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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydro carbon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue

Dennis, J A

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Method of producing pyrolysis gases from carbon-containing materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gasification process of improved efficiency is disclosed. A dual bed reactor system is used in which carbon-containing feedstock materials are first treated in a gasification reactor to form pyrolysis gases. The pyrolysis gases are then directed into a catalytic reactor for the destruction of residual tars/oils in the gases. Temperatures are maintained within the catalytic reactor at a level sufficient to crack the tars/oils in the gases, while avoiding thermal breakdown of the catalysts. In order to minimize problems associated with the deposition of carbon-containing materials on the catalysts during cracking, a gaseous oxidizing agent preferably consisting of air, oxygen, steam, and/or mixtures thereof is introduced into the catalytic reactor at a high flow rate in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the reactor. This oxidizes any carbon deposits on the catalysts, which would normally cause catalyst deactivation.

Mudge, Lyle K. (Richland, WA); Brown, Michael D. (West Richland, WA); Wilcox, Wayne A. (Kennewick, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Atmospheric Trace Gases from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication, Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. The collections under the CDIAC heading of Atmospheric Trace Gases include: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Atmospheric Methane, Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide, Atmospheric Hydrogen, Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases, Radionuclides, Aerosols, and Other Trace Gases.

4

Effects of Biochar and Basalt Additions on Carbon Sequestration and Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases in Soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of Biochar and Basalt Additions on Carbon Sequestration and Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases Emissions--Carbon Dioxide Emissions--Sequestration and Storage--Biochar--Basalt--Organic Fertilizers, this investigation focuses on the range of potential of different soil additives to enhance sequestration and storage

Vallino, Joseph J.

5

Transport of Gases in Carbon Molecular Sieve Membranes by Multinuclear...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

"difficult" separations of gas mixtures such as carbon dioxide methane and ethane ethylene separations. While there are many reports on macroscopic transport properties of CMS...

6

ARM - PI Product - ARM-LBNL-NOAA Flask Sampler for Carbon Cycle Gases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ProductsARM-LBNL-NOAA Flask Sampler for Carbon Cycle ProductsARM-LBNL-NOAA Flask Sampler for Carbon Cycle Gases Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : ARM-LBNL-NOAA Flask Sampler for Carbon Cycle Gases Site(s) SGP General Description Data from ccg-flasks are sampled at the ARM SGP site and analyzed by the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) as part of the NOAA Cooperative Global Air Sampling Network. Surface samples are collected from a 60m tower at the SGP Central Facility, usually once per week on one afternoon. The aircraft samples are collected approximately weekly from a chartered aircraft, and the collection flight path is centered over the tower where the surface samples are collected. Samples are collected by the ARM/LBNL Carbon Project. CO2 flask data contains measurements of CO2

7

Advanced Technology for the Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Technology for the Capture of Carbon Dioxide Technology for the Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gases by Shrikar Chakravarti (shrikar_chakravarti@praxair.com; 716-879-4760) Amitabh Gupta (ami_gupta@praxair.com; 716-879-2194) Balazs Hunek (balazs_hunek@praxair.com; 716-879-2250) Praxair, Inc. Process & Systems R&D, CO 2 Technology 175 East Park Drive, P.O. Box 44 Tonawanda, NY 14150 USA key words: flue gas, carbon dioxide, separation, amine absorption, oxygen tolerant process, amine blends First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration Washington, DC, May 15-17, 2001 Copyright 2001, Praxair Technology, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1 Abstract Cost effective carbon sequestration schemes have been identified as a key need for dealing with carbon dioxide's (CO 2 ) impact on global climate change. Two main

8

ARM-LBNL-NOAA Flask Sampler for Carbon Cycle Gases  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Data from ccg-flasks are sampled at the ARM SGP site and analyzed by the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) as part of the NOAA Cooperative Global Air Sampling Network. Surface samples are collected from a 60m tower at the SGP Central Facility, usually once per week on one afternoon. The aircraft samples are collected approximately weekly from a chartered aircraft, and the collection flight path is centered over the tower where the surface samples are collected. Samples are collected by the ARM/LBNL Carbon Project. CO2 flask data contains measurements of CO2 concentration and CO2 stable isotope ratios (13CO2 and C18OO) from flasks collected at the SGP site. The flask samples are collected at 2m, 4m, 25m, and 60m along the 60m tower.

Torn, Margaret

9

Method and apparatus for separating gases based on electrically and magnetically enhanced monolithic carbon fiber composite sorbents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for separating gases or other fluids involves placing a magnetic field on a monolithic carbon fiber composite sorption material to more preferentially attract certain gases or other fluids to the sorption material to which a magnetic field is applied. This technique may be combined with the known pressure swing adsorption'' technique utilizing the same sorption material. 1 fig.

Judkins, R.R.; Burchell, T.D.

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

10

Method and apparatus for separating gases based on electrically and magnetically enhanced monolithic carbon fiber composite sorbents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for separating gases or other fluids involves placing a magnetic field on a monolithic carbon fiber composite sorption material to more preferentially attract certain gases or other fluids to the sorption material to which a magnetic field is applied. This technique may be combined with the known "pressure swing adsorption" technique utilizing the same sorption material.

Judkins, Roddie R. (9917 Rainbow Dr., Knoxville, TN 37922); Burchell, Timothy D. (109 Greywood Pl., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Emission factors for particles, elemental carbon, and trace gases from the Kuwait oil fires  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emission factors are presented for particles, elemental carbon (i.e., soot), total organic carbon in particles and vapor, and for various trace gases from the 1991 Kuwait oil fires. Particle emissions accounted for {approximately} 2% of the fuel burned. In general, soot emission factors were substantially lower than those used in recent {open_quotes}nuclear winter{close_quotes} calculations. Differences in the emissions and appearances of some of the individual fires are discussed. Carbon budget data for the composite plumes from the Kuwait fires are summarized; most of the burned carbon in the plumes was in the form of CO{sub 2}. Fluxes are presented for several combustion products. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Laursen, K.K.; Ferek, R.J.; Hobbs, P.V. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rasmussen, R.A. [Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Beaverton, OR (United States)

1992-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

12

Greenhouse gases, climate change and the transition from coal to low-carbon electricity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A transition from the global system of coal-based electricity generation to low-greenhouse-gas-emission energy technologies is required to mitigate climate change in the long term. The use of current infrastructure to build this new low-emission system necessitates additional emissions of greenhouse gases, and the coal-based infrastructure will continue to emit substantial amounts of greenhouse gases as it is phased out. Furthermore, ocean thermal inertia delays the climate benefits of emissions reductions. By constructing a quantitative model of energy system transitions that includes life-cycle emissions and the central physics of greenhouse warming, we estimate the global warming expected to occur as a result of build-outs of new energy technologies ranging from 100 GWe to 10 TWe in size and 1–100 yr in duration. We show that rapid deployment of low-emission energy systems can do little to diminish the climate impacts in the first half of this century. Conservation, wind, solar, nuclear power, and possibly carbon capture and storage appear to be able to achieve substantial climate benefits in the second half of this century; however, natural gas cannot.

N P Myhrvold; K Caldeira

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Carbon dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center: A for Atmospheric trace gases. Annual progress report, FY 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments made by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases during the fiscal year 1994. Topics discussed in this report include; organization and staff, user services, systems, communications, Collaborative efforts with China, networking, ocean data and activities of the World Data Center-A.

Burtis, M.D. [comp.] [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Jones, S.B.; Nelson, T.R.; Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

SEPARATION OF CO2 FROM FLUE GASES BY CARBON-MULTIWALL CARBON NANOTUBE MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were found to be an effective separation media for removing CO{sub 2} from N{sub 2}. The separation mechanism favors the selective condensation of CO{sub 2} from the flowing gas stream. Significant uptakes of CO{sub 2} were measured at 30 C and 150 C over the pressure range 0.5 to 5 bar. No measurable uptake of nitrogen was found for this range of conditions. The mass uptake of CO{sub 2} by MWNT was found to increase with increasing temperature. A packed bed of MWNT completely removed CO{sub 2} from a flowing stream of CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, and exhibited rapid uptake kinetics for CO{sub 2}.

Rodney Andrews

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Using carbon adsorbents for removing nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides from flue gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of carbon adsorbents in industrial power engineering outside Russia is briefly reviewed and the results of our own experimental investigations, made in the laboratory and at a pilot commercial installation, are given. The proposal to use the described device in a KE-25-24-C industrial boiler is outlined.

A.I. Blokhin; A.N. Nikitin; A.O. Gabibov

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.

1986-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

17

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Gas speciation, and [sup 13]C and [sup 18]O content of gases produced by laser sampling of carbonate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To determine the concentration of gaseous carbon- and oxygen-bearing species produced by laser ablation, an Ion Trap mass spectrometer (ITD) was added to a standard Nd-YAG laser microprobe system. Ultra-pure He carrier gas, flowing through a stainless steel flanged reaction chamber, sweeps laser-generated gases from the chamber during ablation. The gas is split prior to introduction in the ITD, allowing a small percentage of the effluent to enter the ITD while the majority is passed through two liquid nitrogen cold traps for collection of CO[sub 2] for standard stable isotope ratio analysis. Gas speciation is determined from multiple mass/charge spectral scans of the gas using the ITD. When lasing is performed at 30A in cw mode, the delta C-13 of laser-generated CO[sub 2] co-varies positively as a function of the CO[sub 2]/(CO+CO[sub 2]) ratio with values increasingly by 2% from 35 to 90% CO[sub 2]. As a general rule, the delta C-13 of CO[sub 2] is closest to that of the carbonate when CO[sub 2] ratios and yields are small. The delta O-18 of CO[sub 2] remains nearly constant throughout the range of CO[sub 2] ratios or yields investigated. When lasing is performed at 35A in Q-switch mode (5kHZ), the delta C-13 of CO[sub 2] decreases by 4% as the CO[sub 2] ratio increases from 40 to 60%. The delta C-13 of laser-generated CO[sub 2] approaches that of the carbonate as CO[sub 2] ratio increases and yield decreases. The delta O-18 of CO[sub 2] remains nearly constant throughout the range of CO[sub 2] ratios or yields investigated despite the fact that O[sub 2] comprises 10 to 21% of the laser-generated gas.

Romanek, C.S.; Gibson, E.K. Jr. (Planetary Science Branch/SN2, Houston, TX (United States)); Socki, R.A. (NASA/Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program was suspended May 2011. It was a mechanism by which corporations, government agencies, individuals, voluntary organizations, etc., could report to the Energy Information Administration, any actions taken that have or are expected to reduce/avoid emissions of greenhouse gases or sequester carbon.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Turning greenhouse gases into gold  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

gases, with carbon dioxide (CO2) often accused of being the primary instigator of global climate change. As a result, numerous efforts are under way to find ways to prevent,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydro carbon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Greenhouse Gases and Emissions Trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have grown rapidly since the beginning of this century. Unless emissions are controlled, the world could face rapid climate changes, incl...

Alice LeBlanc; Daniel J. Dudek

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Relationship of the critical parameters of adsorbed gases with the initial heats of adsorption on carbon adsorbents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The initial heats of adsorption on microporous carbon adsorbents (Saran and S charcoals) are proportional to the critical parameters of the adsorbates. Doubling of the initial heat of adsorption in the slit micropore of S-band charcoal relative to the initial heat of absorption on the basis graphite face was established experimentally.

Berezin, G.I.

1986-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

23

Fiscal Year 1998 Annual Report, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, World Data Center -- A for Atmospheric Trace Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Once again, the most recent fiscal year was a productive one for the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), as well as a year for change. The FY 1998 in Review section in this report summarizes quite a few new and updated data and information products, and the ''What's Coming in FY 1999'' section describes our plans for this new fiscal year. During FY 1998, CDIAC began a data-management system for AmeriFlux, a long-term study of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere of the Western Hemisphere and the atmosphere. The specific objectives of AmeriFlux are to establish an infrastructure for guiding, collecting, synthesizing, and disseminating long-term measurements of CO{sub 2}, water, and energy exchange from a variety of ecosystems; collect critical new information to help define the current global CO{sub 2} budget; enable improved predictions of future concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2}; and enhance understanding of carbon fluxes. Net Ecosystem Production (NEP), and carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere. The data-management system, available from CDIAC'S AmeriFlux home page (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/programs/ameriflux/ ) is intended to provide consistent, quality-assured, and documented data across all AmeriFlux sites in the US, Canada, Costa Rica, and Brazil. It is being developed by Antoinette Brenkert and Tom Boden, with assistance from Susan Holladay (who joined CDIAC specifically to support the AmeriFlux data-management effort).

Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Hook, L.A.; Jones, S.B.; Kaiser, D.P.; Nelson, T.R.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Use of molecular modeling to determine the interaction and competition of gases within coal for carbon dioxide sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molecular modeling was employed to both visualize and probe our understanding of carbon dioxide sequestration within a bituminous coal. A large-scale (>20,000 atoms) 3D molecular representation of Pocahontas No. 3 coal was generated. This model was constructed based on a the review data of Stock and Muntean, oxidation and decarboxylation data for aromatic clustersize frequency of Stock and Obeng, and the combination of Laser Desorption Mass Spectrometry data with HRTEM, enabled the inclusion of a molecular weight distribution. The model contains 21,931 atoms, with a molecular mass of 174,873 amu, and an average molecular weight of 714 amu, with 201 structural components. The structure was evaluated based on several characteristics to ensure a reasonable constitution (chemical and physical representation). The helium density of Pocahontas No. 3 coal is 1.34 g/cm{sup 3} (dmmf) and the model was 1.27 g/cm{sup 3}. The structure is microporous, with a pore volume comprising 34% of the volume as expected for a coal of this rank. The representation was used to visualize CO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} capacity, and the role of moisture in swelling and CO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} capacity reduction. Inclusion of 0.68% moisture by mass (ash-free) enabled the model to swell by 1.2% (volume). Inclusion of CO{sub 2} enabled volumetric swelling of 4%.

Jeffrey D. Evanseck; Jeffry D. Madura; Jonathan P. Mathews

2006-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

25

Preliminary simulations of planned experiments to study the impact of trace gases on the capacity of the Weyburn-Midale field to store carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CO{sub 2} stream injecting into the Weyburn-Midale field can be generally classified as a reducing stream with residual H{sub 2}S and low-molecular weight hydrocarbons. The composition of the CO{sub 2} gas stream from the Dakota Gasification Company is reported to be 95% CO{sub 2}, 4% hydrocarbons, and 1% H{sub 2}S by volume (Huxley 2006). In addition to the H{sub 2}S introduced at the injection wells, significant concentrations of H{sub 2}S are thought to have been produced in-situ by sulfate reducing bacteria from previous water floods for enhanced oil production. Produced gas compositions range in H{sub 2}S concentrations from 1 to 6 volume percent. The produced gas, including the trace impurities, is re-injected into the field. Although there is no evidence for inorganic reduction of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} to H{sub 2}S at the Weyburn-Midale field, Sitchler and Kazuba (2009) suggest that SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} can be inorganically reduced to elemental sulfur in highly reducing environments based on a natural analog study of the Madison Formation in Wyoming. They propose that elevated concentrations of CO{sub 2} dissolve anhydrite to produce the sulfate that is then reduced. Oxidizing CO{sub 2} streams with residual O{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} typical of streams captured from oxyfuel and post combustion processes are not presently an issue at the Weyburn-Midale field. However it is possible that the oxidizing CO{sub 2} streams may be injected in the future in carbonate reservoirs similar to the Weyburn-Midale field. To date there are few modeling and experimental studies that have explored the impact of impurity gases in CO{sub 2} streams targeted for geologic storage (Gale 2009). Jacquemet et al (2009) reviewed select geochemical modeling studies that explored the impact of SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S impurities in the waste streams (Gunter et al., 2000, Knauss et al., 2005, Xu et al., 2007). These studies collectively show that SO{sub 2} significantly reduces the pH when oxidized to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} causing enhanced dissolution of carbonate minerals and some sulfate mineral precipitation. Low pH results in higher mineral solubility and faster dissolution rates and is thought to enhance porosity and permeability near the injection well when trace amounts of SO{sub 2} is injected with CO{sub 2}. The impact of H{sub 2}S on storage reservoir performance appears to more subtle. Knauss et al (2005) report no significant impacts of injection of CO{sub 2} gas streams with and without H{sub 2}S (1 M Pascal H{sub 2}S + 8.4 M Pascal CO{sub 2}) in simulations of CO{sub 2} storage in the Frio sandstone formation. Geochemical reactions for H{sub 2}S impurities include enhance field alkalinity and reaction with iron bearing minerals that may delay breakthrough of H{sub 2}S relative to CO{sub 2}. Emberley et al. (2005) report that half of the alkalinity measured at monitoring wells at the Weyburn-Midale field is due to HS{sup -}. Schoonen and Xu (2004) report that H{sub 2}S can be sequestered as pyrite in sandstones and carbonates by dissolving iron hydroxides and iron-bearing clays. Similarly, Gunter et al (2000) propose the that siderite converts to iron sulfides when it is reacted with H{sub 2}S. The geochemical reactions between H{sub 2}S and iron bearing minerals together with the high solubility of H{sub 2}S relative to CO{sub 2} may contribute to the delayed break though of H{sub 2}S in experiments. A few core flood experiments have shown that the injection of supercritical CO{sub 2} into carbonate aquifers has the potential to significantly alter the porosity in the absence of trace gases such as SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S. Luquot and Gouze (2009) documented a 2% porosity increase in carbonate cores when rock-water interactions were transport limited and solution concentrations were closer to equilibrium and a 4% porosity increase when rock-water interactions were reaction limited and solution compositions were further from equilibrium. Similarly Le Guen et al (2007) used x-ray micro-tomography and geochemistry to show that porosity signific

Carroll, S; Hao, Y

2009-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

26

Fuel saving, carbon dioxide emission avoidance, and syngas production by tri-reforming of flue gases from coal- and gas-fired power stations, and by the carbothermic reduction of iron oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flue gases from coal, gas, or oil-fired power stations, as well as from several heavy industries, such as the production of iron, lime and cement, are major anthropogenic sources of global CO2 emissions. The newly proposed process for syngas production based on the tri-reforming of such flue gases with natural gas could be an important route for CO2 emission avoidance. In addition, by combining the carbothermic reduction of iron oxide with the partial oxidation of the carbon source, an overall thermoneutral process can be designed for the co-production of iron and syngas rich in CO. Water-gas shift (WGS) of CO to H2 enables the production of useful syngas. The reaction process heat, or the conditions for thermoneutrality, are derived by thermochemical equilibrium calculations. The thermodynamic constraints are determined for the production of syngas suitable for methanol, hydrogen, or ammonia synthesis. The environmental and economic consequences are assessed for large-scale commercial production of these chemical commodities. Preliminary evaluations with natural gas, coke, or coal as carbon source indicate that such combined processes should be economically competitive, as well as promising significant fuel saving and CO2 emission avoidance. The production of ammonia in the above processes seems particularly attractive, as it consumes the nitrogen in the flue gases.

M. Halmann; A. Steinfeld

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Greenhouse Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel carbon-conversion-fig-1.jpg Key Challenges: An important strategy for reducing global CO2 emissions calls for capturing the greenhouse gas and converting it to fuels and chemicals. Although researchers working toward that goal demonstrated in 1992 such a reaction in the lab, a key outstanding scientific challenge was explaining the details of how the reaction took place - its "mechanism." Why it Matters: An important potential strategy for reducing global CO2 emissions calls for capturing the greenhouse gas and converting it electrochemically to fuels and chemicals. Accomplishments: Computation to explain how carbon dioxide can be converted to small organic molecules with little energy input. The

28

Carbon Isotopes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Trace Gases » Carbon Isotopes Atmospheric Trace Gases » Carbon Isotopes Carbon Isotopes Gateway Pages to Isotopes Data Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon-13 in Methane 800,000 Deuterium Record and Shorter Records of Various Isotopic Species from Ice Cores Carbon-13 13C in CO Measurements from Niwot Ridge, Colorado and Montana de Oro, California (Tyler) 13C in CO2 NOAA/CMDL Flask Network (White and Vaughn) CSIRO GASLAB Flask Network (Allison, Francey, and Krummel) CSIRO in situ measurements at Cape Grim, Tasmania (Francey and Allison) Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Keeling et al.) 13C in CH4 NOAA/CMDL Flask Network (Miller and White) Northern & Southern Hemisphere Sites (Quay and Stutsman) Northern & Southern Hemisphere Sites (Stevens)

29

Strongly interacting Fermi gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision ...

Bakr, W.

30

Carbon sequestration and carbon management policy effects on production agriculture in the Texas High Plains.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Increased concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially of carbon dioxide, has led to attempts to implement carbon policies in order to limit and… (more)

Zivkovic, Sanja

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Electricity Factors  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Voluntary Reporting Program > Coefficients Voluntary Reporting Program > Coefficients Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program (Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emission Coefficients) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Fuel Emission Coefficients Table 1: Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Stationary Combustion Table 2: Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Transportation Fuels Table 3: Generic Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Stationary Fuel Combustion Table 4: Specific Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Biogenic Fuel Sources Table 5: Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions Factors for Highway Vehicles Table 6: Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Alternative Fuel Vehicles Table 7: Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Non-Highway Mobile Combustion

32

Extraction of uranium from spent fuels using liquefied gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels, a novel method to extract actinides from spent fuel using highly compressed gases, nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide was proposed. As a fundamental study, the nitrate conversion with liquefied nitrogen dioxide and the nitrate extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide were demonstrated by using uranium dioxide powder, uranyl nitrate and tri-n-butylphosphate complex in the present study. (authors)

Sawada, Kayo; Hirabayashi, Daisuke; Enokida, Youichi [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and gasification technologies for heat and power . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.4 Waste incineration and waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.2 Flue gases and fuel gases: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, incineration and other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.3 Formation of sulphur compounds during combustion and gasification . 3-5 3.4 Emission

Laughlin, Robert B.

