National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for nonmetallic mineral products

  1. Production of Polyethylene Terephthalate using a Nonmetallic Catalyst Dr. Marsha Winston1, Jared Langson2, Angus Ferguson2, Dr. Robert Posey2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Production of Polyethylene Terephthalate using a Nonmetallic Catalyst Dr. Marsha Winston1, Jared Department of Chemistry Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a condensation polymer of terephthalic acid (HOOC

  2. The enabling technology for recovery of valued components from minerals in the upper and Mid Amur region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorokin, A.P.; Rimkevich, V.S.; Dem'yanova, L.P.; Artemenko, T.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Blagoveshchensk (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15

    Based on the physico-technical operations involved in the mineral processing technologies, the optimal production conditions are found for refractory fiber materials, aluminium, silicium, their compounds and other valued components. Ecologically safe and efficient aggregate technologies are developed for recovery of valued components from nonmetallic minerals and anthracides (brown coals).

  3. Integrating Steel Production with Mineral Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klaus Lackner; Paul Doby; Tuncel Yegulalp; Samuel Krevor; Christopher Graves

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of the project were (i) to develop a combination iron oxide production and carbon sequestration plant that will use serpentine ores as the source of iron and the extraction tailings as the storage element for CO2 disposal, (ii) the identification of locations within the US where this process may be implemented and (iii) to create a standardized process to characterize the serpentine deposits in terms of carbon disposal capacity and iron and steel production capacity. The first objective was not accomplished. The research failed to identify a technique to accelerate direct aqueous mineral carbonation, the limiting step in the integration of steel production and carbon sequestration. Objective (ii) was accomplished. It was found that the sequestration potential of the ultramafic resource surfaces in the US and Puerto Rico is approximately 4,647 Gt of CO2 or over 500 years of current US production of CO2. Lastly, a computer model was developed to investigate the impact of various system parameters (recoveries and efficiencies and capacities of different system components) and serpentinite quality as well as incorporation of CO2 from sources outside the steel industry.

  4. NON-METALLIC MATE!UALS LIST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    LIST INDEX CLASSIFICATION OF NON-METALLIC MATERIAL ADHESIVES ELASTOMERS ELECTRICAL INSULATION FINISHES MOLDING POTTING COMPOUNDS, SEALANTS, ENCAPSULANTS WIRE & CABLE, INSULATED, & COAXIAL MISCELLANEOUS lti AND THERMAL COMPONENTS- A. D. LITTLE GRAVlMETER SENSOR - LACOSTE lc ROMBERG SEISMIC PROFILE EXPER. -BENDIX

  5. Net mineralization of N at deeper soil depths as a potential mechanism for sustained forest production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Net mineralization of N at deeper soil depths as a potential mechanism for sustained forest of microbial consumption of mineral N were reduced relative to production. Overall, up to 60% of potential gross N mineralization and 100% of potential net N mineralization occurred below 15 cm depth

  6. V-Miner: Using Enhanced Parallel Coordinates to Mine Product Design and Test Data 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    V-Miner: Using Enhanced Parallel Coordinates to Mine Product Design and Test Data 1 Kaidi Zhao patterns can be easily detected visually. The Visual Miner (V-Miner) software includes both automated or data mining. This paper begins with an introduction to the proposed techniques and the V-Miner system

  7. Characterization of cement minerals, cements and their reaction products at the atomic and nano scale 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skibsted, Joergen; Hall, Christopher

    Recent advances and highlights in characterization methods are reviewed for cement minerals, cements and their reaction products. The emphasis is on X-ray and neutron diffraction, and on nuclear magnetic resonance methods, ...

  8. Mineral Nutrient Recovery from Pyrolysis Co-Products 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wise, Jatara Rob

    2012-07-16

    Pyrolysis is the thermo-chemical degradation of biomass in an oxygen-free environment to product liquid, gaseous, and solid co-products. The liquid co-product, known as bio-oil, can be used as a transportation fuel. The gaseous co-product, known...

  9. The impact of mineral fertilizers on the carbon footprint of crop production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brentrup, Frank

    2009-01-01

    hence yield. The use of mineral fertilizer as a source ofsustainable agriculture. Mineral fertilizers are applied toresidues are decomposed to minerals Soil Figure 1: Mineral

  10. Test plan for the irradiation of nonmetallic materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brush, Laurence H.; Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Dahl, M.; Joslyn, C. C.; Venetz, T. J.

    2013-05-01

    A comprehensive test program to evaluate nonmetallic materials use in the Hanford tank farms is described in detail. This test program determines the effects of simultaneous multiple stressors at reasonable conditions on in-service configuration components by engineering performance testing.

  11. Test plan for the irradiation of nonmetallic materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brush, Laurence H.; Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Gelbard, Fred; Dahl, M.; Joslyn, C. C.; Venetz, T. J.

    2013-03-01

    A comprehensive test program to evaluate nonmetallic materials use in the Hanford Tank Farms is described in detail. This test program determines the effects of simultaneous multiple stressors at reasonable conditions on in-service configuration components by engineering performance testing.

  12. Method for the production of mineral wool and iron from serpentine ore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Connor, William K. (Albany, OR); Rush, Gilbert E. (Scio, OR); Soltau, Glen F. (Lebanon, OR)

    2011-10-11

    Magnesium silicate mineral wools having a relatively high liquidus temperature of at least about 1400.degree. C. and to methods for the production thereof are provided. The methods of the present invention comprise melting a magnesium silicate feedstock (e.g., comprising a serpentine or olivine ore) having a liquidus temperature of at least about 1400.degree. C. to form a molten magnesium silicate, and subsequently fiberizing the molten magnesium silicate to produce a magnesium silicate mineral wool. In one embodiment, the magnesium silicate feedstock contains iron oxide (e.g., up to about 12% by weight). Preferably, the melting is performed in the presence of a reducing agent to produce an iron alloy, which can be separated from the molten ore. Useful magnesium silicate feedstocks include, without limitation, serpentine and olivine ores. Optionally, silicon dioxide can be added to the feedstock to lower the liquidus temperature thereof.

  13. Methods of attaching erosion-resistant nonmetallic panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girzhel, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    Attachment methods for panels of wear-resistant nonmetallic materials, e.g. cast stone and slag, devitrified slag, and erosion-resistant and heat-resistant concretes to protect hopper, chute, and trough structures at metallurgical and coal industries have been investigated. Attachment methods can be divided into two groups, attachment by adhesives and by mechanical attachment. A new method of mechanical attachment, considered to be much superior to adhesive attachment, provides for reliable fastening without damage to the protected metal structure. Various panel designs may be used depending on the operating conditions.

  14. Number of Large Energy User Manufacturing Facilities by Sector...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing Chemical Manufacturing & Plastics and Rubber Products Manufacturing Nonmetallic Mineral Product Manufacturing Primary...

  15. The MS-Q Force Field for Clay Minerals: Application to Oil Production Sungu Hwang, Mario Blanco, Ersan Demiralp, Tahir Cagin, and William A. Goddard, III*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Çagin, Tahir

    The MS-Q Force Field for Clay Minerals: Application to Oil Production Sungu Hwang, Mario Blanco inhibitor oil production chemical. 1. Introduction Molecular modeling studies of clay and related zeolite of water, hydrocarbons, and polar organic compounds such as oil field production chemicals on clay mineral

  16. Static Pressure Losses in 6 in., 8 in., and 10 in. Nonmetallic Flexible Duct (RP-1333) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weaver, K.; Culp, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Static Pressure Losses in Nonmetallic Flexible Duct Weaver, Kevin;Culp, Charles ASHRAE Transactions; 2007; 113, ProQuest pg. 400 Reproduced with permission...

  17. Photo-production of lactate from glyoxylate: how minerals can facilitate energy storage in a prebiotic world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Photo-production of lactate from glyoxylate: how minerals can facilitate energy storage (HCOCOOÀ ) reacts with CO2 to produce the C3 compound lactate (CH3­HCOH­COOÀ ) in 15% yield through a ZnS-photo-promoted reaction. Photo-generated conduction-band electrons (eÀ CB) and valence-band holes (h+ VB

  18. The impact of mineral fertilizers on the carbon footprint of crop production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brentrup, Frank

    2009-01-01

    emissions in fertiliser production. IFS (The InternationalImpact of Agricultural Crop Production using the Life CycleN fertilizer rates in cereal production. Europ. J. Agronomy

  19. Static Pressure Losses in 6, 8, and 10-inch Non-Metallic Flexible Ducts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weaver, K.; Culp, C.

    2006-01-01

    This study measured airflow static pressure losses through non-metallic flexible ducts in compliance with ASHRAE Standard 120-1999, Methods of Testing to Determine Flow Resistance of HVAC Air Ducts and Fittings (ASHRAE 1999). Duct sizes of 6, 8...

  20. 1 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program eere.energy.gov US DOE Non-Metallic Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program eere.energy.gov US DOE Non-Metallic Materials Meeting Washington, DC Fuel Cell Technologies Program Overview Dr. Sunita Satyapal U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program Program Manager 10/17/2012 #12;2 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program eere.energy.gov Overview

  1. Soil effects on thermal signatures of buried nonmetallic landmines Remke L. van Dam*a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borchers, Brian

    Soil effects on thermal signatures of buried nonmetallic landmines Remke L. van Dam*a , Brian for temperature propagation through homogeneous and layered soils is presented to predict surface temperatures as a function of soil heat flux amplitude, soil texture, soil water content, and thermal properties and burial

  2. Static Pressure Loss in 12”, 14”, and 16” Non-metallic Flexible Duct 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cantrill, David Lee

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of compression on pressure drops in non-metallic flexible duct. Duct sizes of 12”, 14” and 16” diameters were tested at a five different compression ratios (maximum stretch, 4%, 15%, 30% and 45...

  3. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  4. The impact of mineral fertilizers on the carbon footprint of crop production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brentrup, Frank

    2009-01-01

    of food, feed and bio-energy. Intensive crop production withfor food, feed and bio-energy. The agricultural contribution

  5. The impact of mineral fertilizers on the carbon footprint of crop production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brentrup, Frank

    2009-01-01

    the GHG emissions (“carbon footprint”) of crop production inMaterials and methods – “carbon footprint” calculation basedLCA) principles A carbon footprint is “the total set of

  6. Prebiotic Metabolism: Production by Mineral Photoelectrochemistry of a-Ketocarboxylic Acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    acid (rTCA) cycle could have fixed carbon dioxide as biochemically useful energy- storage molecules energies of formation that disfavor their production. We report herein the production of pyruvate from.0024. Pyruvate alternatively continues in photooxidative forward reaction to a-ketoglutarate with a 50% yield

  7. The mineral content of water as a variable in the quality control of reconstituted non-fat dry milk products 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kapsalis, John G.

    1959-01-01

    Expansive clay mineral contamination of road aggregate materials in Texas is a persistent problem. Hydrous layer silicate minerals - particularly smectites - in concretes are associated with decreased strength and durability in Portland cement...

  8. file://C:\\Documents and Settings\\bh5\\My Documents\\Energy Effici

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coal Products Manufacturing 221 241 254 325 Chemical Manufacturing 437 468 510 326 Plastics and Rubber Products Manufacturing 162 181 175 327 Nonmetallic Mineral Product...

  9. Reclaiming metallic material from an article comprising a non-metallic friable substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohland, John Raphael (Oregon, OH); Anisimov, Igor Ivanovich (Whitehouse, OH); Dapkus, Todd James (Toledo, OH); Sasala, Richard Anthony (Toledo, OH); Smigielski, Ken Alan (Toledo, OH); Kamm, Kristin Danielle (Swanton, OH)

    2000-01-01

    A method for reclaiming a metallic material from a article including a non-metallic friable substrate. The method comprising crushing the article into a plurality of pieces. An acidic solution capable of dissolving the metallic material is provided dissolving the metallic material in the acidic material to form an etchant effluent. The etchant effluent is separated from the friable substrate. A precipitation agent, capable of precipitating the metallic material, is added to the etchant effluent to precipitate out the metallic material from the etchant effluent. The metallic material is then recovered.

  10. Minerals Yearbook: Minerals in the world economy. 1988 International review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimbell, C.L.; Zajac, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    In overview, 1988 appeared to be the best year for the world's mineral industry since 1980, although the all-important petroleum component suffered severely from low prices. With this notable exception, the traditional statistical measures of mineral industry performance, namely production, trade, and consumption, reflected growth in most elements of the world mineral industry from crude material extraction through the gamut of downstream processing. Moreover, the growth was reasonably well distributed geographically, with many countries sharing in the substantial upturn in activity. The report discusses production, trade, consumption, investment, transportation, prices, and statistical summary of world production and trade of major mineral commodities.

  11. Mineral industries of Australia, Canada, and Oceania (including a discussion of Antarctica's mineral resources). Mineral perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimbell, C.L.; Lyday, T.Q.; Newman, H.H.

    1985-12-01

    The Bureau of Mines report gives the mineral industry highlights of two of the world's major mineral producing countries, Australia and Canada, and seven Pacific island nations or territories--Fiji, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Republic of Nauru, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. The mineral resources of Antarctica are also discussed. Because of the size of the Australian and Canadian mineral industries, summary reviews are presented for each of the States, Provinces, or Territories. The most current information available from all nations is given on major minerals or mineral-commodity production, share of world production, and reserves. Reported also are significant mining companies, locations and capacities of their main facilities, and their share of domestic production. Other information is provided on mineral-related trade with the United States, government mineral policy, energy production-consumption and trade, the mining industry labor force, and prospects for the mineral industry. Maps show the locations of selected mineral deposits, oilfields and gasfields, mines, and processing facilities including iron and steel plants, nonferrous smelters and refineries, and cement plants, as well as infrastructure pertinent to the mineral industry.

  12. (Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was mined as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium, whether or not intermixed Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was mined as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite, but was not recovered as a separate element during processing. Bastnasite, a rare-earth fluocarbonate mineral, was mined

  13. (Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined as a constituent of the mineral

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed 2805.30.0000 5 Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite, but was not recovered as a separate element during processing. Bastnasite, a rare-earth fluocarbonate mineral, was mined

  14. Capacitance probe for detection of anomalies in non-metallic plastic pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathur, Mahendra P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Spenik, James L. (Morgantown, WV); Condon, Christopher M. (Morgantown, WV); Anderson, Rodney (Grafton, WV); Driscoll, Daniel J. (Morgantown, WV); Fincham, Jr., William L. (Fairmont, WV); Monazam, Esmail R. (Morgantown, WV)

    2010-11-23

    The disclosure relates to analysis of materials using a capacitive sensor to detect anomalies through comparison of measured capacitances. The capacitive sensor is used in conjunction with a capacitance measurement device, a location device, and a processor in order to generate a capacitance versus location output which may be inspected for the detection and localization of anomalies within the material under test. The components may be carried as payload on an inspection vehicle which may traverse through a pipe interior, allowing evaluation of nonmetallic or plastic pipes when the piping exterior is not accessible. In an embodiment, supporting components are solid-state devices powered by a low voltage on-board power supply, providing for use in environments where voltage levels may be restricted.

  15. Ferromagnetism and Nonmetallic Transport of Thin-Film ? - FeSi 2 : A Stabilized Metastable Material

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cao, Guixin; Singh, D.?J.; Zhang, X.-G.; Samolyuk, German; Qiao, Liang; Parish, Chad; Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen; Guo, Hangwen; Tang, Siwei; et al

    2015-04-07

    A metastable phase ?-FeSi? was epitaxially stabilized on a silicon substrate using pulsed laser deposition. Nonmetallic and ferromagnetic behaviors are tailored on ?-FeSi? (111) thin films, while the bulk material of ?-FeSi? is metallic and nonmagnetic. The transport property of the films renders two different conducting states with a strong crossover at 50 K, which is accompanied by the onset of a ferromagnetic transition as well as a substantial magnetoresistance. These experimental results are discussed in terms of the unusual electronic structure of ?-FeSi? obtained within density functional calculations and Boltzmann transport calculations with and without strain. Our finding shedsmore »light on achieving ferromagnetic semiconductors through both their structure and doping tailoring, and provides an example of a tailored material with rich functionalities for both basic research and practical applications.« less

  16. Ferromagnetism and Nonmetallic Transport of Thin-Film ? - FeSi 2 : A Stabilized Metastable Material

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cao, Guixin; Singh, D.?J.; Zhang, X.-G.; Samolyuk, German; Qiao, Liang; Parish, Chad; Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen; Guo, Hangwen; Tang, Siwei; Wang, Wenbin; Yi, Jieyu; Cantoni, Claudia; Siemons, Wolter; Payzant, E. Andrew; Biegalski, Michael; Ward, T.?Z.; Mandrus, David; Stocks, G.?M.; Gai, Zheng

    2015-04-01

    A metastable phase ?-FeSi? was epitaxially stabilized on a silicon substrate using pulsed laser deposition. Nonmetallic and ferromagnetic behaviors are tailored on ?-FeSi? (111) thin films, while the bulk material of ?-FeSi? is metallic and nonmagnetic. The transport property of the films renders two different conducting states with a strong crossover at 50 K, which is accompanied by the onset of a ferromagnetic transition as well as a substantial magnetoresistance. These experimental results are discussed in terms of the unusual electronic structure of ?-FeSi? obtained within density functional calculations and Boltzmann transport calculations with and without strain. Our finding sheds light on achieving ferromagnetic semiconductors through both their structure and doping tailoring, and provides an example of a tailored material with rich functionalities for both basic research and practical applications.

  17. Review of 1989 international mineral industry activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimbell, C.L. (US Bureau of Mines, Washington, DC (US))

    1990-07-01

    This article reviews global mineral industry activities for 1989. Production of coal, natural gas, and petroleum, as well as non-fuel minerals, is detailed regionally and for individual countries. The problems of changes in technology, economic and political systems are discussed where they have affected mineral production.

  18. Measurement of ??-induced charged-current neutral pion production cross sections on mineral oil at Ev?0.5–2.0 GeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Anderson, C. E.; Bazarko, A. O.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J. M.; Cox, D. C.; Curioni, A.; Dharmapalan, R.; Djurcic, Z.; Finley, D. A.; Fleming, B. T.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F. G.; Garvey, G. T.; Grange, J.; Green, C.; Green, J. A.; Hart, T. L.; Hawker, E.; Imlay, R.; Johnson, R. A.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kasper, P.; Katori, T.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kourbanis, I.; Koutsoliotas, S.; Laird, E. M.; Linden, S. K.; Link, J. M.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y.; Louis, W. C.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Marsh, W.; Mauger, C.; McGary, V. T.; McGregor, G.; Metcalf, W.; Meyers, P. D.; Mills, F.; Mills, G. B.; Monroe, J.; Moore, C. D.; Mousseau, J.; Nelson, R. H.; Nienaber, P.; Nowak, J. A.; Osmanov, B.; Ouedraogo, S.; Patterson, R. B.; Pavlovic, Z.; Perevalov, D.; Polly, C. C.; Prebys, E.; Raaf, J. L.; Ray, H.; Roe, B. P.; Russell, A. D.; Sandberg, V.; Schirato, R.; Schmitz, D.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Shoemaker, F. C.; Smith, D.; Soderberg, M.; Sorel, M.; Spentzouris, P.; Spitz, J.; Stancu, I.; Stefanski, R. J.; Sung, M.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tayloe, R.; Tzanov, M.; Van de Water, R. G.; Wascko, M. O.; White, D. H.; Wilking, M. J.; Yang, H. J.; Zeller, G. P.; Zimmerman, E. D.

    2011-03-01

    Using a custom 3-Cerenkov ring fitter, we report cross sections for ??-induced charged-current single ?? production on mineral oil (CH?) from a sample of 5810 candidate events with 57% signal purity over an energy range of 0.5–2.0 GeV. This includes measurements of the absolute total cross section as a function of neutrino energy, and flux-averaged differential cross sections measured in terms of Q², ?? kinematics, and ?? kinematics. The sample yields a flux-averaged total cross section of (9.2±0.3stat±1.5syst)×10?³? cm²/CH² at mean neutrino energy of 0.965 GeV.

  19. Measurement of ??-induced charged-current neutral pion production cross sections on mineral oil at Ev?0.5–2.0 GeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Anderson, C. E.; Bazarko, A. O.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J. M.; Cox, D. C.; et al

    2011-03-23

    Using a custom 3-Cerenkov ring fitter, we report cross sections for ??-induced charged-current single ?? production on mineral oil (CH?) from a sample of 5810 candidate events with 57% signal purity over an energy range of 0.5–2.0 GeV. This includes measurements of the absolute total cross section as a function of neutrino energy, and flux-averaged differential cross sections measured in terms of Q², ?? kinematics, and ?? kinematics. The sample yields a flux-averaged total cross section of (9.2±0.3stat±1.5syst)×10?³? cm²/CH² at mean neutrino energy of 0.965 GeV.

  20. Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, Karl T.; Sanders, Rebecca L.; Washton, Nancy M.

    2014-03-14

    Clay minerals are important components of the environment and are involved or implicated in processes such as the uptake of pollutants and the release of nutrients and as potential platforms for a number of chemical reactions. Owing to their small particle sizes (typically, on the order of microns or smaller) and mixing with a variety of other minerals and soil components, advanced characterization methods are needed to study their structures, dynamics, and reactivities. In this article, we describe the use of solid-state NMR methods to characterize the structures and chemistries of clay minerals. Early one-pulse magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies of 27Al and 29Si have now been enhanced and extended with new studies utilizing advanced methodologies (such as Multiple Quantum MAS) as well as studies of less-sensitive nuclei. In additional work, the issue of reactivity of clay minerals has been addressed, including studies of reactive surface area in the environment. Utilizations of NMR-sensitive nuclides within the clay minerals themselves, and in molecules that react with speci?c sites on the clay mineral surfaces, have aided in understanding the reactivity of these complex aluminosilicate systems.

  1. (Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y O ) content, unless otherwise noted)2 3 Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /31/98 Thorium ores and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite, but was not recovered as a separate element during processing. Bastnasite, a rare-earth

  2. Mineral resources and mineral resource potential of the Panamint Dunes Wilderness Study Area, Inyo County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, G.L.; Kilburn, J.E.; Conrad, J.E.; Leszcykowski, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the Panamint Dunes Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-127), California Desert Conservation Area, Inyo County, California. The Panamint Dunes Wilderness Study Area has an identified volcanic cinder resource and few areas with mineral resource potential. Hydrothermal deposits of lead-zinc-silver occur in veins and small replacement bodies along and near the Lemoigne thrust fault on the eastern side of the wilderness study area. Two workings, the Big Four mine with 35,000 tons of inferred subeconomic lead-zinc-silver resources and a moderate potential for additional resources, and the Apple 1 claim with low potential for lead-zinc-silver resources, are surrounded by the study area but are specifically excluded from it. A low resource potential for lead-zinc-silver is assigned to other exposures along the Lemoigne thrust, although metallic minerals were not detected at these places. The Green Quartz prospect, located near the northern tip of the study area, has low resource potential for copper in quartz pegmatities in quartz monzonite of the Hunter Mountain batholith. Nonmetallic mineral resources consist of volcanic cinders and quartz sand. An estimated 900,000 tons of inferred cinder reserves are present at Cal Trans borrow pit MS 242, on the southern margin of the study area. The Panamint Valley dune field, encompassing 480 acres in the north-central part of the study area, has only low resource potential for silica because of impurities. Other sources of silica and outside the study area are of both higher purity and closer to possible markets. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

  4. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, H.C.; Thomson, B.M. [Tetra Technical Inc, Denver, CO (United States)

    2009-09-15

    A review of literature published in 2008 and early 2009 on research related to the production of acid mine drainage and/or in the dissolution of minerals as a result of mining, with special emphasis on the effects of these phenomena on the water quality in the surrounding environment, is presented. This review is divided into six sections: 1) Site Characterization and Assessment, 2) Protection, Prevention, and Restoration, 3) Toxicity Assessment, 4) Environmental Fate and Transport, 5) Biological Characterization, and 6) Treatment Technologies. Because there is much overlap in research areas associated with minerals and mine drainage, many papers presented in this review can be classified into more than one category, and the six sections should not be regarded as being mutually-exclusive, nor should they be thought of as being all-inclusive.

  5. Earth's Mineral Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Downs, Robert T.

    Earth's Mineral Evolution :: Astrobiology Magazine - earth science - evol...rth science evolution Extreme Life Mars Life Outer Planets Earth's Mineral Evolution Summary (Nov 14, 2008): New research. Display Options: Earth's Mineral Evolution Based on a CIW news release Mineral Kingdom Has Co

  6. 1. Mineral Exploration Regulation in British Columbia Health, Safety and Reclamation Code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolch, Tobias

    for or to produce coal, mineral bearing substances, placer minerals, rock, limestone, earth, clay, sand or gravel mineral, coal, sand, gravel or rock, or (b) the production of a mineral, a placer mineral, coal, sand under the Criminal Code of Canada for criminal acts or negligence in the workplace. Further information

  7. MINERAL FACILITIES MAPPING PROJECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Questionnaires. Update the data that pertaining to MIT's contacts worldwide. #12;BOJNOURD CEMENT PLANT Location a database using the Structural Table of Mineral Industry, which includes the location of main mineral The mineral facilities database included: Type of facility: Mine (open pit, underground) Plant ( refineries

  8. Potential of Mineral Uptake Efficiency by Some Apple Rootstocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amiri, Mohammad E; Fallahi, Esmail

    2009-01-01

    1999. Drought tolerance of apple rootstocks: Production andwater relations of five apple rootstocks. Acta Horticultureon Mineral Composition of Apple Leaves. J. Am. Soc. Hort.

  9. Mineral Selection for Multicomponent Equilibrium Geothermometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Plamer, C. D.; Ohly, S. R.; Smith, R. W.; Neupane, G.; McLing, T.; Mattson, E.

    2015-04-01

    Multicomponent geothermometry requires knowledge of the mineral phases in the reservoir with which the geothermal fluids may be equilibrated. These minerals phases are most often alteration products rather than primary minerals. We have reviewed the literature on geothermal systems representing most major geologic environments typically associated with geothermal activity and identified potential alteration products in various environments. We have included this information in RTEst, a code we have developed to estimate reservoir conditions (temperature, CO2 fugacity) from the geochemistry of near-surface geothermal waters. The information has been included in RTEst through the addition of filters that decrease the potential numbermore »of minerals from all possibilities based on the basis species to those that are more relevant to the particular conditions in which the user is interested. The three groups of filters include host rock type (tholeiitic, calc-alkaline, silicic, siliciclastic, carbonate), water type (acidic, neutral), and the temperature range over which the alteration minerals were formed (low, medium, high). The user-chosen mineral assemblage is checked to make sure that it does not violate the Gibbs phase rule. The user can select one of three mineral saturation weighting schemes that decrease the chance the optimization from being skewed by reaction stoichiometry or analytical uncertainty.« less

  10. Comparison of the ANP model with the data for neutrino induced single pion production from the MiniBooNE and MINER$?$A experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. -Y. Yu; E. A. Paschos; I. Schienbein

    2014-11-24

    We present theoretical predictions in the framework of the ANP model for single pion production ($\\pi^+, \\pi^0$) in $\

  11. MINERAL COMMODITY SUMMARIES 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    Kyanite Lead Lime Lithium Magnesium Manganese Mercury Mica Molybdenum Nickel Nitrogen Peat Perlite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Appendix C--A Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals

  12. Vitamin and mineral requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition Second edition Please go to the Table/WHO Expert Consultation on Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements (1998 : Bangkok, Thailand). Vitamin, 21­30 September 1998. 1.Vitamins -- standards 2.Micronutrients -- standards 3.Trace elements

  13. A Low Cost Energy Management Program at Engelhard Industries Division 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, T. S.; Michalek, R.; Reiter, S.

    1982-01-01

    in technology related to precious metals and nonmetallic minerals. It manufactures high-performance chemical and precious metals products, including catalysts for the petroleum and automotive industries. Engelhard's energy costs have risen dramatically over...

  14. MINERAL COMMODITY SUMMARIES 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    Kyanite Lead Lime Lithium Magnesium Manganese Mercury Mica Molybdenum Nickel Nitrogen Peat Perlite Magnesium Manganese Mercury Mica Molybdenum Nickel Nitrogen Peat Perlite Phosphate Rock Platinum Potash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Appendix C--A Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals

  15. Minerals Processing Research Institute Louisiana State University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pike, Ralph W.

    Biomass Feedstocks into Chemical Production Complexes using New and Existing Processes by Ralph W. Pike, Director Debalina Sengupta Graduate Research Assistant Minerals Processing Research Institute 1139 Energy Coast and Environment Building Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, LA 70803 and Thomas A. Hertwig

  16. Measurement of ?_?and \\bar?_?induced neutral current single $?^0$ production cross sections on mineral oil at E_?O(1 GeV)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The MiniBooNE Collaboration; A. A. Aguilar-Arevalo; C. E. Anderson; A. O. Bazarko; S. J. Brice; B. C. Brown; L. Bugel; J. Cao; L. Coney; J. M. Conrad; D. C. Cox; A. Curioni; Z. Djurcic; D. A. Finley; B. T. Fleming; R. Ford; F. G. Garcia; G. T. Garvey; J. Gonzales; J. Grange; C. Green; J. A. Green; T. L. Hart; E. Hawker; R. Imlay; R. A. Johnson; G. Karagiorgi; P. Kasper; T. Katori; T. Kobilarcik; I. Kourbanis; S. Koutsoliotas; E. M. Laird; S. K. Linden; J. M. Link; Y. Liu; Y. Liu; W. C. Louis; K. B. M. Mahn; W. Marsh; C. Mauger; V. T. McGary; G. McGregor; W. Metcalf; P. D. Meyers; F. Mills; G. B. Mills; J. Monroe; C. D. Moore; J. Mousseau; R. H. Nelson; P. Nienaber; J. A. Nowak; B. Osmanov; S. Ouedraogo; R. B. Patterson; Z. Pavlovic; D. Perevalov; C. C. Polly; E. Prebys; J. L. Raaf; H. Ray; B. P. Roe; A. D. Russell; V. Sandberg; R. Schirato; D. Schmitz; M. H. Shaevitz; F. C. Shoemaker; D. Smith; M. Soderberg; M. Sorel; P. Spentzouris; J. Spitz; I. Stancu; R. J. Stefanski; M. Sung; H. A. Tanaka; R. Tayloe; M. Tzanov; R. G. Van de Water; M. O. Wascko; D. H. White; M. J. Wilking; H. J. Yang; G. P. Zeller; E. D. Zimmerman

    2010-01-27

    MiniBooNE reports the first absolute cross sections for neutral current single \\pi^0 production on CH_2 induced by neutrino and antineutrino interactions measured from the largest sets of NC \\pi^0 events collected to date. The principal result consists of differential cross sections measured as functions of \\pi^0 momentum and \\pi^0 angle averaged over the neutrino flux at MiniBooNE. We find total cross sections of (4.76+/-0.05_{stat}+/-0.76_{sys})*10^{-40} cm^2/nucleon at a mean energy of =808 MeV and (1.48+/-0.05_{stat}+/-0.23_{sys})*10^{-40} cm^2/nucleon at a mean energy of =664 MeV for \

  17. MINERAL COMMODITY SUMMARIES 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    Talc Bauxite Graphite Peat Tantalum Beryllium Gypsum Perlite Tellurium Bismuth Hafnium Phosphate Rock resources, natural hazards, and the environment-- visit http://www.usgs.gov or call 1­888­ASK--Reserves and Resources.....................191 Appendix D--Country Specialists Directory...............195 Mineral

  18. MINERAL COMMODITY SUMMARIES 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleskes, Joe

    Nitrogen Sulfur Bauxite Graphite Peat Talc Beryllium Gypsum Perlite Tantalum Bismuth Hafnium Phosphate Rock and living resources, natural hazards, and the environment-- visit http://www.usgs.gov or call 1­888­ASK--Reserves and Resources.....................193 Appendix D--Country Specialists Directory...............197 Mineral

  19. Engineering and Mineral Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    News ????????????????? ® College of Engineering and Mineral Resources Winter 2008 table of contents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 wvCROSSROADS DepartmentofCivilandEnvironmentalEngineering Civil engineering exchange program and environmental engineering with a focus in transportation will have the opportunity to study abroad as part

  20. RON MINER MEMORIAL BIOENGINEERING SCHOLARSHIP The Ron Miner Memorial Scholarship honors the memory of J. Ronald Miner, an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    RON MINER MEMORIAL BIOENGINEERING SCHOLARSHIP The Ron Miner Memorial Scholarship honors the memory & Ecological Engineering. DONOR Ron Miner Memorial Bioengineering Scholarship Fund ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS

  1. Biomimetic Mineralization: Mesoporous Biological mineral synthesis, in contrast to conven-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biomimetic Mineralization: Mesoporous Structures Biological mineral synthesis, in contrast of mineral crystals. Mesophases are materials which have domain length scales of the order of a few as a molecular blueprint for the site- directed formation of the inorganic phase, by providing an interface

  2. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccha...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on...

  3. User cost in oil production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adelman, Morris Albert

    1990-01-01

    The assumption of an initial fixed mineral stock is superfluous and wrong. User cost (resource rent) in mineral production is the present value of expected increases in development cost. It can be measured as the difference ...

  4. Chemically Accelerated Carbon Mineralization: Chemical and Biological Catalytic Enhancement of Weathering of Silicate Minerals as Novel Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: Columbia University is developing a process to pull CO2 out of the exhaust gas of coal-fired power plants and turn it into a solid that can be easily and safely transported, stored above ground, or integrated into value-added products (e.g. paper filler, plastic filler, construction materials, etc.). In nature, the reaction of CO2 with various minerals over long periods of time will yield a solid carbonate—this process is known as carbon mineralization. The use of carbon mineralization as a CO2 capture and storage method is limited by the speeds at which these minerals can be dissolved and CO2 can be hydrated. To facilitate this, Columbia University is using a unique process and a combination of chemical catalysts which increase the mineral dissolution rate, and the enzymatic catalyst carbonic anhydrase which speeds up the hydration of CO2.

