran

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behnia, Pouran [Geological Survey of Iran, Geomatics Department (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: pouranb@yahoo.com

    2007-06-15

    The metallogeny of Central Iran is characterized mainly by the presence of several iron, apatite, and uranium deposits of Proterozoic age. Radial Basis Function Link Networks (RBFLN) were used as a data-driven method for GIS-based predictive mapping of Proterozoic mineralization in this area. To generate the input data for RBFLN, the evidential maps comprising stratigraphic, structural, geophysical, and geochemical data were used. Fifty-eight deposits and 58 'nondeposits' were used to train the network. The operations for the application of neural networks employed in this study involve both multiclass and binary representation of evidential maps. Running RBFLN on different input data showed that an increase in the number of evidential maps and classes leads to a larger classification sum of squared error (SSE). As a whole, an increase in the number of iterations resulted in the improvement of training SSE. The results of applying RBFLN showed that a successful classification depends on the existence of spatially well distributed deposits and nondeposits throughout the study area.

  17. Surface damage behavior during scratch deformation of mineral reinforced polymer composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misra, R.D.K.; Hadal, R.; Duncan, S.J

    2004-08-16

    The surface damage behavior during scratch deformation of neat and wollastonite reinforced ethylene-propylene and polypropylene polymeric materials with significant differences in ductility was studied using electron microscopy in association with scratch deformation parameters and local crystallinity characteristics obtained from atomic force microscopy. Under identical conditions of scratch tests, the decrease in resistance to scratch damage and stress whitening of polymeric materials followed the sequence: wollastonite-reinforced polypropylene (PP-W) congruent with wollastonite-reinforced ethylene-propylene (EP-W) > neat polypropylene (PP) > neat ethylene-propylene copolymer (EP). The improved resistance to scratch damage of mineral reinforced polymeric materials is attributed to the effective reinforcement by micrometer-sized wollastonite particles that increase the tensile modulus of the polymeric materials and restrict plastic deformation of the polymer matrix. Scratching of neat and wollastonite-containing EP copolymers involved periodic parabolic scratch tracks containing voids, which transformed to distinct zig-zag scratch tracks on reinforcement with micrometric wollastonite particles. The enhanced plastic flow in neat EP is facilitated by high ductility of the material and ability to nucleate voids, while in EP-W the plastic flow is suppressed because of reinforcement effect of wollastonite. On the other hand, zig-zag periodic scratch tracks were observed in both neat PP and PP-W, but the scratch tracks were not clearly discernible on reinforcement of PP with wollastonite. The resistance to scratch deformation is discussed in terms of tensile modulus, elastic recovery, scratch hardness, and reinforcement-matrix interaction.

  18. Redox linked flavin sites in extracellular decaheme proteins involved in microbe-mineral electron transfer.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Marcus J.; White, Gaye F.; Norman, Michael; Tome-Fernandez, Alice; Ainsworth, Emma; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.; Clarke, Thomas A.

    2015-07-01

    Extracellular microbe-mineral electron transfer is a major driving force for the oxidation of organic carbon in many subsurface environments. Extracellular multi-heme cytochromes of the Shewenella genus play a major role in this process but the mechanism of electron exchange at the interface between cytochrome and acceptor is widely debated. The 1.8 Å x-ray crystal structure of the decaheme MtrC revealed a highly conserved CX₈C disulfide that, when substituted for AX₈A, severely compromised the ability of S. oneidensis to grow under aerobic conditions. Reductive cleavage of the disulfide in the presence of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) resulted in the reversible formation of a stable flavocytochrome. Similar results were also observed with other decaheme cytochromes, OmcA, MtrF and UndA. The data suggest that these decaheme cytochromes can transition between highly reactive flavocytochromes or less reactive cytochromes, and that this transition is controlled by a redox active disulfide that responds to the presence of oxygen.

  19. Use of earth field spin echo NMR to search for liquid minerals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stoeffl, Wolfgang (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An instrument for measuring the spatial, qualitative and quantitative parameters of an underground nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) active liquid mineral deposit, including oil and water. A phased array of excitation and receiver antennas on the surface and/or in a borehole excites the NMR active nuclei in the deposit, and using known techniques from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the spatial and quantitative distribution of the deposit can be measured. A surface array may utilize, for example, four large (50-500 diameter) diameter wire loops laid on the ground surface, and a weak (1.5-2.5 kHz) alternating current (AC) field applied, matching the NMR frequency of hydrogen in the rather flat and uniform earth magnetic field. For a short duration (a few seconds) an additional gradient field can be generated, superimposed to the earth field, by applying direct current (DC) to the grid (wire loops), enhancing the position sensitivity of the spin-echo and also suppressing large surface water signals by shifting them to a different frequency. The surface coil excitation can be combined with downhole receivers, which are much more radio-quiet compared to surface receivers, and this combination also enhances the position resolution of the MRI significantly. A downhole receiver module, for example, may have a 5.5 inch diameter and fit in a standard six inch borehole having a one-quarter inch thick stainless steel casing. The receiver module may include more than one receiver units for improved penetration and better position resolution.

  20. A study of competitive adsorption of organic molecules onto mineral oxides using DRIFTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joan E. Thomas, Michael J. Kelley

    2010-02-01

    Analysis of DRIFTS spectra was used for a quantitative study of competitive adsorption of myristic and salicylic acids onto kaolinite or {gamma}-alumina. Peaks unique to the ring or the chain were selected and single molecule studies used as calibration. Samples were exposed to hexane solution containing equal molecular quantities of each acid. The surface loading of salicylic acid was not influenced by the presence of myristic acid on either mineral but the maximum loading of myristic acid was decreased (46-50%) by salicylic acid. Displacement of myristic acid from {gamma}-alumina, but not kaolinite, was observed when excess salicylic acid remained in solution. A 25% increase in the maximum loading was observed for kaolinite, but not for{gamma}-alumina. On {gamma}-alumina, after a loading of 1 molecule per nm{sup 2}, increased exposure resulted in salicylic acid adsorption only, this value is approximately the same for salicylic acid adsorption from aqueous solution or for water washed hexane treated samples. Thus a set of sites for adsorption of either acid is indicated together with other energetically less favorable sites, which can be occupied by salicylic, but not by myristic, acid.

  1. 9 M.y. record of southern Nevada climate from Yucca Mountain secondary minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whelan, J.F.; Moscati, R.J.

    1998-12-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is presently the object of intense study as a potential permanent repository for the Nation`s high-level radioactive wastes. The mountain consists of a thick sequence of volcanic tuffs within which the depth to water table ranges from 500 to 700 meters below the land surface. This thick unsaturated zone (UZ), which would host the projected repository, coupled with the present day arid to semi-arid climate, is considered a favorable attribute of the site. Evaluation of the site includes defining the relation between climate variability, as the input function or driver of site- and regional-scale ground-water flow, and the possible future transport and release of radionuclides to the accessible environment. Secondary calcite and opal have been deposited in the UZ by meteoric waters that infiltrated through overlying soils and percolated through the tuffs. The oxygen isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 18}O values) of these minerals reflect contemporaneous meteoric waters and the {delta}{sup 13}C values reflect soil organic matter, and hence the resident plant community, at the time of infiltration. Recent U/Pb age determinations of opal in these occurrences, coupled with the {delta}{sup 13}C values of associated calcite, allow broadbrush reconstructions of climate patterns during the past 9 M.y.

  2. Covered Product Category: Cool Roof Products | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cool Roof Products Covered Product Category: Cool Roof Products The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for cool roof products, which are an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Most manufacturers display the ENERGY STAR label on complying models. For a model not displaying this label,

  3. Product Codes for Tracking Energy-Efficient Product Purchases | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy Codes for Tracking Energy-Efficient Product Purchases Product Codes for Tracking Energy-Efficient Product Purchases The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) has mapped United Nations Standard Products and Services Codes (UNSPSCs) and Environmental Attribute Codes (ENACs) to the FEMP designated and ENERGY STAR qualified product categories subject to federal efficiency requirements. Federal agencies may find this mapping useful in tracking and reporting on sustainable acquisition

  4. Production Target Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.; Olivas, Eric Richard

    2015-07-28

    The Northstar 99Mo production target, a cylindrical length of 100Mo rod, has evolved considerably since its first conception.The cylinder was very early sliced into disks to increase the heat transfer area, first to 1 mm thick disks then to the current 0.5 mm thick.The coolant was changed early in the target development from water to helium to eliminate corrosion and dissolution.The diameter has increased from initially 6 mm to 12 mm, the current diameter of the test target now at ANL, to nominally 28 mm (26-30.6 mm, depending upon optimal beam spot size and shape).The length has also changed to improve the production to cost ratio, so now the target is nominally 41 mm long (excluding coolant gaps between disks), and irradiated on both ends.This report summarizes the current status of the plant target design.

  5. Weekly Refiner Net Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Net Production (Thousand Barrels per Day) Period: Weekly 4-Week Average Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Product/Region 02/05/16 02/12/16 02/19/16 02/26/16 03/04/16 03/11/16 View History Finished Motor Gasoline 1,708 1,811 1,620 1,497 1,512 1,554 2010-2016 East Coast (PADD 1) 64 59 65 68 71 64 2010-2016 Midwest (PADD 2) 350 361 354 363 367 347 2010-2016 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 1,050 1,097 909 778 795 808 2010-2016 Rocky

  6. Weekly Ethanol Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Ethanol Plant Production (Thousand Barrels per Day) Period: Weekly 4-Week Average Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Product/Region 02/05/16 02/12/16 02/19/16 02/26/16 03/04/16 03/11/16 View History Fuel Ethanol 969 975 994 987 978 999 2010-2016 East Coast (PADD 1) W W W W W W 2010-2016 Midwest (PADD 2) 889 892 913 904 897 917 2010-2016 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) W W W W W W 2010-2016 Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) W W W W W W

  7. FEMP Designated Product: Lavatory Faucets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP suspended its product designation and purchasing specification for commercial faucets until further notice.

  8. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-07-19

    A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

  9. ARM - VAP Product - abrfcprecip

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Productsabrfcabrfcprecip Documentation abrfc : XDC documentation Data Management Facility Plots (Quick Looks) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send VAP Output : ABRFCPRECIP Arkansas-Red Basin River Forecast Center: estimated precipitation Active Dates 1994.06.24 - 2016.03.07 Originating VAP Process Arkansas-Red Basin River Forecast Center : ABRFC Measurements The measurements below provided by this product

  10. NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History U.S. 145,534 147,972 144,086 152,538 148,859 150,870 1973-2015

  11. probabilistic energy production forecasts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    probabilistic energy production forecasts - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  12. substantially reduced production costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    production costs - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  13. Joined ceramic product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henager, Jr., Charles W [Kennewick, WA; Brimhall, John L. (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA

    2001-08-21

    According to the present invention, a joined product is at least two ceramic parts, specifically bi-element carbide parts with a bond joint therebetween, wherein the bond joint has a metal silicon phase. The bi-element carbide refers to compounds of MC, M.sub.2 C, M.sub.4 C and combinations thereof, where M is a first element and C is carbon. The metal silicon phase may be a metal silicon carbide ternary phase, or a metal silicide.

