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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydrocar bon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Bon-The Primitive Religion of Tibet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and in certain parts still extant". Jaschke3 holds the view that Bon is the nameQf the early religion of Tibet, concerning which but very imperfect acqounts are existing; so much is certain that sorcery was the principl~feature of it. 1. Encyclopaedia ot... Religion and ethics. 333. 2. P.879. 3. A Tibetan-English Dictlonary-P. 372, 1 When Buddhism became the religion of State. the former was considered heretical and condemnable and Lha-cos and bon-cos, or shorter cos and bon, were placed in opposition...

Banerjee, Anukul Chandra

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Facebook i tuits en bon valenci: una iniciativa nascuda al si de la UA Alacant, 6 de juny de 2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Facebook i tuits en bon valenciŕ: una iniciativa nascuda al si de la UA Alacant, 6 de juny de 2012 universitŕria de la Universitat d'Alacant en Facebook i Twitter. En Bon Valenciŕ ens proporciona cada dia, directament en el nostre compte de Twitter o Facebook, xicotetes dosis de correcció lingüística, en el format

Escolano, Francisco

3

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.

1986-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

4

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

Kulprathipanja, S.

1986-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

6

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse Gases Executive Order 13514 requires Federal agencies to inventory and manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate...

8

Strongly interacting Fermi gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision ...

Bakr, W.

9

Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

to inventory and manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate change. Learn about: Basics: Read an overview of greenhouse gases Federal...

10

Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.2 Flue gases and fuel gases: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, incineration and other and gasification technologies for heat and power . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.4 Waste incineration and waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.3 Formation of sulphur compounds during combustion and gasification . . 3-5 3.4 Emission

Zevenhoven, Ron

11

Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and gasification technologies for heat and power . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.4 Waste incineration and waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.2 Flue gases and fuel gases: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, incineration and other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.3 Formation of sulphur compounds during combustion and gasification . 3-5 3.4 Emission

Laughlin, Robert B.

12

Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program was suspended May 2011. It was a mechanism by which corporations, government agencies, individuals, voluntary organizations, etc., could report to the Energy Information Administration, any actions taken that have or are expected to reduce/avoid emissions of greenhouse gases or sequester carbon.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Guidance Document CompressedGases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

electricity. Oxygen by itself does not burn, but it will support or accelerate combustion of flammable the regulator is completely closed. 3. When possible use flammable and reactive gases in a fume hood. Certain

14

Degenerate quantum gases of strontium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Degenerate quantum gases of alkaline-earth-like elements open new opportunities in research areas ranging from molecular physics to the study of strongly correlated systems. These experiments exploit the rich electronic structure of these elements, which is markedly different from the one of other species for which quantum degeneracy has been attained. Specifically, alkaline-earth-like atoms, such as strontium, feature metastable triplet states, narrow intercombination lines, and a non-magnetic, closed-shell ground state. This review covers the creation of quantum degenerate gases of strontium and the first experiments performed with this new system. It focuses on laser-cooling and evaporation schemes, which enable the creation of Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases of all strontium isotopes, and shows how they are used for the investigation of optical Feshbach resonances, the study of degenerate gases loaded into an optical lattice, as well as the coherent creation of Sr_2 molecules.

Stellmer, Simon; Killian, Thomas C

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Prayer to Ta pi hri tsa - A short exposition of the Base, the Path and the Fruit in Bon Dzogchen teachings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Prayer to Ta pi hri tsa A short exposition of the Base, the Path and the Fruit in Bon Dzogchen teachings* By Ratka Jurkovic Introduction zogchen (rDzogs pa chen po or in short rDzogs chen), the Great Perfection represents... of the Dzogchen teachings represented through the discussion of Base, Fruit and Path. The six verse form is typical of the kind usually found in the earliest Dzogchen Nyingma text, “The Cuckoo of the Intellect” (Rig pa’i khu byug), a copy of which was among...

Jurkovic, Ratka

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Industrial Gases as a Vehicle for Competitiveness  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the diversity and options available to enable cost savings and environmentally driven process improvements. Industrial gases have come of age during the last fifteen years. Engineers and scientists have looked beyond the paradigms of their operations...INDUSTRIAL GASES AS A VEHICLE FOR COMPETITIVENESS James R. Dale, Director, Technology Programs, Airco Industrial Gases Division, The BOC Group, Inc., Murray Hill, New Jersey ABSTRACT Industrial gases are produced using compressed air...

Dale, J. R.

17

Particle entanglement in rotating gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we investigate the particle entanglement in two-dimensional (2D) weakly interacting rotating Bose and Fermi gases. We find that both particle localization and vortex localization can be indicated by particle entanglement. We also use particle entanglement to show the occurrence of edge reconstruction of rotating fermions. The different properties of condensate phase and vortex liquid phase of bosons can be reflected by particle entanglement and in vortex liquid phase we construct the same trial wave function with that in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 120405 (2001)] from the viewpoint of entanglement to relate the ground state with quantum Hall state. Finally, the relation between particle entanglement and interaction strength is studied.

Liu Zhao; Fan Heng [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

18

Light Collection in Liquid Noble Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid noble gases are increasingly used as active detector materials in particle and nuclear physics. Applications include calorimeters and neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, direct dark matter, muon electron conversion, and the neutron electric dipole moment. One of the great advantages of liquid noble gases is their copious production of ultraviolet scintillation light, which contains information about event energy and particle type. I will review the scintillation properties of the various liquid noble gases and the means used to collect their scintillation light, including recent advances in photomultiplier technology and wavelength shifters.

McKinsey, Dan [Yale University

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

19

aerosol precursor gases: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sunlight 11 GREENHOUSE GASES GREENHOUSE GASES BACKGROUND CiteSeer Summary: The Earths climate depends on the amount of solar radiation received and the atmospheric abundance of...

20

An Infrared Spectral Database for Detection of Gases Emitted...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Database for Detection of Gases Emitted by Biomass Burning. An Infrared Spectral Database for Detection of Gases Emitted by Biomass Burning. Abstract: We report the construction of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydrocar bon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Denitrification of combustion gases. [Patent application  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for treating waste combustion gas to remove the nitrogen oxygen gases therefrom is disclosed wherein the waste gas is first contacted with calcium oxide which absorbs and chemically reacts with the nitrogen oxide gases therein at a temperature from about 100/sup 0/ to 430/sup 0/C. The thus reacted calcium oxide (now calcium nitrate) is then heated at a temperature range between about 430/sup 0/ and 900/sup 0/C, resulting in regeneration of the calcium oxide and production of the decomposition gas composed of nitrogen and nitrogen oxide gas. The decomposition gases can be recycled to the calcium oxide contacting step to minimize the amount of nitrogen oxide gases in the final product gas.

Yang, R.T.

1980-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

22

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Biological production of products from waste gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

2002-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

24

THE FUTURE OF ENERGY GASES David G. Howell, Editor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

totally independent of oil. Methane is found in association with coal; it is a byproduct of metabolic the term "energy gases" to distinguish those natural gases, primarily methane, that have utility for energy consequences associated with an expanded role of energy gases? Energy gases, particularly methane, are commonly

25

Measuring the Isotopic Composition of Solar Wind Noble Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

noble gases. #12;Exploring the Solar Wind94 Light solar wind noble gases were directly measured by mass of the light gases are known to vary with energy, so none of these provided solar isotopic and elemental5 Measuring the Isotopic Composition of Solar Wind Noble Gases Alex Meshik, Charles Hohenberg, Olga

26

HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Greenhouse gases andGreenhouse gases and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in gas turbinecombustion in gas turbine HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Effect of COEffect-depleting gases ·· COCO22 removal for gas purificationremoval for gas purification ·· COCO22 removal for greenhouse gas emissions reductionremoval for greenhouse gas emissions reduction ·· Other greenhouse gases

Zevenhoven, Ron

27

Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

Fischer, Marc

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

28

Perdido LF-Gase to Electricity | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Perdido LF-Gase to Electricity Perdido LF-Gase to Electricity This presentation was given at the July 17, 2012, Community Renewable Energy Deployment webinar on successful landfill...

29

Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases.

Turick, Charles E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases. 3 figs.

Turick, C.E.

1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

31

Thermodynamic formalism for field driven Lorentz gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analytically determine the dynamical properties of two dimensional field driven Lorentz gases within the thermodynamic formalism. For dilute gases subjected to an iso-kinetic thermostat, we calculate the topological pressure as a function of a temperature-like parameter $\\ba$ up to second order in the strength of the applied field. The Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and the topological entropy can be extracted from a dynamical entropy defined as a Legendre transform of the topological pressure. Our calculations of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy exactly agree with previous calculations based on a Lorentz-Boltzmann equation approach. We give analytic results for the topological entropy and calculate the dimension spectrum from the dynamical entropy function.

Oliver Muelken; Henk van Beijeren

2003-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

32

Glass Membrane For Controlled Diffusion Of Gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A glass structure for controlled permeability of gases includes a glass vessel. The glass vessel has walls and a hollow center for receiving a gas. The glass vessel contains a metal oxide dopant formed with at least one metal selected from the group consisting of transition metals and rare earth metals for controlling diffusion of the gas through the walls of the glass vessel. The vessel releases the gas through its walls upon exposure to a radiation source.

Shelby, James E. (Alfred Station, NY); Kenyon, Brian E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

33

Method for introduction of gases into microspheres  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing small hollow glass spheres filled with a gas by introduction of the gas during formation of the hollow glass spheres. Hollow glass microspheres having a diameter up to about 500.mu. with both thin walls (0.5 to 4.mu.) and thick walls (5 to 20.mu.) that contain various fill gases, such as Ar, Kr, Xe, Br, DT, H.sub.2, D.sub.2, He, N.sub.2, Ne, CO.sub.2, etc. in the interior thereof, can be produced by the diffusion of the fill gas or gases into the microsphere during the formation thereof from a liquid droplet of glass-forming solution. This is accomplished by filling at least a portion of the multiple-zone drop-furnace used in producing hollow microspheres with the gas or gases of interest, and then taking advantage of the high rate of gaseous diffusion of the fill gas through the wall of the gel membrane before it transforms into a glass microsphere as it is processed in the multiple-zone furnace. Almost any gas can be introduced into the inner cavity of a glass microsphere by this method during the formation of the microsphere provided that the gas is diffused into the gel membrane or microsphere prior to its transformation into glass. The process of this invention provides a significant savings of time and related expense of filling glass microspheres with various gases. For example, the time for filling a glass microballoon with 1 atmosphere of DT is reduced from about two hours to a few seconds.

Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA); Koo, Jackson C. (San Ramon, CA); Rosencwaig, Allan (Danville, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Asia-wide emissions of greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emissions of principal greenhouse gases (GHGs) from Asia are increasing faster than those from any other continent. This is a result of rapid economic growth, as well as the fact that almost half of the world`s population lives in Asian countries. In this paper, the author provides estimates of emissions of the two principal greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}), from individual countries and areas. Recent literature has been reviewed for emission estimates for individual sources, such as carbon dioxide from cement manufacture, and methane from rice fields. There are very large uncertainties in many of these estimates, so several estimates are provided, where available. The largest anthropogenic source of CO{sub 2} emissions is the use of fossil fuels. Energy consumption data from 1992 have been used to calculate estimated emissions of CO{sub 2} from this source. In view of the ongoing negotiations to limit future greenhouse gas emissions, estimates of projected CO{sub 2} emissions from the developing countries of Asia are also provided. These are likely to be 3 times their 1986 levels by 2010, under business as usual scenarios. Even with the implementation of energy efficiency measures and fuel switching where feasible, the emissions of CO{sub 2} are likely to double within the same time period.

Siddiqi, T.A. [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States). Program on Environment

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Theory of ultracold atomic Fermi gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The physics of quantum degenerate atomic Fermi gases in uniform as well as in harmonically trapped configurations is reviewed from a theoretical perspective. Emphasis is given to the effect of interactions that play a crucial role, bringing the gas into a superfluid phase at low temperature. In these dilute systems, interactions are characterized by a single parameter, the s-wave scattering length, whose value can be tuned using an external magnetic field near a broad Feshbach resonance. The BCS limit of ordinary Fermi superfluidity, the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of dimers, and the unitary limit of large scattering length are important regimes exhibited by interacting Fermi gases. In particular, the BEC and the unitary regimes are characterized by a high value of the superfluid critical temperature, on the order of the Fermi temperature. Different physical properties are discussed, including the density profiles and the energy of the ground-state configurations, the momentum distribution, the fraction of condensed pairs, collective oscillations and pair-breaking effects, the expansion of the gas, the main thermodynamic properties, the behavior in the presence of optical lattices, and the signatures of superfluidity, such as the existence of quantized vortices, the quenching of the moment of inertia, and the consequences of spin polarization. Various theoretical approaches are considered, ranging from the mean-field description of the BCS-BEC crossover to nonperturbative methods based on quantum Monte Carlo techniques. A major goal of the review is to compare theoretical predictions with available experimental results.

Giorgini, Stefano; Pitaevskii, Lev P.; Stringari, Sandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM BEC Center, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM BEC Center, I-38050 Povo, Trento, Italy and Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems, ul. Kosygina 2, 117334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM BEC Center, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

36

The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs Danish consumption and emissions, 2007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption and emissions, 2007 Tomas Sander Poulsen AND EMISSION OF F-GASES 7 1.1.1 Consumption 7 1.1.2 Emission 7 1.1.3 Trends in total GWP contribution from F 21 4 EMISSION OF F-GASES 23 4.1.1 Emissions of HFCs from refrigerants 23 4.1.2 Emissions of HFCs from

37

Suspended two-dimensional electron and hole gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the fabrication of fully suspended two-dimensional electron and hole gases in III-V heterostructures. Low temperature transport measurements verify that the properties of the suspended gases are only slightly degraded with respect to the non-suspended gases. Focused ion beam technology is used to pattern suspended nanostructures with minimum damage from the ion beam, due to the small width of the suspended membrane.

Kazazis, D.; Bourhis, E.; Gierak, J.; Gennser, U. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS-LPN, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Bourgeois, O. [Institut Néel, CNRS-UJF, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Antoni, T. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS-LPN, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis, France and Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

38

Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

adjacente dos gases: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

nature Le Roy, Robert J. 437 Classical disordered ground states: Super-ideal gases and stealth and equi-luminous materials Chemistry Websites Summary: Classical disordered...

40

Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve Fuel Economy for Cars and Trucks Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Finalize...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydrocar bon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Shortcuts to adiabaticity for trapped ultracold gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study, experimentally and theoretically, the controlled transfer of harmonically trapped ultracold gases between different quantum states. In particular we experimentally demonstrate a fast decompression and displacement of both a non-interacting gas and an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate which are initially at equilibrium. The decompression parameters are engineered such that the final state is identical to that obtained after a perfectly adiabatic transformation despite the fact that the fast decompression is performed in the strongly non-adiabatic regime. During the transfer the atomic sample goes through strongly out-of-equilibrium states while the external confinement is modified until the system reaches the desired stationary state. The scheme is theoretically based on the invariants of motion and scaling equations techniques and can be generalized to decompression trajectories including an arbitrary deformation of the trap. It is also directly applicable to arbitrary initial non-equilibrium sta...

Schaff, Jean-François; Labeyrie, Guillaume; Vignolo, Patrizia

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Shortcuts to adiabaticity for trapped ultracold gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study, experimentally and theoretically, the controlled transfer of harmonically trapped ultracold gases between different quantum states. In particular we experimentally demonstrate a fast decompression and displacement of both a non-interacting gas and an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate which are initially at equilibrium. The decompression parameters are engineered such that the final state is identical to that obtained after a perfectly adiabatic transformation despite the fact that the fast decompression is performed in the strongly non-adiabatic regime. During the transfer the atomic sample goes through strongly out-of-equilibrium states while the external confinement is modified until the system reaches the desired stationary state. The scheme is theoretically based on the invariants of motion and scaling equations techniques and can be generalized to decompression trajectories including an arbitrary deformation of the trap. It is also directly applicable to arbitrary initial non-equilibrium states.

Jean-François Schaff; Pablo Capuzzi; Guillaume Labeyrie; Patrizia Vignolo

2011-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

43

Finite Temperature Gases of Fermionic Strings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that in the absence of a Ramond-Ramond sector both the type IIA and type IIB free string gases have a thermal instability due to low temperature tachyon modes. The gas of free IIA strings undergoes a thermal duality transition into a gas of free IIB strings at the self-dual temperature. The free heterotic string gas is a tachyon-free ensemble with gauge symmetry SO(16)$\\times$SO(16) in the presence of a timelike Wilson line background. It exhibits a holographic duality relation undergoing a self-dual phase transition with positive free energy and positive specific heat. The type IB open and closed string ensemble is related by thermal duality to the type I' string ensemble. We identify the order parameter for the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition from a low temperature gas of short open strings to a high temperature long string phase at or below T_C. Note Added (Sep 2005).

Shyamoli Chaudhuri

2005-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

44

Bogoliubov spectrum of interacting Bose gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the large-N limit of a system of N bosons interacting with a potential of intensity 1/N. When the ground state energy is to the first order given by Hartree's theory, we study the next order, predicted by Bogoliubov's theory. We show the convergence of the lower eigenvalues and eigenfunctions towards that of the Bogoliubov Hamiltonian (up to a convenient unitary transform). We also prove the convergence of the free energy when the system is sufficiently trapped. Our results are valid in an abstract setting, our main assumptions being that the Hartree ground state is unique and non-degenerate, and that there is complete Bose-Einstein condensation on this state. Using our method we then treat two applications: atoms with ''bosonic'' electrons on one hand, and trapped 2D and 3D Coulomb gases on the other hand.

Mathieu Lewin; Phan Thŕnh Nam; Sylvia Serfaty; Jan Philip Solovej

2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

45

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

NONE

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Method of converting environmentally pollutant waste gases to methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A continuous flow method is described of converting environmentally pollutant by-product gases emitted during the manufacture of silicon carbide to methanol comprising: (a) operating a plurality of batch furnaces of a silicon carbide manufacturing plant thereby producing silicon carbide and emitting by-product gases during the operation of the furnaces; (b) staggering the operation of the batch furnaces to achieve a continuous emission of the by-product gases; (c) continuously flowing the by-product gases as emitted from the batch furnaces directly to a methanol manufacturing plant; (d) cleansing the by-product gases of particulate matter, including removing the element sulfur from the by-product gases, as they are flowed to the methanol manufacturing plant, sufficiently for use of the by-product gases in producing methanol; and (e) immediately producing methanol from the by-product gases at the methanol manufacturing plant whereby the producing of silicon carbide is joined with the producing of methanol as a unified process.

Pfingstl, H.; Martyniuk, W.; Hennepin, A. Ill; McNally, T.; Myers, R.; Eberle, L.

1993-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

47

Continuous cryopump with a method for removal of solidified gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved cryopump for the removal of gases from a high vacuum, comprising a cryopanel incorporating honeycomb structure, refrigerant means thermally connected to the cryopanel, and a rotatable channel moving azimuthally around an axis located near the center of the cryopanel, removing gases adsorbed within the honeycomb structure by subliming them and conducting them outside the vacuum vessel. 4 figs.

Carlson, L.W.; Herman, H.

1988-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

48

Measuring non-condensable gases in steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In surgery, medical devices that are used should be sterilized. To obtain surface steam sterilization conditions, not only in the sterilizer chamber itself but also in the loads to be sterilized, the amount of non-condensable gases (NCGs), for instance air, should be very low. Even rather small fractions of NCGs (below 1 %) seriously hamper steam penetration in porous materials or devices with hollow channels (e.g., endoscopes). A recently developed instrument which might detect the presence of residual NCGs in a reliable and reproducible way is the 3M{sup TM} Electronic Test System (ETS). In this paper, a physical model is presented that describes the behavior of this instrument. This model has been validated by experiments in which known fractions of NCGs were introduced in a sterilizer chamber in which an ETS was placed. Despite several approximations made in the model, a good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental results. The basic principle of the ETS, measuring the heat transfer by condensation on a cooled surface, permits a very sensitive detection of NCGs in harsh environments like water vapor at high temperatures and pressures. Our model may serve to develop adapted and optimized versions of this instrument for use outside the field of sterilization, e.g., in heat exchangers based on steam condensation.

Doornmalen, J. P. C. M. van; Kopinga, K., E-mail: k.kopinga@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

49

Cryogenic method for measuring nuclides and fission gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cryogenic method is provided for determining airborne gases and particulates from which gamma rays are emitted. A special dewar counting vessel is filled with the contents of the sampling flask which is immersed in liquid nitrogen. A vertically placed sodium-iodide or germanium-lithium gamma-ray detector is used. The device and method are of particular use in measuring and identifying the radioactive noble gases including emissions from coal-fired power plants, as well as fission gases released or escaping from nuclear power plants.

Perdue, P.T.; Haywood, F.F.

1980-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

50

Analysis of air pollution and greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current objective of the project Analysis of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases'' is to develop a study of emissions and emission sources that could easily be linked to models of economic activity. Initial studies were conducted to evaluate data currently available linking activity rates and emissions estimates. The emissions inventory developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) presents one of the most comprehensive data sets, and was chosen for our initial studies, which are described in this report. Over 99% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 98% of the NO{sub x} emission and 57% of the VOC emissions from area sources are related to fuel combustion. The majority of emission from these sources are generated by the transportation sector. Activity rates for area sources are not archived with the NAPAP inventory; alternative derivations of these data will be part of the future activities of this project. The availability and completeness of the fuel heat content data in the NAPAP inventory were also studied. Approximately 10% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 13% of the NO{sub x} emissions and 46% of the VOC emissions are generated by sources with unavailable data for fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content were generated. Future studies for this project include the derivation of activity rates for area sources, improved explanations for the default fuel parameters defined in the NAPAP inventory and the development of links to data bases of economic activity.

Benkovitz, C.M.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50 C is attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2], alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] can be removed in an economic fashion. 9 figs.

Chang, S.G.; Liu, D.K.

1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

52

Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. are attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO and SO.sub.2 can be removed in an economic fashion.

Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the Dixie Valley Region, Nevada (1996-1999)...

54

Method of producing pyrolysis gases from carbon-containing materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gasification process of improved efficiency is disclosed. A dual bed reactor system is used in which carbon-containing feedstock materials are first treated in a gasification reactor to form pyrolysis gases. The pyrolysis gases are then directed into a catalytic reactor for the destruction of residual tars/oils in the gases. Temperatures are maintained within the catalytic reactor at a level sufficient to crack the tars/oils in the gases, while avoiding thermal breakdown of the catalysts. In order to minimize problems associated with the deposition of carbon-containing materials on the catalysts during cracking, a gaseous oxidizing agent preferably consisting of air, oxygen, steam, and/or mixtures thereof is introduced into the catalytic reactor at a high flow rate in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the reactor. This oxidizes any carbon deposits on the catalysts, which would normally cause catalyst deactivation.

Mudge, Lyle K. (Richland, WA); Brown, Michael D. (West Richland, WA); Wilcox, Wayne A. (Kennewick, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases.

Beverly, Claude R. (Paducah, KY); Ernstberger, Harold G. (Paducah, KY)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Low-Value Waste Gases as an Energy Source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Waste gases with potentially useful fuel value are generated at any number of points in refineries, chemical plants and other industrial and commercial sites. The higher quality streams have been utilized successfully in fuel systems for years...

Waibel, R. T.

57

Viscosities of natural gases at high pressures and high temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimation of viscosities of naturally occurring petroleum gases provides the information needed to accurately work out reservoir-engineering problems. Existing models for viscosity prediction are limited by data, especially at high pressures...

Viswanathan, Anup

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

58

Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases. 1 fig.

Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, E.G.

1985-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

59

Studying coherence in ultra-cold atomic gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis will discuss the study of coherence properties of ultra-cold atomic gases. The atomic systems investigated include a thermal cloud of atoms, a Bose-Einstein condensate and a fermion pair condensate. In each ...

Miller, Daniel E. (Daniel Edward)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Chapter 4 The Gaseous State Chemistry of Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.15 V = V0[1+(t/273.15oC)] Kelvin T = 273.15 + t(Celsius) #12;Boyle's Law · The stirling engine, a heatChapter 4 The Gaseous State NO2 #12;AIR #12;Chemistry of Gases SO3 .. corrosive gas SO2...burning) ~1760 Charle The definition of the Temperature All gases expand with increasing temperature by the same

Ihee, Hyotcherl

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydrocar bon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Biological production of ethanol from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products is disclosed. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various product, such as organic acids, alcohols H.sub.2, SCP, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Process for removing sulfur dioxide from flue gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes an improvement in a dry process for the removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gases by the addition thereto of hydrated lime containing sugar in a coal combustion unit, wherein the flue gases result from the combustion of a coal in a combustion chamber, and the flue gases are treated in an electrostatic precipitator prior to discharge to the atmosphere the improvement comprising: passing the flue gases, after the addition of the hydrated lime is of fine particles of a specific surface of 7 to 25 square meters per gram, through a conduit towards the electrostatic precipitator; and adding an aqueous media to the flue gases in the conduit in an amount to increase the water content of the flue gases and cool the same by evaporative cooling to a temperature no lower than 20{sup 0}F. about the dew point of the gas, so as to avoid forming water droplets in the gas, so as to prevent condensation of water therefrom.

Robinson, M.W. Jr.

1989-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

63

Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue

Dennis, J A

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Realization of effective super Tonks-Girardeau gases via strongly attractive one-dimensional Fermi gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A significant feature of the one-dimensional super Tonks-Girardeau gas is its metastable gas-like state with a stronger Fermi-like pressure than for free fermions which prevents a collapse of atoms. This naturally suggests a way to search for such strongly correlated behavior in systems of interacting fermions in one dimension. We thus show that the strongly attractive Fermi gas without polarization can be effectively described by a super Tonks-Girardeau gas composed of bosonic Fermi pairs with attractive pair-pair interaction. A natural description of such super Tonks-Girardeau gases is provided by Haldane generalized exclusion statistics. In particular, they are equivalent to ideal particles obeying more exclusive statistics than Fermi-Dirac statistics.

Chen Shu; Yin Xiangguo; Guan Liming [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Guan Xiwen [Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Batchelor, M. T. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Mathematical Sciences Institute, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

65

Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir.

Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Markun, Francis (Joliet, IL); Zawadzki, Mary T. (South Bend, IN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method are disclosed for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir. 6 figs.

Gross, K.C.; Markun, F.; Zawadzki, M.T.

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

67

Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases and production of phosphoric acid  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorous preferably in a wet scrubber. The addition of yellow phosphorous in the system induces the production of O.sub.3 which subsequently oxidizes NO to NO.sub.2. The resulting NO.sub.2 dissolves readily and can be reduced to form ammonium ions by dissolved SO.sub.2 under appropriate conditions. In a 20 acfm system, yellow phosphorous is oxidized to yield P.sub.2 O.sub.5 which picks up water to form H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 mists and can be collected as a valuable product. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, better than 90% of SO.sub.2 and NO in simulated flue gas can be removed. Stoichiometric ratios (P/NO) ranging between 0.6 and 1.5 were obtained.

Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min × 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

M. Aslam K. Khalil

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

69

Evaluation of exposures of hospital employees to anesthetic gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hospital employees who work in hospital operating and recovery rooms are often exposed to a number of anesthetic gases. There is evidence to support the belief that such exposures have led to higher rates of miscarriages and spontaneous abortions of pregnancies among women directly exposed to these gases than among women not exposed. Most of the studies assessing exposure levels were conducted prior to the widespread use of scavenging systems. Air sampling was conducted in hospital operatories and recovery rooms of three large hospitals to assess the current exposure levels in these areas and determine the effectiveness of these systems in reducing exposures to fluoride-containing anesthetic gases. It was determined that recovery-room personnel are exposed to levels of anesthesia gases that often approach and exceed the recommended Threshold Limit Value-Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) of 2.0 ppm. Recovery-room personnel do not have the protection from exposure provided by scavenging systems in operating rooms. Operating-room personnel were exposed to anesthesia gas levels above the TLV-TWA only when patients were masked, or connected and disconnected from the scavenging systems. Recovery-room personnel also need to be protected from exposure to anesthesia gases by a scavenging system.

Lambeth, J.D.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

“Hard probes” of strongly-interacting atomic gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate properties of an energetic atom propagating through strongly interacting atomic gases. The operator product expansion is used to systematically compute a quasiparticle energy and its scattering rate both in a spin-1/2 Fermi gas and in a spinless Bose gas. Reasonable agreement with recent quantum Monte Carlo simulations even at a relatively small momentum k/kF > 1.5 indicates that our large-momentum expansions are valid in a wide range of momentum. We also study a differential scattering rate when a probe atom is shot into atomic gases. Because the number density and current density of the target atomic gas contribute to the forward scattering only, its contact density (measure of short-range pair correlation) gives the leading contribution to the backward scattering. Therefore, such an experiment can be used to measure the contact density and thus provides a new local probe of strongly interacting atomic gases.

Nishida, Yusuke [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

71

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

NONE

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Separating hydrogen from coal gasification gases with alumina membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synthesis gas produced in coal gasification processes contains hydrogen, along with carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, water, nitrogen, and other gases, depending on the particular gasification process. Development of membrane technology to separate the hydrogen from the raw gas at the high operating temperatures and pressures near exit gas conditions would improve the efficiency of the process. Tubular porous alumina membranes with mean pore radii ranging from about 9 to 22 {Angstrom} have been fabricated and characterized. Based on hydrostatic tests, the burst strength of the membranes ranged from 800 to 1600 psig, with a mean value of about 1300 psig. These membranes were evaluated for separating hydrogen and other gases. Tests of membrane permeabilities were made with helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. Measurements were made at room temperature in the pressure range of 15 to 589 psi. Selected membranes were tested further with mixed gases simulating a coal gasification product gas. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Egan, B.Z. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E.; White, D.E. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Lattice vibrations of pure and doped GaSe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bridgman method is used to grow especially undoped and doped single crystals of GaSe. Composition and impurity content of the grown crystals were determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) method. X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, photoluminescence (PL), and IR transmission measurements were performed at room temperature. The long wavelength lattice vibrations of four modifications of GaSe were described in the framework of modified one-layer linear-chain model which also takes into consideration the interaction of the selenium (Se) atom with the second nearest neighbor gallium (Ga) atom in the same layer. The existence of an eight-layer modification of GaSe is suggested and the vibrational frequencies of this modification are explained in the framework of a lattice dynamical model considered in the present work. Frequencies and the type of vibrations (gap, local, or resonance) for the impurity atoms were calculated and compared with the experimental results.

Allakhverdiev, K. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey) and Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan)]. E-mail: kerim.allahverdi@mam.gov.tr; Baykara, T. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey); Ellialtioglu, S. [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey); Hashimzade, F. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan); Huseinova, D. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan); Kawamura, K. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan); Kaya, A.A. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey); Kulibekov, A.M. [Department of Physics, Mugla University, Mugla 48000 (Turkey); Onari, S. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan)

2006-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

74

Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Methods, systems, and devices for deep desulfurization of fuel gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A highly effective and regenerable method, system and device that enables the desulfurization of warm fuel gases by passing these warm gasses over metal-based sorbents arranged in a mesoporous substrate. This technology will protect Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts and other sulfur sensitive catalysts, without drastic cooling of the fuel gases. This invention can be utilized in a process either alone or alongside other separation processes, and allows the total sulfur in such a gas to be reduced to less than 500 ppb and in some instances as low as 50 ppb.

Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (Richland, WA); Huo, Qisheng (Richland, WA)

2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

76

Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology: Editorial  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This editorial introduces readers and contributors to a new online journal. Through the publication of articles ranging from peer-reviewed research papers and short communications, to editorials and interviews on greenhouse gas emissions science and technology, this journal will disseminate research results and information that address the global crisis of anthropogenic climate change. The scope of the journal includes the full spectrum of research areas from capture and separation of greenhouse gases from flue gases and ambient air, to beneficial utilization, and to sequestration in deep geologic formations and terrestrial (plant and soil) systems, as well as policy and technoeconomic analyses of these approaches.

Oldenburg, C.M.; Maroto-Valer, M.M.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Dissipative dynamics of a Josephson junction in the Bose gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dissipative dynamics of a Josephson junction in Bose gases is considered within the framework of the model of a tunneling Hamiltonian. The effective action that describes the dynamics of the phase difference across the junction is derived using the functional integration method. The dynamic equation obtained for the phase difference across the junction is analyzed for the finite temperatures in the low-frequency limit involving the radiation terms. The asymmetric case of the Bose gases with the different order parameters is calculated as well.

Barankov, R.A. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Burmistrov, S.N. [RRC 'Kurchatov Institute', Kurchatov Sq.1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons.

Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY); Dietz, Russell N. (Patchogue, NY)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons. 8 figures.

Senum, G.I.; Dietz, R.N.

1994-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

80

THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT RISING GREENHOUSE GASES AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, methane, and nitrous oxides. The sun's energy passes through these gases, like light passing through risen by almost 40 percent. This is attributed primarily to the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, gasoline). Methane and nitrous oxides are also increasing rapidly, due in part to the expansion

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydrocar bon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Use of low temperature blowers for recirculation of hot gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus is described for maintaining motors at low operating temperatures during recirculation of hot gases in fuel cell operations and chemical processes such as fluidized bed coal gasification. The apparatus includes a means for separating the hot process gas from the motor using a secondary lower temperature gas, thereby minimizing the temperature increase of the motor and associated accessories.

Maru, H.C.; Forooque, M.

1982-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

82

AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #2 1. Using the formalism of the text book is as follows. Assume that the particle number density is a slowly varying function of the z coordinate #27; Ă? is a constant. 3. Show that if the potential function, U(r), varies as 1=r 4

Groth, Clinton P. T.

83

AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #2 1. Using the formalism of the text book the particle number density and temperature are both slowly varying functions of the z coordinate of the previous problem is as follows. Assume that the particle number density is a slowly varying function

Groth, Clinton P. T.

84

Mitigation options for accidental releases of hazardous gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to review and compare technologies available for mitigation of unconfined releases of toxic and flammable gases. These technologies include: secondary confinement, deinventory, vapor barriers, foam spraying, and water sprays/monitors. Guidelines for the design and/or operation of effective post-release mitigation systems and case studies involving actual industrial mitigation systems are also presented.

Fthenakis, V.M.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Nature of superfluidity in ultracold Fermi gases near Feshbach resonances  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the superfluid state of atomic Fermi gases using a BCS-Bose-Einstein-condensation crossover theory. Our approach emphasizes noncondensed fermion pairs which strongly hybridize with their (Feshbach-induced) molecular boson counterparts. These pairs lead to pseudogap effects above T{sub c} and non-BCS characteristics below. We discuss how these effects influence the experimental signatures of superfluidity.