  5. Abiotic/Biotic Degradation and Mineralization of N-Nitrosodimethylamine in Aquifer Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szecsody, James E.; McKinley, James P.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Crocker, Fiona H.

    2008-10-14

    The N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) degradation rate and mineralization rate were measured in two aquifer sediments that received treatments to create oxic, reducing, and sequential reducing/oxic environments. Chemically reduced sediments rapidly abiotically degraded NDMA to nontoxic dimethylamine (DMA) to parts per trillion levels, then degraded to further products. NDMA was partially mineralized in reduced sediments (6 to 28 percent) at a slow rate (half-life 3,460 h) by an unknown abiotic/biotic pathway. In contrast, NDMA was mineralized more rapidly (half-life 342 h) and to a greater extent (30 to 81 percent) in oxic sediments with propane addition, likely by a propane monooxygenase pathway. NDMA mineralization in sequential reduced sediment followed by oxic sediment treatment did result in slightly more rapid mineralization and a greater mineralization extent relative to reduced systems. These increases were minor, so aerobic NDMA mineralization with oxygen and propane addition was the most viable in situ NDMA mineralization strategy.

  6. Assessment of industrial minerals and rocks in the controlled area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castor, S.B.; Lock, D.E.

    1996-08-01

    Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada, is a potential site for a permanent repository for high-level nuclear waste in Miocene ash flow tuff. The Yucca Mountain controlled area occupies approximately 98 km{sup 2} that includes the potential repository site. The Yucca Mountain controlled area is located within the southwestern Nevada volcanic field, a large area of Miocene volcanism that includes at least four major calderas or cauldrons. It is sited on a remnant of a Neogene volcanic plateau that was centered around the Timber Mountain caldera complex. The Yucca Mountain region contains many occurrences of valuable or potentially valuable industrial minerals, including deposits with past or current production of construction aggregate, borate minerals, clay, building stone, fluorspar, silicate, and zeolites. The existence of these deposits in the region and the occurrence of certain mineral materials at Yucca Mountain, indicate that the controlled area may have potential for industrial mineral and rock deposits. Consideration of the industrial mineral potential within the Yucca Mountain controlled area is mainly based on petrographic and lithologic studies of samples from drill holes in Yucca Mountain. Clay minerals, zeolites, fluorite, and barite, as minerals that are produced economically in Nevada, have been identified in samples from drill holes in Yucca Mountain.

  7. Universal ripper miner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrell, Roger J. (Bloomington, MN); Larson, David A. (Minneapolis, MN)

    1991-01-01

    A universal ripper miner used to cut, collect and transfer material from an underground mine working face includes a cutter head that is vertically movable in an arcuate cutting cycle by means of drive members, such as hydraulically actuated pistons. The cutter head may support a circular cutter bit having a circular cutting edge that may be indexed to incrementally expose a fresh cutting edge. An automatic indexing system is disclosed wherein indexing occurs by means of a worm gear and indexing lever mechanism. The invention also contemplates a bi-directional bit holder enabling cutting to occur in both the upstroke and the downstroke cutting cycle. Another feature of the invention discloses multiple bits arranged in an in-line, radially staggered pattern, or a side-by-side pattern to increase the mining capacity in each cutting cycle. An on-board resharpening system is also disclosed for resharpening the cutting edge at the end of cutting stroke position. The aforementioned improvement features may be used either singly, or in any proposed combination with each other.

  8. Mineral dissolution kinetics at the pore scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, L.; Steefel, C.I.; Yang, L.

    2008-01-01

    Weathering Rates of Silicate Minerals , Vol. 31 (ed. A. F.as a result of secondary mineral precipitation and approachWeathering Rates of Silicate Minerals , Vol. 31, pp. 565-

  9. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of cultivation systems.

  10. Minerals in the world economy. Minerals yearbook Volume 3. 1991 international review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimbell, C.L.

    1991-12-31

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook - International Review records the performance of the worldwide minerals industry during 1991 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume III, International Review, contains the latest available mineral data on more than 150 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations. The 1991 review is presented as five area reports and one world overview: Mineral Industries of Africa, Mineral Industries of Asia and the Pacific, Mineral Industries of Latin America and Canada, Mineral Industries of Europe and the U.S.S.R., Mineral Industries of the Middle East, and Minerals in the World Economy.

  11. PREPARED BY: Regional Freight Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    -modal transportation system ­Creates jobs, generates income · Freight transportation-dependent businesses account, petroleum/coal products Nonmetallic mineral products Cereal grains Wood products Gravel and crushed stone, components Precision instruments and apparatus Mixed freight Gas, fuel, petroleum/coal products Milled grain

  12. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides Clara S. Chan a oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH miner- alogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals

  13. SkyMine Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christenson, Norm; Walters, Jerel

    2014-12-31

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 2b of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO2 from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO2 to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO2 capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to the point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and deployment. The overall process is carbon negative, resulting in mineralization of CO2 that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at the commercial scale. The project is being conducted in two phases. The primary objectives of Phase 1 were to evaluate proven SkyMine® process chemistry for commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2, complete a NEPA evaluation, and develop a comprehensive carbon life cycle analysis. The objective of Phase 2b was to build the pilot plant to be operated and tested in Phase 2c.

  14. Who Pays a Price on Carbon?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grainger, Corbett A.; Kolstad, Charles D.

    2010-01-01

    nonmetallic mineral mining Iron and steel mills Wet cornSynthetic dye and pigment manuf. Iron ore mining Other

  15. Utilization of coal associated minerals. Quarterly report No. 11, April 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slonaker, J. F.; Akers, D. J.; Alderman, J. K.

    1980-08-29

    The purpose of this research program is to examine the effects of coal mineral materials on coal waste by-product utilization and to investigate new and improved methods for the utilization of waste by-products from cleaning, combustion and conversion processing of coal. The intermediate objectives include: (1) the examination of the effects of cleaning, gasification and combustion on coal mineral materials; and (2) the changes which occur in the coal wastes as a result of both form and distribution of mineral materials in feed coals in conjunction with the coal treatment effects resulting from coal cleaning or either gasification or combustion.

  16. Mineral Supplementation of Beef Cows in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herd, Dennis B.

    1997-06-04

    Nutrient balance is the key to any effective nutrition program, especially where trace minerals are concerned. Many factors cannot be optimized when mineral intake is not properly balanced. Recommendations are given for the producer....

  17. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's penumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  18. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's pneumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  19. Mineral Selection for Multicomponent Equilibrium Geothermometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Plamer, C. D.; Ohly, S. R.; Smith, R. W.; Neupane, G.; McLing, T.; Mattson, E.

    2015-04-01

    Muliticomponent geothermometry requires knowledge of the mineral phases in the reservoir with which the geothermal fluids may be equilibrated.

  20. Institute for Mineral and Energy Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Institute for Mineral and Energy Resources #12;IMER VISION IMER's vision is to enable the efficient and sustainable use and development of the world's mineral and energy resources for the benefit of society, discovery and extraction of mineral and energy resources, including petroleum and geothermal resources

  1. Mineral minimization in nature's alternative teeth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zok, Frank

    REVIEW Mineral minimization in nature's alternative teeth Christopher C. Broomell1, , Rashda K, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA Contrary to conventional wisdom, mineralization, with little to no help from mineralization. Based on biochemical analyses, three of these mouthparts, the jaws

  2. Mineral bridges in nacre revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonio G. Checa; Julyan H. E. Cartwright; Marc-Georg Willinger

    2012-07-20

    We confirm with high-resolution techniques the existence of mineral bridges between superposed nacre tablets. In the towered nacre of both gastropods and the cephalopod Nautilus there are large bridges aligned along the tower axes, corresponding to gaps (150-200 nm) in the interlamellar membranes. Gaps are produced by the interaction of the nascent tablets with a surface membrane that covers the nacre compartment. In the terraced nacre of bivalves bridges associated with elongated gaps in the interlamellar membrane (> 100 nm) have mainly been found at or close to the edges of superposed parental tablets. To explain this placement, we hypothesize that the interlamellar membrane breaks due to differences in osmotic pressure across it when the interlamellar space below becomes reduced at an advanced stage of calcification. In no cases are the minor connections between superimposed tablets (mineral bridges, found to be such.

  3. A List of Kansas Minerals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grover, Charles H.

    1895-01-01

    Master Th e s i s Geology Grov e r , C h a r l e s H. 1895 L i s t of Kansas m i n e r a l s * A l i s t of Kansas Minerals with "brief notes on the^cr^stjalogr&phio (form, chemical composition, and the p r i n c i p a l l o c a l i t i e s f...£om which £hey have been reported* ^S/V-y The f o l l o w i n g l i s t , i t i s believed, embraces a l l the minerals of the state that have been so f a r discovered and reported. Two s i m i l a r i i s t s have been heretofore published i n...

  4. D:\\352\\2014\\MineralHandbooks.LST.wpd EPSc 352: Handbooks for Mineral Identification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D:\\352\\2014\\MineralHandbooks.LST.wpd EPSc 352: Handbooks for Mineral Identification Best books preceded by **. Arem, Joel. 1991. Rocks and Minerals. Phoenix: Geoscience Press, Inc. ISBN #0-945005-06-7 Bishop, A.C.; Wolley, A.R.; and Hamilton, W.R. 1999. Cambridge Guide to Minerals, Rocks, and Fossils

  5. Mineralization of Carbon Dioxide: Literature Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanov, V; Soong, Y; Carney, C; Rush, G; Nielsen, B; O'Connor, W

    2015-01-01

    CCS research has been focused on CO2 storage in geologic formations, with many potential risks. An alternative to conventional geologic storage is carbon mineralization, where CO2 is reacted with metal cations to form carbonate minerals. Mineralization methods can be broadly divided into two categories: in situ and ex situ. In situ mineralization, or mineral trapping, is a component of underground geologic sequestration, in which a portion of the injected CO2 reacts with alkaline rock present in the target formation to form solid carbonate species. In ex situ mineralization, the carbonation reaction occurs above ground, within a separate reactor or industrial process. This literature review is meant to provide an update on the current status of research on CO2 mineralization. 2

  6. Mineral Scavenger Hunt 1. CONTRIBUTOR'S NAME: Johnny MacLean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, Carol

    Mineral Scavenger Hunt 1. CONTRIBUTOR'S NAME: Johnny MacLean 2. NAME OF INQUIRY: Mineral Scavenger from minerals? What are some objects in the classroom that come from minerals? What minerals did these objects come from? b. Ecological Theme(s): Minerals are the building blocks of rocks. Rocks

  7. Strata control in mineral engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1986-01-01

    This book covers the state-of-the-art of strata control practice both in the United States and abroad with respect to strata reinforcement by rock bolting, long wall mining technology and innovations in energy development, such as mining for oil and tunneling for storage of high-level nuclear waste in deep underground repositories. It features coverage of design concepts in rock engineering and rockbolt systems, stability of rock pillars, rockbursts, shaft design and construction and a detailed consideration of mineral and energy needs in the United States.

  8. Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Geochemical Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration We have approached the long-standing geochemical question why anhydrous high-Mg carbonate minerals (i.e., magnesite and...

  9. Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration Teng, H. Henry PI, The George Washington University PI, The George...

  10. S. 1600, THE CRITICAL MINERALS POLICY ACT OF 2013 Statement of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    raw materials; and reliance on by-product production. In both cases, mineral availability--or more of Economics and Business Colorado School of Mines, and Deputy Director, Critical Materials Institute An Energy, as well as deputy director of the Critical Materials Institute, an energy innovation hub of the U

  11. In Brief . ... resident scholar in the Center for Energy and Mineral Resources, will

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In Brief . ... resident scholar in the Center for Energy and Mineral Resources, will administer of the underutilized species was harvested for export as a food item to Germany and Great Britain. State officials hope production of hatchery seed and the culture of marketable oysters. They also hope to increase productivity

  12. system, the origin of silicate minerals around stars, and mixing in circumstellar disks. The mineral

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    system, the origin of silicate minerals around stars, and mixing in circumstellar disks. The mineral grains and components that we have seen in the comet are analogous to glacial erratics in the center of the solar nebula, and many of the larger particles are rocks composed of several minerals

  13. New Mexico Bureau Mines and Mineral

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunbar, Nelia W.

    Number22 - 1999 New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources a division of Nei~, Mexico Tech forsandblasting five times! ThisIssue Earth Briefs-Better age estimates on some New Mexico volcanic rocks Have You) NewMexico's Most Wanted Minera Is (pageT) Magnification of microscopic miner- als and glass (page 8

  14. Spectroscopic Identification of Carbonate Minerals in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandfield, Joshua L.

    local climatic conditions in the martian past suitable for sustaining life. Carbonate minerals have­10). Researchers used the Viking labeled re- lease experiment to limit the concentration of carbonates presentSpectroscopic Identification of Carbonate Minerals in the Martian Dust Joshua L. Bandfield

  15. SkyMine Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Jones; Clive Barton; Mark Clayton; Al Yablonsky; David Legere

    2010-09-30

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 1 of the SkyMine{reg_sign} Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO{sub 2} from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO{sub 2} to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO{sub 2} capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to a point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and proliferation. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at commercial scale. The primary objectives of Phase 1 of the project were to elaborate proven SkyMine{reg_sign} process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design ('Reference Plant Design') for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2. Additionally, during Phase 1, information necessary to inform a DOE determination regarding NEPA requirements for the project was developed, and a comprehensive carbon lifecycle analysis was completed. These items were included in the formal application for funding under Phase 2. All Phase 1 objectives were successfully met on schedule and within budget.

  16. Lab 2: Mineral Lab notes. Minerals are inorganic, solid, naturally occurring substances that have a characteristic chemical compositions,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, X. Rong

    Lab 2: Mineral Lab notes. Minerals are inorganic, solid, naturally occurring substances that have composition is the chemical elements that make up any given mineral. For instance, the mineral quartz is silicon dioxide SiO2; the mineral galena is an ore of lead, and its chemical formula is PbS, a lead

  17. Carbonation of Rock Minerals by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide at 250 degrees C.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama, T.; Ecker, L.; Butcher, T.

    2010-06-01

    Wet powder-samples of five rock minerals, granite, albite, hornblende, diorite, and biotite mica, were exposed in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) for 3 days at 250 C under 17.23 MPa pressure, and then the susceptibility of the various crystalline phases present in these mineral structures to reactions with hot scCO2 was investigated by XRD and FT-IR. The anorthite present in diorite was identified as the most vulnerable phase to carbonation. In contrast, biotite displayed a great resistance, although its phase was transformed hydrothermally to sanidine and quartz. Granite comprised of two phases, anorthoclase-type albite and quartz. The carbonation of former phase led to the formation of amorphous sodium and potassium carbonates coexisting with the clay-like by-products of the carbonation reaction. The reactivity of quartz to scCO2 was minimal, if any. Among these rock minerals, only hornblende formed crystalline carbonation products, such as calcite and magnesite after exposure, reflecting the likelihood of an increase in its volume. Based upon the feldspar ternary diagram, the carbonation rate of various different minerals in the plagioclase feldspar family depended primarily on the amount of anorthite. On the other hand, alkali feldspar minerals involving anorthoclase-type albite and sanidine had a lower reactivity with scCO2, compared with that of plagioclase feldspar minerals.

  18. Mineral Deposit Research Unit The University of British Columbia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michelson, David G.

    1 Mineral Deposit Research Unit The University of British Columbia Earth Sciences Building metallogenic constraints on mineralization in poorly understood or exposed portions of Yukon and Alaska. The mineral deposit studies, models, and metallogenic frameworks developed in this project

  19. Process for the physical segregation of minerals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yingling, Jon C.; Ganguli, Rajive

    2004-01-06

    With highly heterogeneous groups or streams of minerals, physical segregation using online quality measurements is an economically important first stage of the mineral beneficiation process. Segregation enables high quality fractions of the stream to bypass processing, such as cleaning operations, thereby reducing the associated costs and avoiding the yield losses inherent in any downstream separation process. The present invention includes various methods for reliably segregating a mineral stream into at least one fraction meeting desired quality specifications while at the same time maximizing yield of that fraction.

  20. Atomistic Models for the absorption of Oil Production Chemicals on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Atomistic Models for the absorption of Oil Production Chemicals on Clay minerals Sungu Hwang, Mario The atomistic simulation of the minerals in oil production Prediction of the performance of the oil production: a model for oil -19 -18 -17 -16 -15 -14 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Coverage Bindingenergyper adsorbate

  1. LOW TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL MINERAL RECOVERY PROGRAM 02/11/2014...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    mineral-webinar.pdf More Documents & Publications LOW TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL MINERAL RECOVERY PROGRAM Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis...

  2. Astoria Mineral Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Astoria Mineral Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Astoria Mineral Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal...

  3. ITP Mining: Mining Industry of the Future Mineral Processing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the Future Mineral Processing Technology Roadmap ITP Mining: Mining Industry of the Future Mineral Processing Technology Roadmap mptroadmap.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP...

  4. H. R. S. 182 - Reservation and Disposition of Government Mineral...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mineral Rights (2012). Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleH.R.S.182-ReservationandDispositionofGovernmentMineralRights&oldid801574" ...

  5. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- International Minerals and...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    International Minerals and Chemical Corp - Pilot Plant - FL 02 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: International Minerals and Chemical Corp - Pilot Plant (FL.02) Designated Name: Not...

  6. Sustainable growth and valuation of mineral reserves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adelman, Morris Albert

    1994-01-01

    The annual change in the value of an in-ground mineral is equal to the increase or decrease of inventories ("reserves"), multiplied by the market value of a reserve unit. The limited shrinking resource base does not exist. ...

  7. Engineered yeast for enhanced CO2 mineralization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbero, Roberto Juan

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a biologically catalysed CO2 mineralization process for the capture of CO2 from point sources was designed, constructed at a laboratory scale, and, using standard chemical process scale-up protocols, was ...

  8. The use of the logistic curve in forecasting mineral production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, James Anthony Lawrence

    1958-01-01

    Introduction: The most apparent characteristic of the modern world economy is change, various in type, frequent in occurrence, and often striking. It is to be expected that economists have tried to approach these changes ...

  9. Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Hilger, J. 2003. Combined Utilization of Oil Shale Energyand Oil Shale Minerals within the Production of Cement andOther Hydraulic Minerals. Oil Shale, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp.

  10. Pathways of sulfate enhancement by natural and anthropogenic mineral aerosols in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xin [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Song, Yu [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Zhao, Chun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Mengmeng [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Zhu, Tong [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Zhang, Qiang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Zhang, Xiaoye [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, CMA, Beijing (China)

    2014-12-27

    China, the world’s largest consumer of coal, emits approximately 30 million tons of sulfur dioxide (SO?) per year. SO? is subsequently oxidized to sulfate in the atmosphere. However, large gaps exist between model-predicted and measured sulfate levels in China. Long-term field observations and numerical simulations were integrated to investigate the effect of mineral aerosols on sulfate formation. We found that mineral aerosols contributed a nationwide average of approximately 22% to sulfate production in 2006. The increased sulfate concentration was approximately 2 ?g m?³ in the entire China. In East China and the Sichuan Basin, the increments reached 6.3 ?g m?³ and 7.3 ?g m?³, respectively. Mineral aerosols led to faster SO? oxidation through three pathways. First, more SO? was dissolved as cloud water alkalinity increased due to water-soluble mineral cations. Sulfate production was then enhanced through the aqueous-phase oxidation of S(IV) (dissolved sulfur in oxidation state +4). The contribution to the national sulfate production was 5%. Second, sulfate was enhanced through S(IV) catalyzed oxidation by transition metals. The contribution to the annual sulfate production was 8%, with 19% during the winter that decreased to 2% during the summer. Third, SO? reacts on the surface of mineral aerosols to produce sulfate. The contribution to the national average sulfate concentration was 9% with 16% during the winter and a negligible effect during the summer. The inclusion of mineral aerosols does resolve model discrepancies with sulfate observations in China, especially during the winter. These three pathways, which are not fully considered in most current chemistry-climate models, will significantly impact assessments regarding the effects of aerosol on climate change in China.

  11. Magnetic minerals produced by magnetotactic bacteria Balzs Arat1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Magnetic minerals produced by magnetotactic bacteria Balázs Arató1 , Mihály Pósfai1 and Rafal E-controlled mineralization Abstract. Magnetotactic bacteria produce intracellular magnetic minerals that have distinct for studying the biological membrane around the mineral grains. Our goals were to deduce the possible growth

  12. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMED MINERAL WASTE FORMS: CHARACTERIZATION AND DURABILITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C; Troy Lorier, T; John Pareizs, J; James Marra, J

    2006-12-06

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of high sodium low activity wastes (LAW) such as those existing at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants with the waste denitrates the aqueous wastes and forms a granular mineral waste form that can subsequently be made into a monolith for disposal if necessary. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The mineralization occurs at moderate temperatures between 650-750 C in the presence of superheated steam. The cage and ring structured feldspathoid minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and Cs-137 and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Granular mineral waste forms were made from (1) a basic Hanford Envelope A low activity waste (LAW) simulant and (2) an acidic INL simulant commonly referred to as sodium bearing waste (SBW) in pilot scale facilities at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID. The FBSR waste forms were characterized and the durability tested via ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the Single Pass Flow Through (SPFT) test. The results of the SPFT testing and the activation energies for dissolution are discussed in this study.

  13. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMED MINERAL WASTE FORMS: CHARACTERIZATION AND DURABILITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C; Troy Lorier, T; John Pareizs, J; James Marra, J

    2007-03-31

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of high sodium low activity wastes (LAW) such as those existing at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants with the waste denitrates the aqueous wastes and forms a granular mineral waste form that can subsequently be made into a monolith for disposal if necessary. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The mineralization occurs at moderate temperatures between 650-750 C in the presence of superheated steam. The cage and ring structured feldspathoid minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and Cs-137 and anions such as SO4, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Granular mineral waste forms were made from (1) a basic Hanford Envelope A low-activity waste (LAW) simulant and (2) an acidic INL simulant commonly referred to as sodium bearing waste (SBW) in pilot scale facilities at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID. The FBSR waste forms were characterized and the durability tested via ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the Single Pass Flow Through (SPFT) test. The results of the SPFT testing and the activation energies for dissolution are discussed in this study.

  14. PASI 2011: Process Modeling and Optimization for Energy and Sustainability Mineral Process Design for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    environmental and social impact, but keeping profitable operations. · These challenges must be addressed:D:, Giurco D., Green S., 2009, Incorporating sustainable development in the design of mineral processing the environmental impact, both in per tonne of product and on total amount of emissions and reduction. #12

  15. Sustainable operation of membrane distillation for enhancement of mineral recovery from hypersaline solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    high water recovery, but they are limited by high- energy consumption needed to heat the feed stream [3. In the current study MD was investigated for sustained water recovery and concentration of hypersaline brines and treated as a waste stream, whereas in mineral production water is considered a byproduct and, as common

  16. Pyrite is a mineral that is sometimes mistaken for gold, hence the nickname "fool's gold." By comparing the physical properties, one can easily distinguish

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polly, David

    ." By comparing the physical properties, one can easily distinguish between the two minerals. Pyrite is less dense, sphalerite, as well as other minerals. In Indiana, pyrite can be found in organic-rich shale, coal, and in the production of sulfuric acid. The chemical weathering of pyrite can have undesirable effects in coal mines

  17. MINER{nu}A Test Beam Commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higuera, A.; Castorena, J.; Urrutia, Z.; Felix, J.; Zavala, G.

    2009-12-17

    MINER{nu}A Main INjector ExpeRiment {nu}-A is a high-statistic neutrino scattering experiment that will ran in the NuMI Beam Hall at Fermilab. To calibrate the energy response of the MINER{nu}A detector, a beamline is being designed for the MINER{nu}A Test Beam Detector (TBD). The TBD is a replica of the full MINER{nu}A detector at small scale for calibration studies of the main detector. The beamline design consists of the following parts: a copper target, used to generate tertiaries from an incoming secondary beam; a steel collimator for tertiaries, which also serves as a dump for the incoming beam; a time of fight system (scintillator planes); four wire chambers, for angle measurements and tracking; and two dipole magnets, used as an spectrometer. During last October, the first commissioning run of the MINER{nu}A Test Beam took place in the Meson Test Beam Facility at Fermilab. We commissioned the target and collimator of the new tertiary beamline.

  18. Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2005 Mineral Surface Reactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2005 Mineral Surface Reactivity A492 "Hydration" of rhyolitic of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996, USA 2 Chemical Sciences Division, MS 6110, P.O. Box 2008, Bldg. 4500S, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6110, USA 3 Chemical Sciences Division, MS

  19. Earth Minerals Did you read chapter 29

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    1 Chapter 29 Earth Minerals Did you read chapter 29 before coming to class? A. Yes B. No Lets play that begins in Hawaii Other "Hot Spots" around the world The interior structure of Earth has been determined outer core #12;2 What is different on earth (as opposed to other planets)? Continents Why does

  20. Process for removal of mineral particulates from coal-derived liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, William J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1980-01-01

    Suspended mineral solids are separated from a coal-derived liquid containing the solids by a process comprising the steps of: (a) contacting said coal-derived liquid containing solids with a molten additive having a melting point of 100.degree.-500.degree. C. in an amount of up to 50 wt. % with respect to said coal-derived liquid containing solids, said solids present in an amount effective to increase the particle size of said mineral solids and comprising material or mixtures of material selected from the group of alkali metal hydroxides and inorganic salts having antimony, tin, lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, beryllium, aluminum, zinc, molybdenum, cobalt, nickel, ruthenium, rhodium or iron cations and chloride, iodide, bromide, sulfate, phosphate, borate, carbonate, sulfite, or silicate anions; and (b) maintaining said coal-derived liquid in contact with said molten additive for sufficient time to permit said mineral matter to agglomerate, thereby increasing the mean particle size of said mineral solids; and (c) recovering a coal-derived liquid product having reduced mineral solids content. The process can be carried out with less than 5 wt. % additive and in the absence of hydrogen pressure.

  1. Report on "Methodologies for Investigating Microbial-Mineral Interactions: A Clay Minerals Society Short Course"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patricia A. Maurice

    2010-02-08

    A workshop entitled, “Methods of Investigating Microbial-Mineral Interactions,” was held at the Clay Minerals Society meeting at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, WA on June 19, 2004. The workshop was organized by Patricia A. Maurice (University of Notre Dame) and Lesley A. Warren (McMaster University, CA). Speakers included: Dr. P. Bennett, Dr. J. Fredrickson (PNNL), Dr. S. Lower (Ohio State University), Dr. P. Maurice, Dr. S. Myneni (Princeton University), Dr. E. Shock (Arizona State), Dr. M. Tien (Penn State), Dr. L. Warren, and Dr. J. Zachara (PNNL). There were approximately 75 attendees at the workshop, including more than 20 students. A workshop volume was published by the Clay Minerals Society [Methods for Study of Microbe-Mineral Interactions (2006), CMS Workshop Lectures, vol. 14?(Patricia A. Maurice and Leslie A. Warren, eds.) ISBN 978-1-881208-15-0, 166 pp.

  2. 2.20 Properties of Rocks and Minerals -Magnetic Properties of Rocks and Minerals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Scale Exchange Interactions and Magnetic Structure in Fe-Bearing Oxides Atomistic Simulations2.20 Properties of Rocks and Minerals - Magnetic Properties of Rocks and Minerals R. J. Harrison, R.20.5.1.3 2.20.5.2 2.20.5.2.1 2.20.5.2.2 2.20.5.2.3 2.20.5.2.4 Introduction Magnetism at the Atomic Length

  3. Molecular Characterization of Bacterial Respiration on Minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, Robert C.

    2013-04-26

    The overall aim of this project was to contribute to our fundamental understanding of proteins and biological processes under extreme environmental conditions. We sought to define the biochemical and physiological mechanisms that underlie biodegradative and other cellular processes in normal, extreme, and engineered environments. Toward that end, we sought to understand the substrate oxidation pathways, the electron transport mechanisms, and the modes of energy conservation employed during respiration by bacteria on soluble iron and insoluble sulfide minerals. In accordance with these general aims, the specific aims were two-fold: To identify, separate, and characterize the extracellular biomolecules necessary for aerobic respiration on iron under strongly acidic conditions; and to elucidate the molecular principles whereby these bacteria recognize and adhere to their insoluble mineral substrates under harsh environmental conditions. The results of these studies were described in a total of nineteen manuscripts. Highlights include the following: 1. The complete genome of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 (type strain) was sequenced in collaboration with the DOE Joint Genome Institute; 2. Genomic and mass spectrometry-based proteomic methods were used to evaluate gene expression and in situ microbial activity in a low-complexity natural acid mine drainage microbial biofilm community. This was the first effort to successfully analyze a natural community using these techniques; 3. Detailed functional and structural studies were conducted on rusticyanin, an acid-stable electron transfer protein purified from cell-free extracts of At. ferrooxidans. The three-dimensional structure of reduced rusticyanin was determined from a combination of homonuclear proton and heteronuclear 15N- and 13C-edited NMR spectra. Concomitantly, the three-dimensional structure of oxidized rusticyanin was determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 1.9 A by multiwavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) phasing; 4. An acid-stable red cytochrome with a novel absorbance peak at 579 nm was purified from cell-free extracts of L. ferriphilum. Functional studies demonstrated that this cytochrome was an important component of the aerobic iron respiratory chain in this organism; 5. The specific adhesion of At. ferrooxidans to pyrite is mediated by an extracellular protein that was identified as aporusticyanin. The adhesion of At. ferrooxidans to minerals was characterized by high affinity binding that exhibited a high specificity for pyrite over other sulfide minerals. The principal biopolymer involved in this high-affinity adhesion to pyrite was isolated by mineral affinity chromatography and identified as aporusticyanin. The adhesion of purified aporusticyanin to minerals was observed to adhere to different mineral with a pattern of reactivity identical to that observed with the intact bacterium. Further, preincubation of pyrite with excess exogenous aporusticyanin served to inhibit the adherence of intact cells to the surface of the mineral, indicating that the protein and the cells adhered to the pyrite in a mutually exclusive manner. Taken together, these observations support a model where aporusticyanin located on the surface of the bacterial cell acts as a mineral-specific receptor for the initial adherence of At. ferrooxidans to solid pyrite; 6. The specific adhesion of L. ferriphilum to pyrite was mediated by a different acid-stable extracellular protein than aporusticyanin; and 7. A prototype integrating cavity absorption meter (ICAM) was assembled to determine whether this novel spectrophotometer could be used to study cellular respiration in situ.

  4. Geochemical and Petrological Investigations into Mantle Minerals from Experiments and Natural Samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macris, Catherine Amy

    2012-01-01

    A. Schauble (2010) Inter-mineral Iron Isotope Fractionationand E. Tonui (2008) Inter-mineral Iron Isotope Fractionation+ (aq) with carbonate minerals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica

  5. Mineral balances, including in drinking water, estimated for Merced County dairy herds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castillo, Alejandro R Dr.; Santos, Jose Eduardo P.; Tabone, Tom J.

    2007-01-01

    et al. (1994). TABLE 3. Estimates of daily mineral intake,drinking-water mineral contributionand net mineral excretion in lactating cows on Merced County

  6. Yield and Mineral Element Concentration of Beetroot in Response to Nutrient Source in Hydroponic Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egilla, Jonathan N.

    2009-01-01

    analysis as a guide for mineral nutrition of sugar beets.SEM. x Sufficiency range of mineral elements determined fromon the yield, and tissue mineral element concentration of

  7. Mineral transformation and biomass accumulation associated with uranium bioremediation at Rifle, Colorado

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, L.

    2009-01-01

    iron(III) oxyhydroxides: effects of mineral solubility andMineral Transformation and Biomass Accumulation Associatedthe accumulation of new mineral phases and biomass. Word

  8. Bone mineral density and fractures in older men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dam, T.-T.; Harrison, S.; Fink, H. A.; Ramsdell, J.; Barrett-Connor, E.

    2010-01-01

    x ORIGINAL ARTICLE Bone mineral density and fractures inwas associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD) at theKeywords Bone loss . Bone mineral density . Elderly .

  9. Mineralization of Basalts in the CO2-H2O-SO2-O2 System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaef, Herbert T.; Horner, Jacob A.; Owen, Antionette T.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Loring, John S.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-05-01

    Sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2) containing minor amounts of co-contaminants in geologic formations was investigated in the laboratory through the use of high pressure static experiments. Five different basalt samples were immersed in water equilibrated with supercritical CO2 containing 1wt% sulfur dioxide (SO2) and 1wt% oxygen (O2) at reservoir conditions (~100 bar, 90°C) for 49 and 98 days. Gypsum (CaSO4) was a common precipitate, occurred early as elongated blades with striations, and served as substrates for other mineral products. Bimodal pulses of water released during dehydroxylation were key indicators along with X-ray diffraction for verifying the presences of jarosite-alunite group minerals. Well-developed pseudocubic jarosite crystals formed surface coatings, and in some instances mixtures of natrojarosite and natroalunite aggregated into spherically shaped structures measuring 100 ?m in diameter. Reaction products were also characterized using infrared spectroscopy, which indicated OH and Fe-O stretching modes. The presences of jarosite-alunite group minerals were found in the lower wavenumber region from 700–400 cm-1. A strong preferential incorporation of Fe(III) into natrojarosite was attributed to the oxidation potential of O2. Evidence of CO2 was detected during thermal decomposition of precipitates, suggesting the onset of mineral carbonation.