34

Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.2 Flue gases and fuel gases: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, incineration and other and gasification technologies for heat and power . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.4 Waste incineration and waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.3 Formation of sulphur compounds during combustion and gasification . . 3-5 3.4 Emission

Zevenhoven, Ron

35

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Greenhouse Gases and  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials (GWP) Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials (GWP) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials (GWP) (From Appendix E of the instructions to Form EIA-1605) GREENHOUSE GAS NAME GREENHOUSE GAS CODE FORMULA GWP TAR1 AR42 (1) Carbon Dioxide CO2 CO2 1 1 (2) Methane CH4 CH4 23 25 (3) Nitrous Oxide N2O N2O 296 298 (4) Hydroflourocarbons HFC-23 (trifluoromethane) 15 CHF3 12000 14800 HFC-32 (difluoromethane) 16 CH2F2 550 675 HFC-41 (monofluoromethane) 43 CH3F 97 -3 HFC-125 (pentafluoroethane) 17 CHF2CF3 3400 3500 HFC-134 (1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane) 44 CHF2CHF2 1100 -3 HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) 18 CH2FCF3 1300 1430 HFC-143 (1,1,2-trifluorethane) 45 CHF2CH2F 330 -3 HFC-143a (1,1,1-trifluoroethane) 46 CF3CH3 4300 4470 HFC-152 (1,2-difluorethane) 47 CH2FCH2F

36

Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse Gases to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases on AddThis.com... Sustainable Buildings & Campuses Operations & Maintenance Greenhouse Gases Basics Federal Requirements Guidance & Reporting Inventories & Performance Mitigation Planning Resources Contacts Water Efficiency Data Center Energy Efficiency Industrial Facilities Sustainable Federal Fleets

37

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

NONE

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Asia-wide emissions of greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emissions of principal greenhouse gases (GHGs) from Asia are increasing faster than those from any other continent. This is a result of rapid economic growth, as well as the fact that almost half of the world`s population lives in Asian countries. In this paper, the author provides estimates of emissions of the two principal greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}), from individual countries and areas. Recent literature has been reviewed for emission estimates for individual sources, such as carbon dioxide from cement manufacture, and methane from rice fields. There are very large uncertainties in many of these estimates, so several estimates are provided, where available. The largest anthropogenic source of CO{sub 2} emissions is the use of fossil fuels. Energy consumption data from 1992 have been used to calculate estimated emissions of CO{sub 2} from this source. In view of the ongoing negotiations to limit future greenhouse gas emissions, estimates of projected CO{sub 2} emissions from the developing countries of Asia are also provided. These are likely to be 3 times their 1986 levels by 2010, under business as usual scenarios. Even with the implementation of energy efficiency measures and fuel switching where feasible, the emissions of CO{sub 2} are likely to double within the same time period.

Siddiqi, T.A. [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States). Program on Environment

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

EIA - Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Environment Environment Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U. S. Release Date: March 31, 2011 | Next Release Date: Report Discontinued | Report Number: DOE/EIA-0573(2009) This report-the eighteenth annual report-presents the U.S. Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. Download the GHG Report Introduction For this report, activity data on coal and natural gas consumption and electricity sales and losses by sector were obtained from the January 2011 Monthly Energy Review (MER). In keeping with current international practice, this report presents data on greenhouse gas emissions in million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data can be converted to carbon equivalent units by

40

CARBON LIFE-CYCLE AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF FOREST CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND WOODY BIOENERGY PRODUCTION.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Sequestering carbon in standing biomass, using woody bioenergy, and using woody products are the three potential ways to utilize forests in reducing greenhouse gases (GHGs)… (more)

Shrestha, Prativa

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydro carbon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

1 - Solubility of Atmospheric Gases in Freshwater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter presents tabular information on the standard air saturation concentration (moist air at 1 atm) for oxygen, nitrogen, argon, and carbon dioxide gas in terms of ?mol/kg, mg/L, and mL/L; and in terms of Bunsen coefficients L real gas/(L atm); mg real gas/(L mmHg); and mg real gas/(L kPa) for 0–40°C and freshwater conditions. Because the mole fraction of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is changing, solubility information is provided for 2010 (390 ?atm) and for 2030 (440 ?atm) based on projected atmospheric values. Tabular information is also provided to allow computation of standard air saturation concentrations of carbon dioxide gas directly as a function of atmospheric mole fraction. Conversion factors are presented to convert these concentrations to other commonly used units. Equations and tabular information are provided to compute air saturation concentration for moist air at local barometric pressure for the four atmospheric gases. Because of the importance of dissolved oxygen in biological processes, the air solubility concentration is also presented as a function of elevation for both metric and English elevations. Equations and tabular information are provided to allow conversion of concentrations in mg/L to partial pressures in mmHg. Sample problems are included for representative examples. Keywords gas solubility, freshwater, oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, standard air solubility, air solubility, Bunsen coefficients, partial pressures

John Colt

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse Gases October 7, 2013 - 9:59am Addthis Executive Order 13514 requires Federal agencies to inventory and manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate change. Basics: Read an overview of greenhouse gases. Federal Requirements: Look up requirements for agency greenhouse gas management as outlined in Federal initiatives and executive orders. Guidance and Reporting: Find guidance documents and resources for greenhouse gas accounting and reporting. GHG Inventories and Performance: See detailed comprehensive GHG inventories by Federal agency and progress toward achieving Scope 1 and 2 GHG and Scope 3 GHG reduction targets. Mitigation Planning: Learn how Federal agencies can cost-effectively meet their GHG reduction goals.

43

Degenerate quantum gases of strontium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Degenerate quantum gases of alkaline-earth-like elements open new opportunities in research areas ranging from molecular physics to the study of strongly correlated systems. These experiments exploit the rich electronic structure of these elements, which is markedly different from the one of other species for which quantum degeneracy has been attained. Specifically, alkaline-earth-like atoms, such as strontium, feature metastable triplet states, narrow intercombination lines, and a non-magnetic, closed-shell ground state. This review covers the creation of quantum degenerate gases of strontium and the first experiments performed with this new system. It focuses on laser-cooling and evaporation schemes, which enable the creation of Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases of all strontium isotopes, and shows how they are used for the investigation of optical Feshbach resonances, the study of degenerate gases loaded into an optical lattice, as well as the coherent creation of Sr_2 molecules.

Stellmer, Simon; Killian, Thomas C

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

ARM - What are Greenhouse Gases?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

radiative forcing (which means they enhance global warming). Many of these gases are naturally occurring and are essential to life on earth by providing a blanket for marine and...

45

Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model Agency/Company /Organization: Argonne National Laboratory Focus Area: GHG Inventory Development Topics: Analysis Tools Website: greet.es.anl.gov/ This full life-cycle model evaluates the energy and emission impacts of advanced vehicle technologies and new transportation fuels. The model allows users to evaluate various vehicle and fuel combinations. How to Use This Tool This tool is most helpful when using these strategies: Shift - Change to low-carbon modes Improve - Enhance infrastructure & policies Learn more about the avoid, shift, improve framework for limiting air

46

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

NONE

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Background Although alkanolamine solvents, such as monoethanolamine (MEA), and solvent blends have been developed as commercially-viable options for the absorption of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from waste gases, natural gas, and hydrogen streams, further process improvements are required to cost-effectively capture CO 2 from power plant flue gas. The promotion of potassium carbonate (K

48

Structural annealing of carbon coated aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube sheets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by chem- ical vapor infiltration (CVI) of carbon source gases into fiber preforms. While CVI of carbon fasteners [1]. While the above applications are currently filled by traditional carbon fiber C/ C compositesStructural annealing of carbon coated aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube sheets Shaghayegh Faraji

Zhu, Yuntian T.

49

Carbon Emissions: Food Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Food Industry Food Industry Carbon Emissions in the Food Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 20) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 24.4 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 6.6% Total First Use of Energy: 1,193 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 5.5% Carbon Intensity: 20.44 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 24.4 Net Electricity 9.8 Natural Gas 9.1 Coal 4.2 All Other Sources 1.3 Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998

50

CO2 Separation from Low-Temperature Flue Gases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,842,126 entitled "Co 2 Separation from Low-Temperature Flue Gases." Disclosed in this patent are novel methods for processing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from combustion gas streams. Researchers at NETL are focused on the development of novel sorbent systems that can effectively remove CO 2 and other gases in an economically feasible manner with limited impact on energy production cost. The current invention will help in reducing greenhouse gas emissions by using an improved, regenerable aqueous amine and soluble potassium carbonate sorbent system. This novel solvent system may be capable of achieving CO 2 capture from larger emission streams at lower overall cost. Overview Sequestration of CO

51

PPPL wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

PPPL wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases PPPL wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe October 2, 2012 Tweet Widget Facebook Like Google Plus One PPPL engineer Tim Stevenson checks for possible leaks of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), the gas used to insulate electronic equipment that has the potential to cause global warming at many times the rate of carbon dioxide. PPPL reduced leaks of SF6 by 65 percent over three years - reducing overall greenhouse gas emissions by 48 percent between 2008 and 2011. (Photo by Elle Starkman/PPPL Office of Communications) PPPL engineer Tim Stevenson checks for possible leaks of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), the gas used to insulate electronic equipment that has the potential to cause global warming at many times the rate of carbon

52

Climate VISION: Greenhouse Gases Information  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

GHG Information GHG Information Greenhouse Gases, Global Climate Change, and Energy Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2001 [1605(a)] This report, required by Section 1605(a) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, provides estimates of U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases, as well as information on the methods used to develop the estimates. The estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors, not on measured or metered emissions monitoring. Available Energy Footprints Industry NAICS* All Manufacturing Alumina & Aluminum 3313 Cement 327310 Chemicals 325 Fabricated Metals 332 Food and Beverages 311, 312 Forest Products 321, 322 Foundries 3315 Glass & Glass Products, Fiber Glass 3272, 3296 Iron & Steel Mills 331111 Machinery & Equipment 333, 334, 335, 336

53

Investigating and Using Biomass Gases  

K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

Students will be introduced to biomass gasification and will generate their own biomass gases. Students generate these everyday on their own and find it quite amusing, but this time they’ll do it by heating wood pellets or wood splints in a test tube. They will collect the resulting gases and use the gas to roast a marshmallow. Students will also evaluate which biomass fuel is the best according to their own criteria or by examining the volume of gas produced by each type of fuel.

54

Coal-Fired Power Plants, Greenhouse Gases, and State Statutory Substantial Endangerment Provisions: Climate Change Comes to Kansas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

economy standards on motor vehicles by states such as California. But the states have also targeted stationary sources of greenhouse gases. In particular, they have sought to minimize carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants. States have used...

Glicksman, Robert L.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Clean Gases for Gas Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......to purchase such clean gases. Even research grades...no maintenance, at the cost of 500 watts of electrical...Exploration and Production Research Division, Hous...hour. The maintenance cost of the cold trap is only...displaces the contaminated gas which has passed into......

B. Osborne Prescott; Harold L. Wise

1966-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Industrial Gases as a Vehicle for Competitiveness  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the diversity and options available to enable cost savings and environmentally driven process improvements. Industrial gases have come of age during the last fifteen years. Engineers and scientists have looked beyond the paradigms of their operations...INDUSTRIAL GASES AS A VEHICLE FOR COMPETITIVENESS James R. Dale, Director, Technology Programs, Airco Industrial Gases Division, The BOC Group, Inc., Murray Hill, New Jersey ABSTRACT Industrial gases are produced using compressed air...

Dale, J. R.

57

Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Third Sound in Superfluid 4He Films Adsorbed on Packed Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of gases adsorbed on carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. B. , vol.and P. Avouris, Carbon Nanotubes: Syn- thesis, Structure,4 He films on carbon nanotubes,” J. Phys. : Conf. Ser. ,

Menachekanian, Emin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

12 SCIENCE Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapour, inert gases. On the basis of proton affinity, the major constituents of air and breath (nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide

60

Carbon Sequestration - Public Meeting  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Public Meeting Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Public Meeting May 18, 2004 National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Fossil Energy Scott Klara Carbon Sequestration Technology Manager Carbon Sequestration Program Overview * What is Carbon Sequestration * The Fossil Energy Situation * Greenhouse Gas Implications * Pathways to Greenhouse Gas Stabilization * Sequestration Program Overview * Program Requirements & Structure * Regional Partnerships * FutureGen * Sources of Information What is Carbon Sequestration? Capture can occur: * at the point of emission * when absorbed from air Storage locations include: * underground reservoirs * dissolved in deep oceans * converted to solid materials * trees, grasses, soils, or algae Capture and storage of CO 2 and other Greenhouse Gases that

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydro carbon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1985--1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Earth`s capacity to support life depends on the moderating influences of gases that envelop the planet and warm its surface and protect it from harmful radiation. These gases are referred to as ``greenhouse gases.`` Their warming capacity, called ``the greenhouse effect,`` is essential to maintaining a climate hospitable to all plant, animal, and human life. In recent years, however, there has been increasing concern that human activity may be affecting the intricate balance between the Earth`s absorption of heat from the sun and its capacity to reradiate excess heat back into space. Emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities may be an important mechanism that affects global climate. Thus, research is intensifying to improve our understanding of the role human activities might play in influencing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. On the basis of scientific findings of the past few decades, the US Government and the international community at large are now taking steps toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. This report contributes to that process. Mandated by Congress this report provides estimates of US emissions of the principal greenhouse gases--carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorcarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds. Estimates are for the period 1985 to 1990. Preliminary estimates for 1991 have also been included, whenever data were available.

Not Available

1993-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

62

Carbon Sequestration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Technology Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 412-386-4966 jose.figueroa@netl.doe.gov Kevin o'Brien Principal Investigator SRI International Materials Research Laboratory 333 Ravenswood Avenue Menlo Park, AK 94025 650-859-3528 kevin.obrien@sri.com Fabrication and Scale-Up oF polybenzimidazole - baSed membrane SyStem For pre - combUStion captUre oF carbon dioxide Background In order to effectively sequester carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from a gasification plant, there must be an economically viable method for removing the CO 2 from other gases. While CO 2 separation technologies currently exist, their effectiveness is limited. Amine-based separation technologies work only at low temperatures, while pressure-swing absorption and cryogenic distillation consume significantly

63

The Viscosity of Compressed Gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New data and a new theory for the viscosity of compressed gases are presented. Data for nitrogen, hydrogen and a mixture of these gases are given, in the calculation of which, the "end effects" are not neglected as has been done in the past. Previous viscosity data are of doubtful validity owing to neglect of this factor. The theory is based on an analogy between the kinetic pressure and viscosity of a gas and is derived using an equation of state of the Lorentz type. Allowance is made for the difference between the viscosity and compressibility covolumes. The theory is substantiated experimentally and further confirmed by the recalculation of other data on the variation of Reynolds' criterion with the pressure, which is here shown to be constant. The mixture data offer a direct opportunity of comparing the Lorentz and linear rules for the calculation of the covolume of a mixture from the covolumes of the components and such comparison indicates that the Lorentz rule is not to be preferred. The substantiation of the new theory is the first direct proof of the validity of the separate treatment of the kinetic and cohesive pressures in the equation of state.

James H. Boyd; Jr.

1930-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

64

ARM - Lesson Plans: Dissolved Gases in Water  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

released into the air, additional CO2 Would intensify an already-problematic greenhouse effect. Preparation Demonstrate that water contains invisible gases. Collect and cover...

65

Changes in atmospheric gases during isobaric storage of beef packaged pre- and post-rigor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

displacement measurements of the head- space volume were conducted during two weeks of storage. Males of the headspace gases were calculated using the general gas law (PU = nRT). Carbon dioxide absorption by the meat was greatest in steaks stored in 100% C... OF FIGURES INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REV IELV Microbiol ogical Aspects of Packaging Meat Shelf-Life of Packaged Meat Respiration . Carbon Dioxide Absorption OBJECTIVES EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Description of Meat Samples . Molar...

Hoermann, Karen Lee

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Article published Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology DOI: 10.1002/ghg.1395  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Article published Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology DOI: 10.1002/ghg.1395 National Corridors.1002/ghg.1395 #12;1 Introduction The need to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by present energy.1, 2 Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most worrisome GHG because of its long residence time

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

67

Abstract--Energy consumption and the concomitant Green House Gases (GHG) emissions of network infrastructures are  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract--Energy consumption and the concomitant Green House Gases (GHG) emissions of network on the overall power consumption and on the GHG emissions with just 25% of green energy sources. I. INTRODUCTION]. In the zero carbon approach, renewable (green) energy sources (e.g. sun, wind, tide) are employed and no GHGs

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

68

Carbonaceous material for production of hydrogen from low heating value fuel gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the catalytic production of hydrogen, from a wide variety of low heating value fuel gases containing carbon monoxide, comprises circulating a carbonaceous material between two reactors--a carbon deposition reactor and a steaming reactor. In the carbon deposition reactor, carbon monoxide is removed from a fuel gas and is deposited on the carbonaceous material as an active carbon. In the steaming reactor, the reactive carbon reacts with steam to give hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The carbonaceous material contains a metal component comprising from about 75% to about 95% cobalt, from about 5% to about 15% iron, and up to about 10% chromium, and is effective in suppressing the production of methane in the steaming reactor.

Koutsoukos, Elias P. (Los Angeles, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Granular gases under extreme driving  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study inelastic gases in two dimensions using event-driven molecular dynamics simulations. Our focus is the nature of the stationary state attained by rare injection of large amounts of energy to balance the dissipation due to collisions. We find that under such extreme driving, with the injection rate much smaller than the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a power-law high energy tail. The numerically measured exponent characterizing this tail is in excellent agreement with predictions of kinetic theory over a wide range of system parameters. We conclude that driving by rare but powerful energy injection leads to a well-mixed gas and constitutes an alternative mechanism for agitating granular matter. In this distinct nonequilibrium steady-state, energy cascades from large to small scales. Our simulations also show that when the injection rate is comparable with the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a stretched exponential tail.

W. Kang; J. Machta; E. Ben-Naim

2010-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

70

Failing Drop CO2 Deposition (Desublimation) Heat Exchanger for the Cryogenic Carbon Capture Process.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Cryogenic carbon capture removes CO2 and other pollutants from flue and waste stream gases produced from the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, natural… (more)

James, David William

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Carbon Emissions: Chemicals Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Chemicals Industry Chemicals Industry Carbon Emissions in the Chemicals Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 28) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 78.3 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 21.1% -- Nonfuel Emissions: 12.0 MMTC Total First Use of Energy: 5,328 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 24.6% Energy Sources Used As Feedstocks: 2,297 trillion Btu -- LPG: 1,365 trillion Btu -- Natural Gas: 674 trillion Btu Carbon Intensity: 14.70 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 78.3 Natural Gas 32.1

72

Carbon Emissions: Paper Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Paper Industry Paper Industry Carbon Emissions in the Paper Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 26) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 31.6 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 8.5% Total First Use of Energy: 2,665 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 12.3% -- Pct. Renewable Energy: 47.7% Carbon Intensity: 11.88 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Renewable Energy Sources (no net emissions): -- Pulping liquor: 882 trillion Btu -- Wood chips and bark: 389 trillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 31.6 Net Electricity 11.0

73

NETL: Carbon Storage  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Storage Storage Technologies Carbon Storage (formerly referred to as the "Carbon Sequestration Program") Program Overview For quick navigation of NETL's Carbon Storage Program website, please click on the image. NETL's Carbon Storage Program Fossil fuels are considered the most dependable, cost-effective energy source in the world. The availability of these fuels to provide clean, affordable energy is essential for domestic and global prosperity and security well into the 21st century. However, a balance is needed between energy security and concerns over the impacts of concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere - particularly carbon dioxide (CO2). NETL's Carbon Storage Program is developing a technology portfolio of safe, cost-effective, commercial-scale CO2 capture, storage, and mitigation

74

Raman Spectra of Polyatomic Gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Raman spectra of gaseous CO2, N2O, NH3, CH4 and C2H4 have been photographed using the line ?2536 of mercury as the exciting radiation. Vibrational transitions have been observed in all the gases investigated, and rotational transitions in the cases of NH3 and CH4. For the frequency shifts due to the vibrational transitions, the following numerical values (in cm-1) have been found: CO2: 1264.5; 1285.1; 1387.7; 1408.4.CH4: 2914.8; 3022.1; 3071.5.N2O: 1281.8C2H4: 1342.4; 1623.3; 2880.1; 3019.3; 3240.3; 3272.3.NH3: 3333.6  Raman spectra of liquid NH3 have been photographed and found to give the two frequency shifts: 3298.4 and 3214.5. In the case of gaseous NH3, pure rotational transitions lead to a moment of inertia having the value I0=2.79×10-40. In the case of methane, the positive and negative branches of the 3022.1 band lead to the value I0=5.17×10-40. The relations between these data and infra-red absorption data are discussed.

R. G. Dickinson, R. T. Dillon, and F. Rasetti

1929-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

75

Carbon dioxide capture from power or process plant gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present invention are methods for removing preselected substances from a mixed flue gas stream characterized by cooling said mixed flue gas by direct contact with a quench liquid to condense at least one preselected substance and form a cooled flue gas without substantial ice formation on a heat exchanger. After cooling additional process methods utilizing a cryogenic approach and physical concentration and separation or pressurization and sorbent capture may be utilized to selectively remove these materials from the mixed flue gas resulting in a clean flue gas.

Bearden, Mark D; Humble, Paul H

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

76

Uptake of gases in bundles of carbon nanotubes George Stan*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from Ref. 28, except for CH4 , CF4 and SF6 Ref. 29 , and C60 Ref. 44 . The nanotube radius considered.10 14786 15054 2523 2503 2617 2580 1593 1573 CF4 157 4.58 36411 36854 2539 2516 2475 2433 1520 1498 SF6 208

Curtarolo, Stefano

77

New Materials for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from Combustion Gases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

emissions. The work done at the ChemMatCARS beamline 15-ID-B at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science's Advanced Photon Source supports the effort to quantify the...