Stajic, Jelena; Levin, K. [James Franck Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Milstein, J.N.; Holland, M.J. [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Chen Qijin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Chiofalo, M.L. [Classe di Scienze and INFM, Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavelieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

INTRODUCTION Insects exchange respiratory gases through a complex network of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3409 INTRODUCTION Insects exchange respiratory gases through a complex network of tracheal tubes through the tracheal system using diffusion alone (Krogh, 1920a; Weis-Fogh, 1964), many species are known to augment gas exchange using convection (Buck, 1962; Miller, 1966a). Two general mechanisms are recognized

Socha, Jake

87

Atmospheric Modelling of Greenhouse Gases and Air Quality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Increase in mixing height (h) entrains (draws in) air from above the box #12Atmospheric Modelling of Greenhouse Gases and Air Quality John C. Lin Courtenay Strong University of Utah: February 20th, 2013 Department of Atmospheric Sciences University of Utah #12;Outline ·CO2 ó Air

Tipple, Brett

88

Strongly interacting Fermi gases : non-equilibrium dynamics and dimensional crossover  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experiments using ultracold atomic gases address fundamental problems in many-body physics. This thesis describes experiments on strongly-interacting gases of fermionic atoms, with a focus on non-equilibrium physics and ...

Sommer, Ariel T. (Ariel Tjodolv)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric gases final Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

on Climate and Planets http:icp.giss.nasa.gov The Role of the Atmosphere and Greenhouse Effect in Summary: gases, and scenario 3 - an atmosphere and greenhouse gases. Use...

90

System for trapping and storing gases for subsequent chemical reduction to solids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for quantitatively reducing oxide gases. A pre-selected amount of zinc is provided in a vial. A tube is provided in the vial. The zinc and the tube are separated. A pre-selected amount of a catalyst is provided in the tube. Oxide gases are injected into the vial. The vial, tube, zinc, catalyst, and the oxide gases are cryogenically cooled. At least a portion of the vial, tube, zinc, catalyst, and oxide gases are heated.

Vogel, John S. (San Jose, CA); Ognibene, Ted J. (Oakland, CA); Bench, Graham S. (Livermore, CA); Peaslee, Graham F. (Holland, MI)

2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

91

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric greenhouse gases Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to longwave radiation 12;Greenhouse Gases Polyatomic molecules... the greenhouse effect ... Source: Frierson, Dargan - Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of...

92

Clostridium strain which produces acetic acid from waste gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 4 figs.

Gaddy, J.L.

1997-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

93

The extreme nonlinear optics of gases and femtosecond optical filamentation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under certain conditions, powerful ultrashort laser pulses can form greatly extended, propagating filaments of concentrated high intensity in gases, leaving behind a very long trail of plasma. Such filaments can be much longer than the longitudinal scale over which a laser beam typically diverges by diffraction, with possible applications ranging from laser-guided electrical discharges to high power laser propagation in the atmosphere. Understanding in detail the microscopic processes leading to filamentation requires ultrafast measurements of the strong field nonlinear response of gas phase atoms and molecules, including absolute measurements of nonlinear laser-induced polarization and high field ionization. Such measurements enable the assessment of filamentation models and make possible the design of experiments pursuing applications. In this paper, we review filamentation in gases and some applications, and discuss results from diagnostics developed at Maryland for ultrafast measurements of laser-gas interactions.

Milchberg, H. M.; Chen, Y.-H.; Cheng, Y.-H.; Jhajj, N.; Palastro, J. P.; Rosenthal, E. W.; Varma, S.; Wahlstrand, J. K.; Zahedpour, S. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

94

Apparatus for the plasma destruction of hazardous gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A plasma cell for destroying hazardous gases is described. An electric-discharge cell having an electrically conducting electrode onto which an alternating high-voltage waveform is impressed and a dielectric barrier adjacent thereto, together forming a high-voltage electrode, generates self-terminating discharges throughout a volume formed between this electrode and a grounded conducting liquid electrode. The gas to be transformed is passed through this volume. The liquid may be flowed, generating thereby a renewable surface. Moreover, since hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids may be formed from destruction of various chlorofluorocarbons in the presence of water, a conducting liquid may be selected which will neutralize these corrosive compounds. The gases exiting the discharge region may be further scrubbed if additional purification is required. 4 figs.

Kang, M.

1995-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

95

Decontamination of combustion gases in fluidized bed incinerators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Sulfur-containing atmospheric pollutants are effectively removed from exit gas streams produced in a fluidized bed combustion system by providing a fluidized bed of particulate material, i.e. limestone and/or dolomite wherein a concentration gradient is maintained in the vertical direction. Countercurrent contacting between upwardly directed sulfur containing combustion gases and descending sorbent particulate material creates a concentration gradient across the vertical extent of the bed characterized in progressively decreasing concentration of sulfur, sulfur dioxide and like contaminants upwardly and decreasing concentration of e.g. calcium oxide, downwardly. In this manner, gases having progressively decreasing sulfur contents contact correspondingly atmospheres having progressively increasing concentrations of calcium oxide thus assuring optimum sulfur removal.

Leon, Albert M. (Mamaroneck, NY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Apparatus for hot-gas desulfurization of fuel gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for removing sulfur values from a hot fuel gas stream in a fdized bed contactor containing particulate sorbent material by employing a riser tube regeneration arrangement. Sulfur-laden sorbent is continuously removed from the fluidized bed through a stand pipe to the riser tube and is rapidly regenerated in the riser tube during transport of the sorbent therethrough by employing an oxygen-containing sorbent regenerating gas stream. The riser tube extends from a location below the fluidized bed to an elevation above the fluidized bed where a gas-solid separating mechanism is utilized to separate the regenerated particulate sorbent from the regeneration gases and reaction gases so that the regenerated sorbent can be returned to the fluidized bed for reuse.

Bissett, Larry A. (Morgantown, WV)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Clostridium stain which produces acetic acid from waste gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

Gaddy, James L. (2207 Tall Oaks Dr., Fayetteville, AR 72703)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases From the Production and Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CO2 GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ELECTRICITYCO2 GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ELECTRICITY

Delucchi, Mark

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Wave Speed in the Macroscopic Extended Model for Ultrarelativistic Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An exact macroscopic extended model for ultrarelativistic gases, with an arbitrary number of moments, is present in the literature. Here we exploit equations determining wave speeds for that model. We find interesting results; for example, the whole system for their determination can be divided into independent subsystems and some, but not all, wave speeds are expressed by rational numbers. Moreover, the extraordinary property that these wave speeds for the macroscopic model are the same of those in the kinetic model, is proved.

F. Borghero; F. Demontis; S. Pennisi

2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

100

Extraction of uranium from spent fuels using liquefied gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels, a novel method to extract actinides from spent fuel using highly compressed gases, nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide was proposed. As a fundamental study, the nitrate conversion with liquefied nitrogen dioxide and the nitrate extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide were demonstrated by using uranium dioxide powder, uranyl nitrate and tri-n-butylphosphate complex in the present study. (authors)

Sawada, Kayo; Hirabayashi, Daisuke; Enokida, Youichi [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydrocar bon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

The Kolmogorov-Sinai Entropy for Dilute Gases in Equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use the kinetic theory of gases to compute the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy per particle for a dilute gas in equilibrium. For an equilibrium system, the KS entropy, h_KS is the sum of all of the positive Lyapunov exponents characterizing the chaotic behavior of the gas. We compute h_KS/N, where N is the number of particles in the gas. This quantity has a density expansion of the form h_KS/N = a\

H. van Beijeren; J. R. Dorfman; H. A. Posch; Ch. Dellago

1997-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

102

Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes sample gases of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for analysis. Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement facilities must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for routine waste characterization analyses of WIPP samples.

Carlsbad Field Office

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Evaluación de la generación de gases de efecto invernadero asociados al ciclo de vida de los biocombustibles colombianos = Assessment of greenhouse gases emissions associated to colombian biofuels lifecycle.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Valencia Botero, Monica Julieth (2012) Evaluación de la generación de gases de efecto invernadero asociados al ciclo de vida de los biocombustibles colombianos = Assessment… (more)

Valencia Botero, Monica Julieth

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Production of quantum degenerate strontium gases: Larger, better, faster, colder  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on an improved scheme to generate Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) and degenerate Fermi gases of strontium. This scheme allows us to create quantum gases with higher atom number, a shorter time of the experimental cycle, or deeper quantum degeneracy than before. We create a BEC of 84-Sr exceeding 10^7 atoms, which is a 30-fold improvement over previously reported experiments. We increase the atom number of 86-Sr BECs to 2.5x10^4 (a fivefold improvement), and refine the generation of attractively interacting 88-Sr BECs. We present a scheme to generate 84-Sr BECs with a cycle time of 2s, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the shortest cycle time of BEC experiments ever reported. We create deeply-degenerate 87-Sr Fermi gases with T/T_F as low as 0.10(1), where the number of populated nuclear spin states can be set to any value between one and ten. Furthermore, we report on a total of five different double-degenerate Bose-Bose and Bose-Fermi mixtures. These studies prepare an excellent starting poi...

Stellmer, Simon; Schreck, Florian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report is the fifth annual update, covering national emissions over the period 1989--1995, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1996. The estimates contained in this report have been revised from those in last year`s report. Emissions estimates for carbon dioxide are reported in metric tons of carbon; estimates for other gases are reported in metric tons of gas. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapter 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Five appendixes are included with this report. 216 refs., 11 figs., 38 tabs.

NONE

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Kinetic Theory Estimates for the Kolmogorov-Sinai Entropy and the Largest Lyapunov Exponents for Dilute, Hard-Ball Gases and for Dilute, Random Lorentz Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The kinetic theory of gases provides methods for calculating Lyapunov exponents and other quantities, such as Kolmogorov-Sinai entropies, that characterize the chaotic behavior of hard-ball gases. Here we illustrate the use of these methods for calculating the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, and the largest positive Lyapunov exponent, for dilute hard-ball gases in equilibrium. The calculation of the largest Lyapunov exponent makes interesting connections with the theory of propagation of hydrodynamic fronts. Calculations are also presented for the Lyapunov spectrum of dilute, random Lorentz gases in two and three dimensions, which are considerably simpler than the corresponding calculations for hard-ball gases. The article concludes with a brief discussion of some interesting open problems.

H. van Beijeren; R. van Zon; J. R. Dorfman

2000-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

108

Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes blind audit samples in a gas matrix for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement facilities must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for routine waste characterization analyses of WIPP samples.

Carlsbad Field Office

2007-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

109

Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes blind audit samples in a gas matrix for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement facilities must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for routine waste characterization analyses of WIPP samples.

Carlsbad Field Office

2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

110

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

1992-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

111

Compressibility factors for retrograde gases: a new correlation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

deviations of proposed Methods 1 and 2, were 0. 96 and 1. 01 percent, respectively. DEDICATION Esta tesis es dedicada a: Mis padres que siempre me han guiado y ofrecido constante apoyo en todas mis metas y logros. Juan Sebastian por la dicha de ser tu... tested with an overall absolute deviation of 1. 01/o. Four condensate retrograde gases from published data were used for testing the accuracy of the proposed methods. Proposed method 2 presented the smallest overall average absolute deviation with 0...

Corredor Real, Jairo Hernando

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

112

Prospecting by sampling and analysis of airborne particulates and gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is claimed for prospecting by sampling airborne particulates or gases at a ground position and recording wind direction values at the time of sampling. The samples are subsequently analyzed to determine the concentrations of a desired material or the ratios of the desired material to other identifiable materials in the collected samples. By comparing the measured concentrations or ratios to expected background data in the vicinity sampled, one can select recorded wind directions indicative of the upwind position of the land-based source of the desired material.

Sehmel, G.A.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Separation of gases through gas enrichment membrane composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Thin film composite membranes having as a permselective layer a film of a homopolymer of certain vinyl alkyl ethers are useful in the separation of various gases. Such homopolymers have a molecular weight of greater than 30,000 and the alkyl group of the vinyl alkyl monomer has from 4 to 20 carbon atoms with branching within the alkyl moiety at least at the carbon atom bonded to the ether oxygen or at the next adjacent carbon atom. These membranes show excellent hydrolytic stability, especially in the presence of acidic or basic gaseous components.

Swedo, R.J.; Kurek, P.R.

1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

114

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Process for recovery of sulfur from acid gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Elemental sulfur is recovered from the H.sub.2 S present in gases derived from fossil fuels by heating the H.sub.2 S with CO.sub.2 in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of a catalyst selected as one which enhances the thermal dissociation of H.sub.2 S to H.sub.2 and S.sub.2. The equilibrium of the thermal decomposition of H.sub.2 S is shifted by the equilibration of the water-gas-shift reaction so as to favor elemental sulfur formation. The primary products of the overall reaction are S.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. Small amounts of COS, SO.sub.2 and CS.sub.2 may also form. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture results in a substantial increase in the efficiency of the conversion of H.sub.2 S to elemental sulfur. Plant economy is further advanced by treating the product gases to remove byproduct carbonyl sulfide by hydrolysis, which converts the COS back to CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S. Unreacted CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H.sub.2 and CO, which has value either as a fuel or as a chemical feedstock and recovers the hydrogen value from the H.sub.2 S.

Towler, Gavin P. (Kirkbymoorside, GB2); Lynn, Scott (Pleasant Hill, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Self-pulsing of hollow cathode discharge in various gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we investigate the self-pulsing phenomenon of cavity discharge in a cylindrical hollow cathode in various gases including argon, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, and air. The current-voltage characteristics of the cavity discharge, the waveforms of the self-pulsing current and voltage as well as the repetition frequency were measured. The results show that the pulsing frequency ranges from a few to tens kilohertz and depends on the averaged current and the pressure in all gases. The pulsing frequency will increase with the averaged current and decrease with the pressure. The rising time of the current pulse is nearly constant in a given gas or mixture. The self-pulsing does not depend on the external ballast but is affected significantly by the external capacitor in parallel with the discharge cell. The low-current self-pulsing in hollow cathode discharge is the mode transition between Townsend and glow discharges. It can be described by the charging-discharging process of an equivalent circuit consisting of capacitors and resistors.

Qin, Y.; He, F., E-mail: hefeng@bit.edu.cn; Jiang, X. X.; Ouyang, J. T., E-mail: jtouyang@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Xie, K. [School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

117

Instantaneous and efficient surface wave excitation of a low pressure gas or gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for instantaneously ionizing and continuously delivering energy in the form of surface waves to a low pressure gas or mixture of low pressure gases, comprising a source of rf energy, a discharge container, (such as a fluorescent lamp discharge tube), an rf shield, and a coupling device responsive to rf energy from the source to couple rf energy directly and efficiently to the gas or mixture of gases to ionize at least a portion of the gas or gases and to provide energy to the gas or gases in the form of surface waves. The majority of the rf power is transferred to the gas or gases near the inner surface of the discharge container to efficiently transfer rf energy as excitation energy for at least one of the gases. The most important use of the invention is to provide more efficient fluorescent and/or ultraviolet lamps.

Levy, Donald J. (Berkeley, CA); Berman, Samuel M. (San Francisco, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

E-Print Network 3.0 - automobile exhaust gases Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

exhaust gases Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Ability of Catalytic Converters to Reduce Air Pollution Summary: Air Pollution MEASUREMENT OF SELECTED AIR POLLUTANTS IN CAR EXHAUST...

119

E-Print Network 3.0 - aircraft exhaust gases Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

gases FAA, 2005. Water in the aircraft exhaust at altitude may have a greenhouse effect... . Aircraft ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de mathmatiques...

120

Fact #825: June 16, 2014 Tier 3 Non-Methane Organic Gases Plus...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

organic gases (NMOG) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) that new light vehicles with gasoline engines are allowed to produce for model years 2017 to 2025. These standards apply to...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydrocar bon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Free Energies of Dilute Bose gases: upper bound  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We derive a upper bound on the free energy of a Bose gas system at density $\\rho$ and temperature $T$. In combination with the lower bound derived previously by Seiringer \\cite{RS1}, our result proves that in the low density limit, i.e., when $a^3\\rho\\ll 1$, where $a$ denotes the scattering length of the pair-interaction potential, the leading term of $\\Delta f$ the free energy difference per volume between interacting and ideal Bose gases is equal to $4\\pi a (2\\rho^2-[\\rho-\\rhoc]^2_+)$. Here, $\\rhoc(T)$ denotes the critical density for Bose-Einstein condensation (for the ideal gas), and $[\\cdot ]_+$ $=$ $\\max\\{\\cdot, 0\\}$ denotes the positive part.

Jun Yin

2010-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

122

Finite-size energy of non-interacting Fermi gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We prove the asymptotics of the difference of the ground-state energies of two non-interacting $N$-particle Fermi gases on the half line of length $L$ in the thermodynamic limit up to order $1/L$. We are particularly interested in subdominant terms proportional to $1/L$, called finite-size energy. In the nineties Affleck and co-authors [Aff97, ZA97, AL94] claimed that the finite-size energy equals the decay exponent occuring in Anderson's orthogonality catastrophe. It turns out that the finite-size energy depends on the details of the thermodynamic limit and typically also includes a linear term in the scattering phase shift.

Martin Gebert

2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

123

Loschmidt echo in one-dimensional interacting Bose gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We explore Loschmidt echo in two regimes of one-dimensional interacting Bose gases: the strongly interacting Tonks-Girardeau (TG) regime, and the weakly interacting mean-field regime. We find that the Loschmidt echo of a TG gas decays as a Gaussian when small (random and time independent) perturbations are added to the Hamiltonian. The exponent is proportional to the number of particles and the magnitude of a small perturbation squared. In the mean-field regime the Loschmidt echo shows richer behavior: it decays faster for larger nonlinearity, and the decay becomes more abrupt as the nonlinearity increases; it can be very sensitive to the particular realization of the noise potential, especially for relatively small nonlinearities.

Lelas, K.; Seva, T.; Buljan, H. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Split, Rudjera Boskovica BB, 21000 Split (Croatia); Department of Physics, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka c. 32, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

124

Monte Carlo Simulation of Radiation in Gases with a NarrowBand Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, France (\\Phi) now at the Institute of Energy and Power Plant Technology, TH Darmstadt, 64287 DarmstadtMonte Carlo Simulation of Radiation in Gases with a Narrow­Band Model and a Net is used for simulation of radiative heat transfers in non­gray gases. The proposed procedure is based

Dufresne, Jean-Louis

125

Abstract--Airborne pollution and explosive gases threaten human health and occupational safety, therefore generating high  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract--Airborne pollution and explosive gases threaten human health and occupational safety and a thumb-drive sized prototype system. I. INTRODUCTION xposure to air pollution consistently ranks among to occupational safety as energy demands rise. Airborne pollutants and explosive gases vary in both time and space

Mason, Andrew

126

Preserving noble gases in a convecting mantle Helge M. Gonnermann1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a processed and out- gassed lower-mantle source, residues of mantle melting10,11 , depleted in uranium and mixing of noble-gas-depleted slabs dilutes the concentrations of noble gases in the mantle, thereby melt, which forms the ocean crust and leaves the residual mantle severely depleted of noble gases

Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

127

Bose-Einstein condensates in 85 Rb gases at higher densities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bose-Einstein condensates in 85 Rb gases at higher densities A. R. Sakhel, J. L. DuBois, and H. R August 2002; published 31 December 2002 The Bose-Einstein condensation in trapped gases of 85 Rb find that there is a significant depletion of the condensate at T 0 K, for example, 25% at na3 10 2

Glyde, Henry R.

128

Localization of Bogoliubov quasiparticles in interacting Bose gases with correlated disorder P. Lugan1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) in a weakly interacting Bose gas of chemical potential µ subjected to a disordered potential V . We introduce-Einstein condensates [40­48], interacting Bose gases at equilibrium [26, 49­72], strongly interacting Fermi gases [73 behaviors can be found in various situa- tions. For instance, weak repulsive interactions in a Bose gas

Boyer, Edmond

129

Feasibility of reconstructing paleoatmospheric records of selected alkanes, methyl halides, and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

firn and ice at Summit, Greenland, J. Geophys. Res. , 98,AL. : TRACE GASES IN GREENLAND ICE CORE ¨ . Andreae Kettle,and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores M. Aydin, 1 M. B.

Aydin, M.; Williams, M. B; Saltzman, E. S

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

In-Situ Microbial Conversion of Sequestered Greenhouse Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of the project are to use microbiological in situ bioconversion technology to convert sequestered or naturally-occurring greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, into methane and other useful organic compounds. The key factors affecting coal bioconversion identified in this research include (1) coal properties, (2) thermal maturation and coalification process, (3) microbial population dynamics, (4) hydrodynamics (5) reservoir conditions, and (6) the methodology of getting the nutrients into the coal seams. While nearly all cultures produced methane, we were unable to confirm sustained methane production from the enrichments. We believe that the methane generation may have been derived from readily metabolized organic matter in the coal samples and/or biosoluble organic material in the coal formation water. This raises the intriguing possibility that pretreatment of the coal in the subsurface to bioactivate the coal prior to the injection of microbes and nutrients might be possible. We determined that it would be more cost effective to inject nutrients into coal seams to stimulate indigenous microbes in the coal seams, than to grow microbes in fermentation vats and transport them to the well site. If the coal bioconversion process can be developed on a larger scale, then the cost to generate methane could be less than $1 per Mcf

Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, M; Balin, D F

2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

131

Oxygen buffering of Kilauea volcanic gases and the oxygen fugacity of Kilauea basalt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Volcanic gases collected during episode 1 of the Puu Oo eruption along the east rift zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, have uniform C-O-H-S-Cl-F compositions that are sharply depleted in CO[sub 2]. The CO[sub 2]-poor gases are typical of Type II volcanic gases (GERLACH and GRAEBER, 1985) and were emitted from evolved magma stored for a prolonged period of time in the east rift zone after releasing CO[sub 2]-rich gases during an earlier period of temporary residence in the summit magma chamber. The samples are remarkably free of contamination by atmospheric gases and meteoric water. Thermodynamic evaluation of the analytical data shows that the episode 1 gases have equilibrium compositions appropriate for temperatures between 935 and 1032[degrees]C. Open- and closed-system equilibrium models of species distributions for the episode 1 gases show unequivocally that coexisting lavas buffered the gas oxygen fugacities during cooling. These models indicate that the F[sub o[sub 2

Gerlach, T.M. (Geological Survey, Vancouver, WA (United States))

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Atmospheric Trace Gases from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication, Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. The collections under the CDIAC heading of Atmospheric Trace Gases include: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Atmospheric Methane, Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide, Atmospheric Hydrogen, Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases, Radionuclides, Aerosols, and Other Trace Gases.

133

Radiative precursors driven by converging blast waves in noble gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed study of the radiative precursor that develops ahead of converging blast waves in gas-filled cylindrical liner z-pinch experiments is presented. The experiment is capable of magnetically driving 20?km s{sup ?1} blast waves through gases of densities of the order 10{sup ?5} g cm{sup ?3} (see Burdiak et al. [High Energy Density Phys. 9(1), 52–62 (2013)] for a thorough description). Data were collected for Ne, Ar, and Xe gas-fills. The geometry of the setup allows a determination of the plasma parameters both in the precursor and across the shock, along a nominally uniform line of sight that is perpendicular to the propagation of the shock waves. Radiation from the shock was able to excite NeI, ArII, and XeII/XeIII precursor spectral features. It is shown that the combination of interferometry and optical spectroscopy data is inconsistent with upstream plasmas being in LTE. Specifically, electron density gradients do not correspond to any apparent temperature change in the emission spectra. Experimental data are compared to 1D radiation hydrodynamics HELIOS-CR simulations and to PrismSPECT atomic physics calculations to assist in a physical interpretation of the observations. We show that upstream plasma is likely in the process of being radiatively heated and that the emission from a small percentage of ionised atoms within a cool background plasma dominates the emission spectra. Experiments were carried out on the MAGPIE and COBRA pulsed-power facilities at Imperial College London and Cornell University, respectively.

Burdiak, G. C.; Lebedev, S. V.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Swadling, G. F.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Hall, G. N.; Khoory, E.; Pickworth, L.; Bland, S. N.; Grouchy, P. de; Skidmore, J.; Suttle, L.; Bennett, M.; Niasse, N. P. L. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)] [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Williams, R. J. R. [Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)] [Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Blesener, K.; Atoyan, L.; Cahill, A.; Hoyt, C.; Potter, W. [Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)] [Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); and others

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

134

Excitation spectrum and quasiparticles in quantum gases. A rigorous approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis is devoted to a rigorous study of interacting quantum gases. The main objects of interest are the closely related concepts of excitation spectrum and quasiparticles. The immediate motivation of this work is to propose a spectral point of view concerning these two concepts. In the first part of this thesis we discuss the concepts of excitation spectrum and quasiparticles. We provide an overview of physical motivations and based on that we propose a spectral and Hamiltonian-based approach towards these terms. Based on that, we formulate definitions and propositions related to these concepts. In the second part we recall the Bogoliubov and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approximations, which in the physics literature are used to obtain the quasiparticle picture. We show how these two approaches fit into a universal scheme which allows us to arrive at a quasiparticle picture in a more general setup. This scheme is based on the minimization of Hamiltonians over the so-called Gaussian states. Its abstract formulation is the content of Beliaev's Theorem. In the last part we present a rigorous result concerning the justification of the Bogoliubov approximation. This justification employs the concept of the mean-field and infinite-volume limit. We show that for a large number of particles, a large volume and a sufficiently high density, the low-lying energy-momentum spectrum of the homogeneous Bose gas is well described by the Bogoliubov approximation. This result, which is formulated in the form of a theorem, can be seen as the main result of this thesis.

Marcin Napiórkowski

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

135

ACID GASES IN CO2-RICH SUBSURFACE GEOLOGIC ENVIRONMENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The analysis of species behavior involving dilute fluid environments has been crucial for the advance of modern solvation thermodynamics through molecular-based formalisms to guide the development of macroscopic regression tools in the description of fluid behavior and correlation of experimental data (Chialvo 2013). Dilute fluid environments involving geologic formations are of great theoretical and practical relevance regardless of the thermodynamic state conditions. The most challenging systems are those involving highly compressible and reactive confined environments, i.e., where small perturbations of pressure and/or temperature can trigger considerable density changes. This in turn can alter significantly the species solvation, their preferential solvation, and consequently, their reactivity with one another and with the surrounding mineral surfaces whose outcome is the modification of the substrate porosity and permeability, and ultimately, the integrity of the mineral substrates. Considering that changes in porosity and permeability resulting from dissolution and precipitation phenomena in confined environments are at the core of the aqueous CO2-mineral interactions, and that caprock integrity (e.g., sealing capacity) depends on these key parameters, it is imperative to gain fundamental understanding of the mineral-fluid interfacial phenomena and fluid-fluid equilibria under mineral confinement at subsurface conditions. In order to undertand the potential effects of acid gases as contaminants of supercritical CO2 streams, in the next section we will discuss the thermodynamic behavior of CO2 fluid systems by addressing two crucial issues in the context of carbon capture, utilization and sequestration (CCUS) technologies: (i) Why should we consider (acid gas) CO2 impurities? and (ii) Why are CO2 fluid - mineral interactions of paramount relevance?

Chialvo, Ariel A [ORNL] [ORNL; Vlcek, Lukas [ORNL] [ORNL; Cole, David [Ohio State University] [Ohio State University

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

What's the Greenhouse Effect? The earth is surrounded by a blanket of gases. This  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;What's the Greenhouse Effect? · The earth is surrounded by a blanket of gases. This blanket and climate change result from the greenhouse effect. #12;What's the Problem? · Eradica@on of en

Bowen, James D.

137

Eddy covariance flux measurements of pollutant gases in urban Mexico City  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of the atmosphere/surface exchange of gases over an urban area are a direct way to improve and evaluate emissions inventories, and, in turn, to better understand urban atmospheric ...

Velasco, Erik

138

What are greenhouse gases? Many chemical compounds in the atmosphere act as  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Michigan State University, 2 Michigan State University Extension Climate Change and Agriculture Fact Sheet greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide over the past 2000 years. Data are from ice core

139

Quantum coherence and magnetism in bosonic and fermionic gases of ultracold atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, two sets of experimental studies in bosonic and fermionic gases are described. In the first part of the thesis, itinerant ferromagnetism was studied in a strongly interacting Fermi gas of ultracold atoms. ...

Jo, Gyu-Boong

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Adsorption Modeling of Coalbed Gases and the Effects of Water on Their Adsorption Behavior.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The simplified local-density/Peng-Robinson (SLD-PR) adsorption model was utilized to investigate the adsorption behavior of coalbed gases on coals of varying rank. The model parameters were… (more)

Mohammad, Sayeed Ahmed

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydrocar bon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Spatio-temporal theory of lasing action in optically-pumped rotationally excited molecular gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate laser emission from optically-pumped rotationally excited molecular gases confined in a metallic cavity. To this end, we have developed a theoretical framework able to accurately describe, both in the spatial ...

Chua, Song-Liang

142

Quantifying emissions of greenhouse gases from South Asia through a targeted measurement campaign  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N20) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) are powerful greenhouse gases with global budgets that are well-known but regional distributions that are not adequately constrained for the purposes of ...

Ganesan, Anita Lakshmi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Field-driven dynamics of dilute gases, viscous liquids and polymer chains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis is concerned with the exploration of field-induced dynamical phenomena arising in dilute gases, viscous liquids and polymer chains. The problems considered herein pertain to the slip-induced motion of a rigid, ...

Mohan, Aruna, 1981-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Evolution and stability of shock waves in dissipative gases characterized by activated inelastic collisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Previous experiments have revealed that shock waves driven through dissipative gases may become unstable, for example, in granular gases, and in molecular gases undergoing strong relaxation effects. The mechanisms controlling these instabilities are not well understood. We successfully isolated and investigated this instability in the canonical problem of piston driven shock waves propagating into a medium characterized by inelastic collision processes. We treat the standard model of granular gases, where particle collisions are taken as inelastic with constant coefficient of restitution. The inelasticity is activated for sufficiently strong collisions. Molecular dynamic simulations were performed for 30,000 particles. We find that all shock waves investigated become unstable, with density non-uniformities forming in the relaxation region. The wavelength of these fingers is found comparable to the characteristic relaxation thickness. Shock Hugoniot curves for both elastic and inelastic collisions were obtaine...

Sirmas, Nick

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Iron-based alloys with corrosion resistance to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An iron-based alloy with improved performance with exposure to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases with the alloy containing about 9--30 wt. % Cr and a small amount of Nb and/or Zr implanted on the surface of the alloy to diffuse a depth into the surface portion, with the alloy exhibiting corrosion resistance to the corrosive gases without bulk addition of Nb and/or Zr and without heat treatment at temperatures of 1000--1100 C. 7 figs.

Natesan, K.

1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

146

Iron-based alloys with corrosion resistance to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An iron-based alloy with improved performance with exposure to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases with the alloy containing about 9-30 wt. % Cr and a small amount of Nb and/or Zr implanted on the surface of the alloy to diffuse a depth into the surface portion, with the alloy exhibiting corrosion resistance to the corrosive gases without bulk addition of Nb and/or Zr and without heat treatment at temperatures of 1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.

Natesan, Krishnamurti (Naperville, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1985--1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Earth`s capacity to support life depends on the moderating influences of gases that envelop the planet and warm its surface and protect it from harmful radiation. These gases are referred to as ``greenhouse gases.`` Their warming capacity, called ``the greenhouse effect,`` is essential to maintaining a climate hospitable to all plant, animal, and human life. In recent years, however, there has been increasing concern that human activity may be affecting the intricate balance between the Earth`s absorption of heat from the sun and its capacity to reradiate excess heat back into space. Emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities may be an important mechanism that affects global climate. Thus, research is intensifying to improve our understanding of the role human activities might play in influencing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. On the basis of scientific findings of the past few decades, the US Government and the international community at large are now taking steps toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. This report contributes to that process. Mandated by Congress this report provides estimates of US emissions of the principal greenhouse gases--carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorcarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds. Estimates are for the period 1985 to 1990. Preliminary estimates for 1991 have also been included, whenever data were available.

Not Available

1993-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

148

Molecular extended thermodynamics of rarefied polyatomic gases and wave velocities for increasing number of moments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molecular extended thermodynamics of rarefied polyatomic gases is characterized by two hierarchies of equations for moments of a suitable distribution function in which the internal degrees of freedom of a molecule is taken into account. On the basis of physical relevance the truncation orders of the two hierarchies are proven to be not independent on each other, and the closure procedures based on the maximum entropy principle (MEP) and on the entropy principle (EP) are proven to be equivalent. The characteristic velocities of the emerging hyperbolic system of differential equations are compared to those obtained for monatomic gases and the lower bound estimate for the maximum equilibrium characteristic velocity established for monatomic gases (characterized by only one hierarchy for moments with truncation order of moments N) by Boillat and Ruggeri (1997) (?{sub (N)}{sup E,max})/(c{sub 0}) ??(6/5 (N?1/2 )),(c{sub 0}=?(5/3 k/m T)) is proven to hold also for rarefied polyatomic gases independently from the degrees of freedom of a molecule. -- Highlights: •Molecular extended thermodynamics of rarefied polyatomic gases is studied. •The relation between two hierarchies of equations for moments is derived. •The equivalence of maximum entropy principle and entropy principle is proven. •The characteristic velocities are compared to those of monatomic gases. •The lower bound of the maximum characteristic velocity is estimated.

Arima, Takashi, E-mail: tks@stat.nitech.ac.jp [Center for Social Contribution and Collaboration, Nagoya Institute of Technology (Japan); Mentrelli, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.mentrelli@unibo.it [Department of Mathematics and Research Center of Applied Mathematics (CIRAM), University of Bologna (Italy); Ruggeri, Tommaso, E-mail: tommaso.ruggeri@unibo.it [Department of Mathematics and Research Center of Applied Mathematics (CIRAM), University of Bologna (Italy)

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

149

Case Study No. 2: Bon Appétit Management Company  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

compa- ny’s and diners’ carbon footprint. Working with inde-diners can assess the carbon footprint of each item they put

Thistlethwaite, Rebecca; Brown, Martha

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Bon Homme Yankton El Assn, Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORTOpenWendeGuo Feng Bio JumpVenturesCoral CapitalBoilers Jump to:Yankton

151

Bon Homme County, South Dakota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160Benin: Energy ResourcesJersey:formBlueBombay Beach, California: Energy Resources

152

Bons Ventos Geradora de Energia S A | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORT Americium/CuriumSunways JV Jump to:BhorukaBonfiglioli Tansmital

153

Waste Heat Recovery from High Temperature Off-Gases from Electric Arc Furnace  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article presents a study and review of available waste heat in high temperature Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) off gases and heat recovery techniques/methods from these gases. It gives details of the quality and quantity of the sensible and chemical waste heat in typical EAF off gases, energy savings potential by recovering part of this heat, a comprehensive review of currently used waste heat recovery methods and potential for use of advanced designs to achieve a much higher level of heat recovery including scrap preheating, steam production and electric power generation. Based on our preliminary analysis, currently, for all electric arc furnaces used in the US steel industry, the energy savings potential is equivalent to approximately 31 trillion Btu per year or 32.7 peta Joules per year (approximately $182 million US dollars/year). This article describes the EAF off-gas enthalpy model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to calculate available and recoverable heat energy for a given stream of exhaust gases coming out of one or multiple EAF furnaces. This Excel based model calculates sensible and chemical enthalpy of the EAF off-gases during tap to tap time accounting for variation in quantity and quality of off gases. The model can be used to estimate energy saved through scrap preheating and other possible uses such as steam generation and electric power generation using off gas waste heat. This article includes a review of the historical development of existing waste heat recovery methods, their operations, and advantages/limitations of these methods. This paper also describes a program to develop and test advanced concepts for scrap preheating, steam production and electricity generation through use of waste heat recovery from the chemical and sensible heat contained in the EAF off gases with addition of minimum amount of dilution or cooling air upstream of pollution control equipment such as bag houses.