  14. Coal combustion products (CCPs

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge. When properly managed, CCPs offer society environmental and economic benefits without harm to public health and safety. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) has made an

  15. Nuclear Facilities Production Facilities

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Facilities Production Facilities Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Sand 2011-4582P. ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) The GIF provides test cells for the irradiation of experiments with high-intensity gamma ray sources. The main features

  16. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2004-09-01

    An innovative Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) process was recently described where evaporation of mineralized water is driven by diffusion within a packed bed. The energy source to drive the process is derived from low pressure condensing steam within the main condenser of a steam power generating plant. Since waste heat is used to drive the process, the main cost of fresh water production is attributed to the energy cost of pumping air and water through the packed bed. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A combined thermodynamic and dynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3'' Hg. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower and direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. An experimental DDD facility has been fabricated, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. Direct contact condensers with and without packing have been investigated. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is significantly enhanced when packing is added to the direct contact condensers.

  17. Production Planning Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-04-20

    PRODMOD is an integrated computational tool for performing dynamic simulation and optimization for the entire high level waste complex at the Savannah River Site (SRS) It is being used at SRS for planning purposes so that all waste can be processed efficiently. The computational tool 1) optimizes waste blending sequences, 2) minimizes waste volume production, 3) reduces waste processing time, 4) provides better process control and understanding, and 5) assists strategic planning, scheduling, and costmore » estimation. PRODMOD has been developed using Aspen Technology''s software development package SPEEDUP. PRODMOD models all the key HLW processing operations at SRS: storage and evaporation: saltcake production and dissolution: filtration (dewatering): precipitation: sludge and precipitate washing: glass, grout, and organics production. Innovative approaches have been used in making PRODMOD a very fast computational tool. These innovative approaches are 1) constructing a dynamic problem as a steady state problem 2) mapping between event-space (batch processes) and time-space (dynamic processes) without sacrificing the details in the batch process. The dynamic nature of the problem is constructed in linear form where time dependence is implicit. The linear constructs and mapping algorithms have made it possible to devise a general purpose optimization scheme which couples the optimization driver with the PRODMOD simulator. The optimization scheme is capable of generating single or multiple optimal input conditions for different types of objective functions over single or multiple years of operations depending on the nature of the objective function and operating constraints.« less

  18. Charged pion production in $$\

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Eberly, B.; et al.

    2015-11-23

    Charged pion production via charged-current νμ interactions on plastic scintillator (CH) is studied using the MINERvA detector exposed to the NuMI wideband neutrino beam at Fermilab. Events with hadronic invariant mass W < 1.4 GeV and W < 1.8 GeV are selected in separate analyses: the lower W cut isolates single pion production, which is expected to occur primarily through the Δ(1232) resonance, while results from the higher cut include the effects of higher resonances. Cross sections as functions of pion angle and kinetic energy are compared to predictions from theoretical calculations and generator-based models for neutrinos ranging in energymore » from 1.5–10 GeV. The data are best described by calculations which include significant contributions from pion intranuclear rescattering. As a result, these measurements constrain the primary interaction rate and the role of final state interactions in pion production, both of which need to be well understood by neutrino oscillation experiments.« less

  19. 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Domestic Uranium Production Report 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: April 30, 2015 Next Release Date: May 2016 Table 9. Summary production statistics of the U.S. uranium industry, 1993-2014 Exploration and Development Surface Drilling Exploration and Development Drilling Expenditures 1 Mine Production of Uranium Uranium Concentrate Production Uranium Concentrate Shipments Employment Year (million feet) (million dollars) (million pounds U 3 O 8 ) (million pounds U 3 O 8 )

  20. Product Demonstrations | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Product Demonstrations Product Demonstrations The Consortium will pursue a number of demonstrations following the general procedure used by DOE's GATEWAY demonstration program. Specific products to be featured in a demonstration may be selected by the host site or may be suggested for a given installation by the Consortium based on the product's anticipated performance in that installation. In the latter case, products will be evaluated for suitability based on performance relative to other

  1. X-ray fluorescence mapping of mercury on suspended mineral particles and diatoms in a contaminated freshwater system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gu, B.; Mishra, B.; Miller, C.; Wang, W.; Lai, B.; Brooks, S. C.; Kemner, K. M.; Liang, L.

    2014-05-23

    Mercury (Hg) bioavailability and geochemical cycling is affected by its partitioning between the aqueous and particulate phases. We applied X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobes to directly visualize and quantify the spatial localization of Hg and its correlations with other elements of interest on suspended particles from a Hg contaminated freshwater system. Up to 175 μg g–1 Hg is found on suspended particles. Mercury is heterogeneously distributed among phytoplankton (e.g., diatoms) and mineral particles that are rich in iron oxides and natural organic matter (NOM), possibly as Hg-NOM-iron oxide ternary complexes. The diatom-bound Hg is mostly found on outer surfaces of themore »cells, suggesting passive sorption of inorganic Hg on diatoms. Our results indicate that localized sorption of Hg onto suspended particles, including diatoms and NOM-coated oxide minerals, is an important sink for Hg in natural aquatic environments.« less

  2. Development of Advanced Surface Enhancement Technology for Decreasing Wear and Corrosion of Equipment Used for Mineral Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel Tao; R. Honaker; B. K. Parekh

    2007-09-20

    Equipment wear is a major concern in the mineral processing industry, which dramatically increases the maintenance cost and adversely affects plant operation efficiency. In this research, novel surface treatment technologies, High Density Infrared (HDI) and Laser Surface Engineering (LSE) surface coating processes were developed for the surface enhancement of selected mineral and coal processing equipment. Microstructural and mechanical properties of the coated specimens were characterized. Laboratory-simulated wear tests were conducted to evaluate the tribological performance of the coated components. Test results indicate that the wear resistance of ASTM A36 (raw coal screen section) and can be significantly increased by applying HDI and LSE coating processes. Field testing has been performed using a LSE-treated screen panel and it showed a significant improvement of the service life.

  3. Fracture-coating minerals in the Topopah Spring Member and upper tuff of Calico Hills from drill hole J-13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlos, B.

    1989-02-01

    Fracture-lining minerals from drill core in the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff and the tuff of Calico Hills from water well J-13 were studied to identify the differences between these minerals and those seen in drill core USW G-4. In USW G-4 the static water level (SWL) occurs below the tuff of Calico Hills, but in J-13 the water table is fairly high in the Topopah Spring Member. There are some significant differences in fracture minerals between these two holes. In USW G-4 mordenite is a common fracture-lining mineral in the Topopah Spring Member, increasing in abundance with depth. Euhedral heulandite >0.1 mm in length occurs in fractures for about 20 m above the lower vitrophyre. In J-13, where the same stratigraphic intervals are below the water table, mordenite is uncommon and euhedral heulandite is not seen. The most abundant fracture coating in the Topopah Spring Member in J-13 is drusy quartz, which is totally absent in this interval in USW G-4. Though similar in appearance, the coatings in the vitrophyre have different mineralogy in the two holes. In USW G-4 the coatings are extremely fine grained heulandite and smectite. In J-13 the coatings are fine-grained heulandite, chabazite, and alkali feldspar. Chabazite has not been identified from any other hole in the Yucca Mountain area. Fractures in the tuff of Calico Hills have similar coatings in core from both holes. In J-13, as in USW G-4, the tuff matrix of the Topopah Spring Member is welded and devitrified and that of the tuff of Calico Hills is zeolitic. 11 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Structural Analysis for Gold Mineralization Using Remote Sensing and Geochemical Techniques in a GIS Environment: Island of Lesvos, Hellas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rokos, D. Argialas, D. Mavrantza, R. St Seymour, K.; Vamvoukakis, C.; Kouli, M.; Lamera, S.; Paraskevas, H.; Karfakis, I.; Denes, G

    2000-12-15

    Exploration for epithermal Au has been active lately in the Aegean Sea of the eastern Mediterranean Basin, both in the islands of the Quaternary arc and in those of the back-arc region. The purpose of this study was the structural mapping and analysis for a preliminary investigation of possible epithermal gold mineralization, using remotely sensed data and techniques, structural and field data, and geochemical information, for a specific area on the Island of Lesvos. Therefore, Landsat-TM and SPOT-Pan satellite images and the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the study area were processed digitally using spatial filtering techniques for the enhancement and recognition of the geologically significant lineaments, as well as algebraic operations with band ratios and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), for the identification of alteration zones. Statistical rose diagrams and a SCHMIDT projection Stereo Net were generated from the lineament maps and the collected field data (dip and strike measurements of faults, joints, and veins), respectively. The derived lineament map and the band ratio images were manipulated in a GIS environment, in order to study the relation of the tectonic pattern to both the alteration zoning and the geomorphology of the volcanic field of the study area. Target areas of high interest for possible mineralization also were specified using geochemical techniques, such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, trace-element, and fluid-inclusion analysis. Finally, preliminary conclusions were derived about possible mineralization, the type (high or low sulfidation), and the extent of mineralization, by combining the structural information with geochemical information.

  5. Direct experimental evidence for differing reactivity alterations of minerals following irradiation: The case of calcite and quartz

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pignatelli, Isabella; Kumar, Aditya; Field, Kevin G.; Wang, Bu; Yu, Yingtian; Le Pape, Yann; Bauchy, Mathieu; Sant, Gaurav

    2016-01-29

    Concrete, used in the construction of nuclear power plants (NPPs), may be exposed to radiation emanating from the reactor core. Until recently, concrete has been assumed immune to radiation exposure. Direct evidence acquired on Ar+ -ion irradiated calcite and quartz indicates, on the contrary, that, such minerals, which constitute aggregates in concrete, may be significantly altered by irradiation. More specifically, while quartz undergoes disordering of its atomic structure resulting in a near complete lack of periodicity, calcite only experiences random rotations, and distortions of its carbonate groups. As a result, irradiated quartz shows a reduction in density of around 15%,more » and an increase in chemical reactivity, described by its dissolution rate, similar to a glassy silica. However, calcite shows little change in dissolution rate - although its density noted to reduce by 9%. These differences are correlated with the nature of bonds in these minerals, i.e., being dominantly ionic or covalent, and the rigidity of the mineral's atomic network that is characterized by the number of topological constraints (nc) that are imposed on the atoms in the network. Our outcomes have major implications on the durability of concrete structural elements formed with calcitic or quartzitic aggregates in nuclear power plants.« less

  6. GaMin’11 – an international inter-laboratory comparison for geochemical CO₂ - saline fluid - mineral interaction experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ostertag-Henning, C.; Risse, A.; Thomas, B.; Rosenbauer, R.; Rochelle, C.; Purser, G.; Kilpatrick, A.; Rosenqvist, J.; Yardley, B.; Karamalidis, A.; et al

    2014-12-31

    Due to the strong interest in geochemical CO₂-fluid-rock interaction in the context of geological storage of CO₂ a growing number of research groups have used a variety of different experimental ways to identify important geochemical dissolution or precipitation reactions and – if possible – quantify the rates and extent of mineral or rock alteration. In this inter-laboratory comparison the gas-fluid-mineral reactions of three samples of rock-forming minerals have been investigated by 11 experimental labs. The reported results point to robust identification of the major processes in the experiments by most groups. The dissolution rates derived from the changes in compositionmore » of the aqueous phase are consistent overall, but the variation could be reduced by using similar corrections for changing parameters in the reaction cells over time. The comparison of experimental setups and procedures as well as of data corrections identified potential improvements for future gas-fluid-rock studies.« less

  7. Midwest Biodiesel Products | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Products Jump to: navigation, search Name: Midwest Biodiesel Products Place: Caseyville, Illinois Zip: 62232 Product: Midwest Biodiesel Products, Inc. is an Illinois based...