78

Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

79

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - What are...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

gases such as hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride). The Greenhouse Effect Concentrations of several important greenhouse gases have increased by about 33...

80

Amorphous silicon-carbon alloys and amorphous carbon from direct methane and ethylene activation by ECR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon-carbon alloys are prepared using electron-cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Hydrogen is introduced into the source resonance cavity as an excitation gas. Silane is introduced in the main chamber in the vicinity of the plasma stream, whereas the carbon source gases, methane or ethylene, are introduced either with the silane or with the hydrogen as excitation gases. The effect of the type of carbon-source gas, excitation gas mixture and silane-to-carbon source gas flow ratio on the deposition rate, bandgap, subgap density of states, spin density and hydrogen evolution are studied.

Conde, J.P.; Chu, V.; Giorgis, F.; Pirri, C.F.; Arekat, S.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydro carbon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Comparing greenhouse gases for policy purposes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to derive optimal policies for greenhouse gas emissions control, the discounted marginal damages of emissions of different gases must be compared. The greenhouse warming potential (GWP) index, which is most often ...

Schmalensee, Richard

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Gases for an SSC muon detector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent measurements of electron drift velocities as a function of the density-reduced electric field E/N are reported for a number of unitary gases and the mixtures CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} and NH{sub 3}/CF{sub 4}/Ar. Calculated values of the mean electron energy as a function of E/N are also reported for unitary gases and mixtures of CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}. 7 refs., 5 figs.

Christophorou, L.G.; Datskos, P.G.; Carter, J.G. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA) Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Latest Estimates Latest Estimates Atmos CO2 Level 397.31 ppm Fossil CO2 Emissions 9,167 MMT Carbon Global Temp Anomaly +0.56°C / +1.01°F Global Sea Level Rise +2.9 ± 0.4 mm/y Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) is the primary climate-change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). CDIAC is located at DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and includes the World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases. CDIAC's data holdings include estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and land-use changes; records of atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active trace gases; carbon cycle and terrestrial carbon management datasets and analyses; and

85

Tax CarbonEnhancing environmental quality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The impacts of those emissions range from the health effects of burning fossil fuels, to inundation of limiting greenhouse gases, a tax on the carbon content of fossil fuels competes with proposals for outright- idend, because a carbon tax would also lead to major improve- ments in human health. As a means

Paulsson, Johan

86

Methods and compositions for removing carbon dioxide from a gaseous mixture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Provided is a method for adsorbing or separating carbon dioxide from a mixture of gases by passing the gas mixture through a porous three-dimensional polymeric coordination compound having a plurality of layers of two-dimensional arrays of repeating structural units, which results in a lower carbon dioxide content in the gas mixture. Thus, this invention provides useful compositions and methods for removal of greenhouse gases, in particular CO.sub.2, from industrial flue gases or from the atmosphere.

Li, Jing; Wu, Haohan

2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

87

Removal of carbon monoxide. Physical adsorption on natural and synthetic zeolites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The utilization of natural zeolite materials in the elimination of polluting gases is investigated. Carbon monoxide pollution is emphasized because its concentration may reach dangerous levels in places such as vehicle tunnels, underground parking lots, etc. The elimination of carbon monoxide is also of interest in some industrial processes relating to the production of pure gases.

Alfani, F.; Greco, G. Jr.; Iroio, G.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

THE FUTURE OF ENERGY GASES David G. Howell, Editor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

totally independent of oil. Methane is found in association with coal; it is a byproduct of metabolic the term "energy gases" to distinguish those natural gases, primarily methane, that have utility for energy consequences associated with an expanded role of energy gases? Energy gases, particularly methane, are commonly

89

Measuring the Isotopic Composition of Solar Wind Noble Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

noble gases. #12;Exploring the Solar Wind94 Light solar wind noble gases were directly measured by mass of the light gases are known to vary with energy, so none of these provided solar isotopic and elemental5 Measuring the Isotopic Composition of Solar Wind Noble Gases Alex Meshik, Charles Hohenberg, Olga

90

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski Missoula Fire burning Greenhouse gases Emission factors a b s t r a c t While the vast majority of carbon emitted wildland fire greenhouse gas and aerosol (organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC)) emission inventories

91

Gas geochemistry of the Valles caldera region, New Mexico and comparisons with gases at Yellowstone, Long Valley and other geothermal systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Noncondensible gases from hot springs, fumaroles, and deep wells within the Valles caldera geothermal system (210–300°C) consist of roughly 98.5 mol% CO2, 0.5 mol% H2S, and 1 mol% other components. 3He/4He ratios indicate a deep magmatic source (R/Ra up to 6) whereas ?13C–CO2 values (?3 to ?5‰) do not discriminate between a mantle/magmatic source and a source from subjacent, hydrothermally altered Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Regional gases from sites within a 50-km radius beyond Valles caldera are relatively enriched in CO2 and He, but depleted in H2S compared to Valles gases. Regional gases have R/Ra values ?1.2 due to more interaction with the crust and/or less contribution from the mantle. Carbon sources for regional CO2 are varied. During 1982–1998, repeat analyses of gases from intracaldera sites at Sulphur Springs showed relatively constant CH4, H2, and H2S contents. The only exception was gas from Footbath Spring (1987–1993), which experienced increases in these three components during drilling and testing of scientific wells VC-2a and VC-2b. Present-day Valles gases contain substantially less N2 than fluid inclusion gases trapped in deep, early-stage, post-caldera vein minerals. This suggests that the long-lived Valles hydrothermal system (ca. 1 Myr) has depleted subsurface Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of nitrogen. When compared with gases from many other geothermal systems, Valles caldera gases are relatively enriched in He but depleted in CH4, N2 and Ar. In this respect, Valles gases resemble end-member hydrothermal and magmatic gases discharged at hot spots (Galapagos, Kilauea, and Yellowstone).

Fraser Goff; Cathy J. Janik

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases Print Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases Print ALS users should follow Berkeley Lab policy, as described below, for the purchase, delivery, storage, and use of all gases at the ALS. See Shipping and Receiving for information on any non-gas deliveries. Contacts: Gas purchase or delivery: ALS Receiving, 510-486-4494 Gas use and storage: Experiment Coordination, 510-486-7222, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it Gas Storage: Berkeley Lab Chemical Inventory All gas bottles and cylinders at the ALS must be identified with bar code and logged into the Berkeley Lab Chemical Inventory by ALS staff. The inventory will be updated periodically; for more information contact Experiment Coordination. Gases are stored either in the racks between buildings 6 and 7; toxic and corrosive gases are stored in Building 6, room 6C across the walkway from beamline 10.0.

93

Removal of oxides of nitrogen from gases in multi-stage coal combustion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Polluting NO.sub.x gas values are removed from off-gas of a multi-stage coal combustion process which includes an initial carbonizing reaction, firing of char from this reaction in a fluidized bed reactor, and burning of gases from the carbonizing and fluidized bed reactions in a topping combustor having a first, fuel-rich zone and a second, fuel-lean zone. The improvement by means of which NO.sub.x gases are removed is directed to introducing NO.sub.x -free oxidizing gas such as compressor air into the second, fuel-lean zone and completing combustion with this source of oxidizing gas. Excess air fed to the fluidized bed reactor is also controlled to obtain desired stoichiometry in the first, fuel-rich zone of the topping combustor.

Mollot, Darren J. (Morgantown, WV); Bonk, Donald L. (Louisville, OH); Dowdy, Thomas E. (Orlando, FL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Adsorption of molecular gases on porous materials in the SAFT-VR approximation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A simple molecular thermodynamic approach is applied to the study of the adsorption of gases of chain molecules on solid surfaces. We use a model based on the Statistical Associating Fluid Theory for Variable Range (SAFT-VR) potentials [A. Gil-Villegas, A. Galindo, P. J. Whitehead, S. J. Mills, G. Jackson, A. N. Burgess, J. Chem. Phys. 106 (1997) 4168] that we extend by including a quasi-two-dimensional approximation to describe the adsorption properties of this type of real gases [A. Martinez, M. Castro, C. McCabe, A. Gil-Villegas, J. Chem. Phys. 126 (2007) 074707]. The model is applied to ethane, ethylene, propane, and carbon dioxide adsorbed on activated carbon and silica gel, which are porous media of significant industrial interest. We show that the adsorption isotherms obtained by means of the present SAFT-VR modeling are in fair agreement with the experimental results provided in the literature

Castro, M; Martinez, A; Rosu, H C; 10.1016/j.physa.2010.04.028

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Plasmon mass and Drude weight in strongly spin-orbit-coupled two-dimensional electron gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) spin- orbit-coupled 2D electron and hole gases, which are promising candidates for semiconductor spintronics,1 (ii) graphene2 (a monolayer of carbon atoms arranged in a 2D honeycomb lattice), which has attracted a great deal of interest because..., in the case of graphene) degree of freedom. This coupling, being of relativistic origin,12 naturally breaks Galilean invariance and is thus the basic reason for a quite sensitive dependence of several observables on electron-electron interactions, even...

Agarwal, Amit; Chesi, Stefano; Jungwirth, T.; Sinova, Jairo; Vignale, G.; Polini, Marco.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Isotope and chemical composition of gases from mud volcanoes in the Taman Peninsula and problem of their genesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Variations in the carbon isotope composition in gases and waters of mud volcanoes in the Taman Peninsula are studied. The ?13C values in CH4 and CO2 vary from ?59.5 to ?44.0‰ (?13Cav = ?52.4 ± 5.4‰) and from ?17....

O. E. Kikvadze; V. Yu. Lavrushin; B. G. Pokrovskii…

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon emissions from forest fires in China from 1950 to 2000  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon emissions from forest fires in China from 1950 to 2000 the emission of carbon (C) and carbon-containing trace gases including CO2, CO, CH4, and NMHC (nonmethane carbon emission from forest fires in China is about 11.31 Tg per year, ranging from a minimum level of 8

98

Chemical Properties of the Rare Gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... of argon of about 100 atm. I have already shown by an independent method1 that radon, too, forms a hydrate which is much more stable than those of other rare ... , forms a hydrate which is much more stable than those of other rare gases. Radon is easily held by crystals of sulphur dioxide hydrates, when they are formed from ...

B. A. NIKITIN

1937-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

99

New instruments for measuring landfill gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New instruments for measuring landfill gases ... The legislation mandates that landfill operators monitor more than 1200 active sites for specific pollution products. ... According to Varian, the instrumentation systems can be adapted easily to meet landfill testing requirements that might be enacted in states other than California. ...

RUDY BAUM

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Carbon Dioxide: Threat or Opportunity?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tion will be by direct combustion for the generation of power, but an increasing proportion will be con verted to syngas for chemical and fuel uses. Coal gasification is projected to become a major industry in the next decade. For every ton of coal... entering the gasification process, 1.88 lons of carbon dio xide are produced. This carbon dioxide is removed in virtually pure form by existing technology. This same technology can be applied to remove carbon dioxide from stack gases produced by power...

McKinney, A. R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydro carbon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

How the Carbon Emissions Were Estimated  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

How the Carbon Emissions Were Estimated How the Carbon Emissions Were Estimated How the Carbon Emissions Were Estimated Carbon dioxide emissions are the main component of greenhouse gas emissions caused by human activity. Carbon dioxide is emitted mostly as a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels for energy, although certain industrial processes (e.g., cement manufacture) also emit carbon dioxide. The estimates of energy-related carbon emissions require both data on the energy use and carbon emissions coefficients relating energy use to the amount of carbon emitted. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is the main source of data on U.S. energy use. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 used annual data provided by energy suppliers. However, to obtain more detail on how different sectors use energy, the emissions estimates in Energy and GHG Analysis rely data from on surveys of energy users, such as manufacturing establishments and commercial buildings.

102

Gas Cleaning Methods for Ambient Air and Compressed Gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cleaning air or compressed gases in cleanroom installations requires removal of particulate and/or ... The technology used for cleaning gases for the cleanroom is derived from processes long used in ... fossil fu...

Alvin Lieberman

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Perdido LF-Gase to Electricity | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Perdido LF-Gase to Electricity Perdido LF-Gase to Electricity This presentation was given at the July 17, 2012, Community Renewable Energy Deployment webinar on successful landfill...

104

BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases BOCLH | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases BOCLH BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases BOCLH Jump to: navigation, search Name BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases (BOCLH) Place Taipei, Taiwan Sector Solar Product BOCLH is a joint venture between the Lien Hwa Industrial Corporation and the BOC Group in the United Kingdom and produces high-purity gases used in solar component production. References BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases (BOCLH)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases (BOCLH) is a company located in Taipei, Taiwan . References ↑ "BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases (BOCLH)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=BOC_Lienhwa_Industrial_Gases_BOCLH&oldid=342956

105

Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases.

Turick, Charles E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

1988 Pilot Institute on Global Change on trace gases and the biosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This proposal seeks multi-agency funding to conduct an international, multidisciplinary 1988 Pilot Institute on Global Change to take place from August 7 through 21, 1988, on the topic: Trace Gases and the Biosphere. The institute, to be held in Snowmass, Colorado, is envisioned as a pilot version of a continuing series of institutes on Global Change (IGC). This proposal seeks support for the 1988 pilot institute only. The concept and structure for the continuing series, and the definition of the 1988 pilot institute, were developed at an intensive and multidisciplinary Summer Institute Planning Meeting in Boulder, Colorado, on August 24--25, 1987. The theme for the 1988 PIGC, Trace Gases and the Biosphere, will focus a concerted, high-level multidisciplinary effort on a scientific problem central to the Global Change Program. Dramatic year-to-year increases in the global concentrations of radiatively-active trace gases such as methane and carbon dioxide are now well documented. The predicted climatic effects of these changes lend special urgency to efforts to study the biospheric sources and sinks of these gases and to clarify their interactions and role in the geosphere-biosphere system.

Eddy, J.A.; Moore, B. III

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1987--1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1992, with annual updates thereafter. This is the third annual update report,covering national emissions over the period 1987--1993, with preliminary estimates of US carbon dioxide and halocarbon emissions for 1994. Calculating national aggregate emissions(or ``national inventories``) of greenhouse gases is a recently developed form of intellectual endeavor. Greenhouse gas emissions are rarely measured directly or reported to statistical agencies. Thus, to prepare emissions inventories usually requires inferring emissions indirectly from information collected for other purposes. Both the available information and the inferences drawn may be of varying reliability. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapters 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes.

NONE

1995-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

108

Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 5 figs.

Gaddy, J.L.

1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

109

Process for removal of ammonia and acid gases from contaminated waters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Contaminating basic gases, i.e., ammonia and acid gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, are removed from process waters or waste waters in a combined extraction and stripping process. Ammonia in the form of ammonium ion is extracted by an immiscible organic phase comprising a liquid cation exchange component, especially an organic phosphoric acid derivative, and preferably di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid, dissolved in an alkyl hydrocarbon, aryl hydrocarbon, higher alcohol, oxygenated hydrocarbon, halogenated hydrocarbon, and mixtures thereof. Concurrently, the acidic gaseous contaminants are stripped from the process or waste waters by stripping with stream, air, nitrogen, or the like. The liquid cation exchange component has the ammonia stripped therefrom by heating, and the component may be recycled to extract additional amounts of ammonia.

King, C.J.; Mackenzie, P.D.

1982-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

110

Process for removal of ammonia and acid gases from contaminated waters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Contaminating basic gases, i.e., ammonia, and acid gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, are removed from process waters or waste waters in a combined extraction and stripping process. Ammonia in the form of ammonium ion is extracted by an immiscible organic phase comprising a liquid cation exchange component, especially an organic phosphoric acid derivative, and preferably di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid, dissolved in an alkyl hydrocarbon, aryl hydrocarbon, higher alcohol, oxygenated hydrocarbon, halogenated hydrocarbon, and mixtures thereof. Concurrently, the acidic gaseous contaminants are stripped from the process or waste waters by stripping with steam, air, nitrogen, or the like. The liquid cation exchange component has the ammonia stripped therefrom by heating, and the component may be recycled to extract additional amounts of ammonia.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); MacKenzie, Patricia D. (Berkeley, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Computational studies of environmentally-related topics: part I. elucidating mechanisms of rhenium-mediated carbon dioxide conversion : part II. investigating vinyl radical and methyl peroxy radical combustion intermediates.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Combustion processes are a major contributor of pollutants in the atmosphere; they emit particles of soot, and greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides.… (more)

Agarwal, Jay

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite · C-C supplied in two forms · T300: C-C composite containing continuous PAN T300 fibers · SWB: Chopped Fiber Composite containing SWB fibers Crush strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine

Rollins, Andrew M.

113

Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.

1993-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

114

Activated carbon fiber composite material and method of making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An activated carbon fiber composite for separation and purification, or catalytic processing of fluids is described. The activated composite comprises carbon fibers rigidly bonded to form an open, permeable, rigid monolith capable of being formed to near-net-shape. Separation and purification of gases are effected by means of a controlled pore structure that is developed in the carbon fibers contained in the composite. The open, permeable structure allows the free flow of gases through the monolith accompanied by high rates of adsorption. By modification of the pore structure and bulk density the composite can be rendered suitable for applications such as gas storage, catalysis, and liquid phase processing.

Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Weaver, Charles E. (Knoxville, TN); Chilcoat, Bill R. (Knoxville, TN); Derbyshire, Frank (Lexington, KY); Jagtoyen, Marit (Lexington, KY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Activated carbon fiber composite material and method of making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An activated carbon fiber composite for separation and purification, or catalytic processing of fluids is described. The activated composite comprises carbon fibers rigidly bonded to form an open, permeable, rigid monolith capable of being formed to near-net-shape. Separation and purification of gases are effected by means of a controlled pore structure that is developed in the carbon fibers contained in the composite. The open, permeable structure allows the free flow of gases through the monolith accompanied by high rates of adsorption. By modification of the pore structure and bulk density the composite can be rendered suitable for applications such as gas storage, catalysis, and liquid phase processing.

Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Weaver, Charles E. (Knoxville, TN); Chilcoat, Bill R. (Knoxville, TN); Derbyshire, Frank (Lexington, KY); Jagtoyen, Marit (Lexington, KY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport,  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport, and Storage Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport, and Storage Project Summary Full Title: Techno-Economic Models for Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport, and Storage & Correlations for Estimating Carbon Dioxide Density and Viscosity Project ID: 195 Principal Investigator: David McCollum Brief Description: This project addresses several components of carbon capture and storage (CCS) costs, provides technical models for determining the engineering and infrastructure requirements of CCS, and describes some correlations for estimating CO2 density and viscosity. Keywords: Pipeline, transportation, greenhouse gases (GHG), costs, technoeconomic analysis Purpose Estimate costs of carbon dioxide capture, compression, transport, storage, etc., and provide some technical models for determining the engineering and

117

Efficieny handling effluent gases through chemical scrubbing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper is presented as an information source for efficiencies of chemical scrubbing. In it, we will discuss the specific problems of scrubbing silane, disilane, diborane, phosphine, hydrogen selenide and arsine. We will explain the scrubber dynamics, gases and flow rates used along with liquid mediums. The equipment and procedures used for testing, as well as the determination of the results, will be discussed. We intend to give examples of possible reactions and documentation of our efficiencies. Installation and maintenance will be touched, as well as our experiments into accidental catastrophic releases. From all of this we will derive conclusions as to the best possible means of wet chemical scrubbing.

Herman, T.; Soden, S.

1988-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

118

Heat conduction in relativistic neutral gases revisited  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The kinetic theory of dilute gases to first order in the gradients yields linear relations between forces and fluxes. The heat flux for the relativistic gas has been shown to be related not only to the temperature gradient but also to the density gradient in the representation where number density, temperature and hydrodynamic velocity are the independent state variables. In this work we show the calculation of the corresponding transport coefficients from the full Boltzmann equation and compare the magnitude of the relativistic correction.

A. L. Garcia-Perciante; A. R. Mendez

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

119

On surface temperature, greenhouse gases, and aerosols: models and observations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and sulphate aerosols on near-surface temperature is investigated using a version of the Hadley Centre atmospheric model coupled to a mixed layer ocean. The scattering of sunlight by sulphate aerosols is represented by appropriately enhancing the surface albedo. On doubling atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, the global mean temperature increases by 5.2 K. An integration with a 39% increase in CO{sub 2}, giving the estimated change in radiative heating due to increases in greenhouse gases since 1900, produced an equilibrium warming of 2.3 K, which, even allowing for oceanic inertia, is significantly higher than the observed warming over the same period. Furthermore, the simulation suggests a substantial warming everywhere, whereas the observations indicate isolated regions of cooling, including parts of the northern midlatitude continents. The addition of an estimate of the effect of scattering by current industrial aerosols (uncertain by a factor of at least 3) leads to improved agreement with the observed pattern of changes over the northern continents and reduces the global mean warming by about 30%. Doubling the aerosol forcing produces patterns that are still compatible with the observations, but further increase leads to unrealistically extensive cooling in the midlatitudes. The diurnal range of surface temperature decreases over most of the northern extratropics on increasing CO{sub 2}, in agreement with recent observations. The addition of the current industrial aerosol had little detectable effect on the diurnal range in the model because the direct effect of reduced solar heating at the surface is approximately balanced by the indirect effects of cooling. Thus, the ratio of the reduction in diurnal range to the mean warming is increased, in closer agreement with observations. Results from further sensitivity experiments with larger increases in aerosol and CO{sub 2} are presented.