Nimbalkar, Sachin U [ORNL; Thekdi, Arvind [E3M Inc; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Phase Behavior of Light Gases in Hydrocarbon and Aqueous Solvents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under previous support from the Department of Energy, an experimental facility has been established and operated to measure valuable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for systems of interest in the production and processing of coal fluids. To facilitate the development and testing of models for prediction of the phase behavior for such systems, we have acquired substantial amounts of data on the equilibrium phase compositions for binary mixtures of heavy hydrocarbon solvents with a variety of supercritical solutes, including hydrogen, methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The present project focuses on measuring the phase behavior of light gases and water in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) type solvents at conditions encountered in indirect liquefaction processes and evaluating and developing theoretically-based correlating frameworks to predict the phase behavior of such systems. Specific goals of the proposed work include (a) developing a state-of-the-art experimental facility to permit highly accurate measurements of equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) of challenging F-T systems, (b) measuring these properties for systematically-selected binary, ternary and molten F-T wax mixtures to provide critically needed input data for correlation development, (c) developing and testing models suitable for describing the phase behavior of such mixtures, and (d) presenting the modeling results in generalized, practical formats suitable for use in process engineering calculations. During the present reporting period, our solubility apparatus was refurbished and restored to full service. To test the experimental apparatus and procedures used, measurements were obtained for the solubility Of C0{sub 2} in benzene at 160{degrees}F. Having confirmed the accuracy of the newly acquired data in comparison with our previous measurements and data reported in the literature for this test system, we have begun to measure the solubility of hydrogen in hexane. The measurements for this system will cover the temperature range from 160 to 280{degrees}F at pressures to 2,500 psia. As part of our model evaluation efforts, we examined the predictive abilities of an alternative approach we have proposed for calculating the phase behavior properties of highly non-ideal systems. Using this approach, the liquid phase fugacities generated from an equation of state (EOS) are augmented by a fugacity deviation function correction. The correlative abilities of this approach are compared with those of an EOS equipped with the recently introduced Wong-Sandler (MWS) mixing rules. These two approaches are compared with the current methods for vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) calculations, i.e., the EOS (0/0) approach with the van der Waals mixing rules and the split (y/0) approach. The evaluations were conducted on a database comprised of non-ideal low pressure binary systems as well as asymmetric high pressure binary systems. These systems are of interest in the coal liquefaction and utilization processes. The Peng-Robinson EOS was selected for the purposes of this evaluation.

Gasem, K.A.M.; Robinson, R.L., Jr.; Trvedi, N.J., Gao, W.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Dissipative Dynamics of a Josephson Junction In the Bose-Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The dissipative dynamics of a Josephson junction in the Bose-gases is considered within the framework of the model of a tunneling Hamiltonian. The effective action which describes the dynamics of the phase difference across the junction is derived using functional integration method. The dynamic equation obtained for the phase difference across the junction is analyzed for the finite temperatures in the low frequency limit involving the radiation terms. The asymmetric case of the Bose-gases with the different order parameters is calculated as well.

R. A. Barankov; S. N. Burmistrov

2003-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

156

Spin noise spectroscopy to probe quantum states of ultracold fermionic atom gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We theoretically demonstrate that optical measurements of electron spin noise can be a spectroscopic probe of the entangled quantum states of ultracold fermionic atom gases and unambiguously reveal the detailed nature of the underlying interatomic correlations. Different models of the effective interatomic interactions predict entirely new sets of resonances in the spin noise spectrum. Once the correct effective interatomic interaction model is identified, the detailed noise line shapes of the spin noise can be used to constrain this model. We estimate the magnitude of spin noise signals expected in ultracold fermionic atom gases via noise measurements in classical alkali vapors, which demonstrate the feasibility of this approach.

Mihaila, Bogdan; Blagoev, Krastan B.; Smith, Darryl L. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Crooker, Scott A.; Rickel, Dwight G. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Littlewood, Peter B. [Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

157

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL); Jalan, Vinod M. (Concord, MA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur-containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorbtion capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

1982-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

159

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

1984-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

160

Method and apparatus for separating gases based on electrically and magnetically enhanced monolithic carbon fiber composite sorbents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for separating gases or other fluids involves placing a magnetic field on a monolithic carbon fiber composite sorption material to more preferentially attract certain gases or other fluids to the sorption material to which a magnetic field is applied. This technique may be combined with the known pressure swing adsorption'' technique utilizing the same sorption material. 1 fig.

Judkins, R.R.; Burchell, T.D.

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydrocar bon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Feasibility of reconstructing paleoatmospheric records of selected alkanes, methyl halides, and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores M. Aydin,1 M. B. Williams,1 and E. S. Saltzman1 Received 7-lived atmospheric trace gases were measured in 25 ice core samples from Summit, Greenland. Samples were selected. The CH3Br results are consistent with previous observations of ``excess'' CH3Br in Greenland firn air

Saltzman, Eric

162

Method and apparatus for separating gases based on electrically and magnetically enhanced monolithic carbon fiber composite sorbents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for separating gases or other fluids involves placing a magnetic field on a monolithic carbon fiber composite sorption material to more preferentially attract certain gases or other fluids to the sorption material to which a magnetic field is applied. This technique may be combined with the known "pressure swing adsorption" technique utilizing the same sorption material.

Judkins, Roddie R. (9917 Rainbow Dr., Knoxville, TN 37922); Burchell, Timothy D. (109 Greywood Pl., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Bose-Einstein Condensation in Atomic Gases Jerzy Zachorowski and Wojciech Gawlik  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. It is instructive to compare orders of magnitude typical for the thermal and condensed gas samples. For atom gasBose-Einstein Condensation in Atomic Gases Jerzy Zachorowski and Wojciech Gawlik M. Smoluchowski on the Bose-Einstein condensate. We also present main parameters and expected characteristics of the first Pol

164

Ion fragmentation in an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer interface with different gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the gas phase. However, particularly in multi- component samples, this may not be enough to unambigu predicts that the degree of ion fragmentation increases with increasing mass of the curtain gas. However with argon and krypton is caused by condensation of the gases within the free jet expansion between

Chen, David D.Y.

165

Electronic structure of the Si(111):GaSe van der Waals-like surface termination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electronic structure of the Si(111):GaSe van der Waals-like surface termination Reiner Rudolph-like surface termination has been determined by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using photons. This explains both the absence of a surface core-level shift in Si 2p photoelectron spectra of the terminated

Olmstead, Marjorie

166

Investigadores de la UA disean un catalizador que neutraliza gases responsables del cambio climtico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

industria, las plantas de combustión o de las emisiones de vehículos Alicante, 6 de junio de 2013 a reducir todas las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero acordadas en el Protocolo de Kioto" explica emisiones de vehículos (motores de gasolina, motores diésel, etc.), entre otros. Actualidad Universitaria

Escolano, Francisco

167

Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Dry Gases in the Cathode of PEM Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Dry Gases in the Cathode of PEM Fuel Cells M.J. Kermani1 J and N2, through the cathode of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is studied numerically) an energy equation, written in a form that has enthalpy as the dependent variable. Keywords: PEM fuel cells

Stockie, John

168

Classical disordered ground states: Super-ideal gases and stealth and equi-luminous materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Classical disordered ground states: Super-ideal gases and stealth and equi-luminous materials of Materials, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA 4 Program in Applied and Computational focus on three classes of configurations with unique radiation scattering characteristics: i "stealth

Torquato, Salvatore

169

A Biomass-based Model to Estimate the Plausibility of Exoplanet Biosignature Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biosignature gas detection is one of the ultimate future goals for exoplanet atmosphere studies. We have created a framework for linking biosignature gas detectability to biomass estimates, including atmospheric photochemistry and biological thermodynamics. The new framework is intended to liberate predictive atmosphere models from requiring fixed, Earth-like biosignature gas source fluxes. New biosignature gases can be considered with a check that the biomass estimate is physically plausible. We have validated the models on terrestrial production of NO, H2S, CH4, CH3Cl, and DMS. We have applied the models to propose NH3 as a biosignature gas on a "cold Haber World," a planet with a N2-H2 atmosphere, and to demonstrate why gases such as CH3Cl must have too large of a biomass to be a plausible biosignature gas on planets with Earth or early-Earth-like atmospheres orbiting a Sun-like star. To construct the biomass models, we developed a functional classification of biosignature gases, and found that gases (such...

Seager, S; Hu, R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Predictive Modeling of Mercury Speciation in Combustion Flue Gases Using GMDH-Based Abductive Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to develop. The use of modern data-based machine learning techniques has been recently introduced, including and boiler operating conditions. Prediction performance compares favourably with neural network models for future work to further improve performance. Index Terms: Mercury speciation, Flue gases, Boiler emissions

Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

171

Nuclear fusion in gases of deuterium clusters heated with a femtosecond T. Ditmire,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nuclear fusion in gases of deuterium clusters heated with a femtosecond laser* T. Ditmire, J deuterium­deuterium DD nuclear fusion. By diagnosing the fusion yield through measurements of 2.45 Me release of kinetic energy in fast ions can be harnessed to drive nuclear fusion between deuterium ions

Ditmire, Todd

172

Ballistic spin transport in exciton gases A. V. Kavokin,1, 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, or spin-optronics challeng- ing. How possibly one can explore the current, which is carried by neutral are possible in exciton and exciton-polariton Bose gases. Bosonic spintronics or spin-optronics operates,28 . Combined with evident advantages of bosonic amplifica- tion and low dephasing, this makes spin-optronics

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

173

ESTABoues, a decision tool to assess greenhouse gases of sewage sludge treatment and di  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

digestion, aerobic digestion, dewatering, al composting, drying) and sludge disposal route (land applicationORBIT2012 G ESTABoues, a decision tool to assess greenhouse gases of sewage sludge treatment and di-laure.reverdy@irstea.fr EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Sewage sludge production increases continuously reaching almost 20% (946 700 t 1 118 795

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

174

1988 Pilot Institute on Global Change on trace gases and the biosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This proposal seeks multi-agency funding to conduct an international, multidisciplinary 1988 Pilot Institute on Global Change to take place from August 7 through 21, 1988, on the topic: Trace Gases and the Biosphere. The institute, to be held in Snowmass, Colorado, is envisioned as a pilot version of a continuing series of institutes on Global Change (IGC). This proposal seeks support for the 1988 pilot institute only. The concept and structure for the continuing series, and the definition of the 1988 pilot institute, were developed at an intensive and multidisciplinary Summer Institute Planning Meeting in Boulder, Colorado, on August 24--25, 1987. The theme for the 1988 PIGC, Trace Gases and the Biosphere, will focus a concerted, high-level multidisciplinary effort on a scientific problem central to the Global Change Program. Dramatic year-to-year increases in the global concentrations of radiatively-active trace gases such as methane and carbon dioxide are now well documented. The predicted climatic effects of these changes lend special urgency to efforts to study the biospheric sources and sinks of these gases and to clarify their interactions and role in the geosphere-biosphere system.

Eddy, J.A.; Moore, B. III

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Greenhouse gases accounting and reporting for waste management - A South African perspective  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper investigates how greenhouse gases are accounted and reported in the waste sector in South Africa. Developing countries (including South Africa) do not have binding emission reduction targets, but many of them publish different greenhouse gas emissions data which have been accounted and reported in different ways. Results show that for South Africa, inventories at national and municipal level are the most important tools in the process of accounting and reporting greenhouse gases from waste. For the development of these inventories international initiatives were important catalysts at national and municipal levels, and assisted in developing local expertise, resulting in increased output quality. However, discrepancies in the methodology used to account greenhouse gases from waste between inventories still remain a concern. This is a challenging issue for developing countries, especially African ones, since higher accuracy methods are more data intensive. Analysis of the South African inventories shows that results from the recent inventories can not be compared with older ones due to the use of different accounting methodologies. More recently the use of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) procedures in Africa, geared towards direct measurements of greenhouse gases from landfill sites, has increased and resulted in an improvement of the quality of greenhouse gas inventories at municipal level.

Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.z [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

176

Intercomparison of tritium and noble gases analyses, 3 and derived parameters excess air and recharge temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Intercomparison of tritium and noble gases analyses, 3 H/3 He ages and derived parameters excess with the tritium­helium (3 H/3 He) method has become a powerful tool for hydrogeologists. The uncertainty in the inter- comparison for tritium analyses and ten laboratories participated in the noble gas

177

Truck Stop Electrification as a Strategy To Reduce Greenhouse Gases, Fuel Consumption and Pollutant Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Truck Stop Electrification as a Strategy To Reduce Greenhouse Gases, Fuel Consumption and Pollutant, Schneider, Lee, Bubbosh 2 ABSTRACT Extended truck idling is a very large source of fuel wastage, greenhouse, most long-haul truck drivers idle their vehicles for close to 10 hours per day to operate heating

178

UA Researchers design a catalyst that neutralizes the gases responsible for climate change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in a fixed bed reactor through which the gas stream to be purified passes. The composition and temperature gases coming from industry, combustion plants or vehicle emissions that are responsible for increasing with ammonia, combustion processes of fossil fuels (coal, biomass, waste, etc.). and vehicle emissions

Escolano, Francisco

179

Abstract--Energy consumption and the concomitant Green House Gases (GHG) emissions of network infrastructures are  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract--Energy consumption and the concomitant Green House Gases (GHG) emissions of network on the overall power consumption and on the GHG emissions with just 25% of green energy sources. I. INTRODUCTION]. In the zero carbon approach, renewable (green) energy sources (e.g. sun, wind, tide) are employed and no GHGs

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

180

Towards a history of the international industrial gases industry Ray Stokes, Ralf Banken, and Matthias Phl  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

industrial revolution" and their component companies. From David Landes's classic study, The Unbound of the industries of the second industrial revolution has been virtually ignored in this scholarship to date1 Towards a history of the international industrial gases industry Ray Stokes, Ralf Banken

Guo, Zaoyang

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydrocar bon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Internal structure and expansion dynamics of laser ablation plumes into ambient gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Internal structure and expansion dynamics of laser ablation plumes into ambient gases S. S. Harilal 13 December 2002 The effect of ambient gas on the expansion dynamics of the plasma generated by laser together with time resolved emission diagnostics, a triple structure of the plume was observed

Harilal, S. S.

182

Measurement and Analysis of the Relationship between Ammonia, Acid Gases, and Fine Particles in Eastern North  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

).2­4 Gas-to-particle conversion can be accomplished by condensation, which adds mass onto preMeasurement and Analysis of the Relationship between Ammonia, Acid Gases, and Fine Particles acid gas con- centrations of 0.23 g/m3 hydrochloric acid (standard deviation [SD] 0.2 g/m3 ); 1.14 g/m3

Aneja, Viney P.

183

Atmospheric Environment 42 (2008) 30763086 Scavenging of soluble gases by evaporating and growing cloud  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and condensation of a cloud droplet in the presence of soluble gases. It is assumed that gas absorption we performed numerical analysis of simultaneous heat and mass transfer during evaporation into account thermal effect of gas absorption. It was shown that nonlinear behavior of different parameters

Elperin, Tov

184

Photoconductivity and luminescence in GaSe crystals at high levels of optical excitation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The photoconductivity and luminescence of GaSe layered crystals at high levels of optical excitation are studied experimentally. The specific features observed in the photoconductivity and photoluminescence spectra are controlled by the nonlinear optical absorption in the region of excitonic resonance.

Kyazym-zade, A. G.; Salmanov, V. M., E-mail: vagif_salmanov@yahoo.com; Salmanova, A. A. [Baku State University (Azerbaijan); Alieva, A. M.; Ibaeva, R. Z. [National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

185

Effects of Biochar and Basalt Additions on Carbon Sequestration and Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases in Soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of Biochar and Basalt Additions on Carbon Sequestration and Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases Emissions--Carbon Dioxide Emissions--Sequestration and Storage--Biochar--Basalt--Organic Fertilizers, this investigation focuses on the range of potential of different soil additives to enhance sequestration and storage

Vallino, Joseph J.

186

Operational aspects of the desulfurization process of energy gases mimics in biotrickling filters5  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Introduction Energy rich off-gases such as biogas are sometimes not used for electric power generation due impurities. H2S concentrations in biogas can range from 0.1 to 5 We dedicate this article to the memory/v (1000e20,000 ppmv), whereas the specifications for the maximum content of H2S in typical biogas

187

Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine fuel cells are usually described as devices able to convert chemical energy into electrical energy. Conventional solid oxide fuel cells are separated into two compartments containing each electrode split

Boyer, Edmond

188

Molybdenum-based additives to mixed-metal oxides for use in hot gas cleanup sorbents for the catalytic decomposition of ammonia in coal gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to additives to mixed-metal oxides that act simultaneously as sorbents and catalysts in cleanup systems for hot coal gases. Such additives of this type, generally, act as a sorbent to remove sulfur from the coal gases while substantially simultaneously, catalytically decomposing appreciable amounts of ammonia from the coal gases.

Ayala, Raul E. (Clifton Park, NY)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Removal of oxides of nitrogen from gases in multi-stage coal combustion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Polluting NO{sub x} gas values are removed from off-gas of a multi-stage coal combustion process which includes an initial carbonizing reaction, firing of char from this reaction in a fluidized bed reactor, and burning of gases from the carbonizing and fluidized bed reactions in a topping combustor having a first, fuel-rich zone and a second, fuel-lean zone. The improvement by means of which NO{sub x} gases are removed is directed to introducing NO{sub x}-free oxidizing gas such as compressor air into the second, fuel-lean zone and completing combustion with this source of oxidizing gas. Excess air fed to the fluidized bed reactor is also controlled to obtain desired stoichiometry in the first, fuel-rich zone of the topping combustor. 2 figs.

Mollot, D.J.; Bonk, D.L.; Dowdy, T.E.

1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

190

Process for removal of ammonia and acid gases from contaminated waters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Contaminating basic gases, i.e., ammonia and acid gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, are removed from process waters or waste waters in a combined extraction and stripping process. Ammonia in the form of ammonium ion is extracted by an immiscible organic phase comprising a liquid cation exchange component, especially an organic phosphoric acid derivative, and preferably di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid, dissolved in an alkyl hydrocarbon, aryl hydrocarbon, higher alcohol, oxygenated hydrocarbon, halogenated hydrocarbon, and mixtures thereof. Concurrently, the acidic gaseous contaminants are stripped from the process or waste waters by stripping with stream, air, nitrogen, or the like. The liquid cation exchange component has the ammonia stripped therefrom by heating, and the component may be recycled to extract additional amounts of ammonia.

King, C.J.; Mackenzie, P.D.

1982-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

191

Process for removal of ammonia and acid gases from contaminated waters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Contaminating basic gases, i.e., ammonia, and acid gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, are removed from process waters or waste waters in a combined extraction and stripping process. Ammonia in the form of ammonium ion is extracted by an immiscible organic phase comprising a liquid cation exchange component, especially an organic phosphoric acid derivative, and preferably di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid, dissolved in an alkyl hydrocarbon, aryl hydrocarbon, higher alcohol, oxygenated hydrocarbon, halogenated hydrocarbon, and mixtures thereof. Concurrently, the acidic gaseous contaminants are stripped from the process or waste waters by stripping with steam, air, nitrogen, or the like. The liquid cation exchange component has the ammonia stripped therefrom by heating, and the component may be recycled to extract additional amounts of ammonia.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); MacKenzie, Patricia D. (Berkeley, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Removal of oxides of nitrogen from gases in multi-stage coal combustion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Polluting NO.sub.x gas values are removed from off-gas of a multi-stage coal combustion process which includes an initial carbonizing reaction, firing of char from this reaction in a fluidized bed reactor, and burning of gases from the carbonizing and fluidized bed reactions in a topping combustor having a first, fuel-rich zone and a second, fuel-lean zone. The improvement by means of which NO.sub.x gases are removed is directed to introducing NO.sub.x -free oxidizing gas such as compressor air into the second, fuel-lean zone and completing combustion with this source of oxidizing gas. Excess air fed to the fluidized bed reactor is also controlled to obtain desired stoichiometry in the first, fuel-rich zone of the topping combustor.

Mollot, Darren J. (Morgantown, WV); Bonk, Donald L. (Louisville, OH); Dowdy, Thomas E. (Orlando, FL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Bose and Fermi gases in the early Universe with self-gravitational effect  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the self-gravitational effect on the equation of state (EoS) of Bose and Fermi gases in thermal equilibrium at the end of reheating, the period after quark-hadron transition and before big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). After introducing new grand canonical partition functions based on the work of Uhlenbeck and Gropper, we notice some interesting features of the newly developed EoSs with distinct behaviors of relativistic and nonrelativistic gases under self-gravity. The usual negligence of the self-gravitational effect when solving the background expansion of the early Universe is justified with numerical results, showing the magnitude of the self-gravitational modification of the state constant to be less than O(10{sup -78}). This helps us to clarify the background thermal evolution of the primordial patch. Such clarification is crucial in testing gravity theories, evaluating inflation models and determining element abundances in BBN.

Niu Yuezhen; Huang Junwu; Ma Boqiang [School of Physics and State Keye Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) and Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) and Center for History and Philosophy of Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

194

Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes are provided. The membranes can include at least one hydrophilic polymer, at least one cross-linking agent, at least one base, and at least one amino compound. The methods of separating gases using membranes can include contacting a gas stream containing at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl with one side of a nonporous and at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl selectively permeable membrane such that at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl is selectively transported through the membrane.

Ho, W. S. Winston

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

195

Adsorption of molecular gases on porous materials in the SAFT-VR approximation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A simple molecular thermodynamic approach is applied to the study of the adsorption of gases of chain molecules on solid surfaces. We use a model based on the Statistical Associating Fluid Theory for Variable Range (SAFT-VR) potentials [A. Gil-Villegas, A. Galindo, P. J. Whitehead, S. J. Mills, G. Jackson, A. N. Burgess, J. Chem. Phys. 106 (1997) 4168] that we extend by including a quasi-two-dimensional approximation to describe the adsorption properties of this type of real gases [A. Martinez, M. Castro, C. McCabe, A. Gil-Villegas, J. Chem. Phys. 126 (2007) 074707]. The model is applied to ethane, ethylene, propane, and carbon dioxide adsorbed on activated carbon and silica gel, which are porous media of significant industrial interest. We show that the adsorption isotherms obtained by means of the present SAFT-VR modeling are in fair agreement with the experimental results provided in the literature

Castro, M; Martinez, A; Rosu, H C; 10.1016/j.physa.2010.04.028

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 5 figs.

Gaddy, J.L.

1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

197

Radiolytic and radiolytically induced generation of gases in simulated waste solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The radiolytic generation of gases in simulated mixed waste solutions was studied. Computer modeling of the non-homogeneous kinetic processes in these highly concentrated homogeneous solutions was attempted. The predictions of the modeling simulations were verified experimentally. Two sources for the radiolytic generation of H{sub 2} are identified: direct dissociation of highly energetic water molecules and hydrogen abstraction from the organic molecules by hydrogen atoms. Computer simulation of the homogeneous kinetics of the NO{sub X} system indicate that no N{sub 2}O will be produced in the absence of organic solutes and none was experimentally detected. It was also found that long term pre-irradiation of the simulated waste solutions leads to enhanced thermal production of these two gases. 22 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Meisel, D.; Sauer, M.C. Jr.; Jonah, C.D.; Diamond, H.; Matheson, M.S.; Barnabas, F.; Cerny, E.; Cheng, Y.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

198

Radiolytic and radiolytically induced generation of gases in simulated waste solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The radiolytic generation of gases in simulated mixed waste solutions was studied. Computer modeling of the non-homogeneous kinetic processes in these highly concentrated homogeneous solutions was attempted. The predictions of the modeling simulations were verified experimentally. Two sources for the radiolytic generation of H{sub 2} are identified: direct dissociation of highly energetic water molecules and hydrogen abstraction from the organic molecules by hydrogen atoms. Computer simulation of the homogeneous kinetics of the NO{sub X} system indicate that no N{sub 2}O will be produced in the absence of organic solutes and none was experimentally detected. It was also found that long term pre-irradiation of the simulated waste solutions leads to enhanced thermal production of these two gases. 22 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Meisel, D.; Sauer, M.C. Jr.; Jonah, C.D.; Diamond, H.; Matheson, M.S.; Barnabas, F.; Cerny, E.; Cheng, Y.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Plasmon mass and Drude weight in strongly spin-orbit-coupled two-dimensional electron gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) spin- orbit-coupled 2D electron and hole gases, which are promising candidates for semiconductor spintronics,1 (ii) graphene2 (a monolayer of carbon atoms arranged in a 2D honeycomb lattice), which has attracted a great deal of interest because..., in the case of graphene) degree of freedom. This coupling, being of relativistic origin,12 naturally breaks Galilean invariance and is thus the basic reason for a quite sensitive dependence of several observables on electron-electron interactions, even...

Agarwal, Amit; Chesi, Stefano; Jungwirth, T.; Sinova, Jairo; Vignale, G.; Polini, Marco.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydrocar bon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Changes in atmospheric gases during isobaric storage of beef packaged pre- and post-rigor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

displacement measurements of the head- space volume were conducted during two weeks of storage. Males of the headspace gases were calculated using the general gas law (PU = nRT). Carbon dioxide absorption by the meat was greatest in steaks stored in 100% C... OF FIGURES INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REV IELV Microbiol ogical Aspects of Packaging Meat Shelf-Life of Packaged Meat Respiration . Carbon Dioxide Absorption OBJECTIVES EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Description of Meat Samples . Molar...

Hoermann, Karen Lee

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Evolution and stability of shock waves in dissipative gases characterized by activated inelastic collisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Previous experiments have revealed that shock waves driven through dissipative gases may become unstable, for example, in granular gases, and in molecular gases undergoing strong relaxation effects. The mechanisms controlling these instabilities are not well understood. We successfully isolated and investigated this instability in the canonical problem of piston driven shock waves propagating into a medium characterized by inelastic collision processes. We treat the standard model of granular gases, where particle collisions are taken as inelastic with constant coefficient of restitution. The inelasticity is activated for sufficiently strong collisions. Molecular dynamic simulations were performed for 30,000 particles. We find that all shock waves investigated become unstable, with density non-uniformities forming in the relaxation region. The wavelength of these fingers is found comparable to the characteristic relaxation thickness. Shock Hugoniot curves for both elastic and inelastic collisions were obtained analytically and numerically. Analysis of these curves indicate that the instability is not of the Bethe-Zeldovich-Thompson or Dyakov-Kontorovich types. Analysis of the shock relaxation rates and rates for clustering in a convected fluid element with the same thermodynamic history outruled the clustering instability of a homogeneous granular gas. Instead, wave reconstruction of the early transient evolution indicates that the onset of instability occurs during the re-pressurization of the gas following the initial relaxation of the medium behind the lead shock. This re-pressurization gives rise to internal pressure waves in the presence of strong density gradients. This indicates that the mechanism of instability is more likely of the vorticity-generating Richtmyer-Meshkov type, relying on the action of the inner pressure waves development during the transient relaxation.

Nick Sirmas; Matei I. Radulescu

2015-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

203

The origin of hydrothermal and other gases in the Kenya Rift Valley  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Kenya Rift Valley (KRV) is part of a major continental rift system from which much outgassing is presently occurring. Previous research on gases in the KRV has tended to concentrate on their geothermal implications; the present paper is an attempt to broaden the interpretation by consideration of new data including helium and carbon isotope analyses from a wide cross-section of sites. In order to do this, gases have been divided into categories dependent on origin. N{sub 2} and noble gases are for the most part atmospherically derived, although their relative concentrations may be altered from ASW ratios by various physical processes. Reduced carbon (CH{sub 4} and homologues) appears to be exclusively derived from the shallow crust, with thermogenic {delta}{sup 13}C values averaging -25{per_thousand} PDB for CH{sub 4}. H{sub 2} is likely also to be crustally formed. CO{sub 2}, generally a dominant constituent, has a narrow {delta}{sup 13}C range averaging -3.7{per_thousand} PDB, and is likely to be derived with little modification from the upper mantle. Consideration of the ratio C/{sup 3}He supports this view in most cases. Sulphur probably also originates there. Ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He reach a MORB-like maximum of 8.0 R/R{sub A} and provide the best indication of an upper mantle source of gases beneath the KRV. A correlation between {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He and the hydrocarbon parameter log (C{sub 1}/{Sigma}C{sub 2-4}) appears to be primarily temperature related. The highest {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios in spring waters are associated with basalts, perhaps because of the leaching of basalt glasses. There may be a structural control on {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios in the KRV as a whole.

Darling, W.G. [British Geological Survey, Wallingford (United Kingdom)] [British Geological Survey, Wallingford (United Kingdom); Griesshaber, E. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany)] [Max-Planck Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany); Andrews, J.N. [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom)] [and others] [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); and others

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Trace water vapor determination in nitrogen and corrosive gases using infrared spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The generation of particles in gas handling systems as a result of corrosion is a major concern in the microelectronics industry. The corrosion can be caused by the presence of trace quantities of water in corrosive gases such as HCl or HBr. FTIR spectroscopy has been shown to be a method that can be made compatible with corrosive gases and is capable of detecting low ppb levels of water vapor. In this report, the application of FTIR spectroscopy combined with classical least squares multivariate calibration to detect trace H{sub 2}O in N{sub 2}, HCl and HBr is discussed. Chapter 2 discusses the gas handling system and instrumentation required to handle corrosive gases. A method of generating a background spectrum useful to the measurements discussed in this report, as well as in other application areas such as gas phase environmental monitoring, is discussed in Chapter 3. Experimental results obtained with the first system are presented in Chapter 4. Those results made it possible to optimize the design options for the construction of a dedicate system for low ppb water vapor determination. These designs options are discussed in Chapter 5. An FTIR prototype accessory was built. In addition, a commercially available evacuable FTIR system was obtained for evaluation. Test results obtained with both systems are discussed in Chapter 6. Experiments dealing with the interaction between H{sub 2}O-HCl and potential improvements to the detection system are discussed in Chapter 7.

Espinoza, L.H.; Niemczyk, T.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Stallard, B.R.; Garcia, M.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Strongly Correlated Quantum Fluids: Ultracold Quantum Gases, Quantum Chromodynamic Plasmas, and Holographic Duality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Strongly correlated quantum fluids are phases of matter that are intrinsically quantum mechanical, and that do not have a simple description in terms of weakly interacting quasi-particles. Two systems that have recently attracted a great deal of interest are the quark-gluon plasma, a plasma of strongly interacting quarks and gluons produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions, and ultracold atomic Fermi gases, very dilute clouds of atomic gases confined in optical or magnetic traps. These systems differ by more than 20 orders of magnitude in temperature, but they were shown to exhibit very similar hydrodynamic flow. In particular, both fluids exhibit a robustly low shear viscosity to entropy density ratio which is characteristic of quantum fluids described by holographic duality, a mapping from strongly correlated quantum field theories to weakly curved higher dimensional classical gravity. This review explores the connection between these fields, and it also serves as an introduction to the Focus Issue of New Journal of Physics on Strongly Correlated Quantum Fluids: from Ultracold Quantum Gases to QCD Plasmas. The presentation is made accessible to the general physics reader and includes discussions of the latest research developments in all three areas.

Allan Adams; Lincoln D. Carr; Thomas Schaefer; Peter Steinberg; John E. Thomas

2012-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

206

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1987--1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1992, with annual updates thereafter. This is the third annual update report,covering national emissions over the period 1987--1993, with preliminary estimates of US carbon dioxide and halocarbon emissions for 1994. Calculating national aggregate emissions(or ``national inventories``) of greenhouse gases is a recently developed form of intellectual endeavor. Greenhouse gas emissions are rarely measured directly or reported to statistical agencies. Thus, to prepare emissions inventories usually requires inferring emissions indirectly from information collected for other purposes. Both the available information and the inferences drawn may be of varying reliability. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapters 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes.

NONE

1995-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

207

ENVIRON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN ROMANIA--ESTROM PROJECT Sources and emission of greenhouse gases in Danube  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gases in Danube Delta lakes Alina Pavel & Edith Durisch-Kaiser & Sorin Balan & Silviu Radan & Sebastian. Radan GeoEcoMar, National Institute for Marine Geology and Geoecology, 024053 Bucharest, Romania E

Wehrli, Bernhard

208

PII S0016-7037(01)00802-X Volatilization kinetics of silicon carbide in reducing gases: An experimental study with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PII S0016-7037(01)00802-X Volatilization kinetics of silicon carbide in reducing gases occurring hexagonal sili- con carbide ( -SiC), and -SiC, the cubic form, are occasion- ally reported

Grossman, Lawrence

209

High-Pressure Phase Equilibria of Ionic Liquids and Compressed Gases for Applications in Reactions and Absorption Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of high-melting solids not liquids at processing conditions. Coupling ionic liquids with compressed gases systems may overcome most of these difficulties for their applications in separations, reactions, materials processing and engineering applications...

Ren, Wei

2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

210

An analytical inversion method for determining regional and global emissions of greenhouse gases: Sensitivity studies and application to halocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new analytical inversion method has been developed to determine the regional and global emissions of long-lived atmospheric trace gases. It exploits in situ measurement data from three global networks and builds on ...

Stohl, A.

211

The Marginal Damage Costs of Different Greenhouse Gases: An Application of FUND  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We use FUND 3.8 to estimate the social cost of four greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and sulphur hexafluoride emissions. The damage potential for each gas—the ratio of the social cost of the non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas to the social cost of carbon dioxide—is also estimated. The damage potentials are compared to several metrics, focusing in particular on the global warming potentials, which are frequently used to measure the trade-off between gases in the form of carbon dioxide equivalents. We find that damage potentials could be significantly higher than global warming potentials. This finding implies that previous papers have underestimated the relative importance of reducing non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions from an economic damage perspective. We show results for a range of sensitivity analyses: carbon dioxide fertilization on agriculture productivity, terrestrial feedbacks, climate sensitivity, discounting, equity weighting, and socioeconomic and emissions scenarios. The sensitivity of the results to carbon dioxide fertilization is a primary focus as it is an important element of climate change that has not been considered in much of the previous literature. We estimate that carbon dioxide fertilization has a large positive impact that reduces the social cost of carbon dioxide with a much smaller effect on the other greenhouse gases. As a result, our estimates of the damage potentials of methane and nitrous oxide are much higher compared to estimates that ignore carbon dioxide fertilization. As a result, our base estimates of the damage potential for methane and nitrous oxide that include carbon dioxide fertilization are twice their respective global warming potentials. Our base estimate of the damage potential of sulphur hexafluoride is similar to the one previous estimate, both almost three times the global warming potential.

Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Anthoff, David; Rose, Steven K.; Tol, Richard

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Modelling of noble anaesthetic gases and high hydrostatic pressure effects in lipid bilayers  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Our objective was to study molecular processes that might be responsible for inert gas narcosis and high-pressure nervous syndrome. The classical molecular dynamics trajectories (200 ns-long) of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayers simulated by the Berger force field were evaluated for water and the atomic distribution of noble gases around DOPC molecules at a pressure range of 1 - 1000 bar and temperature of 310 Kelvin. Xenon and argon have been tested as model gases for general anesthetics, and neon has been investigated for distortions that are potentially responsible for neurological tremor at hyperbaric conditions. The analysis of stacked radial pair distribution functions of DOPC headgroup atoms revealed the explicit solvation potential of gas molecules, which correlates with their dimensions. The orientational dynamics of water molecules at the biomolecular interface should be considered as an influential factor; while excessive solvation effects appearing in the lumen of membrane-embedded ion channels could be a possible cause of inert gas narcosis. All the noble gases tested exhibit similar patterns of the order parameter for both DOPC acyl chains, which is opposite to the patterns found for the order parameter curve at high hydrostatic pressures in intact bilayers. This finding supports the ‘critical volume’ hypothesis of anesthesia pressure reversal. The irregular lipid headgroup-water boundary observed in DOPC bilayers saturated with neon in the pressure range of 1 - 100 bar could be associated with the possible manifestation of neurological tremor at the atomic scale. The non-immobilizer neon also demonstrated the highest momentum impact on the normal component of the DOPC diffusion coefficient representing monolayers undulations rate, which indicates enhanced diffusivity, rather than atom size, as the key factor.

Moskovitz, Yevgeny [Middle Tennessee State University; Yang, Hui [Middle Tennessee State University

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Sequestration of noble gases by H3+ in protoplanetary disks and outer solar system composition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the efficiency of the noble gases sequestration by the ion H3+ in the form of XH3+ complexes (with X = argon, krypton or xenon) in gas phase conditions similar to those encountered during the cooling of protoplanetary disks, at the epoch of icy planetesimals formation. We show that XH3+ complexes form very stable structures in the gas phase and that their binding energies are much higher than those involved in the structures of X-H2O hydrates or pure X-X condensates. This implies that, in presence of H3+ ions, argon, krypton or xenon are likely to remain sequestrated in the form of XH3+ complexes embedded in the gas phase rather than forming ices during the cooling of protoplanetary disks. The amount of the deficiency depends on how much H3+ is available and efficient in capturing noble gases. In the dense gas of the mid-plane of solar nebula, H3+ is formed by the ionization of H2 from energetic particles, as those in cosmic rays or those ejected by the young Sun. Even using the largest estimate of the cosmic rays ionization rate, we compute that the H3+ abundance is two and three orders of magnitude lower than the xenon and krypton abundance, respectively. Estimating the ionization induced by the young Sun, on the other hand, is very uncertain but leaves the possibility to have enough H3+ to make krypton and xenon trapping efficent. Finally, additional source of H3+ formation may be provided by the presence of a nearby supernova, as discussed in the literature. Recent solar system observations show a deficiency of Ar, and, even more, of Kr and Xe in Titan and in comets. In this article, we consider the possibility that this deficiency is caused by the afore-mentioned process, namely trapping of those noble gases by H3+ ions in the solar nebula.

Olivier Mousis; Francoise Pauzat; Yves Ellinger; Cecilia Ceccarelli

2007-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

214

Separation of rare gases and chiral molecules by selective binding in porous organic cages  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract: The rare gases krypton, xenon, and radon pose both an economic opportunity and a potential environmental hazard. Xenon is used in commercial lighting, medical imaging, and anesthesia, and can sell for $5,000 per kilogram. Radon, by contrast, Is naturally radioactive and the second largest cause of lung cancer, and radioactive xenon, 133Xe, was a major pollutant released In the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster. We describe an organic cage molecule that can capture xenon and radon with unprecedented selectivity, suggesting new technologies for environmental monitoring, removal of pollutants, or the recovery of rare, valuable elements from air.

Chen, Linjiang; Reiss, Paul S.; Chong, Samantha Y.; Holden, Daniel; Jelfs, Kim E.; Hasell, Tom; Little, Marc A.; Kewley, Adam; Briggs, Michael E.; Stephenson, Andrew; Thomas, K. M.; Armstrong, Jayne A.; Bell, Jon; Busto, Jose; Noel, Raymond; Liu, Jian; Strachan, Denis M.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Cooper, Andrew I.

2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

215

Steam Production from Waste Stack Gases in a Carbon Black Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

superheated steam - G25 PSIG and 750 0 F. This steam is out into a steam header that serves Conoco plants in' t~e Lake Charles, Louisiana area. Combustion of the \\?taste gases to produce steam has t\\~O very important rewards -ener~y conservation.... This steam project has provided substantial ener~y conservation for the carbon black plant because the energy can be subtracted from the total ener~y used by the plant in determining the energy to produce carbon black. Oescription of the equipment used...

Istre, R. I.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Final report No. 33  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

1992-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

217

Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

Nolan, Paul S. (North Canton, OH); Downs, William (Alliance, OH); Bailey, Ralph T. (Uniontown, OH); Vecci, Stanley J. (Alliance, OH)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Overview of the Flammability of Gases Generated in Hanford Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents an overview of what is known about the flammability of the gases generated and retained in Hanford waste tanks in terms of the gas composition, the flammability and detonability limits of the gas constituents, and the availability of ignition sources. The intrinsic flammability (or nonflammability) of waste gas mixtures is one major determinant of whether a flammable region develops in the tank headspace; other factors are the rate, surface area, volume of the release, and the tank ventilation rate, which are not covered in this report.

LA Mahoney; JL Huckaby; SA Bryan; GD Johnson

2000-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

219

Overview of the Flammability of Gases Generated in Hanford Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents an overview of what is known about the flammability of the gases generated and retained in Hanford waste tanks in terms of the gas composition, flammability and detonability limits of the gas constituents, and availability of ignition sources. The intrinsic flammability (or non-flammability) of waste gas mixtures is one major determinant of whether a flammable region develops in the tank headspace; other factors are the rate, surface area, and volume of the release and the tank ventilation rate, which are not covered in this report.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Huckaby, James L.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Johnson, Gerald D.

2000-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

220

Pressurized release of liquefied fuel gases (LNG and LPG). Topical report, May 1993-February 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is an important contribution to the behavior of pressurized liquefied gases when accidentally released into the atmosphere. LNG vehicle fueling stations and LPG storage facilities operate at elevated pressures. Accidental releases could result in rainout and the formation of an aerosol in the vapor cloud. These factors must be considered when estimating the extent of the hazard zone of the vapor cloud using a heavier-than-air gas dispersion model such as DEGADIS (or its Windows equivalent DEGATEC). The DOS program PREL has been incorporated in the Windows program LFGRISK.

Atallah, S.; Janardhan, A.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydrocar bon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Critical behavior of two freely evolving granular gases separated by an adiabatic piston  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two granular gases separated by an adiabatic piston and initially in the same macroscopic state are considered. It is found that a phase transition with an spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs. When the mass of the piston is increased beyond a critical value, the piston moves to a stationary position different from the middle of the system. The transition is accurately described by a simple kinetic model that takes into account the velocity fluctuations of the piston. Interestingly, the final state is not characterized by the equality of the temperatures of the subsystems but by the cooling rates being the same. Some relevant consequences of this feature are discussed.

J. Javier Brey; Nagi Khalil

2010-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

222

Coherent spin mixing dynamics in thermal $^{87}$Rb spin-1 and spin-2 gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the non-equilibrium coherent spin mixing dynamics in ferromagnetic spin-1 and antiferromagnetic spin-2 thermal gases of ultracold $^{87}$Rb atoms. Long lasting spin population oscillations with magnetic field dependent resonances are observed in both cases. Our observations are well reproduced by Boltzmann equations of the Wigner distribution function. Compared to the equation of motion of spinor Bose-Einstein condensates, the only difference here is a factor of two increase in the spin-dependent interaction, which is confirmed directly in the spin-2 case by measuring the relation between the oscillation amplitude and the sample's density.

He, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaoke; Wang, Fudong; Xu, Zhifang; Wang, Dajun

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Effective super Tonks-Girardeau gases as ground states of strongly attractive multicomponent fermions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the strong interaction limit, attractive fermions with N-component hyperfine states in a one-dimensional waveguide form unbreakable bound cluster states. We demonstrate that the ground state of strongly attractive SU(N) Fermi gases can be effectively described by a super Tonks-Girardeau gaslike state composed of bosonic cluster states with strongly attractive cluster-cluster interaction for even N and a Fermi duality of a super Tonks-Girardeau gaslike state composed of fermionic cluster states with weakly interacting cluster-cluster p-wave interaction for odd N.

Yin Xiangguo; Chen Shu [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Guan Xiwen [Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Batchelor, M. T. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Mathematical Sciences Institute, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

224

The second virial coefficient of the major atmospheric gases at low temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

scale oxygen plants. The design of these plants, if they are to be efficient and economical, requires accurate thermodynamic data on the atmospher1c gases. None of the thermodynamic diagrams from the literature (8, 20, 28, 41, 44 )+ for any... that encounters between molecules are rare, the only forces acting on the molecules are those of the retaining vessel. The behavior of a gas under such conditions 's expressed oy the ideal gas law, PV = RT where P is pressure, V is volume, R is the universal...

Claitor, Lilburn Carroll

1948-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

2006-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

226

B. B. G. K. Y. Hierarchy Methods for Sums of Lyapunov Exponents for Dilute Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider a general method for computing the sum of positive Lyapunov exponents for moderately dense gases. This method is based upon hierarchy techniques used previously to derive the generalized Boltzmann equation for the time dependent spatial and velocity distribution functions for such systems. We extend the variables in the generalized Boltzmann equation to include a new set of quantities that describe the separation of trajectories in phase space needed for a calculation of the Lyapunov exponents. The method described here is especially suitable for calculating the sum of all of the positive Lyapunov exponents for the system, and may be applied to equilibrium as well as non-equilibrium situations. For low densities we obtain an extended Boltzmann equation, from which, under a simplifying approximation, we recover the sum of positive Lyapunov exponents for hard disk and hard sphere systems, obtained before by a simpler method. In addition we indicate how to improve these results by avoiding the simplifying approximation. The restriction to hard sphere systems in $d$-dimensions is made to keep the somewhat complicated formalism as clear as possible, but the method can be easily generalized to apply to gases of particles that interact with strong short range forces.

J. R. Dorfman; Arnulf Latz; Henk van Beijeren

1998-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

227

JV Task 125-Mercury Measurement in Combustion Flue Gases Short Course  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The short course, designed to train personnel who have an interest in measuring mercury in combustion flue gases, was held twice at the Drury Inn in Marion, Illinois. The short course helped to provide attendees with the knowledge necessary to avoid the many pitfalls that can and do occur when measuring mercury in combustion flue gases. The first short course, May 5-8, 2008, included both a classroom-type session and hands-on demonstration of mercury-sampling equipment. The hands-on demonstration of equipment was staged at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative. Not including the Illinois Clean Coal Institute and the U.S. Department of Energy project managers, there were 12 attendees. The second short course was conducted September 16-17, 2008, but only included the classroom portion of the course; 14 people attended. In both cases, lectures were provided on the various mercury measurement methods, and interaction between attendees and EERC research personnel to discuss specific mercury measurement problems was promoted. Overall, the response to the course was excellent.

Dennis Laudal

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

228

Particulate removal from high-temperature, high-pressure combustion gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The adoption by utilities of coal-fired pressurized fluidized-bed/combined cycle combustion systems for electric power generation depends to a large extent on the development of an efficient and economic cleanup system for the high-temperature, high-pressure combustion gases. For adequate turbine protection, these gases must be sufficiently cleaned to bring particulate erosion and alkali vapor corrosion to a level acceptable to gas turbine manufacturers. At the same time, the total particulate content of the flue gas must be reduced to the limit set by the Environmental Protection Agency. To accomplish particulate removal from a dust-laden gas stream, a number of separation devices have been developed. These include conventional and augmented cyclones; porous metal, fiber, fabric, and ceramic filters, as well as fixed, moving, and fluidized-bed granular filters; and electrostatic precipitators. Several other novel separation devices have been proposed and developed to different degrees such as: contactors using molten salt, metal, or glass, dry scrubbers, acoustic agglomerators, as well as cyclones and granular-bed filters with external electrostatic or magnetic fields. Some of these separation devices in various combinations have been tested in process development units or in hot gas simulators by ANL, CPC, CURL, C-W, Exxon, GE, Westinghouse, etc. The results are discussed and evaluated for PFBC applications.

Henry, R.F.; Saxena, S.C.; Podolski, W.F.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Sequestration of noble gases by H3+ in protoplanetary disks and outer solar system composition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the efficiency of the noble gases sequestration by the ion H3+ in the form of XH3+ complexes (with X = argon, krypton or xenon) in gas phase conditions similar to those encountered during the cooling of protoplanetary disks, at the epoch of icy planetesimals formation. We show that XH3+ complexes form very stable structures in the gas phase and that their binding energies are much higher than those involved in the structures of X-H2O hydrates or pure X-X condensates. This implies that, in presence of H3+ ions, argon, krypton or xenon are likely to remain sequestrated in the form of XH3+ complexes embedded in the gas phase rather than forming ices during the cooling of protoplanetary disks. The amount of the deficiency depends on how much H3+ is available and efficient in capturing noble gases. In the dense gas of the mid-plane of solar nebula, H3+ is formed by the ionization of H2 from energetic particles, as those in cosmic rays or those ejected by the young Sun. Even using the largest estimate of t...

Mousis, Olivier; Ellinger, Yves; Ceccarelli, Cecilia

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Radiolytic and radiolytically induced generation of gases from synthetic wastes. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To better understand the processes leading to the generation and release of gases from waste tanks, the authors studied the radiolytic and thermal generation of H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and NH{sub 3} in nonradioactive waste simulant solutions and slurries. The radiolytic sources for H{sub 2} are e{sub aq}{sup {minus}} and its predecessors and H atoms. Radiolysis of the water generates some H{sub 2} and an additional amount comes from the hydrogen abstraction reaction H + RH{yields}H{sub 2}+R{center_dot}. Nitrate scavenges e{sub aq}{sup {minus}} and its predecessors whereas nitrite is the major H-atom scavenger. Computer modeling shows that if [NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}] is above 0.5 M, and [NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}] is above 2M, the addition of other scavengers will have little effect on the yield of H{sub 2}. In the presence of organic molecules O{sub 2} is efficiently destroyed. Small yields of ammonia were measured and the yields increase linearly with dose. The nitrogen in NH{sub 3} comes from organic chelators. The yields of gases in solution depend only weakly on temperature. The rate of thermal generation of gases increases upon preirradiation, reaches a maximum, and then declines. The known radiolytic degradation products of chelators, NTA, IDA, glycolate, glyoxylate, formaldehyde, formate, oxalate, and hydroxylainine were examined for their roles in the thermal generation of H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O at 60{degrees}C. In solution or slurry only radiolytically produced Pd intermediate strongly retains H{sub 2}. Radiolytic yields of N{sub 2}O are strongly reduced by Cr(III). In irradiated slurry, loose and tight gas were found. The loose gas could be removed by bubbling from the slurry, but the tight gas could be released only by dissolution of the slurry.

Meisel, D.; Jonah, C.D.; Kapoor, S.; Matheson, M.S.; Sauer, M.C. Jr.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 2: Appendixes A--S  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume contains the appendices to the report on Emission of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity. Emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, and other greenhouse gases are discussed. Sources of emission including vehicles, natural gas operations, oil production, coal mines, and power plants are covered. The various energy industries are examined in terms of greenhouse gas production and emissions. Those industries include electricity generation, transport of goods via trains, trucks, ships and pipelines, coal, natural gas and natural gas liquids, petroleum, nuclear energy, and biofuels.

DeLuchi, M.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Quantum criticality and universal scaling of strongly attractive spin-imbalanced Fermi gases in a one-dimensional harmonic trap  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate quantum criticality and universal scaling of strongly attractive Fermi gases confined in a one-dimensional harmonic trap. We demonstrate from the power-law scaling of the thermodynamic properties that current experiments on this system are capable of measuring universal features at quantum criticality, such as universal scaling and Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid physics. The results also provide insights on recent measurements of key features of the phase diagram of a spin-imbalanced atomic Fermi gas [Y. Liao et al., Nature (London) 467, 567 (2010)] and point to further study of quantum critical phenomena in ultracold atomic Fermi gases.

Yin Xiangguo; Chen Shu [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Guan Xiwen [Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Batchelor, Murray T. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Mathematical Sciences Institute, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

233

Recent Progress in the Research on Ion and Electron Transport in Gases at Swarm Energies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper deals with the presentation and discussion of recent research on the transport of electrons and ions in gases at low energies. Particular emphasis is placed on electron swarm experiments related with the negative differential conductivity of electrons in some gas mixtures, and with secondary ionisation processes due to the impact of metastables with neutrals (Penning ionisation). Ion transport is firstly addressed through some recent measurements on atomic and molecular systems for which both theory and experiment have reached a high degree of agreement, and also on those in which the ranges of the density-normalized electric field intensity E/N have been increased substantiality. Also, the recent advances on the application of transport theories dealing with inelastic collisions are presented, as well as some recent measurements of negative ions and charged clusters in gaseous mixtures, leading to the successful test of Blanc's law at low fields, to the experimental mobilities.

Urquijo, Jaime de [Centro de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, P.O. Box 48-3, 62251, Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico)

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Emission factors for particles, elemental carbon, and trace gases from the Kuwait oil fires  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emission factors are presented for particles, elemental carbon (i.e., soot), total organic carbon in particles and vapor, and for various trace gases from the 1991 Kuwait oil fires. Particle emissions accounted for {approximately} 2% of the fuel burned. In general, soot emission factors were substantially lower than those used in recent {open_quotes}nuclear winter{close_quotes} calculations. Differences in the emissions and appearances of some of the individual fires are discussed. Carbon budget data for the composite plumes from the Kuwait fires are summarized; most of the burned carbon in the plumes was in the form of CO{sub 2}. Fluxes are presented for several combustion products. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Laursen, K.K.; Ferek, R.J.; Hobbs, P.V. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rasmussen, R.A. [Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Beaverton, OR (United States)

1992-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

235

Statistical mechanics of Coulomb gases as quantum theory on Riemann surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Statistical mechanics of a 1D multivalent Coulomb gas can be mapped onto non-Hermitian quantum mechanics. We use this example to develop the instanton calculus on Riemann surfaces. Borrowing from the formalism developed in the context of the Seiberg-Witten duality, we treat momentum and coordinate as complex variables. Constant-energy manifolds are given by Riemann surfaces of genus g {>=} 1. The actions along principal cycles on these surfaces obey the ordinary differential equation in the moduli space of the Riemann surface known as the Picard-Fuchs equation. We derive and solve the Picard-Fuchs equations for Coulomb gases of various charge content. Analysis of monodromies of these solutions around their singular points yields semiclassical spectra as well as instanton effects such as the Bloch bandwidth. Both are shown to be in perfect agreement with numerical simulations.

Gulden, T.; Janas, M.; Koroteev, P.; Kamenev, A., E-mail: kamenev@physics.umn.edu [University of Minnesota, Department of Physics (United States)

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

236

Atom chip apparatus for experiments with ultracold rubidium and potassium gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a dual chamber atom chip apparatus for generating ultracold {sup 87}Rb and {sup 39}K atomic gases. The apparatus produces quasi-pure Bose-Einstein condensates of 10{sup 4} {sup 87}Rb atoms in an atom chip trap that features a dimple and good optical access. We have also demonstrated production of ultracold {sup 39}K and subsequent loading into the chip trap. We describe the details of the dual chamber vacuum system, the cooling lasers, the magnetic trap, the multicoil magnetic transport system, the atom chip, and two optical dipole traps. Due in part to the use of light-induced atom desorption, the laser cooling chamber features a sufficiently good vacuum to also support optical dipole trap-based experiments. The apparatus is well suited for studies of atom-surface forces, quantum pumping and transport experiments, atom interferometry, novel chip-based traps, and studies of one-dimensional many-body systems.

Ivory, M. K.; Ziltz, A. R.; Fancher, C. T.; Pyle, A. J.; Sensharma, A.; Chase, B.; Field, J. P.; Garcia, A.; Aubin, S., E-mail: saaubi@wm.edu [Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187 (United States); Jervis, D. [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7 (Canada)] [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7 (Canada)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

237

Method for determining the concentration of atomic species in gases and solids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method for determining the concentration of atomic species in gases and solids. Measurement of at least two emission intensities from a species in a sample that is excited by incident laser radiation. Which generates a plasma therein after a sufficient time period has elapsed and during a second time period, permits an instantaneous temperature to be established within the sample. The concentration of the atomic species to be determined is then derived from the known emission intensity of a predetermined concentration of that species in the sample at the measured temperature, a quantity which is measured prior to the determination of the unknown concentration, and the actual measured emission from the unknown species, or by this latter emission and the emission intensity of a species having known concentration within the sample such as nitrogen for gaseous air samples.

Loge, Gary W. (304 Cheryl Ave., Los Alamos, NM 87544)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Method for determining the concentration of atomic species in gases and solids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method for determining the concentration of atomic species in gases and solids. Measurement of at least two emission intensities from a species in a plasma containing the species after a sufficient time period has elapsed after the generation of the plasma and during a second time period, permits an instantaneous temperature to be established within the sample. The concentration of the atomic species to be determined is then derived from the known emission intensity of a predetermined concentration of that species in the sample at the measured temperature, a quantity which is measured prior to the determination of the unknown concentration, and the actual measured emission from the unknown species, or by this latter emission and the emission intensity of a species having known concentration within the sample.

Loge, Gary W. (2998 Plaza Blanca, Santa Fe, NM 87505)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Method for determining the concentration of atomic species in gases and solids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method is described for determining the concentration of atomic species in gases and solids. The method involves measurement of at least two emission intensities from a species in a sample that is excited by incident laser radiation. This generates a plasma therein after a sufficient time period has elapsed and during a second time period, permits an instantaneous temperature to be established within the sample. The concentration of the atomic species to be determined is then derived from the known emission intensity of a predetermined concentration of that species in the sample at the measured temperature, a quantity which is measured prior to the determination of the unknown concentration, and the actual measured emission from the unknown species, or by this latter emission and the emission intensity of a species having known concentration within the sample such as nitrogen for gaseous air samples. 4 figs.

Loge, G.W.

1998-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

240

On a non approximated approach to Extended Thermodynamics for dense gases and macromolecular fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recently the 14 moments model of Extended Thermodynamics for dense gases and macromolecular fluids has been considered and an exact solution, of the restrictions imposed by the entropy principle and that of Galilean relativity, has been obtained through a non relativistic limit. Here we prove uniqueness of the above solution and exploit other pertinent conditions such us the convexity of the function $h'$ related to the entropy density, the problem of subsystems and the fact that the flux in the conservation law of mass must be the moment of order 1 in the conservation law of momentum. Also the solution of this last condition is here obtained without using expansions around equilibrium. The results present interesting aspects which were not suspected when only approximated solutions of this problem were known.

M. C. Carrisi; M. A. Mele; S. Pennisi

2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydrocar bon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Electrochemical separation and concentration of sulfur containing gases from gas mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of removing sulfur oxides of H.sub.2 S from high temperature gas mixtures (150.degree.-1000.degree. C.) is the subject of the present invention. An electrochemical cell is employed. The cell is provided with inert electrodes and an electrolyte which will provide anions compatible with the sulfur containing anions formed at the anode. The electrolyte is also selected to provide inert stable cations at the temperatures encountered. The gas mixture is passed by the cathode where the sulfur gases are converted to SO.sub.4.sup.= or, in the case of H.sub.2 S, to S.sup.=. The anions migrate to the anode where they are converted to a stable gaseous form at much greater concentration levels (>10X). Current flow may be effected by utilizing an external source of electrical energy or by passing a reducing gas such as hydrogen past the anode.

Winnick, Jack (3805 Woodrail-on-the-Green, Columbia, MO 65201)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

New equation calculates thermal conductivities of C[sub 1]-C[sub 4] gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the design of heat exchangers, heat-transfer coefficients are commonly calculated for individual items. These calculations require knowledge of the thermal conductivities of the species involved. The calculation require knowledge of the thermal conductivities of the species involved. The calculation of the overall heat-transfer coefficient for a heat exchanger also requires thermal conductivity data for the individual species. In fact, thermal conductivity is the fundamental property involved in heat transfer. Ordinarily, thermal conductivities are either measured experimentally or estimated using complex correlations and models. Engineers must search existing literature for the values needed. Here, a compilation of thermal conductivity data for gases is presented for a wide temperature range. Using these data with the accompanying equation will enable engineers to quickly determine values at the desired temperatures. The results are provided in an easy-to-use tabular format, which is especially helpful for rapid calculations using a personal computer or hand-held calculator.

Yaws, C.L.; Lin, X.; Bu, L.; Nijhawan, S. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States))

1994-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

243

An Accelerated Multiboson Algorithm for Coulomb Gases with Dynamical Dielectric Effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A recent reformulation [1] of the problem of Coulomb gases in the presence of a dynamical dielectric medium showed that finite temperature simulations of such systems can be accomplished on the basis of completely local Hamiltonians on a spatial lattice by including additional bosonic fields. For large systems, the Monte Carlo algorithm proposed in Ref. [1] becomes inefficient due to a low acceptance rate for particle moves in a fixed background multiboson field. We show here how this problem can be circumvented by use of a coupled particle-multiboson update procedure that improves acceptance rates on large lattices by orders of magnitude. The method is tested on a one-component plasma with neutral dielectric particles for a variety of system sizes.

A. Duncan; R. D. Sedgewick

2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

244

Bose-Einstein Condensation of Gases in the Frame of Quantum Electrodynamics: Interconnection of Constituents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bose-Einstein condensate of rarified atomic gases is considered as the state formed by exchange of virtual photons, resonant to the lowest levels of atoms; such representation corresponds to the Einstein opinion about an inter-influence of condensable particles. Considered interactions directly lead to the QED structure of nonlinear potential in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Linear momenta that correspond to the thermal energy of condensable atoms are connected to near field of particles and therefore leave atoms immovable. The estimations of these effects do not contradict the observed data; the general quantum principles predict possibility of stimulating of BEC formation by resonant irradiation. All this requires the spectroscopic investigation of BEC on different steps of formation.

Mark E. Perel'man

2008-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

245

Uniform electron gases. II. The generalized local density approximation in one dimension  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We introduce a generalization (gLDA) of the traditional Local Density Approximation (LDA) within density functional theory. The gLDA uses both the one-electron Seitz radius r{sub s} and a two-electron hole curvature parameter ? at each point in space. The gLDA reduces to the LDA when applied to the infinite homogeneous electron gas but, unlike the LDA, it is also exact for finite uniform electron gases on spheres. We present an explicit gLDA functional for the correlation energy of electrons that are confined to a one-dimensional space and compare its accuracy with LDA, second- and third-order Mřller-Plesset perturbation energies, and exact calculations for a variety of inhomogeneous systems.

Loos, Pierre-François, E-mail: pf.loos@anu.edu.au; Ball, Caleb J.; Gill, Peter M. W., E-mail: peter.gill@anu.edu.au [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)] [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

246

Optical Kerr and Cotton-Mouton effects in atomic gases: a quantum-statistical study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Theory of the birefringence of the refractive index in atomic diamagnetic dilute gases in the presence of static electric (optical Kerr effect) and magnetic (Cotton-Mouton effect) fields is formulated. Quantum-statistical expressions for the second Kerr and Cotton-Mouton virial coefficients, valid both in the low and high temperature regimes, are derived. It is shown that both virial coefficients can rigorously be related to the difference of the fourth derivatives of the thermodynamic (pressure) virial coefficient with respect to the strength of the non-resonant optical fields with parallel and perpendicular polarizations and with respect to the external static (electric or magnetic) field. Semiclassical expansions of the Kerr and Cotton-Mouton coefficients are also considered, and quantum corrections up to and including the second order are derived. Calculations of the second Kerr and Cotton-Mouton virial coefficients of the helium-4 gas at various temperatures are reported. The role of the quantum-mechanic...

Skomorowski, Wojciech

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Clathrate hydrates as a sink of noble gases in Titan's atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use a statistical thermodynamic approach to determine the composition of clathrate hydrates which may form from a multiple compound gas whose composition is similar to that of Titan's atmosphere. Assuming that noble gases are initially present in this gas phase, we calculate the ratios of xenon, krypton and argon to species trapped in clathrate hydrates. We find that these ratios calculated for xenon and krypton are several orders of magnitude higher than in the coexisting gas at temperature and pressure conditions close to those of Titan's present atmosphere at ground level. Furthermore we show that, by contrast, argon is poorly trapped in these ices. This trapping mechanism implies that the gas-phase is progressively depleted in xenon and krypton when the coexisting clathrate hydrates form whereas the initial abundance of argon remains almost constant. Our results are thus compatible with the deficiency of Titan's atmosphere in xenon and krypton measured by the {\\it Huygens} probe during its descent on J...

Thomas, C; Ballenegger, V; Picaud, Sylvain

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

CONDENSATION/ADSORPTION AND EVACUATION OF RESIDUAL GASES IN THE SRF SYSTEM FOR THE CESR LUMINOSITY UPGRADE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cavity RBT transition HOM absorber FBT transition Nb waveguide Heat exchanger 270 l/s ion pump RF windowCONDENSATION/ADSORPTION AND EVACUATION OF RESIDUAL GASES IN THE SRF SYSTEM FOR THE CESR LUMINOSITY coupler performance in a superconducting RF system. It is there- fore important to understand condensation/adsorption

Geng, Rong-Li

249

Bose condensation of interacting gases in traps with and without optical lattice S. Chatterjee, A. E. Meyerovich  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bose condensation of interacting gases in traps with and without optical lattice S. Chatterjee, A compare effects of particle interaction on Bose condensation in inhomogeneous traps with and without optical lattice inside. Interaction pushes normal particles away from the condensate droplet, which

Meyerovich, Alex

250

Evidence for a mantle component shown by rare gases, C and N isotopes in polycrystalline diamonds from Orapa (Botswana)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evidence for a mantle component shown by rare gases, C and N isotopes in polycrystalline diamonds. Farley Abstract In an attempt to constrain the origin of polycrystalline diamond, combined analyses in the source of the polycrystalline diamonds from Orapa. The y13 C and y15 N isotopic values of Ŕ1.04 to Ŕ9.79x

Cartigny, Pierre

251

EVOLUTION OF TRACE GASES AND AEROSOLS IN THE MEXICO CITY POLLUTION OUTFLOW DURING A LONG RANGE TRANSPORT EVENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EVOLUTION OF TRACE GASES AND AEROSOLS IN THE MEXICO CITY POLLUTION OUTFLOW DURING A LONG RANGE, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT Significant chemical and physical processing of the Mexico City (MC) pollutants is expected to occur as they are advected downwind over a period of several hours to days

252

High- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure, high-velocity gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure and high-velocity gases comprises an oxidizable metal, an oxidizing reagent, and a high-temperature-stable gas-producing additive selected from the group consisting of metal carbides and metal nitrides.

Halcomb, Danny L. (Camden, OH); Mohler, Jonathan H. (Spring Valley, OH)

1990-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

253

A New Technique for Studying the Fano Factor And the Mean Energy Per Ion Pair in Counting Gases  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

A new method is presented for deriving the Fano factor and the mean energy per ion pair in the ultrasoft x-ray energy range. It is based on counting electrons deposited by a photon in a low-pressure gas, and is applicable for all counting gases. The energy dependence of these parameters for several hydrocarbons and gas mixtures is presented.

Pansky, A.; Breskin, A.; Chechik, R.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Atmospheric Chemistry, Carbon Cycle, and Climate (AC4): Observational Constraints on Sources and Sinks of Aerosols and Greenhouse Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and gas extraction can also inform future energy choices. In FY 2014, Atmospheric Chemistry, Carbon Cycle anthropogenic-biogenic emission intense regions 3. Deposition processes controlling atmospheric concentrations of aerosols and greenhouse gases Projects that quantify sources and sinks via new measurements and/or modeling

255

Carbon dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center: A for Atmospheric trace gases. Annual progress report, FY 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments made by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases during the fiscal year 1994. Topics discussed in this report include; organization and staff, user services, systems, communications, Collaborative efforts with China, networking, ocean data and activities of the World Data Center-A.

Burtis, M.D. [comp.] [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Jones, S.B.; Nelson, T.R.; Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Oil and gas exploration system and method for detecting trace amounts of hydrocarbon gases in the atmosphere  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oil and gas exploration system and method for land and airborne operations, the system and method used for locating subsurface hydrocarbon deposits based upon a remote detection of trace amounts of gases in the atmosphere. The detection of one or more target gases in the atmosphere is used to indicate a possible subsurface oil and gas deposit. By mapping a plurality of gas targets over a selected survey area, the survey area can be analyzed for measurable concentration anomalies. The anomalies are interpreted along with other exploration data to evaluate the value of an underground deposit. The system includes a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system with a spectroscopic grade laser light and a light detector. The laser light is continuously tunable in a mid-infrared range, 2 to 5 micrometers, for choosing appropriate wavelengths to measure different gases and avoid absorption bands of interference gases. The laser light has sufficient optical energy to measure atmospheric concentrations of a gas over a path as long as a mile and greater. The detection of the gas is based on optical absorption measurements at specific wavelengths in the open atmosphere. Light that is detected using the light detector contains an absorption signature acquired as the light travels through the atmosphere from the laser source and back to the light detector. The absorption signature of each gas is processed and then analyzed to determine if a potential anomaly exists.

Wamsley, Paula R. (Littleton, CO); Weimer, Carl S. (Littleton, CO); Nelson, Loren D. (Evergreen, CO); O'Brien, Martin J. (Pine, CO)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Mobility of singly-charged lanthanide cations in rare gases: Theoretical assessment of the state specificity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High quality, ab initio calculations are reported for the potential energy curves governing the interactions of four singly-charged lanthanide ions (Yb{sup +}, Eu{sup +}, Lu{sup +}, and Gd{sup +}) with the rare gases (RG = He–Xe). Scalar-relativistic coupled cluster calculations are used for the first three S-state ions, but for Gd{sup +}({sup 10}D°) it is necessary to take the interaction anisotropy into account with the help of the multi-reference technique. The potential energy curves are used to determine the ion mobility and other transport properties describing the motion of the ions through the dilute RG, both as functions of the temperature, T, in the low-field limit, and at fixed T as functions of the ratio of the electrostatic field strength to the gas number density, E/N. The calculated mobilities are in good agreement with the very limited experimental data that have become available recently. The calculations show a pronounced dependence of the transport properties on the electronic configuration of the ion, as well as a significant effect of the spin-orbit coupling on the transport properties of the Gd{sup +} ion, and predict that state-specific mobilities could be detectable in Gd{sup +}–RG experiments.