  8. Malczewski Product Design LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Malczewski Product Design LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Malczewski Product Design LLC Place: Neenah, Wisconsin Zip: 54956 Sector: Wind energy Product: Product development...

  9. Renewable Energy Products LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Products, LLC Place: Santa Fe Springs, California Zip: 90670 Product: Own and operate a biodiesel production facility in California. References: Renewable Energy Products, LLC1...

  10. Abrasion and Erosion testing of Materials used in Power Production from Coal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Abrasion and Erosion Testing of Materials Used in Power Production From Coal J. Tylczak 1 , T. Adler 1 , and J. Rawers 1 1 Albany Research Center, USA ABSTRACT The Albany Research Center (ARC) has a long history of studying abrasive wear, related to mineral testing, handling, and processing. The center has also been instrumental in the design and development of wear test procedures and equipment. Research capabilities at ARC include Pin-on-Drum, Pin-on-Disk, and Dry Sand/Rubber Wheel abrasion

  11. Challenges facing production grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  12. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7. Employment in the U.S. uranium production industry by state, 2003-14 person-years State(s) 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Wyoming 134 139 181 195 245 301 308 348 424 512 531 416 Colorado and Texas 48 140 269 263 557 696 340 292 331 248 198 105 Nebraska and New Mexico 92 102 123 160 149 160 159 134 127 W W W Arizona, Utah, and Washington 47 40 75 120 245 360 273 281 W W W W Alaska, Michigan, Nevada, and South Dakota 0 0 0 16 25 30 W W W W W 0 California, Montana,

  13. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10. Uranium reserve estimates at the end of 2013 and 2014 million pounds U3O8 End of 2013 End of 2014 Forward Cost2 Uranium Reserve Estimates1 by Mine and Property Status, Mining Method, and State(s) $0 to $30 per pound $0 to $50 per pound $0 to $100 per pound $0 to $30 per pound $0 to $50 per pound $0 to $100 per pound Properties with Exploration Completed, Exploration Continuing, and Only Assessment Work W W 130.7 W W 154.6 Properties Under Development for Production and Development Drilling W

  14. Lease Condensate Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Condensate Production (Million Barrels) Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 178 224 231 274 311 326 1979-2014 Alabama 2 2 2 2 2 1 1979-2014 Alaska 0 0 20 20 16 0 1979-2014 Arkansas 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 California 0 0 0 0 0 1 1979-2014 Coastal Region Onshore 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Los Angeles Basin Onshore 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 San Joaquin Basin Onshore 0 0

  15. Integrating laboratory and field data to quantify the immersion freezing ice nucleation activity of mineral dust particles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    DeMott, P. J.; Prenni, A. J.; McMeeking, G. R.; Sullivan, R. C.; Petters, M. D.; Tobo, Y.; Niemand, M.; Möhler, O.; Snider, J. R.; Wang, Z.; et al

    2014-06-27

    Data from both laboratory studies and atmospheric measurements are used to develop a simple parametric description for the immersion freezing activity of natural mineral dust particles. Measurements made with the Colorado State University (CSU) continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC) when processing mineral dust aerosols at a nominal 105% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw) are taken to approximate the immersion freezing nucleation activity of particles. Ice active frozen fractions vs. temperature for dusts representative of Saharan and Asian desert sources were consistent with similar measurements in atmospheric dust plumes for a limited set of comparisons available. The parameterization developedmore » follows the form of one suggested previously for atmospheric particles of non-specific composition in quantifying ice nucleating particle concentrations as functions of temperature and the total number concentration of particles larger than 0.5 μm diameter. Such an approach does not explicitly account for surface area and time dependencies for ice nucleation, but sufficiently encapsulates the activation properties for potential use in regional and global modeling simulations, and possible application in developing remote sensing retrievals for ice nucleating particles. A correction factor is introduced to account for the apparent underestimate (by approximately 3, on average) of the immersion freezing fraction of mineral dust particles for CSU CFDC data processed at an RHw of 105% vs. maximum fractions active at higher RHw. Instrumental factors that affect activation behavior vs. RHw in CFDC instruments remain to be fully explored in future studies. Nevertheless, the use of this correction factor is supported by comparison to ice activation data obtained for the same aerosols from Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics of the Atmosphere (AIDA) expansion chamber cloud parcel experiments. Further comparison of the new parameterization to the immersion freezing surface active site density parameterization for mineral dust particles, developed separately from AIDA experimental data alone, shows excellent agreement for data collected in a descent through a Saharan aerosol layer. These studies support the utility of laboratory measurements to obtain atmospherically-relevant data on the ice nucleation properties of dust and other particle types, and suggest the suitability of considering all mineral dust as a single type of ice nucleating particle as a useful first order approximation in numerical modeling investigations.« less

  16. Integrating laboratory and field data to quantify the immersion freezing ice nucleation activity of mineral dust particles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    DeMott, P. J.; Prenni, A. J.; McMeeking, G. R.; Sullivan, R. C.; Petters, M. D.; Tobo, Y.; Niemand, M.; Möhler, O.; Snider, J. R.; Wang, Z.; et al

    2015-01-13

    Data from both laboratory studies and atmospheric measurements are used to develop an empirical parameterization for the immersion freezing activity of natural mineral dust particles. Measurements made with the Colorado State University (CSU) continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC) when processing mineral dust aerosols at a nominal 105% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw) are taken as a measure of the immersion freezing nucleation activity of particles. Ice active frozen fractions vs. temperature for dusts representative of Saharan and Asian desert sources were consistent with similar measurements in atmospheric dust plumes for a limited set of comparisons available. The parameterizationmore » developed follows the form of one suggested previously for atmospheric particles of non-specific composition in quantifying ice nucleating particle concentrations as functions of temperature and the total number concentration of particles larger than 0.5 μm diameter. Such an approach does not explicitly account for surface area and time dependencies for ice nucleation, but sufficiently encapsulates the activation properties for potential use in regional and global modeling simulations, and possible application in developing remote sensing retrievals for ice nucleating particles. A calibration factor is introduced to account for the apparent underestimate (by approximately 3, on average) of the immersion freezing fraction of mineral dust particles for CSU CFDC data processed at an RHw of 105% vs. maximum fractions active at higher RHw. Instrumental factors that affect activation behavior vs. RHw in CFDC instruments remain to be fully explored in future studies. Nevertheless, the use of this calibration factor is supported by comparison to ice activation data obtained for the same aerosols from Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics of the Atmosphere (AIDA) expansion chamber cloud parcel experiments. Further comparison of the new parameterization, including calibration correction, to predictions of the immersion freezing surface active site density parameterization for mineral dust particles, developed separately from AIDA experimental data alone, shows excellent agreement for data collected in a descent through a Saharan aerosol layer. These studies support the utility of laboratory measurements to obtain atmospherically relevant data on the ice nucleation properties of dust and other particle types, and suggest the suitability of considering all mineral dust as a single type of ice nucleating particle as a useful first-order approximation in numerical modeling investigations.« less

  17. AN ELECTROMAGNETIC PNEUMO CAPSULE SYSTEM FOR CONVEYING MINERALS AND MINE WASTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry Liu; Charles W. Lenau

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of using a new and advanced pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) system for transporting minerals and mine wastes. The new system is different from conventional PCPs in two main respects: (1) it uses linear induction motors (LIMs) instead of blowers (fans) at the inlet of the pipeline to drive (pump) the capsules and the air through the pipeline; and (2) the capsules in the PCP have steel wheels running on steel rails as opposed to capsules in conventional systems, which use wheels with rubber tires running inside a pipe without rail. The advantage of using LIM pump instead of blower is that the former is non-intrusive and hence does not block the passage of capsules, enabling the system to run continuously without having to make the capsules bypass the pump. This not only simplifies the system but also enables the system to achieve much larger cargo throughput than that of PCPs using blowers, and use of LIMs as booster pumps which enables the system to have any length or to be used for transporting cargoes over practically any distance, say even one thousand kilometers or miles. An advantage of using steel wheels rolling on steel rails instead of using rubber tires rolling inside a pipeline is that the rolling friction coefficient and hence the use of energy is greatly reduced from that of conventional PCP systems. Moreover, rails enable easy control of capsule motion, such as switching capsules to a branch line by using railroad switching equipment. The advanced PCP system studied under this project uses rectangular conduits instead of circular pipe, having cross-sectional areas of 1 m by 1 m approximately. The system can be used for various transportation distances, and it can transport up to 50 million tonnes (metric tons) of cargo annually--the throughput of the largest mines in the world. Both an aboveground and an underground system were investigated and compared. The technical feasibility of this new PCP system was determined by designing the details of the system and conducting a detail analysis of the system--both steady and unsteady analyses. Through the detailed design and analyses, it was found that no technical problem or hurdle exist that would otherwise prevent commercial use of the system today. Still, since it is a new technology, it will be prudent and advantageous to run a demonstration project before this technology is used.