Mitchell, J.F.B.; Davis, R.A.; Ingram, W.J.; Senior, C.A. [Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Berkshire (United Kingdom)] [Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Berkshire (United Kingdom)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Carbon Management and Implementation Plan 1. Background  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the College's energy efficiency and use of resources by integrating sustainability with corporate strategiesCarbon Management and Implementation Plan 1. Background Energy security and the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases which contribute to climate change are one of the biggest challenges facing us

Chittka, Lars

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydro carbon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

CARBON SEQUESTRATION VIA DIRECT INJECTION Howard J. Herzog, Ken Caldeira, and Eric Adams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CARBON SEQUESTRATION VIA DIRECT INJECTION Howard J. Herzog, Ken Caldeira, and Eric Adams and sequestration. Carbon sequestration is often associated with the planting of trees. As they mature, the trees INTRODUCTION The build-up of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere has

122

AN ISSUE OF PERMANENCE: ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TEMPORARY CARBON STORAGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with a `leaky' carbon sequestration reservoir, we argue that this is an issue that applies to just about all that the value of relatively deep ocean carbon sequestration can be nearly equivalent to permanent sequestration gases using carbon sequestration technologies (Herzog et al., 2000; Herzog, 2001) is being proposed

123

System and method for coproduction of activated carbon and steam/electricity  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method for producing activated carbon comprising carbonizing a solid carbonaceous material in a carbonization zone of an activated carbon production apparatus (ACPA) to yield a carbonized product and carbonization product gases, the carbonization zone comprising carbonaceous material inlet, char outlet and carbonization gas outlet; activating the carbonized product via activation with steam in an activation zone of the ACPA to yield activated carbon and activation product gases, the activation zone comprising activated carbon outlet, activation gas outlet, and activation steam inlet; and utilizing process gas comprising at least a portion of the carbonization product gases or a combustion product thereof; at least a portion of the activation product gases or a combustion product thereof; or a combination thereof in a solid fuel boiler system that burns a solid fuel boiler feed with air to produce boiler-produced steam and flue gas, the boiler upstream of an air heater within a steam/electricity generation plant, said boiler comprising a combustion zone, a boiler-produced steam outlet and at least one flue gas outlet.

Srinivasachar, Srivats (Sturbridge, MA); Benson, Steven (Grand Forks, ND); Crocker, Charlene (Newfolden, MN); Mackenzie, Jill (Carmel, IN)

2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

124

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Wildland fire detection and burned area in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Wildland fire detection and burned area in the United Wildland fires can be an important source of greenhouse gases as well as black carbon emissions that have of climate response to fire emissions compared to other emission sources of GHG, aerosols, and black carbon

125

The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs Danish consumption and emissions, 2007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption and emissions, 2007 Tomas Sander Poulsen AND EMISSION OF F-GASES 7 1.1.1 Consumption 7 1.1.2 Emission 7 1.1.3 Trends in total GWP contribution from F 21 4 EMISSION OF F-GASES 23 4.1.1 Emissions of HFCs from refrigerants 23 4.1.2 Emissions of HFCs from

126

Suspended two-dimensional electron and hole gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the fabrication of fully suspended two-dimensional electron and hole gases in III-V heterostructures. Low temperature transport measurements verify that the properties of the suspended gases are only slightly degraded with respect to the non-suspended gases. Focused ion beam technology is used to pattern suspended nanostructures with minimum damage from the ion beam, due to the small width of the suspended membrane.

Kazazis, D.; Bourhis, E.; Gierak, J.; Gennser, U. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS-LPN, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Bourgeois, O. [Institut Néel, CNRS-UJF, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Antoni, T. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS-LPN, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis, France and Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

127

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Emission...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AP-42 Volume 2 mobile sources Global Warming Potentials The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) revised GWPs for certain greenhouse gases in 2007 for the Fourth...

128

Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids, gases)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids, gases) presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

129

Structural graphitic carbon foams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphitic carbon foams are a unique material form with very high structural and thermal properties at a light weight. A process has been developed to produce microcellular, open-celled graphitic foams. The process includes heating a mesophase pitch preform above the pitch melting temperature in a pressurized reactor. At the appropriate time, the pressure is released, the gas nucleates bubbles, and these bubbles grow forming the pitch into the foam structure. The resultant foamed pitch is then stabilized in an oxygen environment. At this point a rigid structure exists with some mechanical integrity. The foam is then carbonized to 800 C followed by a graphitization to 2700 C. The shear action from the growing bubbles aligns the graphitic planes along the foam struts to provide the ideal structure for good mechanical properties. Some of these properties have been characterized for some of the foam materials. It is known that variations of the blowing temperature, blowing pressure and saturation time result in foams of variously sized with mostly open pores; however, the mechanism of bubble nucleation is not known. Therefore foams were blown with various gases to begin to determine the nucleation method. These gases are comprised of a variety of molecular weights as well as a range of various solubility levels. By examining the resultant structures of the foam, differences were noted to develop an explanation of the foaming mechanism.

Kearns, K.M.; Anderson, H.J. [Air Force Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States). Materials and Mfg. Directorate

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

130

Cretaceous Cold-Seep Communities and Methane-Derived Carbonates in the Canadian Arctic  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...CLAYPOOL, G.E., NATURAL GASES MARINE 99 ( 1974 ). COMMEAU...CARBON-ISOTOPE COMPOSITIONS OF NATURAL METHANES, AAPG BULLETIN-AMERICAN...HOVLAND, M, NORTH-SEA GAS FEEDS THE NORTH-SEA...SMOKER CHIMNEY FRAGMENTS IN CYPRUS SULFIDE DEPOSITS, NATURE...

BENOIT BEAUCHAMP; J. CHRISTOPHER HARRISON; WALTER W. NASSICHUK; H. ROY KROUSE; LESLIE S. ELIUK

1989-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

131

PHASE BEHAVIOR OF LIGHT GASES IN HYDROGEN AND AQUEOUS SOLVENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under previous support from the US Department of Energy, an experimental facility has been established and operated to measure valuable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for systems of interest in the production and processing of coal fluids. To facilitate the development and testing of models for prediction of the phase behavior for such systems, we have acquired substantial amounts of data on the equilibrium phase compositions for binary mixtures of heavy hydrocarbon solvents with a variety of supercritical solutes, including hydrogen, methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The present project focuses on measuring the phase behavior of light gases and water in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) type solvents at conditions encountered in indirect liquefaction processes and evaluating and developing theoretically-based correlating frameworks to predict the phase behavior of such systems. Specific goals of the proposed work include (a) developing a state-of-the-art experimental facility to permit highly accurate measurements of equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) of challenging F-T systems, (b) measuring these properties for systematically-selected binary, ternary and molten F-T wax mixtures to provide critically needed input data for correlation development, (c) developing and testing models suitable for describing the phase behavior of such mixtures, and (d) presenting the modeling results in generalized, practical formats suitable for use in process engineering calculations. During the present reporting period, the solubilities of hydrogen in n-hexane, carbon monoxide in cyclohexane, and nitrogen in phenanthrene and pyrene were measured using a static equilibrium cell over the temperature range from 344.3 to 433.2 K and pressures to 22.8 MPa. The uncertainty in these new solubility measurements is estimated to be less than 0.001 in mole fraction. The data were analyzed using the Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS). In general, the PR EOS represents the experimental data well when a single interaction parameter (C{sub ij}) is used for each isotherm. In addition, the predictive capability of the modified Park-Gasem-Robinson (PGR) equation of state (EOS) was evaluated for selected carbon dioxide + normal paraffins, ethane + normal paraffins, and hydrogen + normal paraffins. A set of mixing rules was proposed for the modified EOS to extend its predictive capabilities to mixtures. The predicted bubble point pressures for the ethane + n-paraffin and carbon dioxide + n-paraffin binaries were compared to those of the Peng-Robinson (PR), simplified-perturbed-hard-chain theory (SPHCT) and original PGR equations. The predictive capability of the proposed equation is better or comparable to the PR, SPHCT and original PGR equations of state for the ethane binaries (%AAD of 1.9) and carbon dioxide binaries (%AAD of 2.0). For the hydrogen binaries, the modified PGR EOS showed much better performance (%AAD of 1.7) than the original PGR equation and comparable to the PR equation.

KHALED A.M. GASEM; ROBERT L. ROBINSON, JR.

1999-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

132

PHASE BEHAVIOR OF LIGHT GASES IN HYDROCARBON AND AQUEOUS SOLVENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under previous support from the Department of Energy, an experimental facility has been established and operated to measure valuable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for systems of interest in the production and processing of coal fluids. To facilitate the development and testing of models for prediction of the phase behavior for such systems, we have acquired substantial amounts of data on the equilibrium phase compositions for binary mixtures of heavy hydrocarbon solvents with a variety of supercritical solutes, including hydrogen, methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The present project focuses on measuring the phase behavior of light gases and water in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) type solvents at conditions encountered in indirect liquefaction processes and evaluating and developing theoretically-based correlating frameworks to predict the phase behavior of such systems. Specific goals of the proposed work include (a) developing a state-of-the-art experimental facility to permit highly accurate measurements of equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) of challenging F-T systems, (b) measuring these properties for systematically-selected binary, ternary and molten F-T wax mixtures to provide critically needed input data for correlation development, (c) developing and testing models suitable for describing the phase behavior of such mixtures, and (d) presenting the modeling results in generalized, practical formats suitable for use in process engineering calculations. During the present period, the Park-Gasem-Robinson (PGR) equation of state (EOS) has been modified to improve its volumetric and equilibrium predictions. Specifically, the attractive term of the PGR equation was modified to enhance the flexibility of the model, and a new expression was developed for the temperature dependence of the attractive term in this segment-segment interaction model. The predictive capability of the modified PGR EOS for vapor pressure, and saturated liquid and vapor densities was evaluated for selected normal paraffins, normal alkenes, cyclo-paraffins, light aromatics, argon, carbon dioxide and water. The generalized EOS constants and substance-specific characteristic parameters in the modified PGR EOS were obtained from the pure component vapor pressures, and saturated liquid and vapor molar volumes. The calculated phase properties were compared to those of the Peng-Robinson (PR), the simplified-perturbed-hard-chain theory (SPHCT) and the original PGR equations. Generally, the performance of the proposed EOS was better than the PR, SPHCT and original PGR equations in predicting the pure fluid properties (%AAD of 1.3, 2.8 and 3.7 for vapor pressure, saturated liquid and vapor densities, respectively).

KHALED A.M. GASEM; ROBERT L. ROBINSON, JR.

1998-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

133

FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Bulletin 627 Bulletin 627 BUREAU o b MINES FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS By Michael G. Zabetakis DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement,

134

Refinery Yield of Liquefied Refinery Gases  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Refinery Yield Refinery Yield (Percent) Product: Liquefied Refinery Gases Finished Motor Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Residual Fuel Oil Naphtha for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Still Gas Miscellaneous Products Processing Gain(-) or Loss(+) Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History U.S. 5.3 5.4 5.2 5.2 5.1 3.9 1993-2013 PADD 1 4.4 5.1 4.9 4.9 4.6 2.1 1993-2013 East Coast 4.4 5.3 5.1 5.1 4.9 2.2 1993-2013

135

Shortcuts to adiabaticity for trapped ultracold gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study, experimentally and theoretically, the controlled transfer of harmonically trapped ultracold gases between different quantum states. In particular we experimentally demonstrate a fast decompression and displacement of both a non-interacting gas and an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate which are initially at equilibrium. The decompression parameters are engineered such that the final state is identical to that obtained after a perfectly adiabatic transformation despite the fact that the fast decompression is performed in the strongly non-adiabatic regime. During the transfer the atomic sample goes through strongly out-of-equilibrium states while the external confinement is modified until the system reaches the desired stationary state. The scheme is theoretically based on the invariants of motion and scaling equations techniques and can be generalized to decompression trajectories including an arbitrary deformation of the trap. It is also directly applicable to arbitrary initial non-equilibrium sta...

Schaff, Jean-François; Labeyrie, Guillaume; Vignolo, Patrizia

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Shortcuts to adiabaticity for trapped ultracold gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study, experimentally and theoretically, the controlled transfer of harmonically trapped ultracold gases between different quantum states. In particular we experimentally demonstrate a fast decompression and displacement of both a non-interacting gas and an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate which are initially at equilibrium. The decompression parameters are engineered such that the final state is identical to that obtained after a perfectly adiabatic transformation despite the fact that the fast decompression is performed in the strongly non-adiabatic regime. During the transfer the atomic sample goes through strongly out-of-equilibrium states while the external confinement is modified until the system reaches the desired stationary state. The scheme is theoretically based on the invariants of motion and scaling equations techniques and can be generalized to decompression trajectories including an arbitrary deformation of the trap. It is also directly applicable to arbitrary initial non-equilibrium states.

Jean-François Schaff; Pablo Capuzzi; Guillaume Labeyrie; Patrizia Vignolo

2011-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

137

Bogoliubov spectrum of interacting Bose gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the large-N limit of a system of N bosons interacting with a potential of intensity 1/N. When the ground state energy is to the first order given by Hartree's theory, we study the next order, predicted by Bogoliubov's theory. We show the convergence of the lower eigenvalues and eigenfunctions towards that of the Bogoliubov Hamiltonian (up to a convenient unitary transform). We also prove the convergence of the free energy when the system is sufficiently trapped. Our results are valid in an abstract setting, our main assumptions being that the Hartree ground state is unique and non-degenerate, and that there is complete Bose-Einstein condensation on this state. Using our method we then treat two applications: atoms with ''bosonic'' electrons on one hand, and trapped 2D and 3D Coulomb gases on the other hand.

Mathieu Lewin; Phan Thành Nam; Sylvia Serfaty; Jan Philip Solovej

2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

138

Method of converting environmentally pollutant waste gases to methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A continuous flow method is described of converting environmentally pollutant by-product gases emitted during the manufacture of silicon carbide to methanol comprising: (a) operating a plurality of batch furnaces of a silicon carbide manufacturing plant thereby producing silicon carbide and emitting by-product gases during the operation of the furnaces; (b) staggering the operation of the batch furnaces to achieve a continuous emission of the by-product gases; (c) continuously flowing the by-product gases as emitted from the batch furnaces directly to a methanol manufacturing plant; (d) cleansing the by-product gases of particulate matter, including removing the element sulfur from the by-product gases, as they are flowed to the methanol manufacturing plant, sufficiently for use of the by-product gases in producing methanol; and (e) immediately producing methanol from the by-product gases at the methanol manufacturing plant whereby the producing of silicon carbide is joined with the producing of methanol as a unified process.

Pfingstl, H.; Martyniuk, W.; Hennepin, A. Ill; McNally, T.; Myers, R.; Eberle, L.

1993-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

139

OBTAINING LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR IDEAL GASES USING ELASTIC COLLISIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OBTAINING LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR IDEAL GASES USING ELASTIC COLLISIONS STEPHEN MONTGOMERY law of expansion of ideal gases. 1. The Second Law of Thermodynamics A thermally isolated container-SMITH AND HANNAH MORGAN Abstract. The purpose of this note is to see to what extent ideal gas laws can be obtained

Montgomery-Smith, Stephen

140

Continuous cryopump with a method for removal of solidified gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved cryopump for the removal of gases from a high vacuum, comprising a cryopanel incorporating honeycomb structure, refrigerant means thermally connected to the cryopanel, and a rotatable channel moving azimuthally around an axis located near the center of the cryopanel, removing gases adsorbed within the honeycomb structure by subliming them and conducting them outside the vacuum vessel. 4 figs.

Carlson, L.W.; Herman, H.

1988-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydro carbon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Carbon Emissions: Iron and Steel Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Iron and Steel Industry Iron and Steel Industry Carbon Emissions in the Iron and Steel Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 3312) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 39.9 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 10.7% -- Nonfuel Emissions: 22.2 MMTC Total First Use of Energy: 1,649 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 7.6% Nonfuel Use of Energy: 886 trillion Btu (53.7%) -- Coal: 858 trillion Btu (used to make coke) Carbon Intensity: 24.19 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 39.9 Coal 22.7

142

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - High-GWP gases  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5. High-GWP gases 5. High-GWP gases 5.1. Total emissions Greenhouse gases with high global warming potential (high-GWP gases) are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which together represented 3 percent of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2009. Emissions estimates for the high-GWP gases are provided to EIA by the EPA's Office of Air and Radiation. The estimates for emissions of HFCs not related to industrial processes or electric transmission are derived from the EPA Vintaging Model. Emissions from manufacturing and utilities are derived by the EPA from a mix of public and proprietary data, including from the EPA's voluntary emission reduction partnership programs. For this year's EIA inventory, 2008 values for HFC-23 from HCFC-22

143

The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model (GREET) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model (GREET Fleet) Agency/Company /Organization: Argonne National Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Greenhouse Gas, Transportation Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options Topics: Baseline projection, GHG inventory Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: greet.es.anl.gov/main Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): EERE tool, The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model, GREET References: GREET Fleet Main Page[1] Logo: The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model (GREET Fleet)

144

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

of Greenhouse Gases Program of Greenhouse Gases Program Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program ***THE VOLUNTARY REPORTING OF GREENHOUSE GASES ("1605(b)") PROGRAM HAS BEEN SUSPENDED.*** This affects all survey respondents. Please visit the What's New page for full details. What Is the Voluntary Reporting Program? logo Established by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program encourages corporations, government agencies, non-profit organizations, households, and other private and public entities to submit annual reports of their greenhouse gas emissions, emission reductions, and sequestration activities. The Program provides a means for voluntary reporting that is complete, reliable, and consistent. More information on the program...

145

Gases as Working Fluid in Parabolic Trough CSP Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The energetic dimension of actual economy is massively oriented towards the use of fossil fuels: they cover a share of 87% of the energy needs and the trend of this share is increasing, in spite of the commitments adopted by almost all the Countries in the World. Most crucial concern is CO2 levels in the atmosphere and the positive feedback between Earth's temperature increase and carbon. Actual technologies which make use of renewable sources seem to be not fully suitable to invert this continuous increase of fossil fuels. Concentrated Solar Power plants (CSP) have had, recently, a huge attention as a technology able to give, in the mean future, a strong contribution to the electrical energy generation. CSP technology has an intrinsic superiority with respect to the other renewable plants but actual plants suffer of many drawbacks which slow down a massive diffusion: these aspects increase costs and do not insure the reliability levels required to make the investments profitable. Gas as heat transfer fluid inside solar receiver in a CSP Parabolic Trough (PT) type plant is discussed in this paper: this would simplify actual technology in the conversion section, downstream the solar energy collecting phase. The use of gases calls for a new conversion section discussed in this paper based on a direct expansion in gas turbine plants. The success of this concept is related to the possibility to increase the fluid (gas) temperature above the actual operating maximum values. The paper discusses the performances of a new gas cycle, the performances of actual receivers when fed with gas and introduces and discusses an optimization design parameter which allows a cost decrease and industrial reliability improvement.

Roberto Cipollone; Andrea Cinocca; Angelo Gualtieri

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Carbon sequestration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Leaver and Howard Dalton Carbon sequestration Rattan Lal * * ( lal.1...and biotic technologies. Carbon sequestration implies transfer of atmospheric...and biomass burning. 3. Carbon sequestration Emission rates from fossil...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Carbon Sequestration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon sequestration” refers to a portfolio of activities for ... capture, separation and storage or reuse of carbon or CO2. Carbon sequestration technologies encompass both the prevention of CO2 emissions into ...

Robert L. Kane MS; Daniel E. Klein MBA

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Carbon Emissions: Petroleum Refining Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Petroleum Refining Industry Petroleum Refining Industry Carbon Emissions in the Petroleum Refining Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 2911) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 79.9 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 21.5% -- Nonfuel Emissions: 16.5 MMTC Total First Use of Energy: 6,263 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 28.9% Nonfuel Use of Energy Sources: 3,110 trillion Btu (49.7%) -- Naphthas and Other Oils: 1,328 trillion Btu -- Asphalt and Road Oil: 1,224 trillion Btu -- Lubricants: 416 trillion Btu Carbon Intensity: 12.75 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey", "Monthly Refinery Report" for 1994, and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998.

149

Measuring non-condensable gases in steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In surgery, medical devices that are used should be sterilized. To obtain surface steam sterilization conditions, not only in the sterilizer chamber itself but also in the loads to be sterilized, the amount of non-condensable gases (NCGs), for instance air, should be very low. Even rather small fractions of NCGs (below 1 %) seriously hamper steam penetration in porous materials or devices with hollow channels (e.g., endoscopes). A recently developed instrument which might detect the presence of residual NCGs in a reliable and reproducible way is the 3M{sup TM} Electronic Test System (ETS). In this paper, a physical model is presented that describes the behavior of this instrument. This model has been validated by experiments in which known fractions of NCGs were introduced in a sterilizer chamber in which an ETS was placed. Despite several approximations made in the model, a good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental results. The basic principle of the ETS, measuring the heat transfer by condensation on a cooled surface, permits a very sensitive detection of NCGs in harsh environments like water vapor at high temperatures and pressures. Our model may serve to develop adapted and optimized versions of this instrument for use outside the field of sterilization, e.g., in heat exchangers based on steam condensation.

Doornmalen, J. P. C. M. van; Kopinga, K., E-mail: k.kopinga@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

150

Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Energy Efficiency Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases Mission The team establishes an energy conservation program as defined in Executive Order (EO) 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management, and (EO) 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, and DOE Order 436.1, Departmental Sustainability, and approved by LM. The team incorporates requirements for energy efficiency and reductions in greenhouse gases, and it advocates conserving environmental resources and improving operational capabilities and mission sustainability. Scope The team evaluates how to maintain and operate its buildings and facilities in a resource-efficient, sustainable, and economically viable manner. The

151

Unified Theory of Lattice Boltzmann Models for Nonideal Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A nonideal gas lattice Boltzmann model is directly derived, in an {ital a priori} fashion, from the Enskog equation for dense gases. The model is rigorously obtained by a systematic procedure to discretize the Enskog equation (in the presence of an external force) in both phase space and time. The lattice Boltzmann model derived here is thermodynamically consistent and is free of the defects which exist in previous lattice Boltzmann models for nonideal gases. The existing lattice Boltzmann models for nonideal gases are analyzed and compared with the model derived here. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

Luo, L. [ICASE, MS 403, NASA Langley Research Center, 6 North Dryden Street, Building 1298, Hampton, Virginia 23681-0001 (United States)] [ICASE, MS 403, NASA Langley Research Center, 6 North Dryden Street, Building 1298, Hampton, Virginia 23681-0001 (United States)

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Global warming description using Daisyworld model with greenhouse gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Daisyworld is an archetypal model of the earth that is able to describe the global regulation that can emerge from the interaction between life and environment. This article proposes a model based on the original Daisyworld considering greenhouse gases emission and absorption, allowing the description of the global warming phenomenon. Global and local analyses are discussed evaluating the influence of greenhouse gases in the planet dynamics. Numerical simulations are carried out showing the general qualitative behavior of the Daisyworld for different scenarios that includes solar luminosity variations and greenhouse gases effect. Nonlinear dynamics perspective is of concern discussing a way that helps the comprehension of the global warming phenomenon.