Buchachenko, Alexei A., E-mail: alexei@classic.chem.msu.su [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow District 142432, Russia and Department of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Viehland, Larry A., E-mail: viehland@chatham.edu [Science Department, Chatham University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232 (United States)

2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

258

Lecture notes on thermodynamics of ideal string gases and its application in cosmology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In these lecture notes I give a pedagogical introduction to the thermodynamics of ideal string gases. The computation of thermodynamic quantities in the canonical ensemble formalism will be shown in detail with explicit examples. Attention will be given mainly to the thermodynamical consequences of string degrees of freedom, where I will especially address i) the Hagedorn temperature, a critical temperature above which the canonical ensemble description breaks down, which can be the onset point of some instability of the string gas; ii) the phase structure arising from compactification, embodied in the moduli-dependence of the Helmholtz free energy, which corrects the tree-level vacuum and can provide mechanism for moduli stabilization. Then I will briefly explain the implementation of string gas thermodynamics in cosmology, showing a simple example which gives rise to a radiation-dominated early universe. Further phenomenological issues and open questions will be discussed qualitatively with references indicated, including the Hagedorn instability in the resolution of the initial singularity, moduli stabilization, generation of hierarchy, radiative symmetry breaking and primordial cosmological fluctuations.

Lihui Liu

2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

259

Are Greenhouse Gases Changing ENSO Precursors in the Western North Pacific?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using multiple observational and modeling datasets, we document a strengthening relationship between boreal winter sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the western North Pacific (WNP) and the development of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) one year later. The increased WNP-ENSO association emerged in the mid 20th century and has grown through the present, reaching correlation coefficients as high as ~0.70 in recent decades. Fully coupled climate experiments with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) replicate the WNP-ENSO association and indicate that greenhouse gases (GHG) are largely responsible for the observed increase. We speculate that shifts in the location and amplitudes of positive SST trends in the subtropical-tropical western Pacific impacts the low-level circulation so that WNP variability is increasingly influencing the development of ENSO one year later. A strengthened GHG-driven relationship between the WNP and ENSO provides an example of how anthropogenic climate change can potentially improve the skill of intraseasonal-to-interannual climate prediction.

Wang, S-Y (Simon); Heureux, Michelle L.; Yoon, Jin-Ho

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Phase 2, technology development, annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oil refineries discharge large volumes of H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} from cracking, coking, and hydrotreating operations. This program seeks to develop a biological process for converting these waste gases into ethanol, which can be blended with gasoline to reduce emissions. Production of ethanol from all 194 US refineries would save 450 billion BTU annually, would reduce crude oil imports by 110 million barrels/year and emissions by 19 million tons/year. Phase II efforts has yielded at least 3 cultures (Clostridium ljungdahlii, Isolate O-52, Isolate C-01) which are able to produce commercially viable concentrations of ethanol from CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} in petroleum waste gas. Single continuous stirred tank reactor studies have shown that 15-20 g/L of ethanol can be produced, with less than 5 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Culture and reactor optimization in Phase III should yield even higher ethanol concentrations and minimal acetic acid. Product recovery studies showed that ethanol is best recovered in a multi-step process involving solvent extraction/distillation to azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation, or direct distillation to the azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation. Projections show that the ethanol facility for a typical refinery would require an investment of about $30 million, which would be returned in less than 2 years.

Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydrocar bon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Final report, April 1994--July 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program was to develop a commercial process for producing ethanol from refinery waste gases. this report presents results from the development phases. The major focus of this work was the preparation of the prototype design which will demonstrate this technology in a 2.5 lb/hr ethanol production facility. Additional areas of focus included efforts in obtaining an industrial partner to help finance the prototype, and advanced engineering experiments concentrating on process optimization in various areas needing future development and optimization. The advanced engineering experiments were performed in the laboratory in these areas: treatment and use of recycle water from distillation back to fermentation; alternative methods of removing cells from the fermentation broth; the fermentation of streams containing CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} alone, with little to no CO present; dealing with methanogen contaminants that are capable of fermenting CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} to methane; and acetate tolerance by the culture. Results from the design, industrial partner search and the laboratory R&D efforts are discussed in this report.

Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Breshears, F.S.; Gaines, L.D.; Hays, K.S.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Pi-Josephson Junction and Spontaneous Superflow in Rings from Ultracold Fermionic Atomic Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The BCS-like pairing in ultracold fermionic atomic ($UCFAG$) gases is studied in the model of "isotopic-spin" pairing proposed in 1991 \\cite% {Ku-Hof-SSC}. This model assumes a mismatch ($\\delta $) in chemical potentials of pairing fermionic atoms. It is shown that a $\\pi $-Josephson junction can be realized in $UCFAG$ systems, where the left and right banks $% S$ are the $UCFAG$ superfluids. The weak link $M$ consists from the normal $% UCFAG$ with the finite mismatch $\\delta $. If the $\\pi $-junction is a part of a closed ring the superfluid mass-current flows spontaneously in the ring, i.e., the time-reversal symmetry is broken spontaneously. This is realized if the radius of the ring $R$ is larger than the critical one $% R_{c} $. All these effects exist also in the case when $\\delta \\gg \\Delta $, where $\\Delta $ is the superfluid gap, but with the reduced thickness of the weak link. It is also discussed, that if junctions $SM_{1}M_{2}S$ and trilayers $% M_{1}SM_{2}$ from $UCFAG$ are realizable this renders a possibility for a novel electronics - \\textit{hypertronics}.

Miodrag L. Kulic

2006-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

263

Method of and apparatus for removing sulfur oxides from exhaust gases formed by combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for removing sulfur oxides from exhaust gas formed by combustion particularly exhaust gas from an electricity generating power plant. The exhaust gas flows through a reaction zone which operates like a spray dryer. A purifying liquor consisting of an aqueous solution of sodium carbonate and/or sodium bicarbonate is sprayed into the reaction zone, in which the heat content of the exhaust gases causes virtually all of the water content of the purifying liquor to be evaporated. The exhaust gas is subsequently passed through a filter. Anhydrous solids are withdrawn from the reaction zone and the filter and contain at least 75% of sodium sulfite, sodium sulfate and sodium chloride and are processed to form sodium carbonate. To that end the solids are dissolved and sulfite is oxidized to form sulfate so that a solution that contains sodium sulfate and sodium chloride is formed. The sulfate is separated from that solution and the remaining solution is used in the recovery of sodium carbonate by the solvay process.

Voeste, T.

1981-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

264

Gas-liquid-liquid equilibria in mixtures of water, light gases, and hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Phase equilibrium in mixtures of water + light gases and water + heavy hydrocarbons has been investigated with the development of new local composition theory, new equations of state, and new experimental data. The preferential segregation and orientation of molecules due to different energies of molecular interaction has been simulated with square well molecules. Extensive simulation has been made for pure square well fluids and mixtures to find the local composition at wide ranges of states. A theory of local composition has been developed and an equation of state has been obtained for square well fluids. The new local composition theory has been embedded in several equations of state. The pressure of water is decoupled into a polar pressure and non-polar pressure according to the molecular model of water of Jorgensen et al. The polar pressure of water is combined with the BACK equation for the general description of polar fluids and their mixtures. Being derived from the steam table, the Augmented BACK equation is particularly suited for mixtures of water + non-polar substances such as the hydrocarbons. The hydrophobic character of the hydrocarbons had made their mixtures with water a special challenge. A new group contribution equation of state is developed to describe phase equilibrium and volumetric behavior of fluids while requiring only to know the molecular structure of the components. 15 refs., 1 fig.

Chao, K.C.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Apparatus and process for the refrigeration, liquefaction and separation of gases with varying levels of purity  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the separation and liquefaction of component gasses from a pressurized mix gas stream is disclosed. The process involves cooling the pressurized mixed gas stream in a heat exchanger so as to condensing one or more of the gas components having the highest condensation point; separating the condensed components from the remaining mixed gas stream in a gas-liquid separator; cooling the separated condensed component stream by passing it through an expander; and passing the cooled component stream back through the heat exchanger such that the cooled component stream functions as the refrigerant for the heat exchanger. The cycle is then repeated for the remaining mixed gas stream so as to draw off the next component gas and further cool the remaining mixed gas stream. The process continues until all of the component gases are separated from the desired gas stream. The final gas stream is then passed through a final heat exchanger and expander. The expander decreases the pressure on the gas stream, thereby cooling the stream and causing a portion of the gas stream to liquify within a tank. The portion of the gas which is hot liquefied is passed back through each of the heat exchanges where it functions as a refrigerant.

Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 1, Main text  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of motor vehicles, maintenance of transportation systems, manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and changes in land use that result from using biomass-derived fuels. The results for electricity use are in grams of CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to end users and cover generating plants powered by coal, oil, natural gas, methanol, biomass, and nuclear energy. The transportation analysis compares CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions, in grams per mile, from base-case gasoline and diesel fuel cycles with emissions from these alternative- fuel cycles: methanol from coal, natural gas, or wood; compressed or liquefied natural gas; synthetic natural gas from wood; ethanol from corn or wood; liquefied petroleum gas from oil or natural gas; hydrogen from nuclear or solar power; electricity from coal, uranium, oil, natural gas, biomass, or solar energy, used in battery-powered electric vehicles; and hydrogen and methanol used in fuel-cell vehicles.

DeLuchi, M.A. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Phase structure of mass- and spin-imbalanced unitary Fermi gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the phase diagram of mass- and spin-imbalanced unitary Fermi gases, in search for the emergence of spatially inhomogeneous phases. To account for fluctuation effects beyond the mean-field approximation, we employ renormalization group techniques. We thus obtain estimates for critical values of the temperature, mass and spin imbalance, above which the system is in the normal phase. In the unpolarized, equal-mass limit, our result for the critical temperature is in accordance with state-of-the-art Monte Carlo calculations. In addition, we estimate the location of regions in the phase diagram where inhomogeneous phases are likely to exist. We show that an intriguing relation exists between the general structure of the many-body phase diagram and the binding energies of the underlying two-body bound-state problem, which further supports our findings. Our results suggest that inhomogeneous condensates form for mass ratios of the spin-down and spin-up fermions greater than three. The extent of the inhomoge...

Roscher, Dietrich; Drut, Joaquín E

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

CO.sub.2 separation from low-temperature flue gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Two methods are provide for the separation of carbon dioxide from the flue gases. The first method utilizes a phase-separating moiety dissolved in an aqueous solution of a basic moiety to capture carbon dioxide. The second method utilizes a phase-separating moiety as a suspended solid in an aqueous solution of a basic moiety to capture carbon dioxide. The first method takes advantage of the surface-independent nature of the CO.sub.2 absorption reactions in a homogeneous aqueous system. The second method also provides permanent sequestration of the carbon dioxide. Both methods incorporate the kinetic rate enhancements of amine-based scrubbing while eliminating the need to heat the entire amine solution (80% water) in order to regenerate and release CO.sub.2. Both methods also take advantage of the low-regeneration temperatures of CO.sub.2-bearing mineral systems such as Na.sub.2CO.sub.3/NaHCO.sub.3 and K.sub.2CO.sub.3/KHCO.sub.3.

Dilmore, Robert (Irwin, PA); Allen, Douglas (Salem, MA); Soong, Yee (Monroeville, PA); Hedges, Sheila (Bethel Park, PA)

2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

269

Clathrate hydrates as a sink of noble gases in Titan's atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use a statistical thermodynamic approach to determine the composition of clathrate hydrates which may form from a multiple compound gas whose composition is similar to that of Titan's atmosphere. Assuming that noble gases are initially present in this gas phase, we calculate the ratios of xenon, krypton and argon to species trapped in clathrate hydrates. We find that these ratios calculated for xenon and krypton are several orders of magnitude higher than in the coexisting gas at temperature and pressure conditions close to those of Titan's present atmosphere at ground level. Furthermore we show that, by contrast, argon is poorly trapped in these ices. This trapping mechanism implies that the gas-phase is progressively depleted in xenon and krypton when the coexisting clathrate hydrates form whereas the initial abundance of argon remains almost constant. Our results are thus compatible with the deficiency of Titan's atmosphere in xenon and krypton measured by the {\\it Huygens} probe during its descent on January 14, 2005. However, in order to interpret the subsolar abundance of primordial Ar also revealed by {\\it Huygens}, other processes that occurred either during the formation of Titan or during its evolution must be also invoked.

C. Thomas; O. Mousis; V. Ballenegger; S. Picaud

2007-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

270

Method for compressing and heating a heating medium to be externally supplied to an engine while using the energy available in the hot exhaust gases of the engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a method for compressing and heating a heating medium to be externally supplied to an engine, while using the energy available in the hot exhaust gases of the engine, the exhaust gases are caused to expand in at least two expansion stages to emit energy for compressing the heating medium in at least two compression stages, heat is transmitted from the exhaust gases after the first expansion stage to the heating medium after the last compression stage, and the heating medium is thereafter supplied with additional heat in a heat-producing unit before it is led to the engine.

Carlquist, S. G.

1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

271

A positivity-preserving scheme for the simulation of streamer discharges in non-attaching and attaching gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assumed having axial symmetry, the streamer discharge is often described by a fluid model in cylindrical coordinate system, which consists of convection dominated (diffusion) equations with source terms, coupled with a Poisson's equation. Without additional care for a stricter CFL condition or special treatment to the negative source term, popular methods used in streamer discharge simulations, e.g., FEM-FCT, FVM, cannot ensure the positivity of the particle densities for the cases in attaching gases. By introducing the positivity-preserving limiter proposed by Zhang and Shu \\cite{ppl} and Strang operator splitting, this paper proposed a finite difference scheme with a provable positivity-preserving property in cylindrical coordinate system, for the numerical simulation of streamer discharges in non-attaching and attaching gases. Numerical examples in non-attaching gas (N$_2$) and attaching gas (SF$_6$) are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the scheme.

Zhuang, Chijie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

A bridge-functional-based classical mapping method for predicting the correlation functions of uniform electron gases at finite temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efficient and accurate prediction of the correlation functions of uniform electron gases is of great importance for both practical and theoretical applications. This paper presents a bridge-functional-based classical mapping method for calculating the correlation functions of uniform spin-unpolarized electron gases at finite temperature. The bridge functional is formulated by following Rosenfeld's universality ansatz in combination with the modified fundamental measure theory. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with recent quantum Monte Carlo results but with negligible computational cost, and the accuracy is better than a previous attempt based on the hypernetted-chain approximation. We find that the classical mapping method is most accurate if the effective mass of electrons increases as the density falls.

Liu, Yu; Wu, Jianzhong, E-mail: jwu@engr.ucr.edu [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering and Department of Mathematics, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)] [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering and Department of Mathematics, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

273

Comparative investigation of third- and fifth-harmonic generation in atomic and molecular gases driven by midinfrared ultrafast laser pulses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the comparative experimental investigation on third- and fifth-harmonic generation (THG and FHG) in atomic and molecular gases driven by midinfrared ultrafast laser pulses at a wavelength of {approx}1500 nm. We observe that the conversion efficiencies of both the THG and FHG processes saturate at similar peak intensities close to {approx}1.5 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} for argon, nitrogen, and air, whose ionization potentials are close to each other. Near the saturation intensity, the ratio of yields of the FHG and THG reaches {approx}10{sup -1} for all the gases. Our results show that high-order Kerr effect seems to exist; however, contribution from the fourth-order Kerr refractive index coefficient alone is insufficient to balance the Kerr self-focusing without the assistance of plasma generation.

Ni Jielei; Yao Jinping; Zeng Bin; Chu Wei; Li Guihua; Zhang Haisu; Jing Chenrui [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 800-211, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Chin, S. L. [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Optics, and Center for Optics, Photonics and Laser (COPL), Laval University, Laval, Quebec, G1K 7P4 (Canada); Cheng, Y.; Xu, Z. [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 800-211, Shanghai 201800 (China)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

274

Efficient all-optical production of large $^6$Li quantum gases using D$_1$ gray-molasses cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use a gray molasses operating on the D$_1$ atomic transition to produce degenerate quantum gases of $^{6}$Li with a large number of atoms. This sub-Doppler cooling phase allows us to lower the initial temperature of 10$^9$ atoms from 500 to 40 $\\mu$K in 2 ms. We observe that D$_1$ cooling remains effective into a high-intensity infrared dipole trap where two-state mixtures are evaporated to reach the degenerate regime. We produce molecular Bose-Einstein condensates of up to 5$\\times$10$^{5}$ molecules and weakly-interacting degenerate Fermi gases of $7\\times$10$^{5}$ atoms at $T/T_{F}<0.1$ with a typical experimental duty cycle of 11 seconds.

A. Burchianti; G. Valtolina; J. A. Seman; E. Pace; M. De Pas; M. Inguscio; M. Zaccanti; G. Roati

2014-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

275

Thermal conductivity of the electrode gap of a thermionic converter, filled with inert gases, at low pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental data is presented on the thermal conductivity of the electrode gap of a thermionic converter filled with He, Ar, and Xe in the pressure range 40--550 Pa. The need to account for the coefficients of thermal accommodation of the emitter-inert-gas-collector system in this range is shown. The accommodation coefficients for different temperature regimes are measured and expressions are obtained to calculate the heat flux transported by the inert gases in the electrode gap.

Modin, V.A.; Nikolaev, Y.V.

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992: General Guidelines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, Congress authorized a voluntary program for the public to report achievements in reducing those gases. This document offers guidance on recording historic and current greenhouse gas emissions, emissions reductions, and carbon sequestration. Under the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) reporters will have the opportunity to highlight specific achievements. If you have taken actions to lessen the greenhouse gas effect, either by decreasing greenhouse gas emissions or by sequestering carbon, the Department of Energy (DOE) encourages you to report your achievements under this program. The program has two related, but distinct parts. First, the program offers you an opportunity to report your annual emissions of greenhouse gases. Second, the program records your specific projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Although participants in the program are strongly encouraged to submit reports on both, reports on either annual emissions or emissions reductions and carbon sequestration projects will be accepted. These guidelines and the supporting technical documents outline the rationale for the program and approaches to analyzing emissions and emissions reduction projects. Your annual emissions and emissions reductions achievements will be reported.

Not Available

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

GASFLOW: A Computational Fluid Dynamics Code for Gases, Aerosols, and Combustion, Volume 2: User's Manual  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FzK) are developing GASFLOW, a three-dimensional (3D) fluid dynamics field code as a best-estimate tool to characterize local phenomena within a flow field. Examples of 3D phenomena include circulation patterns; flow stratification; hydrogen distribution mixing and stratification; combustion and flame propagation; effects of noncondensable gas distribution on local condensation and evaporation; and aerosol entrainment, transport, and deposition. An analysis with GASFLOW will result in a prediction of the gas composition and discrete particle distribution in space and time throughout the facility and the resulting pressure and temperature loadings on the walls and internal structures with or without combustion. A major application of GASFLOW is for predicting the transport, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen and other gases in nuclear reactor containment and other facilities. It has been applied to situations involving transporting and distributing combustible gas mixtures. It has been used to study gas dynamic behavior in low-speed, buoyancy-driven flows, as well as sonic flows or diffusion dominated flows; and during chemically reacting flows, including deflagrations. The effects of controlling such mixtures by safety systems can be analyzed. The code version described in this manual is designated GASFLOW 2.1, which combines previous versions of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission code HMS (for Hydrogen Mixing Studies) and the Department of Energy and FzK versions of GASFLOW. The code was written in standard Fortran 90. This manual comprises three volumes. Volume I describes the governing physical equations and computational model. Volume II describes how to use the code to set up a model geometry, specify gas species and material properties, define initial and boundary conditions, and specify different outputs, especially graphical displays. Sample problems are included. Volume III contains some of the assessments performed by LANL and FzK.

B. D. Nichols; C. Müller; G. A. Necker; J. R. Travis; J. W. Spore; K. L. Lam; P. Royl; T. L. Wilson

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

GASFLOW: A Computational Fluid Dynamics Code for Gases, Aerosols, and Combustion, Volume 3: Assessment Manual  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FzK) are developing GASFLOW, a three-dimensional (3D) fluid dynamics field code as a best- estimate tool to characterize local phenomena within a flow field. Examples of 3D phenomena include circulation patterns; flow stratification; hydrogen distribution mixing and stratification; combustion and flame propagation; effects of noncondensable gas distribution on local condensation and evaporation; and aerosol entrainment, transport, and deposition. An analysis with GASFLOW will result in a prediction of the gas composition and discrete particle distribution in space and time throughout the facility and the resulting pressure and temperature loadings on the walls and internal structures with or without combustion. A major application of GASFLOW is for predicting the transport, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen and other gases in nuclear reactor containment and other facilities. It has been applied to situations involving transporting and distributing combustible gas mixtures. It has been used to study gas dynamic behavior in low-speed, buoyancy-driven flows, as well as sonic flows or diffusion dominated flows; and during chemically reacting flows, including deflagrations. The effects of controlling such mixtures by safety systems can be analyzed. The code version described in this manual is designated GASFLOW 2.1, which combines previous versions of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission code HMS (for Hydrogen Mixing Studies) and the Department of Energy and FzK versions of GASFLOW. The code was written in standard Fortran 90. This manual comprises three volumes. Volume I describes the governing physical equations and computational model. Volume II describes how to use the code to set up a model geometry, specify gas species and material properties, define initial and boundary conditions, and specify different outputs, especially graphical displays. Sample problems are included. Volume III contains some of the assessments performed by LANL and FzK

C. Müller; E. D. Hughes; G. F. Niederauer; H. Wilkening; J. R. Travis; J. W. Spore; P. Royl; W. Baumann

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Analysis of air pollution and greenhouse gases. Initial studies, FY 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current objective of the project ``Analysis of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases`` is to develop a study of emissions and emission sources that could easily be linked to models of economic activity. Initial studies were conducted to evaluate data currently available linking activity rates and emissions estimates. The emissions inventory developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) presents one of the most comprehensive data sets, and was chosen for our initial studies, which are described in this report. Over 99% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 98% of the NO{sub x} emission and 57% of the VOC emissions from area sources are related to fuel combustion. The majority of emission from these sources are generated by the transportation sector. Activity rates for area sources are not archived with the NAPAP inventory; alternative derivations of these data will be part of the future activities of this project. The availability and completeness of the fuel heat content data in the NAPAP inventory were also studied. Approximately 10% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 13% of the NO{sub x} emissions and 46% of the VOC emissions are generated by sources with unavailable data for fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content were generated. Future studies for this project include the derivation of activity rates for area sources, improved explanations for the default fuel parameters defined in the NAPAP inventory and the development of links to data bases of economic activity.

Benkovitz, C.M.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Superfluidity and collective modes in Rashba spin–orbit coupled Fermi gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a theoretical study of the superfluidity and the corresponding collective modes in two-component atomic Fermi gases with s-wave attraction and synthetic Rashba spin–orbit coupling. The general effective action for the collective modes is derived from the functional path integral formalism. By tuning the spin–orbit coupling from weak to strong, the system undergoes a crossover from an ordinary BCS/BEC superfluid to a Bose–Einstein condensate of rashbons. We show that the properties of the superfluid density and the Anderson–Bogoliubov mode manifest this crossover. At large spin–orbit coupling, the superfluid density and the sound velocity become independent of the strength of the s-wave attraction. The two-body interaction among the rashbons is also determined. When a Zeeman field is turned on, the system undergoes quantum phase transitions to some exotic superfluid phases which are topologically nontrivial. For the two-dimensional system, the nonanalyticities of the thermodynamic functions and the sound velocity across the phase transition are related to the bulk gapless fermionic excitation which causes infrared singularities. The superfluid density and the sound velocity behave nonmonotonically: they are suppressed by the Zeeman field in the normal superfluid phase, but get enhanced in the topological superfluid phase. The three-dimensional system is also studied. -- Highlights: •The general effective action for Rashba spin–orbit coupled Fermi superfluids is derived. •The evolution of the collective modes manifests the BCS/BEC-rashbon crossover. •The superfluid properties are universal at large spin–orbit coupling. •The sound velocity behaves nonanalytically across the quantum phase transition.

He, Lianyi, E-mail: lianyi@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies and Institute for Theoretical Physics, J. W. Goethe University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)] [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies and Institute for Theoretical Physics, J. W. Goethe University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Huang, Xu-Guang, E-mail: xhuang@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de [Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter and Physics Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States)] [Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter and Physics Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydrocar bon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Investigation of Tunable Diode Spectroscopy for Monitoring Gases in Geothermal Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of an investigation directed at the development of instrument-tation for the real-time monitoring of gases, such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and chloride (HCl), in geothermal process streams is described. The geothermal power industry has an interest in the development of new low maintenance techniques since improved capabilities could lead to considerable cost savings through the optimization of various gas abatement processes. Tunable diode laser spectroscopy was identified as a candidate tech-nology for this application and a commercial instrument was specified and procured for testing. The measurement principle involved the use of solid state diode lasers and frequency modulation techniques. The gallium arsenide diode lasers employed emit light in the 0.7 to 2.0 micron region of the electromagnetic spectrum. This region contains the overtone and combination absorption bands of a number of species of industrial interest, including H2S and HCl. A particular device can be tuned over a small range to match the absorption line by changing its applied temperature and current. The diode current can also be sinusoidally modulated in frequency as it is tuned across the line. This modulation allows measurements to be conducted at frequencies where the laser intensity noise is minimal; and therefore, very high signal-to-noise measurements are possible. The feasibility of using this technology in various types of geothermal process streams has been explored. The results of laboratory and field studies are presented along with new advances in laser technology that could allow more sensitive and selective measurements to be performed.

J. K. Partin

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Predicting the pressure driven flow of gases through micro-capillaries and micro-orifices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A large body of experimentally measured gas flow rates were obtained from the literature and then compared to the predictions obtained with constitutive flow equations. This was done to determine whether the equations apply to the predictions of gas flow rates from leaking containment vessels used to transport radioactive materials. The experiments consisted of measuring the volumetric pressure-driven flow of gases through micro-capillaries and micro-orifices. The experimental results were compared to the predictions obtained with the equations given in ANSI N14.5 the American National Standard for Radioactive Materials-Leakage Tests on Package for Shipment. The equations were applied to both (1) the data set according to the recommendations given in ANSI N14.5 and (2) globally to the complete data set. It was found that: The continuum and molecular flow equation provided good agreement between the experimental and calculated flow rates for flow rates less than about 1 atm{center_dot}cm{sup 3}/s. The choked flow equation resulted in over-prediction of the flow rates for flow rates less than about 1 atm-cm{sup 3}/s. For flow rates higher than 1 atm{center_dot}cm{sup 3}/s, the molecular and continuum flow equation over-predicted the measured flow rates and the predictions obtained with the choked flow equation agreed well with the experimental values. Since the flow rates of interest for packages used to transport radioactive materials are almost always less than 1 atm{center_dot}cm{sup 3}/s, it is suggested that the continuum and molecular flow equation be used for gas flow rate predictions related to these applications.

Anderson, B.L.; Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Theoretical investigation of the impact of grain boundaries and fission gases on UO2 thermal conductivity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal conductivity is one of the most important metrics of nuclear fuel performance. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the impact of microstructure features on thermal conductivity, especially since the microstructure evolves with burn-up or time in the reactor. For example, UO{sub 2} fuels are polycrystalline and for high-burnup fuels the outer parts of the pellet experience grain sub-division leading to a very fine grain structure. This is known to impact important physical properties such as thermal conductivity as fission gas release. In a previous study, we calculated the effect of different types of {Sigma}5 grain boundaries on UO{sub 2} thermal conductivity and predicted the corresponding Kapitza resistances, i.e. the resistance of the grain boundary in relation to the bulk thermal resistance. There have been reports of pseudoanisotropic effects for the thermal conductivity in cubic polycrystalline materials, as obtained from molecular dynamics simulations, which means that the conductivity appears to be a function of the crystallographic direction of the temperature gradient. However, materials with cubic symmetry should have isotropic thermal conductivity. For this reason it is necessary to determine the cause of this apparent anisotropy and in this report we investigate this effect in context of our earlier simulations of UO{sub 2} Kapitza resistances. Another source of thermal resistance comes from fission products and fission gases. Xe is the main fission gas and when generated in sufficient quantity it dissolves from the lattice and forms gas bubbles inside the crystalline structure. We have performed studies of how Xe atoms dissolved in the UO{sub 2} matrix or precipitated as bubbles impact thermal conductivity, both in bulk UO{sub 2} and in the presence of grain boundaries.

Du, Shiyu [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Andersson, Anders D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, Timothy C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stanek, Christopher R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

284

Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash coat, and catalytic metals, to develop a regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor. The task of developing kinetic rate equations and modeling the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants will be abandoned since formulation of catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS is being in progress. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 46-570 seconds under reaction conditions to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases and evaluate their capabilities in reducing hydrogen sulfide and COS in coal gases. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,200-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-20,000-ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-27 v% hydrogen, 29-41 v% CO, 8-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of simulated coal gas mixtures to the reactor are 30 - 180 cm{sup 3}/min at 1 atm and 25 C (SCCM). The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio

K.C. Kwon

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

285

Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 130-156 seconds at 120-140 C to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases, evaluate removal capabilities of hydrogen sulfide and COS from coal gases with formulated catalysts, and develop an economic regeneration method of deactivated catalysts. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,300-3,800-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-1,900 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-21 v% hydrogen, 29-34 v% CO, 8-10 v% CO{sub 2}, 5-18 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 114-132 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-140 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 116-129 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is

K. C. Kwon

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

286

The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature version 2.1 (MEGAN2.1): an extended and updated framework for modeling biogenic emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature version 2.1 (MEGAN2.1) is a modeling framework for estimating fluxes of biogenic compounds between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere using simple mechanistic ...

Guenther, A. B.

287

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 94, NO. D13, PAGES 16,417-16,421,NOVEMBER 20, 1989 Greenhouse Effect of Chlorofluorocarbons and Other Trace Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 94, NO. D13, PAGES 16,417-16,421,NOVEMBER 20, 1989 Greenhouse Effect of Chlorofluorocarbons and Other Trace Gases JAMESHANSEN,ANDREW LACIS,AND MICHAEL PRATHER NASA

Fridlind, Ann

288

Development of combustion data to utilize low-Btu gases as industrial process fuels: modification of flame characteristics. Project 61041 quarterly report, 1 January-31 March 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program consists of an experimental program to determine the burner modifications that will yield suitable flame characteristics and shapes with oxygen-blown gases manufactured from coal. Experiments will also be conducted to evaluate methods of enchancing the flame characteristics of manufactured gases from air-blown gasifiers. Progress to date includes a partial completion of the oxygen-enrichment system, preparation of the furnace for the trials, and discussions of the burner modifications needed for combustion trials with the burner manufacturer.

Waibel, R.T.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Proceedings of the International Workshop on Sustainable ForestManagement: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The International Workshop on Sustainable Forest Management: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases was held in San Jose, Costa Rica, July 29-31, 1996. The main objectives of the workshop were to: (1) assemble key practitioners of forestry greenhouse gas (GHG) or carbon offset projects, remote sensing of land cover change, guidelines development, and the forest products certification movement, to offer presentations and small group discussions on findings relevant to the crucial need for the development of guidelines for monitoring and verifying offset projects, and (2) disseminate the findings to interested carbon offset project developers and forestry and climate change policy makers, who need guidance and consistency of methods to reduce project transaction costs and increase probable reliability of carbon benefits, at appropriate venues. The workshop brought together about 45 participants from developed, developing, and transition countries. The participants included researchers, government officials, project developers, and staff from regional and international agencies. Each shared his or her perspectives based on experience in the development and use of methods for monitoring and verifying carbon flows from forest areas and projects. A shared sense among the participants was that methods for monitoring forestry projects are well established, and the techniques are known and used extensively, particularly in production forestry. Introducing climate change with its long-term perspective is often in conflict with the shorter-term perspective of most forestry projects and standard accounting principles. The resolution of these conflicts may require national and international agreements among the affected parties. The establishment of guidelines and protocols for better methods that are sensitive to regional issues will be an important first step to increase the credibility of forestry projects as viable mitigation options. The workshop deliberations led to three primary outputs: (1) a Workshop Statement in the JI Quarterly, September, 1996; (2) the publication of a series of selected peer-reviewed technical papers from the workshop in a report of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL. 40501); and (3) a special issue of the journal ''Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change'', Kluwer Academic Publishers. The outputs will be distributed to practitioners in this field and to negotiators attending the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) deliberations leading up to the Third conference of Parties in Kyoto, in December 1997.

Sathaye (Ed.), Jayant; Makundi (Ed.), Willy; Goldberg (Ed.),Beth; Andrasko (Ed.), Ken; Sanchez (Ed.), Arturo

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Gas release during salt-well pumping: Model predictions and laboratory validation studies for soluble and insoluble gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Site has 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. Of these, 67 are known or suspected to have leaked liquid from the tanks into the surrounding soil. Salt-well pumping, or interim stabilization, is a well-established operation for removing drainable interstitial liquid from SSTs. The overall objective of this ongoing study is to develop a quantitative understanding of the release rates and cumulative releases of flammable gases from SSTs as a result of salt-well pumping. The current study is an extension of the previous work reported by Peurrung et al. (1996). The first objective of this current study was to conduct laboratory experiments to quantify the release of soluble and insoluble gases. The second was to determine experimentally the role of characteristic waste heterogeneities on the gas release rates. The third objective was to evaluate and validate the computer model STOMP (Subsurface Transport over Multiple Phases) used by Peurrung et al. (1996) to predict the release of both soluble (typically ammonia) and insoluble gases (typically hydrogen) during and after salt-well pumping. The fourth and final objective of the current study was to predict the gas release behavior for a range of typical tank conditions and actual tank geometry. In these models, the authors seek to include all the pertinent salt-well pumping operational parameters and a realistic range of physical properties of the SST wastes. For predicting actual tank behavior, two-dimensional (2-D) simulations were performed with a representative 2-D tank geometry.

Peurrung, L.M.; Caley, S.M.; Gauglitz, P.A.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Coalbed gases and hydrocarbon source rock potential of upper Carboniferous coal-bearing strata in upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) is one of the major Upper Carboniferous coal basins in the world. Its coalbed gas reserves to the depths of 1,000 m are estimated to be about 350 billion cubic meters (about 12.4 TCF). Coalbed gases in the USCB are variable in both molecular and stable isotope composition [{delta}{sup 13}C(CH{sub 4}), {delta}D(CH{sub 4}), {delta}{sup 13}C(C{sub 2}H{sub 6}), {delta}{sup 13}C(C{sub 3}H{sub 8}), {delta}{sup 13}C(CO{sub 2})]. Such variability suggests the effects of both primary reactions operating during the generation of gases and secondary processes such as mixing and migration. Coalbed gases are mostly thermogenic methane in which depth-related isotopic fractionation has resulted from migration but not from mixing with the microbial one. The stable carbon isotope composition indicates that the carbon dioxide, ethane and higher gaseous hydrocarbons were generated during the bituminous coal stage of the coalification process. The main stage of coalbed gas generation occurred during the Variscan orogeny, and generation was completed after the Leonian and Asturian phases of this orogeny. The coals and carbonaceous shales have high gas generation potential but low potential for generation and expulsion of oil compared to the known Type III source rocks elsewhere. In general, the carbonaceous shales have slightly higher potential for oil generation, but probably would not be able to exceed expulsion thresholds necessary to expel economic quantities of oil.