  10. Pressure Calibration by the Infrared Absorption Spectrum of Mineral Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Pressure Calibration by the Infrared Absorption Spectrum of Mineral Oil H. Child, Kenyon College effect is seen in the infrared absorption spectrum of mineral oil. The frequency of two peaks increases as pressure is applied to the mineral oil. At a pressure of about 1 kbar (100 MPa), both peaks are distinct

  11. State of Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldfinger, Chris

    State of Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries Vicki S. McConnell, State Geologist A ND M INERALINDUSTRIES 1937 2009 1 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries, Coastal Field Department of Geology and Mineral Industries Special Paper 41 Published in conformance with ORS 516

  12. Direct imaging of nanoscale magnetic interactions in minerals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Direct imaging of nanoscale magnetic interactions in minerals Richard J. Harrison*, Rafal E. Dunin. Magnetite is the most strongly magnetic mineral in nature. Small particles of magnetite in single-domain (SD and pseudo-SD particles (1). In most igneous rocks, the grain size of primary magnetic minerals exceeds

  13. FAT-miner: Mining Frequent Attribute Trees Jeroen De Knijf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    FAT-miner: Mining Frequent Attribute Trees Jeroen De Knijf Department of Information and Computing Sciences, Utrecht University Technical Report UU-CS-2006-053 www.cs.uu.nl ISSN: 0924-3275 #12;FAT-miner is neglected. We present FAT-miner, an algorithm for frequent pattern discovery in tree structured data

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLE FGF and ERK signaling coordinately regulate mineralization-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE FGF and ERK signaling coordinately regulate mineralization- related genes and play for Bone and Mineral Research and Springer 2011 Abstract To examine the roles of FGF and ERK MAPK signaling-Y4. This experiment identified a number of miner- alization-related genes that were regulated by FGF2

  15. Errors-in-variables problems in transient electromagnetic mineral exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braslavsky, Julio H.

    Errors-in-variables problems in transient electromagnetic mineral exploration K. Lau, J. H in transient electromagnetic mineral exploration. A specific sub-problem of interest in this area geological surveys, dia- mond drilling, and airborne mineral exploration. Our interest here is with ground

  16. Mineral formation during simulated leaks of Hanford waste tanks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flury, Markus

    Mineral formation during simulated leaks of Hanford waste tanks Youjun Deng a , James B. Harsh a at the US DOE Hanford Site, Washington, caus- ing mineral dissolution and re-precipitation upon contact with subsurface sediments. The main mineral precipitation and transformation pathways were studied in solutions

  17. LUNAR MINERALS James Papike, Lawrence Taylor, and Steven Simon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    LUNAR MINERALS James Papike, Lawrence Taylor, and Steven Simon The lunar rocks described--make it easy to distinguish them from terrestrial rocks. However, the minerals that make up lunar rocks are (with a few notable exceptions) minerals that are also found on Earth. Both lunar and terrestrial rocks

  18. Mineralization by Inhibitor Exclusion THE CALCIFICATION OF COLLAGEN WITH FETUINS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Paul A.

    Mineralization by Inhibitor Exclusion THE CALCIFICATION OF COLLAGEN WITH FETUINS Received is to understand the mechanisms that deposit mineral within collagen fibrils, and as a first step we recentlyDa protein are excluded. Based on these observations, we proposed a novel mechanism for fibril mineralization

  19. Carbon Mineralization and Labile Organic Carbon Pools in the Sandy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grunwald, Sabine

    Carbon Mineralization and Labile Organic Carbon Pools in the Sandy Soils of a North Florida mineralization were best explained by TOC (62%) and hot-water- extractable C (59%), whereas acid-hydrolyzable C mineralization and clay content were directly linearly correlated, indicating a possible stimulatory effect

  20. Thermal infrared emission spectroscopy of the pyroxene mineral series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Victoria E.

    Thermal infrared emission spectroscopy of the pyroxene mineral series Victoria E. Hamilton within the two structural groups, as well as minerals within solid solution series. The exact number of reststrahlen features observed and their positions are dependent on mineral structure and cation occupancy

  1. 5th Annual Data Miner Survey 2011 Survey Summary Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morik, Katharina

    5th Annual Data Miner Survey ­ 2011 Survey Summary Report ­ Rexer Analytics For more information Outline · Overview & Key Findings · Where & How Data Miners Work · Data Mining Tools: Usage & Satisfaction Overview & Key Findings #12;© 2012 Rexer Analytics 4 2011 Data Miner Survey: Overview 40% 27% 18% Corporate

  2. The Link between Clay Mineral Weathering and the Stabilization of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    The Link between Clay Mineral Weathering and the Stabilization of Ni Surface Precipitates R O B E R 19717 The formation of transition-metal surface precipitates may occur during sorption to clay minerals formation are poorly understood. We monitored changes in the reversibility of Ni sorbed to a clay mineral

  3. An Overview of KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & MINERALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    An Overview of KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & MINERALS KFUPM An Overview of KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & MINERALS KFUPM #12;Topics Background and Campus Graduate Studies Research ... Then and Now College of Petroleum and Minerals, 1963 KFUPM now... · A college · 2-year technical college · 76

  4. KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & MINERALS DEANSHIP OF GRADUATE STUDIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & MINERALS DEANSHIP OF GRADUATE STUDIES Online Academic Services Services for Graduate Students. #12;King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Deanship of Graduate ................................................................................................... 7 #12;King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Deanship of Graduate Studies 1 | P a g e Academic

  5. KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & MINERALS DEANSHIP OF GRADUATE STUDIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & MINERALS DEANSHIP OF GRADUATE STUDIES Online Academic Services Coordinators. #12;King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Deanship of Graduate Studies i | P a g e .................................................................................................................... 19 #12;King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Deanship of Graduate Studies 1 | P a g e Graduate

  6. MIXTURES OF FINE-GRAINED MINERALS KAOLINITE AND CARBONATE GRAINS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palomino, Angelica M.

    MIXTURES OF FINE-GRAINED MINERALS À KAOLINITE AND CARBONATE GRAINS ANGELICA M. PALOMINO 1, *, SUSAN, Georgia 30332-0355, USA Abstract--The behavior of mineral mixtures can be significantly different from properties of the individual minerals, and their ensuing effects on interparticle interactions and fabric

  7. Phosphorus K-edge XANES Spectroscopy of Mineral Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E Ingall; J Brandes; J Diaz; M de Jonge; D Paterson; I McNulty; C Elliott; P Northrup

    2011-12-31

    Phosphorus K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was performed on phosphate mineral specimens including (a) twelve specimens from the apatite group covering a range of compositional variation and crystallinity; (b) six non-apatite calcium-rich phosphate minerals; (c) 15 aluminium-rich phosphate minerals; (d) ten phosphate minerals rich in either reduced iron or manganese; (e) four phosphate minerals rich in either oxidized iron or manganese; (f) eight phosphate minerals rich in either magnesium, copper, lead, zinc or rare-earth elements; and (g) four uranium phosphate minerals. The identity of all minerals examined in this study was independently confirmed using X-ray powder diffraction. Minerals were distinguished using XANES spectra with a combination of pre-edge features, edge position, peak shapes and post-edge features. Shared spectral features were observed in minerals with compositions dominated by the same specific cation. Analyses of apatite-group minerals indicate that XANES spectral patterns are not strongly affected by variations in composition and crystallinity typical of natural mineral specimens.

  8. Carbon Sequestration via Mineral Carbonation: Overview and Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Carbon Sequestration via Mineral Carbonation: Overview and Assessment 14 March 2002 Howard Herzog overview and assessment of carbon sequestration by mineral carbonation (referred to as "mineral sequestration R&D. The first is that carbonates have a lower energy state than CO2. Therefore, at least

  9. IEED Energy and Mineral Development Grants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Secretary of the Interior, through the Office of lndian Energy and Economic Development (IEED), is soliciting grant proposals from federally recognized Indian tribes and tribal energy resource development organizations for projects that assess, evaluate, or otherwise promote the processing, use, or development of energy and mineral resources on Indian lands. Grant awards are subject to the availability of funds as appropriated by Congress and allotted to IEED.

  10. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA as well as flue gas from coal combustion. This topical report covers Phase 2b, which is the construction phase of pilot demonstration subsystems that make up the integrated plant. The subsystems included are the mineralization subsystem, the Alkalinity Based on Low Energy (ABLE) subsystem, the waste calcium oxide processing subsystem, and the fiber cement board production subsystem. The fully integrated plant is now capable of capturing CO2 from various sources (gas and coal) and mineralizing into a reactive calcium carbonate binder and subsequently producing commercial size (4ftx8ft) fiber cement boards. The topical report provides a description of the “as built” design of these subsystems and the results of the commissioning activities that have taken place to confirm operability. At the end of Phase 2b, the CCMP pilot demonstration is fully ready for testing.

  11. This article was downloaded by:[King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals] [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Qahtani, Hussain M.

    This article was downloaded by:[King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals] [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals] On: 20 May 2007 Access Details: [subscription number 777447308. © Taylor and Francis 2007 #12;DownloadedBy:[KingFahdUniversityofPetroleumandMinerals]At:14:1620May2007

  12. Mineral content analysis of atmospheric dust using hyperspectral information from space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostinski, Alex

    Mineral content analysis of atmospheric dust using hyperspectral information from space A one of the world's largest sources of atmospheric mineral dust. Mineral composition optical properties, and mineral deposition to Amazon forests. In this study we examine hyperspectral

  13. Mining Industry Profile | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    utilities, the primary metals industry, non-metallic minerals industry (glass, cement, lime), and the construction industry. Employment Mining operations are often the leading...

  14. U.S. DOE and DOD Manufacturing Innovation Multi-Topic Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    chemicalspetrochemicals, oil and gas refining, bio-manufacturing (e.g., pulp and paper), and nonmetallic minerals (e.g., glass, cement). Advanced Sensing, Control, and...

  15. Mineral formation and redox-sensitive trace elements in a near-surface hydrothermal alteration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gehring, A.U.; Schosseler, P.M.; Weidler, P.G.

    1999-07-01

    A recent hydrothermal mudpool at the southwestern slope of the Rincon de la Vieja volcano in Northwest Costa Rica exhibits an argillic alteration system formed by intense interaction of sulfuric acidic fluids with wall rock materials. Detailed mineralogical analysis revealed an assemblage with kaolinite, alunite, and opal-C as the major mineral phases. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) showed 3 different redox-sensitive cations associated with the mineral phases, Cu{sup +} is structure-bound in opal-C, whereas VO{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} are located in the kaolinite structure. The location of the redox-sensitive cations in different minerals of the assemblage is indicative of different chemical conditions. The formation of the alteration products can be described schematically as a 2-step process. In a first step alunite and opal-C were precipitated in a fluid with slightly reducing conditions and a low chloride availability. The second step is characterized by a decrease in K{sup +} activity and subsequent formation of kaolinite under weakly oxidizing to oxidizing redox conditions as indicated by structure-bound VO{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}. The detection of paramagnetic trace elements structure-bound in mineral phases by EPR provide direct information about the prevailing redox conditions during alteration and can, therefore, be used as additional insight into the genesis of the hydrothermal, near-surface system.

  16. Sustainable Water Management in the Minerals Industry 1 SUSTAINABLE WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE MINERALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGuinness, Mark

    is the amount and control of salt content in the used water dams. While there may be several dams at a givenSustainable Water Management in the Minerals Industry 1 SUSTAINABLE WATER MANAGEMENT interest. It arises in the provision of water for Queensland coal mines, where additional water

  17. Selective flotation of phosphate minerals with hydroxamate collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Jan D. (Salt Lake City, UT); Wang, Xuming (Salt Lake City, UT); Li, Minhua (Salt Lake City, UT)

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for separating phosphate minerals from a mineral mixture, particularly from high-dolomite containing phosphate ores. The method involves conditioning the mineral mixture by contacting in an aqueous in environment with a collector in an amount sufficient for promoting flotation of phosphate minerals. The collector is a hydroxamate compound of the formula; ##STR1## wherein R is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms. M is a cation, typically hydrogen, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. Preferably, the collector also comprises an alcohol of the formula, R'--OH wherein R' is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties so that it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms.

  18. Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    its interior to the surface via convection. Convection not only manifests itself in the plastic deformation of mineral phases due to stress, but it also drives plate tectonics....

  19. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral Interactions and Determination of Contact Angles. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Simulation of...

  20. Australasian Code for Reporting of Exploration Results, Mineral...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (JORC) Published The Joint Ore Reserves Committee of The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Australian Institute of Geoscientists, and Minerals Council of...

  1. Epithermal Gold Mineralization and a Geothermal Resource at Blue...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Epithermal Gold Mineralization and a Geothermal Resource at Blue Mountain, Humboldt County, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

  2. An Overview of Hydrothermal Alteration and Vein Mineralization...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Overview of Hydrothermal Alteration and Vein Mineralization in Continental Scientific Drilling Program Core Hole VC-2B, Valles Caldera, New Mexico Jump to: navigation, search...

  3. Molecular interactions of SO2 with carbonate minerals under co-sequestration conditions: a combined experimental and theoretical study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; McGrail, B. Peter; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2012-09-01

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study investigating the reactivity between selected and morphologically important surfaces of carbonate minerals with supercritical CO2 with co-existing H2O and SO2. Trace amounts of SO2 cause formation of CaSO3 in the form of hannebachite in the initial stages of SO2 adsorption and transformation. Atomistic simulations of these initial steps indicate a somewhat catalytic activity of water, which is enhanced by the presence of Magnesium atoms in the mineral surface. Under co-sequestration conditions, traces of water are not likely to cause carbonate dissolution, however the presence of SO2 greatly stabilizes the sulfite product.

  4. Oil Shale Mining Claims Conversion Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Mineral Resources Development and Production of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session on S. 2089, H. R. 1039, April 22, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The hearing was called to examine two bills which address the processing of oil shale mining claims and patents by the Department of the Interior under the General Mining Law of 1872. S.2089 would provide for certain requirements relating to the conversion of oil shale mining claims located under the Mining Law of 1872 to leases and H.R.1039 would amend section 37 of the Mineral Lands Leasing Act of 1920 relating to oil shale claims. Under the new bills the owners of oil shale mining claims must make an election within 180 days after enactment as to whether to convert their claims to leases or to maintain their claims by performing 1000 dollars of annual assessment work on the claim, filing annually an affidavit of assessment work performed, and producing oil shale in significant marketable amounts within 10 years from the date of enactment of the legislation.

  5. ORIGINAL PAPER Comparison of manure compost and mineral fertilizer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL PAPER Comparison of manure compost and mineral fertilizer for hybrid poplar plantation and methods Composted sheep manure (10 and 20 kg/tree) at planting was compared to N and P mineral Contrary to what we expected, compost treatments neither increased root development nor tree water status

  6. U.S. Geological Survey China's Growing Appetite for Minerals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (markets) · National security USGS research on minerals in development cycle-- o Based on 1929 work of USGS: Coal 45 1 Oil 4.7 6 Industrial minerals: Cement 42 1 Fluorspar 55 1 Rare earths 85 1 Metals: Aluminum 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Year Millionmetrictons Canada China

  7. Calcite Mineral Scaling Potentials of High-Temperature Geothermal Wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karlsson, Brynjar

    #12;i Calcite Mineral Scaling Potentials of High-Temperature Geothermal Wells Alvin I. Remoroza-Temperature Geothermal Wells Alvin I. Remoroza 60 ECTS thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of a Magister Scientiarum #12;iv Calcite Mineral Scaling Potentials of High-Temperature Geothermal Wells 60 ECTS thesis

  8. Cesium Adsorption on Clay Minerals: An EXAFS Spectroscopic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chorover, Jon

    Cesium Adsorption on Clay Minerals: An EXAFS Spectroscopic Investigation B E N J A M I N C . B O, Arizona 85721-0038 Cesium adsorption on the clay minerals vermiculite and montmorilloniteisdescribedasafunctionofsurfacecoverage using extended X-ray adsorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Cesium (Cs) possessed

  9. SULFATE AND NITRATE COATINGS ON MINERAL DUSTS: CRYSTALLINE OR AQUEOUS?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SULFATE AND NITRATE COATINGS ON MINERAL DUSTS: CRYSTALLINE OR AQUEOUS? Scot T. Martin, Hui Observational evidence shows that mineral dusts in Asian outflows become coated by sulfates and nitrates. Layer), and the asymmetry parameter. The aqueous coatings also provide milieu for aqueous chemical reactions

  10. State of Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldfinger, Chris

    State of Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries Vicki S. McConnell, State Geologist Open-File Report O-08-14 PRELIMINARY GEOLOGIC MAPS OF THE CORVALLIS, WREN, AND MARYS PEAK 7 G Y A ND M INERALINDUSTRIES 1937 2008 1 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries, Grants

  11. KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & MINERALS DEANSHIP OF GRADUATE STUDIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & MINERALS DEANSHIP OF GRADUATE STUDIES Online Academic Services the Online Academic Services related to Theses/Dissertations. #12;King Fahd University of Petroleum................................................................... 7 #12;King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Deanship of Graduate Studies 1 | P a g e Graduate

  12. Chemical composition, mineral content and cholesterol levels of some regular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Note Chemical composition, mineral content and cholesterol levels of some regular and reduced from cow's milk, were analyzed for basic nutrients (water, protein, fat, ash and lactose), cholesterol and selected minerals (Na, Ca, K, Mg, P and Zn). The moisture contents of Labneh (78.6 g·100 g-1 ) and Double

  13. Report for Treating Hanford LAW and WTP SW Simulants: Pilot Plant Mineralizing Flowsheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arlin Olson

    2012-02-28

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for managing the disposal of radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in Washington State. The Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant (WPT) will separate the waste into a small volume of high level waste (HLW), containing most of the radioactive constituents, and a larger volume of low activity waste (LAW), containing most of the non-radioactive chemical and hazardous constituents. The HLW and LAW will be converted into immobilized waste forms for disposal. Currently there is inadequate LAW vitrification capacity planned at the WTP to complete the mission within the required timeframe. Therefore additional LAW capacity is required. One candidate supplemental treatment technology is the fluidized bed steam reformer process (FBSR). This report describes the demonstration testing of the FBSR process using a mineralizing flowsheet for treating simulated Hanford LAW and secondary waste from the WTP (WTP SW). The FBSR testing project produced leach-resistant solid products and environmentally compliant gaseous effluents. The solid products incorporated normally soluble ions into an alkali alumino-silicate (NaS) mineral matrix. Gaseous emissions were found to be within regulatory limits. Cesium and rhenium were captured in the mineralized products with system removal efficiencies of 99.999% and 99.998 respectively. The durability and leach performance of the FBSR granular solid were superior to the low activity reference material (LMR) glass standards. Normalized product consistency test (PCT) release rates for constituents of concern were approximately 2 orders of magnitude less than that of sodium in the Hanford glass [standard].

  14. Log of Changes to IMA Mineral List This log file was begun in June 2010 to keep track of changes to the IMA list of minerals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Downs, Robert T.

    1 Log of Changes to IMA Mineral List This log file was begun in June 2010 to keep track of changes to the IMA list of minerals at http://rruff.info/IMA. 2 August 2013: Eltyubyuite: New mineral descriptions of wadalite: a new mineral from the Northern Caucasus, Kabardino-Balkaria, Russia. European Journal

  15. Degradation of dome cutting minerals in Hanford waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, Jacob G.; Huber, Heinz J.; Cooke, Gary A.

    2013-01-11

    At the Hanford Tank Farms, recent changes in retrieval technology require cutting new risers in several single-shell tanks. The Hanford Tank Farm Operator is using water jet technology with abrasive silicate minerals such as garnet or olivine to cut through the concrete and rebar dome. The abrasiveness of these minerals, which become part of the high-level waste stream, may enhance the erosion of waste processing equipment. However, garnet and olivine are not thermodynamically stable in Hanford waste, slowly degrading over time. How likely these materials are to dissolve completely in the waste before the waste is processed in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant can be evaluated using theoretical analysis for olivine and collected direct experimental evidence for garnet. Based on an extensive literature study, a large number of primary silicates decompose into sodalite and cancrinite when exposed to Hanford waste. Given sufficient time, the sodalite also degrades into cancrinite. Even though cancrinite has not been directly added to any Hanford tanks during process times, it is the most common silicate observed in current Hanford waste. By analogy, olivine and garnet are expected to ultimately also decompose into cancrinite. Garnet used in a concrete cutting demonstration was immersed in a simulated supernate representing the estimated composition of the liquid retrieving waste from Hanford tank 241-C-107 at both ambient and elevated temperatures. This simulant was amended with extra NaOH to determine if adding caustic would help enhance the degradation rate of garnet. The results showed that the garnet degradation rate was highest at the highest NaOH concentration and temperature. At the end of 12 weeks, however, the garnet grains were mostly intact, even when immersed in 2 molar NaOH at 80 deg C. Cancrinite was identified as the degradation product on the surface of the garnet grains. In the case of olivine, the rate of degradation in the high-pH regimes of a waste tank is expected to depend on two main parameters: carbonate is expected to slow olivine degradation rates, whereas hydroxide is expected to enhance olivine dissolution rates. Which of these two competing dissolution drivers will have a larger impact on the dissolution rate in the specific environment of a waste tank is currently not identifiable. In general, cancrinite is much smaller and less hard than either olivine or garnet, so would be expected to be less erosive to processing equipment. Complete degradation of either garnet or olivine prior to being processed at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant cannot be confirmed, however.

  16. Degradation of Dome Cutting Minerals in Hanford Waste - 13100

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, Jacob G.; Cooke, Gary A.; Huber, Heinz J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, P.O. Box 850, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)] [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, P.O. Box 850, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    At the Hanford Tank Farms, recent changes in retrieval technology require cutting new risers in several single-shell tanks. The Hanford Tank Farm Operator is using water jet technology with abrasive silicate minerals such as garnet or olivine to cut through the concrete and rebar dome. The abrasiveness of these minerals, which become part of the high-level waste stream, may enhance the erosion of waste processing equipment. However, garnet and olivine are not thermodynamically stable in Hanford waste, slowly degrading over time. How likely these materials are to dissolve completely in the waste before the waste is processed in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant can be evaluated using theoretical analysis for olivine and collected direct experimental evidence for garnet. Based on an extensive literature study, a large number of primary silicates decompose into sodalite and cancrinite when exposed to Hanford waste. Given sufficient time, the sodalite also degrades into cancrinite. Even though cancrinite has not been directly added to any Hanford tanks during process times, it is the most common silicate observed in current Hanford waste. By analogy, olivine and garnet are expected to ultimately also decompose into cancrinite. Garnet used in a concrete cutting demonstration was immersed in a simulated supernate representing the estimated composition of the liquid retrieving waste from Hanford tank 241-C-107 at both ambient and elevated temperatures. This simulant was amended with extra NaOH to determine if adding caustic would help enhance the degradation rate of garnet. The results showed that the garnet degradation rate was highest at the highest NaOH concentration and temperature. At the end of 12 weeks, however, the garnet grains were mostly intact, even when immersed in 2 molar NaOH at 80 deg. C. Cancrinite was identified as the degradation product on the surface of the garnet grains. In the case of olivine, the rate of degradation in the high-pH regimes of a waste tank is expected to depend on two main parameters: carbonate is expected to slow olivine degradation rates, whereas hydroxide is expected to enhance olivine dissolution rates. Which of these two competing dissolution drivers will have a larger impact on the dissolution rate in the specific environment of a waste tank is currently not identifiable. In general, cancrinite is much smaller and less hard than either olivine or garnet, so would be expected to be less erosive to processing equipment. Complete degradation of either garnet or olivine prior to being processed at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant cannot be confirmed, however. (authors)

  17. The solubility and kinetics of minerals under CO2-EGS geothermal conditions: Comparison of experimental and modeling results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, T.

    2014-01-01

    of rate parameters of water-mineral interaction kinetics forKinetic rate law for mineral dissolution and precipitationwhere n denotes kinetic mineral index, positive values of r

  18. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maher, K.

    2009-01-01

    on Reaction- Rates among Minerals and Aqueous-Solutions .1.as a result of secondary mineral precipitation and approachterm and Contemporary Mineral Weathering rates. Geochim.

  19. Integrated Experimental and Modeling Studies of Mineral Carbonation as a Mechanism for Permanent Carbon Sequestration in Mafic/Ultramafic Rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhengrong; Qiu, Lin; Zhang, Shuang; Bolton, Edward; Bercovici, David; Ague, Jay; Karato, Shun-Ichiro; Oristaglio, Michael; Zhu, Wen-Iu; Lisabeth, Harry; Johnson, Kevin

    2014-09-30

    A program of laboratory experiments, modeling and fieldwork was carried out at Yale University, University of Maryland, and University of Hawai‘i, under a DOE Award (DE-FE0004375) to study mineral carbonation as a practical method of geologic carbon sequestration. Mineral carbonation, also called carbon mineralization, is the conversion of (fluid) carbon dioxide into (solid) carbonate minerals in rocks, by way of naturally occurring chemical reactions. Mafic and ultramafic rocks, such as volcanic basalt, are natural candidates for carbonation, because the magnesium and iron silicate minerals in these rocks react with brines of dissolved carbon dioxide to form carbonate minerals. By trapping carbon dioxide (CO2) underground as a constituent of solid rock, carbonation of natural basalt formations would be a secure method of sequestering CO2 captured at power plants in efforts to mitigate climate change. Geochemical laboratory experiments at Yale, carried out in a batch reactor at 200°C and 150 bar (15 MPa), studied carbonation of the olivine mineral forsterite (Mg2SiO4) reacting with CO2 brines in the form of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) solutions. The main carbonation product in these reactions is the carbonate mineral magnesite (MgCO3). A series of 32 runs varied the reaction time, the reactive surface area of olivine grains and powders, the concentration of the reacting fluid, and the starting ratio of fluid to olivine mass. These experiments were the first to study the rate of olivine carbonation under passive conditions approaching equilibrium. The results show that, in a simple batch reaction, olivine carbonation is fastest during the first 24 hours and then slows significantly and even reverses. A natural measure of the extent of carbonation is a quantity called the carbonation fraction, which compares the amount of carbon removed from solution, during a run, to the maximum amount that could have been removed if the olivine initially present had fully dissolved and the cations released had subsequently precipitated in carbonate minerals. The carbonation fractions observed in batch experiments with olivine grains and powders varied significantly, from less than 0.01 (1%) to more than 0.5 (50%). Over time, the carbonation fractions reached an upper limit after about 24 to 72 hours of reaction, then stayed constant or decreased. The peak Final Scientific/Technical Report DE-FE0004275 | Mineral Carbonation | 4 coincided with the appearance of secondary magnesium-bearing silicate minerals, whose formation competes for magnesium ions in solution and can even promote conditions that dissolve magnesite. The highest carbonation fractions resulted from experiments with low ratios of concentrated solution to olivine, during which amorphous silica spheres or meshes formed, instead of secondary silicate minerals. The highest carbonation fractions appear to result from competing effects. Precipitation of silica layers on olivine reduces the reactive surface area and, thus, the rate of olivine dissolution (which ultimately limits the carbonation rate), but these same silica layers can also inhibit the formation of secondary silicate minerals that consume magnesite formed in earlier stages of carbonation. Simulation of these experiments with simple geochemical models using the software program EQ3/6 reproduces the general trends observed—especially the results for the carbonation fraction in short-run experiments. Although further experimentation and better models are needed, this study nevertheless provides a framework for understanding the optimal conditions for sequestering carbon dioxide by reacting CO2-bearing fluids with rocks containing olivine minerals. A series of experiments at the Rock Physics Laboratory at the University of Maryland studied the carbonation process during deformation of thermally cracked olivine-rich rock samples (dunit

  20. Frequency and temperature dependence in electromagnetic properties of Martian analog minerals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stillman, David E.

    Frequency and temperature dependence in electromagnetic properties of Martian analog minerals David), Frequency and temperature dependence in electromagnetic properties of Martian analog minerals, J. Geophys energy [Grimm et al., 2006]. Lastly, dielectric and magnetic relaxations of Martian subsurface minerals

  1. Bone Mineral Density, Bone Turnover, and Systemic Inflammation in Non-cirrhotics with Chronic Hepatitis C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai, JC; Shoback, DM; Zipperstein, J; Lizaola, B; Tseng, S; Terrault, NA

    2015-01-01

    Mun˜oz-Torres M, et al. Bone mineral density, serum insulin-et al. Osteoporosis and bone mineral metabolism disorders in1069-9. 11. George J. Bone mineral density and disorders of

  2. Reduction And Immobilization Of Hexavalent Chromium By Microbially Reduced Fe-bearing Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, Michael E.; Glasser, Paul; Dong, Hailiang; Arey, Bruce W.; Kovarik, Libor

    2014-05-15

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) is a major contaminant in the environment. As a redox-sensitive element, the fate and toxicity of chromium is controlled by reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions. Previous research has shown the ability of structural Fe(II) in naturally present and chemically reduced clay minerals to reduce Cr6+ to Cr(III) as a way of immobilization and detoxification. However, it is still poorly known whether or not structural Fe(II) in biologically reduced clay minerals exhibits a similar reactivity and if so, what the kinetics and mechanisms of Cr6+ reduction are. The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics and possible mechanisms of Cr6+ reduction by structural Fe(II) in microbially reduced clay minerals and the nature of reduced Cr(III). Structural Fe(III) in nontronite (NAu-2), montmorillonite (SWy-2), chlorite (CCa-2), and clay-rich sediments from the Ringold Formation of the Hanford site of Washington State, USA was first bioreduced to Fe(II) by an iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens with acetate as the sole electron donor and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfate (AQDS) as electron shuttle in synthetic groundwater (pH 7). Biogenic Fe(II) was then used to reduce aqueous Cr6+ at three different temperatures, 10°, 20°, and 30°C, in order to determine the temperature dependence of the redox reaction between Cr6+ and clay-Fe(II). The results showed that nontronite and montmorillonite were most effective in reducing aqueous Cr6+ at all three temperatures. In contrast, most Fe(II) in chlorite was not reactive towards Cr6+ reduction at 10°C, though at 30°C there was some reduction. For all the clay minerals, the ratio of total Fe(II) oxidized to Cr6+ reduced was close to the expected stoichiometric value of 3. Characterization of the Cr-clay reaction product with scanning electron microscopy with focused ion beam and transmission electron microscopy with electron energy loss spectroscopy revealed that reduced chromium was possibly in the form of sub-nanometer Cr2O3 in association with residual clay minerals as micro-aggregates. This textural association was expected to minimize the chance of Cr(III) reoxidation upon exposure to oxidants. These results are important for our understanding of how various clay minerals may be used to reductively immobilize the heavy metal contaminant Cr in the environment.

  3. Availability of Potash in Some Soil-Forming Minerals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1921-01-01

    AVAILABILITY OF POTASH IN SOME SOIL-FORMING MINERALS . knowledge of the availability of potash in minerals which occur in ,,,, soil is important to soil chemistry. It aids in the interpretation of the analysis of the soil and in judging methods of analysis.... McCaughey and Fry (Bulletin 91 of the Bureau of Soils, U. S. De- partment of Agriculture) have found that four primary minerals in tht soil are the chief carriers of potash. These are biotite, muscovite, ortho- clase, and microcline. Potash may...

  4. Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-05-06

    The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

  5. Exploring Frontiers in Kinetics and Mechanisms of Geochemical Processes at the Mineral/Water Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Exploring Frontiers in Kinetics and Mechanisms of Geochemical Processes at the Mineral geochemical processes including surface complexation, mineral transformations, and oxidation

  6. Mineral transformation and biomass accumulation associated with uranium bioremediation at Rifle, Colorado

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, L.

    2009-01-01

    phase transformation and biomass accumulation associatedMineral Transformation and Biomass Accumulation Associatedof new mineral phases and biomass. Word count: 5496 (text) +

  7. Select Minerals and Potable Use of Reclaimed Wastewaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolf, H.

    1977-01-01

    The long-observed relationships of an influence of drinking water mineral content on heart-circulatory deaths are developed to indicate that sodium -- when present in sufficiently high concentrations -- may be detrimental to human health...

  8. A Review Of Water Contents Of Nominally Anhydrous Natural Minerals...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A Review Of Water Contents Of Nominally Anhydrous Natural Minerals In The Mantles Of Earth, Mars And The Moon Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  9. Mercury Contents of Natural Thermal and Mineral Fluids, In- U...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Book Section: Mercury Contents of Natural Thermal and Mineral Fluids, In- U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 713 Abstract...

  10. Immersion freezing of clay minerals and bacterial ice nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiranuma, Naruki

    2013-01-01

    The immersion mode ice nucleation efficiency of clay minerals and biological aerosols has been investigated using the AIDA (Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) cloud chamber. Both monodisperse and polydisperse ...

  11. Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary Print Earth is a dynamic planet in which convection takes place on the scale of thousands of kilometers. Because Earth is mostly...

  12. King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mustafa, M. Tahir

    King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES Technical Report of the map. Recall that a map : Mm Nn is said to be harmonic if it extremizes the associated energy

  13. Inducing Mineral Precipitation in Groundwater by Addition of Phosphate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karen E. Wright; Yoshiko Fujita; Thomas Hartmann; Mark Conrad

    2011-10-01

    Induced precipitation of phosphate minerals to scavenge trace metals and radionuclides from groundwater is a potential remediation approach for contaminated aquifers. Phosphate minerals can sequester trace elements by primary mineral formation, solid solution formation and/or adsorption, and they are poorly soluble under many environmental conditions, making them attractive for long-term sustainable remediation. The success of such engineered schemes will depend on the particular mineral phases generated, their rates of formation, and their long term stability. The purpose of this study was to examine the precipitation of calcium phosphate minerals under conditions representative of a natural groundwater. Because microorganisms are present in groundwater, and because some proposed schemes for induced phosphate mineral precipitation rely on the stimulation of native groundwater populations, we also tested the effect of bacterial cells (initial densities of 105 and 107 ml-1) within the precipitation medium. We also tested the effect of a trace mixture of propionic, isovaleric, formic and butyric acids (total concentration 0.035 mM). The experiments showed that the general progression of mineral precipitation was similar under all of the conditions, with initial formation of amorphous calcium carbonate, and transformation to poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite (HAP) by the end of the week-long experiments. The presence of the bacterial cells appeared to delay precipitation, although by the end of 7 days the overall extent of precipitation was similar for all of the treatments. The stoichiometry of the final precipitates as well as results of Rietveld refinement of x-ray diffraction data indicated that the treatments including organic acids and bacterial cells resulted in increased distortion of the HAP crystal lattice, with the higher concentration of cells resulting in the greatest distortion. Uptake of Sr into the phosphate minerals was decreased in the treatments with cells and organic acids, compared to the control. The results of the experiments enable a greater understanding of the challenges associated with phosphate-based remediation schemes for contaminated environments.