Susana L.D. Paiva; Marcelo A. Savi; Flavio M. Viola; Albino J.K. Leiroz

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Sorption of organic gases in residential rooms  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

residential rooms residential rooms Title Sorption of organic gases in residential rooms Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-59303 Year of Publication 2007 Authors Singer, Brett C., Alfred T. Hodgson, Toshifumi Hotchi, Katherine Y. Ming, Richard G. Sextro, Emily E. Wood, and Nancy J. Brown Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 41 Start Page Chapter Pagination 3251-3265 Keywords adsorption, hazardous air pollutants, nerve agents, sink effect, volatile organic compounds Abstract Experiments were conducted to characterize organic gas sorption in residential rooms studied ''as-is'' with furnishings and material surfaces unaltered and in a furnished chamber designed to simulate a residential room. Results are presented for 10 rooms (five bedrooms, two bathrooms, a home office, and two multi-function spaces) and the chamber. Exposed materials were characterized and areas quantified. A mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was rapidly volatilized within each room as it was closed and sealed for a 5-h Adsorb phase; this was followed by 30-min Flush and 2-h closed-room Desorb phases. Included were alkane, aromatic, and oxygenated VOCs representing a range of ambient and indoor air pollutants. Three organophosphorus compounds served as surrogates for Sarin-like nerve agents. Measured gas-phase concentrations were fit to three variations of a mathematical model that considers sorption occurring at a surface sink and potentially a second, embedded sink. The 3-parameter sink-diffusion model provided acceptable fits for most compounds and the 4-parameter two-sink model provided acceptable fits for the others. Initial adsorption rates and sorptive partitioning increased with decreasing vapor pressure for the alkanes, aromatics and oxygenated VOCs. Best-fit sorption parameters obtained from experimental data from the chamber produced best-fit sorption parameters similar to those obtained from the residential rooms

154

Analysis of air pollution and greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current objective of the project Analysis of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases'' is to develop a study of emissions and emission sources that could easily be linked to models of economic activity. Initial studies were conducted to evaluate data currently available linking activity rates and emissions estimates. The emissions inventory developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) presents one of the most comprehensive data sets, and was chosen for our initial studies, which are described in this report. Over 99% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 98% of the NO{sub x} emission and 57% of the VOC emissions from area sources are related to fuel combustion. The majority of emission from these sources are generated by the transportation sector. Activity rates for area sources are not archived with the NAPAP inventory; alternative derivations of these data will be part of the future activities of this project. The availability and completeness of the fuel heat content data in the NAPAP inventory were also studied. Approximately 10% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 13% of the NO{sub x} emissions and 46% of the VOC emissions are generated by sources with unavailable data for fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content were generated. Future studies for this project include the derivation of activity rates for area sources, improved explanations for the default fuel parameters defined in the NAPAP inventory and the development of links to data bases of economic activity.

Benkovitz, C.M.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

Jeffrey Long

2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

156

Glossary: Energy-Related Carbon Emissions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Glossary: Energy-Related Carbon Emissions Glossary: Energy-Related Carbon Emissions Glossary: Energy-Related Carbon Emissions For additional terms, refer to: the Glossary of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 for additional greenhouse gas related terms, the Glossary of Manufacturing Consumption of Energy 1994 for additional manufacturing terms, and Appendix F of Manufacturing Consumption of Energy 1994 for descriptions of the major industry groups. British Thermal Unit: The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit. One quadrillion Btu is 1015 Btu, or 1.055 exajoules. Btu: See British Thermal Unit. Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless, non-poisonous gas that is a normal part of Earth's atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is a product of fossil-fuel combustion as well as other processes. It is considered a greenhouse gas as it traps heat radiated into the atmosphere and thereby contributes to the potential for global warming.

157

Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases Jump to: navigation, search Name Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases Agency/Company /Organization United States Department of Agriculture Sector Land Focus Area Agriculture Topics GHG inventory, Policies/deployment programs Resource Type Guide/manual, Lessons learned/best practices Website http://globalresearchalliance. References Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases [1] Background "The Alliance is a bottom-up network, founded on the voluntary, collaborative efforts of countries. It will coordinate research on agricultural greenhouse gas emission reductions by linking up existing and new research efforts across a range of sub-sectors and work areas. It will

158

Semi-Continuous Detection of Mercury in Gases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Continuous Detection of Mercury in Gases Continuous Detection of Mercury in Gases Opportunity Research is currently active on the patented technology "Semi-Continuous Detection of Mercury in Gases." The technology, which is a spinoff of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL) GP-254 Process (U.S. patent 6,576,092), is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's NETL. Overview This invention discloses a method for the quantitative detection of heavy metals, especially mercury, in effluent gas streams. The method employs photo-deposition and an array of surface acoustic wave sensors where each sensor monitors a specific metal. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued a national regulation for mercury removal from coal-derived flue and fuel gases in December 2011,

159

BIOSIGNATURE GASES IN H?-DOMINATED ATMOSPHERES ON ROCKY EXOPLANETS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Super-Earth exoplanets are being discovered with increasing frequency and some will be able to retain stable H2-dominated atmospheres. We study biosignature gases on exoplanets with thin H2 atmospheres and habitable surface ...

Seager, Sara

160

Spontaneous detonation of a mixture of two odd electron gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spontaneous detonation of a mixture of two odd electron gases ... Instructions for safe detonation of ClO2 and NO (the fastest known reaction between two stable molecules at room temperature). ...

Thomas S. Briggs

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydro carbon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Suitability of Non-Energy Greenhouse Gases for Emissions Trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper assesses the suitability of different sources of non-energy greenhouse gases for emissions trading. Different forms of emissions trading are defined and criteria for determining whether a source is sui...

Erik Haites; Angelo Proestos

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Studying coherence in ultra-cold atomic gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis will discuss the study of coherence properties of ultra-cold atomic gases. The atomic systems investigated include a thermal cloud of atoms, a Bose-Einstein condensate and a fermion pair condensate. In each ...

Miller, Daniel E. (Daniel Edward)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 1998 - Carbon Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

CARBON EMISSIONS CARBON EMISSIONS A part of the integrating module, the carbon emissions submodule (CEM) computes the carbon emissions due to the combustion of energy. The coefficients for carbon emissions are derived from Energy Information Administration, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1996, published in October 1997. The calculations account for the fact that some fossil fuels are used for nonfuel purposes, such as feedstocks, and thus the carbon in the fuel is sequestered in the end product. CEM also allows for several carbon policy evaluation options to be imposed within NEMS. Although none of the policy options are assumed in the Annual Energy Outlook 1998, the options can be used in special analyses to simulate potential market-based approaches to meet national carbon emission

164

NETL: Carbon Capture FAQs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

How is CO2 captured? How is CO2 captured? Chilled Ammonia CO2 Capture Process Facility at American Electric Power's (AEP) Mountaineer Plant Chilled Ammonia CO2 Capture Process Facility at American Electric Power's (AEP) Mountaineer Plant Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture involves separating CO2 from other gases generated by industrial processes or burning fossil fuels. CO2 capture can remove as much as 95% of the CO2 from these processes. There are two major types of anthropogenic CO2 sources: mobile and stationary. Mobile sources include things like cars, trucks, trains, boats, and aircrafts that burn fossil fuels and generate CO2. Capturing CO2 from mobile sources is currently impractical. Stationary sources include power plants and industrial facilities that burn fossil fuels, as

165

AN ELECTROANALYTICAL STUDY OF ELECTRODE REACTIONS ON CARBON ANODES DURING ELECTROLYTIC PRODUCTION OF ALUMINUM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN ELECTROANALYTICAL STUDY OF ELECTRODE REACTIONS ON CARBON ANODES DURING ELECTROLYTIC PRODUCTION production of aluminum the anodic reactions have been studied on carbon microelectrodes by voltammetry and chronoamperometry. Anode gases have been analyzed by gas chromatography on-line during controlled- potential

Sadoway, Donald Robert

166

Fast non-explosive gases for drift chambers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Typical gases which are stock at Fermilab are Ar:C/sub 2/H/sub 6/(50:50) and Ar:CO/sub 2/ (80:20). Argon:Ethane has the virtue of high gas gain and a saturated drift velocity. In fact, parametrizing the drift velocity as a function of electric field we find v/sub d/(E) = v/sub o/(1/minus/e/sup -E/E/o) with v/sub o/ approx. = 5.4 cm/..mu..sec and E/sub o/ = 160 V/cm. However, safety considerations make this gas somewhat inconvenient. The addition of alcohol as quencher also raises the saturation field to, for example, E/sub o/ approx. = 500 V/cm for 1.5% added alcohol. This gas also tends to break up in a high-beam flux environment and leave carbon deposits. The addition of alcohol to avoid such aging often takes a unit cell out of saturation over its entire volume. Finally, for collider applications it is useful to exclude free protons from the gas in order to reduce the sensitivity to the sea of slow neutrons which are present in the collider environment. In contrast, Ar:CO/sub 2/ (80:20) is a gas with more moderate gas gain. The drift velocity at high field is v/sub d/(E > 1.5 kV/cm) approx. = 5.8 cm/..mu..sec. For most field configurations this gas does not saturate, causing a long tail in the drift time distrubtion due to low field regions in the unit cell. The virtues of this gas mixture are that it is cheap, not flammable, and stable under high-beam flux. However as the Collider Upgrade progresses, we wish to find a gas which is faster than 5.0 cm/..mu..sec since the time separation between collisions will at some point be less than drift time of 1..mu..sec for drift distance of 5 cm. 3 refs., 5 figs.

Green, D.; Haggerty, H.; Oshima, N.; Yamada, R.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints (2006 MECS)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Energy and Carbon Footprints provide a mapping of energy from supply to end use in manufacturing. They show us where energy is used and lost—and where greenhouse gases (GHGs) are emitted. Footprints are available below for 15 manufacturing sectors (representing 94% of all manufacturing energy use) and for U.S. manufacturing as a whole. Analysis of these footprints is also available in the U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis report.

168

Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir.

Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Markun, Francis (Joliet, IL); Zawadzki, Mary T. (South Bend, IN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method are disclosed for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir. 6 figs.

Gross, K.C.; Markun, F.; Zawadzki, M.T.

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

170

High pressure/high temperature vapor liquid equilibrium study of light gases in hydrogen-coal liquid model compound systems using perturbation chromatography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Perturbation chromatography or gas-liquid partition chromatography (GLPC) provides a powerful tool for making physicochemical measurements. In this investigation GLPC was applied to study the vapor-liquid equilibrium behavior of light gases in nonvolatile coal liquid model compound solvents at high temperatures and high pressures. Improvements made in existing GLPC techniques include: the use of a high pressure tandem proportioning pump to give precise control of the carrier gas flow rate and low pressure drops; a high pressure ionization chamber to detect the injection of very dilute radioactive sample gases; and the use of a microcomputer to provide instantaneous integration and very precise retention times of the chromatographic peaks. Infinite dilution K-values for methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide in hydrogen-dibenzofuran systems were obtained at 100 and 125 C and up to 800 psia. Infinite dilution K-values for the same light gases in hydrogen-9-methylanthracene systems were obtained at 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 C and up to 3000 psia. Henry's constants were determined for the light gases in 9-methylanthracene. Second cross virial coefficients and vapor phase infinite dilution fugacity coefficients were calculated for methane, ethane, propane, and n-butane in hydrogen. These results were combined with the experimental K-value measurements to obtain Henry's constants in hydrogen-9-methylanthracene mixtures of fixed liquid compositions. Infinite dilution heats of solution of the solute gases in the mixtures were calculated.

Kragas, T.K.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Carbon Nanotube-Silver Composite for Mercury Capture and Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mechanisms of capturing mercury on a sorbent vary from amalgamation, chemical adsorption to simple physical adsorption. ... Untreated carbon-based sorbents and mineral-based sorbents capture mercury mainly via physical adsorption that allows release of captured mercury at slightly higher temperatures. ... This paper outlines the results of a systematic study on the capture of trace mercury vapor from simulated flue gases, using activated carbons. ...

Guangqian Luo; Hong Yao; Minghou Xu; Xinwei Cui; Weixing Chen; Rajender Gupta; Zhenghe Xu

2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

172

Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min × 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

M. Aslam K. Khalil

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

173

The Net Environmental Effects of Carbon Dioxide Reduction Policies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of policy measures have been proposed to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). However, policies which reduce CO2 emissions will also decrease the emissions of greenhouse-relevant gases methane are overlooked the net effect of CO2 reduction policies on global warming is understated. Thus, emissions of all

174

Carbon Conference  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon Conference ... The Fourth Hienninl Conference on Carbon will be held at the University of Buffalo, June 15 to 19. ... The Pittsburgh Section's coal technology group will meet in the conference room at Mellon Institute, Pittsburgh, June ... ...

1959-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Nanoscale atomic waveguides with suspended carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose an experimentally viable setup for the realization of one-dimensional ultracold atom gases in a nanoscale magnetic waveguide formed by single doubly-clamped suspended carbon nanotubes. We show that all common decoherence and atom loss mechanisms are small guaranteeing a stable operation of the trap. Since the extremely large current densities in carbon nanotubes are spatially homogeneous, our proposed architecture allows to overcome the problem of fragmentation of the atom cloud. Adding a second nanowire allows to create a double-well potential with a moderate tunneling barrier which is desired for tunneling and interference experiments with the advantage of tunneling distances being in the nanometer regime.

V. Peano; M. Thorwart; A. Kasper; R. Egger

2005-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

176

Phase Behavior of Light Gases in Hydrocarbon and Aqueous Solvents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under previous support from the Department of Energy, an experimental facility has been established and operated to measure valuable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for systems of interest in the production and processing of coal fluids. To facilitate the development and testing of models for prediction of the phase behavior for such systems, we have acquired substantial amounts of data on the equilibrium phase compositions for binary mixtures of heavy hydrocarbon solvents with a variety of supercritical solutes, including hydrogen, methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The present project focuses on measuring the phase behavior of light gases and water in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) type solvents at conditions encountered in indirect liquefaction processes and evaluating and developing theoretically-based correlating frameworks to predict the phase behavior of such systems. Specific goals of the proposed work include (a) developing a state-of-the-art experimental facility to permit highly accurate measurements of equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) of challenging F-T systems, (b) measuring these properties for systematically-selected binary, ternary and molten F-T wax mixtures to provide critically needed input data for correlation development, (c) developing and testing models suitable for describing the phase behavior of such mixtures, and (d) presenting the modeling results in generalized, practical formats suitable for use in process engineering calculations. During the present reporting period, our solubility apparatus was refurbished and restored to full service. To test the experimental apparatus and procedures used, measurements were obtained for the solubility Of C0{sub 2} in benzene at 160{degrees}F. Having confirmed the accuracy of the newly acquired data in comparison with our previous measurements and data reported in the literature for this test system, we have begun to measure the solubility of hydrogen in hexane. The measurements for this system will cover the temperature range from 160 to 280{degrees}F at pressures to 2,500 psia. As part of our model evaluation efforts, we examined the predictive abilities of an alternative approach we have proposed for calculating the phase behavior properties of highly non-ideal systems. Using this approach, the liquid phase fugacities generated from an equation of state (EOS) are augmented by a fugacity deviation function correction. The correlative abilities of this approach are compared with those of an EOS equipped with the recently introduced Wong-Sandler (MWS) mixing rules. These two approaches are compared with the current methods for vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) calculations, i.e., the EOS (0/0) approach with the van der Waals mixing rules and the split (y/0) approach. The evaluations were conducted on a database comprised of non-ideal low pressure binary systems as well as asymmetric high pressure binary systems. These systems are of interest in the coal liquefaction and utilization processes. The Peng-Robinson EOS was selected for the purposes of this evaluation.

Gasem, K.A.M.; Robinson, R.L., Jr.; Trvedi, N.J., Gao, W.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

International Energy Outlook 2006 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Eneregy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Eneregy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2006 Chapter 7: Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In the coming decades, actions to limit greenhouse gas emissions could affect patterns of energy use around the world and alter the level and composition of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by energy source. Figure 65. World Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Region, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 66. World Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1980-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Carbon dioxide is one of the most prevalent greenhouse gases in the

178

Magnesium cage shows promise for carbon capture http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/News/2009/December/01120901.asp[12/2/2009 12:27:18 PM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Magnesium cage shows promise for carbon capture http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/News/2009 Links Tools Magnesium cage shows promise for carbon capture 01 December 2009 US chemists have shown and selectively capture carbon dioxide from a mixture of gases and subsequently release it using little energy

Yaghi, Omar M.

179

HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Greenhouse gases andGreenhouse gases and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

distribution from US in 1990 & 1998distribution from US in 1990 & 1998 US 1998US 1998 GHG compound Global warming potential (GWP) % of US GHG emissions (1990) % of US GHG emissions (1998) Carbon dioxide, CO22 1 most important sources per GHG type3 most important sources per GHG type CO22 Fossil fuel combustion

Zevenhoven, Ron

180

Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve Fuel Economy for Cars and Trucks Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve Fuel Economy for Cars and Trucks Agency/Company /Organization: EPA and NHTSA Focus Area: Standards - Incentives - Policies - Regulations Topics: Policy Impacts Resource Type: Reports, Journal Articles, & Tools Website: www.epa.gov/oms/climate/regulations/420f10014.pdf This document establish a national program consisting of new standards for model year 2012 through 2016 light-duty vehicles that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy. EPA is finalizing the first-ever national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards under the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydro carbon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Lattice vibrations of pure and doped GaSe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bridgman method is used to grow especially undoped and doped single crystals of GaSe. Composition and impurity content of the grown crystals were determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) method. X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, photoluminescence (PL), and IR transmission measurements were performed at room temperature. The long wavelength lattice vibrations of four modifications of GaSe were described in the framework of modified one-layer linear-chain model which also takes into consideration the interaction of the selenium (Se) atom with the second nearest neighbor gallium (Ga) atom in the same layer. The existence of an eight-layer modification of GaSe is suggested and the vibrational frequencies of this modification are explained in the framework of a lattice dynamical model considered in the present work. Frequencies and the type of vibrations (gap, local, or resonance) for the impurity atoms were calculated and compared with the experimental results.

Allakhverdiev, K. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey) and Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan)]. E-mail: kerim.allahverdi@mam.gov.tr; Baykara, T. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey); Ellialtioglu, S. [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey); Hashimzade, F. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan); Huseinova, D. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan); Kawamura, K. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan); Kaya, A.A. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey); Kulibekov, A.M. [Department of Physics, Mugla University, Mugla 48000 (Turkey); Onari, S. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan)

2006-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

182

Other States Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Other States Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 513 491 515 539 557 534 541 579 574 585 558 573 1998 578 536 591 581 517 456 486 486 471 477 457 468 1999 466 438 489 495 499 510 547 557 544 555 541 579 2000 587 539 605 587 615 570 653 629 591 627 609 611 2001 658 591 677 690 718 694 692 679 686 697 688 700 2002 639 591 587 621 622 605 654 639 649 650 623 638 2003 689 624 649 676 702 691 733 732 704 734 719 748 2004 741 697 727 692 692 688 718 729 706 723 711 718

183

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Using  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Using Renewable Energy in Buildings Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Using Renewable Energy in Buildings October 7, 2013 - 11:15am Addthis To support planning for using renewable energy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the Federal agency or program-level, it is important to consider what changes to the agencies building or land-holding portfolio may have on opportunities for renewable energy. Changes to consider include: Addition of new buildings or sites to the agencies portfolio Major renovations to existing buildings Office moves into or out of agency-owned or leased space. As is the case with planning energy efficiency measures, planning for renewable energy in new construction can be more cost-effective than

184

Raman/FTIR spectroscopy of oil shale retort gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Raman facility was assembled in order to aid in the evaluation of the feasibility of using Raman or FTIR spectroscopy for analyzing gas mixtures of interest in oil shale. Applications considered in oil shale research included both retort monitoring and laboratory kinetic studies. Both techniques gave limits of detection between 10 and 1000 ppM for ten representative pertinent gases. Both techniques are inferior as a general analytical technique for oil shale gas analysis in comparison with mass spectroscopy, which had detection limits between 1 and 50 ppM for the same gases. The conclusion of the feasibility study was to recommend that mass spectroscopic techniques be used for analyzing gases of interest to oil shale.

Richardson, J H; Monaco, S B; Sanborn, R H; Hirschfeld, T B; Taylor, J R

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Carbon dioxide and climate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

Not Available

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory Title Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors McMeeking, Gavin R., Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Stephen Baker, Christian M. Carrico, Judith C. Chow, Jeffrey Collett L. Jr., Wei Min Hao, Amanda S. Holden, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, William C. Malm, Hans Moosmuller, Amy P. Sullivan, and Cyle E. Wold Journal Journal of Geophysical Research Volume 114 Abstract We characterized the gas- and speciated aerosol-phase emissions from the open combustion of 33 different plant species during a series of 255 controlled laboratory burns during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiments (FLAME). The plant species we tested were chosen to improve the existing database for U.S. domestic fuels: laboratory-based emission factors have not previously been reported for many commonly burned species that are frequently consumed by fires near populated regions and protected scenic areas. The plants we tested included the chaparral species chamise, manzanita, and ceanothus, and species common to the southeastern United States (common reed, hickory, kudzu, needlegrass rush, rhododendron, cord grass, sawgrass, titi, and wax myrtle). Fire-integrated emission factors for gas-phase CO2, CO, CH4, C2-4 hydrocarbons, NH3, SO2, NO, NO2, HNO3, and particle-phase organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), SO4 2, NO3, Cl, Na+, K+, and NH4 + generally varied with both fuel type and with the fire-integrated modified combustion efficiency (MCE), a measure of the relative importance of flaming- and smoldering-phase combustion to the total emissions during the burn. Chaparral fuels tended to emit less particulate OC per unit mass of dry fuel than did other fuel types, whereas southeastern species had some of the largest observed emission factors for total fine particulate matter. Our measurements spanned a larger range of MCE than prior studies, and thus help to improve estimates of the variation of emissions with combustion conditions for individual fuels.