Kotarba, M.J.J. [Univ. of Mining and metallurgy, Cracow (Poland); Clayton, J.L.; Rice, D.D. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

292

Impact of rising greenhouse gases on mid-latitude storm tracks and associated hydroclimate variability and change  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project Summary This project aimed to advance physical understanding of how and why the mid-latitude jet streams and storm tracks shift in intensity and latitude in response to changes in radiative forcing with an especial focus on rising greenhouse gases. The motivation, and much of the work, stemmed from the importance that these mean and transient atmospheric circulation systems have for hydroclimate. In particular drying and expansion of the subtropical dry zones has been related to a poleward shift of the mid-latitude jets and storm tracks. The work involved integrated assessment of observation and model projections as well as targeted model simulations.

Seager, Richard

2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

293

Thermal conductivity of the electrode gap of a therminonic converter, filled with inert gases, at low pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents experimental data on the thermal conductivity of the electrode gap of a thermionic converter filled with He, Ar, and Xe in the pessure range 40-550 Pa. The need to account for the coefficients of thermal accomodation of the emitter-inert-gas-collector system in this range is shown. The accomodation coefficients for different temperature regimes are measured and expressions are obtained to calculate the heat flux transported by the inert gases in the electrode gap. A diagram of the experimental thermionic converter is shown.

Modin, V.A.; Nikolaev, Y.V.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Effect of residual gases in high vacuum on the energy-level alignment at noble metal/organic interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The energy-level alignment at metal/organic interfaces has traditionally been studied using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). However, since most devices are fabricated in high vacuum (HV), these studies do not accurately reflect the interfaces in real devices. We demonstrate, using UPS measurements of samples prepared in HV and UHV and current-voltage measurements of devices prepared in HV, that the small amounts of residual gases that are adsorbed on the surface of clean Cu, Ag, and Au (i.e., the noble metals) in HV can significantly alter the energy-level alignment at metal/organic interfaces.

Helander, M. G.; Wang, Z. B.; Lu, Z. H.

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

295

Recombination luminescence and trap levels in undoped and Al-doped ZnO thin films on quartz and GaSe (0 0 0 1) substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO films on GaSe create electron trapping states and PL recombination levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zn and Al diffusion in GaSe produces low-energy widening of its PL emission. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO:Al films on GaSe lamellas are suitable for gas-discharge lamp applications. -- Abstract: Photoluminescence spectra of ZnO and ZnO:Al (1.00, 2.00 and 5.00 at.%) films on GaSe (0 0 0 1) lamellas and amorphous quartz substrates, obtained by annealing, at 700 K, of undoped and Al-doped metal films, are investigated. For all samples, the nonequilibrium charge carriers recombine by radiative band-to-band transitions with energy of 3.27 eV, via recombination levels created by the monoionized oxygen atoms, forming the impurity band laying in the region 2.00 - 2.70 eV. Al doping induces an additional recombination level at 1.13 eV above the top of the valence band of ZnO films on GaSe substrates. As a result of thermal diffusion of Zn and Al into the GaSe interface layer from ZnO:Al/GaSe heterojunction, electron trap levels located at 0.22 eV and 0.26 eV below the conduction band edge of GaSe, as well as a deep recombination level, responsible for the luminescent emission in the region 1.10 - 1.40 eV, are created.

Evtodiev, I. [Moldova State University, 60 A. Mateevici Str., Chisinau, MD 2009, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of)] [Moldova State University, 60 A. Mateevici Str., Chisinau, MD 2009, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Caraman, I. [Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau, 157 Calea Marasesti, RO 600115 Bacau (Romania)] [Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau, 157 Calea Marasesti, RO 600115 Bacau (Romania); Leontie, L., E-mail: lleontie@uaic.ro [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Bd. Carol I, Nr. 11, RO 700506 Iasi (Romania); Rusu, D.-I. [Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau, 157 Calea Marasesti, RO 600115 Bacau (Romania)] [Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau, 157 Calea Marasesti, RO 600115 Bacau (Romania); Dafinei, A. [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, Platforma Magurele, Str. Fizicienilor nr. 1, CP Mg - 11, Bucharest-Magurele, RO 76900 (Romania)] [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, Platforma Magurele, Str. Fizicienilor nr. 1, CP Mg - 11, Bucharest-Magurele, RO 76900 (Romania); Nedeff, V.; Lazar, G. [Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau, 157 Calea Marasesti, RO 600115 Bacau (Romania)] [Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau, 157 Calea Marasesti, RO 600115 Bacau (Romania)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

296

Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in Mexico City  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was one of three collaborating grants designed to understand the atmospheric chemistry and aerosol particle microphysics impacting air quality in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its urban plume. The overall effort, titled MCMA- 2006, focused on: 1) the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles and 2) the measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine particular matter (PM) production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA). MCAM-2006 pursued it goals through three main activities: 1) performance and publication of detailed analyses of extensive MCMA trace gas and fine PM measurements made by the collaborating groups and others during earlier MCMA field campaigns in 2002 and 2003; 2) deployment and utilization of extensive real-time trace gas and fine PM instrumentation at urban and downwind MCMA sites in support of the MAX-Mex/MILAGRO field measurements in March, 2006; and, 3) analyses of the 2006 MCMA data sets leading to further publications that are based on new data as well as insights from analysis and publication of the 2002/2003 field data. Thirteen archival publications were coauthored with other MCMA-2003 participants. Documented findings included a significantly improved speciated emissions inventory from on-road vehicles, a greatly enhanced understanding of the sources and atmospheric loadings of volatile organic compounds, a unique analysis of the high fraction of ambient formaldehyde from primary emission sources, a much more extensive knowledge of the composition, size distributions and atmospheric mass loadings of both primary and secondary fine PM, including the fact that the rate of MCMA SOA production greatly exceeded that predicted by current atmospheric models, and evaluations of significant errors that can arise from standard air quality monitors for ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Deployment of the Aerodyne mobile laboratory, equipped with instruments from five collaborating laboratories, at the T0 urban supersite, four downwind sites and the Tula industrial area yielded unique trace gas and fine PM data sets during the March 2006 MAXMex/MILAGRO campaign. In addition, on-road measurements as the mobile laboratory moved between sites provided extensive data on 2006 MCMA fleet averaged vehicle emissions. Analyses of 2006 data sets have yielded the identification of a close correlation between the rate of production of SOA and “Odd Oxygen” (O3 + NO2) and primary organic PM with CO in the MCMA urban plume, a more sophisticated understanding of the interplay between nitrogen oxide speciation and ozone production, the identification of significant vehicular emission sources of HCN and CH3CN (usually associated with biomass burning), characterization of the aging of primary carbonaceous PM, and updated 2006 MCMA fleet on-road trace gas and fine PM emissions. Results from analyses of 2002/2003 and 2006 emissions and ambient measurements have conveyed to Mexican air quality managers who are using these data to devise and assess air quality management strategies. All data sets and published analyses are available to DOE/ASP researchers evaluating the impact of urban emissions on regional climate.

Dr. Charles E. Kolb

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

297

Application of Momentum Transfer Theory for Ion and Electron Transport in Pure Gases and in Gas Mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper we have presented two applications of Momentum Transfer Theory (MTT), which were both aimed at obtaining reliable data for modeling of non-equilibrium plasma. Transport properties of ion swarms in presence of Resonant Charge Transfer (RCT) collisions are studied using Momentum Transfer Theory (MTT). Using the developed MTT we tested a previously available anisotropic set of cross-sections for Ar++Ar collisions bay making the comparisons with the available data for the transverse diffusion coefficient. We also developed an anisotropic set of Ne++Ne integral cross-sections based on the available data for mobility, longitudinal and transverse diffusion. Anisotropic sets of cross-sections are needed for Monte Carlo simulations of ion transport and plasma models. Application of Blanc's Law for drift velocities of electrons and ions in gas mixtures at arbitrary reduced electric field strengths E/n0 was studied theoretically and by numerical examples. Corrections for Blanc's Law that include effects of inelastic collisions were derived. In addition we have derived the common mean energy procedure that was proposed by Chiflikian in a general case both for ions and electrons. Both corrected common E/n0 and common mean energy procedures provide excellent results even for electrons at moderate E/n0 where application of Blanc's Law was regarded as impossible. In mixtures of two gases that have negative differential conductivity (NDC) even when neither of the two pure gases show NDC the Blanc's Law procedure was able to give excellent predictions.

Jovanovic, J.V. [Institute of Physics, P.O.Box 68, 11080 Zemun, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Vrhovac, S. B. [Institute of Physics, P.O.Box 68, 11080 Zemun, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for atmospheric trace gases: FY 1993 activities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provide technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC (including World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases) during the period October 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of NDPS, CMPS, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints are provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also presented.

Cushman, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment, and Resources Center

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Les Bons Ingredients pour un Haut Niveau de Performance des Installations Climatiques  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DE POST-RECEPTION DES SERVICES ADAPTES AUX BESOINS, CONTRACTUELS DES SERVICES ADAPTES AUX BESOINS, CONTRACTUELS 1 an RECEPTION RECEPTION ICEBO ? C ommiss 7 Le dossier technique Le dossier technique usage, maintenance, exploitation, usage, maintenance..., exploitation, selon le contratselon le contrat DOSSIER DOEFichesNotices d?usageMAP Ajustements des r?glages, fonctions DIUO de la GTB, nettoyages sanitaires? P.V.COPREC RECEPTION DOSSIER DOEFichesNotices d?usageMAPAjustements des r?glages, DIUO Fonctions de...

Rougnon, J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Approximations. -Il est bon d'indiquer quelles approximations nous avons fuites : toutes d'ailleurs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

'est-ŕ-dire du męme ordre de grandeur que (HHo)2, par rapport ŕ d2udt etd2vdt et par conséquent négli- geables

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydrocar bon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

The black grouper (Mycteroperca bon-aci) is one of the 20 most commonly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

harvested from the Campeche Bank (the continental shelf surround- ing the northern coast of the Yucatan of the Yucatan Peninsula (Campeche Bank), including the shallow waters of National Marine Park Alacranes Reef and population structure characteris- tics for Campeche Bank black grouper were consistent

302

Combustion systems and power plants incorporating parallel carbon dioxide capture and sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed herein are combustion systems and power plants that incorporate sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases. In its most basic embodiment, the invention is a combustion system that includes three discrete units: a combustion unit, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In a preferred embodiment, the invention is a power plant including a combustion unit, a power generation system, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In both of these embodiments, the carbon dioxide capture unit and the sweep-based membrane separation unit are configured to be operated in parallel, by which we mean that each unit is adapted to receive exhaust gases from the combustion unit without such gases first passing through the other unit.

Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Merkel, Timothy C (Menlo Park, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

303

Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2} in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives using a monolithic catalyst reactor, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 40-560 seconds at 120-150 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperatures, total pressure, space time, and catalyst regeneration on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,600-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,800-2,000 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 23-27 v% hydrogen, 36-41 v% CO, 10-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 30-180 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-150 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is mai

K. C. Kwon

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

304

Oceanic Trace Gases Numeric Data Packages from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

CDIAC products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Most data sets or packages, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. CDIAC lists the following numeric data packages under the broad heading of Oceanic Trace Gases: Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained during the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16S_2005 ( 01/11/05 - 022405) • Determination of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Parameters during the R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer Cruise in the Southern Indian Ocean (WOCE Section S04I, 050396 - 070496) • Inorganic Carbon, Nutrient, and Oxygen Data from the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16N_2003a (060403 – 081103) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Maurice Ewing Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A17, 010494 - 032194) • Global Ocean Data Analysis Project GLODAP: Results and Data • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Knorr Cruises in the North Atlantic Ocean on WOCE Sections AR24 (1102 – 120596) and A24, A20, and A22 (053097 – 090397) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic and Chemical Data Obtained During the Nine R/V Knorr Cruises Comprising the Indian Ocean CO2 Survey (WOCE Sections I8SI9S, I9N, I8NI5E, I3, I5WI4, I7N, I1, I10, and I2; 120 194 – 012296) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 28/1 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A8, 032994 - 051294) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Knorr Cruise 138-3, -4, and -5 in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P6E, P6C, and P6W, 050292 - 073092) • Global Distribution of Total Inorganic Carbon and Total Alkalinity below the deepest winter mixed layer depths • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V John V. Vickers Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P13, NOAA CGC92 Cruise, 080492 – 102192) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Hesperides Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A5, 071492 - 081592) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas G. Thompson Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P10, 100593 – 111093) • The International Intercomparison Exercise of Underway fCO2 Systems during the R/V Meteor Cruise 36/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained during the R/V Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A10, Dec. 1992-Jan, 1993) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C, R/V Knorr , Oct. 1992-April 1993) • Surface Water and Atmospheric Underway Carbon Data Obtained During the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Indian Ocean Survey Cruises (R/V Knorr, Dec. 1994 – Jan, 1996) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Akademik Ioffe Cruise in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section S4P, Feb.-April 1992) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-1 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE section P17C) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-3 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE section P16C) • Carbon-14 Measurements in Surface Water CO2 from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, 1965-1994 • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During R/V Meteor Cruise 18/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A1E) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained in the Central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P17S and P16S) during the TUNES-2 Expedition of the R/V Th

305

A Sensor System Based on Semi-Conductor Metal Oxide Technology for In Situ Detection of Coal Fired Combustion Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sensor Research and Development Corporation (SRD) proposed a two-phase program to develop a robust, autonomous prototype analyzer for in situ, real-time detection, identification, and measurement of coal-fired combustion gases and perform field-testing at an approved power generation facility. SRD developed and selected sensor materials showing selective responses to carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride. Sensor support electronics were also developed to enable prototype to function in elevated temperatures without any issues. Field-testing at DOE approved facility showed the ability of the prototype to detect and estimate the concentration of combustion by-products accurately with relatively low false-alarm rates at very fast sampling intervals.

Brent Marquis

2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

306

Thermogenic and secondary biogenic gases, San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico - Implications for coalbed gas producibility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this paper are to (1) describe the types and the major components of coalbed gases, (2) evaluate the variability of Fruitland coalbed gas composition across the basin, (3) assess factors affecting coalbed gas origin and composition, (4) determine the timing and extent of gas migration and entrapment, and (5) suggest application of these results to coalbed gas producibility. Data from more than 750 Fruitland coalbed gas wells were used to make gas-composition maps and to evaluate factors controlling gas origin. The gas data were divided into overpressured, underpressured, and transitional categories based on regional pressure regime. Also, [delta][sup 13]C isotopic values from 41 methane, 7 ethane and propane, 13 carbon dioxide, and 10 formation-water bicarbonate samples were evaluated to interpret gas origin. The data suggests that only 25-50% of the gas produced in the high-productivity fairway was generated in situ during coalification. 82 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

Scott, A.R.; Kaiser, W.R. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)); Ayers, W.B. Jr. (Taurus Exploration, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States))

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Methods of forming and using porous structures for energy efficient separation of light gases by capillary condensation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to an improved method and apparatus for separating one or more condensable compounds from a mixture of two or more gases of differing volatilities by capillary fractionation in a membrane-type apparatus, and a method of forming porous structures therefor. More particularly, the invention includes methods of forming and using an apparatus consisting, at least in part, of a porous structure having capillary-type passages extending between a plurality of small openings on the first side and larger openings on a second side of the structure, the passages being adapted to permit a condensed liquid to flow therethrough substantially by capillary forces, whereby vapors from the mixture are condensed, at least in part, and substantially in and adjacent to the openings on the first side, and are caused to flow in a condensed liquid state, substantially in the absence of vapor, from the openings on the first side to the openings on the second side.

Calamur, Narasimhan (Lemont, IL); Carrera, Martin E. (Naperville, IL); Devlin, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Archuleta, Tom (Espanola, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Phase-equilibria for design of coal-gasification processes: dew points of hot gases containing condensible tars. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research is concerned with the fundamental physical chemistry and thermodynamics of condensation of tars (dew points) from the vapor phase at advanced temperatures and pressures. Fundamental quantitative understanding of dew points is important for rational design of heat exchangers to recover sensible heat from hot, tar-containing gases that are produced in coal gasification. This report includes essentially six contributions toward establishing the desired understanding: (1) Characterization of Coal Tars for Dew-Point Calculations; (2) Fugacity Coefficients for Dew-Point Calculations in Coal-Gasification Process Design; (3) Vapor Pressures of High-Molecular-Weight Hydrocarbons; (4) Estimation of Vapor Pressures of High-Boiling Fractions in Liquefied Fossil Fuels Containing Heteroatoms Nitrogen or Sulfur; and (5) Vapor Pressures of Heavy Liquid Hydrocarbons by a Group-Contribution Method.

Prausnitz, J.M.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Transportation accounts for a quarter of the United States green house gases. With this statistic being so high and the need for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ethanol Transportation accounts for a quarter of the United States green house gases at alternative fuels. Ethanol has recently been gaining popularity throughout recent years for it's clean burning properties and its availability. Ethanol is produced from plant matter (i.e. corn, sugar cane, wheat, barley

Toohey, Darin W.

310

BIOMASS BURNING IN THE AMAZON: LINKS BETWEEN BURNING, SCIAMACHY TRACE GASES, AND AEROSOL AND SURFACE PROPERTIES FROM THE ORAC-AATSR RETRIEVAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BIOMASS BURNING IN THE AMAZON: LINKS BETWEEN BURNING, SCIAMACHY TRACE GASES, AND AEROSOL, OX1 3PU, UK 2: Science and Technology Facilities Council Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell://www.iup.uni-bremen.de/sciamachy/ · ESA (A)ATSR World Fire Atlas: http://dup.esrin.esa.it/ionia/wfa/index.asp · MODIS Fire and Thermal

Oxford, University of

311

C1000 Problem Set 4 (Draft 10/16/03; Menke) Frontiers of Science (C1000) Problem Set 4 on Energy Relevant to Green House Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Relevant to Green House Gases Energy is one of the key concepts for individual organisms and for industrial1 C1000 Problem Set 4 (Draft 10/16/03; Menke) Frontiers of Science (C1000) Problem Set 4 on Energy societies. Humans require energy derived from food consumption to sustain life. Our cells metabolize

Menke, William

312

Method of using a nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy standard. [SO/sub 2/ in gases by fluorescence  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

(CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/SiNSO is produced by the reaction of ((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/SI)/sub 2/NH with SO/sub 2/. Also produced in the reaction are ((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/Si)/sub 2/O and a new solid compound (NH/sub 4/)((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/SiOSO/sub 2/). Both (CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/SiNSO and (NH/sub 4/)((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/SiOSO/sub 2/) have fluorescent properties. The reaction of the subject invention is used in a method of measuring the concentration of SO/sub 2/ pollutants in gases. By the method, a sample of gas is bubbled through a solution of ((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/Si)/sub 2/NH, whereby any SO/sub 2/ present in the gas will react to produce the two fluorescent products. The measured fluorescence of these products can then be used to calculate the concentration of SO/sub 2/ in the original gas sample. The solid product (NH/sub 4/)((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/SiOSO/sub 2/) may be used as a standard in solid state NMR spectroscopy, wherein the resonance peaks of either /sup 1/H, /sup 13/C, /sup 15/N, or /sup 29/Si may be used as a reference.

Spicer, L.D.; Bennett, D.W.; Davis, J.F.

1983-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

313

Water injection as a means for reducing non-condensible andcorrosive gases in steam produced from vapor-dominated reservoirs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large-scale water injection at The Geysers, California, hasgenerated substantial benefits in terms of sustaining reservoir pressuresand production rates, as well as improving steam composition by reducingthe content of non-condensible gases (NCGs). Two effects have beenrecognized and discussed in the literature as contributing to improvedsteam composition, (1) boiling of injectate provides a source of "clean"steam to production wells, and (2) pressurization effects induced byboiling of injected water reduce upflow of native steam with large NCGconcentrations from depth. In this paper we focus on a possibleadditional effect that could reduce NCGs in produced steam by dissolutionin a condensed aqueous phase.Boiling of injectate causes pressurizationeffects that will fairly rapidly migrate outward, away from the injectionpoint. Pressure increases will cause an increase in the saturation ofcondensed phase due to vapor adsorption on mineral surfaces, andcapillary condensation in small pores. NCGs will dissolve in theadditional condensed phase which, depending upon their solubility, mayreduce NCG concentrations in residual steam.We have analyzed thepartitioning of HCl between vapor and aqueous phases, and have performednumerical simulations of injection into superheated vapor zones. Oursimulations provide evidence that dissolution in the condensed phase canindeed reduce NCG concentrations in produced steam.

Pruess, Karsten; Spycher, Nicolas; Kneafsey, Timothy J.

2007-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

314

Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GHGs emissions from sludge digestion + residue land use in China were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AD unit contributes more than 97% of total biogenic GHGs emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD with methane recovery is attractive for sludge GHGs emissions reduction. - Abstract: About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening + anaerobic digestion + dewatering + residue land application in China. Fossil CO{sub 2}, biogenic CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4,} and avoided CO{sub 2} as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO{sub 2}-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO{sub 2}), while the net CO{sub 2}-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO{sub 2}). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO{sub 2}-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO{sub 2}-eq reduction.

Niu Dongjie, E-mail: niudongjie@tongji.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); UNEP-Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Huang Hui [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Dai Xiaohu [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Urban Pollution Control, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhao Youcai [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

315

CANCELLED Molecular dynamics simulations of noble gases in liquidwater: Solvati on structure, self-diffusion, and kinetic isotopeeffect  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Despite their great importance in low-temperaturegeochemistry, self-diffusion coefficients of noble gas isotopes in liquidwater (D) have been measured only for the major isotopes of helium, neon,krypton and xenon. Data on the self-diffusion coefficients of minor noblegas isotopes are essentially non-existent and so typically are estimatedby a kinetic theory model in which D varies as the inverse square root ofthe isotopic mass (m): D proportional to m-0.5. To examine the validityof the kinetic theory model, we performed molecular dynamics (MD)simulations of the diffusion of noble gases in ambient liquid water withan accurate set of noble gas-water interaction potentials. Our simulationresults agree with available experimental data on the solvation structureand self-diffusion coefficients of the major noble gas isotopes in liquidwater and reveal for the first time that the isotopic mass-dependence ofall noble gas self-diffusion coefficients has the power-law form Dproportional to m-beta with 0

Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

2007-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

316

Black holes as gases of punctures with a chemical potential: Bose-Einstein condensation and logarithmic corrections to the entropy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the thermodynamical properties of black holes when described as gases of indistinguishable punctures with a chemical potential. In this picture, which arises from loop quantum gravity, the black hole microstates are defined by finite families of half-integers spins coloring the punctures, and the near-horizon energy measured by quasi-local stationary observers defines the various thermodynamical ensembles. The punctures carry excitations of quantum geometry in the form of quanta of area, and the total horizon area $a_\\text{H}$ is given by the sum of these microscopic contributions. We assume here that the system satisfies the Bose-Einstein statistics, and that each microstate is degenerate with a holographic degeneracy given by $\\exp\\big(\\lambda a_\\text{H}/\\ell_\\text{Pl}^2\\big)$ and $\\lambda>0$. We analyze in detail the thermodynamical properties resulting from these inputs, and in particular compute the grand canonical entropy. We explain why the requirements that the temperature be fixed to the Unruh temperature and that the chemical potential vanishes do not specify completely the semi-classical regime of large horizon area, and classify in turn what the various regimes can be. When the degeneracy saturates the holographic bound ($\\lambda=1/4$), there exists a semi-classical regime in which the subleading corrections to the entropy are logarithmic. Furthermore, this regime corresponds to a Bose-Einstein condensation, in the sense that it is dominated by punctures carrying the minimal (or ground state) spin value $1/2$.

Olivier Asin; Jibril Ben Achour; Marc Geiller; Karim Noui; Alejandro Perez

2014-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

317

Formation and control of fuel-nitrogen pollutants in catalytic combustion of coal-derived gases. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program has been the elucidation of the mechanism of high temperature catalytic oxidation of coal-derived gases, including their individual constituents,and the effects of sulfur and nitrogen impurities. Detailed experimental data were obtained and a two-dimensional model is being developed and tested by comparison with the experimental data. When complete, the model can be used to optimize designs of catalytic combustors. The model at present includes axial and radial diffusion and gas and surface chemical reactions. Measured substrate temperatures are input in lieu of complete coupling of gas and solid energy conservation equations and radiative heat transfer. Axial and radial gas temperature and composition profiles inside a catalyst channel were computed and compared with experimental measurements at the catalyst outlet. Experimental investigations were made of carbon monoxide and medium-Btu gas combustion in the presence of platinum supported on a monolithic Cordierite substrate. Axial profiles of substrate temperature, gas temperature, and gas composition were determined at different gas velocities and equivalence ratios. The effects of H/sub 2/S and NH/sub 3/ in the medium-Btu gas were also investigated. Systems were proposed for making resonance absorption and Raman scattering measurements of gas temperature and/or species concentrations in a catalytic reactor. A new pulsed multipass Raman scattering technique for increasing photon yield from a scattering volume was developed.

Walsh, P. M.; Bruno, C.; Santavicca, D. A.; Bracco, F. V.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Program plan for evaluation and remediation of the generation and release of flammable gases in Hanford Site waste tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program plan describes the activities being conducted for the resolution of the flammable gas problem that is associated with 23 high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The classification of the wastes in all of these tanks is not final and some wastes may not be high-level wastes. However, until the characterization and classification is complete, all the tanks are treated as if they contain high-level waste. Of the 23 tanks, Tank 241-SY-101 (referred to as Tank 101-SY) has exhibited significant episodic releases of flammable gases (hydrogen and nitrous oxide) for the past 10 years. The major near-term focus of this program is for the understanding and stabilization of this tank. An understanding of the mechanism for gas generation and the processes for the episodic release will be obtained through sampling of the tank contents, laboratory studies, and modeling of the tank behavior. Additional information will be obtained through new and upgraded instrumentation for the tank. A number of remediation, or stabilization, concepts will be evaluated for near-term (2 to 3 years) applications to Tank 101-SY. Detailed safety assessments are required for all activities that will occur in the tank (sampling, removal of equipment, and addition of new instruments). This program plan presents a discussion of each task, provides schedules for near-term activities, and gives a summary of the expected work for fiscal years 1991, 1992, and 1993. 16 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

Johnson, G.D. (comp.)

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

A density functional theory study of magneto-electric Jones birefringence of noble gases, furan homologues, and mono-substituted benzenes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the results of a systematic ab initio study of the Jones birefringence of noble gases, of furan homologues, and of monosubstituted benzenes, in the gas phase, with the aim of analyzing the behavior and the trends within a list of systems of varying size and complexity, and of identifying candidates for a combined experimental/theoretical study of the effect. We resort here to analytic linear and nonlinear response functions in the framework of time-dependent density functional theory. A correlation is made between the observable (the Jones constant) and the atomic radius for noble gases, or the permanent electric dipole and a structure/chemical reactivity descriptor as the para Hammett constant for substituted benzenes.

Fahleson, Tobias; Norman, Patrick, E-mail: panor@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Coriani, Sonia, E-mail: coriani@units.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Universitŕ degli Studi di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Rizzo, Antonio, E-mail: rizzo@ipcf.cnr.it [CNR - Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per i Processi Chimico Fisici (IPCF-CNR), UOS di Pisa, I-56124 Pisa (Italy); Rikken, Geert L. J. A., E-mail: geert.rikken@lncmi.cnrs.fr [Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses, UPR3228, CNRS/INSA/UJF/UPS, Toulouse and Grenoble (France)

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

320

Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation. The measurement phase of the MILAGRO Campaign was successfully completed in March 2006 with excellent participation from the international scientific community and outstanding cooperation from the Mexican government agencies and institutions. The project reported here was led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Molina Center for Energy and the Environment (MIT/MCE2) team and coordinated with DOE/ASP-funded collaborators at Aerodyne Research Inc., University of Colorado at Boulder and Montana State University. Currently 24 papers documenting the findings from this project have been published. The results from the project have improved significantly our understanding of the meteorological and photochemical processes contributing to the formation of ozone, secondary aerosols and other pollutants. Key findings from the MCMA-2003 include a vastly improved speciated emissions inventory from on-road vehicles: the MCMA motor vehicles produce abundant amounts of primary PM, elemental carbon, particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and a wide range of air toxics; the feasibility of using eddy covariance techniques to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds in an urban core and a valuable tool for validating local emissions inventory; a much better understanding of the sources and atmospheric loadings of volatile organic compounds; the first spectroscopic detection of glyoxal in the atmosphere; a unique analysis of the high fraction of ambient formaldehyde from primary emission sources; characterization of ozone formation and its sensitivity to VOCs and NOx; a much more extensive knowledge of the composition, size distribution and atmospheric mass loadings of both primary and secondary fine PM, including the fact that the rate of MCMA SOA production greatly exceeded that predicted by current atmospheric models; evaluations of significant errors that can arise from standard air quality monitors for O3 and NO2; and the implementation of an innovative Markov Chain Monte Carlo method for inorganic aerosol modeling as a powerful tool to analyze aerosol data and predict gas phase concentrations where these are unavailable. During the MILAGRO Campaign the collaborative team utilized a combination of central fixed sites and a mobile laboratory deployed throughout the MCMA to representative urban and boundary sites to measure trace gases and fine particles. Analysis of the extensive 2006 data sets has confirmed the key findings from MCMA-2002/2003; additionally MCMA-2006 provided more detailed gas and aerosol chemistry and wider regional scale coverage. Key results include an updated 2006 emissions inventory; extension of the flux system to measure fluxes of fine particles; better understanding of the sources and apportionment of aerosols, including contribution from biomass burning and industrial sources; a comprehensive evaluation of metal containing particles in a complex urban environment; identification of a close correlation between

Luisa T. Molina, Rainer Volkamer, Benjamin de Foy, Wenfang Lei, Miguel Zavala, Erik Velasco; Mario J. Molina

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydrocar bon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Phase 3. Engineering development. Annual report, April 1, 1995--May 15, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Refineries discharge large volumes of H2, CO, and CO 2 from cracking, coking, and hydrotreating operations. This R&D program seeks to develop, demonstrate, and commercialize a biological process for converting these waste gases into ethanol for blending with gasoline. A 200,000 BPD refinery could produce up to 38 million gallons ethanol per year. The program is being conducted in 3 phases: II, technology development; III, engineering development; and IV, demonstration. Phase I, exploratory development, has been completed. The research effort has yielded two strains (Isolates O-52 and C-01) which are to be used in the pilot studies to produce ethanol from CO, CO2, and H2 in petroleum waste gas. Results from single continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) laboratory tests have shown that 20-25 g/L ethanol can be produced with < 5 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Laboratory studies with two CSTRs in series have yielded ethanol concentrations of 30-35 g/L with 2-4 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Water recycle from distillation back to the fermenter shows that filtration of the water before distillation eliminates the recycle of toxic materials back to the fermenter. Product recovery in the process will use direct distillation to the azeotrope, followed by adsorption to produce neat ethanol. This is less energy intensive than e.g. solvent extraction, azeotropic distillation, or pervaporation. Economic projections are quite attractive; the economics are refinery stream dependent and thus vary depending on refinery location and operation.

Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C; Gaddy, J.L.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Experimental validation of the dual positive and negative ion beam acceleration in the plasma propulsion with electronegative gases thruster  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The PEGASES (Plasma Propulsion with Electronegative Gases) thruster is a gridded ion thruster, where both positive and negative ions are accelerated to generate thrust. In this way, additional downstream neutralization by electrons is redundant. To achieve this, the thruster accelerates alternately positive and negative ions from an ion-ion plasma where the electron density is three orders of magnitude lower than the ion densities. This paper presents a first experimental study of the alternate acceleration in PEGASES, where SF{sub 6} is used as the working gas. Various electrostatic probes are used to investigate the source plasma potential and the energy, composition, and current of the extracted beams. We show here that the plasma potential control in such system is key parameter defining success of ion extraction and is sensitive to both parasitic electron current paths in the source region and deposition of sulphur containing dielectric films on the grids. In addition, large oscillations in the ion-ion plasma potential are found in the negative ion extraction phase. The oscillation occurs when the primary plasma approaches the grounded parts of the main core via sub-millimetres technological inputs. By controlling and suppressing the various undesired effects, we achieve perfect ion-ion plasma potential control with stable oscillation-free operation in the range of the available acceleration voltages (±350?V). The measured positive and negative ion currents in the beam are about 10?mA for each component at RF power of 100?W and non-optimized extraction system. Two different energy analyzers with and without magnetic electron suppression system are used to measure and compare the negative and positive ion and electron fluxes formed by the thruster. It is found that at alternate ion-ion extraction the positive and negative ion energy peaks are similar in areas and symmetrical in position with +/? ion energy corresponding to the amplitude of the applied acceleration voltage.

Rafalskyi, Dmytro, E-mail: dmytro.rafalskyi@lpp.polytechnique.fr; Popelier, Lara; Aanesland, Ane [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris-Sud, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

323

The solvation radius of silicate melts based on the solubility of noble gases and scaled particle theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The existing solubility data on noble gases in high-temperature silicate melts have been analyzed in terms of Scaling Particle Theory coupled with an ab initio assessment of the electronic, dispersive, and repulsive energy terms based on the Polarized Continuum Model (PCM). After a preliminary analysis of the role of the contracted Gaussian basis sets and theory level in reproducing appropriate static dipole polarizabilities in a vacuum, we have shown that the procedure returns Henry's law constants consistent with the values experimentally observed in water and benzene at T = 25?°C and P = 1 bar for the first four elements of the series. The static dielectric constant (?) of the investigated silicate melts and its optical counterpart (?{sup ?}) were then resolved through the application of a modified form of the Clausius-Mossotti relation. Argon has been adopted as a probe to depict its high-T solubility in melts through an appropriate choice of the solvent diameter ?{sub s}, along the guidelines already used in the past for simple media such as water or benzene. The ?{sub s} obtained was consistent with a simple functional form based on the molecular volume of the solvent. The solubility calculations were then extended to He, Ne, and Kr, whose dispersive and repulsive coefficients are available from theory and we have shown that their ab initio Henry's constants at high T reproduce the observed increase with the static polarizability of the series element with reasonable accuracy. At room temperature (T = 25?°C) the calculated Henry's constants of He, Ne, Ar, and Kr in the various silicate media predict higher solubilities than simple extrapolations (i.e., Arrhenius plots) based on high-T experiments and give rise to smooth trends not appreciably affected by the static polarizabilities of the solutes. The present investigation opens new perspectives on a wider application of PCM theory which can be extended to materials of great industrial interest at the core of metallurgical processes, ceramurgy, and the glass industry.

Ottonello, Giulio, E-mail: giotto@dipteris.unige.it [DISTAV, Universitŕ di Genova, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genova (Italy)] [DISTAV, Universitŕ di Genova, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genova (Italy); Richet, Pascal [Institut de Physique du Globe, Rue Jussieu 2, 75005 Paris (France)] [Institut de Physique du Globe, Rue Jussieu 2, 75005 Paris (France)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

324

Chapter 22 Greenhouse Gases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

water vapor (the most abundant GHG) accounts for the largest percentage of the greenhouse effect. However, water vapor concentrations fluctuate regionally, and human activity...