  18. ARM - PI Product - Cloud Property Retrieval Products for Graciosa Island,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Azores ProductsCloud Property Retrieval Products for Graciosa Island, Azores ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Cloud Property Retrieval Products for Graciosa Island, Azores [ research data - ASR funded ] The motivation for developing this product was to use the Dong et al. 1998 method to retrieve cloud microphysical properties, such as cloud droplet effective radius, cloud droplets

  19. Forest Products | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forest Products Forest Products Purchased energy remains the third largest manufacturing cost for the forest products industry-despite its extensive use of highly efficient co-generation technology. The industry has worked with AMO to develop a range of resources for further improving energy efficiency. Some current R&D projects and Energy Management resources will benefit the forest products industry. Analytical Studies & Other Publications Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints

  20. 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9. Summary production statistics of the U.S. uranium industry, 1993-2014" ,"Exploration and Development Surface ","Exploration and Development Drilling","Mine Production of Uranium ","Uranium Concentrate Production ","Uranium Concentrate Shipments ","Employment " "Year","Drilling (million feet)"," Expenditures 1 (million dollars)","Mine Production (million pounds U3O8)","(million pounds

  1. EERE Publication and Product Library

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Feature featured product thumbnail Energy Savers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home Details Bookmark & Share View Related Request by Mail Welcome to the EERE Publication and Product Library. This library will allow you to find publications and products provided by the DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy specifically for our constituents. To help serve you better this database will allow you to: Search for publications and products Download or view publications

  2. EIA-914 monthly production report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    & Other Liquids Reports Monthly Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production Release date: February 29, 2016 | Next release date: March 31, 2016 These monthly production estimates are based on data from the EIA-914, Monthly Crude Oil, Lease Condensate, and Natural Gas Production Report. Beginning in January 2015, ten states were added to the EIA-914, bringing to 16 the number of states/areas with individual coverage, and crude oil production estimates were introduced. Estimates based on the EIA-914

  3. Covered Product Categories (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    List of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)-designated product categories for energy-efficient procurement requirements.

  4. Building America Case Study:Cladding Attachment Over Mineral Fiber Insulation Board (Fact Sheet), Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Cladding Attachment Over Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Ontario, Canada PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Climate-Exposed Long- Term Testing of Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Under Cladding Attachment Load Location: Ontario, Canada Partners: Building Science Laboratories, buildingsciencelabs.com Building Science Corporation, buildingscience.com Building Component: Above-grade frame wall Application: Both new construction and retrofit; wood-framed buildings Year Tested: 2012-2013 Applicable

  5. Production of magnesium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blencoe, James G. (Harriman, TN) [Harriman, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Palmer, Donald A. (Oliver Springs, TN) [Oliver Springs, TN; Beard, James S. (Martinsville, VA) [Martinsville, VA

    2010-02-23

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention further relates to a process for production of magnesium metal or a magnesium compound where an external source of carbon dioxide is not used in any of the reactions of the process. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  6. Shale Gas Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 3,110 5,336 7,994 10,371 11,415 13,447 2007-2014 Alabama 0 0 2007-2010 Alaska 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2014 Arkansas 527 794 940 1,027 1,026 1,038 2007-2014 California 101 90 89 3 2011-2014 Colorado 1 1 3 9 18 236 2007-2014 Kansas 1 3 1 2012-2014 Kentucky 5 4 4 4 4 2 2007-2014 Louisiana 293

  7. Production of zinc pellets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.

    1996-01-01

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries.

  8. Production of zinc pellets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, J.F.

    1996-11-26

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

  9. Coalbed Methane Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 1,914 1,886 1,763 1,655 1,466 1,404 1989-2014 Alabama 105 102 98 91 62 78 1989-2014 Alaska 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005-2014 Arkansas 3 3 4 2 2 2 2005-2014 California 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005-2014 Colorado 498 533 516 486 444 412 1989-2014 Florida 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005-2014 Kansas 43 41 37 34 30 27

  10. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6. Employment in the U.S. uranium production industry by category, 2003-14 person-years Year Exploration Mining Milling Processing Reclamation Total 2003 W W W W 117 321 2004 18 108 W W 121 420 2005 79 149 142 154 124 648 2006 188 121 W W 155 755 2007 375 378 107 216 155 1,231 2008 457 558 W W 154 1,563 2009 175 441 W W 162 1,096 2010 211 400 W W 125 1,073 2011 208 462 W W 102 1,191 2012 161 462 W W 179 1,196 2013 149 392 W W 199 1,156 2014 86 246 W W 161

  11. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3. U.S. uranium concentrate production, shipments, and sales, 2003-14 Activity at U.S. mills and In-Situ-Leach plants 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Estimated contained U3O8 (thousand pounds) Ore from Mines and Stockpiles Fed to Mills1 0 W W W 0 W W W W W W W Other Feed Materials 2 W W W W W W W W W W W W Total Mill Feed W W W W W W W W W W W W Uranium Concentrate Produced at U.S. Mills (thousand pounds U3O8) W W W W W W W W W W W W Uranium Concentrate Produced at

  12. Global production through 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foreman, N.E.

    1996-12-01

    Two companion studies released recently should provide great food for thought among geo-political strategists and various national governments. If predictions contained in these Petroconsultants studies of oil and gas production trends for the next 10 years are realized, there will be great repercussions for net exporters and importers, alike. After analyzing and predicting trends within each of the world`s significant producing nations for the 1996--2005 period, the crude oil and condensate report concludes tat global production will jump nearly 24%. By contrast, worldwide gas output will leap 40%. The cast of characters among producers and exporters that will benefit from these increases varies considerably for each fuel. On the oil side, Russia and the OPEC members, particularly the Persian Gulf nations, will be back in the driver`s seat in terms of affecting export and pricing patterns. On the gas side, the leading producers will be an interesting mix of mostly non-OPEC countries. The reemergence of Persian Gulf oil producers, coupled with an anticipated long-term decline among top non-OPEC producing nations should present a sobering picture to government planners within large net importers, such as the US. They are likely to find themselves in much the same supply trap as was experienced in the 1970s, only this time the dependence on foreign oil supplies will be much worse. Gas supplies will not be similarly constrained, and some substitution for oil is probable. Here, two articles, ``World oil industry is set for transition`` and ``Worldwide gas surges forward in next decade,`` present a summary of the findings detailed in Petroconsultants` recent studies.

  13. Method for production of magnesium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diaz, Alexander F. (Cambridge, MA); Howard, Jack B. (Winchester, MA); Modestino, Anthony J. (Hanson, MA); Peters, William A. (Lexington, MA)

    1998-01-01

    A continuous process for the production of elemental magnesium is described. Magnesium is made from magnesium oxide and a light hydrocarbon gas. In the process, a feed stream of the magnesium oxide and gas is continuously fed into a reaction zone. There the magnesium oxide and gas are reacted at a temperature of about 1400.degree. C. or greater in the reaction zone to provide a continuous product stream of reaction products, which include elemental magnesium. The product stream is continuously quenched after leaving the reaction zone, and the elemental magnesium is separated from other reaction products.

  14. Method for production of magnesium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diaz, A.F.; Howard, J.B.; Modestino, A.J.; Peters, W.A.

    1998-07-21

    A continuous process for the production of elemental magnesium is described. Magnesium is made from magnesium oxide and a light hydrocarbon gas. In the process, a feed stream of the magnesium oxide and gas is continuously fed into a reaction zone. There the magnesium oxide and gas are reacted at a temperature of about 1400 C or greater in the reaction zone to provide a continuous product stream of reaction products, which include elemental magnesium. The product stream is continuously quenched after leaving the reaction zone, and the elemental magnesium is separated from other reaction products. 12 figs.

  15. Converting solar-photovoltaic power into exportable products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oman, H.

    1997-12-31

    Nations, states, and even communities must generate exportable products that earn money for buying needed imports. Exports have ranged from tourist services to hardwood logs. Fertile land, with irrigation water and fertilizer, grows exportable food. On the other hand a hot dry desert with no mineral resources presents a challenge to its occupants. Solar power could be generated and exported, but that requires construction of expensive transmission lines which are in service only when the sun shines. Among new options is a solar-powered plant that recovers zinc from the zinc oxide produced during discharge of zinc-air electric-vehicle batteries. A hectare-size solar-power plant with 30-percent efficient solar cells can in eight hours recover enough zinc to power 36,000 /km (22,000 miles) of travel in lightweight 4-passenger electric vehicles. A by-product could be renewable fuel for use by local residents in electric bicycles. One oriented solar panel, 10 meters by 10 meters in size, with 30-percent efficient solar cells, could in one day deliver enough energy for traveling 14,700 km (9176 miles) on bicycles. This by far exceeds the travel distance that could be obtained in one day by riding on an animal that is pastured on a s0-by-10 meter area.

  16. Evaluation of a continuous miner half-curtain dust control system in a South African underground coal mine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belle, B.K.; Plessis, J.J.L. du

    1999-07-01

    The issues of public health and safety in the mining industry have been dealt with around the world through the intervention of governments. In 1997 the South African Department of Minerals and Energy (DME) sent out a directive to reduce the dust concentration level to <5 mg/m{sup 3} at the operator's position for the sampling period. The reasons for the difficulty with compliance are: long headings up to 35 m, inherently high dust generation rates of coal, and the increased use of highly mechanized equipment. A project was formulated under SIMRAC auspices with the title of Underground Mechanical Miner Environmental Control to address the dust problem. The project was planned in two phases. The first phase involved laboratory tests on a continuous miner model for different ventilation and spray systems at the newly built ventilation simulation tunnel at the Kloppersbos research center. In the second phase of the project, tests were carried out underground, based on the findings and recommendations from the simulated tests. This paper focuses on the results and findings for the half-curtain system which has been encouraging. The average dust concentration for the sampling period at the operator's position for the half-curtain system was 3.20 mg/m{sup 3}. On the other hand, the equivalent average dust concentration (TWA-CONC) for the half-curtain system for an 8-h period was 2.04 mg/m{sup 3}. The outcome of this project has shown that the regulatory dust level of <5 mg/m{sup 3} can be achieved through close collaboration with all the interested parties.

  17. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank Farm Blend) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation (FBSR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Daniel, W. E.; Hall, H. K.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.