187

Carbon Cycle  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Cycle Carbon Cycle Latest Global Carbon Budget Estimates Including CDIAC Estimates Terrestrial Carbon Management Data Sets and Analyses Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Consumption and Cement Manufacture, (2011) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) Monthly Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Global Stable Carbon Isotopic Signature (2012) Monthly Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Isomass (δ 13C) of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) AmeriFlux - Terrestrial Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, and Energy Balance Measurements Estimates of Monthly CO2 Emissions and Associated 13C/12C Values

188

Hazardous Gases VASILIS M. FTHENAKIS Department of Applied Science  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Mitigation Options for Mitigation Options for Accidental Releases of Hazardous Gases VASILIS M. FTHENAKIS Department of Applied Science Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, N Y 11973 ABSTRACT The objective of this paper is to review and compare technologies available for mitigation of unconfined releases of toxic and flammable gases. These technologies indude: secondary confinement, de- inventory, vapor barriers, foam spraying, and water sprays/monitors. Guidelines for the design and/or operation of effective post-release mitigation systems and case studies involving actual industrial mitigation systems are also presented. 1. ACCIDENT PREVENTION & MITIGATION OPTIONS Accident prevention and mitigation in the process industries is based on the military concept of defense in

189

Dissipative dynamics of a Josephson junction in the Bose gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dissipative dynamics of a Josephson junction in Bose gases is considered within the framework of the model of a tunneling Hamiltonian. The effective action that describes the dynamics of the phase difference across the junction is derived using the functional integration method. The dynamic equation obtained for the phase difference across the junction is analyzed for the finite temperatures in the low-frequency limit involving the radiation terms. The asymmetric case of the Bose gases with the different order parameters is calculated as well.

Barankov, R.A. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Burmistrov, S.N. [RRC 'Kurchatov Institute', Kurchatov Sq.1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons. 8 figures.

Senum, G.I.; Dietz, R.N.

1994-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

191

Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons.

Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY); Dietz, Russell N. (Patchogue, NY)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Use of low temperature blowers for recirculation of hot gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus is described for maintaining motors at low operating temperatures during recirculation of hot gases in fuel cell operations and chemical processes such as fluidized bed coal gasification. The apparatus includes a means for separating the hot process gas from the motor using a secondary lower temperature gas, thereby minimizing the temperature increase of the motor and associated accessories.

Maru, H.C.; Forooque, M.

1982-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

194

AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #2 1. Using the formalism of the text book is as follows. Assume that the particle number density is a slowly varying function of the z coordinate #27; Ã? is a constant. 3. Show that if the potential function, U(r), varies as 1=r 4

Groth, Clinton P. T.

195

AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #2 1. Using the formalism of the text book the particle number density and temperature are both slowly varying functions of the z coordinate of the previous problem is as follows. Assume that the particle number density is a slowly varying function

Groth, Clinton P. T.

196

OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Three options for abatement that were tested for use in semiconductor facilities are reviewed, and their performance and costs compared. This study shows that effective abatement options are available to the photovoltaic (PV) industry, at reasonable cost.

FTHENAKIS,V.

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT RISING GREENHOUSE GASES AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, methane, and nitrous oxides. The sun's energy passes through these gases, like light passing through risen by almost 40 percent. This is attributed primarily to the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, gasoline). Methane and nitrous oxides are also increasing rapidly, due in part to the expansion

198

Automatic Process Chromatographs for the Analysis of Corrosive Fluoride Gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......hexaflu- oride matrix gas by a trapping procedure...the disadvantage of high cost and require skilled and...lacked reliability in gases of high halocarbon coolant...the uranium hexafluoride gas; impurities have a direct effect on production efficiency. Coolant-114......

J. G. Million; W. S. Pappas; C. W. Weber

1969-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Optical Third-Harmonic Coefficients for Inert Gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Optical third-harmonic coefficients ?zzzz(3?) for the inert gases have been calculated taking the LS coupling scheme for helium and Jj and jl coupling schemes for neon, argon, and krypton. Our calculated values agree reasonably well with the experimental values of set (i) of Ward and New.

B. P. Tripathi; R. K. Laloraya; S. L. Srivastava

1971-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Mitigation options for accidental releases of hazardous gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to review and compare technologies available for mitigation of unconfined releases of toxic and flammable gases. These technologies include: secondary confinement, deinventory, vapor barriers, foam spraying, and water sprays/monitors. Guidelines for the design and/or operation of effective post-release mitigation systems and case studies involving actual industrial mitigation systems are also presented.

Fthenakis, V.M.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydro carbon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

SAFT Modeling of the Solubility of Gases in Perfluoroalkanes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

SAFT Modeling of the Solubility of Gases in Perfluoroalkanes ... A molecular model within a SAFT context for quantitatively predicting the solubility of xenon and oxygen in n-perfluoroalkanes is presented and discussed here. ... Free-Volume Theory Coupled with Soft-SAFT for Viscosity Calculations: Comparison with Molecular Simulation and Experimental Data ...

Ana M. A. Dias; Josep C. Pàmies; João A. P. Coutinho; Isabel M. Marrucho; Lourdes F. Vega

2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

202

Carbon Nanotubes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Carbon nanotubes have extraordinary mechanical, electrical, thermal andoptical properties. They are harder than diamond yet exible, have betterelectrical conductor than copper, but can also… (more)

Fredriksson, Tore

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Coalbed gases and hydrocarbon source rock potential of upper Carboniferous coal-bearing strata in upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) is one of the major Upper Carboniferous coal basins in the world. Its coalbed gas reserves to the depths of 1,000 m are estimated to be about 350 billion cubic meters (about 12.4 TCF). Coalbed gases in the USCB are variable in both molecular and stable isotope composition [{delta}{sup 13}C(CH{sub 4}), {delta}D(CH{sub 4}), {delta}{sup 13}C(C{sub 2}H{sub 6}), {delta}{sup 13}C(C{sub 3}H{sub 8}), {delta}{sup 13}C(CO{sub 2})]. Such variability suggests the effects of both primary reactions operating during the generation of gases and secondary processes such as mixing and migration. Coalbed gases are mostly thermogenic methane in which depth-related isotopic fractionation has resulted from migration but not from mixing with the microbial one. The stable carbon isotope composition indicates that the carbon dioxide, ethane and higher gaseous hydrocarbons were generated during the bituminous coal stage of the coalification process. The main stage of coalbed gas generation occurred during the Variscan orogeny, and generation was completed after the Leonian and Asturian phases of this orogeny. The coals and carbonaceous shales have high gas generation potential but low potential for generation and expulsion of oil compared to the known Type III source rocks elsewhere. In general, the carbonaceous shales have slightly higher potential for oil generation, but probably would not be able to exceed expulsion thresholds necessary to expel economic quantities of oil.

Kotarba, M.J.J. [Univ. of Mining and metallurgy, Cracow (Poland); Clayton, J.L.; Rice, D.D. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

204

The safe use of low temperature liquefied gases 1. Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

signs 6. Materials and equipment 6.1 Liquid nitrogen, argon, oxygen and carbon dioxide 6.2 Liquid helium nitrogen, oxygen, argon and carbon dioxide into vacuum insulated tanks and evaporators (VITs and Vl dioxide TABLE 1 Property Oxygen (O2) Nitrogen (N2) Argon (Ar) Helium (He) Carbon dioxide (CO2) Molecular

Martin, Ralph R.

205

Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 1, Main text  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of motor vehicles, maintenance of transportation systems, manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and changes in land use that result from using biomass-derived fuels. The results for electricity use are in grams of CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to end users and cover generating plants powered by coal, oil, natural gas, methanol, biomass, and nuclear energy. The transportation analysis compares CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions, in grams per mile, from base-case gasoline and diesel fuel cycles with emissions from these alternative- fuel cycles: methanol from coal, natural gas, or wood; compressed or liquefied natural gas; synthetic natural gas from wood; ethanol from corn or wood; liquefied petroleum gas from oil or natural gas; hydrogen from nuclear or solar power; electricity from coal, uranium, oil, natural gas, biomass, or solar energy, used in battery-powered electric vehicles; and hydrogen and methanol used in fuel-cell vehicles.

DeLuchi, M.A. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Capturing carbon | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Capturing carbon Capturing carbon New technology enables molecular-level insight into carbon sequestration Carbon sequestration is a potential solution for reducing greenhouse...

207

BioCarbon Fund Project Portfolio | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Portfolio Portfolio Jump to: navigation, search Name BioCarbon Fund Project Portfolio Agency/Company /Organization World Bank Sector Land Focus Area Forestry Topics Market analysis, Policies/deployment programs, Background analysis Website http://wbcarbonfinance.org/Rou Country Albania, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ethiopia, Honduras, India, Kenya, Madagascar, Mali, Moldova, Nicaragua, Niger, Uganda Southern Europe, Eastern Asia, South America, Central America, Eastern Africa, Central America, Southern Asia, Eastern Africa, Eastern Africa, Western Africa, Eastern Europe, Central America, Western Africa, Eastern Africa References BioFund Projects[1] Background "The BioCarbon Fund provides carbon finance for projects that sequester or conserve greenhouse gases in forests, agro- and other ecosystems. Through

208

Strongly interacting Fermi gases : non-equilibrium dynamics and dimensional crossover  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experiments using ultracold atomic gases address fundamental problems in many-body physics. This thesis describes experiments on strongly-interacting gases of fermionic atoms, with a focus on non-equilibrium physics and ...

Sommer, Ariel T. (Ariel Tjodolv)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Heat Transfer at Low Temperatures between Tube Walls and Gases in Turbulent Flow  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...September 1947 research-article Heat Transfer at Low Temperatures between Tube...counter-flow system to study heat transfer between tube walls and gases at...Determinations on friction accompanying heat transfer with gases in turbulent flow at...

1947-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Greenhouse Gases (GHG) Emissions from Gas Field Water in Southern Gas Field, Sichuan Basin, China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to assess correctly the gases emissions from oil/gas field water and its contributions to the source of greenhouse gases (GHG) at the atmospheric temperature and pressure, ... first developed to study th...

Guojun Chen; Wei Yang; Xuan Fang; Jiaai Zhong…

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Simultaneous Gas Chromatographic Determination of Four Toxic Gases Generally Present in Combustion Atmospheres  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......determining these gases in mixtures...dioxide, nitrogen, water vapor, and...determining these gases in mixtures...dioxide, nitrogen, water vapor, and...to the solubility of A HCN in water, which was...thevariationin gas con- centrations......

Boyd R. Endecott; Donald C. Sanders; Arvind K. Chaturvedi

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric gases final Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

on Climate and Planets http:icp.giss.nasa.gov The Role of the Atmosphere and Greenhouse Effect in Summary: gases, and scenario 3 - an atmosphere and greenhouse gases. Use...

213

System for trapping and storing gases for subsequent chemical reduction to solids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for quantitatively reducing oxide gases. A pre-selected amount of zinc is provided in a vial. A tube is provided in the vial. The zinc and the tube are separated. A pre-selected amount of a catalyst is provided in the tube. Oxide gases are injected into the vial. The vial, tube, zinc, catalyst, and the oxide gases are cryogenically cooled. At least a portion of the vial, tube, zinc, catalyst, and oxide gases are heated.

Vogel, John S. (San Jose, CA); Ognibene, Ted J. (Oakland, CA); Bench, Graham S. (Livermore, CA); Peaslee, Graham F. (Holland, MI)

2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

214

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric greenhouse gases Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to longwave radiation 12;Greenhouse Gases Polyatomic molecules... the greenhouse effect ... Source: Frierson, Dargan - Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of...

215

What are greenhouse gases? Many chemical compounds in the atmosphere act as  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

back into space. However, greenhouse gases will not let all the infrared light pass throughWhat are greenhouse gases? Many chemical compounds in the atmosphere act as greenhouse gases the land and oceans. The warmed Earth releases this heat in the form of infrared light (longwave radiation

216

Hydrogen and elemental carbon production from natural gas and other hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Diatomic hydrogen and unsaturated hydrocarbons are produced as reactor gases in a fast quench reactor. During the fast quench, the unsaturated hydrocarbons are further decomposed by reheating the reactor gases. More diatomic hydrogen is produced, along with elemental carbon. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The product is a substantially clean-burning hydrogen fuel that leaves no greenhouse gas emissions, and elemental carbon that may be used in powder form as a commodity for several processes.

Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Electrolytic production of neodymium without perfluorinated carbon compounds on the offgases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing neodymium in an electrolytic cell without formation of perfluorinated carbon gases (PFCs), the method comprising the steps of providing an electrolyte in the electrolytic cell and providing an anode in an anode region of the electrolyte and providing a cathode in a cathode region of the electrolytic cell. Dissolving an oxygen-containing neodymium compound in the electrolyte in the anode region and maintaining a more intense electrolyte circulation in the anode region than in the cathode region. Passing an electrolytic current between said anode and said cathode and depositing neodymium metal at the cathode, preventing the formation of perfluorinated carbon gases by limiting anode over voltage.

Keller, Rudolf (Export, PA); Larimer, Kirk T. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Agricultural Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases: Science and Policy Options  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Agricultural Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases: Science and Policy Options Agricultural Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases: Science and Policy Options Keith Paustian (keithp@nrel.colostate.edu; 970-491-1547) Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory Colorado State University Ft. Collins, CO 80523 Bruce Babcock (babcock@iastate.edu; 515-294-6785) Cathy Kling (ckling@iastate.edu; 515-294-5767) Center for Agriculture and Rural Development Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011-1070 Jerry Hatfield (hatfield@nstl.gov; 515-294-5723) USDA - National Soil Tilth Laboratory Ames, IA 50011 Rattan Lal (lal.1@osu.edu; 614-292-9069) School of Natural Resources The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210-1085 Bruce McCarl (mccarl@tamu.edu; 979-845-1706) Department of Agricultural Economics Texas A&M University College Station, TX 77843-2124 Sandy McLaughlin (un4@ornl.gov; 865-574-7358)

219

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Getting Started  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Getting Started Getting Started Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Getting Started Form EIA-1605 may seem daunting at first, even for entities that have reported under the original program. That's why EIA has developed the Getting Started page to help entities take a systematic approach to reporting their emissions and reductions. The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program suggests that prospective reporters familiarize themselves with the specific requirements for reporting their entity's inventory and reductions by answering the questions embodied in the 10 steps below. In addition, EIA has prepared the interactive Getting Started tool to help reporters determine what parts of Form EIA-1605 they need to complete. Getting Started Tool Getting Started PDF Tables

220

Transporting & Shipping Hazardous Materials at LBNL: Compressed Gases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Compressed Gases Compressed Gases Self-Transport by Hand & Foot Self-Transport by Vehicle Ship by Common Carrier Conduct Field Work Return Cylinders Self-Transport by Hand & Foot Staff may personally move (self-transport) compressed gas cylinders by hand & foot between buildings and in connecting spaces (i.e., hallways, elevators, etc.) within buildings provided it can be done safely. The following safety precautions apply: Use standard cylinder dollies to transport compressed gas cylinders. While dollies are preferred, cylinders weighing 11 Kg (25 lbs) or less may be hand-carried. Never move a cylinder with a regulator connected to it. Cylinder valve-protection caps and valve-opening caps must be in place when moving cylinders. Lecture bottles and other cylinders that are

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydro carbon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Recovery of CO2 from Flue Gases: Commercial Trends  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CO CO 2 from Flue Gases: Commercial Trends Originally presented at the Canadian Society of Chemical Engineers annual meeting October 4-6, 1999, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada Authors: Dan G. Chapel (dan.chapel@fluor.com; 949-349-7530) Carl L. Mariz (carl.mariz@fluor.com; 949-349-7530) FluorDaniel One Fluor Drive Aliso Viejo CA, 92698 John Ernest (john.ernest@minimed.com; 818-576-4293) Advanced Quality Services Inc 11024 Balboa Blvd. PMB154, Granada Hills, CA 91344-5007 1 Recovery of CO 2 from Flue Gases: Commercial Trends Originally presented at the Canadian Society of Chemical Engineers annual meeting October 4-6, 1999, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada Authors: Dan Chapel - Fluor Daniel Inc., Senior Vice President Technology; Oil, Gas & Power John Ernest - Advanced Quality Services Inc., Validation Engineer

222

Reading Comprehension - Properties of Solids, Liquids, and Gases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Properties of Solids, Liquids, and Gases Properties of Solids, Liquids, and Gases A solid has a definite _________ mass texture volume and a _________ 3D irregular definite shape. The particles in a solid are _________ free to move around motionless packed tightly together . Particles in a solid move by _________ sliding past one another vibrating back and forth slightly jiggling around . _________ Viscosity Amorphous Crystalline solids soften before melting. The particles in this type of solid are not arranged in regular pattern. Amorphous solids _________ do don't have a distinct melting point. Crystalline solids have a _________ distinct color and shape distinct pattern and melting point . Liquids have no _________ volume mass shape of their own. A liquid takes the shape of its container. Without a container liquids spread into a wide,

223

PPPL Wins Department of Energy Award For Reducing Greenhouse Gases |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Wins Department of Energy Award For Reducing Greenhouse Gases Wins Department of Energy Award For Reducing Greenhouse Gases By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe October 2, 2012 Tweet Widget Facebook Like Google Plus One PPPL's Tim Stevenson takes inventory of the SF6 levels at a power supply tank for NSTX. (Photo by Elle Starkman, PPPL Office of Communications) PPPL's Tim Stevenson takes inventory of the SF6 levels at a power supply tank for NSTX. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) has received a federal Sustainability Award for reducing overall greenhouse gas emissions 48 percent since 2008 - far exceeding the U.S. government's goal of a 28 percent reduction. Members of the PPPL staff were among the 20 recipients of the Sustainability Awards in a ceremony in Washington, D.C., on Thursday, Sept.

224

The extreme nonlinear optics of gases and femtosecond optical filamentation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under certain conditions, powerful ultrashort laser pulses can form greatly extended, propagating filaments of concentrated high intensity in gases, leaving behind a very long trail of plasma. Such filaments can be much longer than the longitudinal scale over which a laser beam typically diverges by diffraction, with possible applications ranging from laser-guided electrical discharges to high power laser propagation in the atmosphere. Understanding in detail the microscopic processes leading to filamentation requires ultrafast measurements of the strong field nonlinear response of gas phase atoms and molecules, including absolute measurements of nonlinear laser-induced polarization and high field ionization. Such measurements enable the assessment of filamentation models and make possible the design of experiments pursuing applications. In this paper, we review filamentation in gases and some applications, and discuss results from diagnostics developed at Maryland for ultrafast measurements of laser-gas interactions.

Milchberg, H. M.; Chen, Y.-H.; Cheng, Y.-H.; Jhajj, N.; Palastro, J. P.; Rosenthal, E. W.; Varma, S.; Wahlstrand, J. K.; Zahedpour, S. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

225

Apparatus for the plasma destruction of hazardous gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A plasma cell for destroying hazardous gases. An electric-discharge cell having an electrically conducting electrode onto which an alternating high-voltage waveform is impressed and a dielectric barrier adjacent thereto, together forming a high-voltage electrode, generates self-terminating discharges throughout a volume formed between this electrode and a grounded conducting liquid electrode. The gas to be transformed is passed through this volume. The liquid may be flowed, generating thereby a renewable surface. Moreover, since hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids may be formed from destruction of various chlorofluorocarbons in the presence of water, a conducting liquid may be selected which will neutralize these corrosive compounds. The gases exiting the discharge region may be further scrubbed if additional purification is required.

Kang, Michael (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Apparatus for the plasma destruction of hazardous gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A plasma cell for destroying hazardous gases is described. An electric-discharge cell having an electrically conducting electrode onto which an alternating high-voltage waveform is impressed and a dielectric barrier adjacent thereto, together forming a high-voltage electrode, generates self-terminating discharges throughout a volume formed between this electrode and a grounded conducting liquid electrode. The gas to be transformed is passed through this volume. The liquid may be flowed, generating thereby a renewable surface. Moreover, since hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids may be formed from destruction of various chlorofluorocarbons in the presence of water, a conducting liquid may be selected which will neutralize these corrosive compounds. The gases exiting the discharge region may be further scrubbed if additional purification is required. 4 figs.

Kang, M.

1995-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

227

Decontamination of combustion gases in fluidized bed incinerators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Sulfur-containing atmospheric pollutants are effectively removed from exit gas streams produced in a fluidized bed combustion system by providing a fluidized bed of particulate material, i.e. limestone and/or dolomite wherein a concentration gradient is maintained in the vertical direction. Countercurrent contacting between upwardly directed sulfur containing combustion gases and descending sorbent particulate material creates a concentration gradient across the vertical extent of the bed characterized in progressively decreasing concentration of sulfur, sulfur dioxide and like contaminants upwardly and decreasing concentration of e.g. calcium oxide, downwardly. In this manner, gases having progressively decreasing sulfur contents contact correspondingly atmospheres having progressively increasing concentrations of calcium oxide thus assuring optimum sulfur removal.