325

Chapter 22 Greenhouse Gases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation SitesStanding FriedelIron-Sulfur3-1 November 2012 Words2-11-1

326

Carbon Bearing Trace Gases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformationCenterResearchCASL Symposium: CelebratingMissionat

327

Removal of Particles and Acid Gases (SO2 or HCl) with a Ceramic Filter by Addition of Dry Sorbents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present investigation intends to add to the fundamental process design know-how for dry flue gas cleaning, especially with respect to process flexibility, in cases where variations in the type of fuel and thus in concentration of contaminants in the flue gas require optimization of operating conditions. In particular, temperature effects of the physical and chemical processes occurring simultaneously in the gas-particle dispersion and in the filter cake/filter medium are investigated in order to improve the predictive capabilities for identifying optimum operating conditions. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH){sub 2}) are known as efficient sorbents for neutralizing acid flue gas components such as HCl, HF, and SO{sub 2}. According to their physical properties (e.g. porosity, pore size) and chemical behavior (e.g. thermal decomposition, reactivity for gas-solid reactions), optimum conditions for their application vary widely. The results presented concentrate on the development of quantitative data for filtration stability and overall removal efficiency as affected by operating temperature. Experiments were performed in a small pilot unit with a ceramic filter disk of the type Dia-Schumalith 10-20 (Fig. 1, described in more detail in Hemmer 2002 and Hemmer et al. 1999), using model flue gases containing SO{sub 2} and HCl, flyash from wood bark combustion, and NaHCO{sub 3} as well as Ca(OH){sub 2} as sorbent material (particle size d{sub 50}/d{sub 84} : 35/192 {micro}m, and 3.5/16, respectively). The pilot unit consists of an entrained flow reactor (gas duct) representing the raw gas volume of a filter house and the filter disk with a filter cake, operating continuously, simulating filter cake build-up and cleaning of the filter medium by jet pulse. Temperatures varied from 200 to 600 C, sorbent stoichiometric ratios from zero to 2, inlet concentrations were on the order of 500 to 700 mg/m{sup 3}, water vapor contents ranged from zero to 20 vol%. The experimental program with NaHCO{sub 3} is listed in Table 1. In addition, model calculations were carried out based on own and published experimental results that estimate residence time and temperature effects on removal efficiencies.

Hemmer, G.; Kasper, G.; Wang, J.; Schaub, G.

2002-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

328

Absolute cross sections for electron loss, electron capture, and multiple ionization in collisions of C{sup 3+} with noble gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Absolute charge-state-correlated cross sections for projectile electron loss, electron capture, and target multiple ionization in collisions between C{sup 3+} ions and noble gases have been measured for energies between 1.3 and 3.5 MeV. The data have been compared with other similar absolute cross sections existent in the literature for several projectiles. Calculations for the single-loss-multiple-ionization channel have been performed for the screening mode, using both an extended version of the classical-impulse free-collision model and the plane-wave Born approximation (PWBA), and for the antiscreening mode within the PWBA. The energy dependence of the average number of target active electrons which contribute to the antiscreening has been described by means of a simple function, which is ''universal'' for noble gases but, in principle, projectile dependent. A method has been developed to obtain the number of active target electrons for each subshell in the high-velocity regime, which presented physically reasonable results. Analyses of the dependences of the single-capture and transfer-ionization (SC and TI, respectively) processes on the projectile charge states showed that, for He, equally charged bare and dressed projectiles have very similar cross sections; the latter thus acting as structureless point charges. A behavior similar to that in the SC has been observed for the pure single ionization of He by projectiles with different charge states and of the other noble gases by singly charged projectiles. It has been shown that the q{sup 2} dependence of the pure-single and total-ionization cross sections, predicted by first-order models, is only valid for high-collision velocities. For slower collisions, the electron capture process becomes more relevant and competes with the ionization channel, a feature which grows in importance as the projectile charge state increases.

Santos, A. C. F.; Sant'Anna, M. M.; Montenegro, E. C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21945-970 (Brazil); Sigaud, G. M. [Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 38071, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 22452-970 (Brazil); Melo, W. S. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG 36036-330 (Brazil)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

329

Adsorption and Separation of Light Gases on an Amino-Functionalized Metal–Organic Framework: An Adsorption and In Situ XRD Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al) metal-organic framework was studied for its use in the separation of CO{sub 2} from CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2} C{sub 2}H{sub 6} and C{sub 3}H{sub 8} mixtures. Isotherms of methane, ethane, propane, hydrogen, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2} were measured. The atypical shape of these isotherms is attributed to the breathing properties of the material, in which a transition from a very narrow pore form to a narrow pore form and from a narrow pore form to a large pore form occurs, depending on the total pressure and the nature of the adsorbate, as demonstrated by in-situ XRD patterns measured during adsorption. Apart from CO{sub 2}, all tested gases interacted weakly with the adsorbent. As a result, they are excluded from adsorption in the narrow pore form of the material at low pressure. CO{sub 2} interacted much more strongly and was adsorbed in significant amounts at low pressure. This gives the material excellent properties to separate CO{sub 2} from other gases. The separation of CO{sub 2} from methane, nitrogen, hydrogen, or a combination of these gases has been demonstrated by breakthrough experiments using pellets of NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al). The effect of total pressure (1-30 bar), gas composition, temperature (303-403 K) and contact time has been examined. In all cases, CO{sub 2} was selectively adsorbed, whereas methane, nitrogen, and hydrogen nearly did not adsorb at all. Regeneration of the adsorbent by thermal treatment, inert purge gas stripping, and pressure swing has been demonstrated. The NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al) pellets retained their selectivity and capacity for more than two years.

Couck S.; Stavitski E.; Gobehiya, E.; Kirschhock, C.E.A.; Serra-Crespo, P.; Juan-Alcaniz, J.; Martinez Joaristi, A.; Gascon, J.; Kapteijn, F.; Baron, G. V.; Denayer J.F.M.

2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

330

Development of Nano-crystalline Doped-Ceramic Enabled Fiber Sensors for High Temperature In-Situ Monitoring of Fossil Fuel Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a final technical report for the first project year from July 1, 2005 to Jan 31, 2012 for DoE/NETL funded project â??DE-FC26-05NT42439: Development of Nanocrystalline Doped-Ceramic Enabled Fiber Sensors for High Temperature In-Situ Monitoring of Fossil Fuel Gases.â?ť This report summarizes the technical progresses and achievements towards the development of novel nanocrystalline doped ceramic material-enabled optical fiber sensors for in situ and real time monitoring the gas composition of flue or hot gas streams involved in fossil-fuel based power generation and hydrogen production.

Hai Xiao; Junhang Dong; Jerry Lin; Van Romero

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

331

Final report on activities and findings under DOE grant “Interactive Photochemistry in Earth System Models to Assess Uncertainty in Ozone and Greenhouse Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric chemistry controls the abundances and hence climate forcing of important greenhouse gases including N2O, CH4, HFCs, CFCs, and O3. Attributing climate change to human activities requires, at a minimum, accurate models of the chemistry and circulation of the atmosphere that relate emissions to abundances. This DOE-funded research provided realistic, yet computationally optimized and affordable, photochemical modules to the Community Earth System Model (CESM) that augment the CESM capability to explore the uncertainty in future stratospheric-tropospheric ozone, stratospheric circulation, and thus the lifetimes of chemically controlled greenhouse gases from climate simulations. To this end, we have successfully implemented Fast-J (radiation algorithm determining key chemical photolysis rates) and Linoz v3.0 (linearized photochemistry for interactive O3, N2O, NOy and CH4) packages in LLNL-CESM and for the first time demonstrated how change in O2 photolysis rate within its uncertainty range can significantly impact on the stratospheric climate and ozone abundances. From the UCI side, this proposal also helped LLNL develop a CAM-Superfast Chemistry model that was implemented for the IPCC AR5 and contributed chemical-climate simulations to CMIP5.

Prather, Michael J. [UCI

2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

332

Energy and materials savings from gases and solid waste recovery in the iron and steel industry in Brazil: An industrial ecology approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper attempts to investigate, from an entropic point of view, the role of selected technologies in the production, transformation, consumption and release of energy and materials in the Iron and Steel Industry in Brazil. In a quantitative analysis, the potential for energy and materials savings with recovery of heat, gases and tar are evaluated for the Iron and Steel Industry in Brazil. The technologies for heat recovery of gases include Coke Dry Quenching (CDQ), applied only in one of the five Brazilian coke integrated steel plants, Top Gas Pressure Recovery Turbines (TPRT), recovery of Coke Oven Gas (COG), recovery of Blast Furnace Gas (BFG), recovery of BOF gas, recovery of tar, and thermal plant. Results indicate that, in a technical scenario, some 5.1 TWh of electricity can be generated if these technologies are applied to recover these remaining secondary fuels in the Iron and Steel Industry in Brazil, which is equivalent to some 45% of current total electricity consumption in the integrated plants in the country. Finally, solid waste control technologies, including options available for collection and treatment, are discussed. Estimates using the best practice methodology show that solid waste generation in the Iron and Steel Industry in Brazil reached approximately 18 million metric tons in 1994, of which 28% can be recirculated if the best practice available in the country is applied thoroughly.

Costa, M.M.; Schaeffer, R.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Personal Visualization and Personal Visual Dandan Huang, Melanie Tory, Bon Adriel Aseniero, Lyn Bartram, Scott Bateman, Sheelagh Carpendale,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

data relevant to their personal lives, interests, and needs. Index Terms--Taxonomy, personal context such as water, electricity use) are easily available to us. These data are relevant to our personal lives) involves the design of interactive visual data representations for use in a personal context, and Personal

Tory, Melanie

334

Berlin, le 25 janvier 2007 Evaluation et politiques: Y a-t-il de bons indicateurs pour la recherche?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(derived from the works of Amartya Sen). Then I try to apply these conceptions towards research evaluation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

335

Combining boron isotopes and carbamazepine to trace sewage in salinized groundwater: a case study in Cap Bon, Tunisia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

treatment and so recognized as a pertinent tracer of wastewater contamination. The system equilibrium of Research in Rural Engineering of Water and Forestry), rue HĂ©di Karray, B.P.10- 2080 Ariana, Tunisia based on a managed aquifer recharge with treated wastewater. Water quality monitoring was implemented

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

336

VOLUME 93 NUMBER 23 5 JUNE 2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and were designed to track pollutant gases such as sulfur dioxide, ozone, nitric acid, and nitrogen dioxide, rainfall, and the concentration of car- bon dioxide [New et al., 1999; Tans et al., 1996 regional networks together to measure the fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and sen- sible heat

337

Screening of remote charge scattering sites from the oxide/silicon interface of strained Si two-dimensional electron gases by an intermediate tunable shielding electron layer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the strong screening of the remote charge scattering sites from the oxide/semiconductor interface of buried enhancement-mode undoped Si two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs), by introducing a tunable shielding electron layer between the 2DEG and the scattering sites. When a high density of electrons in the buried silicon quantum well exists, the tunneling of electrons from the buried layer to the surface quantum well can lead to the formation of a nearly immobile surface electron layer. The screening of the remote charges at the interface by this newly formed surface electron layer results in an increase in the mobility of the buried 2DEG. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the minimum mobile electron density of the 2DEG occurs as well. Together, these effects can reduce the increased detrimental effect of interface charges as the setback distance for the 2DEG to the surface is reduced for improved lateral confinement by top gates.

Huang, Chiao-Ti, E-mail: chiaoti@princeton.edu; Li, Jiun-Yun; Chou, Kevin S.; Sturm, James C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton Institute for the Science and Technology of Materials, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

338

Non-invasive in situ plasma monitoring of reactive gases using the floating harmonic method for inductively coupled plasma etching application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The floating harmonic method was developed for in situ plasma diagnostics of allowing real time measurement of electron temperature (T{sub e}) and ion flux (J{sub ion}) without contamination of the probe from surface modification by reactive species. In this study, this novel non-invasive diagnostic system was studied to characterize inductively coupled plasma of reactive gases monitoring T{sub e} and J{sub ion} for investigating the optimum plasma etching conditions and controlling of the real-time plasma surface reaction in the range of 200-900 W source power, 10-100 W bias power, and 3-15 mTorr chamber pressure, respectively.

Lee, J. H.; Kim, M. J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Texas 75080 (United States); Yoon, Y. S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Texas 75080 (United States)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

339

Setup for in situ investigation of gases and gas/solid interfaces by soft x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a novel gas cell designed to study the electronic structure of gases and gas/solid interfaces using soft x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopies. In this cell, the sample gas is separated from the vacuum of the analysis chamber by a thin window membrane, allowing in situ measurements under atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the gas can be regulated from room temperature up to approximately 600?°C. To avoid beam damage, a constant mass flow can be maintained to continuously refresh the gaseous sample. Furthermore, the gas cell provides space for solid-state samples, allowing to study the gas/solid interface for surface catalytic reactions at elevated temperatures. To demonstrate the capabilities of the cell, we have investigated a TiO{sub 2} sample behind a mixture of N{sub 2} and He gas at atmospheric pressure.

Benkert, A., E-mail: andreas.benkert@kit.edu, E-mail: l.weinhardt@kit.edu [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-v.-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Universität Würzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Gemeinschaftslabor für Nanoanalytik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Blum, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), 4505 Maryland Parkway, Nevada 89154-4003 (United States) [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), 4505 Maryland Parkway, Nevada 89154-4003 (United States); Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Meyer, F. [Universität Würzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany)] [Universität Würzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Wilks, R. G. [Solar Energy Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)] [Solar Energy Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Yang, W. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bär, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), 4505 Maryland Parkway, Nevada 89154-4003 (United States) [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), 4505 Maryland Parkway, Nevada 89154-4003 (United States); Solar Energy Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Insitut für Physik und Chemie, Brandenburgische Technische Universität Cottbus-Senftenberg, Konrad-Wachsmann-Allee 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany); and others

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

340

Physical and chemical properties of the regional mixed layer of Mexico's Megapolis – Part II: Evaluation of measured and modeled trace gases and particle size distributions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study extends the work of Baumgardner et al. (2009) in which measurements of trace gases and particles at a remote, high-altitude mountain site 60 km from Mexico City were analyzed with respect to the origin of air masses. In the current evaluation, the temperature, water vapor, ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), acyl peroxy nitrate (APN) and particle size distributions (PSDs) of the mass concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and organic mass (OM) were simulated with the WRF-Chem chemical transport model and compared with the measurements at the mountain site. The model prediction of the diurnal trends of the gases were well correlated with the measurements before the regional boundary layer reached the measurement site but underestimated the concentrations after that time. The differences are caused by an overly rapid growth of the boundary layer by the model with too much dilution. There also appears to be more O3 produced by photochemical production, downwind of the emission sources, than predicted by the model. The measured and modeled PSDs compare very well with respect to their general shape and diameter of the peak concentrations. The spectra are log normally distributed with most of the mass in the accumulation mode and the geometric diameter centered at 200 ±20 nm, with little observed or predicted change with respect to the origin of the air mass or the time when the RBL is above the Altzomoni research. Only the total mass changed with time and air mass origin. The invariability of the average diameter of the accumulation mode suggests that there is very little growth of the particles by condensation or coagulation after six hours of aging downwind of the major sources of anthropogenic emissions in Mexico’s Megapolis.

Ochoa, Carlos; Baumgardner, Darrel; Grutter, M.; Allan, James D.; Fast, Jerome D.; Rappengluck, B.

2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydrocar bon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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341

DIRECT CONDENSATION OF FERROMAGNESIAN LIQUIDS FROM COSMIC GASES. D.S. Ebel1 and L.Grossman1,2, 1Department of the Geophysical Sciences, 5734 South Ellis Ave., 2Enrico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DIRECT CONDENSATION OF FERROMAGNESIAN LIQUIDS FROM COSMIC GASES. D.S. Ebel1 and L.Grossman1,2, 1, Chicago, IL 60637. Introduction. Wood [1] rejected the idea of direct condensation of liquids of chondrule composition by showing that forsterite could condense in equilibrium with a melt of its own composition from

Grossman, Lawrence

342

6When you heat a rubber band, it contracts. If you only know about point particles and ideal gases, this behavior is perplexing. But, a simple classical statistical mechanics model of a chain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gases, this behavior is perplexing. But, a simple classical statistical mechanics model of a chain for given N and M. Call the result (N,M). (b) Using Stirling's approximation in the form ln(N!) N ln(N) - N and extent R, in the regime Na >> R. Write down the expression for the free energy of the chain (in

Ha, Taekjip

343

Linear electric field frequency shift (important for next generation electric dipole moment searches) induced in confined gases by a magnetic field gradient  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The search for particle electric dipole moments (edm) represents a most promising way to search for physics beyond the standard model. A number of groups are planning a new generation of experiments using stored gases of various kinds. In order to achieve the target sensitivities it will be necessary to deal with the systematic error resulting from the interaction of the well-known $\\overrightarrow{v}\\times \\overrightarrow{E}$ field with magnetic field gradients (often referred to as the geometric phase effect (Commins, ED; Am. J. Phys. \\QTR{bf}{59}, 1077 (1991), Pendlebury, JM \\QTR{em}{et al;} Phys. Rev. \\QTR{bf}{A70}, 032102 (2004)). This interaction produces a frequency shift linear in the electric field, mimicking an edm. In this work we introduce an analytic form for the velocity auto-correlation function which determines the velocity-position correlation function which in turn determines the behavior of the frequency shift (Lamoreaux, SK and Golub, R; Phys. Rev \\QTR{bf}{A71}, 032104 (2005)) and show how it depends on the operating conditions of the experiment. We also discuss some additional issues.

Authors A. L. Barabanov; R. Golub; S. K. Lamoreaux

2006-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

344

Analysis of potential for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in municipal solid waste in Brazil, in the state and city of Rio de Janeiro  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? We constructed future scenarios of emissions of greenhouse gases in waste. ? Was used the IPCC methodology for calculating emission inventories. ? We calculated the costs of abatement for emissions reduction in landfill waste. ? The results were compared to Brazil, state and city of Rio de Janeiro. ? The higher the environmental passive, the greater the possibility of use of biogas. - Abstract: This paper examines potential changes in solid waste policies for the reduction in GHG for the country of Brazil and one of its major states and cities, Rio de Janeiro, from 2005 to 2030. To examine these policy options, trends in solid waste quantities and associated GHG emissions are derived. Three alternative policy scenarios are evaluated in terms of effectiveness, technology, and economics and conclusions posited regarding optimal strategies for Brazil to implement. These scenarios are been building on the guidelines for national inventories of GHG emissions (IPCC, 2006) and adapted to Brazilian states and municipalities’ boundaries. Based on the results, it is possible to say that the potential revenue from products of solid waste management is more than sufficient to transform the current scenario in this country into one of financial and environmental gains, where the negative impacts of climate change have created a huge opportunity to expand infrastructure for waste management.

Loureiro, S.M., E-mail: saulo@lima.coppe.ufrj.br [Department of Energy Planning, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68565, CEP 21949-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rovere, E.L.L., E-mail: emilio@ppe.ufrj.br [Department of Energy Planning, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68565, CEP 21949-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mahler, C.F., E-mail: mahler0503@yahoo.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68506, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

345

EDDY RESOLVING NUTRIENT ECODYNAMICS IN THE GLOBAL PARALLEL OCEAN PROGRAM AND CONNECTIONS WITH TRACE GASES IN THE SULFUR, HALOGEN AND NMHC CYCLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ecodynamics and the sea-air transfer of climate relevant trace gases are intimately coupled in the oceanic mixed layer. Ventilation of species such as dimethyl sulfide and methyl bromide constitutes a key linkage within the earth system. We are creating a research tool for the study of marine trace gas distributions by implementing coupled ecology-gas chemistry in the high resolution Parallel Ocean Program (POP). The fundamental circulation model is eddy resolving, with cell sizes averaging 0.15 degree (lat/long). Here we describe ecochemistry integration. Density dependent mortality and iron geochemistry have enhanced agreement with chlorophyll measurements. Indications are that dimethyl sulfide production rates must be adjusted for latitude dependence to match recent compilations. This may reflect the need for phytoplankton to conserve nitrogen by favoring sulfurous osmolytes. Global simulations are also available for carbonyl sulfide, the methyl halides and for nonmethane hydrocarbons. We discuss future applications including interaction with atmospheric chemistry models, high resolution biogeochemical snapshots and the study of open ocean fertilization.

S. CHU; S. ELLIOTT

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

LD Didactic GmbH . Leyboldstrasse 1 . D-50354 Huerth / Germany . Phone: (02233) 604-0 . Fax: (02233) 604-222 . e-mail: info@ld-didactic.de Kinetic theory of gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LD LD Didactic GmbH . Leyboldstrasse 1 . D-50354 Huerth / Germany . Phone: (02233) 604-0 . Fax: (02233) 604-222 . e-mail: info@ld-didactic.de P2.5.3.1 Physics Leaflets Heat Kinetic theory of gases of degrees of freedom of the gas molecules: Rf 2 1 CV = (VI) ©by LD Didactic GmbH Printed in the Federal

Allen, Roland E.

347

Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO[sub 2]; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO[sub 2] with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0 and 100 C at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environmentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed. 16 figs.

Chang, S.G.

1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

348

Chlorofluorocarbons, Sulfur Hexafluoride, and Dissolved Permanent Gases in Ground Water from Selected Sites In and Near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1994 - 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From July 1994 through May 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperations with the Department of Energy, sampled 86 wells completed in the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The wells were sampled for a variety of constituents including one- and two-carbon halocarbons. Concentrations of dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), and trichlorotrifluororoethane (CFC-113) were determined. The data will be used to evaluate the ages of ground waters at INEEL. The ages of the ground water will be used to determine recharge rates, residence time, and travel time of water in the Snake River Plain aquifer in and near INEEL. The chromatograms of 139 ground waters are presented showing a large number of halomethanes, haloethanes, and haloethenes present in the ground waters underlying the INEEL. The chromatograms can be used to qualitatively evaluate a large number of contaminants at parts per trillion to parts per billion concentrations. The data can be used to study temporal and spatial distribution of contaminants in the Snake River Plain aquifer. Representative compressed chromatograms for all ground waters sampled in this study are available on two 3.5-inch high density computer disks. The data and the program required to decompress the data can be obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey office at Idaho Falls, Idaho. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) concentrations were measured in selected wells to determine the feasibility of using this environmental tracer as an age dating tool of ground water. Concentrations of dissolved nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and methane were measured in 79 ground waters. Concentrations of dissolved permanent gases are tabulated and will be used to evaluate the temperature of recharge of ground water in and near the INEEL.

Busenberg, E.; Plummer, L.N.; Bartholomay, R.C.; Wayland, J.E.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Cyclic carbonation calcination studies of limestone and dolomite for CO{sub 2} separation from combustion flue gases - article no. 011801  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Naturally occurring limestone and dolomite samples, originating from different geographical locations, were tested as potential sorbents for carbonation/calcination based CO{sub 2} capture from combustion flue gases. Samples have been studied in a thermogravimetric analyzer under simulated flue gas conditions at three calcination temperatures, viz., 750{sup o}C, 875{sup o}C, and 930{sup o}C for four carbonation calcination reaction (CCR) cycles. The dolomite sample exhibited the highest rate of carbonation than the tested limestones. At the third cycle, its CO{sub 2} capture capacity per kilogram of the sample was nearly equal to that of Gotland, the highest reacting limestone tested. At the fourth cycle it surpassed Gotland, despite the fact that the CaCO{sub 3} content of the Sibbo dolomite was only 2/3 of that of the Gotland. Decay coefficients were calculated by a curve fitting exercise and its value is lowest for the Sibbo dolomite. That means, most probably its capture capacity per kilogram of the sample would remain higher well beyond the fourth cycle. There was a strong correlation between the calcination temperature, the specific surface area of the calcined samples, and the degree of carbonation. It was observed that the higher the calcination temperature, the lower the sorbent reactivity. For a given limestone/dolomite sample, sorbents CO{sub 2} capture capacity depended on the number of CCR cycles and the calcination temperature. According to the equilibrium thermodynamics, the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the calciner should be lowered to lower the calcination temperature. This can be achieved by additional steam supply into the calciner. Steam could then be condensed in an external condenser to single out the CO{sub 2} stream from the exit gas mixture of the calciner. A calciner design based on this concept is illustrated.

Senthoorselvan, S.; Gleis, S.; Hartmut, S.; Yrjas, P.; Hupa, M. [TUM, Garching (Germany)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

350

Turning greenhouse gases into gold  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

into an acidic solution of pyridine and CO2 and charging it with just 600 millivolts of electricity, the CO2 could be transformed into formic acid, formaldehyde and methanol. Now...

351

Method for detecting toxic gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is disclosed which is capable of detecting low concentrations of a pollutant or other component in air or other gas. This method utilizes a combination of a heating filament having a catalytic surface of a noble metal for exposure to the gas and producing a derivative chemical product from the component. An electrochemical sensor responds to the derivative chemical product for providing a signal indicative of the product. At concentrations in the order of about 1-100 ppm of tetrachloroethylene, neither the heating filament nor the electrochemical sensor is individually capable of sensing the pollutant. In the combination, the heating filament converts the benzyl chloride to one or more derivative chemical products which may be detected by the electrochemical sensor. 6 figures.

Stetter, J.R.; Zaromb, S.; Findlay, M.W. Jr.

1991-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

352

Improved correlations for retrograde gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . E-I GRACE Transformation of Ln(pressure), test correlation. . . . . E-2 GRACE Transformation of A'Z, test correlation. E-3 GRACE Transformation of CI, test correlation. F-4 GRACE Transformation of (CO2+H2S+C2+C5+C6], test correlation . . . F-5...

Crogh, Arne

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Curbing Greenhouse Gases: Agriculture's Role  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Kyoto results in more detail elsewhere in this issue. Emissions trading - Creating a market for emission rights Importantly, the Protocol encourages emissions trading. Emissions are limited by country emissions trading system, much like the trading scheme used in the U.S. acid #12;3 rain program. The total

McCarl, Bruce A.

354

Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickr Flickr Editor'sshortGeothermalGoGreen Engineering

355

Turning greenhouse gases into gold  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatusButlerTransportation6/14/11 Page 1 of

356

ARM - What are Greenhouse Gases?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmrAre the Effects of Global Warming? Outreach Home Outreach Home

357

Investigating and Using Biomass Gases  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe10 DOE VehicleStationary Fuel EnerNOC,FEDERALCost1

358

Climate VISION: Greenhouse Gases Information  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation In closing,-- Energy, science, and technology for theAdvanced CleanEnergyGHG

359

Thermomagnetic Force in Polyatomic Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

decreases as H/P is increased above about 500 Oe/Torr. Another difference in the two effects is that the SB effect is a universal function of H/P for the entire range of values covered. This does not appear to be true in the force effect. For NO... magnetic field also causes a de- crease in the shear viscosity of oxygen. These effects in Oz were later observed in NO and were extensively studied. It was observed that the trans- port coefficients decrease in a magnetic field 8, that the effect...

Larchez, M. E.; Adair, Thomas W.

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Preliminary simulations of planned experiments to study the impact of trace gases on the capacity of the Weyburn-Midale field to store carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CO{sub 2} stream injecting into the Weyburn-Midale field can be generally classified as a reducing stream with residual H{sub 2}S and low-molecular weight hydrocarbons. The composition of the CO{sub 2} gas stream from the Dakota Gasification Company is reported to be 95% CO{sub 2}, 4% hydrocarbons, and 1% H{sub 2}S by volume (Huxley 2006). In addition to the H{sub 2}S introduced at the injection wells, significant concentrations of H{sub 2}S are thought to have been produced in-situ by sulfate reducing bacteria from previous water floods for enhanced oil production. Produced gas compositions range in H{sub 2}S concentrations from 1 to 6 volume percent. The produced gas, including the trace impurities, is re-injected into the field. Although there is no evidence for inorganic reduction of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} to H{sub 2}S at the Weyburn-Midale field, Sitchler and Kazuba (2009) suggest that SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} can be inorganically reduced to elemental sulfur in highly reducing environments based on a natural analog study of the Madison Formation in Wyoming. They propose that elevated concentrations of CO{sub 2} dissolve anhydrite to produce the sulfate that is then reduced. Oxidizing CO{sub 2} streams with residual O{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} typical of streams captured from oxyfuel and post combustion processes are not presently an issue at the Weyburn-Midale field. However it is possible that the oxidizing CO{sub 2} streams may be injected in the future in carbonate reservoirs similar to the Weyburn-Midale field. To date there are few modeling and experimental studies that have explored the impact of impurity gases in CO{sub 2} streams targeted for geologic storage (Gale 2009). Jacquemet et al (2009) reviewed select geochemical modeling studies that explored the impact of SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S impurities in the waste streams (Gunter et al., 2000, Knauss et al., 2005, Xu et al., 2007). These studies collectively show that SO{sub 2} significantly reduces the pH when oxidized to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} causing enhanced dissolution of carbonate minerals and some sulfate mineral precipitation. Low pH results in higher mineral solubility and faster dissolution rates and is thought to enhance porosity and permeability near the injection well when trace amounts of SO{sub 2} is injected with CO{sub 2}. The impact of H{sub 2}S on storage reservoir performance appears to more subtle. Knauss et al (2005) report no significant impacts of injection of CO{sub 2} gas streams with and without H{sub 2}S (1 M Pascal H{sub 2}S + 8.4 M Pascal CO{sub 2}) in simulations of CO{sub 2} storage in the Frio sandstone formation. Geochemical reactions for H{sub 2}S impurities include enhance field alkalinity and reaction with iron bearing minerals that may delay breakthrough of H{sub 2}S relative to CO{sub 2}. Emberley et al. (2005) report that half of the alkalinity measured at monitoring wells at the Weyburn-Midale field is due to HS{sup -}. Schoonen and Xu (2004) report that H{sub 2}S can be sequestered as pyrite in sandstones and carbonates by dissolving iron hydroxides and iron-bearing clays. Similarly, Gunter et al (2000) propose the that siderite converts to iron sulfides when it is reacted with H{sub 2}S. The geochemical reactions between H{sub 2}S and iron bearing minerals together with the high solubility of H{sub 2}S relative to CO{sub 2} may contribute to the delayed break though of H{sub 2}S in experiments. A few core flood experiments have shown that the injection of supercritical CO{sub 2} into carbonate aquifers has the potential to significantly alter the porosity in the absence of trace gases such as SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S. Luquot and Gouze (2009) documented a 2% porosity increase in carbonate cores when rock-water interactions were transport limited and solution concentrations were closer to equilibrium and a 4% porosity increase when rock-water interactions were reaction limited and solution compositions were further from equilibrium. Similarly Le Guen et al (2007) used x-ray micro-tomography and geochemistry to show that porosity signific

Carroll, S; Hao, Y

2009-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydrocar bon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Detailed discussion of a linear electric field frequency shift (important for next generation) electric dipole moment searches) induced in confined gases by a magnetic field gradient: Implications for electric dipole moment experiments (II)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The search for particle electric dipole moments represents a most promising way to search for physics beyond the standard model. A number of groups are planning a new generation of experiments using stored gases of various kinds. In order to achieve the target sensitivities it will be necessary to deal with the systematic error resulting from the interaction of the well-known E x v field with magnetic field gradients (often referred to as the geometric phase effect [9,10]). This interaction produces a frequency shift linear in the electric field, mimicking an edm. In this work we introduce an analytic model for the correlation function which determines the behavior of the frequency shift [11], and show in detail how it depends on the operating conditions of the experiment. We also propose a method to directly measure ths correlation function under the exact conditions of a given experiment.

A. L. Barabanov; R. Golub; S. K. Lamoreaux

2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

362

Motion plan n in g for m ulti-robot assem bly M . BON ER T, L. H. SHU and B. BEN H ABIB  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-type optim ization problem s. H owever, in these augm ented TSPs (TSP+) , both the `sales- person' (a robot, Euclidean, Ch ebysh ev, prize collectin g an d tim e-depen - den t TSP variation s ( Dubowsky an d Blubaugh

Shu, Lily H.

363

US Army Corps of Engineers Portland District  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) 1,200 Steelhead Kelt passage at BON Passage behavior to inform decision on BON powerhouse priority

364

Zevenhoven & Kilpinen FLUE GASES and FUEL GASES 19.6.2001 2-1 Chapter 2 Flue gases and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, trace elements such as mercury and nickel, and super-toxics such as dioxins. All these compounds) and several other trace elements, acidic compounds such as HCl and HF, and dioxins/furans must be controlled

Zevenhoven, Ron

365

Modeling non-CO? greenhouse gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Although emissions of CO? are the largest anthropogenic contributor to the risks of climate change, other substances are important in the formulation of a cost-effective response. To provide improved facilities for addressing ...

Hyman, Robert C.

366

Photosensitive dopants for liquid noble gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In an ionization type detector for high energy radiation wherein the energy of incident radiation is absorbed through the ionization of a liquid noble gas and resulting free charge is collected to form a signal indicative of the energy of the incident radiation, an improvement comprising doping the liquid noble gas with photosensitive molecules to convert scintillation light due to recombination of ions, to additional free charge.

Anderson, David F. (Wheaton, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Reliable noninvasive measurement of blood gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to methods and apparatus for, preferably, determining non-invasively and in vivo at least two of the five blood gas parameters (i.e., pH, [HCO.sub.3.sup.- ], PCO.sub.2, PO.sub.2, and O.sub.2 sat.) in a human.

Thomas, Edward V. (Albuquerque, NM); Robinson, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Haaland, David M. (Albuquerque, NM); Alam, Mary K. (Cedar Crest, NM)

1997-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

368

Reliable noninvasive measurement of blood gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and apparatus for, preferably, determining noninvasively and in vivo at least two of the five blood gas parameters (i.e., pH, PCO.sub.2, [HCO.sub.3.sup.- ], PO.sub.2, and O.sub.2 sat.) in a human. The non-invasive method includes the steps of: generating light at three or more different wavelengths in the range of 500 nm to 2500 nm; irradiating blood containing tissue; measuring the intensities of the wavelengths emerging from the blood containing tissue to obtain a set of at least three spectral intensities v. wavelengths; and determining the unknown values of at least two of pH, [HCO.sub.3.sup.- ], PCO.sub.2 and a measure of oxygen concentration. The determined values are within the physiological ranges observed in blood containing tissue. The method also includes the steps of providing calibration samples, determining if the spectral intensities v. wavelengths from the tissue represents an outlier, and determining if any of the calibration samples represents an outlier. The determination of the unknown values is performed by at least one multivariate algorithm using two or more variables and at least one calibration model. Preferably, there is a separate calibration for each blood gas parameter being determined. The method can be utilized in a pulse mode and can also be used invasively. The apparatus includes a tissue positioning device, a source, at least one detector, electronics, a microprocessor, memory, and apparatus for indicating the determined values.