  14. Report TKK-ENY-9 Mineral carbonation for long-term storage of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    Report TKK-ENY-9 Mineral carbonation for long-term storage of CO2 from flue gases Jens Kohlmann 1 University of Technology was "Mineral carbonation for long-term storage of CO2 from flue gases"; the progress storage by mineral carbonation in Finland (CO2 lagring genom mineral karbonering i Finland)" Ron

  15. Study of Interactions Between Microbes and Minerals by Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscopy (STXM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benzerara, K; Tyliszczak, T

    2007-01-01

    Study of Interactions Between Microbes and Minerals by Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscopy (STXM)

  16. Rock Cycle and Rocks Lab Rocks are aggregates of one or many minerals.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, X. Rong

    Rock Cycle and Rocks Lab Rocks are aggregates of one or many minerals. Three types of rocks: A of their sizes, shapes and arrangement. Rule of Thumb: The size of mineral crystals in an igneous rock may, there is not enough time for large mineral crystals to form (e.g. obsidian) Igneous Rock Mineral Compositions

  17. 4.4 Nanoscale: Mineral Weathering Boundary RI Dorn, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorn, Ron

    4.4 Nanoscale: Mineral Weathering Boundary RI Dorn, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA SJ-scattered detector. Biotic weathering Mineral weathering caused by life, including bacteria, fungi, algae, plants of elements such as silica or iron. Etching of minerals Mineral dissolution is not an even produce; areas

  18. PTYS 109 LAB EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY IN PLANETARY SCIENCE ROCKS AND MINERALS 133

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Barbara Anne

    PTYS 109 LAB EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY IN PLANETARY SCIENCE ROCKS AND MINERALS 133 Rocks and Minerals I. OBJECTIVES One of the many ways to study Earth is by examining the rocks that make up its types of rocks and minerals; · determine the formation and the history of each rock and mineral; · infer

  19. Coupled alkai fieldspar dissolution and secondary mineral precipatation in batch systems-2: New experiments with supercritical CO2 and implications for carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Peng; Fu, Qi; Seyfried, William E. Jr.; Hedges, Sheila W. [U.S. DOE; Soong, Yee [U.S. DOE; Jones, Kyle; Zhua, Chen

    2013-01-01

    In order to evaluate the extent of CO{sub 2}–water–rock interactions in geological formations for C sequestration, three batch experiments were conducted on alkali feldspars–CO{sub 2}–brine interactions at 150–200 °C and 300 bars. The elevated temperatures were necessary to accelerate the reactions to facilitate attainable laboratory measurements. Temporal evolution of fluid chemistry was monitored by major element analysis of in situ fluid samples. SEM, TEM and XRD analysis of reaction products showed extensive dissolution features (etch pits, channels, kinks and steps) on feldspars and precipitation of secondary minerals (boehmite, kaolinite, muscovite and paragonite) on feldspar surfaces. Therefore, these experiments have generated both solution chemistry and secondary mineral identity. The experimental results show that partial equilibrium was not attained between secondary minerals and aqueous solutions for the feldspar hydrolysis batch systems. Evidence came from both solution chemistry (supersaturation of the secondary minerals during the entire experimental duration) and metastable co-existence of secondary minerals. The slow precipitation of secondary minerals results in a negative feedback in the dissolution–precipitation loop, reducing the overall feldspar dissolution rates by orders of magnitude. Furthermore, the experimental data indicate the form of rate laws greatly influence the steady state rates under which feldspar dissolution took place. Negligence of both the mitigating effects of secondary mineral precipitation and the sigmoidal shape of rate–?G{sub r} relationship can overestimate the extent of feldspar dissolution during CO{sub 2} storage. Finally, the literature on feldspar dissolution in CO{sub 2}-charged systems has been reviewed. The data available are insufficient and new experiments are urgently needed to establish a database on feldspar dissolution mechanism, rates and rate laws, as well as secondary mineral information at CO{sub 2} storage conditions.

  20. Structure of global buyer-supplier networks and its implications for conflict minerals regulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mizuno, Takayuki; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the structure of global inter-firm linkages using a dataset that contains information on business partners for about 400,000 firms worldwide, including all the firms listed on the major stock exchanges. Among the firms, we examine three networks, which are based on customer-supplier, licensee-licensor, and strategic alliance relationships. First, we show that these networks all have scale-free topology and that the degree distribution for each follows a power law with an exponent of 1.5. The shortest path length is around six for all three networks. Second, we show through community structure analysis that the firms comprise a community with those firms that belong to the same industry but different home countries, indicating the globalization of firms' production activities. Finally, we discuss what such production globalization implies for the proliferation of conflict minerals (i.e., minerals extracted from conflict zones and sold to firms in other countries to perpetuate fighting) through g...

  1. Oil and coal: reserves and production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canada Japan F.R I United Germany Kingdom France Italy Fig. 2. Oil's share of the increase in energy useOil and coal: reserves and production Anton Ziolkowski* The 1984-85 strike by British coal miners has focused attention on the difficulties of the coal industry at a time when demand for energy

  2. Diagenesis and clay mineral formation at Gale Crater, Mars

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bridges, J. C.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Leveille, R.; Westall, F.; Wiens, R. C.; Mangold, N.; Bristow, T.; Edwards, P.; Berger, G.

    2015-01-18

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity found host rocks of basaltic composition and alteration assemblages containing clay minerals at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater. On the basis of the observed host rock and alteration minerals, we present results of equilibrium thermochemical modeling of the Sheepbed mudstones of Yellowknife Bay in order to constrain the formation conditions of its secondary mineral assemblage. Building on conclusions from sedimentary observations by the Mars Science Laboratory team, we assume diagenetic, in situ alteration. The modeling shows that the mineral assemblage formed by the reaction of a CO?-poor and oxidizing, dilute aqueous solution (Gale Portage Water)more »in an open system with the Fe-rich basaltic-composition sedimentary rocks at 10–50°C and water/rock ratio (mass of rock reacted with the starting fluid) of 100–1000, pH of ~7.5–12. Model alteration assemblages predominantly contain phyllosilicates (Fe-smectite, chlorite), the bulk composition of a mixture of which is close to that of saponite inferred from Chemistry and Mineralogy data and to that of saponite observed in the nakhlite Martian meteorites and terrestrial analogues. To match the observed clay mineral chemistry, inhomogeneous dissolution dominated by the amorphous phase and olivine is required. We therefore deduce a dissolving composition of approximately 70% amorphous material, with 20% olivine, and 10% whole rock component.« less

  3. Carbon K-edge Spectra of Carbonate Minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandes, J.; Wirick, S; Jacobsen, C

    2010-01-01

    Carbon K-edge X-ray spectroscopy has been applied to the study of a wide range of organic samples, from polymers and coals to interstellar dust particles. Identification of carbonaceous materials within these samples is accomplished by the pattern of resonances in the 280-320 eV energy region. Carbonate minerals are often encountered in the study of natural samples, and have been identified by a distinctive resonance at 290.3 eV. Here C K-edge and Ca L-edge spectra from a range of carbonate minerals are presented. Although all carbonates exhibit a sharp 290 eV resonance, both the precise position of this resonance and the positions of other resonances vary among minerals. The relative strengths of the different carbonate resonances also vary with crystal orientation to the linearly polarized X-ray beam. Intriguingly, several carbonate minerals also exhibit a strong 288.6 eV resonance, consistent with the position of a carbonyl resonance rather than carbonate. Calcite and aragonite, although indistinguishable spectrally at the C K-edge, exhibited significantly different spectra at the Ca L-edge. The distinctive spectral fingerprints of carbonates provide an identification tool, allowing for the examination of such processes as carbon sequestration in minerals, Mn substitution in marine calcium carbonates (dolomitization) and serpentinization of basalts.

  4. Lab 1 Mineral Utility Lab notes The physical world is made up of a vast number of different minerals. Later on in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, X. Rong

    Lab 1 Mineral Utility Lab notes The physical world is made up of a vast number of different minerals. Later on in the course, we will learn about some of the more common rock-forming ones them, e.g. gold, silver, and even salt or "halite". These and most other minerals have to be extracted

  5. Durability Testing of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JANTZEN, CAROL M.; PAREIZS, JOHN M.; LORIER, TROY H.; MARRA, JAMES C.

    2005-07-01

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of radioactive wastes but especially aqueous high sodium wastes at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The FBSR technology converts organic compounds to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, converts nitrate/nitrite species to N{sub 2}, and produces a solid residue through reactions with superheated steam, the fluidizing media. If clay is added during processing a ''mineralized'' granular waste form can be produced. The mineral components of the waste form are primarily Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The cage and ring structured minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc{sup 99} and Cs{sup 137} and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals appear to stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Durability testing of the FBSR products was performed using ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The FBSR mineral products (bed and fines) evaluated in this study were found to be two orders of magnitude more durable than the Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass requirement of 2 g/m{sup 2} release of Na{sup +}. The PCT responses for the FBSR samples tested were consistent with results from previous FBSR Hanford LAW product testing. Differences in the response can be explained by the minerals formed and their effects on PCT leachate chemistry.

  6. Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This final report describes the activities of the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) at Iowa State University for the period July 1, 1989, to June 30, 1990. Activities include research in mining- and mineral-related areas, education and training of scientists and engineers in these fields, administration of the Institute, and cooperative interactions with industry, government agencies, and other research centers. During this period, ISMMRRI has supported research efforts to: (1) Investigate methods of leaching zinc from sphalerite-containing ores. (2) Study the geochemistry and geology of an Archean gold deposit and of a gold-telluride deposit. (3) Enchance how-quality aggregates for use in construction. (4) Pre-clean coal by triboelectric charging in a fluidized-bed. (5) Characterize the crystal/grain alignment during processing of yttrium-barium-copper-perovskite (1-2-3) superconductors. (5) Study the fluid inclusion properties of a fluorite district. (6) Study the impacts of surface mining on community planning. (7) Assess the hydrophobicity of coal and pyrite for beneficiation. (8) Investigate the use of photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy for monitoring unburnt carbon in the exhaust gas from coal-fired boilers. The education and training program continued within the interdepartmental graduate minor in mineral resources includes courses in such areas as mining methods, mineral processing, industrial minerals, extractive metallurgy, coal science and technology, and reclamation of mined land. In addition, ISMMRRI hosted the 3rd International Conference on Processing and Utilization of High-Sulfur Coals in Ames, Iowa. The Institute continues to interact with industry in order to foster increased cooperation between academia and the mining and mineral community.

  7. Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGE OFDetectionBenchmark Performance 111.1MineralMineral

  8. Modeling the global emission, transport and deposition of trace elements associated with mineral dust

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Y.; Mahowald, N.; Scanza, R.; Journet, E.; Desboeufs, K.; Albani, S.; Kok, J.; Zhuang, G.; Chen, Y.; Cohen, D. D.; et al

    2014-12-17

    Trace element deposition from desert dust has important impacts on ocean primary productivity. In this study, emission inventories for 8 elements, which are primarily of soil origin, Mg, P, Ca, Mn, Fe, K, Al, and Si were determined based on a global mineral dataset and a soils dataset. Datasets of elemental fractions were used to drive the desert dust model in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) in order to simulate the elemental concentrations of atmospheric dust. Spatial variability of mineral dust elemental fractions was evident on a global scale, particularly for Ca. Simulations of global variations in the Camore »/ Al ratio, which typically ranged from around 0.1 to 5.0 in soil sources, were consistent with observations, suggesting this ratio to be a good signature for dust source regions. The simulated variable fractions of chemical elements are sufficiently different that estimates of deposition should include elemental variations, especially for Ca, Al and Fe. The model results have been evaluated with observational elemental aerosol concentration data from desert regions and dust events in non-dust regions, providing insights into uncertainties in the modeling approach. The ratios between modeled and observed elemental fractions ranged from 0.7 to 1.6 except for 3.4 and 3.5 for Mg and Mn, respectivly. Using the soil data base improved the correspondence of the spatial hetereogeneity in the modeling of several elements (Ca, Al and Fe) compared to observations. Total and soluble dust associated element fluxes into different ocean basins and ice sheets regions have been estimated, based on the model results. Annual inputs of soluble Mg, P, Ca, Mn, Fe and K associated with dust using mineral dataset were 0.28 Tg, 16.89 Gg, 1.32 Tg, 22.84 Gg, 0.068 Tg, and 0.15 Tg to global oceans and ice sheets.« less

  9. Pottery Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholson, Paul T.

    2009-01-01

    Paul T. Nicholson. ) Pottery Production, Nicholson, UEE 2009Short Citation: Nicholson 2009, Pottery Production. UEE.Paul T. , 2009, Pottery Production. In Willeke Wendrich (

  10. Cordage Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veldmeijer, André J.

    2009-01-01

    294: fig. 15-3). Cordage Production, Veldmeijer, UEE 2009Short Citation: Veldmeijer, 2009, Cordage Production. UEE.André J. , 2009, Cordage Production. In Willeke Wendrich (

  11. Glass Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shortland, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    40, pp. 162 - 186. Glass Production, Shortland, UEE 2009AINES Short Citation: Shortland 2009, Glass Production. UEE.Andrew, 2009, Glass Production. In Willeke Wendrich (ed. ),

  12. Mineral resources of the Sacatar Meadows Wilderness study Area, Tulare and Inyo counties, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diggles, M.F.; Frisken, J.G.; Griscom, A.; Kuizon, L.

    1988-01-01

    At the request of the US Bureau of Land Management, approximately 11,447 acres of the Sacatar Meadows Wilderness Study Area were evaluated for mineral resources (known) and mineral resource potential (undiscovered). No mineral resources were identified. There are five areas of low mineral resource potential (tungsten and molybdenum) in and near the study area. The host rocks for these minerals are Mesozoic-age granitic rocks of the Sierra Nevada Batholith and calcareous metamorphic roof-pendant rocks. The area has no geothermal energy, energy mineral, or oil and gas resource potential.

  13. New Mexico Bureau of Geology & Mineral Resources A DIVISION OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borchers, Brian

    , The Barnett Shale in southeastern New Mexico: Distribution, thickness, and source rock characterization: New interpretation and mapping techniques. Broadhead, R.F., 2010, The Woodford Shale in southeastern New MexicoNew Mexico Bureau of Geology & Mineral Resources A DIVISION OF NEW MEXICO INSTITUTE OF MINING

  14. Rheological properties of minerals and rocks Shun-ichiro Karato

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Rheological properties of minerals and rocks Shun-ichiro Karato Yale University Department Earth" (edited by S. Karato) Wiley-Blackwell #12; 2 SUMMARY Plastic deformation in Earth and planetary. The rheological properties in the upper mantle are controlled mostly by temperature, pressure and water content

  15. Proxies and Measurement Techniques for Mineral Dust in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Hubertus

    concentrations, which are typically a factor 100, differ between the methods by up to a factor of 2Proxies and Measurement Techniques for Mineral Dust in Antarctic Ice Cores U R S R U T H , * , C, Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, Department

  16. KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & MINERALS Dhahran, Saudi Arabia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

    KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & MINERALS Dhahran, Saudi Arabia Basic Properties of Reservoir. INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 The nature of petroleum 1 1.2 The petroleum reservoir 1 1.3 Significance of rock properties) to asphaltenes containing hundreds of carbon atoms. Like coal, petroleum constitutes a prime source

  17. Invest in Your Bones Bone Mineral Calcium and Vitamin D

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Invest in Your Bones Bone Mineral Calcium and Vitamin D Leaflet 4 One common misconception is that calcium is only needed for growing children. In reality, both calcium and vitamin D are needed to maintain of calcium from your bones. Vitamin D promotes the absorption of calcium in the gut, which is necessary

  18. Mineral mesopore effects on nitrogenous organic matter Andrew R. Zimmermana,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chorover, Jon

    as sequestration of pollutants in soils and sediments (Luthy et al., 1997), turnover of natural soil organic carbon that organic matter (OM) may be protected from enzymatic degradation by sequestration within mineral mesopores observations. These results provide a potential mechanism for the selective sequestration and preservation

  19. Lidar fluorosensing of mineral oil spills on the sea surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Carl von Ossietzky Universität

    be discriminated from heavy fuel, and from less harmful substances like fish oil or vegetable oil, Fig. 3, whichLidar fluorosensing of mineral oil spills on the sea surface Theo Hengstermann and Rainer Reuter Airborne .fluorosensor measurements over maritime oil spills show that this method enables a sensitive

  20. China's Energy Management System Program for Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hedman, B.; Yu, Y.; Friedman, Z.; Taylor, R.

    2014-01-01

    Use: 1995 – 2010 Source: NBS, 2011b 9 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 1995 2000 2005 2010 P r i m a r y E n e r g y * ( M t c e ) Wood and wood products Transport equipment Non-specified industry Paper, pulp and printing Food... Poland China India Food and tobacco Textile and leather Wood and wood products Paper, pulp and printing Petrochemicals Chemicals and chemical products Non-metallic minerals Metals Machinery Transport equipment Total ESL-IE-14...

  1. Effects of Biochar Recycling on Switchgrass Growth and Soil and Water Quality in Bioenergy Production Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Husmoen, Derek Howard

    2012-07-16

    sources of mineral nutrients and organic carbon for sustaining biomass productivity and preserving soil and water. Yet, research is needed to verify that recycling of pyrolysis biochars will enhance crop growth and soil and environmental quality similar...

  2. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming of Hanford LAW Using THORsm Mineralizing Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, Arlin L.; Nicholas R Soelberg; Douglas W. Marshall; Gary L. Anderson

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documented, in 2002, a plan for accelerating cleanup of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, by at least 35 years. A key element of the plan was acceleration of the tank waste program and completion of ''tank waste treatment by 2028 by increasing the capacity of the planned Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) and using supplemental technologies for waste treatment and immobilization.'' The plan identified steam reforming technology as a candidate for supplemental treatment of as much as 70% of the low-activity waste (LAW). Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was completed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel. The pilot scale facility was equipped with a highly efficient cyclone separator and heated sintered metal filters for particulate removal, a thermal oxidizer for reduced gas species and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for residual volatile species capture. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, but located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Pilot scale testing was performed August 2–5, 2004. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Science Application International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, personnel performed actual pilot scale operation. The pilot scale test achieved a total of 68.7 hrs of cumulative/continuous processing operation before termination in response to a bed de-fluidization condition. 178 kg of LAW surrogate were processed that resulted in 148 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 17%. The process achieved essentially complete bed turnover within approximately 40 hours. Samples of mineralized solid product materials were analyzed for chemical/physical properties. SRNL will report separately the results of product performance testing that were accomplished.

  3. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA. This topical report covers Subphase 2a which is the design phase of pilot demonstration subsystems. Materials of construction have been selected and proven in both lab scale and prototype testing to be acceptable for the reagent conditions of interest. The target application for the reactive carbonate material has been selected based upon small-scale feasibility studies and the design of a continuous fiber board production line has been completed. The electrochemical cell architecture and components have been selected based upon both lab scale and prototype testing. The appropriate quality control and diagnostic techniques have been developed and tested along with the required instrumentation and controls. Finally the demonstrate site infrastructure, NEPA categorical exclusion, and permitting is all ready for the construction and installation of the new units and upgrades.

  4. Mineral density volume gradients in normal and diseased human tissues

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Djomehri, Sabra I.; Candell, Susan; Case, Thomas; Browning, Alyssa; Marshall, Grayson W.; Yun, Wenbing; Lau, S. H.; Webb, Samuel; Ho, Sunita P.; Aikawa, Elena

    2015-04-09

    Clinical computed tomography provides a single mineral density (MD) value for heterogeneous calcified tissues containing early and late stage pathologic formations. The novel aspect of this study is that, it extends current quantitative methods of mapping mineral density gradients to three dimensions, discretizes early and late mineralized stages, identifies elemental distribution in discretized volumes, and correlates measured MD with respective calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) and Ca to zinc (Zn) elemental ratios. To accomplish this, MD variations identified using polychromatic radiation from a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) benchtop unit were correlated with elemental mapping obtained from a microprobe X-raymore »fluorescence (XRF) using synchrotron monochromatic radiation. Digital segmentation of tomograms from normal and diseased tissues (N=5 per group; 40-60 year old males) contained significant mineral density variations (enamel: 2820-3095mg/cc, bone: 570-1415mg/cc, cementum: 1240-1340mg/cc, dentin: 1480-1590mg/cc, cementum affected by periodontitis: 1100-1220mg/cc, hypomineralized carious dentin: 345-1450mg/cc, hypermineralized carious dentin: 1815-2740mg/cc, and dental calculus: 1290-1770mg/cc). A plausible linear correlation between segmented MD volumes and elemental ratios within these volumes was established, and Ca/P ratios for dentin (1.49), hypomineralized dentin (0.32-0.46), cementum (1.51), and bone (1.68) were observed. Furthermore, varying Ca/Zn ratios were distinguished in adapted compared to normal tissues, such as in bone (855-2765) and in cementum (595-990), highlighting Zn as an influential element in prompting observed adaptive properties. Hence, results provide insights on mineral density gradients with elemental concentrations and elemental footprints that in turn could aid in elucidating mechanistic processes for pathologic formations.« less

  5. Heavy mineral distribution in stream sediment of Tapah area, Perak, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sibon, Mahat Hj [Jabatan Mineral dan Geosains Malaysia, 40000 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia and Program Geologi, Pusat Pengajian Sains Sekitaran dan Sumber Alam, Fakulti Sains dan Teknologi, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Jamil, Habibah; Umor, Mohd Rozi [Program Geologi, Pusat Pengajian Sains Sekitaran dan Sumber Alam, Fakulti Sains dan Teknologi, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Hassan, Wan Fuad Wan [Jabatan Geologi, Fakulti Sains Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    This paper aims to provide the overview of occurrence, distribution and origin of the heavy minerals in the study area. A total of 45 selected stream sediment heavy mineral concentrate samples were panned using standard dulangs, dried and separated from other light minerals using bromoform. The heavy minerals were separated into different fractions at different amperes using Frantz Isodynamic magnetic separator. Mineral identification was done using binocular microscope augmented by X-ray diffraction analyses. Mineral abundance data were analysed graphically using triangular diagrams to show their origin. Dominant minerals present in the heavy mineral samples collected are ilmenite, cassiterite, tourmaline, zircon, topaz, and magnetite. The less common minerals, present in trace amounts are hematite, xenotime, allanite, monazite, rutile, anatase, leucoxene, chromite, garnet and olivine. Examination of the heavy mineral assemblage shows that they originated from granite batholiths of the Main Range, Changkat Rembian as well as from the metasedimentary rock in the area. The gold flakes present are found together with cassiterite and topaz indicating that gold originates from the mineralized veins contact-metamorphosed metasedimentary rocks. Almost all samples collected contain cassiterite grains in various amounts. From the mineral assemblage, the source of cassiterite originates from the mineralized quartz veins that cut granitic rocks of Main Range, Changkat Rembian as well as the metasedimentary rock in the area. Greisenized veins containing quartz, mica and tourmaline with the presence of wolframite and arsenopyrite also contribute to the presence of cassiterite in this study area.

  6. Bone density and geometry in juvenile racehorses fed differing amounts of minerals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nolan, Meghan Muire

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to further elucidate the mineral requirements of the juvenile horse in training. Horses were fed rations containing differing amounts of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium and in reference to mineral intake, groups were...

  7. Rend Lake College celebrates the opening of a new coal miner training facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2009-09-15

    The Coal Miner Training Center at Rend Lake College recently hosted the Illinois Mining Institute's annual conference and a regional mine rescue competition. The article gives an outline of the coal miner training and refresher course offered. 3 photos.

  8. Geophysical technique for mineral exploration and discrimination based on electromagnetic methods and associated systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhdanov; Michael S. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    2008-01-29

    Mineral exploration needs a reliable method to distinguish between uneconomic mineral deposits and economic mineralization. A method and system includes a geophysical technique for subsurface material characterization, mineral exploration and mineral discrimination. The technique introduced in this invention detects induced polarization effects in electromagnetic data and uses remote geophysical observations to determine the parameters of an effective conductivity relaxation model using a composite analytical multi-phase model of the rock formations. The conductivity relaxation model and analytical model can be used to determine parameters related by analytical expressions to the physical characteristics of the microstructure of the rocks and minerals. These parameters are ultimately used for the discrimination of different components in underground formations, and in this way provide an ability to distinguish between uneconomic mineral deposits and zones of economic mineralization using geophysical remote sensing technology.

  9. rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org Cite this article: Miner EJ, Gurven M, Kaplan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cosmides, Leda

    rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org Research Cite this article: Miner EJ, Gurven M, Kaplan H, Gaulin. Miner, Michael Gurven, Hillard Kaplan and Steven J. C. Gaulin Department of Anthropology, University

  10. Copyright: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals; http://www.kfupm.edu.sa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El-Alfy, El-Sayed

    © Copyright: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals; http://www.kfupm.edu.sa MPLS Network SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS, VOLS 1-3; pp: 1058-1064; Vol: ## King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals

  11. Mineral Dust Entrainment and Deposition (DEAD) model: Description and 1990s dust climatology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newman, David

    Mineral Dust Entrainment and Deposition (DEAD) model: Description and 1990s dust climatology to 1999 is simulated with our mineral aerosol entrainment and deposition module embedded in a chemical transport model. Mobilization processes include entrainment thresholds for saltation, moisture inhibition

  12. Effects of mineral spatial distribution on reaction rates in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Catherine A.

    on reaction rates in porous media. Pore-scale network models were constructed to represent sandstones mineral phases, with some minerals more reactive than others. For example, many sandstones contain

  13. Global estimates of mineral dust aerosol iron and aluminum solubility that account for particle size using diffusion-controlled and surface-area-controlled approximations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    T. D. Jickells (2006), Mineral particle size as a control onInvestigating Microbial-Mineral Interactions, CMS Workshopstudy of iron-containing mineral dust source materials, J.

  14. Measurement of accessible reactive surface area in a sandstone, with application to CO2 mineralization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landrot, G.

    2013-01-01

    characterization approach employed in this study is suitable for mapping the mineral distribution and pore structure found in a reservoir

  15. Flexible Statistical Models for Growth Fragments: a Study of Bone Mineral Acquisition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hastie, Trevor

    mineral called dual energy x-ray absorptiom- 2 #12; etry (DXA). To date, most of these investigations have

  16. Modeling dust as component minerals in the Community Atmosphere Model: development of framework and impact on radiative forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    S. , and Colin, J. -L. : Miner- alogy as a critical factorCAM5, the simulation with miner- alogy has relatively highforcing for both models with miner- alogy. For CAM4, while

  17. Hard Rock Miners` Phthisis in 19th and Early 20th Century Britain: From Diagnosis to Compensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mintz, Fredric

    2009-01-01

    F.R.C.P. (1903). Discussion of Miners' Phthisis. The BritishD.Sc. , F.R.C.P. (1903). Miners' Diseases discussed at thethe Transvaal, Pretoria. Gold Miners' Phthisis. The Lancet (

  18. Automated simulation of areal bone mineral density assessment in the distal radius from high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burghardt, A. J.; Kazakia, G. J.; Link, T. M.; Majumdar, S.

    2009-01-01

    of osteoporotic fractures. J Bone Miner Res 16:1108–1119 3.of Osteoporotic Fractures. J Bone Miner Res 18:1947–1954 4.and calcaneus. J Bone Miner Res 14:1167–1174 7. Muller R,

  19. A new approach to examining scorpion peg sensilla: the mineral oil flood technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaffin, Doug

    A new approach to examining scorpion peg sensilla: the mineral oil flood technique Elizabeth D approach to examining scorpion peg sensilla: the mineral oil flood technique Elizabeth D. Knowlton evaluated the efficacy of the new mineral oil flood technique. From early indications, we think this new

  20. Mineral sequestration of CO2 by aqueous carbonation of1 coal combustion fly-ash2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Mineral sequestration of CO2 by aqueous carbonation of1 coal combustion fly-ash2 3 G. Montes that could possibly4 contribute to reducing carbon dioxide emissions is the in-situ mineral sequestration (long term5 geological storage) or the ex-situ mineral sequestration (controlled industrial reactors

  1. 1. Department, Course Number, Title ORE 678, Marine Mineral Resources Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Covered · Introduction to Marine Minerals · Peak Everything - Running out of Commodities · Manganese Nodules and Marine Mining · Deep Sea Mining Technology · Minerals Processing · Offshore Oil and Gas · Oil and Gas Technology, Future Oil Sources and Issues · Economics of Marine Minerals · World Metal Markets

  2. Forward Security in Threshold Signature Schemes MICHEL ABDALLA SARA MINER y CHANATHIP NAMPREMPRE z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Forward Security in Threshold Signature Schemes MICHEL ABDALLA #3; SARA MINER y CHANATHIP of the Bellare­Miner forward­secure signature scheme, which is Fiat­Shamir­based. One scheme uses multiplicative secret sharing, and we prove it forward­secure based on the security of the Bellare­Miner scheme. We

  3. Tracks of dissolved minerals Pictures from Opportunity's panoramic camera and microscopic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tracks of dissolved minerals Pictures from Opportunity's panoramic camera and microscopic imager is familiar to geologists as the sites where crystals of salt minerals form within rocks that sit in briny minerals. On the front: Scraping up clues Spirit's stuck right front wheel scraped a trench in the Mars

  4. Phase shifting speckle interferometry for determination of strain and Young's modulus of mineralized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friesem, Asher A.

    of mineralized biological materials: a study of tooth dentin compression in water Paul Zaslansky Weizmann-8-9342552, Fax: 972-8-9344136 Abstract. Mineralized biological materials have complex hierarchical graded online Apr. 26, 2005. 1 Introduction Mineralized biological materials have complex structures ranging

  5. Modeling of the magnetic behavior of -Fe2O3 nanoparticles mineralized in ferritin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Idzerda, Yves

    Modeling of the magnetic behavior of -Fe2O3 nanoparticles mineralized in ferritin Damon Resnick maghemite mineralized inside ferritin protein cages has been investigated with a vibrating sample be emptied of its con- tents and mineralized with a multitude of different materials, forming highly uniform

  6. HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Mineral Oil and Aliphatic Alcohols: Toxicity and Analysis of Synergistic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Timothy E.

    HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Mineral Oil and Aliphatic Alcohols: Toxicity and Analysis. Entomol. 104(5): 1680Ð1686 (2011); DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/EC10440 ABSTRACT Two mineral oils and 12 and some- times repeated applications. Mineral oils, and other petroleum distillates, are often used

  7. Zoology 109 (2006) 164168 Mineralized Cartilage in the skeleton of chondrichthyan fishes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Summers, Adam P.

    2006-01-01

    ZOOLOGY Zoology 109 (2006) 164­168 Mineralized Cartilage in the skeleton of chondrichthyan fishes; Mineralization; Calcified cartilage; Tesserae Introduction The breadth of morphological variation of the mineralized cartilage of the endoskeleton of chon- drichthyan fishes (sharks, rays, and chimaeras) has led

  8. Physicochemical Controls on the Formation of Polynuclear Metal Complexes at Clay Mineral Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Physicochemical Controls on the Formation of Polynuclear Metal Complexes at Clay Mineral Surfaces R. G. Ford Metal sorption to clay minerals may lead to the formation of secondary precipitates structurally similar to the mineral takovite. Saturation with respect to this phase is promoted, in part

  9. Flexible Statistical Models for Growth Fragments: a Study of Bone Mineral Acquisition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hastie, Trevor

    Flexible Statistical Models for Growth Fragments: a Study of Bone Mineral Acquisition Trevor J describe some statistical modeling of longitudinal data from a pediatric study of bone mineral acquisition- surements of bone mineral density are available for each subject, taken roughly one year apart, and between

  10. Rapid Communication On the origin of the toughness of mineralized tissue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    Rapid Communication On the origin of the toughness of mineralized tissue: microcracking or crack in mineralized tissues, such as bone and dentin, have been identified--microcracking and crack bridging. While the perspective of developing a micromechanistic framework for understanding fracture behavior of mineralized

  11. JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH Volume 7, Number 12, 1992

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH Volume 7, Number 12, 1992 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., Publishers behavior and molecular ex- pression before it finally becomes a mineralizing osteocyte. The progression, extracellular maturation, and mineralization -are identified. (3.4) Many molecules functioning as growth fac

  12. Predicted Effect of Minerals on Pretreatment 1013 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vol. 113116, 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Predicted Effect of Minerals on Pretreatment 1013 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vol. 113 of Mineral Neutralization and Bisulfate Formation on Hydrogen Ion Concentration for Dilute Sulfuric Acid, such as agricultural residues and forest wastes, can have a significant mineral content. It has been shown

  13. MINERAL FINE STRUCTURE OF THE AMERICAN LOBSTER CUTICLE JOSEPH G. KUNKEL,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkel, Joseph G.

    MINERAL FINE STRUCTURE OF THE AMERICAN LOBSTER CUTICLE JOSEPH G. KUNKEL,1 * WOLFRAM NAGEL2 minerals. We propose that calcite is invested in neutralizing an acidifying environment modulated to the epicuticle covering this mineralized surface unleashes an immediate efflux of carbonate, accentuating

  14. A Non-Stationary Errors-in-Variables Method with Application to Mineral Exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braslavsky, Julio H.