Leon, Albert M. (Mamaroneck, NY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Reduction of greenhouse gases using renewable energies in Mexico 2025  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study presents three scenarios relating to the environmental futures of Mexico up to the year 2025. The first scenario emphasizes the use of oil products, particularly fueloil, and represents the energy policy path that was in effect until 1990. The second scenario prioritizes the use of natural gas, reflecting the energy consumption pattern that arose in the mid-1990s as a result of reforms in the energy sector. In the third scenario, the high participation of renewable sources of energy, in particular renewable hydrogen, is considered feasible from a technical and economic point of view. The three scenarios are evaluated up to the year 2025 in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG), acid rain precursor gases (ARPG), and environment–energy intensity factors.

F Manzini; J Islas; M Mart??nez

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Energy Accommodation between Noble Gases and Carbon Lin Hu and Alan J. H. McGaughey*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in electronics, energy storage, and energy conversion devices. When using CNTs as gas sensors,1,2 vertically, in the case of a gas sensor, lead to its sensitivity. It is also important to include the effects of a gaseous the rate of heat transfer between the gas and the surface. This parameter is of critical importance

McGaughey, Alan

230

Evaluación de la generación de gases de efecto invernadero asociados al ciclo de vida de los biocombustibles colombianos = Assessment of greenhouse gases emissions associated to colombian biofuels lifecycle.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Valencia Botero, Monica Julieth (2012) Evaluación de la generación de gases de efecto invernadero asociados al ciclo de vida de los biocombustibles colombianos = Assessment… (more)

Valencia Botero, Monica Julieth

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Comparative Analysis of Alternative Means for Removing Noncondensable Gases  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Comparative Analysis of Alternative Means for Removing Noncondensable Gases Comparative Analysis of Alternative Means for Removing Noncondensable Gases from Flashed-Steam Geothermal Power Plants:April 1999 - March 2000 Dataset Summary Description This dataset corresponds to the final report on a screening study to compare six methods of removing noncondensable gases from direct-use geo-thermal steam power plants. This report defines the study methodologies and compares the performance and economics of selected gas-removal systems. Recommendations are presented for follow-up investigations and implementation of some of the technologies discussed. The specific gas-removal methods include five vacuum system configurations using the conventional approach of evacuating gas/vapor mixtures from the power plant condenser system and a system for physical separation of steam and gases upstream of the power turbine. The study focused on flashed-steam applications, but the results apply equally well to flashed-steam and dry-steam geothermal power plant configurations. Two gas-removal options appear to offer profitable economic potential. The hybrid vacuum system configurations and the reboiler process yield positive net present value results over wide-ranging gas concentrations. The hybrid options look favorable for both low-temperature and high-temperature resource applications. The reboiler looks profitable for low-temperature resource applications for gas levels above about 20,000 parts per million by volume. A vacuum system configuration using a three-stage turbocompressor battery may be profitable for low-temperature resources, but results show that the hybrid system is more profitable. The biphase eductor alternative cannot be recommended for commercialization at this time. The report is available from NREL's publication database.

232

Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes sample gases of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for analysis. Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement facilities must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for routine waste characterization analyses of WIPP samples.

Carlsbad Field Office

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Analysis of greenhouse gases trading system using conversations among stakeholders  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction agreement makes up the targeted reduction of a legally binding GHG for each country or region. It enables us to buy and sell some GHG with other countries; it is the GHG trading system. But now, some free riders, ... Keywords: GHG emissions, GHG trading systems, MAS, agent-based modelling, agent-based systems, consumer behaviour, emissions reduction, free riders, genetic algorithms, global warming, greenhouse gases, multi-agent simulation, multi-agent systems

Setsuya Kurahashi; Masato Ohori

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Production of quantum degenerate strontium gases: Larger, better, faster, colder  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on an improved scheme to generate Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) and degenerate Fermi gases of strontium. This scheme allows us to create quantum gases with higher atom number, a shorter time of the experimental cycle, or deeper quantum degeneracy than before. We create a BEC of 84-Sr exceeding 10^7 atoms, which is a 30-fold improvement over previously reported experiments. We increase the atom number of 86-Sr BECs to 2.5x10^4 (a fivefold improvement), and refine the generation of attractively interacting 88-Sr BECs. We present a scheme to generate 84-Sr BECs with a cycle time of 2s, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the shortest cycle time of BEC experiments ever reported. We create deeply-degenerate 87-Sr Fermi gases with T/T_F as low as 0.10(1), where the number of populated nuclear spin states can be set to any value between one and ten. Furthermore, we report on a total of five different double-degenerate Bose-Bose and Bose-Fermi mixtures. These studies prepare an excellent starting poi...

Stellmer, Simon; Schreck, Florian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - What's New  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Environment > Voluntary Reporting Program > What's New Environment > Voluntary Reporting Program > What's New Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program What's New Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Suspended May 2011 The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases ("1605(b)") Program has been suspended. The suspension is due to recent reductions in budget appropriations and is effective immediately. Survey respondents may still submit data to the 1605(b) Program using the program's Workbook Form via EIA's Secure File Transfer mechanism. However, EIA will not be able to process and review submitted data or offer respondent support on the submitted data. Should a respondant submit data under the current collection cycle to EIA, the data will be retained in our electronic records. If the 1605(b) Program resumes normal operations, your submitted data will be reviewed and processed at that time. You will be notified in the future if the 1605(b) Program resumes normal operation. If you have any questions, please contact the survey manager, Paul McArdle, at paul.mcardle@eia.gov

236

Carbon Sequestration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

David a. Lang David a. Lang Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236 412-386-4881 david.lang@netl.doe.gov andrew chizmeshya Arizona State University Center for Solid State Science Tempe, AZ 85287-1704 480-965-6072 chizmesh@asu.edu A Novel ApproAch to MiNerAl cArboNAtioN: eNhANciNg cArboNAtioN While AvoidiNg MiNerAl pretreAtMeNt process cost Background Carbonation of the widely occurring minerals of the olivine group, such as forsterite (Mg 2 SiO 4 ), is a potential large-scale sequestration process that converts CO 2 into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO 3 ). Because the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is the key to economic viability. Previous

237

Carbon Nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A broad review of the structure and properties of carbon nanotubes is presented. Particular emphasis is given to ... dimensional density of states predicted for single-wall nanotubes of small diameter. The eviden...

M. S. Dresselhaus; G. Dresselhaus…

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Carbon Fiber  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

McGetrick, Lee

2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

239

Carbon Fiber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

McGetrick, Lee

2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

240

Microbial Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide and Subsequent Conversion to Methane  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide and Subsequent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide and Subsequent conversion to Methane By Nirupam Pal Associate Professor California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 Email : npal@calpoly.edu Phone : (805) 756-1355 INTRODUCTION The rising level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been of growing concern in recent years. The increasing levels of carbon dioxide, the most dominant component of greenhouse gases, contribute to global warming and changing global weather patterns which could potentially lead to catastrophic events that could threaten life in every form on this planet. The level of carbon dioxide in the worlds atmosphere has increased from about 280 ppm in 1850 to the current level of approximately 350 ppm. There are several natural sources and sinks of

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241

Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides an amino-siloxane composition comprising at least one of structures I, II, III, IV or V said compositions being useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from gas streams such as power plant flue gases. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane compositions are provided. Also provided are methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide. The reaction of the amino-siloxane compositions provided by the present invention with carbon dioxide is reversible and thus, the method provides for multicycle use of said compositions.

Perry, Robert James (Niskayuna, NY); Lewis, Larry Neil (Scotia, NY); O'Brien, Michael Joseph (Clifton Park, NY); Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY); Kniajanski, Sergei (Clifton Park, NY); Lam, Tunchiao Hubert (Clifton Park, NY); Lee, Julia Lam (Niskayuna, NY); Rubinsztajn, Malgorzata Iwona (Ballston Spa, NY)

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

242

Haverford Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Haverford College Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer August 1, 2012 | Tags: Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Chemistry, Hopper Rebecca Raber, rraber@haverford.edu, +1 610 896 1038 gtoc.jpg Carbon dioxide gas separation is important for many environmental and energy applications. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to characterize a two-dimensional hydrocarbon polymer, PG-ES1, that uses a combination of surface adsorption and narrow pores to separate carbon dioxide from nitrogen, oxygen, and methane gases. Image by Joshua Schrier, Haverford College. Carbon dioxide is the primary greenhouse gas emitted through human activities, such as the combustion of fossil fuels for energy and

243

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

is the greenhouse effect? is the greenhouse effect? Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect is used to describe the phenomenon whereby the Earth's atmosphere traps solar radiation, caused by the presence of gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and water vapor (H2O), in the atmosphere that allow incoming sunlight to pass through but absorb heat radiated back from the Earth's surface, resulting in higher temperatures. The greenhouse effect gets its name from what actually happens in a greenhouse. In a greenhouse, short wavelength visible sunlight shines through the glass panes and warms the air and the plants inside. The radiation emitted from the heated objects is of longer wavelength and is unable to pass through the glass barrier, maintaining a warm temperature

244

carbon sequestration via direct injection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

SEQUESTRATION VIA DIRECT INJECTION SEQUESTRATION VIA DIRECT INJECTION Howard J. Herzog, Ken Caldeira, and Eric Adams INTRODUCTION The build-up of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere has caused concern about possible global climate change. As a result, international negotiations have produced the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), completed during the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. The treaty, which the United States has ratified, calls for the "stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system." The primary greenhouse gas is CO 2 , which is estimated to contribute to over two-thirds of any climate change. The primary source of CO

245

Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane to Syngas by Thermal Plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experiments were conducted on syngas preparation from dry reforming of methane by carbon dioxide with a DC arc plasma at atmospheric pressure. In all experiments, nitrogen gas was used as the working gas for thermal plasma to generate a high-temperature jet into a horizontal tube reactor. A mixture of methane and carbon dioxide was fed vertically into the jet. In order to obtain a higher conversion rate of methane and carbon dioxide, chemical energy efficiency and fuel production efficiency, parametric screening studies were conducted, in which the volume ratio of carbon dioxide to methane in fed gases and the total flux of fed gases were taken into account. Results showed that carbon dioxide reforming of methane to syngas by thermal plasma exhibited a larger processing capacity, higher conversion of methane and carbon dioxide and higher chemical energy efficiency and fuel production efficiency. In addition, thermodynamic simulation for the reforming process was conducted. Experimental data agreed well with the thermodynamic results, indicating that high thermal efficiency can be achieved with the thermal plasma reforming process.

Sun Yanpeng (???); Nie Yong (??); Wu Angshan (???); Ji Dengxiang (???); Yu Fengwen (???); Ji Jianbing (???)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Thermal conversion of municipal solid waste via hydrothermal carbonization: Comparison of carbonization products to products from current waste management techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HTC converts wastes into value-added resources. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization integrates majority of carbon into solid-phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization results in a hydrochar with high energy density. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using hydrochar as an energy source may be beneficial. - Abstract: Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process that may be a viable means for managing solid waste streams while minimizing greenhouse gas production and producing residual material with intrinsic value. HTC is a wet, relatively low temperature (180-350 Degree-Sign C) thermal conversion process that has been shown to convert biomass to a carbonaceous residue referred to as hydrochar. Results from batch experiments indicate HTC of representative waste materials is feasible, and results in the majority of carbon (45-75% of the initially present carbon) remaining within the hydrochar. Gas production during the batch experiments suggests that longer reaction periods may be desirable to maximize the production of energy-favorable products. If using the hydrochar for applications in which the carbon will remain stored, results suggest that the gaseous products from HTC result in fewer g CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions than the gases associated with landfilling, composting, and incineration. When considering the use of hydrochar as a solid fuel, more energy can be derived from the hydrochar than from the gases resulting from waste degradation during landfilling and anaerobic digestion, and from incineration of food waste. Carbon emissions resulting from the use of the hydrochar as a fuel source are smaller than those associated with incineration, suggesting HTC may serve as an environmentally beneficial alternative to incineration. The type and extent of environmental benefits derived from HTC will be dependent on hydrochar use/the purpose for HTC (e.g., energy generation or carbon storage).

Lu Xiaowei; Jordan, Beth [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 Main Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Berge, Nicole D., E-mail: berge@cec.sc.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 Main Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

247

Processes involved in the origin and accumulation of hydrocarbon gases in the Yuanba gas field, Sichuan Basin, southwest China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Natural gases in the superimposed Sichuan Basin commonly experienced a history of remigration in marine carbonate reservoirs since the late Cretaceous. The reservoir in the Changxing Formation (P2c) in the Yuanba gas field in the Sichuan Basin is characterized by a great burial depth of 6200–7000 m and a high temperature about 165 °C. The gas dryness is 99.73–99.99%, and ?13C values of methane and ethane are ?31.0 to ?28.9‰ and ?29.9 to ?25.6‰, respectively. The chemical and isotopic compositions of natural gases, abundant reservoir solid bitumen, and high reservoir temperature (maximum to 240 °C) indicate that the \\{P2c\\} gases are of sapropelic origin and are derived from oil cracking. The paleo-oil layers, recognized by solid bitumen distribution, were mainly developed in high position traps when the paleo-oil accumulated during the early Jurassic. Reconstructed structural evolution shows the northwest was uplifted sharply and southern part dipped gently to the north in the gas field after oil cracking. Fluid potential analyses based on changes in the structural configuration imply that gas should re-migrate mainly to the northwest. The observations that paleo-oil-water contacts are mainly above the present day gas-water contacts in the northwest traps, and are below present day gas-water contacts in the middle and eastern traps also confirm the gas remigration trend. Currently, high gas production wells are mainly located in northwest traps and in high positions in the middle and eastern traps. Systematic analyses on early paleo-oil accumulation and late gas remigration processes can reduce the economic risks associated with natural gas exploration in the northeastern Sichuan Basin.

Pingping Li; Fang Hao; Xusheng Guo; Huayao Zou; Xinya Yu; Guangwei Wang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

In situ and ex situ characterization of carbon corrosion in PEMFCs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon corrosion is an important degradation mechanism that impairs PEMFC performance through destruction of catalyst connectivity, collapse of pore structure, and loss of hydrophobic character. In this study, carbon corrosion was quantified in situ by measurement of carbon dioxide in fuel cell exhaust gases through non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy (NDIR). Performance degradation was also studied by a DOE protocol for catalyst support accelerated stress testing. Finally, changes in gas diffusion layer and microporous layer carbon surfaces were observed through an ex situ aging procedure.

Fairweather, Joseph D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bo, Li [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fenton, James [FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Regenerable immobilized aminosilane sorbents for carbon dioxide capture applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the separation of carbon dioxide from ambient air and flue gases is provided wherein a phase separating moiety with a second moiety are simultaneously coupled and bonded onto an inert substrate to create a mixture which is subsequently contacted with flue gases or ambient air. The phase-separating moiety is an amine whereas the second moiety is an aminosilane, or a Group 4 propoxide such as titanium (IV) propoxide (tetrapropyl orthotitanate, C.sub.12H.sub.28O.sub.4Ti). The second moiety makes the phase-separating moiety insoluble in the pores of the inert substrate. The new sorbents have a high carbon dioxide loading capacity and considerable stability over hundreds of cycles. The synthesis method is readily scalable for commercial and industrial production.

Gay, McMahan; Choi, Sunho; Jones, Christopher W

2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

250

Sorption of organic gases in residential bedrooms and bathrooms  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sorption of organic gases in residential bedrooms and bathrooms Sorption of organic gases in residential bedrooms and bathrooms Title Sorption of organic gases in residential bedrooms and bathrooms Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBNL-56787 Year of Publication 2005 Authors Singer, Brett C., Alfred T. Hodgson, Toshifumi Hotchi, Katherine Y. Ming, Richard G. Sextro, Emily E. Wood, and Nancy J. Brown Conference Name Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate - Indoor Air 2005 Volume 2(9) Publisher Tsinghua University Press Conference Location Beijing, China Abstract Experiments were conducted to characterize organic gas sorption in residential bedrooms (n=4), bathrooms (n=2), and a furnished test chamber. Rooms were studied "as-is" with material surfaces and furnishings unaltered. Surface materials were characterized and areas quantified. Experiments included rapid volatilization of a volatile organic compound (VOC) mixture with the room closed and sealed for a 5-h Adsorb phase, followed by 30-min Flush and 2-h closed-room Desorb phases. The mixture included n-alkanes, aromatics, glycol ethers, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, dichlorobenzene, and organophosphorus compounds. Measured gas-phase concentrations were fit to three variations of a mathematical model that considers sorption occurring at one surface sink and one potential embedded sink. The 2-parameter sink model tracked measurements for most compounds, but improved fits were obtained for some VOCs with a 3-parameter sink-diffusion or a 4-parameter two-sink model. Sorptive partitioning and initial adsorption rates increased with decreasing vapour pressure within each chemical class.

251

Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes blind audit samples in a gas matrix for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement facilities must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for routine waste characterization analyses of WIPP samples.

Carlsbad Field Office

2007-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

252

Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes blind audit samples in a gas matrix for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement facilities must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for routine waste characterization analyses of WIPP samples.

Carlsbad Field Office

2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

253

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Reporting Guidelines  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Reporting Guidelines Reporting Guidelines Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Reporting Guidelines The purpose of the guidelines is to establish the procedures and requirements for filing voluntary reports, and to ensure that the annual reports of greenhouse gas emissions, emission reductions, and sequestration activities submitted by corporations, government agencies, non-profit organizations, households, and other private and public entities to submit are complete, reliable, and consistent. Over time, it is anticipated that these reports will provide a reliable record of the contributions reporting entities have made toward reducing their greenhouse gas emissions. General Guidelines General Guidelines Technical Guidelines Technical Guidelines Appendices to the Technical Guidelines:

254

Prospecting by sampling and analysis of airborne particulates and gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is claimed for prospecting by sampling airborne particulates or gases at a ground position and recording wind direction values at the time of sampling. The samples are subsequently analyzed to determine the concentrations of a desired material or the ratios of the desired material to other identifiable materials in the collected samples. By comparing the measured concentrations or ratios to expected background data in the vicinity sampled, one can select recorded wind directions indicative of the upwind position of the land-based source of the desired material.

Sehmel, G.A.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Coherence Length of Cold Exciton Gases in Coupled Quantum Wells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Mach-Zehnder interferometer with spatial and spectral resolution was used to probe spontaneous coherence in cold exciton gases, which are implemented experimentally in the ring of indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells. A strong enhancement of the exciton coherence length is observed at temperatures below a few Kelvin. The increase of the coherence length is correlated with the macroscopic spatial ordering of excitons. The coherence length at the lowest temperature corresponds to a very narrow spread of the exciton momentum distribution, much smaller than that for a classical exciton gas.

Sen Yang, A. T. Hammack, M. M. Fogler, L. V. Butov, and A. C. Gossard

2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

256

Zero sound modes of dilute Fermi gases with arbitrary spin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Motivated by the recent success of optical trapping of alkali-metal bosons, we have studied the zero sound modes of dilute Fermi gases with arbitrary spin-f, which are spin-S excitations (0<~S<~2f). The dispersion of the mode (S) depends on a single Landau parameter F(S), which is related to the scattering lengths of the system through a simple formula. Measurement of (even a subset of) these modes in finite magnetic fields will enable one to determine all the interaction parameters of the system.

S.-K. Yip and Tin-Lun Ho

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Low Carbon Fuel Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gas, or even coal with carbon capture and sequestration. Afuels that facilitate carbon capture and sequestration. Forenergy and could capture and sequester carbon emissions.

Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Air pollution policy in Europe: Quantifying the interaction with greenhouse gases and climate change policies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper uses the computable general equilibrium model WorldScan to analyse interactions between EU's air pollution and climate change policies. Covering the entire world and seven EU countries, WorldScan simulates economic growth in a neo-classical recursive dynamic framework, including emissions and abatement of greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) and air pollutants (SO2, NOx, NH3 and PM2.5). Abatement includes the possibility of using end-of-pipe control options that remove pollutants without affecting the emission-producing activity itself. This paper analyses several variants of EU's air pollution policies for the year 2020. Air pollution policy will depend on end-of-pipe controls for not more than two thirds, thus also at least one third of the required emission reduction will come from changes in the use of energy through efficiency improvements, fuel switching and other structural changes in the economy. Greenhouse gas emissions thereby decrease, which renders climate change policies less costly. Our results show that carbon prices will fall, and may even drop to zero when the EU agrees on a more stringent air pollution policy.

Johannes Bollen; Corjan Brink

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Continuous Measurement of Carbon Monoxide Improves Combustion Efficiency of CO Boilers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF CARBON MONOXIDE IMPROVES COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY OF CO BOILERS Russell L. Branham ana James J. Prichard Ashland Oil Company Catlettsburg, KY ABSTRACT The paper describes the application of in-situ flue gas CO... measurement in the operation of CO Boilers and details the steps needed to optimize combustion efficiency. INTRODUCTION In the petroleum industry, the efficient operation of a fluid-cata1ytic-cracking unit, produces gases rich in carbon monoxide...

Gilmour, W. A.; Pregler, D. N.; Branham, R. L.; Prichard, J. J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Thermogenic and secondary biogenic gases, San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico - Implications for coalbed gas producibility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this paper are to (1) describe the types and the major components of coalbed gases, (2) evaluate the variability of Fruitland coalbed gas composition across the basin, (3) assess factors affecting coalbed gas origin and composition, (4) determine the timing and extent of gas migration and entrapment, and (5) suggest application of these results to coalbed gas producibility. Data from more than 750 Fruitland coalbed gas wells were used to make gas-composition maps and to evaluate factors controlling gas origin. The gas data were divided into overpressured, underpressured, and transitional categories based on regional pressure regime. Also, [delta][sup 13]C isotopic values from 41 methane, 7 ethane and propane, 13 carbon dioxide, and 10 formation-water bicarbonate samples were evaluated to interpret gas origin. The data suggests that only 25-50% of the gas produced in the high-productivity fairway was generated in situ during coalification. 82 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

Scott, A.R.; Kaiser, W.R. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)); Ayers, W.B. Jr. (Taurus Exploration, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States))

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydro carbon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Delayed carbon sequestration and rising carbon prices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We set out a dynamic model to investigate optimal time paths of emissions, carbon stocks and carbon sequestration by land conversion, allowing for non-instantaneous carbon sequestration. Previous research in a dy...