Thomas, Edward V. (Albuquerque, NM); Robinson, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Haaland, David M. (Albuquerque, NM); Alam, Mary K. (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Bifurcation Diagram for Compartmentalized Granular Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The bifurcation diagram for a vibro-fluidized granular gas in N connected compartments is constructed and discussed. At vigorous driving, the uniform distribution (in which the gas is equi-partitioned over the compartments) is stable. But when the driving intensity is decreased this uniform distribution becomes unstable and gives way to a clustered state. For the simplest case, N=2, this transition takes place via a pitchfork bifurcation but for all N>2 the transition involves saddle-node bifurcations. The associated hysteresis becomes more and more pronounced for growing N. In the bifurcation diagram, apart from the uniform and the one-peaked distributions, also a number of multi-peaked solutions occur. These are transient states. Their physical relevance is discussed in the context of a stability analysis.

Devaraj van der Meer; Ko van der Weele; Detlef Lohse

2001-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

Ideal Quantum Gases with Planck Scale Limitations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A thermodynamic system of non-interacting quantum particles changes its statistical distribution formulas if there is a universal limitation for the size of energetic quantum leaps (magnitude of quantum leaps smaller than Planck energy). By means of a restriction of the a priori equiprobability postulate one can reach a thermodynamic foundation of these corrected distribution formulas. The number of microstates is determined by means of a suitable counting method and combined with thermodynamics via the Boltzmann principle. The result is that, for particle energies that come close to the Planck energy, the thermodynamic difference between fermion and boson distribution vanishes. Both distributions then approximate a Boltzmann distribution. The wave and particle character of the quantum particles, too, can be influenced by choosing the size of the temperature and particle energy parameters relative to the Planck energy, as you can see from the associated fluctuation formulas. In the case of non-relativistic de...

Collier, Rainer

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

1939, pp. International Acetylene Association. Acetylene Transmission for Chemical Synthesis. Internat. Acetylene ASSOC., New York (no date), 40 pp. Jackson, J. L., and R....

372

Method for producing and treating coal gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of generating a de-sulphurized volatile matter and a relatively low Btu gas includes the initial step of pyrolyzing coal to produce volatile matter and a char. The volatile matter is fed to a first de-sulphurizer containing a de-sulphurizing agent to remove sulphur therefrom. At the same time, the char is gasified to produce a relatively low Btu gas. The low Btu gas is fed to a second de-sulphurizer containing the de-sulphurizing agent to remove sulphur therefrom. A regenerator is provided for removing sulphur from the de-sulphurizing agent. Portions of the de-sulphurizing agent are moved among the first de-sulphurizer, the second de-sulphurizer, and the regenerator such that the regenerator regenerates the de-sulphurizing agent. Preferably, the portions of the de-sulphurizing agent are moved from the second de-sulphurizer to the first de-sulphurizer, from the first de-sulphurizer to the regenerator, and from the regenerator to the second de-sulphurizer.

Calderon, Albert (P.O. Box 126, Bowling Green, OH 43402)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Perdido LF-Gase to Electricity  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

O N S L E A R N E D : C H A L L E N G E S A N D S U C C E S S E S Perdido LF-Gas to Electricity Escambia County, Florida Background Perdido LF Gas-to-Energy Project...

374

Zero sound in dipolar Fermi gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the propagation of sound in a homogeneous dipolar gas at zero temperature, which is known as zero sound. We find that undamped zero sound propagation is possible only in a range of solid angles around the direction of polarization of the dipoles. Above a critical dipole moment, we find an unstable mode, by which the gas collapses locally perpendicular to the dipoles' direction.

Ronen, Shai [JILA and Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, and Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Bohn, John L. [JILA and Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

Coulomb Gases and Ginzburg-Landau Vortices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

These are the lecture notes of a "Nachdiplomvorlesung" course taught at ETH Zurich in the Spring of 2013. They will appear in the EMS series Zurich Lectures in Advanced Mathematics.

Sylvia Serfaty

2014-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

376

EPA's Recent Advance Notice on Greenhouse Gases  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

authority for EPA to address air Provides statutory authority for EPA to address air pollution from mobile sources and mobile source fuels pollution from mobile sources...

377

Getter pump for hydrogen and hydrocarbon gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gettering device for hydrogen isotopes and gaseous hydrocarbons based on the interaction of a plasma and graphite used as cathodic material. The plasma is maintained at a current density within the range of about 1 to about 1000 mA/cm/sup 2/. The graphite may be heated to a temperature greater than 1000/degree/C. The new device offers high capacity, low noise, and gas species selectivity. 2 figs.

Hsu, Wen Ling

1987-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

378

Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecade Year-0 Year-18 2.415 - - -Cubic

379

Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Summary)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecade Year-0 Year-18 2.415 - - -Cubic8 2009 2010

380

ARM - Lesson Plans: Dissolved Gases in Water  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearch Related InformationAcid Rain Outreach Home RoomClimate

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydrocar bon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing ReservoirsYear-Month WeekReserves (Billion Cubic1.878 2.358

382

Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Summary)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing ReservoirsYear-Month WeekReserves (Billion Cubic1.878 2.358NA NA

383

Refinery Yield of Liquefied Refinery Gases  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in NonproducingAdditions to Capacity on Cokers Catalytic

384

Experiments with interacting Bose and Fermi gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the past few years, the study of trapped fermionic atoms evolved from the first cooling experiments which produced quantum degenerate samples to becoming one of the most exciting branches of current atomic physics ...

Stan, Claudiu Andrei

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicy andExsolutionFES Committees of9, 2011COMMERCIALBulletin 627

386

ARM - Danger of Increased Greenhouse Gases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformationbudapest Comments? We would love toContact Information Related LinksDaily Report

387

Green House Gases | The Ames Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Big Sky LearningGetGraphene's 3D Counterpart Print1,NSTARfromGreen House

388

Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - SeptemberMicroneedlesAdvancedJanuary 13, 2011Portal Energy ForPurchase,

389

How are greenhouse gases related to agriculture? Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

levels are causing Earth's average global temperature to rise. Consequently, we experience changes States. How will climate change affect Michigan field crop agriculture? Global warming is likely to bring naturally in the atmosphere and keep the Earth warm, allowing us to survive on Earth. Over the last 200

390

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Greenhouse Gases and  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 56623PrimarySelectedandForest(NAICSGlobal

391

Contribution aux nombrables de la tradition Bon po : l'Appendive de bsTan 'dzin Rin chen rgyal mtshan a la Sphere de Cristal des Dieux et des Demons de Shar rdza rin po che  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gsum rnam par 'byed palha gnyen shel sgong zhes bya ba). Inclus en ouverture du volume 14 [Pha] de lacollection, ce texte expose les principes fondamentaux, théoriques et prati-ques, qui animent les deux Phases (rim gnyis) de la pratique tantrique supé... strictementconforme ŕ ce qu'elle devrait ętre. Selon bsTan 'dzin Rin chen rgyal mtshanles préliminaires formant ce que l’on désigne comme l’entraînement destrois portes (sngon ‘gro sgo gsum sbyang ba)48 comprennent les éléments sui-vants : — pour le corps (lus), il...

Achard, Jean-Luc

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Spectroscopy and kinetics of combustion gases at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program involves two complementary activities: (1) development and application of cw ring dye laser absorption methods for sensitive detection of radical species and measurement of fundamental spectroscopic parameters at high temperatures; and (2) shock tube studies of reaction kinetics relevant to combustion. Species currently under investigation in the spectroscopic portion of the research include NO and CH{sub 3}; this has necessitated the continued operated at wavelengths in the range 210-230 nm. Shock tube studies of reaction kinetics currently are focussed on reactions involving CH{sub 3} radicals.

Hanson, R.K.; Bowman, C.T. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Semi-continuous detection of mercury in gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new method for the semi-continuous detection of heavy metals and metalloids including mercury in gaseous streams. The method entails mass measurement of heavy metal oxides and metalloid oxides with a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor having an uncoated substrate. An array of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors can be used where each sensor is for the semi-continuous emission monitoring of a particular heavy metal or metalloid.

Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA)

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

394

Helium Isotopes in Geothermal and Volcanic Gases of the Western...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

fluid as it flows eastward over the caldera. Decreasing Hecondensible-gas ( HeCO2) ratios accompanying this trend suggest that CO2 addition andor preferential helium...

395

Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

be qualitative criteria for the absence of a magmatic heat source. To first order, He(CO2 + H2S) ratios are inversely correlated with 3He4He and are consistent with a...

396

Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology: Editorial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Industrial Revolution from fossil fuels, which are the mainprojections are that fossil fuels will remain the dominantdisadvantage relative to fossil fuels which provide over 80%

Oldenburg, C.M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

"Phase Transitions of Binary Gases in Porous Materials" Menachem Sahler  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Methane, a valuable energy source, evolves in the pores of coal, however, is not released because of its a significantly higher affinity to be adsorbed by coal than does methane. At some given temperature and pressure into coal mines, methane is displaced and can be harvested as a fuel source upon release. Thusly

Mountziaris, T. J.

398

The safe use of low temperature liquefied gases 1. Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

signs 6. Materials and equipment 6.1 Liquid nitrogen, argon, oxygen and carbon dioxide 6.2 Liquid helium nitrogen, oxygen, argon and carbon dioxide into vacuum insulated tanks and evaporators (VITs and Vl dioxide TABLE 1 Property Oxygen (O2) Nitrogen (N2) Argon (Ar) Helium (He) Carbon dioxide (CO2) Molecular

Martin, Ralph R.

399

Method for the purification of noble gases, nitrogen and hydrogen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for the purification and collection of hydrogen isotopes in a flowing inert gaseous mixture containing impurities, wherein metal alloy getters having the capability of sorbing non-hydrogen impurities such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ammonia, nitrogen and water vapor are utilized to purify the gaseous mixture of impurities. After purification hydrogen isotopes may be more efficiently collected. A plurality of parallel process lines utilizing metal getter alloys can be used to provide for the continuous purification and collection of the hydrogen isotopes.

Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID); Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tuggle, Dale G. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Method for the purification of noble gases, nitrogen and hydrogen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are disclosed for the purification and collection of hydrogen isotopes in a flowing inert gaseous mixture containing impurities, wherein metal alloy getters having the capability of sorbing non-hydrogen impurities such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ammonia, nitrogen and water vapor are utilized to purify the gaseous mixture of impurities. After purification hydrogen isotopes may be more efficiently collected. A plurality of parallel process lines utilizing metal getter alloys can be used to provide for the continuous purification and collection of the hydrogen isotopes. 15 figs.

Baker, J.D.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Tuggle, D.G.

1997-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydrocar bon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

ARM Carbon Cycle Gases Flasks at SGP Site  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Data from flasks are sampled at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program ARM, Southern Great Plains Site and analyzed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA, Earth System Research Laboratory ESRL. The SGP site is included in the NOAA Cooperative Global Air Sampling Network. The surface samples are collected from a 60 m tower at the ARM SGP Central Facility, usually once per week in the afternoon. The aircraft samples are collected approximately weekly from a chartered aircraft, and the collection flight path is centered over the tower where the surface samples are collected. The samples are collected by the ARM and LBNL Carbon Project.

Biraud, Sebastien

402

ARM-LBNL-NOAA Flask Sampler for Carbon Cycle Gases  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Data from ccg-flasks are sampled at the ARM SGP site and analyzed by the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) as part of the NOAA Cooperative Global Air Sampling Network. Surface samples are collected from a 60m tower at the SGP Central Facility, usually once per week on one afternoon. The aircraft samples are collected approximately weekly from a chartered aircraft, and the collection flight path is centered over the tower where the surface samples are collected. Samples are collected by the ARM/LBNL Carbon Project. CO2 flask data contains measurements of CO2 concentration and CO2 stable isotope ratios (13CO2 and C18OO) from flasks collected at the SGP site. The flask samples are collected at 2m, 4m, 25m, and 60m along the 60m tower.

Torn, Margaret

403

Modeling shows that alternative soil management can decrease greenhouse gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

counties in 2000; and Kings County in 2003. Daily climatecarried out in two counties — Kings and Fresno, totaling

De Gryze, Steven; Albarracin, Maria Victoria; Catala-Luque, Rosa; Howitt, Richard E; Six, Johan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Quantifying, characterizing, and controlling information flow in ultracold atomic gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study quantum information flow in a model comprised of a trapped impurity qubit immersed in a Bose-Einstein-condensed reservoir. We demonstrate how information flux between the qubit and the condensate can be manipulated by engineering the ultracold reservoir within experimentally realistic limits. We show that this system undergoes a transition from Markovian to non-Markovian dynamics, which can be controlled by changing key parameters such as the condensate scattering length. In this way, one can realize a quantum simulator of both Markovian and non-Markovian open quantum systems, the latter ones being characterized by a reverse flow of information from the background gas (reservoir) to the impurity (system).

Haikka, P. [Turku Center for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland); McEndoo, S.; Maniscalco, S. [Turku Center for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland); SUPA, EPS/Physics, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH144AS (United Kingdom); De Chiara, G. [Fisica Teorica: Informacio i Fenomens Quantics, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Palma, G. M. [NEST Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, via Archirafi 36, I-90123 Palermo (Italy)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

405

Hydrodynamic Burnett equations for inelastic Maxwell models of granular gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The hydrodynamic Burnett equations and the associated transport coefficients are exactly evaluated for generalized inelastic Maxwell models. In those models, the one-particle distribution function obeys the inelastic Boltzmann equation, with a velocity-independent collision rate proportional to the $\\gamma$ power of the temperature. The pressure tensor and the heat flux are obtained to second order in the spatial gradients of the hydrodynamic fields with explicit expressions for all the Burnett transport coefficients as functions of $\\gamma$, the coefficient of normal restitution, and the dimensionality of the system. Some transport coefficients that are related in a simple way in the elastic limit become decoupled in the inelastic case. As a byproduct, existing results in the literature for three-dimensional elastic systems are recovered, and a generalization to any dimension of the system is given. The structure of the present results is used to estimate the Burnett coefficients for inelastic hard spheres.

Nagi Khalil; Vicente Garzó; Andrés Santos

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

406

Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportatio...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model AgencyCompany Organization: Argonne National Laboratory Focus Area: GHG Inventory Development Topics: Analysis Tools...

407

Thermodynamic formalism and localization in Lorentz gases and hopping models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The thermodynamic formalism expresses chaotic properties of dynamical systems in terms of the Ruelle pressure $\\psi(\\beta)$. The inverse-temperature like variable $\\beta$ allows one to scan the structure of the probability distribution in the dynamic phase space. This formalism is applied here to a Lorentz Lattice Gas, where a particle moving on a lattice of size $L^d$ collides with fixed scatterers placed at random locations. Here we give rigorous arguments that the Ruelle pressure in the limit of infinit e systems has two branches joining with a slope discontinuity at $\\beta = 1$. The low and high $\\beta$--branches correspond to localization of trajectories on respectively the ``most chaotic'' (highest density) region, and the ``most deterministic'' (lowest density) region, i.e. $\\psi(\\beta)$ is completely controlled by rare fluctuations in the distribution of scatterers on the lattice, and it does not carry any information on the global structure of the static disorder. As $\\beta$ approaches unity from either side, a localization-delocalization transition leads to a state where trajectories are extended and carry information on transport properties. At finite $L$ the narrow region around $\\beta = 1$ where the trajectories are extended scales as $(\\ln L)^{-\\alpha}$, where $\\alpha$ depends on the sign of $1-\\beta$, if $d>1$, and as $(L\\ln L)^{-1}$ if $d=1$. This result appears to be general for diffusive systems with static disorder, such as random walks in random environments or for the continuous Lorentz gas. Other models of random walks on disordered lattices, showing the same phenomenon, are discussed.

C. Appert; H. van Beijeren; M. H. Ernst; J. R. Dorfman

1996-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

408

Satellite Measurements of Trace Gases or Air Pollutants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;ACTIVE VS. PASSIVE REMOTE SENSING Passive Remote Sensing: Natural sources of radiation-located with receiver #12;Thermal Emission Measurements (IR, microwave) EARTH SURFACE I(To) Absorbing gas, HIRDLS Pros: · versa4lity (many species) · small field of view (nadir) · ver4

Dickerson, Russell R.

409

Carbon dioxide capture from power or process plant gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present invention are methods for removing preselected substances from a mixed flue gas stream characterized by cooling said mixed flue gas by direct contact with a quench liquid to condense at least one preselected substance and form a cooled flue gas without substantial ice formation on a heat exchanger. After cooling additional process methods utilizing a cryogenic approach and physical concentration and separation or pressurization and sorbent capture may be utilized to selectively remove these materials from the mixed flue gas resulting in a clean flue gas.

Bearden, Mark D; Humble, Paul H

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

410

Simulation of condensation systems in the presence of noncondensable gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transient 53 26 Core Liquid Temperature 56 27 Pressure in Hot Leg 57 28 Pressure in Core 58 29 Downcomer Liquid Tempera, ture 30 Reactor Vessel Upperhead Gas Temperature . 60 31 Gas Void Fraction in the Hot Leg 62 32 Gas Void Fractions in the Cold Leg... of the postulated containment cooling system for advanced reactors. Steam is produced in an airtight vessel in which air is present. The steam in the steam-air mixture is allowed to condense on the surface of s. copper cylinder through which coolant is passed...

Raja, Laxminarayan Lakshmana

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

411

An Effective Method of Accelerating Bose Gases Using Magnetic Coils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cloud. The condensate was accelerated and the transition from the pure super-radiant regime to the Bragg scattering regime appeared. Bloch oscillations of Bose-Einstein condensates with a certain velocity in one dimensional optical lattice was observed... .7? and 0.2?, respectively. Using QUIC trap apparently makes the control and cooling much easier compared to using other traps. The power source is TAKASAGO.s GP 35 ? 50R. It has two operating modes: constant voltage mode in which the stability can...

Lu, Haichang; Zhai, Yueyang; Pan, Ruizhi; Yang, Shifeng

2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

412

Reactive gases evolved during pyrolysis of Devonian oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Computer modeling of oil shale pyrolysis is an important part of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Oil Shale Program. Models containing detailed chemistry have been derived from an investigation of Colorado oil shale. We are currently attempting to use models to treat more completely reactions of nitrogen and sulfur compounds in the retort to better understand emissions. Batch retorting work on Devonian oil shale is proving particularly useful for this study of nitrogen/sulfur chemistry. Improved analytical methods have been developed to quantitatively determine reactive volatiles at the parts-per-million level. For example, the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQMS) is used in the chemical ionization (CI) mode to provide real-time analytical data on ammonia evolution as the shale is pyrolyzed. A heated transfer line and inlet ensure rapid and complete introduction of ammonia to the instrument by preventing water condensation. Ammonia and water release data suitable for calculating kinetic parameters have been obtained from a New Albany Shale sample. An MS/MS technique with the TQMS in the electron ionization (EI) mode allows hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, and certain trace organic sulfur compounds to be monitored during oil shale pyrolysis. Sensitivity and selectivity for these compounds have been increased by applying artificial intelligence techniques to tuning of the spectrometer. Gas evolution profiles (100 to 900/sup 0/C) are reported for hydrogen sulfide, water, ammonia, and trace sulfur species formed during pyrolysis of Devonian oil shale. Implications for retorting chemistry are discussed. 18 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Coburn, T.T.; Crawford, R.W.; Gregg, H.R.; Oh, M.S.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

automotive exhaust gases: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the environment and legislation introduced to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve resource efficiency, eco product design and manufacturing strategies have to be developed...

414

Femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering in pressurized gases in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

spectral ranges Vitaly Krylov, Olavi Ollikainen, and Urs P. Wild Physical Chemistry Laboratory, Swiss and with as much as 0.1 mJ of energy. We show that the SRS- generation threshold and conversion efficiency are due that generate high-intensity ultrashort pulses. This development has prompted renewed interest in tech- niques

Rebane, Aleks

415

Ceramic membrane reactor with two reactant gases at different pressures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a ceramic membrane reactor for syngas production having a reaction chamber, an inlet in the reactor for natural gas intake, a plurality of oxygen permeating ceramic slabs inside the reaction chamber with each slab having a plurality of passages paralleling the gas flow for transporting air through the reaction chamber, a manifold affixed to one end of the reaction chamber for intake of air connected to the slabs, a second manifold affixed to the reactor for removing the oxygen depleted air, and an outlet in the reaction chamber for removing syngas.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Mieville, Rodney L. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Nitrogen containing shielding gases for GTAW duplex stainless steels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The duplex stainless steel are alloys characterized as consisting of two phases; austenite and ferrite. As such, they combine the benefits of both phases i.e. good ductility and general corrosion resistance of austenite, but with improved stress corrosion cracking resistance and strength associate with ferrite. Carefully controlled manufacturing techniques are employed to produce this combination in roughly equal proportions to ensure optimum properties. The range of duplex alloys studied in this work covered both the standard grade (2205) and the latest generation of super duplex (2507) alloys; typical compositions are shown in Table 1. Although the standard duplex is the most commonly available and widely used, super duplexes, which are characterized by higher chromium, nickel, molybdenum and nitrogen contents, have even better corrosion properties and are finding increasing applications in the offshore industry. To benefit from the superior properties of duplex, it is vital that these alloys can be welded effectively and that the properties of the welded joint match those of the parent weld. The objective of the current investigation was to study the effect of nitrogen, in both the shielding and purge gas, on the weld metal nitrogen content, microstructure and corrosion resistance, with the eventual aim of recommending an effective shielding gas mixture for duplex stainless steels.

Creffield, G.K.; Cole, M.H.; Paciej, R.; Huang, W.; Urmston, S. [BOC Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

417

An Astrophysical View of Earth-Based Metabolic Biosignature Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microbial life on Earth uses a wide range of chemical and energetic resources from diverse habitats. An outcome of this microbial diversity is an extensive and varied list of metabolic byproducts. We review key points of ...

Seager, Sara

418

Methods and systems for remote detection of gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel systems and methods for remotely detecting at least one constituent of a gas via infrared detection are provided. A system includes at least one extended source of broadband infrared radiation and a spectrally sensitive receiver positioned remotely from the source. The source and the receiver are oriented such that a surface of the source is in the field of view of the receiver. The source includes a heating component thermally coupled to the surface, and the heating component is configured to heat the surface to a temperature above ambient temperature. The receiver is operable to collect spectral infrared absorption data representative of a gas present between the source and the receiver. The invention advantageously overcomes significant difficulties associated with active infrared detection techniques known in the art, and provides an infrared detection technique with a much greater sensitivity than passive infrared detection techniques known in the art.

Johnson, Timothy J. (Pasco, WA)

2007-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

419

Methods and systems for remote detection of gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel systems and methods for remotely detecting at least one constituent of a gas via infrared detection are provided. A system includes at least one extended source of broadband infrared radiation and a spectrally sensitive receiver positioned remotely from the source. The source and the receiver are oriented such that a surface of the source is in the field of view of the receiver. The source includes a heating component thermally coupled to the surface, and the heating component is configured to heat the surface to a temperature above ambient temperature. The receiver is operable to collect spectral infrared absorption data representative of a gas present between the source and the receiver. The invention advantageously overcomes significant difficulties associated with active infrared detection techniques known in the art, and provides an infrared detection technique with a much greater sensitivity than passive infrared detection techniques known in the art.

Johnson, Timothy J

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

420

Method and apparatus for measuring purity of noble gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for detecting impurities in a noble gas includes a detection chamber and a source of pulsed ultraviolet light. The pulse of the ultraviolet light is transferred into the detection chamber and onto a photocathode, thereby emitting a cloud of free electrons into the noble gas within the detection chamber. The cloud of electrons is attracted to the opposite end of the detection chamber by a high positive voltage potential at that end and focused onto a sensing anode. If there are impurities in the noble gas, some or all of the electrons within the cloud will bond with the impurity molecules and not reach the sensing anode. Therefore, measuring a lower signal at the sensing anode indicates a higher level of impurities while sensing a higher signal indicates fewer impurities. Impurities in the range of one part per billion can be measured by this device.

Austin, Robert (Largo, FL)

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydrocar bon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Remote NMR/MRI detection of laser polarized gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for remote NMR/MRI spectroscopy having an encoding coil with a sample chamber, a supply of signal carriers, preferably hyperpolarized xenon and a detector allowing the spatial and temporal separation of signal preparation and signal detection steps. This separation allows the physical conditions and methods of the encoding and detection steps to be optimized independently. The encoding of the carrier molecules may take place in a high or a low magnetic field and conventional NMR pulse sequences can be split between encoding and detection steps. In one embodiment, the detector is a high magnetic field NMR apparatus. In another embodiment, the detector is a superconducting quantum interference device. A further embodiment uses optical detection of Rb--Xe spin exchange. Another embodiment uses an optical magnetometer using non-linear Faraday rotation. Concentration of the signal carriers in the detector can greatly improve the signal to noise ratio.

Pines, Alexander; Saxena, Sunil; Moule, Adam; Spence, Megan; Seeley, Juliette A.; Pierce, Kimberly L.; Han, Song-I; Granwehr, Josef

2006-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

422

Sulfur Dioxide Treatment from Flue Gases Using a Biotrickling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

acid rain and adversely affect human health, livestock, and plants. Various methods exist to reduce SO2 I L I P Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, India 600 036 M A R

423

Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions through a measurable reduction of energy intensity. Energy efficiency evaluations and initiatives are implemented on the...

424

Thermodynamic and hydrodynamic behaviour of interacting Fermi gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

different excitation modes. I will also demonstrate how transport coefficients, for instance the spin drag, can be extracted from the numerical data. 3 Acknowledgements First and foremost thanks go to my Ph.D. supervisor Matthew Wingate who has intro- duced... that in the future we will continue to work together. Throughout my Ph.D. many people from the department have been a great help. I am especially grateful to Francis Bursa, Johannes Hofmann, Ron Horgan, Adrian Kent, Nick Manton and Stefan Meinel for many interesting...

Goulko, Olga

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

425

Intensive Sampling Of Noble Gases In Fluids At Yellowstone- I...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

< 3 times the air value. Authors B. M. Kennedy, M. A. Lynch, J. H. Reynolds and S. P. Smith Published Journal Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 1985 DOI 10.1016...

426

Theoretical Studies of the Dynamics of Gases at Organic Surfaces...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

derived from high-accuracy ab initio calculations. For inelastic collisions, standard harmonic forcefields with improved non-bonding terms reproduce experiments on rare gas, O2,...

427

arterial blood gases: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

this article we present a simple technique that utilizes the cross correlations between ECG signals and haemodynamic signals for the purpose of assessing signal quality and...

428

Cooling of hot gases by use of a spray tower  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

no effort to collect perfoz. mance data while main- taining the spray at the adiabatic saturation temperature of the air. In the experiments discussed herein, this was done in order to both improve the potential accuracy of the data and to simplify... at the entrance and at th. . throat oi' the venturi were connected by rubber tubing to a sensitive Meziam Company Yodel GP-5 inclined manometer, The maximum r. ading of this gauge was three inches of water while the cali- brationn intervals were 0. 02...

Pendleton, Elmer Lee

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

429

Flame Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes Using Low Calorific Value Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanostructures formed in diffusion flames of pure fuels [CH{sub 4}, C{sub 3}H{sub 8}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}] at different fuel flow rates have been analyzed. Synthesis samples have been also collected from diffusion flames of various fuel blends [H{sub 2}-CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}-CO, H{sub 2}-C{sub 3}H{sub 8}, H{sub 2}-C{sub 2}H{sub 2}] at different combustion conditions. SEM images of particulate samples collected from H{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} diffusion flames show formation of nanostructures. However, the formation of nanostructures only occurs at a narrow window of fuel compositions (< 10% H{sub 2} concentration in the mixture) and flow conditions (Jet Exit Reynolds number Re{sub j} = 200). At higher H{sub 2} concentration and flow velocity, formation of nanostructures diminishes and H{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} flames produce amorphous carbon and soot particles.

Jorge Camacho; Mahesh Subramanya; Ahsan R. Choudhuri

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

430

The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

of a variety of vehicle, fuel, and technology choices. Overview Measures the petroleum displacement and greenhouse gas emissions of medium and heavy-duty vehicles and...

431

EIA - Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed NewcatalystNeutron scattering characterizesAnalysis & Projections Glossary ›‹

432

West Virginia Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30NaturalThousandExtensions (Billion2008 2009 2010from Same Month

433

West Virginia Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30NaturalThousandExtensions (Billion2008 2009 2010from Same MonthFeet) Year

434

Wyoming Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30NaturalThousandExtensions (Billion2008Sep-14 Oct-14YearYearYearDecade Year-0

435

Wyoming Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30NaturalThousandExtensions (Billion2008Sep-14 Oct-14YearYearYearDecade

436

Nevada Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) in KansasYear Jan Feb

437

Nevada Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) in KansasYear Jan FebYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul

438

New Mexico Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) in KansasYearDecadeYear Jan Feb MarSameFeet) Decade

439

New Mexico Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) in KansasYearDecadeYear Jan Feb MarSameFeet)

440

North Dakota Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecadeDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2DecadeFeet)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydrocar bon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

North Dakota Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecadeDecade Year-0 Year-1

442

Oklahoma Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecadeDecadeFeet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2

443

Oklahoma Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecadeDecadeFeet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Year

444

Oregon Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet) WorkingDecade

445

Oregon Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet) WorkingDecadeYear

446

Other States Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996)Decade Year-0 Year-1Cubic Feet)Feet)Vented

447

Texas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic4,630.2perSep-14Base Gas) (Million74,284

448

Texas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic4,630.2perSep-14Base Gas) (Million74,284Year Jan

449

New Materials for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from Combustion Gases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions andDataNational Library of1,Department ofNewofLaser'sLocalNewBuilding

450

Kansas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14 15 0Month Previous Year (MillionDecade

451

Kansas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14 15 0Month Previous Year (MillionDecadeYear

452

Kentucky Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14 15IndustrialVehicle FuelBaseDecade Year-0

453

Kentucky Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14 15IndustrialVehicle FuelBaseDecade

454

Louisiana Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14343 342 3289 011,816Feet)Feet)

455

Louisiana Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14343 342 3289

456

Maryland Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14343Decade Year-0ThousandYearYear

457

Maryland Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14343Decade Year-0ThousandYearYearYear Jan Feb

458

Michigan Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19 15 15 15 3YearDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2

459

Michigan Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19 15 15 15 3YearDecade Year-0 Year-1

460

Mississippi Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19 15Year Jan FebFeet)Feet) Decade

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydrocar bon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Mississippi Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19 15Year Jan FebFeet)Feet)

462

Missouri Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19 15YearThousandDecade Year-0Same

463

Missouri Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19 15YearThousandDecade Year-0SameYear Jan

464

Montana Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19343 369 384FuelYear JanDecade Year-0 Year-1

465

Montana Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19343 369 384FuelYear JanDecade Year-0

466

Alabama Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear Jan Feb Mar AprDecade

467

Alabama Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear Jan Feb Mar AprDecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr

468

Alaska Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear JanYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDecade

469

Alaska Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear JanYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDecadeYear

470

Arizona Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear JanYearVented and Flared

471

Arizona Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear JanYearVented and FlaredYear Jan Feb Mar

472

Arkansas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade

473

Arkansas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion Cubic

474

Hazardous Gases VASILIS M. FTHENAKIS Department of Applied Science  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Bigfront.jpgcommunity200cell 9Harvey Brooks, 1960Options for Accidental

475

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Contact  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0, 1997 http://www.eia.doe.govMarkets 9,Contact

476

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Getting Started  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0, 1997 http://www.eia.doe.govMarkets 9,ContactGetting

477

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - What's New  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0, 1997Environment > Voluntary Reporting Program >

478

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Why Report  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

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479

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Reporting Guidelines  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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480

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Under Construction  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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481

PPPL Wins Department of Energy Award For Reducing Greenhouse Gases |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006 TheSteven Ashby Dr. Steven Ashby News RoomPlasma Physics

482

PPPL wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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483

BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases BOCLH | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

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484

Two-phase compressibility factors for retrograde gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a liquid phase. Gas compressibility factors are used in the gas material balance equations. These equations are used to estimate initial gas in place and reserves. Normally gas compressibility factors are used when a reservoir fluid depletion.... 0 on a material balance plot. Dake's equation has limited usefulness because the initial gas in place G is an unknown in the field. Also note that Gp at the abandonment pressure is the ultimate reserves of the reservoir. We can also derive...

Rayes, Daniel George

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Pulse Radiolysis of Gases H atom yields, OH reactions,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

relevance to atmospheric chemistry is discussed. Pulse radiolysis of a number of different chemical systems. The l'fetirae of Pb(CH3)4 and Pb(C2H5)4 in ambient air is estimated. k(OH + Pb(CH3)4) = 3.8 * 109 M_l s determined: k(H + H2S · H2 + HS) = 4-6 x 108 M ^ s " 1 k(HS + HS · products) = (1.9 ± 0.1) x io1 0 M ^ s " 1

486

A study of the separation of particles from gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cyclones are the simplest and most reliable means of particles and gas separation. They also function as a method of air pollution control and as a cost efficient way of doing so. These basic machines have been in use for many years, and based on advances in technology, cyclones have now been designed for specific applications and conditions. These applications are restricted by inherent properties of the construction of the cyclone, and the materials being separated within the cyclone.

Stevens, G.L. II; Masudi, H.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

SUBTASK 7.2 GLOBAL WARMING AND GREEHOUSE GASES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Evaluation of current climatic trends and reconstruction of paleoclimatic conditions for Devils Lake have been conducted based on diatom-inferred salinity for the last 2000 years. The 3-year cross-disciplinary research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) was carried out by the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and St. Croix Watershed Research Station (SCWRS) at the Science Museum of Minnesota. The results indicate that frequent climatic fluctuations resulting in alternating periods of drought and wet conditions are typical for the northern Great Plains and suggest that the severity and length of extremes exceeded those on modern record. Devils Lake has experienced five fresh periods and two minor freshening periods in the last 2000 years. Transitions between fresh and saline periods have been relatively fast, representing lake level changes that have been similar to those observed in the last 150 years. From 0 to 1070 A.D., Devils Lake showed more variable behavior, with fresh phases centered at 200, 500, 700, and 1000 A.D. From 1070 A.D. to present, Devils Lake was generally saline, experiencing two minor freshening periods at 1305-1315 and 1800-1820 A.D and the major current freshening from 1960 A.D. to present.

Jaroslav Solc; Kurt Eylands; Jaroslav Solc Jr.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Mono-atomic THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the expression above for the equation of state, let's consider an adiabatic process, one in which the gas would like to predict the changes in the gas volume as a consequence of changes in pressure. F Q = 0 of thermodynamics, dU = Q - W, we obtain U = - W When the volume changes by dV, the work done by the gas W is Pd

La Rosa, Andres H.

489

Mono-atomic THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the expression above for the equation of state, let's consider an adiabatic process, one in which the gas would like to predict the changes in the gas volume as a consequence of changes in pressure. F Q = 0 of thermodynamics, dU = Q - W, we obtain dU = - W When the volume changes by dV, the work done by the gas W is Pd

490

Biological Removal of Siloxanes from Landfill and Digester Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

volatilize from waste at landfills and wastewater treatment plants (1). As a result, biogas produced, as well as an increase in maintenance costs (6, 7). The presence of VMSs in biogas is thus a challenge recommended by most equipment manufacturers for un- hindered use (6). Of all VMSs in biogas

491

Where Greenhouse Gases Come From | The Ames Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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492

Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

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493

Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 56623 46 (MillionDecadeColorado