    A Non-Stationary Errors-in-Variables Method with Application to Mineral Exploration K. Lau 1 J. H-cancellation in transient electromagnetic mineral exploration. Alternative methods for noise cancellation in these systems for this class of systems is proposed and applied to a problem arising in mineral exploration. An errors

  15. The Origin of Life: Chemical Evolution of a Metabolic System in a Mineral Honeycomb?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Czárán, Tamás

    The Origin of Life: Chemical Evolution of a Metabolic System in a Mineral Honeycomb? Sergio our previous models of chemical evolution on mineral surfaces, in which selection was the consequence into the pores of the mineral substrate. Based on cellular automaton simulations we argue that the effect

  16. Saharan mineral dust transport into the Caribbean: Observed atmospheric controls and trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hameed, Sultan

    Saharan mineral dust transport into the Caribbean: Observed atmospheric controls and trends O. M December 2007; published 15 April 2008. [1] Each summer large amounts of mineral dust from the Sahara in this region. In this paper we analyze summer season interannual variability of North African mineral dust over

  17. The influence of mineral detritus on rock varnish formation Ronald I. Dorn a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorn, Ron

    The influence of mineral detritus on rock varnish formation Ronald I. Dorn a, , David H. Krinsley b of aeolian mineral is not incorporated into manganiferous rock varnish. Of those dust particles that are enveloped, submicron sized oval-shaped quartz minerals are the most common type of detritus seen

  18. JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH Volume 24, Number 2, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH Volume 24, Number 2, 2009 Published online on October 13, 2008; doi: 10.1359/JBMR.81005 Ó 2009 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research Prolonged Treatments With Antiresorptive Agents and PTH Have Different Effects on Bone Strength and the Degree of Mineralization in Old

  19. Mineral replacement rate of olivine by chrysotile and brucite under high alkaline conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    Mineral replacement rate of olivine by chrysotile and brucite under high alkaline conditions Romain Available online 8 March 2012 Keywords: A1. Mineral replacement rate A1. Serpentinization A1. TG analyses B1. Alkaline medium B2. Chrysotile nanotubes a b s t r a c t Olivine mineral replacement by serpentine is one

  20. 1529-6466/03/0054-0008$05.00 Biologically Controlled Mineralization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dove, Patricia M.

    1529-6466/03/0054-0008$05.00 Biologically Controlled Mineralization in Prokaryotes Dennis A or Superkingdoms, the Bacteria and the Archaea, mediate the formation of a large number of diverse minerals. They are known to do this either through biologically induced mineralization (BIM) (Lowenstam 1981) (the subject

  1. Magnetic mineral transport and sorting in the swash-zone: northern Lake Erie, Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatfield, Robert

    Magnetic mineral transport and sorting in the swash-zone: northern Lake Erie, Canada ERIC GALLAWAY mineral placer deposits on beaches consisting primarily of non-magnetic sediment. Work was conducted on the cross-shore and longshore transport of heavy magnetic minerals using magnetic susceptibility

  2. PR-Miner: Automatically Extracting Implicit Programming Rules and Detecting Violations in Large Software Code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yuanyuan

    PR-Miner: Automatically Extracting Implicit Programming Rules and Detecting Violations in Large a general method called PR-Miner that uses a data mining technique called frequent itemset mining. Benefiting from frequent itemset mining, PR-Miner can extract pro- gramming rules in general forms (without

  3. R E V I E W Mineral soil carbon fluxes in forests and implications for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeton, William S.

    R E V I E W Mineral soil carbon fluxes in forests and implications for carbon balance assessments and mitigate climate change. Large amounts of carbon (C) are stored in deep mineral forest soils, but are often not considered in accounting for global C fluxes because mineral soil C is commonly thought to be relatively

  4. A Principled Approach to Mining From Noisy Logs Using Heuristics Miner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tino, Peter

    A Principled Approach to Mining From Noisy Logs Using Heuristics Miner Philip Weber, Behzad Bordbar Miner algorithm, and demonstrate on a simple example. We show that for a given model it is possible in the the robustness of Heuristics Miner to different types of noise. I. INTRODUCTION Process mining is the learning

  5. THE LINK BETWEEN CLAY MINERAL WEATHERING AND THE FORMATION OF NI SURFACE PRECIPITATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    THE LINK BETWEEN CLAY MINERAL WEATHERING AND THE FORMATION OF NI SURFACE PRECIPITATES Andreas C minerals may proceed via formation of surface precipitates, which may lead to a significant long the formation of several mineral phases with distinct solubilities. While turbostratic a-type metal hydroxides

  6. Mineral-specific chemical weathering rates over millennial timescales: Measurements at Rio Icacos, Puerto Rico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchner, James W.

    Mineral-specific chemical weathering rates over millennial timescales: Measurements at Rio Icacos 2010 Accepted 26 July 2010 Editor: J.D. Blum Keywords: Chemical weathering Mineral weathering Cosmogenic nuclides Rio Icacos Puerto Rico Mineral weathering plays a prominent role in many biogeochemical

  7. The global distribution of mineral dust and its impacts on the climate system: A review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    The global distribution of mineral dust and its impacts on the climate system: A review O. Alizadeh Received in revised form 5 November 2013 Accepted 6 November 2013 Available online 20 November 2013 Mineral. Current understanding of spatial and temporal variations of mineral dust, as well as its impacts

  8. Mineralization of ancient carbon in the subsurface of riparian forests Noel P. Gurwick,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gold, Art

    Mineralization of ancient carbon in the subsurface of riparian forests Noel P. Gurwick,1,2 Daniel M C mineralization rates can support ecosystem-relevant rates of denitrification. Buried horizons and 14 C dating of dissolved inorganic carbon revealed that ancient SOC mineralization was common

  9. JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH Volume 24, Number 11, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burgoyne, Chris

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH Volume 24, Number 11, 2009 Published online on May 4, 2009; doi: 10.1359/JBMR.090504 Ó 2009 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research Femoral Neck Trabecular fracture cases have sufficient trabecular bone for anabolic therapies to build on. J Bone Miner Res 2009;24:1808

  10. Elasticity measurements on minerals: a review ROSS J. ANGEL1,*, JENNIFER M. JACKSON2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Jennifer M.

    Elasticity measurements on minerals: a review ROSS J. ANGEL1,*, JENNIFER M. JACKSON2 , HANS J 91125, USA 3 Deutsches Geoforschungszentrum, 14473 Potsdam, Germany Abstract: The elasticity of minerals in the experimental methods used to determine the elastic properties of minerals. Not only have new techniques become

  11. Accuracy and performance of linear unmixing techniques for detecting minerals on OMEGA/MEx

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobigeon, Nicolas

    Accuracy and performance of linear unmixing techniques for detecting minerals on OMEGA/MEx F minerals on a huge hyperspectral dataset (> To) is a difficult task that we proposed to address using identified areas with very strong signatures of mafic minerals (orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, olivine

  12. Ion microprobe survey of the grain-scale oxygen isotope geochemistry of minerals in metamorphic rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Stephen R.

    Ion microprobe survey of the grain-scale oxygen isotope geochemistry of minerals in metamorphic standards) were made of 73 minerals in 23 samples. Both intercrystalline and intracrystalline variability in d18 O is greater in contact than in regional metamorphic rocks. Of 27 minerals analyzed in contact

  13. Copyright: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals; http://www.kfupm.edu.sa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El-Alfy, El-Sayed

    © Copyright: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals; http://www.kfupm.edu.sa A Heuristic. of Pet. & Miner., Dhahran; Advanced Communication Technology, The 9th International conference of Petroleum & Minerals http://www.kfupm.edu.sa Summary A primary goal of this paper is to develop a heuristic

  14. Copyright: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals; http://www.kfupm.edu.sa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El-Alfy, El-Sayed

    © Copyright: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals; http://www.kfupm.edu.sa On Optimal SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS, VOLS 1 AND 2; pp: 819-824; Vol: ## King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals; http://www.kfupm.edu.sa 15. YU F, 2004, EFFICIENT MULTI

  15. Copyright: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals; http://www.kfupm.edu.sa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El-Alfy, El-Sayed

    © Copyright: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals; http://www.kfupm.edu.sa A Learning-Dong Yao Heffes, H.;Dept. of Comput. Sci., King Fahd Univ. of Pet. & Miner., Dhahran; Wireless & Minerals http://www.kfupm.edu.sa Summary An efficient channel allocation policy that prioritizes handoffs

  16. Structure and Dynamics of Monolayer Growth at Mineral-Water Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    Structure and Dynamics of Monolayer Growth at Mineral-Water Interfaces Geri Richmond Department of adsorption processes at mineral-water interfaces. In particular, surface enhanced infrared (IR) techniques insights into structure and dynamics of these interfaces. The driving forces behind adsorption at mineral

  17. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lau, Maggie C.Y.; Stackhouse, B.; Layton, Alice C.; Chauhan, Archana; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chourey, Karuna; Mykytczuk, N. C.S.; Bennett, Phil C.; Lamarche-Gagnon, G.; Burton, N.; et al

    2015-04-14

    The transition of Arctic carbon-rich cryosols into methane (CH?)-emitting wetlands due to global warming is a rising concern. However, the spatially predominant mineral cryosols and their CH? emission potential are poorly understood. Fluxes measured in situ and estimated under laboratory conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH?-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH? uptake flux increases with ground temperature; and, as a result, (3) the atmospheric CH? sink strength will increase by a factor of 5-30 as the Arctic warms by 5-15 °C over a century. We demonstrated that acidic mineralmore »cryosols have previously unrecognized potential of negative CH? feedback.« less

  18. Investigating Radiation Shielding Properties of Different Mineral Origin Heavyweight Concretes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basyigit, Celalettin; Uysal, Volkan; Kilincarslan, Semsettin; Akkas, Ayse; Mavi, Betuel; Guenoglu, Kadir; Akkurt, Iskender

    2011-12-26

    The radiation although has hazardous effects for human health, developing technologies bring lots of usage fields to radiation like in medicine and nuclear power station buildings. In this case protecting from undesirable radiation is a necessity for human health. Heavyweight concrete is one of the most important materials used in where radiation should be shielded, like those areas. In this study, used heavyweight aggregates of different mineral origin (Limonite, Siderite), in order to prepare different series in concrete mixtures and investigated radiation shielding properties. The experimental results on measuring the radiation shielding, the heavyweight concrete prepared with heavyweight aggregates of different mineral origin show that, are useful radiation absorbents when they used in concrete mixtures.

  19. Intercalation of Trichloroethene by Sediment-Associated Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthieu, Donald E.; Brusseau, Mark; Johnson, G. R.; Artiola, J. L.; Bowden, Mark E.; Curry, J. E.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine the potential for intercalation of trichloroethene (TCE) by clay minerals associated with aquifer sediments. Sediment samples were collected from a field site inTucson, AZ. Two widely used Montmorillonite specimen clays were employed as controls. X-ray diffraction, conducted with a controlled-environment chamber, was used to characterize smectite interlayer dspacing for three treatments (bulk air-dry sample, sample mixed with synthetic groundwater, sample mixed with TCE-saturated synthetic groundwater). The results show that the d-spacing measured for the samples treated with TCE-saturated synthetic groundwater are larger (*26%) than those of the untreated samples for all field samples as well as the specimen clays. These results indicate that TCE was intercalated by the clay minerals, which may have contributed to the extensive elution tailing observed in prior miscible-displacement experiments conducted with this sediment.

  20. Method of analysis of asbestiform minerals by thermoluminescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisher, Gerald L. (Davis, CA); Bradley, Edward W. (Davis, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of asbestiform minerals, including the steps of subjecting a sample to be analyzed to the thermoluminescent analysis, annealing the sample, subjecting the sample to ionizing radiation, and subjecting the sample to a second thermoluminescent analysis. Glow curves are derived from the two thermoluminescent analyses and their shapes then compared to established glow curves of known asbestiform minerals to identify the type of asbestiform in the sample. Also, during at least one of the analyses, the thermoluminescent response for each sample is integrated during a linear heating period of the analysis in order to derive the total thermoluminescence per milligram of sample. This total is a measure of the quantity of asbestiform in the sample and may also be used to identify the source of the sample.

  1. Cost Assessment of CO2 Sequestration by Mineral Carbonation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeboah, F. E.; Yegulalp, T. M.; Singh, H.

    2006-01-01

    in the generation of electrical energy. The concept of clean coal technology will be introduced. This will then be followed by a description of sequestration by mineral carbonation. The various processes involved in sequestration process will also be discussed... Policy 31, p. 1315 – 1326. 4. Yeboah, F.E., 2004, Valuation of Clean Energy Investments – The Case of the Zero Emission Coal (ZEC) Technology. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Fu School of Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY. 5...

  2. Hydrodesulfurization and hydrodenitrogenation catalysts obtained from coal mineral matter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Kindtoken H. D. (Newark, DE); Hamrin, Jr., Charles E. (Lexington, KY)

    1982-01-01

    A hydrotreating catalyst is prepared from coal mineral matter obtained by low temperature ashing coals of relatively low bassanite content by the steps of: (a) depositing on the low temperature ash 0.25-3 grams of an iron or nickel salt in water per gram of ash and drying a resulting slurry; (b) crushing and sizing a resulting solid; and (c) heating the thus-sized solid powder in hydrogen.

  3. Mineral County, Colorado: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec 2005 WindPROLLCWashington: EnergyMinatare,Miner

  4. Radioactive Mineral Occurences in Nevada | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado <RAPID/Geothermal/Water Use/NevadaaToolsRadioactive Mineral Occurences in

  5. Observations of heterogeneous reactions between Asian pollution and mineral dust over the Eastern North Pacific during INTEX-B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    light scattering, due to competition between pollution andAsian pollution and mineral dust Table 8. Changes to lightpollution and mineral dust Table 6. Comparison of light

  6. 2006 Minerals Yearbook ClaY and Shale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the clays are mainly underclays associated with coal. domestic production data for clays were developed-based products in Canada and the United S

  7. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brent Constantz; Randy Seeker; Martin Devenney

    2010-06-30

    Calera's innovative Mineralization via Aqueous Precipitation (MAP) technology for the capture and conversion of CO{sub 2} to useful materials for use in the built environment was further developed and proven in the Phase 1 Department of Energy Grant. The process was scaled to 300 gallon batch reactors and subsequently to Pilot Plant scale for the continuous production of product with the production of reactive calcium carbonate material that was evaluated as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM). The Calera SCM{trademark} was evaluated as a 20% replacement for ordinary portland cement and demonstrated to meet the industry specification ASTM 1157 which is a standard performance specification for hydraulic cement. The performance of the 20% replacement material was comparable to the 100% ordinary portland cement control in terms of compressive strength and workability as measured by a variety of ASTM standard tests. In addition to the performance metrics, detailed characterization of the Calera SCM was performed using advanced analytical techniques to better understand the material interaction with the phases of ordinary portland cement. X-ray synchrotron diffraction studies at the Advanced Photon Source in Argonne National Lab confirmed the presence of an amorphous phase(s) in addition to the crystalline calcium carbonate phases in the reactive carbonate material. The presence of carboaluminate phases as a result of the interaction of the reactive carbonate materials with ordinary portland cement was also confirmed. A Life Cycle Assessment was completed for several cases based on different Calera process configurations and compared against the life cycle of ordinary portland cement. In addition to the materials development efforts, the Calera technology for the production of product using an innovative building materials demonstration plant was developed beyond conceptual engineering to a detailed design with a construction schedule and cost estimate.

  8. Non-Metallic Materials List The LSG Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    Ink, Marking Foams & Sponge Urethane Lubricants & Grease Compound, Heat Sink SECTION Non Medium Lubricant, 2 Dry, Molycote Lubricant DC340 Thermal Grease Lubricant 4396 Solid Film Lubricant, Krytox Grease 240 AC Lubricant Krytox Oil 143 Nylon Cloth Dynalite, Greig 1. 2 oz. Spec. 3749 Lot 4451

  9. Ferrite Nucleation on Non-metallic Inclusions in Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregg, John Martin

    1995-05-10

    .4 Tungsten-Containing Welds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix 1: A Model for the Investigation of Epitaxy 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Lattice Matching 1.3 Details of the Model . . 1.4 Results... forms, depending on the temperature. At low temperatures « 912 QC), the atoms form a body-centred cubic (b.c.c.) structure known as ferrite (a), which is also stable at temperatures above 1394QC.Otherwise a face- centred cubic (f.c.c.) structure, called...

  10. RUBIDIUM VAPOR CELL WITH INTEGRATED NONMETALLIC MULTILAYER REFLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhongping

    and demonstrated by use of a variety of innovative techniques, including wafer level glass blowing [3]. In many

  11. Velocityconductivity relationships for mantle mineral assemblages in Archean cratonic lithosphere based on a review of laboratory data and HashinShtrikman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Alan G.

    Velocity­conductivity relationships for mantle mineral assemblages in Archean cratonic lithosphere Mineral physics Extremal bounds Velocity­conductivity relationship Can mineral physics and mixing theories. Using phenomenologically-derived state equations for individual minerals coupled with multi

  12. Products of an Artificially Induced Hydrothermal System at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Levy

    2000-08-07

    Studies of mineral deposition in the recent geologic past at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, address competing hypotheses of hydrothermal alteration and deposition from percolating groundwater. The secondary minerals being studied are calcite-opal deposits in fractures and lithophysal cavities of ash-flow tuffs exposed in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), a 7.7-km tunnel excavated by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project within Yucca Mountain. An underground field test in the ESF provided information about the minerals deposited by a short-lived artificial hydrothermal system and an opportunity for comparison of test products with the natural secondary minerals. The heating phase lasted nine months, followed by a nine-month cooling period. Natural pore fluids were the only source of water during the thermal test. Condensation and reflux of water driven away from the heater produced fluid flow in certain fractures and intersecting boreholes. The mineralogic products of the thermal test are calcite-gypsum aggregates of less than 4-micrometer crystals and amorphous silica as glassy scale less than 0.2 mm thick and as mounds of tubules with diameters less than 0.7 micrometers. The minute crystal sizes of calcite and gypsum from the field test are very different from the predominantly coarser calcite crystals (up to cm scale) in natural secondary-mineral deposits at the site. The complex micrometer-scale textures of the amorphous silica differ from the simple forms of opal spherules and coatings in the natural deposits, even though some natural spherules are as small as 1 micrometer. These differences suggest that the natural minerals, especially if they were of hydrothermal origin, may have developed coarser or simpler forms during subsequent episodes of dissolution and redeposition. The presence of gypsum among the test products and its absence from the natural secondary-mineral assemblage may indicate a higher degree of evaporation during the test than during the deposition of natural calcite-opal deposits.

  13. The impact of mineral fertilizers on the carbon footprint of crop production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brentrup, Frank

    2009-01-01

    using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Methodology. Part II:calculation based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) principlesis based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) principles. It

  14. The impact of mineral fertilizers on the carbon footprint of crop production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brentrup, Frank

    2009-01-01

    using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Methodology.Part II: Application of the LCA methodology to investigateon life-cycle assessment (LCA) principles A carbon footprint

  15. Method for the Production of Mineral Wool and Iron from Serpentine Ore -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on dark matterEnergy Innovation Portal Building Energy Efficiency

  16. Method of producing submicron size particles and product produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, R.S.; Eichman, C.C.; Welbon, W.W.

    1988-05-11

    Submicron size particles are produced by using a sputtering process to deposit particles into a liquid. The liquid is processed to recover the particles therefrom, and the particles have sizes in the range of twenty to two hundred Angstroms. Either metallic or non-metallic particles can be produced, and the metallic particles can be used in ''metallic inks.'' 4 figs.

  17. Electrical anisotropy of mineralized and non mineralized rocks T.J. Katsube, M.E. Best*, and Jones, A.G., Geological Survey of Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Alan G.

    PP 10.2 Electrical anisotropy of mineralized and non mineralized rocks T.J. Katsube, M.E. Best*, and Jones, A.G., Geological Survey of Canada Summary Significant electrical resistivity anisotropy, up to 1 to understand the electrical mechanisms involved in such anisotropic processes in order to provide information

  18. nemsoverview_928.vp

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (NAICS 2121) Glass and Glass Products (NAICS 3272) Oil and Gas Extraction (NAICS 211) Hydraulic Cement (NAICS 32731) Metal and Other Nonmetallic Mining (NAICS 2122-2123) Blast...

  19. Modeling the global emission, transport and deposition of trace elements associated with mineral dust

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Y.; Mahowald, N.; Scanza, R. A.; Journet, E.; Desboeufs, K.; Albani, S.; Kok, J. F.; Zhuang, G.; Chen, Y.; Cohen, D. D.; et al

    2015-10-12

    Trace element deposition from desert dust has important impacts on ocean primary productivity, the quantification of which could be useful in determining the magnitude and sign of the biogeochemical feedback on radiative forcing. However, the impact of elemental deposition to remote ocean regions is not well understood and is not currently included in global climate models. In this study, emission inventories for eight elements primarily of soil origin, Mg, P, Ca, Mn, Fe, K, Al, and Si are determined based on a global mineral data set and a soil data set. The resulting elemental fractions are used to drive themore »desert dust model in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) in order to simulate the elemental concentrations of atmospheric dust. Spatial variability of mineral dust elemental fractions is evident on a global scale, particularly for Ca. Simulations of global variations in the Ca / Al ratio, which typically range from around 0.1 to 5.0 in soils, are consistent with observations, suggesting that this ratio is a good signature for dust source regions. The simulated variable fractions of chemical elements are sufficiently different; estimates of deposition should include elemental variations, especially for Ca, Al and Fe. The model results have been evaluated with observations of elemental aerosol concentrations from desert regions and dust events in non-dust regions, providing insights into uncertainties in the modeling approach. The ratios between modeled and observed elemental fractions range from 0.7 to 1.6, except for Mg and Mn (3.4 and 3.5, respectively). Using the soil database improves the correspondence of the spatial heterogeneity in the modeling of several elements (Ca, Al and Fe) compared to observations. Total and soluble dust element fluxes to different ocean basins and ice sheet regions have been estimated, based on the model results. The annual inputs of soluble Mg, P, Ca, Mn, Fe and K associated with dust using the mineral data set are 0.30 Tg, 16.89 Gg, 1.32 Tg, 22.84 Gg, 0.068 Tg, and 0.15 Tg to global oceans and ice sheets.« less

  20. Carbonation of Clay Minerals Exposed to scCO2/Water at 200 degrees and 250 degrees C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama, T.; Ecker, L.; Gill, S.; Butcher, T. (BNL); Bour, D. (AltaRock Energy, Inc.)

    2010-11-01

    To clarify the mechanisms of carbonation of clay minerals, such as bentonite, kaolinite, and soft clay, we exposed them to supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2)/water at temperatures of 200 and 250 C and pressures of 1500 and 2000 psi for 72- and 107-hours. Bentonite, comprising three crystalline phases, montmorillonite (MMT), anorthoclase-type albite, and quartz was susceptible to reactions with ionic carbonic acid yielded by the interactions between scCO2 and water, particularly MMT and anorthoclase-type albite phases. For MMT, the cation-exchangeable ions, such as Na+ and Ca2+, present in its basal interplanar space, were replaced by proton, H+, from ionic carbonic acid; thereafter, the cations leaching from MMT directly reacted with CO32- as a counter ion of H+ to form carbonate compounds. Such in-situ carbonation process in basal space caused the shrinkage and breakage of the spacing structure within MMT. In contrast, the wet carbonation of anorthoclase-type albite, categorized as rock minerals, entailed the formation of three amorphous by-products, such as carbonates, kaolinite-like compounds, and silicon dioxide. Together, these two different carbonations caused the disintegration and corruption of bentonite. Kaolinite clay containing the amorphous carbonates and silicon dioxide was inert to wet carbonation. We noted only a gain in weight due to its water uptake, suggesting that kaolinite-like by-products generated by the wet carbonation of rock minerals might remain unchanged even during extended exposure. Soft clay consisting of two crystalline phases, dolomite and silicon dioxide, also was unaltered by wet carbonation, despite the uptake of water.

  1. NOVEL IN-SITU METAL AND MINERAL EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn O'Gorman; Hans von Michaelis; Gregory J. Olson

    2004-09-22

    This white paper summarizes the state of art of in-situ leaching of metals and minerals, and describes a new technology concept employing improved fragmentation of ores underground in order to prepare the ore for more efficient in-situ leaching, combined with technology to continuously improve solution flow patterns through the ore during the leaching process. The process parameters and economic benefits of combining the new concept with chemical and biological leaching are described. A summary is provided of the next steps required to demonstrate the technology with the goal of enabling more widespread use of in-situ leaching.

  2. Potassium Fixation and Supply by Soils with Mixed Clay Minerals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hipp, Billy W.

    1969-01-01

    potassium Fixation and Supply By Soils With Misd Clay Minerals I KUS A&M UNIVERSITY Tcrv Agricultural Experiment Station r i 0. Kunkel, Acting Director, College Station, Texas Summary to the plants while Cameron clay supplied onl!. Studies were made... of plants for any one crop period. The plants were n , with distilled water throughout the experiment. ' Ther I Previous work by Hipp and Thomas (3) pointed out the importance of clay type in the assessment of K avail- ability in certain soils of Texas...

  3. Measurement of bone mineral content in caged and active cats 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tveter, Diane Ellen

    1988-01-01

    errors but these can be reduced by using two different x-ray energies. Dual energy CT operates on a basis similar to dual photon absorptiometry (explained below). The difference in attenuation between tissue and bone is greater for a lower energy... to act as a soft tissue equivalent (35). Effects of fat and soft tissue are decreased when dual energy CT is used (33). Data from each of the two different photon energies are combined and result in images of soft tissue and bone mineral regions. Beam...

  4. Miner County, South Dakota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec 2005 WindPROLLCWashington: EnergyMinatare,Miner County,

  5. Mineral County, Montana: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec 2005 WindPROLLCWashington: EnergyMinatare,MinerMontana:

  6. Mineral Recovery from Geothermal Fluids | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec 2005 WindPROLLCWashington:West Virginia: EnergyMineral

  7. Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGE OFDetectionBenchmark Performance 111.1 33.033.0MinMineral

  8. Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGE OFDetectionBenchmark Performance 111.1Mineral Deformation

  9. Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGE OFDetectionBenchmark Performance 111.1Mineral

  10. CMI Course Inventory: Mineral Economics and Business | Critical Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits &Bradbury Science Museum6 Shares1-0005-000CDInstitute Mineral

  11. Beach Minerals Company Pvt Ltd BMCPL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAandAmminexInformationArkansas:Information DeliHaven West,Minerals

  12. Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework uses concrete7 Assessment ofLana7,Mimicking theMineral Deformation at

  13. The Inhibition of Calcium Phosphate Precipitation by Fetuin Is Accompanied by the Formation of a Fetuin-Mineral Complex*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Paul A.

    of a Fetuin-Mineral Complex* Received for publication, January 22, 2003, and in revised form, April 1, 2003 of the fetuin-mineral complex, a high molecular mass com- plex of calcium phosphate mineral and the proteins fe inhibited the precip- itation of calcium phosphate mineral when the concen- tration of calcium and phosphate

  14. A new technique for imaging Mineralized Fibrils on Bovine Trabecular Bone Fracture Surfaces by Atomic Force Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansma, Paul

    A new technique for imaging Mineralized Fibrils on Bovine Trabecular Bone Fracture Surfaces coated with extrafibrillar mineral particles. The mineral particles are distinctly different in different collagen fibrils. If the observed particles can be verified to be native extrafibrillar mineral, this could

  15. Understanding Depth Variation of Deep Seismicity from in situ Measurements of Mineral Strengths at High Pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Strengths of major minerals of Earth's mantle have been measured using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction at high pressures. Analysis of the diffraction peak widths is used to derive the yield strengths. Systematic analysis of the experimental result for olivine, wadsleyite, ringwoodite and perovskite indicates that minerals in the upper mantle, the transition zone and the lower mantle have very distinct strength character. Increasing temperature weakens the upper mantle mineral, olivine, significantly. At high temperature and high pressure, the transition zone minerals, wadsleyite and ringwoodite, have higher strengths than the upper mantle mineral. Among all the minerals studied, the lower mantle mineral, perovskite, has the highest strength. While both the upper mantle and the transition zone minerals show a notable strength drop, the strength of the lower mantle mineral shows just an increase of relaxation rate (no strength drop) when the temperature is increased stepwise by 200 K. The strength characteristics of these major mantle minerals at high pressures and temperatures indicate that yield strength may play a crucial role in defining the profile of deep earthquake occurrence with depth.

  16. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be economically competitive with current processes, and yet be environmentally friendly as well. The solvent extraction process developed uses mild hydrogenation of low cost oils to create powerful solvents that can dissolve the organic portion of coal. The insoluble portion, consisting mainly of mineral matter and fixed carbon, is removed via centrifugation or filtration, leaving a liquid solution of coal chemicals and solvent. This solution can be further refined via distillation to meet specifications for products such as synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and fibers. The most economical process recycles 85% of the solvent, which itself is obtained as a low-cost byproduct from industrial processes such as coal tar or petroleum refining. Alternatively, processes have been developed that can recycle 100% of the solvent, avoiding any need for products derived from petroleum or coal tar.

  17. Active Layer Soil Carbon and Nutrient Mineralization, Barrow, Alaska, 2012

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Stan D. Wullschleger; Holly M. Vander Stel; Colleen Iversen; Victoria L. Sloan; Richard J. Norby; Mallory P. Ladd; Jason K. Keller; Ariane Jong; Joanne Childs; Deanne J. Brice

    2015-10-29

    This data set consists of bulk soil characteristics as well as carbon and nutrient mineralization rates of active layer soils manually collected from the field in August, 2012, frozen, and then thawed and incubated across a range of temperatures in the laboratory for 28 day periods in 2013-2015. The soils were collected from four replicate polygons in each of the four Areas (A, B, C, and D) of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Soil samples were coincident with the established Vegetation Plots that are located in center, edge, and trough microtopography in each polygon. Data included are 1) bulk soil characteristics including carbon, nitrogen, gravimetric water content, bulk density, and pH in 5-cm depth increments and also by soil horizon, 2) carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus mineralization rates for soil horizons incubated aerobically (and in one case both aerobically and anaerobically) for 28 days at temperatures that included 2, 4, 8, and 12 degrees C. Additional soil and incubation data are forthcoming. They will be available when published as part of another paper that includes additional replicate analyses.

  18. Regulation of biological tissue mineralization through post-nucleation shielding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshua C. Chang; Robert M. Miura

    2015-01-29

    In vertebrates, insufficient availability of calcium and phosphate ions in extracellular fluids leads to loss of bone density and neuronal hyper-excitability. To counteract this problem, calcium ions are present at high concentrations throughout body fluids -- at concentrations exceeding the saturation point. This condition leads to the opposite situation where unwanted mineral sedimentation may occur. Remarkably, ectopic or out-of-place sedimentation into soft tissues is rare, in spite of the thermodynamic driving factors. This fortunate fact is due to the presence of auto-regulatory proteins that are found in abundance in bodily fluids. Yet, many important inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis and osteoarthritis are associated with this undesired calcification. Hence, it is important to gain an understanding of the regulatory process and the conditions under which it can go awry. In this Letter, we use ideas from mean-field classical nucleation theory to study the regulation of sedimentation of calcium phosphate salts in biological tissues through the mechanism of post-nuclear shielding of nascent mineral particles by binding proteins. A critical concentration of regulatory protein is identified as a function of the physical parameters that describe the system.

  19. CTS Freight and Logistics Symposium Minneapolis, MN November 30, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Supplies and Prices ­ makes ethanol economically viable ­ adds to farm costs, fuel & fertilizer #12;D-7 Key.) (Minnesota third largest producing state) · Non-Metallic Minerals ­ Silica, Kaolin Clay, Aggregate

  20. J. metamorphic Geol., 2000, 18, 2340 Amphibolites with staurolite and other aluminous minerals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandiford, Mike

    J. metamorphic Geol., 2000, 18, 23­40 Amphibolites with staurolite and other aluminous minerals: calculated mineral equilibria in NCFMASH J. ARNOLD,1 R. POWELL2 AND M. SANDIFORD3 1Department of Earth, temperature and fluid composition. The mineral equilibria in the Na 2 O­CaO­FeO­ MgO­Al 2 O 3 ­SiO 2 ­H 2 O

  1. Quantitative determination of mineral composition by powder x-ray diffraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pawloski, G.A.

    1984-08-10

    An external standard intensity ratio method is used for quantitatively determining mineralogic compositions of samples by x-ray diffraction. The method uses ratios of x-ray intensity peaks from a single run. Constants are previously determined for each mineral which is to be quantitatively measured. Ratios of the highest intensity peak of each mineral to be quantified in the sample and the highest intensity peak of a reference mineral contained in the sample are used to calculate sample composition.

  2. How EIA Estimates Natural Gas Production

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2004-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes estimates monthly and annually of the production of natural gas in the United States. The estimates are based on data EIA collects from gas producing states and data collected by the U. S. Minerals Management Service (MMS) in the Department of Interior. The states and MMS collect this information from producers of natural gas for various reasons, most often for revenue purposes. Because the information is not sufficiently complete or timely for inclusion in EIA's Natural Gas Monthly (NGM), EIA has developed estimation methodologies to generate monthly production estimates that are described in this document.

  3. STATLER COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND MINERAL RESOURCES FRESHMAN ENGINEERING OUT OF CLASS EXPERIENCE FORM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    STATLER COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND MINERAL RESOURCES ­ FRESHMAN ENGINEERING OUT OF CLASS EXPERIENCE FORM Describe the Out of Class Experience that you attended. Print all information legibly

  4. Society for Geology Applied to Ore Deposits GENEVA MINERALS: Industry and Academia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halazonetis, Thanos

    Society for Geology Applied to Ore Deposits GENEVA MINERALS: Industry and Academia Creating links Tripodi, Vanga Resources, Geneva · A student view of economic geology. Honza Catchpole, President

  5. Three Packets of Minerals of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements and Chemical Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mikhail M. Labushev

    2013-03-20

    The concepts of alpha- and beta-packets of the periodic table of chemical elements and chemical compounds are defined. The first of the 47 minerals alpha-packets is composed. In it all minerals are arranged in increasing Iav index of proportionality of atomic weights of composing chemical elements, the same way as chemical elements are located in increasing atomic weights in the Periodic table. The packet includes 93 known minerals and two compounds - N2O5 and CO2 - being actually minerals. Beta-packet of oxides and hydroxides minerals includes 88 known minerals and five chemical compounds - N2O5, CO2, CO, SO3 and SO2. Two minerals of the packet have not been determined yet. Besides, beta-packet of minerals with sulfur, selenium or arsenic is composed, with one mineral not defined yet. The results of the calculations can be used for further development of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements and Chemical Compounds and their properties investigation.