    2013-08-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Supplemental Treatment is likely to be required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP’s LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which LAW can be processed irrespective of whether the waste contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be comparable to LAW glass, i.e. leaches Tc-99, Re and Na at <2g/m2 during ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency) durability testing. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product was investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage. Monolithing in an inorganic geopolymer binder, which is amorphous, macro-encapsulates the granules, and the monoliths pass ANSI/ANS 16.1 and ASTM C1308 durability testing with Re achieving a Leach Index (LI) of 9 (the Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility, IDF, criteria for Tc-99) after a few days and Na achieving an LI of >6 (the Hanford IDF criteria for Na) in the first few hours. The granular and monolithic waste forms also pass the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for all Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) components at the Universal Treatment Standards (UTS). Two identical Benchscale Steam Reformers (BSR) were designed and constructed at SRNL, one to treat non-radioactive simulants and the other to treat actual radioactive wastes. The results from the non-radioactive BSR were used to determine the parameters needed to operate the radioactive BSR in order to confirm the findings of non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale and engineering scale tests and to qualify an FBSR LAW waste form for applications at Hanford. Radioactive testing commenced using SRS LAW from Tank 50 chemically trimmed to look like Hanford’s blended LAW known as the Rassat simulant as this simulant composition had been tested in the non-radioactive BSR, the non-radioactive pilot scale FBSR at the Science Applications International Corporation-Science and Technology Applications Research (SAIC-STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID and in the TTT Engineering Scale Technology Demonstration (ESTD) at Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) in Denver, CO. This provided a “tie back” between radioactive BSR testing and non-radioactive BSR, pilot scale, and engineering scale testing. Approximately six hundred grams of non-radioactive and radioactive BSR product were made for extensive testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests performed in 2004 at SAIC-STAR and the engineering scale test performed in 2008 at HRI with the Rassat simulant. The same mineral phases and off-gas species were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing. The granular ESTD and BSR products (radioactive and non-radioactive) were analyzed for total constituents and durability tested as a granular waste form. A subset of the granular material was stabilized in a clay based geopolymer matrix at 42% and 65% FBSR loadings and durability tested as a monolith waste form. The 65 wt% FBSR loaded monolith made with clay (radioactive) was more durable than the 67-68 wt% FBSR loaded monoliths made from fly ash (non-radioactive) based on short term PCT testing. Long term, 90 to 107 day, ASTM C1308 testing (similar to ANSI/ANS 16.1 testing) was only performed on two fly ash geopolymer monoliths at 67-68 wt% FBSR loading and three clay geopolymer monoliths at 42 wt% FBSR loading. More clay geopolymers need to be made and tested at longer times at higher FBSR loadings for comparison to the fly ash monoliths. Monoliths made with metakaolin (heat treated) clay are of a more constant composition and are very reactive as the heat treated clay is amorphous and alkali activated. The monoliths made with fly ash are subject to the inherent compositional variation found in fly ash as it is a waste product from burning coal and it contains unreactive components such as mullite. However, both the fly ash and the clay based monoliths perform well in long term ASTM C1308 testing. Extensive testing and characterization of the granular and monolith material were made including the following American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) tests: ASTM C1285 testing (Product Consistency Test) of granular and monolithic waste forms; Comparison of granular BSR radioactive to ESTD and pilot scale granular non-radioactive waste form made from the Rassat simulant  Comparison of granular radioactive to granular non-radioactive waste form made from the Rassat simulant made using the SRNL BSR; Comparison of monolithic BSR radioactive waste forms to monolithic BSR and ESTD non-radioactive waste forms made of fly ash; Comparison of granular BSR radioactive waste forms to monolithic BSR non-radioactive waste forms made of fly ash; Comparison of granular BSR radioactive waste forms to monolithic BSR non-radioactive waste forms made of clay; ASTM C1308 Accelerated Leach Test for Diffusive Releases from Solidified Waste and a Computer Program to Model Diffusive, Fractional Leaching from Cylindrical Waste Forms; Comparison of BSR non-radioactive waste forms to monolithic ESTD non-radioactive waste forms made from fly ash; Testing of BSR non-radioactive monoliths made from clay for comparison to non-radioactive monoliths made from fly ash; ASTM C39 Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens; Comparison of monolithic BSR radioactive waste forms to monolithic BSR and ESTD non-radioactive waste forms; EPA Manual SW-846 Method 1311, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP); Comparison of granular BSR radioactive to ESTD and pilot scale granular non-radioactive waste form made from the Rassat simulant; Comparison of granular radioactive to granular non-radioactive waste form made from the Rassat simulant made using the SRNL BSR; Comparison of monolithic BSR radioactive waste forms to monolithic BSR non-radioactive waste forms.

  18. Production Maintenance Infrastructure

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-11-01

    PMI is a XML framework for formulating tests of software and software environments which operate in a relatively push button manner, i.e., can be automated, and that provide results that are readily consumable/publishable via RSS. Insofar as possible the tests are carried out in manner congruent with real usage. PMI drives shell scripts via a perl program which is charge of timing, validating each test, and controlling the flow through sets of tests. Testing inmore » PMI is built up hierarchically. A suite of tests may start by testing basic functionalities (file system is writable, compiler is found and functions, shell environment behaves as expected, etc.) and work up to large more complicated activities (execution of parallel code, file transfers, etc.) At each step in this hierarchy a failure leads to generation of a text message or RSS that can be tagged as to who should be notified of the failure. There are two functionalities that PMI has been directed at. 1) regular and automated testing of multi user environments and 2) version-wise testing of new software releases prior to their deployment in a production mode.« less

  19. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fowler, R.D.

    1957-08-27

    A process for the production of uranium hexafluoride from the oxides of uranium is reported. In accordance with the method, the higher oxides of uranium may be reduced to uranium dioxide (UO/sub 2/), the latter converted into uranium tetrafluoride by reaction with hydrogen fluoride, and the UF/sub 4/ converted to UF/sub 6/ by reaction with a fluorinating agent, such as CoF/sub 3/. The UO/sub 3/ or U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ is placed in a reac tion chamber in a copper boat or tray enclosed in a copper oven, and heated to 500 to 650 deg C while hydrogen gas is passed through the oven. After nitrogen gas is used to sweep out the hydrogen and the water vapor formed, and while continuing to inaintain the temperature between 400 deg C and 600 deg C, anhydrous hydrogen fluoride is passed through. After completion of the conversion of UO/sub 2/ to UF/sub 4/ the temperature of the reaction chamber is lowered to about 400 deg C or less, the UF/sub 4/ is mixed with the requisite quantity of CoF/sub 3/, and after evacuating the chamber, the mixture is heated to 300 to 400 deg C, and the resulting UF/sub 6/ is led off and delivered to a condenser.

  20. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8. U.S. uranium expenditures, 2003-14 million dollars Year Drilling1 Production2 Land and other 3 Total expenditures Total land and other Land Exploration Reclamation 2003 W W 31.3 NA NA NA W 2004 10.6 27.8 48.4 NA NA NA 86.9 2005 18.1 58.2 59.7 NA NA NA 136.0 2006 40.1 65.9 115.2 41.0 23.3 50.9 221.2 2007 67.5 90.4 178.2 77.7 50.3 50.2 336.2 2008 81.9 221.2 164.4 65.2 50.2 49.1 467.6 2009 35.4 141.0 104.0 17.3 24.2 62.4 280.5 2010 44.6 133.3 99.5 20.2 34.5 44.7 277.3 2011 53.6 168.8 96.8 19.6

  1. Hydroprocessing Bio-oil and Products Separation for Coke Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.

    2013-04-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass can be used to produce a raw bio-oil product, which can be upgraded by catalytic hydroprocessing to hydrocarbon liquid products. In this study the upgraded products were distilled to recover light naphtha and oils and to produce a distillation resid with useful properties for coker processing and production of renewable, low-sulfur electrode carbon. For this hydroprocessing work, phase separation of the bio-oil was applied as a preparatory step to concentrate the heavier, more phenolic components thus generating a more amenable feedstock for resid production. Low residual oxygen content products were produced by continuous-flow, catalytic hydroprocessing of the phase separated bio-oil.

  2. Quantifying Microbe-Mineral Interactions Leading to Remotely Detectable Induced Polarization Signals (Final Project Report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moysey, Stephen; Dean, Delphine; Dimitrios, Ntarlagiannis

    2013-11-13

    The objective of this project was to investigate controls on induced polarization responses in porous media. The approach taken in the project was to compare electrical measurements made on mineral surfaces with atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques to observations made at the column?scale using traditional spectral induced polarization measurements. In the project we evaluated a number of techniques for investigating the surface properties of materials, including the development of a new AFM measurement protocol that utilizes an external electric field to induce grain?scale polarizations that can be probed using a charged AFM tip. The experiments we performed focused on idealized systems (i.e., glass beads and silica gel) where we could obtain the high degree of control needed to understand how changes in the pore environment, which are determined by biogeochemical controls in the subsurface, affect mechanisms contributing to complex electrical conductivity, i.e., conduction and polarization, responses. The studies we performed can be classified into those affecting the chemical versus physical properties of the grain surface and pore space. Chemical alterations of the surface focused on evaluating how changes in pore fluid pH and ionic composition control surface conduction. These were performed as column flow through experiments where the pore fluid was exchanged in a column of silica gel. Given that silica gel has a high surface area due to internal grain porosity, high?quality data could be obtained where the chemical influences on the surface are clearly apparent and qualitatively consistent with theories of grain (i.e., Stern layer) polarization controlled by electrostatic surface sorption processes (i.e., triple layer theory). Quantitative fitting of the results by existing process?based polarization models (e.g., Leroy et al., 2008) has been less successful, however, due to what we have attributed to differences between existing models developed for spherical grains versus the actual geometry associated with the nano?pores in the silica gel, though other polarization processes, e.g., proton hopping along the surface (Skold et al., 2013), may also be a contributing factor. As an alternative model?independent approach to confirming the link between surface sorption and SIP we initiated a study that will continue (unfunded) beyond the completion of this project to independently measure the accumulation of gamma emitting isotopes on the silica gel during the SIP monitoring experiments. Though our analyses of the project data are ongoing, our preliminary analyses are generally supportive of the grain (Stern layer) polarization theory of SIP. Experiments focused on evaluating the impact of physical modifications of the medium on polarization included etching and biotic and abiotic facilitated precipitation of carbonate and iron oxides to alter the roughness and electrical conductivity of the surfaces. These experiments were performed for both silica gel and glass beads, the latter of which lacked the interior porosity and high surface area of the silica gel. The results appear to be more nuanced that the chemical modifications of the system. In general, however, it was found that deposition of iron oxides and etching had relatively minimal or negative impacts on the polarization response of the medium, whereas carbonate coatings increased the polarization response. These results were generally consistent with changes in surface charge observed via AFM. Abiotic and biotic column flow through experiments demonstrated that precipitation of carbonate within the medium significantly impacted the real and imaginary conductivity over time in a manner generally consistent with the carbonate precipitation as observed from the batch grain coating experiments. Biotic effects were not observed to provide distinctly different signatures, but may have contributed to differences in the rate of changes observed with SIP. AFM was used in a variety of different ways to investigate the grain surfaces throughout the course

  3. Product Supplied for Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blend. Comp. Finished Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Finished

  4. Comparison of GiBUU calculations with MiniBooNE pion production data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lalakulich, O.; Mosel, U.

    2015-05-15

    Background: Neutrino-induced pion production can give important informationon the axial coupling to nucleon resonances. Furthermore, pion production represents a major background to quasielastic-like events. one pion production data from the MiniBooNE in charged current neutrino scattering in mineral oil appeared higher than expected within conventional theoretical approaches. Purpose: We aim to investigate which model parameters affect the calculated cross section and how they do this. Method: The Giessen BoltzmannUehlingUhlenbeck (GiBUU) model is used for an investigation of neutrino-nucleus reactions. Results: Presented are integrated and differential cross sections for 1?{sup +} and 1?{sup 0} production before and after final state interactions in comparison with the MiniBooNE data. Conclusions: For the MiniBooNE flux all processes (QE, 1?-background, ?, higher resonance production, DIS) contribute to the observed final state with one pion of a given charge. The uncertainty in elementary pion production cross sections leads to a corresponding uncertainty in the nuclear cross sections. Final state interactions change the shape of the muon-related observables only slightly, but they significantly change the shape of pion distributions.