  6. Three Packets of Minerals of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements and Chemical Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Labushev, Mikhail M

    2013-01-01

    The concepts of alpha- and beta-packets of the periodic table of chemical elements and chemical compounds are defined. The first of the 47 minerals alpha-packets is composed. In it all minerals are arranged in increasing Iav index of proportionality of atomic weights of composing chemical elements, the same way as chemical elements are located in increasing atomic weights in the Periodic table. The packet includes 93 known minerals and two compounds - N2O5 and CO2 - being actually minerals. Beta-packet of oxides and hydroxides minerals includes 88 known minerals and five chemical compounds - N2O5, CO2, CO, SO3 and SO2. Two minerals of the packet have not been determined yet. Besides, beta-packet of minerals with sulfur, selenium or arsenic is composed, with one mineral not defined yet. The results of the calculations can be used for further development of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements and Chemical Compounds and their properties investigation.

  7. Fundamental study of CO2-H2O-mineral interactions for carbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    E.; Wang, Yifeng; Matteo, Edward N.; Meserole, Stephen P.; Tallant, David Robert In the supercritical CO2-water-mineral systems relevant to subsurface CO2 sequestration,...

  8. H.R.S. 182-1 - Reservation and Disposition of Government Mineral...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rights, Definitions (2012). Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleH.R.S.182-1-ReservationandDispositionofGovernmentMineralRights,Definitions&oldid8...

  9. The effect of minerals on the reactivity of coal char treated thermally

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, S.; Lu, J.; Zhao, B.; Zhang, J.; Yue, G. [Shanghai University of Science & Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2008-07-01

    The effect of minerals on the reactivity of coal char is addressed in this article. The chars were prepared in N{sub 2} under the inert conditions from the raw coals and their demineralized samples. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to examine the effect of the minerals in the coals on the reactivity of the derived chars. The effect of minerals on the reactivity of YXV char is different from that on the reactivity of JJV char. The behavior of minerals differs from each other and can be attributed to the different amount, nature, and distribution in the two coals.

  10. Title 43 CFR 3814 Disposal of Reserved Minerals Under the Stockraising...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reserved Minerals Under the Stockraising Homestead Act Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- Federal RegulationFederal Regulation:...

  11. Osage oil: Mineral law, murder, mayhem, and manipulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strickland, R.

    1995-12-31

    The greatest of the 20th century Osage chiefs, Fred Lookout, feared what the rich oil bonanza under tribal lands would do to his people. He forsaw that oil wealth could turn into a curse as well as a blessing, and it was both. The story of Osage oil is a case history in the failure of law, the failure of Indian policy and the struggle for survival of the indomitable spirit of a great Native people force to deal with both the curse and the blessing of black gold. This article examines law and policy as seen in Osage oil regulation, outlining the legal controls of the land and mineral regulatory system and briefly exploring the breakdowns of the system.

  12. Catalytic effects of minerals on NOx emission from coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, M.Y.; Che, D.F.

    2007-07-01

    The catalytic effects of inherent mineral matters on NOx emissions from coal combustion have been investigated by a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) equipped with a gas analyzer. The effect of demineralization and the individual effect of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe on the formation of NOx are studied as well as the combined catalytic effects of Ca + Na and Ca + Ti. Demineralization causes more Fuel-N to retain in the char, and reduction of NOx mostly. But the mechanistic effect on NOx formation varies from coal to coal. Ca and Mg promote NOx emission. Na, K, Fe suppress NOx formation to different extents. The effect of transition element Fe is the most obvious. The combination of Ca + Na and Ca + Ti can realize the simultaneous control of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions.

  13. Plutonium Oxidation and Subsequent Reduction by Mn (IV) Minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KAPLAN, DANIEL

    2005-09-13

    Plutonium sorbed to rock tuff was preferentially associated with manganese oxides. On tuff and synthetic pyrolusite (Mn{sup IV}O{sub 2}), Pu(IV) or Pu(V) was initially oxidized, but over time Pu(IV) became the predominant oxidation state of sorbed Pu. Reduction of Pu(V/VI), even on non-oxidizing surfaces, is proposed to result from a lower Gibbs free energy of the hydrolyzed Pu(IV) surface species versus that of the Pu(V) or Pu(VI) surface species. This work suggests that despite initial oxidation of sorbed Pu by oxidizing surfaces to more soluble forms, the less mobile form of Pu, Pu(IV), will dominate Pu solid phase speciation during long term geologic storage. The safe design of a radioactive waste or spent nuclear fuel geologic repository requires a risk assessment of radionuclides that may potentially be released into the surrounding environment. Geochemical knowledge of the radionuclide and the surrounding environment is required for predicting subsurface fate and transport. Although difficult even in simple systems, this task grows increasingly complicated for constituents, like Pu, that exhibit complex environmental chemistries. The environmental behavior of Pu can be influenced by complexation, precipitation, adsorption, colloid formation, and oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions (1-3). To predict the environmental mobility of Pu, the most important of these factors is Pu oxidation state. This is because Pu(IV) is generally 2 to 3 orders of magnitude less mobile than Pu(V) in most environments (4). Further complicating matters, Pu commonly exists simultaneously in several oxidation states (5, 6). Choppin (7) reported Pu may exist as Pu(IV), Pu(V), or Pu(VI) oxic natural groundwaters. It is generally accepted that plutonium associated with suspended particulate matter is predominantly Pu(IV) (8-10), whereas Pu in the aqueous phase is predominantly Pu(V) (2, 11-13). The influence of the character of Mn-containing minerals expected to be found in subsurface repository environments on Pu oxidation state distributions has been the subject of much recent research. Kenney-Kennicutt and Morse (14), Duff et al. (15), and Morgenstern and Choppin (16) observed oxidation of Pu facilitated by Mn(IV)-bearing minerals. Conversely, Shaughnessy et al. (17) used X-ray Absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) to show reduction of Pu(VI) by hausmannite (Mn{sup II}Mn{sub 2}{sup III}O{sub 4}) and manganite ({gamma}-Mn{sup III}OOH) and Kersting et al., (18) observed reduction of Pu(VI) by pyrolusite (Mn{sup IV}O{sub 2}). In this paper, we attempt to reconcile the apparently conflicting datasets by showing that Mn-bearing minerals can indeed oxidize Pu, however, if the oxidized species remains on the solid phase, the oxidation step competes with the formation of Pu(IV) that becomes the predominant solid phase Pu species with time. The experimental approach we took was to conduct longer term (approximately two years later) oxidation state analyses on the Pu sorbed to Yucca Mountain tuff (initial analysis reported by Duff et al., (15)) and measure the time-dependant changes in the oxidation state distribution of Pu in the presence of the Mn mineral pyrolusite.

  14. Uranium mineralization in fluorine-enriched volcanic rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burt, D.M.; Sheridan, M.F.; Bikun, J.; Christiansen, E.; Correa, B.; Murphy, B.; Self, S.

    1980-09-01

    Several uranium and other lithophile element deposits are located within or adjacent to small middle to late Cenozoic, fluorine-rich rhyolitic dome complexes. Examples studied include Spor Mountain, Utah (Be-U-F), the Honeycomb Hills, Utah (Be-U), the Wah Wah Mountains, Utah (U-F), and the Black Range-Sierra Cuchillo, New Mexico (Sn-Be-W-F). The formation of these and similar deposits begins with the emplacement of a rhyolitic magma, enriched in lithophile metals and complexing fluorine, that rises to a shallow crustal level, where its roof zone may become further enriched in volatiles and the ore elements. During initial explosive volcanic activity, aprons of lithicrich tuffs are erupted around the vents. These early pyroclastic deposits commonly host the mineralization, due to their initial enrichment in the lithophile elements, their permeability, and the reactivity of their foreign lithic inclusions (particularly carbonate rocks). The pyroclastics are capped and preserved by thick topaz rhyolite domes and flows that can serve as a source of heat and of additional quantities of ore elements. Devitrification, vapor-phase crystallization, or fumarolic alteration may free the ore elements from the glassy matrix and place them in a form readily leached by percolating meteoric waters. Heat from the rhyolitic sheets drives such waters through the system, generally into and up the vents and out through the early tuffs. Secondary alteration zones (K-feldspar, sericite, silica, clays, fluorite, carbonate, and zeolites) and economic mineral concentrations may form in response to this low temperature (less than 200 C) circulation. After cooling, meteoric water continues to migrate through the system, modifying the distribution and concentration of the ore elements (especially uranium).

  15. Large fluxes and rapid turnover of mineral-associated carbon across topographic gradients in a humid tropical forest: insights from paired 14C analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hall, S. J.; McNicol, G.; Natake, T.; Silver, W. L.

    2015-04-29

    It has been proposed that the large soil carbon (C) stocks of humid tropical forests result predominantly from C stabilization by reactive minerals, whereas oxygen (O2) limitation of decomposition has received much less attention. We examined the importance of these factors in explaining patterns of C stocks and turnover in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, using radiocarbon (14C) measurements of contemporary and archived samples. Samples from ridge, slope, and valley positions spanned three soil orders (Ultisol, Oxisol, Inceptisol) representative of humid tropical forests, and differed in texture, reactive metal content, O2 availability, and root biomass. Mineral-associated C comprised themore »large majority (87 ± 2%, n = 30) of total soil C. Turnover of most mineral-associated C (66 ± 2%) was rapid (11 to 26 years; mean and SE: 18 ± 3 years) in 25 of 30 soil samples across surface horizons (0–10 and 10–20 cm depths) and all topographic positions, independent of variation in reactive metal concentrations and clay content. Passive C with centennial–millennial turnover was typically much less abundant (34 ± 3%), even at 10–20 cm depths. Carbon turnover times and concentrations significantly increased with concentrations of reduced iron (Fe(II)) across all samples, suggesting that O2 availability may have limited the decomposition of mineral-associated C over decadal scales. Steady-state inputs of mineral-associated C were statistically similar among the three topographic positions, and could represent 10–25% of annual litter production. Observed trends in mineral-associated ?14C over time could not be fit using the single-pool model used in many other studies, which generated contradictory relationships between turnover and ?14C as compared with a more realistic two-pool model. The large C fluxes in surface and near-surface soils documented here are supported by findings from paired 14C studies in other types of ecosystems, and suggest that most mineral-associated C cycles relatively rapidly (decadal scales) across ecosystems that span a broad range of state factors.« less

  16. Large fluxes and rapid turnover of mineral-associated carbon across topographic gradients in a humid tropical forest: insights from paired 14C analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hall, S. J.; McNicol, G.; Natake, T.; Silver, W. L.

    2015-01-16

    It has been proposed that the large soil carbon (C) stocks of humid tropical forests result predominantly from C stabilization by reactive minerals, whereas oxygen (O2) limitation of decomposition has received much less attention. We examined the importance of these factors in explaining patterns of C stocks and turnover in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, using radiocarbon (14C) measurements of contemporary and archived samples. Samples from ridge, slope, and valley positions spanned three soil orders (Ultisol, Oxisol, Inceptisol) representative of humid tropical forests, and differed in texture, reactive metal content, O2 availability, and root biomass. Mineral-associated C comprised themore »large majority (87 ± 2%, n = 30) of total soil C. Turnover of most mineral-associated C (74 ± 4%) was rapid (9 to 29 years, mean and SE 20 ± 2 years) in 25 of 30 soil samples across surface horizons (0–10 and 10–20 cm depths) and all topographic positions, independent of variation in reactive metal concentrations and clay content. Passive C with centennial – millennial turnover was much less abundant (26%), even at 10–20 cm depths. Carbon turnover times and concentrations significantly increased with concentrations of reduced iron (Fe(II)) across all samples, suggesting that O2 availability may have limited the decomposition of mineral associated C over decadal scales. Steady-state inputs of mineral-associated C were similar among the three topographic positions, and could represent 10–30% of annual litterfall production (estimated by doubling aboveground litterfall). Observed trends in mineral-associated ?14C over time could not be fit using the single pool model used in many other studies, which generated contradictory relationships between turnover and ?14C as compared with a more realistic constrained two-pool model. The large C fluxes in surface and near-surface soils implied by our data suggest that other studies using single-pool ?14C models of mineral-associated C dynamics, unconstrained by multiple time points, may have systematically underestimated C turnover.« less

  17. Pion Production in High-Energy Neutrino Reactions with Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulrich Mosel

    2015-06-11

    [Background] A quantitative understanding of neutrino interactions with nuclei is needed for precision era neutrino long baseline experiments (MINOS, NOvA, DUNE) which all use nuclear targets. Pion production is the dominant reaction channel at the energies of these experiments. [Purpose] Investigate the influence of nuclear effects on neutrino-induced pion production cross sections and compare predictions for pion-production with available data. [Method] The Giessen Boltzmann--Uehling--Uhlenbeck (GiBUU) model is used for the description of all incohrent channels in neutrino-nucleus reactions. [Results] Differential cross sections for charged and neutral pion production for the MINER$\

  18. Clay Minerals Related To The Hydrothermal Activity Of The Bouillante...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    arc. Three directional wells were drilled in 2001 to optimize the productivity of the geothermal field up to 15 MWe and to investigate the vertical distribution of clay...

  19. The effect of modifications of dietary fat, fiber and sodium with magnesium deficiency on serum lipids and minerals, tissue and femur minerals and femur load force 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howe, Cathlyn Ann

    1992-01-01

    concentration of selected tissues and femur, and load force of femurs. The minerals investigated were magnesium, calcium, phosphorus and zinc. The control (C) diet was based upon the AIM-76 diet formulation; the American (A) included average fat, fiber... in those in the A and R groups, respectively. Renal calcium was not affected by magnesium deficiency except in the rats fed the recommended diets. The RL rats had higher renal calcium than R animals. Cardiac mineral concentrations were higher in the C...

  20. Mineral dust emission from the Bodele Depression, northern Chad, during BoDEx 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington, Richard

    distribution of this diatomite dust estimated from sun photometer data, using a modified Aeronet retrieval loadings results in a reduction in surface daytime maximum temperature of around 7°C in the Bode´le´ region-blown terrestrial mineral dust. The distribution, properties of mineral dust and its climate impact are poorly

  1. Characterizing coal and mineral mines as a regional source of stress to stream fish assemblages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Characterizing coal and mineral mines as a regional source of stress to stream fish assemblages, impervious surface or urban land use), mining had a more pronounced and consistent impact on fish assemblages biota to coal and mineral mines located in stream catchments have historically been conducted

  2. U.S. Geological Survey Energy and Minerals Science Strategy--A Resource Lifecycle Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Agriculture National Agricultural Imagery Program. Wind turbines. Photograph by Don Becker, USGS. The BlueU.S. Geological Survey Energy and Minerals Science Strategy--A Resource Lifecycle Approach Circular and Minerals Science Strategy--A Resource Lifecycle Approach By Richard C. Ferrero, Jonathan J. Kolak, Donald J

  3. PEPPER (JALAPEO): Capsicum annuum L., `Milta' CONTROL OF SILVERLEAF WHITEFLY IN PEPPER WITH HORTICULTURAL MINERAL OIL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    WITH HORTICULTURAL MINERAL OIL AND OTHER INSECTICIDES, 2004 P. A. Stansly University of Florida/IFAS Southwest of horticultural mineral oil (HMO) and various pesticide regimes directed primarily at pepper weevil. Greenhouse of the HMO, PureSpray Green Oil, were made starting 14 Apr using a high clearance sprayer operating at 200

  4. Electrical conductivity of minerals and rocks Shun-ichiro Karato1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Electrical conductivity of minerals and rocks Shun-ichiro Karato1 and Duojun Wang1,2 1 : Yale-Blackwell #12;2 SUMMARY Electrical conductivity of most minerals is sensitive to hydrogen (water) content, temperature, major element chemistry and oxygen fugacity. The influence of these parameters on electrical

  5. An epidemiological study of salt miners in diesel and nondiesel mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamble, J.; Jones, W.; Hudak, J.

    1983-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 5 NaCl mines and 259 miners addressed the following questions: 1) Is there an association of increased respiratory symptoms, radiographic findings, and reduced pulmonary function with exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and/or respirable particulate (RP) among these miners. 2) Is there increased morbidity of these miners compared to other working populations. Personal samples of NO2 and respirable particulate for jobs in each mine were used to estimate cumulative exposure. NO2 is used as a surrogate measure of diesel exposure. Cough was associated with age and smoking, dyspnea with age; neither symptom was associated with exposure (years worked, estimated cumulative NO2 or RP exposure). Phlegm was associated with age, smoking, and exposure. Reduced pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1, peak, flow, FEF50, FEF75) showed no association with exposure. There was one case of small rounded and one case of small irregular opacities; pneumoconiosis was not analyzed further. Compared to underground coal miners, above ground coal miners, potash miners, and nonmining workers, the study population after adjustment for age and smoking generally showed no increased prevalence of cough, phlegm, dyspnea, or obstruction (FEV1/FVC less than 0.7). Obstruction in younger salt miners and phlegm in older salt miners was elevated compared to nonmining workers. Mean predicted pulmonary function was reduced 2-4% for FEV1 and FVC, 7-13% for FEF50, and 18-22% for FEF75 below all comparison populations.

  6. Metallogeny of precious and base metal mineralization in the Murchison Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Metallogeny of precious and base metal mineralization in the Murchison Greenstone Belt, South The 3.09-2.97 Ga Murchison Greenstone Belt is an important metallotect in the northern Kaapvaal Craton that the major styles of orogenic Au-Sb and the Cu-Zn VMS mineralization in the Murchison Greenstone Belt

  7. Kinetics of Mineral Dissolution and Growth as Reciprocal Microscopic Surface Processes Across

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dove, Patricia M.

    and defects of minerals and materials. Keywords: mineral, dissolution, demineralization, growth, AFM, surface scientists alike are investigating the formation and demineralization of ionic and covalently bonded phases' methods that evaluated the rates and mechanisms of growth and demineralization using indirect methods

  8. Running Head: Correlation of Microbial Communities with Caclium Carbonate1 (Travertine) Mineral Precipitation2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldenfeld, Nigel

    Precipitation2 3 4 Correlation of Microbial Communities with Calcium Carbonate (Travertine)5 Mineral Precipitation at Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, USA6 George T. Bonheyo1, 3 , Jorge Frias-Lopez1 of changing environmental conditions and associated calcium carbonate mineral18 precipitation along the spring

  9. Recent Leaf-Litter-Derived Carbon Is Not a Major Source for Mineral Soil Microbial Communities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Post, Wilfred M.

    Recent Leaf-Litter-Derived Carbon Is Not a Major Source for Mineral Soil Microbial Communities mineral soil microbes. ·The results provided quantitative evidence that root-derived C is the major (>60: Microbial communities in soil A horizons derive their carbon from several potential sources: organic carbon

  10. Reactivity of iron-bearing minerals and CO2 sequestration: A multi-disciplinary experimental approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoonen, Martin A. [Stony Brook University

    2014-12-22

    The reactivity of sandstones was studied under conditions relevant to the injection of supercritical carbon dioxide in the context of carbon geosequestration. The emphasis of the study was on the reactivity of iron-bearing minerals when exposed to supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and scCO2 with commingled aqueous solutions containing H2S and/or SO2. Flow through and batch experiments were conducted. Results indicate that sandstones, irrespective of their mineralogy, are not reactive when exposed to pure scCO2 or scCO2 with commingled aqueous solutions containing H2S and/or SO2 under conditions simulating the environment near the injection point (flow through experiments). However, sandstones are reactive under conditions simulating the edge of the injected CO2 plume or ahead of the plume (batch experiments). Sandstones containing hematite (red sandstone) are particularly reactive. The composition of the reaction products is strongly dependent on the composition of the aqueous phase. The presence of dissolved sulfide leads to the conversion of hematite into pyrite and siderite. The relative amount of the pyrite and siderite is influenced by the ionic strength of the solution. Little reactivity is observed when sulfite is present in the aqueous phase. Sandstones without hematite (grey sandstones) show little reactivity regardless of the solution composition.

  11. Analysis of stream sediment reconnaissance data for mineral resources from the Montrose NTMS Quadrangle, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beyth, M.; Broxton, D.; McInteer, C.; Averett, W.R.; Stablein, N.K.

    1980-06-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis to support the National Uranium Resource Evaluation and to evaluate strategic and other commercially important mineral resources was carried out on Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data from the Montrose quadrangle, Colorado. The analysis suggests that: (1) the southern Colorado Mineral Belt is an area favorable for uranium mineral occurrences; (2) carnotite-type occurrences are likely in the nose of the Gunnison Uplift; (3) uranium mineral occurrences may be present along the western and northern margins of the West Elk crater; (4) a base-metal mineralized area is associated with the Uncompahgre Uplift; and (5) uranium and base metals are associated in some areas, and both are often controlled by faults trending west-northwest and north.

  12. Process for recovery of aluminum from carbonaceous waste products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapolyi, L.

    1984-03-13

    A carbonaceous waste product, preferably containing 30 to 60% mineral substances, 35 to 55% carbonaceous materials, 5 to 20% water, and having a calorific value of 2,000 to 3,500 k cal/kg is fired to produce thermal energy and a combustion residue. The residue is adjusted, if necessary, by addition of mineral containing additives so that it contains 15 to 50% alumina, 15 to 20% silica and 13 to 45% other oxides (mainly iron oxide, manganese oxide and calcium oxide). Sufficient limestone is added to produce a mixture containing 1.8 to 2.2 moles of calcium oxide per mole of silica and 1.1 to 1.3 moles of calcium oxide per mole of alumina. The mixture is then sintered. The total energy requirements of the sintering step are supplied by the energy generated in the firing step. Useful products such as cement and cast stone can be produced from the sintered product.

  13. Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produce hydrogen. It includes an overview of research goals as well as “quick facts” about hydrogen energy resources and production technologies.

  14. A study of coal production in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akarakiri, J.B.; Afonja, A.A.; Okejiri, E.C. (Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Lle-Lfe (Nigeria))

    1991-01-01

    The Nigerian coal industry was studied. The focus was on the problems which have caused low production output of coal. More specifically, the study examined the present techniques of coal production, the causes of low production of coal, the coal production policy as it affected this study, and proposed policy measures to address the findings. It was discovered that some of the limiting factors to coal production in Nigeria could be attributed to the lack of the following: (i) clear and specific production-demand targets set for coal in Nigeria; (ii) adequate technological capability to mechanize coal mining operations in Nigeria; (iii) venture capital to invest in coal production; (iv) poor infrastructural facilities for coal production such as mining, storage, transportation, etc. It was also discovered that the dissatisfaction of the miners with their conditions of service influenced production capacity negatively. These findings point to the reality that coal is unlikely to play a major role in the country's energy equation in the near future unless serious efforts are made to address the above issues.

  15. Effects of aluminosilicate minerals in clay soil fractions on pore water hydroxide ion concentrations in soil/cement matrices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Evan Russell

    1998-01-01

    between clay minerals and calcium hydroxide. Pozzolanic reactions between aluminosilicate minerals in soils and portiandite or calcium silicate hydrate, generated by cement hydration, may significantly reduce the hydroxide ion concentration in soi...

  16. The aggregation of clay minerals and marine microalgal cells : physicochemical theory and implications for controlling harmful algal blooms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sengco, Mario Rhuel

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, the use of clay minerals has emerged as one of the most promising strategies for directly controlling harmful algal blooms (HABs). Its principle is based on the mutual aggregation of algal cells and mineral ...

  17. King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals Electrical Engineering Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Ghadhban, Samir

    Aramco. About 40% of the methanol produced is used captively in the production of MTBE Sina's own methanol unit, and butane is supplied by pipeline from Aramco. All of the MTBE produced

  18. Mineral ecophysiological evidence for microbial activity in banded iron formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Dr. Yi-Liang [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Konhauser, Dr, Kurt [University of Alberta; Cole, David R [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The phosphorus composition of banded-iron formations (BIFs) has been used as a proxy for Precambrian seawater composition and the paleoeredox state of Earth's surface environment. However, it is unclear whether the phosphorus in BIFs originally entered the sediment as a sorbed component of the iron oxyhydroxide particles, or whether it was incorporated into the biomass of marine phytoplankton. We conducted high-resolution mineral analyses and report here the first detection of an Fe(III) acetate salt, as well as nanocrystals of apatite in association with magnetite, in the 2.48 Ga Dales Gorge Member of the Brockman Iron Formation (a BIF), Hamersley, Western Australia. The clusters of apatite are similar in size and morphology to biogenic apatite crystals resulting from biomass decay in Phanerozoic marine sediments, while the formation of an Fe(III) acetate salt and magnetite not only implies the original presence of biomass in the BIF sediments, but also that organic carbon likely served as an electron donor during bacterial Fe(III) reduction. This study is important because it suggests that phytoplankton may have played a key role in the transfer of phosphorus (and other trace elements) from the photic zone to the seafloor.

  19. Electrical properties of dispersions of graphene in mineral oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monteiro, O. R.

    2014-02-03

    Dispersions of graphene in mineral oil have been prepared and electrical conductivity and permittivity have been measured. The direct current (DC) conductivity of the dispersions depends on the surface characteristics of the graphene platelets and followed a percolation model with a percolation threshold ranging from 0.05 to 0.1?wt. %. The difference in DC conductivities can be attributed to different states of aggregation of the graphene platelets and to the inter-particle electron transfer, which is affected by the surface radicals. The frequency-dependent conductivity (?(?)) and permittivity (?(?)) were also measured. The conductivity of dispersions with particle contents much greater than the percolation threshold remains constant and equal to the DC conductivity at low frequencies ? with and followed a power-law ?(?)???{sup s} dependence at very high frequencies with s?0.9. For dispersions with graphene concentration near the percolation threshold, a third regime was displayed at intermediate frequencies indicative of interfacial polarization consistent with Maxwell-Wagner effect typically observed in mixtures of two (or more) phases with very distinct electrical and dielectric properties.

  20. Geothermal Geodatabase for Wagon Wheel Hot Springs, Mineral County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zehner, Richard

    2012-11-01

    Geothermal Geodatabase for Wagon Wheel Hot Springs, Mineral County, Colorado By Richard “Rick” Zehner Geothermal Development Associates Reno Nevada USA 775.737.7806 rzehner@gdareno.com For Flint Geothermal LLC, Denver Colorado Part of DOE Grant EE0002828 2013 This is an ESRI geodatabase version 10, together with an ESRI MXD file version 10.2 Data is in UTM Zone 13 NAD27 projection North boundary: approximately 4,189,000 South boundary: approximately 4,170,000 West boundary: approximately 330,000 East boundary: approximately 351,000 This geodatabase was built to cover several geothermal targets developed by Flint Geothermal in 2012 during a search for high-temperature systems that could be exploited for electric power development. Several of the thermal springs at Wagon Wheel Gap have geochemistry and geothermometry values indicative of high-temperature systems. The datasets in the geodatabase are a mixture of public domain data as well as data collected by Flint Geothermal, now being made public. It is assumed that the user has internet access, for the mxd file accesses ESRI’s GIS servers. Datasets include: 1. Results of reconnaissance shallow (2 meter) temperature surveys 2. Air photo lineaments 3. Groundwater geochemistry 4. Power lines 5. Georeferenced geologic map of Routt County 6. Various 1:24,000 scale topographic maps

  1. Comparative Federal Budgeting of Medical Entitlements: The Cases of the End-Stage Renal Disease and Coal Miner Pneumoconiosus Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Jack C

    1985-01-01

    p.267. Corrigan, R. , "Miners Rally to Block Black LungStage Renal Disease and Coal Miner Pneumoconiosus ProgramsChapter Two: The Federal Coal Miner Black Lung Entitlement &

  2. 069 MCNITORINGTHE GROWTH OF SEODNDARYPRECIPITATES UPON METALSORPTICN CM CLAY MINERALS AND ALUMINUM OXIDES USING X-RAY ABSORPTICN FINE STRUCIURE (XAFS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    069 MCNITORINGTHE GROWTH OF SEODNDARYPRECIPITATES UPON METALSORPTICN CM CLAY MINERALS AND ALUMINUM and oxide minerals is typically fast initially, then the rates gradually diminish. In the literature on surfaces of clay minerals and aluminum oxides. #12;

  3. Spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction investigation of the behavior of hanksite and tychite at high pressures, and a model for the compressibility of sulfate minerals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palaich, SEM; Manning, CE; Schauble, E; Kavner, A

    2013-01-01

    Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 37, 5, 265–282. Chen,and Smith, G.I. (1965) Mineral equilibria in the Searlesstudy of the behavior of mineral barite by X?ray dif-

  4. Accessory mineral U–Th–Pb ages and 40Ar/39Ar eruption chronology, and their bearing on rhyolitic magma evolution in the Pleistocene Coso volcanic field, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, Justin I.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Renne, Paul R.; Schmitt, Axel K.; Bacon, Charles R.; Reid, Mary R.

    2009-01-01

    Contrib Mineral Petrol (2009) 158:421–446 DOIORIGINAL PAPER Accessory mineral U–Th–Pb ages and 40 Ar/ 39Flagstaff, AZ, USA Contrib Mineral Petrol (2009) 158:421–446

  5. Theoretical constraints on the effects of pH, salinity, and temperature on clumped isotope signatures of dissolved inorganic carbon species and precipitating carbonate minerals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, PS; Tripati, AK; Schauble, EA

    2014-01-01

    bonds in carbonate minerals: a new kind of paleothermometer.species and carbonate minerals. J. Phys. Chem. A 112, 542–Fe2+(aq) with carbonate minerals. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta

  6. SECONDARY MINERALS FOUND IN CORES DC2 Al AND DC2 TAKEN FROM THE GRANDE RONDE BASALT FORMATION, PASCO BASIN, WASHINGTON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teague, L.S.

    2010-01-01

    of secondary and primary mineral phases in basalts of theB. , 1975. Perched silia minerals on mordenite fibers. Jour.lt;. UC—70 I SECONDARY MINERALS FOUND IN CORES DC2 AI AND

  7. PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN ARACHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY A new approach to examining scorpion peg sensilla: the mineral oil flood technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaffin, Doug

    : the mineral oil flood technique Elizabeth D. Knowlton and Douglas D. Gaffin: Department of Zoology, University peg sensilla: the mineral oil flood technique Elizabeth D. Knowlton and Douglas D. Gaffin: Department opening. We developed an improved method of chemical stimulant delivery called the mineral oil flood

  8. Oxygen isotope fractionation effects in soil water via interaction with cations (Mg, Ca, K, Na) adsorbed to phyllosilicate clay minerals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldsmith, Greg

    ) adsorbed to phyllosilicate clay minerals Erik Oerter a, , Kari Finstad a , Justin Schaefer b , Gregory R the isotope effects caused by high CEC clays in mineral­water systems, we created a series of monominerallic with quartz to determine the isotope effect of non-, or very minimally-, charged mineral surfaces. The d18 O

  9. PII S0016-7037(00)00525-1 Nanoforms: A new type of protein-associated mineralization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    PII S0016-7037(00)00525-1 Nanoforms: A new type of protein-associated mineralization HOJATOLLAH of hydroxyapatite and proteins and constitute a novel form of protein-associated mineralization. No detectable cell of mineralization in nanoforms is also compared to matrix-mediated calcification in vertebrates. Copyright © 2001

  10. DETERMINING SOURCE OF EJECTA USING HEAVY MINERAL PROVENANCE TECHNIQUES; A MANICOUAGAN DISTAL EJECTA CASE STUDY. S. Thackrey1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutten, Rob

    DETERMINING SOURCE OF EJECTA USING HEAVY MINERAL PROVENANCE TECHNIQUES; A MANICOUAGAN DISTAL EJECTA that utilises already well- documented applications of heavy minerals for provenance studies [11]. Defining of rocks on Earth will exhibit a heavy mineral suit to some degree. The target rocks at Manicouagan

  11. Secondary mineral formation in the White River tephra in grassland and forest soils in central Yukon Territory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanborn, Paul

    Secondary mineral formation in the White River tephra in grassland and forest soils in central July 2005. Strickland, A. J., Arocena, J. M., Sanborn, P. and Smith, C. A. S. 2005. Secondary mineral-arid climate were investigated to evaluate the formation of secondary minerals within the White River tephra

  12. Mineralization of Carbon and Nitrogen from Freeze-and Oven-Dried Plant Material Added to Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Mineralization of Carbon and Nitrogen from Freeze- and Oven-Dried Plant Material Added to Soil K. K is a common procedure used in mineralization or decompositionstudies. A lab- oratory study was conducted the mineral content of the plant material compared to freeze drying. The total C and N was not significantly

  13. The degree of bone mineralization is maintained with single intravenous bisphosphonates in aged estrogen-deficient rats and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    The degree of bone mineralization is maintained with single intravenous bisphosphonates in aged greater than can be explained by an increase in bone mineral density. In this study, 18-month Fischer 344 to measure lumbar vertebral bone microarchitecture, the degree of bone mineralization (DBM

  14. Serum Levels of the Fetuin-Mineral Complex Correlate with Artery Calcification in the Rat*S

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Paul A.

    Serum Levels of the Fetuin-Mineral Complex Correlate with Artery Calcification in the Rat- mineral complex in serum and vitamin D-induced artery calcification. The first experiment shows that there is a fetuin-mineral complex in the blood of rats in which extensive calcification of the artery media has been

  15. Start | Author Index 742-3 Rates and Mechanisms of Arsenite Oxidation by Nano-Mn(IV) Oxide Mineral Phases.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Start | Author Index 742-3 Rates and Mechanisms of Arsenite Oxidation by Nano-Mn(IV) Oxide Mineral is thought to generally occur through either biologically or mineral-surface mediated Mn(II) oxidation. These two oxidation pathways result in the formation of nanometer-size Mn(IV) minerals. Compared

  16. The use of micro-FTIR to characterize soil minerals and Boron adsorption S. Pittiglio and H.E. Doner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The use of micro-FTIR to characterize soil minerals and Boron adsorption S. Pittiglio and H in soils. Our goals for this last proposal period were: 1) to build a spectral library of clay minerals, oxides and boron containing minerals commonly found in California soils. This library would be used

  17. Hydrogen Production

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produ

  18. Adhesion and the Surface Energy Components of Natural Minerals and Aggregates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Clint Matthew

    2011-10-21

    with reverse osmosis water to remove large particles and then with distilled water. The minerals were then placed in an oven (Fisher Isotemp 200 series) at 75-80?C for at least one day. The samples were then allowed to cool for one hour and then were carried... component of the surface energy of the mineral, ?MineralWat is the equilibrium film pressure of water vapor on the solid, ?TotalWat is the total surface tension of water vapor, ??LWWat is the dispersive component of water vapor, ???Wat is the base...