  5. ARM - PI Product - Kinematic and Hydrometer Data Products from Scanning

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radars during MC3E ProductsKinematic and Hydrometer Data Products from Scanning Radars during MC3E ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Kinematic and Hydrometer Data Products from Scanning Radars during MC3E [ research data - ASR funded ] Recently the Radar Meteorology Group at Colorado State University has completed major case studies of some top cases from MC3E including 25 April, 20

  6. ARM - PI Product - Raman lidar/AERI PBL Height Product

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsRaman lidar/AERI PBL Height Product ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Raman lidar/AERI PBL Height Product Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) heights have been computed using potential temperature profiles derived from Raman lidar and AERI measurements. Raman lidar measurements of the rotational Raman scattering from nitrogen and oxygen are used to derive vertical profiles of potential

  7. Evidence for biological activity in mineralization of secondary sulphate deposits in a basaltic environment: implications for the search for life in the Martian subsurface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Doc Richardson; Nancy W. Hinman; Jill R. Scott

    2013-10-01

    Evidence of microbial activity associated with mineralization of secondary Na-sulphate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) in the basaltic subsurface of Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM), Idaho were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, laser desorption Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LD-FTICR-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Peaks suggestive of bio/organic compounds were observed in the secondary Na-sulphate deposits by LD-FTICR-MS. FTIR provided additional evidence for the presence of bio/organic compounds. Sulphur fractionation was explored to assist in determining if microbes may play a role in oxidizing sulphur. The presence of bio/organic compounds associated with Na-sulphate deposits, along with the necessity of oxidizing reduced sulphur to sulphate, suggests that biological activity may be involved in the formation of these secondary minerals. The secondary Na-sulphate minerals probably form from the overlying basalt through leached sodium ions and sulphate ions produced by bio-oxidation of Fe-sulphide minerals. Since the COM basalts are one of the most comparable terrestrial analogues for their Martian counterparts, the occurrence of biological activity in the formation of sulphate minerals at COM has direct implications for the search for life on Mars. In addition, the presence of caves on Mars suggests the importance of these environments as possible locations for growth and preservation of microbial activity. Therefore, understanding the physiochemical pathways of abiotic and biotic mineralization in the COM subsurface and similar basaltic settings has direct implications for the search for extinct or extant life on Mars.

  8. Functional glass slides for in vitro evaluation of interactions between osteosarcoma TE85 cells and mineral-binding ligands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Jie; Chen, Julia; Klapperich, Catherine M.; Eng, Vincent; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2004-07-20

    Primary amine-functionalized glass slides obtained through a multi-step plasma treatment were conjugated with anionic amino acids that are frequently found as mineral binding elements in acidic extracellular matrix components of natural bone. The modified glass surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements. Human osteosarcoma TE85 cells were cultured on these functionalized slides and analyses on both protein and gene expression levels were performed to probe the ''biocompatibility'' of the surface ligands. Cell attachment and proliferation on anionic surfaces were either better than or comparable to those of cells cultured on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). The modified glass surfaces promoted the expression of osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase activity and ECM proteins such as fibronectin and vitronectin under differentiation culture conditions. Transcript analysis using gene chip microarrays confirmed that culturing TE85 cells on anionic surfaces did not activate apoptotic pathways. Collectively, these results suggest that the potential mineral-binding anionic ligands examined here do not exert significant adverse effects on the expression of important osteogenic markers of TE85 cells. This work paves the way for the incorporation of these ligands into 3-dimensional artificial bone-like scaffolds.

  9. X-ray fluorescence mapping of mercury on suspended mineral particles and diatoms in a contaminated freshwater system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gu, B.; Mishra, B.; Miller, C.; Wang, W.; Lai, B.; Brooks, S. C.; Kemner, K. M.; Liang, L.

    2014-09-30

    Mercury (Hg) bioavailability and geochemical cycling is affected by its partitioning between the aqueous and particulate phases. We applied a synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobe to visualize and quantify directly the spatial localization of Hg and its correlations with other elements of interest on suspended particles from a Hg-contaminated freshwater system. Up to 175 μg g−1 Hg is found on suspended particles, but less than 0.01% is in the form of methylmercury. Mercury is heterogeneously distributed among phytoplankton (e.g., diatoms) and mineral particles that are rich in iron oxides and natural organic matter (NOM). The diatom-bound Hg is mostly foundmore »on outer surfaces of the cells, suggesting passive sorption of Hg on diatoms. Our results indicate that localized sorption of Hg onto suspended particles, including diatoms and NOM-coated oxide minerals, may play an important role in affecting the partitioning, reactivity, and biogeochemical cycling of Hg in natural aquatic environments.« less

  10. A highly conspicuous mineralized composite photonic architecture in the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ling; Kolle, Stefan; Weaver, James C.; Ortiz, Christine; Aizenberg, Joanna; Kolle, Mathias

    2015-02-26

    Many species rely on diverse selections of entirely organic photonic structures for the manipulation of light and the display of striking colours. Here we report the discovery of a mineralized hierarchical photonic architecture embedded within the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet Patella pellucida. The bright colour of the limpets stripes originates from light interference in a periodically layered zig-zag architecture of crystallographically co-oriented calcite lamellae. Beneath the photonic multilayer, a disordered array of light-absorbing particles provides contrast for the blue colour. This unique mineralized manifestation of a synergy of two distinct optical elements at specific locations within the continuum of the limpets translucent protective shell ensures the vivid shine of the blue stripes, which can be perceived under water from a wide range of viewing angles. The stripes reflection band coincides with the spectral range of minimal light absorption in sea water, raising intriguing questions regarding their functional significance.

  11. PHASE ANALYSES OF URANIUM-BEARING MINERALS FROM THE HIGH GRADE ORE, NOPAL I, PENA BLANCA, MEXICO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Ren; P. Goodell; A. Kelts; E.Y. Anthony; M. Fayek; C. Fan; C. Beshears

    2005-07-11

    The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Pena Blanca district, approximately 40 miles north of Chihuahua City, Mexico. The deposit was formed by hydrothermal processes within the fracture zone of welded silicic volcanic tuff. The ages of volcanic formations are between 35 to 44 m.y. and there was secondary silicification of most of the formations. After the formation of at least part of the uranium deposit, the ore body was uplifted above the water table and is presently exposed at the surface. Detailed petrographic characterization, electron microprobe backscatter electron (BSE) imagery, and selected x-ray maps for the samples from Nopal I high-grade ore document different uranium phases in the ore. There are at least two stages of uranium precipitation. A small amount of uraninite is encapsulated in silica. Hexavalent uranium may also have been a primary precipitant. The uranium phases were precipitated along cleavages of feldspars, and along fractures in the tuff. Energy dispersive spectrometer data and x-ray maps suggest that the major uranium phases are uranophane and weeksite. Substitutions of Ca and K occur in both phases, implying that conditions were variable during the mineralization/alteration process, and that compositions of the original minerals have a major influence on later stage alteration. Continued study is needed to fully characterize uranium behavior in these semi-arid to arid conditions.

  12. A highly conspicuous mineralized composite photonic architecture in the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Ling; Kolle, Stefan; Weaver, James C.; Ortiz, Christine; Aizenberg, Joanna; Kolle, Mathias

    2015-02-26

    Many species rely on diverse selections of entirely organic photonic structures for the manipulation of light and the display of striking colours. Here we report the discovery of a mineralized hierarchical photonic architecture embedded within the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet Patella pellucida. The bright colour of the limpet’s stripes originates from light interference in a periodically layered zig-zag architecture of crystallographically co-oriented calcite lamellae. Beneath the photonic multilayer, a disordered array of light-absorbing particles provides contrast for the blue colour. This unique mineralized manifestation of a synergy of two distinct optical elements at specific locations within the continuummore » of the limpet’s translucent protective shell ensures the vivid shine of the blue stripes, which can be perceived under water from a wide range of viewing angles. The stripes’ reflection band coincides with the spectral range of minimal light absorption in sea water, raising intriguing questions regarding their functional significance.« less

  13. Ice Nucleation of Bare and Sulfuric Acid-coated Mineral Dust Particles and Implication for Cloud Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Sanders, Cassandra N.; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Chun

    2014-08-27

    Ice nucleation properties of different dust species coated with soluble material are not well understood. We determined the ice nucleation ability of bare and sulfuric acid coated mineral dust particles as a function of temperature (-25 to -35 deg C) and relative humidity with respect to water (RHw). Five different mineral dust species: Arizona test dust (ATD), illite, montmorillonite, quartz and kaolinite were dry dispersed and size-selected at 150 nm and exposed to sulfuric acid vapors in the coating apparatus. The condensed sulfuric acid soluble mass fraction per particle was estimated from the cloud condensation nuclei activated fraction measurements. The fraction of dust particles nucleating ice at various temperatures and RHw was determined using a compact ice chamber. In water-subsaturated conditions, compared to bare dust particles, we found that only coated ATD particles showed suppression of ice nucleation ability while other four dust species did not showed the effect of coating on the fraction of particles nucleating ice. The results suggest that interactions between the dust surface and sulfuric acid vapor are important, such that interactions may or may not modify the surface via chemical reactions with sulfuric acid. At water-supersaturated conditions we did not observed the effect of coating, i.e. the bare and coated dust particles had similar ice nucleation behavior.

  14. 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Domestic Uranium Production Report 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: April 30, 2015 Next Release Date: May 2016 million pounds U 3 O 8 $0 to $30 per pound $0 to $50 per pound $0 to $100 per pound $0 to $30 per pound $0 to $50 per pound $0 to $100 per pound Properties with Exploration Completed, Exploration Continuing, and Only Assessment Work W W 130.7 W W 154.6 Properties Under Development for Production and Development Drilling W 31.8 W W 38.2 W Mines in Production W 19.6 W

  15. AGENDA: PETROLEUM PRODUCT TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The agenda for the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER) public stakeholder meeting in New Orleans on petroleum product transmission, distribution, and storage.

  16. Managers spur productivity gains. [USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brezovec, D.

    1981-12-01

    Output per worker hour grows at U.S. coal mines as management gears training programs and operating practices to fight falling productivity.

  17. 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Domestic Uranium Production Report April 2015 Independent ... by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), ... Team, Office of Electricity, Renewables, and Uranium ...

  18. Hydrogen Production Infrastructure Options Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research Partner * Air Products, Industrial Gas Supplier * Advisory Board * Graham Moore, Chevron Technology Ventures * Mike Miller, Teledyne Energy Systems * Sandy Thomas, H 2 ...

  19. ARM - Principal Investigator Data Products

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govDataPI Data Products Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Data Products These data sets have been made available by ARM principal investigators (PI) or by others for use by the scientific community through the ARM Data Archive. These data are value-added products to particular ARM data sets or are derived research data of value to ARM science. To submit your own value-added data set, go to Data Product Registration and

  20. Suggest a New Product Category

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    If you want to propose a new product category to be designated by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), send the following information to FEMP.

  1. Hydrogen production from carbonaceous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lackner, Klaus S.; Ziock, Hans J.; Harrison, Douglas P.

    2004-09-14

    Hydrogen is produced from solid or liquid carbon-containing fuels in a two-step process. The fuel is gasified with hydrogen in a hydrogenation reaction to produce a methane-rich gaseous reaction product, which is then reacted with water and calcium oxide in a hydrogen production and carbonation reaction to produce hydrogen and calcium carbonate. The calcium carbonate may be continuously removed from the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction zone and calcined to regenerate calcium oxide, which may be reintroduced into the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction zone. Hydrogen produced in the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction is more than sufficient both to provide the energy necessary for the calcination reaction and also to sustain the hydrogenation of the coal in the gasification reaction. The excess hydrogen is available for energy production or other purposes. Substantially all of the carbon introduced as fuel ultimately emerges from the invention process in a stream of substantially pure carbon dioxide. The water necessary for the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction may be introduced into both the gasification and hydrogen production and carbonation reactions, and allocated so as transfer the exothermic heat of reaction of the gasification reaction to the endothermic hydrogen production and carbonation reaction.

  2. Communication Product Quality Assurance Checklists

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These quality assurance checklists list the requirements for Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) publication and exhibit communication products.

  3. Covered Product Category: Commercial Griddles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial griddles, which is a product category covered by the ENERGY STAR program

  4. Covered Product Category: Commercial Fryers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial fryers, which is a product category covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

  5. Hydrogen Production | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Production Hydrogen is the simplest element on earth-it consists of only one proton and one electron-and it is an energy carrier, not an energy source. Hydrogen can store and deliver usable energy, but it doesn't typically exist by itself in nature and must be produced from compounds that contain it. WHY STUDY HYDROGEN PRODUCTION Hydrogen can be used in fuel cells to generate power using a chemical reaction rather than combustion, producing only water and

  6. Blending municipal solid waste with corn stover for sugar production...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    applied an enzyme free process by adding mineral acid and water directly into the ILbiomass slurry to induce hydrolysis. With the acidolysis process in the IL...

  7. Production of carboxylic acid and salt co-products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanchar, Robert J.; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2014-09-09

    This invention provide processes for producing carboxylic acid product, along with useful salts. The carboxylic acid product that is produced according to this invention is preferably a C.sub.2-C.sub.12 carboxylic acid. Among the salts produced in the process of the invention are ammonium salts.

  8. Analysis of Potential Leakage Pathways and Mineralization within Caprocks for Geologic Storage of CO(sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, James

    2012-11-30

    We used a multifaceted approach to investigate the nature of caprocks above, and the interface between, reservoir-?quality rocks that might serve as targets for carbon storage. Fieldwork in southeastern Utah examined the regional-? to m-?scale nature of faults and fractures across the sedimentiological interfaces. We also used microscopic analyses and mechanical modeling to examine the question as to how the contacts between units interact, and how fractures may allow fluids to move from reservoirs to caprock. Regional-?scale analyses using ASTER data enabled us to identify location of alteration, which led to site-?specific studies of deformation and fluid flow. In the Jurassic Carmel Formation, a seal for the Navajo Sandstone, we evaluated mesoscale variability in fracture density and morphology and variability in elastic moduli in the Jurassic Carmel Formation, a proposed seal to the underlying Navajo Sandstone for CO{sub 2} geosequestration. By combining mechano-?stratigraphic outcrop observations with elastic moduli derived from wireline log data, we characterize the variability in fracture pattern and morphology with the observed variability in rock strength within this heterolithic top seal. Outcrop inventories of discontinuities show fracture densities decrease as bed thickness increases and fracture propagation morphology across lithologic interfaces vary with changing interface type. Dynamic elastic moduli, calculated from wireline log data, show that Youngs modulus varies by up to 40 GPa across depositional interfaces, and by an average of 3 GPa across the reservoir/seal interface. We expect that the mesoscale changes in rock strength will affect the distributions of localized stress and thereby influence fracture propagation and fluid flow behavior within the seal. These data provide a means to closely tie outcrop observations to those derived from subsurface data and estimates of subsurface rock strength. We also studied damage zones associated normal faults in the Permian Cedar Mesa Sandstone, southeastern Utah. These faults are characterized by a single slip surfaces and damage zones containing deformation bands, veins, and joints. Field observations include crosscutting relationships, permeability increase, rock strength decrease, and ultraviolet light induced mineral fluorescence within the damage zone. These field observations combined with the interpreted paragenetic sequence from petrographic analysis, suggests a deformation history of reactivation and several mineralization events in an otherwise low-?permeability fault. All deformation bands and veins fluoresce under ultraviolet light, suggesting connectivity and a shared mineralization history. Pre-?existing deformation features act as loci for younger deformation and mineralization events, this fault and its damage zone illustrate the importance of the fault damage zone to subsurface fluid flow. We model a simplified stress history in order to understand the importance of rock properties and magnitude of tectonic stress on the deformation features within the damage zone. The moderate confining pressures, possible variations in pore pressure, and the porous, fine-?grained nature of the Cedar Mesa Sandstone results in a fault damage zone characterized by enhanced permeability, subsurface fluid flow, and mineralization. Structural setting greatly influences fracture spacing and orientation. Three structural settings were examined and include fault proximity, a fold limb of constant dip, and a setting proximal to the syncline hinge. Fracture spacing and dominant fracture orientation vary at each setting and distinctions between regional and local paleo-?stress directions can be made. Joints on the fold limb strike normal to the fold axis/bedding and are interpreted to be sub-?parallel to the maximum regional paleo-?stress direction as there is no fold related strain. Joints proximal to faults and the syncline hinge may have formed under local stress conditions associated with folding and faulting, and

  9. EV Solar Products | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Products Jump to: navigation, search Logo: EV Solar Products Name: EV Solar Products Address: 2655 N. Highway 89 Place: Chino Valley, Arizona Zip: 86323 Sector: Solar...

  10. Advanced Solar Products | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Products Jump to: navigation, search Name: Advanced Solar Products Place: Flemington, New Jersey Zip: 8822 Product: New Jersey-based PV systems installer and project developer....

  11. USDA Forest Products Laboratory | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forest Products Laboratory Jump to: navigation, search Name: USDA Forest Products Laboratory Place: Madison, WI Website: www.fpl.fs.fed.us References: USDA Forest Products...

  12. BPA Daily Notice (pbl/products)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Products > Products Daily Notice (surplus power) Transmission Losses Power Products Catalog Wind Smoothing and Intertie Service (Pilot) Firstgov BPA'S DAILY NOTICE Daily Notice...

  13. Renewable Hydrogen Production from Biological Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydrogen Production from Biological Systems Matthew Posewitz Colorado School of Mines DOE Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop September 24 th , 2013 H 2 production PSIIPSI...

  14. Isherwood Production Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Isherwood Production Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Isherwood Production Ltd Place: London, England, United Kingdom Zip: SW7 2HP Product: Owners of the Energy Business...

  15. Category:Production Wells | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wells Jump to: navigation, search Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Production Wells page? For detailed information on Production Wells, click here. Category:Production Wells...

  16. Mid America Agri Products | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Products Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mid America Agri Products Place: Madrid, Nebraska Zip: 69150 Product: Ethanol producer located in Madrid, Nebraska. Coordinates:...

  17. Production, Distribution, and Applications of Californium-252 Neutron Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balo, P.A.; Knauer, J.B.; Martin, R.C.

    1999-10-03

    The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10{sup 11} neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6- year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10 neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory(ORNL). DOE sells {sup 252}Cf to commercial reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed {sup 252}Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies and subcontractors of the U.S. government and to universities for educational, research, and medical applications. The REDC has established the Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science to make its large inventory of {sup 252}Cf sources available to researchers for irradiations inside uncontaminated hot cells. Experiments at the CUF include a land mine detection system, neutron damage testing of solid-state detectors, irradiation of human cancer cells for boron neutron capture therapy experiments, and irradiation of rice to induce genetic mutations.

  18. Dissolution Kinetics of Synthetic and Natural Meta-Autunite Minerals, X??n????[(UO?)(PO?)]? ? xH?O, Under Acidic Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Gunderson, Katie M.; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Forrester, Steven W.

    2007-11-01

    Mass transport within the uranium geochemical cycle is impacted by the availability of phosphorous. In oxidizing environments, in which the uranyl ionic species is typically mobile, formation of sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate minerals exert a strong influence on uranium transport. Autunite group minerals have been identified as the long-term uranium controlling phases in many systems of geochemical interest. Anthropogenic operations related to uranium mining operations have created acidic environments, exposing uranyl phosphate minerals to low pH groundwaters. Investigations regarding the dissolution behavior of autunite group minerals under acidic conditions have not been reported; consequently, knowledge of the longevity of uranium controlling solids is incomplete. The purpose of this investigation was to: 1) quantify the dissolution kinetics of natural calcium and synthetic sodium meta-autunite, under acidic conditions, 2) measure the effect of temperature and pH on meta-autunite mineral dissolution, and 3) investigate the formation of secondary uranyl phosphate phases as long-term controls on uranium migration. Single-pass flow-through (SPFT) dissolution tests were conducted over the pH range of 2 to 5 and from 5 to 70C. Results presented here illustrate meta-autunite dissolution kinetics are strongly dependent on pH, but are relatively insensitive to temperature variations. In addition, the formation of secondary uranyl-phosphate phases such as, uranyl phosphate, (UO2)3(PO4)2 ? 4 H2O, may serve as a secondary phase limiting the migration of uranium in the environment.

  19. Hydrogen Production: Natural Gas Reforming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Natural gas reforming is an advanced and mature production process that builds upon the existing natural gas pipeline delivery infrastructure. Today, 95% of the hydrogen produced in the United States is made by natural gas reforming in large central plants. This is an important technology pathway for near-term hydrogen production.

  20. EERE Publication and Product Library

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mail Requests You have not requested any products. You can request that products and publications be mailed to you by clicking on the "Request by Mail" link in the publication listings. Return to this page to complete your request

  1. LANL PDMLink Product Structure Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scully, Christopher J.

    2012-08-29

    Over the past 2 and a half years LANL has done both functionality exploration as well as production implementations of PDMLink Product Structure to control the configuration of many of the LANL Design Agency Products. Based on this experience LANL has been recommending for over a year that future product structure implementation in PDMLink do not use the two digit suffix in the number field of enterprise parts (or WTParts). The suffix will be part of one of the attributes for Part Number. Per the TBP's the two digit suffix represents a change in form, fit, or function in a part or a change in the production agency or a number of other conditions. It also denotes backward compatibility with earlier suffixed parts (see TBP 402 section 3.1).