  19. Detection and Quantification of Expansive Clay Minerals in Geologically-Diverse Texas Aggregate Fines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, George 1983-

    2012-11-28

    minerals identified from XRD pattern of Jones Mill clay ???... 48 4.2 Rankin clay with HIM plateau at 12 ? of ?Mg, RT? treatment ............... 48 4.3 Armor aggregate with palygorskite (10.6 ?) and sepiolite (12.2 ?) ?.. 49 4.4 Fibrous palygorskite... and sepiolite minerals in Armor clay (29000X) ?. 50 4.5 Clay mineral quantities in aggregate fines (- 2 mm starting material) ?. 54 4.6 SEM image of high-crystallinity kaolinite ?books? in Rankin fines ?? 59 4.7 SEM images of Scarmado, Tolar, and Yarrington...

  20. Micro-Analysis of Actinide Minerals for Nuclear Forensics and Treaty Verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Morey, M. Manard, R. Russo, G. Havrilla

    2012-03-22

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy has been demonstrated to be a viable tool for nondestructive determination of the crystal phase of relevant minerals. Collecting spectra on particles down to 5 microns in size was completed. Some minerals studied were weak scatterers and were better studied with the other techniques. A decent graphical software package should easily be able to compare collected spectra to a spectral library as well as subtract out matrix vibration peaks. Due to the success and unequivocal determination of the most common mineral false positive (zircon), it is clear that Raman has a future for complementary, rapid determination of unknown particulate samples containing actinides.

  1. Fluidized bed steam reformed mineral waste form performance testing to support Hanford Supplemental Low Activity Waste Immobilization Technology Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C. M.; Pierce, E. M.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Crawford, C. L.; Daniel, W. E.; Fox, K. M.; Herman, C. C.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.; Brown, C. F.; Qafoku, N. P.; Neeway, J. J.; Valenta, M. M.; Gill, G. A.; Swanberg, D. J.; Robbins, R. A.; Thompson, L. E.

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the benchscale testing with simulant and radioactive Hanford Tank Blends, mineral product characterization and testing, and monolith testing and characterization. These projects were funded by DOE EM-31 Technology Development & Deployment (TDD) Program Technical Task Plan WP-5.2.1-2010-001 and are entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-Level Waste Form Qualification”, Inter-Entity Work Order (IEWO) M0SRV00054 with Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Savannah River Site (SRS) Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”, and IEWO M0SRV00080, “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form Qualification Testing Using SRS Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”. This was a multi-organizational program that included Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), THOR® Treatment Technologies (TTT), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Office of River Protection (ORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS). The SRNL testing of the non-radioactive pilot-scale Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) products made by TTT, subsequent SRNL monolith formulation and testing and studies of these products, and SRNL Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) radioactive campaign were funded by DOE Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) Phase 2 Project in connection with a Work-For-Others (WFO) between SRNL and TTT.

  2. Global estimates of mineral dust aerosol iron and aluminum solubility that account for particle size using diffusion-controlled and surface-area-controlled approximations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    L. A. Warren, pp. 151–210, Clay Miner. Soc. , Chantilly, Va.and J. -L. Colin (2008), Miner- alogy as a critical factor

  3. Photochemically induced carbon dioxide production as a mechanism for carbon loss from plant litter in arid ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Photochemically induced carbon dioxide production as a mechanism for carbon loss from plant litter for abiotic mineralization to carbon dioxide (CO2) via photodegradation to account for carbon (C) loss from: Brandt, L. A., C. Bohnet, and J. Y. King (2009), Photochemically induced carbon dioxide production

  4. Miners and mining in the Late Bronze Age: a multidisciplinary study from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolussi, Kurt

    the principal motors of Bronze Age society. The skills and risks of mining lie behind the weapons, tools and seeds, providing a sketch of dedicated prehistoric labourers in their habitat. The Mauken miners were

  5. Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to minerals and low-organic-carbon aquifer sediments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimaldi, Gabriel Orlando

    1999-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms and major geochemical factors ics. controlling the sorption of nontoxic organic chemicals (NOC) to mineral surfaces in low-organic-carbon soils and sediments remain unclear. The objectives of this research were to study...

  6. Soil Nitrogen Mineralization Potential for Improved Fertilizer Recommendations and Decreased Nitrate Contamination of Groundwater 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franzluebbers, Alan; Haney, Richard; Hons, Frank

    1995-01-01

    In order to prevent overfertilization, which could lead to groundwater contamination, rapid and accurate soil testing procedures are needed to evaluate agricultural surface soils for their potential to mineralize C and N. Our objectives were...

  7. The effect of mineral surface chemistry on the biodegradation of petroleum 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allan, Katherine Ann

    1997-01-01

    the biodegradation of a crude oil in soils with different characteristics including mineral surface chemistry, organic matter content, and surface area in order to determine the impact of soil chemistry on bioavailability and biodegradability of petroleum. Two soils...

  8. Leaching of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into mineral water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    Leaching of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into mineral water Szilvia April 2009 Available online 21 May 2009 Keywords: Antimony Water Leaching Polyethylene terephthalate SODIS The Sb leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) package material into 10 different brands

  9. Cal. PRC Section 6909 - Oil and Gas and Mineral Leases: Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cal. PRC Section 6909 - Oil and Gas and Mineral Leases: Geothermal Resources Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: Cal....

  10. 1. Department, Course Number, Title ORE 678, Marine Mineral Resources Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frandsen, Jannette B.

    and environmental sciences and economics. Pre: Consent 4. Prerequisites Applied mechanics Engineering economics 5 Education Program outcome 2 : Basic science, mathematics, & engineering Program Outcome 4: Ocean engineering1. Department, Course Number, Title ORE 678, Marine Mineral Resources Engineering 2. Designation

  11. Beyond the resource curse : mineral resources and development in Guinea-Conakry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diallo, Thierno Amadou

    2015-01-01

    Natural resource endowments are no guarantee of socioeconomic development. Many developing countries are rich in natural resources (minerals, oil, gas, hydropower), and yet many of their citizens remain in poverty and their ...

  12. Diffraction Studies from Minerals to Organics - Lessons Learned from Materials Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitfield, Pamela S [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    In many regards the study of materials and minerals by powder diffraction techniques are complimentary, with techniques honed in one field equally applicable to the other. As a long-time materials researcher many of the examples are of techniques developed for materials analysis applied to minerals. However in a couple of cases the study of new minerals was the initiation into techniques later used in materials-based studies. Hopefully they will show that the study of new minerals structures can provide opportunities to add new methodologies and approaches to future problems. In keeping with the AXAA many of the examples have an Australian connection, the materials ranging from organics to battery materials.

  13. Quantifying the role of the electronics industry in managing conflict minerals using printers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jason S., S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    The electronics manufacturing industry has been experiencing a fast-changing landscape with recent legislations targeting the supply chains for the 3TG minerals: tin, tantalum, tungsten, and gold mined from the Democratic ...

  14. Identifying soils with potential of expanding sulfate mineral formation using electromagnetic induction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, Miranda Lynn

    2004-11-15

    Sulfate-bearing soils are a problem in highway construction as they combine with materials used for lime stabilization to form minerals, particularly ettringite, that expand and induce heave in the stabilized soil. This ...

  15. Application Of Fluid Inclusion And Rock-Gas Analysis In Mineral...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    mineral surfaces by heating. The most abundant of these gases, besides H2O, are usually CO2, CH4, CO and N2. We have used a gas chromatograph to analyze these gases in fluid...

  16. Evidence for the generation of juvenile granitic crust during continental extension, Mineral Mountains Batholith, Utah

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coleman, Drew S.; Walker, J. Douglas

    1992-07-10

    Field, chemical and isotopic data from the Miocene Mineral Mountains batholith in southwest Utah are consistent with the batholith being derived through differentiation of material recently separated from the lithospheric ...

  17. 2010 Minerals Yearbook U.S. Department of the Interior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Canada). The germanium-bearing concentrates were exported to Canada for processing or directly. Germanium is initially recovered from the leaching of zinc residues or coal ash and the subsequent or coal in the United States. Domestic refinery production of germanium was estimated by the U

  18. 2009 Minerals Yearbook U.S. Department of the Interior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in advanced battery technology for hybrid and electric-drive vehicles ever made, and lithium-ion battery, TN, plant to produce electric cars and lithium-ion battery packs. Tesla Motors received a $465 for the development and production of two lines of lithium-ion battery powered plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (U

  19. 2006 Minerals Yearbook U.S. Department of the Interior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) solar cells that would yield high production throughput. Flexible CIGS solar cells could All refined computers (15%), and cell phones (11%). The LCD market was expected to show considerable growth within to develop a low-cost manufacturing process for flexible thin film copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS

  20. Effect of Trace Mineral Supplementation on Gastric Ulcers in Exercising Yearling Horses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayes, Alexa Dawn

    2010-10-12

    MINERAL SUPPLEMENTATION ON GASTRIC ULCERS IN EXERCISING YEARLING HORSES A Thesis by ALEXA DAWN HAYES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 2009 Major Subject: Animal Science EFFECT OF TRACE MINERAL SUPPLEMENTATION ON GASTRIC ULCERS IN EXERCISING YEARLING HORSES A Thesis by ALEXA DAWN HAYES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...

  1. The substitution of sodium for calcium in the mineral nutrition of cotton 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitenberg, David Calvin

    1959-01-01

    LIBRARY A & M O' LLEOE OF TEXA5 THE SUBSTITUTION OF SODIUM FOR CALCIUM IN THE MINERAL NUTRITION OF COTTON A Thesis By DAVID CALVIN WHITENBERG Submit. ted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 19 59 Major Subject: Plant Physiology THE SUBSTITUTION OF SODIUM FOR CALCIUM IN THE MINERAL NUTRITION OF COTTON A Thesis By DAVID CALVIN WHITENBERG Approved as to style...

  2. Identification of Fragile Microscopic Structures during Mineral Transformations in Wet Supercritical CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arey, Bruce W.; Kovarik, Libor; Qafoku, Odeta; Wang, Zheming; Hess, Nancy J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2013-04-01

    In this study we examine the nature of highly fragile reaction products that form in low water content super critical carbon dioxide (scCO2) using a combination of scanning electron microscopy/focus ion beam (SEM/FIB), confocal Raman spectroscopy, helium ion microscopy (HeIM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). HeIM images show these precipitates to be fragile rosettes that can readily decompose even under slight heating from an electron beam. Using the TEM revealed details on the interfacial structure between the newly formed surface precipitates and the underlying initial solid phases. The detailed microscopic analysis revealed that the growth of the precipitates either followed a tip growth mechanism with precipitates forming directly on the forsterite surface if the initial solid was non-porous (natural forsterite) or growth from the surface of the precipitates where fluid was conducted through the porous (nanoforsterite) agglomerates to the growth center. The mechanism of formation of the hydrated/hydroxylated magnesium carbonate compound (HHMC) phases offers insight into the possible mechanisms of carbonate mineral formation from scCO2 solutions which has recently received a great deal of attention as the result of the potential for CO2 to act as an atmospheric greenhouse gas and impact overall global warming. The techniques used here to examine these fragile structures an also be used to examine a wide range of fragile material surfaces. SEM and FIB technologies have now been brought together in a single instrument, which represents a powerful combination for the studies in biological, geological and materials science.

  3. Mineral Sequestration of Carbon Dixoide in a Sandstone-Shale System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Tianfu; Apps, John A.; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-07-09

    A conceptual model of CO2 injection in bedded sandstone-shale sequences has been developed using hydrogeologic properties and mineral compositions commonly encountered in Gulf Coast sediments. Numerical simulations were performed with the reactive fluid flow and geochemical transport code TOUGHREACT to analyze mass transfer between sandstone and shale layers and CO2 immobilization through carbonate precipitation. Results indicate that most CO2 sequestration occurs in the sandstone. The major CO2 trapping minerals are dawsonite and ankerite. The CO2 mineral-trapping capacity after 100,000 years reaches about 90 kg per cubic meter of the medium. The CO2 trapping capacity depends on primary mineral composition. Precipitation of siderite and ankerite requires Fe+2 supplied mainly by chlorite and some by hematite dissolution and reduction. Precipitation of dawsonite requires Na+ provided by oligoclase dissolution. The initial abundance of chlorite and oligoclase therefore affects the CO2 mineral trapping capacity. The sequestration time required depends on the kinetic rate of mineral dissolution and precipitation. Dawsonite reaction kinetics is not well understood, and sensitivity regarding the precipitation rate was examined. The addition of CO2 as secondary carbonates results in decreased porosity. The leaching of chemical constituents from the interior of the shale causes slightly increased porosity. The limited information currently available for the mineralogy of natural high-pressure CO2 gas reservoirs is also generally consistent with our simulation. The ''numerical experiments'' give a detailed understanding of the dynamic evolution of a sandstone-shale geochemical system.

  4. Multiple soil nutrient competition between plants, microbes, and mineral surfaces: model development, parameterization, and example applications in several tropical forests

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Q.; Riley, W. J.; Tang, J.; Koven, C. D.

    2015-03-05

    Soil is a complex system where biotic (e.g., plant roots, micro-organisms) and abiotic (e.g., mineral surfaces) consumers compete for resources necessary for life (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus). This competition is ecologically significant, since it regulates the dynamics of soil nutrients and controls aboveground plant productivity. Here we develop, calibrate, and test a nutrient competition model that accounts for multiple soil nutrients interacting with multiple biotic and abiotic consumers. As applied here for tropical forests, the Nutrient COMpetition model (N-COM) includes three primary soil nutrients (NH4+, NO3?, and POx (representing the sum of PO43?, HPO42?, and H2PO4?)) and five potential competitors (plantmore »roots, decomposing microbes, nitrifiers, denitrifiers, and mineral surfaces). The competition is formulated with a quasi-steady-state chemical equilibrium approximation to account for substrate (multiple substrates share one consumer) and consumer (multiple consumers compete for one substrate) effects. N-COM successfully reproduced observed soil heterotrophic respiration, N2O emissions, free phosphorus, sorbed phosphorus, and free NH4+ at a tropical forest site (Tapajos). The overall model posterior uncertainty was moderately well constrained. Our sensitivity analysis revealed that soil nutrient competition was primarily regulated by consumer-substrate affinity rather than environmental factors such as soil temperature or soil moisture. Our results imply that the competitiveness (from most to least competitive) followed this order: (1) for NH4+, nitrifiers ~ decomposing microbes > plant roots, (2) for NO3?, denitrifiers ~ decomposing microbes > plant roots, (3) for POx, mineral surfaces > decomposing microbes ~ plant roots. Although smaller, plant relative competitiveness is of the same order of magnitude as microbes. We then applied the N-COM model to analyze field nitrogen and phosphorus perturbation experiments in two tropical forest sites (in Hawaii and Puerto Rico) not used in model development or calibration. Under soil inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus elevated conditions, the model accurately replicated the experimentally observed competition among different nutrient consumers. Although we used as many observations as we could obtain, more nutrient addition experiments in tropical systems would greatly benefit model testing and calibration. In summary, the N-COM model provides an ecologically consistent representation of nutrient competition appropriate for land BGC models integrated in Earth System Models.« less

  5. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank SX-105, Tank AN-103, And AZ-101/102) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation (FBSR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Daniel, W. E.; Hall, H. K.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.

    2013-09-18

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is a robust technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of radioactive wastes. Applications have been tested at the pilot scale for the high sodium, sulfate, halide, organic and nitrate wastes at the Hanford site, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the Savannah River Site (SRS). Due to the moderate processing temperatures, halides, sulfates, and technetium are retained in mineral phases of the feldspathoid family (nepheline, sodalite, nosean, carnegieite, etc). The feldspathoid minerals bind the contaminants such as Tc-99 in cage (sodalite, nosean) or ring (nepheline) structures to surrounding aluminosilicate tetrahedra in the feldspathoid structures. The granular FBSR mineral waste form that is produced has a comparable durability to LAW glass based on the short term PCT testing in this study, the INL studies, SPFT and PUF testing from previous studies as given in the columns in Table 1-3 that represent the various durability tests. Monolithing of the granular product was shown to be feasible in a separate study. Macro-encapsulating the granular product provides a decrease in leaching compared to the FBSR granular product when the geopolymer is correctly formulated.

  6. Mineral Dissolution and Secondary Precipitation on Quartz Sand in Simulated Hanford Tank Solutions Affecting Subsurface Porosity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Guohui; Um, Wooyong

    2012-11-23

    Highly alkaline nuclear waste solutions have been released from underground nuclear waste storage tanks and pipelines into the vadose zone at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in Washington, causing mineral dissolution and re-precipitation upon contact with subsurface sediments. High pH caustic NaNO3 solutions with and without dissolved Al were reacted with quartz sand through flow-through columns stepwise at 45, 51, and 89°C to simulate possible reactions between leaked nuclear waste solution and primary subsurface mineral. Upon reaction, Si was released from the dissolution of quartz sand, and nitrate-cancrinite [Na8Si6Al6O24(NO3)2] precipitated on the quartz surface as a secondary mineral phase. Both steady-state dissolution and precipitation kinetics were quantified, and quartz dissolution apparent activation energy was determined. Mineral alteration through dissolution and precipitation processes results in pore volume and structure changes in the subsurface porous media. In this study, the column porosity increased up to 40.3% in the pure dissolution column when no dissolved Al was present in the leachate, whereas up to a 26.5% porosity decrease was found in columns where both dissolution and precipitation were observed because of the presence of Al in the input solution. The porosity change was also confirmed by calculation using the dissolution and precipitation rates and mineral volume changes.

  7. Hydrogen Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancingR Walls -Hydro-Pac Inc.,1 DOE HydrogenProduction Hydrogen is

  8. Effects of physical and geochemical heterogeneities on mineral transformation and biomass accumulation during uranium bioremediation at Rifle, Colorado

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Li

    2010-01-01

    Fe(II) and As(III) on goethite in single- and dual- sorbatethe bacterial reduction of goethite. Environmental Science &iron-containing minerals (goethite, hematite, magnetite, and

  9. The calcification of staphylococcus aureus bacteria by the mineralization by inhibitor exclusion mechanism : a potential defense mechanism against bacterial infections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truong, Linh Y.

    2011-01-01

    in Serum: A Possible Mechanism for Biomineralization. J.by Inhibitor Exclusion mechanism targets the bacterial cellto become mineralized by the MIE mechanism. The goal of our

  10. Comparative Study for the Interpretation of Mineral Concentrations, Total Porosity, and TOC in Hydrocarbon-Bearing Shale from Conventional Well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    of SPE copyright. Abstract The estimation of porosity, water saturation, kerogen concentration, water saturation, and kerogen content determine the amount of hydrocarbon-in-place while mineral

  11. Mineral resources of the Rockhouse Wilderness Study Area, Kern and Tulare Counties, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diggles, M.F.; Jachens, R.C.; Peters, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Rockhouse Wilderness Study Area has an identified inferred marginal economic resource of turquoise at the Blue Gem prospect and has six areas of mineral resource potential. There is potential for undiscovered resources of the following commodities: turquoise (high, moderate, and low potential); tungsten and molybdenum (moderate); and barite, silver, arsenic, lead, antimony, and zinc (low). Host rocks for the minerals are Mesozoic granitic rocks of the Sierra Nevada batholith and Paleozoic and (or) Mesozoic metamorphic roof-remnant rocks. The area has no geothermal energy or oil and gas resource potential.

  12. Mineral resources of the Buffalo Hump and Sand Dunes Addition Wilderness Study Areas, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbons, A.B.; Barbon, H.N.; Kulik, D.M. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)); McDonnell, J.R. Jr. (US Bureau of Mines (US))

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a study to assess the potential for undiscovered mineral resources and appraise the identified resources of the Buffalo Hump and Sand Dunes Addition Wilderness Study Areas, southwestern Wyoming, There are no mines, prospects, or mineralized areas nor any producing oil or gas wells; however, there are occurrences of coal, claystone and shale, and sand. There is a moderate resource potential for oil shale and natural gas and a low resource potential for oil, for metals, including uranium, and for geothermal sources.

  13. EVALUATION OF THOR MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR THE DOE ADVANCED REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES PHASE 2 PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW Vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product, which is one of the objectives of this current study, is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage but is not necessary for performance. FBSR testing of a Hanford LAW simulant and a WTP-SW simulant at the pilot scale was performed by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC at Hazen Research Inc. in April/May 2008. The Hanford LAW simulant was the Rassat 68 tank blend and the target concentrations for the LAW was increased by a factor of 10 for Sb, As, Ag, Cd, and Tl; 100 for Ba and Re (Tc surrogate); 1,000 for I; and 254,902 for Cs based on discussions with the DOE field office and the environmental regulators and an evaluation of the Hanford Tank Waste Envelopes A, B, and C. It was determined through the evaluation of the actual tank waste metals concentrations that some metal levels were not sufficient to achieve reliable detection in the off-gas sampling. Therefore, the identified metals concentrations were increased in the Rassat simulant processed by TTT at HRI to ensure detection and enable calculation of system removal efficiencies, product retention efficiencies, and mass balance closure without regard to potential results of those determinations or impacts on product durability response such as Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP). A WTP-SW simulant based on melter off-gas analyses from Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was also tested at HRI in the 15-inch diameter Engineering Scale Test Demonstration (ESTD) dual reformer at HRI in 2008. The target concentrations for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals were increased by 16X for Se, 29X for Tl, 42X for Ba, 48X for Sb, by 100X for Pb and Ni, 1000X for Ag, and 1297X for Cd to ensure detection by the an

  14. KFUPM Library E-Services King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maghrabi, Talal H.

    March 14, 2006 Towards A Digital Library Dr. Talal MaghrabiDr. Talal Maghrabi Dean, Library Affairs1 KFUPM Library E-Services King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Deanship of Library AffairsDean, Library Affairs March 14, 2006March 14, 2006 22 OUTLINE KFUPM Libraries Overview IT Use at KFUPM Libraries

  15. Top Papers in Environmental Science, First Runner-Up: Minerals get more complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , or the mechanics of filtration in soils. Because nanomaterials have features in the same size range, the same the interfaces of minerals common to some soils. The nanostructure maps, described in one of ES&T's best papers of 2008, could lead to new ideas about how sorption and other interactions in soils actually work. "I

  16. Isotopic fractionations associated with phosphoric acid digestion of carbonate minerals: Insights from first-principles theoretical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Isotopic fractionations associated with phosphoric acid digestion of carbonate minerals: Insights 27 May 2009; available online 23 June 2009 Abstract Phosphoric acid digestion has been used with phosphoric acid digestion of carbonates at 25 °C are 10.72&, 0.220&, 0.137&, 0.593& for, respectively, 18 O

  17. Phosphonic-Based HF Acid: Interactions With Clay Minerals And Flow In Sandstone Cores 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Lijun

    2015-05-13

    , phosphonic-based HF acid systems (HF and a phosphonic acid) have been used as an alternative to mud acid. However, very limited research has been performed to investigate the interactions of phosphonic-based acid systems with clay minerals in sandstone...

  18. Copper and zinc balance in exercising horses fed two forms of mineral supplements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Elizabeth Lynn

    2009-05-15

    This study was undertaken to compare the absorption and retention of copper and zinc when supplemented to exercising horses in the form of sulfate or organic-chelate mineral supplements. Nine mature horses were used in a modified-switchback designed...

  19. Laboratory Studies of Rheological Properties of Minerals Under Deep Mantle Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    studies of plastic properties under deep mantle conditions are challenging and the major progress on rheological properties followed by a historical review of experimental studies of plastic deformation. Then we1 Laboratory Studies of Rheological Properties of Minerals Under Deep Mantle Conditions Shun

  20. NEW MEXICO SCHOOL OF MINES STATE BUREAU OF MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus

    NEW MEXICO SCHOOL OF MINES STATE BUREAU OF MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES BULLETIN 13 FRONTISPIECE PIT AT HARDING MINE (To left of dump) DUMP AT HARDING MINE (To right of pit) #12;NEW MEXICO SCHOOL OF MINES STATE and Economic Features of the Pegmatites of Taos and Rio Arriba Counties, New Mexico By EVAN JUST SOCORRO, N. M

  1. Effect of mineral phase transitions on sedimentary basin subsidence and uplift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podladchikov, Yuri

    Effect of mineral phase transitions on sedimentary basin subsidence and uplift Boris J.P. Kausa influence rock density, which is a major parameter affecting lithosphere dynamics and basin subsidence are incorporated into one- and two-dimensional kinematic models of basin subsidence. The results demonstrate that

  2. 1529-6466/03/0054-0004$05.00 Biologically Induced Mineralization by Bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dove, Patricia M.

    1529-6466/03/0054-0004$05.00 Biologically Induced Mineralization by Bacteria Richard B. Frankel 50011 U.S.A. INTRODUCTION Bacteria are small, prokaryotic, microorganisms that are ubiquitous in surface) in the biological taxonomic hierarchy, the Bacteria and the Archaea. They exhibit remarkable diversity both

  3. Bouyancy-induced convective heat transfer in cylindrical transformers filled with mineral oil with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, D. Greg

    Bouyancy-induced convective heat transfer in cylindrical transformers filled with mineral oil in transformer winding temperature can increase life span by 10% · 3.5 billion gallons of oil used as electrical at 5kVA, 15kVA · tests last for several days at each power level · achieved some "anomalous" readings 7

  4. Incorporating self-consistently calculated mineral physics into thermochemical mantle convection simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tackley, Paul J.

    the material properties density, thermal expansivity, specific heat capacity, and seismic velocity is probably due to self-consistent plate tectonics and depth-dependent viscosity. In conclusion, this combined approach of mantle convection and self-consistently calculated mineral physics is a powerful and useful

  5. emissions: mineral carbonation and Finnish pulp and paper industry (CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    CO2 emissions: mineral carbonation and Finnish pulp and paper industry (CO2 Nordic Plus) and Use, utilisation and long-term storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the pulp and paper industry. The Geological of serpentinites in energy and metal industry (ECOSERP) Carl-Johan Fogelholm, Project leader, professor Sanni

  6. The chemistry of minerals obtained from the combustion of Jordanian oil shale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

    The chemistry of minerals obtained from the combustion of Jordanian oil shale Awni Y. Al was performed on the spent oil shale (oil shale ash) obtained from the combustion of Jordanian oil shale process, minimal fragmentation was encountered since Jordanian oil shale contains large proportions of ash

  7. Point of zero charge determination in soils and minerals via traditional methods and detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    , an Oxisol and Ultisol, as well as mineral-standard kaolinite and synthetic goethite using three methods: (1 of zero charge for kaolinite (2.7­3.2) and synthetic goethite (7.4­8.2) comparable to those reported goethite (8.1­8.2) were similar to values obtained by electrophoretic mobility. Furthermore, the values

  8. Mineral magnetic study of the Taklimakan desert sands and its relevance to the Chinese loess

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Mineral magnetic study of the Taklimakan desert sands and its relevance to the Chinese loess M and weathered loess sections from the Chinese Loess Plateau. We found an apparent decreasing grain size trend it is located more than 2000 km west of the central Loess Plateau. Key words: Chinese loess, magnetic

  9. Competitive sorption of pyrene and pyridine to natural clay minerals and reference clay standards 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Lai Man

    2001-01-01

    understood. This study followed a mechanistic approach to confirm suspected specific mineral-PAH interactions. The focus was on the sorption of pyrene to three clay sorbents, a soil clay fraction and two reference clay standards, in the presence of a...

  10. Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering Spring 2012 BP Methanol Separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    PENNSTATE Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering Spring 2012 BP ­ Methanol Separation issues in the well heads. To counteract this problem, methanol is injected into the produced water stream at the well site. Methanol, however, is toxic to humans, animals, and plants, and must be removed before

  11. Redox-driven dissolution of clay minerals by uranium under high pressure CO2 conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burgos, William

    online 21 June 2014 Editor: J. Fein Keywords: Carbon sequestration Iron-bearing clay minerals Uranium, indicative of potential risks associated with geologic carbon sequestration. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) is a process where CO2 is captured

  12. Mineral replacement rate of olivine by chrysotile and brucite under high1 alkaline conditions2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    that could possibly contribute to reduce51 carbon dioxide emissions. Geological sequestration and ex including chrysotile [15­18]. Serpentine minerals are49 also crucial for sequestration of CO2 due to its availability and sequestration capacity [19­21].50 Indeed a lot of studies are looking for technologies

  13. The University of Arizona College of Agriculture and Life Sciences12 Trace Minerals for Cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerriero, Vince

    The University of Arizona College of Agriculture and Life Sciences12 Trace Minerals for Cattle that Arizona cattle held in feedlots seem to contract more diseases. Some scientists linked the increases extension agent, led the research team that learned not only how cattle health is affected when their diet

  14. EdgeMiner: Automatically Detecting Implicit Control Flow Transitions through the Android Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yan

    EdgeMiner: Automatically Detecting Implicit Control Flow Transitions through the Android Framework of Android applications. One of the building blocks that these analysis systems rely upon is the computation of a precise control flow graph. The callback mechanism provided and orchestrated by the Android framework

  15. DroidMiner: Automated Mining and Characterization of Fine-grained Malicious Behaviors in Android

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, Guofei

    DroidMiner: Automated Mining and Characterization of Fine-grained Malicious Behaviors in Android, CA, USA {vinod, porras}@csl.sri.com Abstract Most existing malicious Android app detection approaches logic from known Android malware, abstracts this logic into a sequence of threat modalities

  16. Local coordination of Zn in hydroxy-interlayered minerals and implications for Zn retention in soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in soils Olivier Jacquat, Andreas Voegelin *, Ruben Kretzschmar Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant-interlayered minerals (HIM) for Zn retention in contaminated soils. Published and newly collected extended X. In a second part, we determined the spe- ciation of Zn in eight contaminated soils (251­1039 mg/kg Zn

  17. MCWASP, Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes XI TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zabaras, Nicholas J.

    at the bottom of the casting due to shrinkage driven fluid flow leads to a non-uniform solute distributionMCWASP, Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes XI TMS (The Minerals, Aluminum alloys, Cast surfaces, Mold topography, Inverse segregation, Imperfect contact, Air-gaps, Solid

  18. Biomaterials 26 (2005) 76507660 A transmission electron microscopy study of mineralization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Biomaterials 26 (2005) 7650­7660 A transmission electron microscopy study of mineralization in age consequence of aging [2]. ARTICLE IN PRESS www.elsevier.com/locate/biomaterials 0142-9612/$ - see front matter r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2005.05.059 ÃCorresponding

  19. Biomaterials 26 (2005) 33633376 Age-related transparent root dentin: mineral concentration, crystallite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Biomaterials 26 (2005) 3363­3376 Age-related transparent root dentin: mineral concentration that indicate elastic asym- metry would be determined not by the orientation of the ARTICLE IN PRESS www.elsevier.com/locate/biomaterials 0142-9612/$ - see front matter r 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials

  20. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, K.

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board. The Measure Guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations. This Measure Guideline is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit.

  1. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, K.

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board, and is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit processes. The guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations.

  2. HEPATIC MINERALS OF WHITE-TAILED AND MULE DEER IN THE SOUTHERN BLACK HILLS, SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HEPATIC MINERALS OF WHITE-TAILED AND MULE DEER IN THE SOUTHERN BLACK HILLS, SOUTH DAKOTA Teresa J status, and species. Key words: Black Hills, elements, fire, liver, mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus and laboratory animals (Robbins, 1983). Liver concentrations of some trace elements have been measured in elk

  3. Soil mineral genesis and distribution in a saline lake landscape of the Pantanal Wetland, Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Soil mineral genesis and distribution in a saline lake landscape of the Pantanal Wetland, Brazil S Geografia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil b Soil & Water Sciences Program, Department São Paulo, Piracicaba, Brazil a b s t r a c ta r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 20 August

  4. SEMI-AUTOMATIC SUPERVISED CLASSIFICATION OF MINERALS FROM X-RAY MAPPING IMAGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in siliciclastic and car- bonate rocks. Twelve chemical elements are mapped from thin sections by energy dispersive or energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Here, an x-ray spectrum, long image acquisition times has made use of EDS images for mineral classification difficult. #12;New

  5. Auxiliary Information for "Wind-blown sandstones cemented by sulfate and clay minerals in Gale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Woodward

    Auxiliary Information for "Wind-blown sandstones cemented by sulfate and clay minerals in Gale. Sharp exhibit features consistent with eolian sandstones that may be cemented by sulfates. As described to features observed in terrestrial eolian sandstones such as the Navajo sandstone in the southwestern U

  6. Soil Interfaces in a Changing World International Symposium of Interactions of Soil Minerals with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    , and at the molecular and atomic scales, the kinetics of meta(loid) transformations at mineral interfaces. Two, and thus terrestrial carbon cycling. Quick X- ray absorption spectroscopy (Q-XAS) was used to measure the rapid kinetics of As(III) and Cr(III) oxidation on manganese oxides. Manganese oxides are the most

  7. PEPPER (BELL): Capsicum annuum (L.), 'X3R Lancelot' MANAGEMENT OF PESTS OF BELL PEPPER WITH HORTICULTURAL MINERAL OIL, 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    WITH HORTICULTURAL MINERAL OIL, 2004 Philip A. Stansly University of Florida/ IFAS Southwest Florida Res. and Ed.) Bacterial spot: Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (ex Doidge) Horticultural mineral oil in an RCB design. Sixteen weekly applications of the HMO, PureSpray Green Oil tank mixed with Kocide 2000

  8. Shedding light on carbon-mineral complexation in the soil environment: impacts on C sequestration and cycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    42 Shedding light on carbon-mineral complexation in the soil environment: impacts on C sequestration and cycling Sparks, D.L. & C. Chen Department of Plant and Soil Sciences and Delaware@udel.edu) Abstract Organic matter (OM)-mineral complexation plays a critical role in soil carbon (C) stabilization

  9. Mineral-Surfactant Interactions for Minimum Reagents Precipitation and Adsorption for Improved Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Somasundaran

    2008-09-20

    Chemical EOR can be an effective method for increasing oil recovery and reducing the amount of produced water; however, reservoir fluids are chemically complex and may react adversely to the polymers and surfactants injected into the reservoir. While a major goal is to alter rock wettability and interfacial tension between oil and water, rock-fluid and fluid-fluid interactions must be understood and controlled to minimize reagent loss, maximize recovery and mitigate costly failures. The overall objective of this project was to elucidate the mechanisms of interactions between polymers/surfactants and the mineral surfaces responsible for determining the chemical loss due to adsorption and precipitation in EOR processes. The role of dissolved inorganic species that are dependent on the mineralogy is investigated with respect to their effects on adsorption. Adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension are studied with the aim to control chemical losses, the ultimate goal being to devise schemes to develop guidelines for surfactant and polymer selection in EOR. The adsorption behavior of mixed polymer/surfactant and surfactant/surfactant systems on typical reservoir minerals (quartz, alumina, calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, gypsum, pyrite, etc.) was correlated to their molecular structures, intermolecular interactions and the solution conditions such as pH and/or salinity. Predictive models as well as general guidelines for the use of polymer/surfactant surfactant/surfactant system in EOR have been developed The following tasks have been completed under the scope of the project: (1) Mineral characterization, in terms of SEM, BET, size, surface charge, and point zero charge. (2) Study of the interactions among typical reservoir minerals (quartz, alumina, calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, gypsum, pyrite, etc.) and surfactants and/or polymers in terms of adsorption properties that include both macroscopic (adsorption density, wettability) and microscopic (orientation/conformation of the adsorbed layers), as well as precipitation/abstraction characteristics. (3) Investigation of the role of dissolved species, especially multivalent ions, on interactions between reservoir minerals and surfactants and/or polymers leading to surfactant precipitation or activated adsorption. (4) Solution behavior tests--surface tension, interaction, ultra filtration, and other tests. (5) Surfactant-mineral interactions relative to adsorption, wettability, and electrophoresis. (6) Work on the effects of multivalent ions, pH, temperature, salinity, and mixing ratio on the adsorption. Developments of adsorption models to explain interactions between surfactants/polymers/minerals. (7) General guidelines for the use of certain surfactants, polymers and their mixtures in micelle flooding processes.

  10. MINERALIZATION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR): COMPARISONS TO VITREOUS WASTE FORMS, AND PERTINENT DURABILITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C

    2008-12-26

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to generate a document for the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that would cover the following topics: (1) A description of the mineral structures produced by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) of Hanford type Low Activity Waste (LAW including LAWR which is LAW melter recycle waste) waste, especially the cage structured minerals and how they are formed. (2) How the cage structured minerals contain some contaminants, while others become part of the mineral structure (Note that all contaminants become part of the mineral structure and this will be described in the subsequent sections of this report). (3) Possible contaminant release mechanisms from the mineral structures. (4) Appropriate analyses to evaluate these release mechanisms. (5) Why the appropriate analyses are comparable to the existing Hanford glass dataset. In order to discuss the mineral structures and how they bond contaminants a brief description of the structures of both mineral (ceramic) and vitreous waste forms will be given to show their similarities. By demonstrating the similarities of mineral and vitreous waste forms on atomic level, the contaminant release mechanisms of the crystalline (mineral) and amorphous (glass) waste forms can be compared. This will then logically lead to the discussion of why many of the analyses used to evaluate vitreous waste forms and glass-ceramics (also known as glass composite materials) are appropriate for determining the release mechanisms of LAW/LAWR mineral waste forms and how the durability data on LAW/LAWR mineral waste forms relate to the durability data for LAW/LAWR glasses. The text will discuss the LAW mineral waste form made by FBSR. The nanoscale mechanism by which the minerals form will be also be described in the text. The appropriate analyses to evaluate contaminant release mechanisms will be discussed, as will the FBSR test results to date and how they compare to testing performed on LAW glasses. Other details about vitreous waste form durability and impacts of REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) on durability are given in Appendix A. Details about the FBSR process, various pilot scale demonstrations, and applications are given in Appendix B. Details describing all the different leach tests that need to be used jointly to determine the leaching mechanisms of a waste form are given in Appendix C. Cautions regarding the way in which the waste form surface area is measured and in the choice of leachant buffers (if used) are given in Appendix D.

  11. Language Production General Points about Speech Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coulson, Seana

    Language Production #12;General Points about Speech Production 15 speech sounds per second => 2, shall I say `t' or `d'' (Levelt) Production side has gotten less attention in Psycholinguistics than the comprehension side. Evidence for speech production behaviour has until recently relied heavily on speech errors

  12. THE PRODUCT CONSISTENCY TEST HOW AND WHY IT WAS DEVELOPED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C; Ned Bibler, N

    2008-12-15

    The Product Consistency Test (PCT), American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Standard C1285, is currently used world wide for testing glass and glass-ceramic waste forms for high level waste (HLW), low level waste (LLW), and hazardous wastes. Development of the PCT was initiated in 1986 because HLW glass waste forms required extensive characterization before actual production began and required continued characterization during production ({ge}25 years). Non-radioactive startup was in 1994 and radioactive startup was in 1996. The PCT underwent extensive development from 1986-1994 and became an ASTM consensus standard in 1994. During the extensive laboratory testing and inter- and intra-laboratory round robins using non-radioactive and radioactive glasses, the PCT was shown to be very reproducible, to yield reliable results rapidly, to distinguish between glasses of different durability and homogeneity, and to easily be performed in shielded cell facilities with radioactive samples. In 1997, the scope was broadened to include hazardous and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) waste glasses. In 2002, the scope was broadened to include glass-ceramic waste forms which are currently being recommended for second generation nuclear wastes yet to be generated in the nuclear renaissance. Since the PCT has proven useful for glass-ceramics with up to 75% ceramic component and has been used to evaluate Pu ceramic waste forms, the use of this test for other ceramic/mineral waste forms such as geopolymers, hydroceramics, and fluidized bed steam reformer mineralized product is under investigation.

  13. Sensitivity Study of the Effects of Mineral Dust Particle Nonsphericity and Thin Cirrus Clouds on MODIS Dust Optical Depth Retrievals and Direct Radiative Forcing Calculations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Qian

    2011-10-21

    A special challenge posed by mineral dust aerosols is associated with their predominantly nonspherical particle shapes. In the present study, the scattering and radiative properties for nonspherical mineral dust aerosols at violet-to-blue (0.412, 0...

  14. Monday, November 5, 2007 -11:15 AM Microbe-Mineral Interactions and their Influence on ArsenicTransformations in the Soil Environment.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Monday, November 5, 2007 - 11:15 AM 91-7 Microbe-Mineral Interactions and their Influence (bacteria) and reactive mineral surfaces (manganese and iron oxides) play in As reaction pathway(s) in soils

  15. DHAHRAN 31261 SAUDI ARABIA www.kfupm.edu.sa/math/ E-mail: mathdept@kfupm.edu.sa King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joarder, Anwar H

    University of Petroleum & Minerals DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES Technical Report Series TR 359 Oct@fiu.edu and Anwar H. Joarder Department of Mathematical Sciences King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals

  16. Formation of Replicating Saponite from a Gel in the Presence of Oxalate: Implications for the Formation of Clay Minerals in Carbonaceous Chondrites and the Origin of Life

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schumann, Dirk

    The potential role of clay minerals in the abiotic origin of life has been the subject of ongoing debate for the past several decades. At issue are the clay minerals found in a class of meteorites known as carbonaceous ...

  17. Effect of Residence Time on Ni-Sorption Mechanisms on Clay and Oxide Minerals: An X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Effect of Residence Time on Ni-Sorption Mechanisms on Clay and Oxide Minerals: An X-ray Absorption minerals is typically fast initially, then the rates gradually diminish. In the literature the decline

  18. New Mexico's energy resources '81. Annual report of Bureau of Geology in the Mining and Minerals Division of New Mexico Energy and Minerals Department

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, E.C.; Hill, J.M.

    1981-09-03

    Although production of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ declined only slightly in 1980, New Mexico's share of domestic production has declined from 48% in 1976 to 35% in 1980. Production projections indicate a continued decline in 1981 and lower production until at least 1984. New Mexico has 41% of total domestic reserves producible in the $50-per-lb cost category. In keeping with the anticipated steady depletion of reserves, production of crude oil in New Mexico was 69.9 million bls, a 6.3% decline in production from 1979. Condensate production of 5.4 million bbls in 1980, however, represented an increase of 7% from 1979 production. Although natural gas production was the lowest since 1970 and declined by 2.6% from 1979 production, 1980 was the 15th year that production exceeded 1 trillion cu ft. Despite declines in production, the valuation of oil and gas production has increased significantly with oil sales doubling from the previous year and gas sales increasing by $409 million because of higher prices. Reserves have been estimated to be 959 million bbls of crude oil and 17.667 trillion cu ft of natural gas. Production of 19.5 million short tons of coal in 1980 represented a 33% increase over 1979 production and an increase of 157% since 1970. Coal resources in New Mexico are estimated to be 180.79 billion short tons, and production is projected to incease to 39.61 million tons in 1985 and 67.53 million tons in 1990. The most notable developments in geothermal energy have been in technical advances in drilling, testing, and applications, especially in the area of hot dry rock systems. The US Bureau of Land Management has issued 113 geothermal leases that remain active. Recent geothermal exploration activity has been detailed for 21 companies.

  19. Activation of Hydrogen Peroxide by Iron-Containing Minerals and Catalysts in Circumneutral pH Solutions: Implications for ex situ and in situ Treatment of Contaminated Water and Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pham, Anh

    2012-01-01

    Australia. Clays and Clay Minerals 2000, 48, 537-548. Teel,R. J. , Rates of trace mineral-catalyzed decomposition ofL. , Clays and oxide minerals as catalysts and nanocatalysts

  20. Secondary Sulfate Mineralization and Basaltic Chemistry of Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho: Potential Martian Analog

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Doc Richardson; Nancy W. Hinman; Lindsay J. McHenry; J. Michelle Kotler; Jill R. Scott

    2012-05-01

    Secondary deposits associated with the basaltic caves of Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM) in southern Idaho were examined using X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). The secondary mineral assemblages are dominated by Na-sulfate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) with a small fraction of the deposits containing minor concentrations of Na-carbonate minerals. The assemblages are found as white, efflorescent deposits in small cavities along the cave walls and ceilings and as localized mounds on the cave floors. Formation of the deposits is likely due to direct and indirect physiochemical leaching of meteoritic water through the overlying basalts. Whole rock data from the overlying basaltic flows are characterized by their extremely high iron concentrations, making them good analogs for martian basalts. Understanding the physiochemical pathways leading to secondary mineralization at COM is also important because lava tubes and basaltic caves are present on Mars. The ability of FTICR-MS to consistently and accurately identify mineral species within these heterogeneous mineral assemblages proves its validity as a valuable technique for the direct fingerprinting of mineral species by deductive reasoning or by comparison with reference spectra.

  1. A model of global net ecosystem production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, C.S.; Matson, P.A. (NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)); Field, C.B.; Randerson, J. (Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, CA (United States)); Vitousek, P.M.; Mooney, H.A. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

    1993-06-01

    We present an ecosystem modeling approach to resolve global climate and edaphic controls on seasonal NEP patterns. Global remote sensing, climate and land surface data sets are used as inputs to drive a terrestrial carbon cycle model at 1[degrees]lat/lon resolution. monthly net primary productivity (NPP) is calculated using surface radiation and NDVI to determine photosynthesis, which is subsequently adjusted by temperature, water and nitrogen stress factors. Total nitrogen availability is coupled to net mineralization rates from litter soil carbon pools. Soil respiration and NPP balance one another globally at around 60 Gt C yr[sup [minus]1]. The seasonal amplitude of global NEP is 1.2 Gt C. Although substantial month-to-month variation is observed for tropical forest areas, seasonal amplitude is driven globally by boreal and temperate forest ecosystems between 650 and 30[degrees] N latitude.

  2. Start | View At a Glance | Author Index 151-2 Soil Organic Matter-Mineral Interactions Along Hillslope Transects: Importance of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    minerals in the soils. We used both C-NEXAFS and pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py- FIMSShare | Start | View At a Glance | Author Index 151-2 Soil Organic Matter-Mineral Interactions Soil Mineralogy See more from this Session: Symposium--Mineral-Organic Interactions Across Time

  3. Citation/Reference Installe AJF, Van den Bosch T, De Moor B, Timmerman D, (2014), Clinical Data Miner: An electronic Case Report Form system with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    Miner: An electronic Case Report Form system with integrated data preprocessing and machine Paper Clinical Data Miner: An Electronic Case Report Form System With Integrated Data Preprocessing of Clinical Data Miner (CDM) software framework is to offer an eCRF system with integrated data preprocessing

  4. MINERALAVATER INTERFACE USING MOLECULAR SCALE TECHNIQUES An understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms of metal sorption on soil minerals and soils is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    and mechanisms of metal sorption on soil minerals and soils is fundamental in assessing the speciation, mobility metals (e.g., Co, Ni, Zn) residence time affects the rate of metal release from soil minerals while on soil minerals and soils and speciation of metals in contaminated soils via macroscopic and molecular

  5. PII S0016-7037(98)00136-7 The kinetics of mixed Ni-Al hydroxide formation on clay and aluminum oxide minerals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    oxide minerals: A time-resolved XAFS study ANDR´E M. SCHEIDEGGER,1,2, * DANIEL G. STRAWN,1 GERALDINE M of sorption decreased significantly and depended on the type of mineral surface. For the Ni with increasing reaction time. Our study suggests that three phenomena occur at the mineral/liquid interface: (1

  6. OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND ABUNDANCES OF MINERALS AND GLASSES IN THE 10 TO 45 MICRON SIZE FRACTION OF MARE SOILS: PART II Carl M. Pieters1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiroi, Takahiro

    OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND ABUNDANCES OF MINERALS AND GLASSES IN THE 10 TO 45 MICRON SIZE FRACTION on providing this direct link. Individual mineral components are relatively well under- stood in terms large or fresh craters, the only unambiguous mineral remotely detected (but not quantified) for well

  7. Kinetics of Ion Exchange on Clay Minerals and Soil: I. Evaluation of Methods1 R. A. OGWADA AND D. L. SPARKS2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Kinetics of Ion Exchange on Clay Minerals and Soil: I. Evaluation of Methods1 R. A. OGWADA AND D. L,vermiculite. Ogwada, R.A., and D.L. Sparks. 1986. Kinetics of ion exchangeon clay minerals and soil: I. Evaluation displacement or flow techniques to investigate kinetics of ion exchange on soils and clay minerals (Sparks

  8. Mineralization of Sediment Organic Matter under Anoxic Conditions P.M. Gale,* K.R. Reddy, and D.A. Graetz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Mineralization of Sediment Organic Matter under Anoxic Conditions P.M. Gale,* K.R. Reddy, and DH, exchangeable NH4-N,and soluble re- active P. First-order rate constants for C mineralization (defined was mineralized to CO2and CU4oThe biodegradability of sediment organic C ranked in the order UCF > CF > peat. Net

  9. Stibioclaudetite is a new mineral species with ideal chemistry AsSbO3. The symmetry is monoclinic, P21/n, with a 5 4.5757(4) ,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Downs, Robert T.

    AbstrAct Stibioclaudetite is a new mineral species with ideal chemistry AsSbO3. The symmetry, colorless transparent bladed crystals to 6 mm, bound by {010}, {110}, {111}, and {101}. The mineral of stibioclaudetite, claudetite, and leiteite are presented and compared. Stibioclaudetite AsSbO3 A New Mineral from

  10. DHAHRAN 31261 SAUDI ARABIA www.kfupm.edu.sa/math/ E-mail: mathdept@kfupm.edu.sa King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mustafa, M. Tahir

    University of Petroleum & Minerals DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES Technical Report Series TR 361 Oct: Department of Mathematics, Hafr Al-Batin Community College, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, P of Mathematical Sciences, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia, Email

  11. DHAHRAN 31261 SAUDI ARABIA www.kfupm.edu.sa/math/ E-mail: mathdept@kfupm.edu.sa King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mustafa, M. Tahir

    University of Petroleum & Minerals DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES Technical Report Series TR 360 Oct: Department of Mathematics, Hafr Al-Batin Community College, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, P of Mathematical Sciences, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia, Email

  12. GEOC Martial Taillefert Tuesday, April 09, 2013 130 Realtime sorption and precipitation of nickel on clay minerals: An in situ QuickEXAFS investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    of nickel on clay minerals: An in situ QuickEXAFS investigation Matthew Siebecker1, mgs@udel.edu, Wei Li1 of nickel sorption on Alrich clay minerals utilizing QuickEXAFS spectroscopy and a custom built flow cell Chemical Interactions at the MineralWater Interface (01:00 PM 05:30 PM) Location: Morial Convention Center

  13. Comparison of Caprock Mineral Characteristics at Field Demonstration Sites for Saline Aquifer Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, C.A.; Lowry, G. (Carnegie Mellon University); Dzombak, D. (Carnegie Mellon University); Soong, Yee; Hedges, S.W.

    2008-10-01

    In 2003 the U.S Department of Energy initiated regional partnership programs to address the concern for rising atmospheric CO2. These partnerships were formed to explore regional and economical means for geologically sequestering CO2 across the United States and to set the stage for future commercial applications. Several options exist for geological sequestration and among these sequestering CO2 into deep saline aquifers is one of the most promising. This is due, in part, to the possibility of stabilized permanent storage through mineral precipitation from chemical interactions of the injected carbon dioxide with the brine and reservoir rock. There are nine field demonstration sites for saline sequestration among the regional partnerships in Phase II development to validate the overall commercial feasibility for CO2 geological sequestration. Of the nine sites considered for Phase II saline sequestration demonstration, seven are profiled in this study for their caprock lithologic and mineral characteristics.

  14. Iron (II) and Silicate Effects on Mineralization and Immobilzation of Actinides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler A. Sullens; Cynthia-May S. Gong; Kenneth R. Szerwinski

    2006-01-01

    Abstract - The unique composition of the Yucca Mountain repository site, which contains large concentrations of silicate in an oxidative environment, has required extensive research into compound formation involving uranium and iron(II) under such conditions. The possibility of uranium leakage from within the containment vessels into the near-field ground water, as well as iron leaching from the vessel itself, necessitates study of the individual contributions of these elements for compound formation. By mimicking the known silicate concentration found in surrounding ground water and varying concentrations of both uranyl and iron(II), subsequent precipitation of uranyl silicate phases has shown evidence of iron(II) sorption to the available sites on the mineral surface. The mineralization seems to be driven by the formation of uranyl silicate, in contrast to iron(III)-control of precipitation in the oxidated system. Characterization of this system presented includes ICP-AES analysis as well as preliminary EDAX, XRD, and FT-IR

  15. The effect of SO2 on mineral carbonation in batch tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summers, Cathy A.; Dahlin, David C.; Ochs, Thomas L.

    2004-01-01

    CO2 sequestration is a key element of future emission-free fossil-fueled power plants. Other constituents of flue gas must also be captured and rendered innocuous. Contemporary power plants remove SOx from exit gases, but next-generation plants may simultaneously treat CO2, SOx, and other pollutants. Pioneering tests at the U.S. Department of Energy's Albany Research Center investigated the combined treatment of CO2 and SO2 in a mineral-carbonation process. SO2 was removed from the gas stream, and as a small fraction of the total volume of mineralizing gas, it did not inhibit the carbonation reaction. The results indicate that this approach to CO2 sequestration could be used to treat multiple pollutants.

  16. Biological production of products from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2002-01-22

    A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  17. Stratigraphic and structural controls on fluorspar mineralization in northern Valle Las Norias, Coahuila, Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapport, Eric John

    1983-01-01

    Fluorspar in Valle Las Norias 15 17 19 19 21 PROCEDURES 23 Field Procedures. 23 Laboratory Procedures 23 RESULTS. 26 Mapping Pico Etereo Measured Section. 26 40 Sedimentary Petrology Fluorspar Petrology SEM: Secondary Electron Imagery... of net fluorspar mineralization and that ex- change pseudomorphism was controlled by numbers of fossil fragments, microporosity, and groundmass composition of the stratigraphically related host rocks. The Santa Elena Formation was judged to have...

  18. The effect of dietary fat on the absorption of minerals in turkey poults 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrd, James Allen

    1987-01-01

    battery brooders and which were fed a diet with the nutritional content listed in Table 1. The diets provided comparable levels of protein and energy. The diets contained calcium levels of 1. 20 to 1. 80% and total phosphorus at 0. 60% of the diet... DEDICATION. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES. LIST OF FIGURES. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE. Feed Efficiency Weight Gains Mineral Absorption. Calcium to Phosphorus Ratios. CHAPTER III MATERIALS...

  19. Synchrotron X-ray Investigations of Mineral-Microbe-Metal Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemner, Kenneth M.; O'Loughlin, Edward J.; Kelly, Shelly D.; Boyanov, Maxim I.

    2008-06-06

    Interactions between microbes and minerals can play an important role in metal transformations (i.e. changes to an element's valence state, coordination chemistry, or both), which can ultimately affect that element's mobility. Mineralogy affects microbial metabolism and ecology in a system; microbes, in turn, can affect the system's mineralogy. Increasingly, synchrotron-based X-ray experiments are in routine use for determining an element's valence state and coordination chemistry, as well as for examining the role of microbes in metal transformations.

  20. Enhancement of Growth Performance and Bone Mineralization in Market Broilers through Dietary Enzymes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coppedge, Jacob Ryan

    2012-02-14

    phosphorus (aP) in the control diets resulted in improved bird performance and bone ash data. The presence of dietary phytase in phosphorus deficient diets resulted in improvements in growth parameters and bone mineralization. Regression analysis... and processing parameters. In Experiments 3 and 4, a battery trial and a floor trial were conducted to determine the effects of phytase and NSPase enzyme co-administration on growth and bone ash in low phosphorus diets. Increasing the level of available...

  1. File:03HIBStateMineralLeasingProcess.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, AlabamaETECHIAReservedLandMineralLeasingProcess.pdf Jump to: navigation, search

  2. Covered Product Category: Cool Roof Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including cool roof products, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  3. Fundamental Thermodynamics of Actinide-Bearing Mineral Waste Forms - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, Mark A.; Ebbinghaus, Bartley B.; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2001-03-01

    The end of the Cold War raised the need for the technical community to be concerned with the disposition of excess nuclear weapon material. The plutonium will either be converted into mixed-oxide fuel for use in nuclear reactors or immobilized in glass or ceramic waste forms and placed in a repository. The stability and behavior of plutonium in the ceramic materials as well as the phase behavior and stability of the ceramic material in the environment is not well established. In order to provide technically sound solutions to these issues, thermodynamic data are essential in developing an understanding of the chemistry and phase equilibria of the actinide-bearing mineral waste form materials proposed as immobilization matrices. Mineral materials of interest include zircon, zirconolite, and pyrochlore. High temperature solution calorimetry is one of the most powerful techniques, sometimes the only technique, for providing the fundamental thermodynamic data needed to establish optimum material fabrication parameters, and more importantly understand and predict the behavior of the mineral materials in the environment. The purpose of this project is to experimentally determine the enthalpy of formation of actinide orthosilicates, the enthalpies of formation of actinide substituted zirconolite and pyrochlore, and develop an understanding of the bonding characteristics and stabilities of these materials.

  4. Spirometry variability criteria--association with respiratory morbidity and mortality in a cohort of coal miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kellie, S.E.; Attfield, M.D.; Hankinson, J.L.; Castellan, R.M.

    1987-03-01

    To clarify the association between spirometry variability and respiratory morbidity and mortality, the authors analyzed data for miners examined in the first round of the National Coal Study, 1969-1971, and they compared groups of miners who failed with those who met each of two spirometry variability criteria: a 5% criterion recommended by the American Thoracic Society, and a 200 ml criterion used in prior research studies. Compared with miners who met the 5% criterion (the best two forced vital capacities must be within 5% or 100 ml of one another), the group that failed had a lower mean for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and odds ratios for cough, phlegm, wheeze, shortness of breath, and death of 1.75, 1.67, 1.76, 2.71, and 1.30, respectively. The findings for the 200 ml criterion (the best two FEV1s must be within 200 ml of one another) were somewhat different. The group that failed versus the group that met this criterion had a higher mean for FEV1, and odds ratios for cough, phlegm, wheeze, shortness of breath, and death of 1.13, 1.07, 1.15, 1.43, and 0.94, respectively. Although the findings differ for the two criteria, the findings demonstrate that increased spirometry variability is associated with poorer health.

  5. King Fahd University Of Petroleum & Minerals College of Engineering Sciences and Applied Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

    Engineering Chemical Engineering Department CHE 495 - Integrated Design Course Production of Formaldehyde from .......................................................................................................................................V 1. LITERATURE REVIEW OF THE PRODUCTION PROCESS

  6. Radioactive Materials Product Stewardship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radioactive Materials Product Stewardship ABackground Report for the National Dialogue...................................................................................................26 Low Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Regulations on Radioactive Materials Product Stewardship Prepared by the: Product Stewardship Institute University

  7. Common variants in the region around Osterix are associated with bone mineral density and growth in childhood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peltonen, Leena

    Peak bone mass achieved in adolescence is a determinant of bone mass in later life. In order to identify genetic variants affecting bone mineral density (BMD), we performed a genome-wide association study of BMD and related ...

  8. Supplementary material for "Does the size distribution of mineral dust aerosols depend on the wind speed at emission?"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    Supplementary material for "Does the size distribution of mineral dust aerosols depend on the wind by truncating those bins. I do so by assuming that the sub-bin distribution follows the power law found by both

  9. Contrib Mineral Petrol (2015) 169:35 DOI 10.1007/s00410-015-1129-4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tommasi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    1 3 Contrib Mineral Petrol (2015) 169:35 DOI 10.1007/s00410-015-1129-4 ORIGINAL PAPER On topotaxy in the natural samples include: (1) smooth bending of the former foliation, (2) gradual crystallographic

  10. Effects of mineral aerosols on the summertime climate of southwest Asia: Incorporating subgrid variability in a dust emission scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcella, Marc Pace

    [1] Improvements in modeling mineral aerosols over southwest Asia are made to the dust scheme in a regional climate model by representing subgrid variability of both wind speed and surface roughness length. The new module ...

  11. Change in atmospheric mineral aerosols in response to climate: Last glacial period, preindustrial, modern, and doubled carbon dioxide climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the 30-year Barbados desert dust record, J.on mineral dust in the Barbados trade winds, Nature, 320,varied by a factor of 4 at Barbados, due to natural climate

  12. Smoking cessation among coal miners as predicted by baseline respiratory function and symptoms: a 5-year prospective study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ames, R.G.; Hall, D.S.

    1985-03-01

    A prospective analysis was used to test whether respiratory impairment or the presence of respiratory symptoms predicts 5-year cigarette smoking cessation in a sample of 1,118 U.S. white, male, underground coal miners. Miners were examined in 1977 and re-examined in 1982 by NIOSH, and all miners with test abnormalities were so informed by letter. Respiratory impairment was measured by an index of airways obstruction combining the spirometric measures of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 sec (FEV1). Bronchitis symptoms were measured by an index that combined chronic cough (3+ months/year) and chronic phlegm (3 + months/year). Among these coal miners, the presence of chronic respiratory symptoms initially was inversely associated with cigarette smoking cessation. Respiratory impairment, however, was positively associated with cigarette smoking cessation but did not reach statistical significance.

  13. A highly conspicuous mineralized composite photonic architecture in the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ling

    Many species rely on diverse selections of entirely organic photonic structures for the manipulation of light and the display of striking colours. Here we report the discovery of a mineralized hierarchical photonic ...

  14. Authigenic clay minerals in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group: Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, Waha Field, West Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walling, Suzette Denise

    1992-01-01

    AUTHIGENIC CLAY MINERALS IN SANDSTONES OF THE DELAWARE MOUNTAIN GROUP: BELL CANYON AND CHERRY CANYON FORMATIONS, WAHA FIELD, WEST TEXAS A Thesis by SUZETTE DENISE WALLING Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Geology AUTHIGENIC CLAY MINERALS IN SANDSTONES OF THE DELAWARE MOUNTAIN GROUP: BELL CANYON AND CHERRY CANYON FORMATIONS, WAHA FIELD, WEST TEXAS...

  15. Effects of prescribed fire and varying stand basal area on nitrogen mineralization in a loblolly pine forest 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webb, Bobby Glen

    1991-01-01

    EFFECTS OF PRESCRIBED FIRE AND VARYING STAND BASAL AREA ON NITROGEN MINERALIZATION IN A LOBLOLLY PINE FOREST A Thesis by BOBBY GLEN WEBB Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1991 Major Subject: Forestry EFFECTS OF PRESCRIBED FIRE AND VARYING STAND BASAL AREA ON NITROGEN MINERALIZATION IN A LOBLOLLY PINE FOREST A Thesis by BOBBY GLEN WEBB Approved as to style...

  16. Geochemical study of evaporite and clay mineral-oxyhydroxide samples from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brookins, D.G. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (US). Dept. of Geology

    1993-06-01

    Samples of clay minerals, insoluble oxyhydroxides, and their host evaporites from the WIPP site have been studied for their major and minor elements abundances, x-ray diffraction characteristics, K-Ar ages, and Rb-Sr ages. This study was undertaken to determine their overall geochemical characteristics and to investigate possible interactions between evaporates and insoluble constituents. The evaporite host material is water-soluble, having Cl/Br ratios typical of marine evaporites, although the Br content is low. Insoluble material (usually a mixture of clay minerals and oxyhydroxide phases) yields very high Cl/Br ratios, possibly because of Cl from admixed halide minerals. This same material yields K/Rb and Th/U ratios in the normal range for shales; suggesting little, if any, effect of evaporite-induced remobilization of U, K, or Rb in the insoluble material. The rare-earth element (REE) data also show normal REE/chondrite (REE/CHON) distribution patterns, supporting the K/Rb and Th/U data. Clay minerals yield K-Ar dates in the range 365 to 390 Ma and a Rb-Sr isochron age of 428 {+-} 7 Ma. These ages are well in excess of the 220- to 230-Ma formational age of the evaporites, and confirm the detrital origin of the clays. The ages also show that any evaporite or clay mineral reactions that might have occurred at or near the time of sedimentation and diagenesis were not sufficient to reset the K-Ar and Rb-Sr systematics of the clay minerals. Further, x-ray data indicate a normal evaporitic assemblage of clay minerals and Fe-rich oxyhydroxide phases. The clay minerals and other insoluble material appear to be resistant to the destructive effects of their entrapment in the evaporites, which suggests that these insoluble materials would be good getters for any radionuclides (hypothetically) released from the storage of radioactive wastes in the area.

  17. Plant oils and mineral oils: effects as insecticide additives and direct toxicity to Heliothis virescens (F.) and Musca domestica L. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ochou, Germain Ochou

    1985-01-01

    PLANT OILS AND MINERAL OILS: EFFECTS AS INSECTICIDE ADDITIVES AND DIRECT TOXICITY TO HELIOTHIS VIRESCENS (F. ) AND MUSCA DOMESTICA L. A Thesis by GERMAIN OCHOU OCHOU Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1985 Major Subject: Entomology PLANT OILS AND MINERAL OILS: EFFECTS AS INSECTICIDE ADDITIVES AND DIRECT TOXICITY TO HELIOTHIS VIRESCENS (F. ) AND MUSCA DOMESTICA L. A Thesis...

  18. The use of the scanning electron microscope in the determination of the mineral composition of Ballachulish slate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, Joan A.

    2007-11-15

    Slate is a fine-grained, low-grade metamorphic rock derived from argillaceous sediments or occasionally volcanic ash. Although most slates contain mainly quartz, chlorite and white mica, they vary considerably in their durability, some lasting centuries while others fail after a few years of service. A detailed characterisation of their mineralogy is required for the assessment of performance, and to establish the provenance of a used slate. A combination of methods was used to examine Ballachulish slates; XRD analysis to determine the principal minerals present, XRF analysis to determine the total chemical composition, and scanning electron microscopy to determine the chemical composition of individual minerals. It was found that the white mica in Ballachulish slate is phengite and the chlorite is ripidolite. Feldspar is present as albite and carbonate as ferroan dolomite. Several accessory minerals were also identified, including chloritoid, monzonite and zircon. There was considerable variation in the ratio of the principal minerals, making it impossible to identify used slates by this criterion. Instead, chemical composition of the individual minerals, and possibly key accessory minerals, should be used to determine the provenance of slates.

  19. Summary of Historical Production for Nevada Binary Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mines, Greg; Hanson, Hillary

    2014-09-01

    The analysis described was initiated to validate inputs used in the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) economic modeling tool GETEM (Geothermal Electricity Technology Evaluation Model) by using publically available data to identify production trends at operating geothermal binary facilities in the state of Nevada. Data required for this analysis was obtained from the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG), whom received the original operator reports from the Nevada Division of Minerals (NDOM). The data from the NBMG was inputted into Excel files that have been uploaded to the DOE’s National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). Once data was available in an Excel format, production trends for individual wells and facilities could be established for the periods data was available (thru 2009). Additionally, this analysis identified relationships existing between production (temperature and flow rates), power production and plant conversion efficiencies. The data trends showed that temperature declines have a significant impact on power production, and that in some instances operators increased production flow rate to offset power declines. The production trends with time that were identified are being used to update GETEM’s default inputs.

  20. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    dioxide control technologies. Figure 1 shows clean coal technology benefits(2) . In 1977, the conceptCenter for By-Products Utilization CLEAN COAL BY-PRODUCTS UTILIZATION IN ROADWAY, EMBANKMENTS electricity production is from the use of coal-based technologies(1) . This production is estimated