  2. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  3. Quantitative assessment of alkali-reactive aggregate mineral content through XRD using polished sections as a supplementary tool to RILEM AAR-1 (petrographic method)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castro, Nelia; Sorensen, Bjorn E.; Broekmans, Maarten A.T.M.

    2012-11-15

    The mineral content of 5 aggregate samples from 4 different countries, including reactive and non-reactive aggregate types, was assessed quantitatively by X-ray diffraction (XRD) using polished sections. Additionally, electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) mapping and cathodoluminescence (CL) were used to characterize the opal-CT identified in one of the aggregate samples. Critical review of results from polished sections against traditionally powdered specimen has demonstrated that for fine-grained rocks without preferred orientation the assessment of mineral content by XRD using polished sections may represent an advantage over traditional powder specimens. Comparison of data on mineral content and silica speciation with expansion data from PARTNER project confirmed that the presence of opal-CT plays an important role in the reactivity of one of the studied aggregates. Used as a complementary tool to RILEM AAR-1, the methodology suggested in this paper has the potential to improve the strength of the petrographic method.

  4. The Future of Bioenergy Feedstock Production

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2 Bioenergy Technologies Office background Feedstock assessment, production and logistics Biomass yield improvements Sustainable feedstock production Future...

  5. A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production...

  6. Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management ...

  7. Product Information Form | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Product Information Form Product Information Form When planning to present a new product to the EERE Product Governance Team, complete this product information form and email it to ee.communications@ee.doe.gov. PDF icon Product Information Form More Documents & Publications Web Coordinator Meetings - March 2013 Better Buildings Residential Network Membership Form EERE Successes Submission Template

  8. Hydrogen Production Fact Sheet | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Production Fact Sheet Hydrogen Production Fact Sheet Fact sheet produced by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office describing hydrogen production. PDF icon Hydrogen Production More Documents & Publications Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap US DRIVE Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap FTA - SunLine Transit Agency - Final Report

  9. Mineral dissolution and precipitation during CO2 injection at the Frio-I Brine Pilot: Geochemical modeling and uncertainty analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilgen, A. G.; Cygan, R. T.

    2015-12-07

    During the Frio-I Brine Pilot CO2 injection experiment in 2004, distinct geochemical changes in response to the injection of 1600 tons of CO2 were recorded in samples collected from the monitoring well. Previous geochemical modeling studies have considered dissolution of calcite and iron oxyhydroxides, or release of adsorbed iron, as the most likely sources of the increased ion concentrations. We explore in this modeling study possible alternative sources of the increasing calcium and iron, based on the data from the detailed petrographic characterization of the Upper Frio Formation C. Particularly, we evaluate whether dissolution of pyrite and oligoclase (anorthite component) can account for the observed geochemical changes. Due to kinetic limitations, dissolution of pyrite and anorthite cannot account for the increased iron and calcium concentrations on the time scale of the field test (10 days). However, dissolution of these minerals is contributing to carbonate and clay mineral precipitation on the longer time scales (1000 years). The one-dimensional reactive transport model predicts carbonate minerals, dolomite and ankerite, as well as clay minerals kaolinite, nontronite and montmorillonite, will precipitate in the Frio Formation C sandstone as the system progresses towards chemical equilibrium during a 1000-year period. Cumulative uncertainties associated with using different thermodynamic databases, activity correction models (Pitzer vs. B-dot), and extrapolating to reservoir temperature, are manifested in the difference in the predicted mineral phases. Furthermore, these models are consistent with regards to the total volume of mineral precipitation and porosity values which are predicted to within 0.002%.

  10. Refinery Net Production of Total Finished Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Finished Petroleum Products Liquefied Refinery Gases Ethane/Ethylene Ethane Ethylene Propane/Propylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Normal Butane Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Isobutane Isobutylene Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Greater than Ed55

  11. Coal combustion products 2007 production and use report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-07-01

    The American Coal Ash Association's 2007 Annual Coal Combustion Products (CCP) are derived from data from more than 170 power plants. The amount of CCPs used was 40.55%, a decrease of 2.88% from 2006, attributed to reduced fuel burn and a decrease in demand in the building industry. Figures are given for the production of fly ash, flue gas desulfurization gypsum, bottom ash, FBC ash and boiler slag. The article summarises results of the survey. 1 ref., 1 tab.

  12. New Fission-Product Waste Forms: Development and Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexandra Navrotsky

    2010-07-30

    Research performed on the program New Fission Product Waste Forms: Development and Characterization, in the last three years has fulfilled the objectives of the proposal which were to 1) establish ceramic waste forms for disposing of Cs, Sr and minor actinides, 2) fully characterize the phase relationships, structures and thermodynamic and kinetic stabilities of promising waste forms, 3) establish a sound technical basis for understanding key waste form properties, such as melting temperatures and aqueous durability, based on an in-depth understanding of waste form structures and thermochemistry, and 4) establish synthesis, testing, scaleup and commercialization routes for wasteform implementation through out in-kind collaborations. In addition, since Cs and Sr form new elements by radioactive decay, the behavior and thermodynamics of waste forms containing different proportions of Cs, Sr and their decay products were discovered using non-radioactive analogues. Collaborations among researchers from three institutions, UC Davis, Sandia National Laboratories, and Shott Inc., were formed to perform the primary work on the program. The unique expertise of each of the members in the areas of waste form development, structure/property relationships, hydrothermal and high temperature synthesis, crystal/glass production, and thermochemistry was critical to program success. In addition, collaborations with the Brigham Young Univeristy, Ben Gurion University, and Los Alamos National Laboratory, were established for standard entropies of ceramic waste forms, sol-gel synthesis, and high temperature synthesis. This work has had a significant impact in a number of areas. First, the studies of the thermodynamic stability of the mineral analogues provided an important technical foundation for assessment the viability of multicomponent oxide phases for Cs and Sr removal. Moreover, the thermodynamic data discovered in this program established information on the reaction pathways for the potential reaction products. The phase equilibria and thermodynamics involving the intermediates in the decay process in this program will assist in selection of the best process for Cs or Sr immobilization. In addition, data from the study can be used to develop engineering solutions for potential process upsets. Second, the glass crystal stability of multicomponent oxide phases that were representative silicates on this program is highly distinguishable for mother compounds and decay products, thus providing a fundamental understanding on the separate effects from chemistry and from radiation. Finally, we have developed a foundation for understanding chemistry-structure-energetics relationships in titanosilicates that can be used to develop more effective materials.

  13. Empirical kinetics and their role in elucidating the utility of transition-state theory to mineral-water reactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Icenhower, Jonathan P.

    2015-06-23

    Transition-state theory (TST) is a successful theory for understanding many different types of reactions, but its application to mineralwater systems has not been successful, especially as the system approaches saturation with respect to a rate-limiting phase. A number of investigators have proposed alternate frameworks for using the kinetic rate data to construct models of dissolution, including Truesdale (Aquat Geochem, 2015; this issue). This alternate approach has been resisted, in spite of self-evident discrepancies between TST expectations and the data. The failure of TST under certain circumstances is a result of the presence of metastable intermediaries or reaction layers that formmoreon the surface of reacting solids, and these phenomena are not anticipated by the current theory. Furthermore, alternate approaches, such as the shrinking object model advocated by Truesdale, represent a potentially important avenue for advancing the science of dissolution kinetics.less

  14. High pressure elastic properties of minerals from ab initio simulations: The case of pyrope, grossular and andradite silicate garnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erba, A. Mahmoud, A.; Dovesi, R.; Belmonte, D.

    2014-03-28

    A computational strategy is devised for the accurate ab initio simulation of elastic properties of crystalline materials under pressure. The proposed scheme, based on the evaluation of the analytical stress tensor and on the automated computation of pressure-dependent elastic stiffness constants, is implemented in the CRYSTAL solid state quantum-chemical program. Elastic constants and related properties (bulk, shear and Young moduli, directional seismic wave velocities, elastic anisotropy index, Poisson's ratio, etc.) can be computed for crystals of any space group of symmetry. We apply such a technique to the study of high-pressure elastic properties of three silicate garnet end-members (namely, pyrope, grossular, and andradite) which are of great geophysical interest, being among the most important rock-forming minerals. The reliability of this theoretical approach is proved by comparing with available experimental measurements. The description of high-pressure properties provided by several equations of state is also critically discussed.

  15. Empirical kinetics and their role in elucidating the utility of transition-state theory to mineral-water reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Icenhower, Jonathan P.

    2015-06-23

    Transition-state theory (TST) is a successful theory for understanding many different types of reactions, but its application to mineralwater systems has not been successful, especially as the system approaches saturation with respect to a rate-limiting phase. A number of investigators have proposed alternate frameworks for using the kinetic rate data to construct models of dissolution, including Truesdale (Aquat Geochem, 2015; this issue). This alternate approach has been resisted, in spite of self-evident discrepancies between TST expectations and the data. The failure of TST under certain circumstances is a result of the presence of metastable intermediaries or reaction layers that form on the surface of reacting solids, and these phenomena are not anticipated by the current theory. Furthermore, alternate approaches, such as the shrinking object model advocated by Truesdale, represent a potentially important avenue for advancing the science of dissolution kinetics.

  16. The production of iron carbide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, K.M.; Scheel, J.

    1997-12-31

    From start-up in 1994 to present, Nucor`s Iron Carbide plant has overcome many obstacles in achieving design production. Many of these impediments were due to flaws in equipment design. With the integration existing within the plant, limitations in any one system reduced the operating capacity of others. For this reason, as modifications were made and system capacities were increased, the need for additional modifications became apparent. Subsequently, operating practices, maintenance scheduling, employee incentives, and production objectives were continually adapted. This paper discusses equipment and design corrections and the quality issues that contributed to achieving the plant`s production capacity.

  17. STEO December 2012 - oil production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Rise in 2012 U.S. oil production largest since 1859, output in 2013 seen topping 7 million bpd U.S. crude oil production is now expected to rise by about 760,000 barrels per day in 2012, the biggest annual increase in oil output since U.S. commercial crude oil production began in 1859. American oil producers are expected to pump a daily average of 6.4 million barrels of crude oil this year, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administrator's new monthly energy forecast. The annual increase

  18. Transmission Services Product Pricing Validation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and 09:00 PPT on the above effective date. On October 15, 2013, at 08:00 (PPT), Transmission Services will be updating the OASIS default product prices to reflect the 2014...

  19. Transmission Services Product Pricing Validation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and 12:00 PPT on the above effective date. On October 1, 2015, at 11:00 (PPT), Transmission Services will be updating the OASIS default product prices to reflect the 2016...

  20. Production of virus resistant plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, William G. (Philomath, OR); Lindbo, John A. (Kent, WA)

    1996-01-01

    A method of suppressing virus gene expression in plants using untranslatable plus sense RNA is disclosed. The method is useful for the production of plants that are resistant to virus infection.