Alejandro Caparrós

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Quantification and Reduction of Critical Uncertainties Associated with Carbon Cycle-Climate System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GHG levels to physical and biological processes on land and in the oceans. We have prioritized our DATE: July 7, 2010 PROJECT END DATE: June 30, 2013 SPONSOR: US DOE, Office of Science, Office of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases due to the direct influence of GHG concentrations

263

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a: Fire emissions Emissions inventories Greenhouse gases a b s t r a c t Emissions from wildland fire fire emissions change considerably due to fluctuations from year to year with overall fire season

264

Instantaneous and efficient surface wave excitation of a low pressure gas or gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for instantaneously ionizing and continuously delivering energy in the form of surface waves to a low pressure gas or mixture of low pressure gases, comprising a source of rf energy, a discharge container, (such as a fluorescent lamp discharge tube), an rf shield, and a coupling device responsive to rf energy from the source to couple rf energy directly and efficiently to the gas or mixture of gases to ionize at least a portion of the gas or gases and to provide energy to the gas or gases in the form of surface waves. The majority of the rf power is transferred to the gas or gases near the inner surface of the discharge container to efficiently transfer rf energy as excitation energy for at least one of the gases. The most important use of the invention is to provide more efficient fluorescent and/or ultraviolet lamps.

Levy, Donald J. (Berkeley, CA); Berman, Samuel M. (San Francisco, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Illinois Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

266

Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

267

Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

268

CARBON EMISSIONS TRADING PICKS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

EVEN AS NATIONS GATHER in Montreal to consider new curbs on global warming gases (see story below), chemical companies that emit such gases are maneuvering to do their share and also make a buck. Rhodia says the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change ...

2005-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

269

Thermocatalytic process for CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon from hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel process and apparatus are disclosed for sustainable CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon by thermocatalytic decomposition (dissociation, pyrolysis, cracking) of hydrocarbon fuels over carbon-based catalysts in the absence of air and/or water. The apparatus and thermocatalytic process improve the activity and stability of carbon catalysts during the thermocatalytic process and produce both high purity hydrogen (at least, 99.0 volume %) and carbon, from any hydrocarbon fuel, including sulfurous fuels. In a preferred embodiment, production of hydrogen and carbon is achieved by both internal and external activation of carbon catalysts. Internal activation of carbon catalyst is accomplished by recycling of hydrogen-depleted gas containing unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons back to the reactor. External activation of the catalyst can be achieved via surface gasification with hot combustion gases during catalyst heating. The process and apparatus can be conveniently integrated with any type of fuel cell to generate electricity.

Muradov, Nazim Z. (Melbourne, FL)

2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

270

Synthetic Lorentz force in classical atomic gases via Doppler effect and radiation pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We theoretically predict a novel type of synthetic Lorentz force for classical (cold) atomic gases, which is based on the Doppler effect and radiation pressure. A fairly uniform and strong force can be constructed for gases in macroscopic volumes of several cubic millimeters and more. This opens the possibility to mimic classical charged gases in magnetic fields, such as those in a tokamak, in cold atom experiments.

Dub?ek, T; Juki?, D; Aumiler, D; Ban, T; Buljan, H

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Testing String Material Selection in Environment with Multiple Deleterious Gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract While testing a deep exploratory well located in Bohai bay in China, a large amount of carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon monoxide (CO) was detected unexpectedly. Being afraid of their corrosiveness and toxicity, testing work was terminated immediately. After tripped out, the string was found to have been eroded severely. In order to keep going the exploratory work, experiment was made to investigate corrosion rate of carbon steel in environment with multiple deleterious substances. A main purpose was to determine if carbon monoxide has a strong impact on anti-sulfide steel P110S, which is low-cost and has been widely used in sour wells. Experiment result indicates that carbon monoxide has no obvious influence on corrosion rate in circumstances that carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide exist. Comprehensive studies show that P110S tubing can be used as testing string to carry out down-hole work. These results eliminated worries of decision-makers.

Gao Baokui; Qin Xing; Wang Wei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

NETL: The Carbon Sequestration Newsletter: July 2001  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

President Bush announces eight new carbon sequestration R&D awards On July 13th, President George Bush delivered an address on a "scientifically sound and effective global effort to reduce the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere." As a part of that speech the President announced recent R&D awards made by the DOE's Carbon Sequestration R&D Program. He highlighted two projects, one led by the Nature Conservancy and another by an international consortium of major energy companies. Click here for a copy of the President's remarks. The other winning proposals were led by Alstom Power, Praxair, Consol, Dakota Gasification, Advanced Resources International, and Yolo County, CA. Overall, industry is offering 40% cost share to the efforts. For a more detailed description of the DOE awards, click here.

273

The lifetime of excess atmospheric carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the beginning of the industrial revolution human activity has significantly altered biogeochemical cycling on a global scale. The uncertainties of future climate change rests partly on issues of physical-climate system dynamics and their representation in general circulation models. However understanding the carbon cycle is a key to comprehending the changing terrestrial biosphere and to developing a reasonable range of future concentrations of greenhouse gases. The authors look at correction of model uncertainties in the examination of the lifetime of carbon dioxide. The two difficulties analysed are as follows: (1) most model-derived estimates of the relaxation of the concentration of CO2 reveal a function which is not always well approximated by weighted sums of exponentials; (2) the function c(t) is quite sensitive to assumptions about the terrestrial biosphere and the relaxation experiment. 51 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

Moore, B. III; Braswell, B.H. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States))

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Can sustainable investing generate carbon credits?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In a world where greenhouse gases (GHG) carry a price, organisations can create financial instruments that are tradable on the carbon market by investing in projects that reduce GHG emissions. The purpose of this study is to critically analyse an investment project from EcoSecurities to mitigate the emissions of methane from a coalmine located in China's Sichuan province. This project generates carbon credits that are later sold to governments and organisations under the Kyoto Protocol. In order to evaluate this investment, we conducted an analysis centred in its net present value, and we take into consideration a set of external variables and the financial and economic situation of EcoSecurities. This study concludes that EcoSecurities project investment, since project's net present value is positive, it has a relevant impact on EcoSecurities strategy and improves the company's financial situation as it increases revenues and improves assets using efficiency.

João Zambujal-Oliveira

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

E-Print Network 3.0 - automobile exhaust gases Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

exhaust gases Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Ability of Catalytic Converters to Reduce Air Pollution Summary: Air Pollution MEASUREMENT OF SELECTED AIR POLLUTANTS IN CAR EXHAUST...

276

E-Print Network 3.0 - aircraft exhaust gases Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

gases FAA, 2005. Water in the aircraft exhaust at altitude may have a greenhouse effect... . Aircraft ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de mathmatiques...

277

Fact #825: June 16, 2014 Tier 3 Non-Methane Organic Gases Plus...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

organic gases (NMOG) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) that new light vehicles with gasoline engines are allowed to produce for model years 2017 to 2025. These standards apply to...

278

Innovative Geothermal Startup Will Put Carbon Dioxide To Good Use |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Geothermal Startup Will Put Carbon Dioxide To Good Use Geothermal Startup Will Put Carbon Dioxide To Good Use Innovative Geothermal Startup Will Put Carbon Dioxide To Good Use March 17, 2011 - 2:09pm Addthis A basic overview of GreenFire's process to convert CO2 into electricity. | Photo courtesy of GreenFire. A basic overview of GreenFire's process to convert CO2 into electricity. | Photo courtesy of GreenFire. JoAnn Milliken What does this project do? GreenFire Energy will conduct the first field demonstration of a CO2-based geothermal system. Getting geothermal power with CO2 instead of water would be particularly beneficial in the arid Southwestern U.S., where water is scarce. Geothermal power holds enormous opportunities to provide affordable, clean energy that avoids greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2). That's

279

NETL: News Release - Abraham Announces Plans to Expand DOE's Carbon  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

21, 2002 21, 2002 Abraham Announces Plans to Expand DOE's Carbon Sequestration Program Regional Partnerships, Ohio River Valley Project To Study Ways to Capture, Store Carbon Gases WASHINGTON, DC - Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham, speaking today to the National Coal Council, announced that the Department of Energy will move into a new, expanded phase of its program to develop "carbon sequestration," a promising area of research in which carbon emissions are captured and permanently stored rather than being released to the atmosphere. MORE INFO Full Text of Secretary Abraham's remarks to the Coal Council READ Secretary Abraham said that the federal government intends to create a nationwide network of four to ten "regional sequestration partnerships." He

280

EFRC Carbon Capture and Sequestration Activities at NERSC  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

EFRC Carbon Capture and EFRC Carbon Capture and Sequestration Activities at NERSC EFRC Carbon Capture and Sequestration Activities at NERSC Why it Matters: Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas is considered to be present in only trace proportions in our atmosphere but it has a leading role in the cast of greenhouse gases, with a thermal radiative effect nearly three times as large as the next biggest contributor. Energy related processes are the biggest sources of atmospheric CO2, especially the burning of fossil fuels and the production of hydrogen from methane. Since both human-caused CO2 concentrations and global average temperatures have been increasing steadily since the mid-20th century it could very well be that our energy future depends on our ability to effectively remove CO2

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydro carbon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Carbon Additionality: Discussion Paper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ahead, and identifying the carbon pools and other green house gas emissions sources and savings coveredCarbon Additionality: A review Discussion Paper Gregory Valatin November 2009 Forest Research. Voluntary Carbon Standards American Carbon Registry Forest Carbon Project Standard (ACRFCPS) 27 Carbon

282

Carbon Sequestration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

andrea Mcnemar andrea Mcnemar National Energy Technology Laboratory 3610 Collins Ferry Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 304-285-2024 andrea.mcnemar@netl.doe.gov Gregory J. Elbring Principal Investigator Sandia National Laboratory P.O. Box 5800 Albuquerque, NM 87185 505-844-4904 gjelbri@sandia.gov GeoloGic SequeStration of carbon DioxiDe in a DepleteD oil reServoir: a comprehenSive moDelinG anD Site monitorinG project Background The use of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to enhance oil recovery (EOR) is a familiar and frequently used technique in the United States. The oil and gas industry has significant experience with well drilling and injecting CO 2 into oil-bearing formations to enhance production. While using similar techniques as in oil production, this sequestration field

283

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gases from  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gases from Vehicles and Mobile Equipment October 7, 2013 - 11:31am Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 1 Planned changes in a Federal agency's size, missions, transportation needs, and vehicle inventory all impact the strategic portfolio planning efforts that target greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation for vehicles and mobile equipment. Under Section 142 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) and Section 8 of Executive Order (E.O.) 13514, agencies are required to develop a plan that will reduce fleet GHG emissions to meet Federally mandated petroleum reduction and alternative fuel increase targets. Agencies can use these plans as a basis for determining potential changes in fleet size and

284

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Why Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Why Report Why Report Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Why Report What Is the Purpose of Form EIA-1605? Form EIA-1605 provides the means for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gas emissions, reductions, and sequestration under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The purpose of the Voluntary Reporting Program is to encourage corporations, government agencies, non-profit organizations, households, and other private and public entities to submit annual reports of their greenhouse gas emissions, emission reductions, and sequestration activities. Form EIA-1605 provides a means for voluntary reporting that is complete, reliable, and consistent. How Will My Entity Benefit From Reporting? There are a number of ways for your entity to benefit from reporting, including:

285

Simulations of Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition in Reactive Gases |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

numerically generated pseudo-schlieren image numerically generated pseudo-schlieren image Weak ignition behind a reflected Mach=1.5 shock in a stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen mixture at 0.1 atm initial pressure. Picture shows a numerically generated pseudo-schlieren image of the onset of a detonation in a turbulent boundary layer. Alexei Khokhlov, University of Chicago; Charles Bacon, Argonne National Laboratory, Joanna Austin, Andrew Knisely, University of Illinois at Urbanna-Champaign Simulations of Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition in Reactive Gases PI Name: Alexei Khokhlov PI Email: ajk@oddjob.uchicago.edu Institution: The University of Chicago Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 130 Million Year: 2013 Research Domain: Chemistry Hydrogen is an abundant, environmentally friendly fuel with the potential

286

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gases from  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Employee Commuting Employee Commuting Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gases from Employee Commuting October 7, 2013 - 1:42pm Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 1 For employee commuting, it is important to account for any planned or expected changes in a Federal agency's size when estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction potential for different operating units or worksites. Considerations include: Are employment levels expected to change in the next decade at specific facilities or agency-wide? Are there any planned facility moves at major worksites? Employee commute coordinators may want to engage human resources and strategic planners in this effort to establish likely changes in employment numbers. Facility planners may be engaged to understand changes in commutes

287

The Breakdown of Gases in High Frequency Electrical Fields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A theory is proposed to explain the mechanism of breakdown of gases in high frequency electrical fields. It is assumed that breakdown occurs when the electrical field and the frequency are such that an electron acquires the ionizing energy at the end of one mean free path. The field for breakdown is thus a function of the frequency of the applied potential and the ionization potential and pressure of the gas. The fields for breakdown of argon and xenon are calculated and expressed as functions of the frequency and the gas pressure. The calculated potentials are compared with experimental data, and good agreement is found for frequencies greater than 10×106 c.p.s.

Donald H. Hale

1948-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

WIMP Dark Matter Direct-Detection Searches in Noble Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cosmological observations and the dynamics of the Milky Way provide ample evidence for an invisible and dominant mass component. This so-called dark matter could be made of new, colour and charge neutral particles, which were non-relativistic when they decoupled from ordinary matter in the early universe. Such weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are predicted to have a non-zero coupling to baryons and could be detected via their collisions with atomic nuclei in ultra-low background, deep underground detectors. Among these, detectors based on liquefied noble gases have demonstrated tremendous discovery potential over the last decade. After briefly introducing the phenomenology of direct dark matter detection, I will review the main properties of liquefied argon and xenon as WIMP targets and discuss sources of background. I will then describe existing and planned argon and xenon detectors that employ the so-called single- and dual-phase detection techniques, addressing their complementarity and science...

Baudis, Laura

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

WIMP Dark Matter Direct-Detection Searches in Noble Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cosmological observations and the dynamics of the Milky Way provide ample evidence for an invisible and dominant mass component. This so-called dark matter could be made of new, colour and charge neutral particles, which were non-relativistic when they decoupled from ordinary matter in the early universe. Such weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are predicted to have a non-zero coupling to baryons and could be detected via their collisions with atomic nuclei in ultra-low background, deep underground detectors. Among these, detectors based on liquefied noble gases have demonstrated tremendous discovery potential over the last decade. After briefly introducing the phenomenology of direct dark matter detection, I will review the main properties of liquefied argon and xenon as WIMP targets and discuss sources of background. I will then describe existing and planned argon and xenon detectors that employ the so-called single- and dual-phase detection techniques, addressing their complementarity and science reach.

Laura Baudis

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

290

Trace gases, CO2, climate, and the greenhouse effect  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Weather is driven by the sun’s energy input and the difference between insolation per unit area of the poles and the equator. The energy flux of the Earth is in long?term balance—as much is radiated away by the Earth as is absorbed or the mean temperature would have to increase or decrease steadily (and of course this is not observed). CO2 and other ‘‘trace gases’’ can cause the Earth’s mean temperature to rise through the Greenhouse Effect. The mean temperature in the Little Ice Age was only 1?°C cooler but large effects were felt especially toward the poles. The CO2 which stays in the atmosphere will raise Earth’s mean temperature with effects which are relatively certain: a lot of warming at the poles and a very small amount of warming at the equator.

Gordon J. Aubrecht II

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Highly polarized Fermi gases across a narrow Feshbach resonance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We address the phase of a highly polarized Fermi gases across a narrow Feshbach resonance starting from the problem of a single down-spin fermion immersed in a Fermi sea of up spins. Both polaron and pairing states are considered using the variational wave function approach, and we find that the polaron-to-pairing transition will take place on the BCS side of the resonance, strongly in contrast to a wide resonance where the transition is located at the BEC side. For the pairing phase, we find the critical strength of the repulsive interaction between pairs above which the mixture of pairs and fermions will not phase separate. Therefore, nearby a narrow resonance, it is quite likely that magnetism can coexist with s-wave BCS superfluidity at large Zeeman fields, which is a remarkable property absent in conventional BCS superconductors (or fermion-pair superfluids).

Ran Qi and Hui Zhai

2012-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

292

Finite-size energy of non-interacting Fermi gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We prove the asymptotics of the difference of the ground-state energies of two non-interacting $N$-particle Fermi gases on the half line of length $L$ in the thermodynamic limit up to order $1/L$. We are particularly interested in subdominant terms proportional to $1/L$, called finite-size energy. In the nineties Affleck and co-authors [Aff97, ZA97, AL94] claimed that the finite-size energy equals the decay exponent occuring in Anderson's orthogonality catastrophe. It turns out that the finite-size energy depends on the details of the thermodynamic limit and typically also includes a linear term in the scattering phase shift.

Martin Gebert

2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

293

Granular Gases of Rod-Shaped Grains in Microgravity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Granular gases are convenient model systems to investigate the statistical physics of nonequilibrium systems. In the literature, one finds numerous theoretical predictions, but only few experiments. We study a weakly excited dilute gas of rods, confined in a cuboid container in microgravity during a suborbital rocket flight. With respect to a gas of spherical grains at comparable filling fraction, the mean free path is considerably reduced. This guarantees a dominance of grain-grain collisions over grain-wall collisions. No clustering was observed, unlike in similar experiments with spherical grains. Rod positions and orientations were determined and tracked. Translational and rotational velocity distributions are non-Gaussian. Equipartition of kinetic energy between translations and rotations is violated.

K. Harth; U. Kornek; T. Trittel; U. Strachauer; S. Höme; K. Will; R. Stannarius

2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

294

Carrier cooling and exciton formation in GaSe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The initial cooling of hot carriers and the subsequent exciton formation in GaSe are studied by time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) using femtosecond up-conversion techniques. From the time-resolved PL spectra of this layered III-VI semiconductor two different energy relaxation channels are derived. After an initial subpicosecond cooling due to Fröhlich-type interaction of carriers with longitudinal optical E?(22) phonons a slower regime follows, which is dominated by deformation potential interaction with the nonpolar optical A1?(12) phonons. The coupling constant for nonpolar optical phonon scattering is derived. The subsequent formation of excitons is studied at different carrier densities and detection energies. A cross section for the free-exciton formation is determined based on a rate equation model.

S. Nüsse; P. Haring Bolivar; H. Kurz; V. Klimov; F. Levy

1997-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

Kovacs-like memory effect in driven granular gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

While memory effects have been reported for dense enough disordered systems such as glasses, we show here by a combination of analytical and simulation techniques that they are also intrinsic to the dynamics of dilute granular gases. By means of a certain driving protocol, we prepare the gas in a state where the granular temperature $T$ coincides with its long time limit. However, $T$ does not subsequently remain constant, but exhibits a non-monotonic evolution before reaching its non-equilibrium steady value. The corresponding so-called Kovacs hump displays a normal behavior for weak dissipation (as observed in molecular systems), but is reversed under strong dissipation, where it thus becomes anomalous.

A. Prados; E. Trizac

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

296

Sorption of organic gases in a furnished room  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a furnished room a furnished room Title Sorption of organic gases in a furnished room Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-53943 Year of Publication 2004 Authors Singer, Brett C., Kenneth L. Revzan, Toshifumi Hotchi, Alfred T. Hodgson, and Nancy J. Brown Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 38 Start Page Chapter Issue 16 Pagination 2483-2494 Abstract We present experimental data and semi-empirical models describing the sorption of organic gases in a simulated indoor residential environment. Two replicate experiments were conducted with 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a 50-m3 room finished with painted wallboard, carpet and cushion, draperies and furnishings. The VOCs span a wide volatility range and include ten Hazardous Air Pollutants. VOCs were introduced to the static chamber as a pulse and their gas-phase concentrations were measured during a net adsorption period and a subsequent net desorption period. Three sorption models were fit to the measured concentrations for each compound to determine the simplest formulation needed to adequately describe the observed behavior. Sorption parameter values were determined by fitting the models to adsorption period data then checked by comparing measured and predicted behavior during desorption. The adequacy of each model was evaluated using a goodness of fit parameter calculated for each period. Results indicate that sorption usually does not greatly affect indoor concentrations of methyl-tert-butyl ether, 2-butanone, isoprene and benzene. In contrast, sorption appears to be a relevant indoor process for many of the VOCs studied, including C8-C10 aromatic hydrocarbons (HC), terpenes, and pyridine. These compounds sorbed at rates close to typical residential air change rates and exhibited substantial sorptive partitioning at equilibrium. Polycyclic aromatic HCs, aromatic alcohols, ethenylpyridine and nicotine initially adsorbed to surfaces at rates of 1.5 to >6 h-1 and partitioned 95 to >99% in the sorbed phase at equilibrium

297

Carbon Trading, Carbon Taxes and Social Discounting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Trading, Carbon Taxes and Social Discounting Elisa Belfiori belf0018@umn.edu University of Minnesota Abstract This paper considers the optimal design of policies to carbon emissions in an economy, such as price or quantity controls on the net emissions of carbon, are insufficient to achieve the social

Weiblen, George D

298

Diffusion of carbon dioxide (1); propane (2)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This document is part of Subvolume A ‘Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures’ of Volume 15 ‘Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes’ of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV ‘Physical Chemistry’. It is part of the ...

J. Winkelmann

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

High-pressure solubility of light gases in heavy n-alkanes from a predictive equation of state: Incorporating Henry's law constant into binary interaction parameter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Using fugacity coefficient of a cubic equation of state, Henry's law constant of a solute in a solvent is incorporated into binary interaction parameter of the classical attractive parameter mixing rule. The developed equation is a function of temperature. The binary interaction parameter is evaluated by pure component critical properties and acentric factors of the solute and the solvent and the Henry's law constant of the solute in the solvent. The developed model accurately describes the solubility of gases including methane, ethane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide in heavy n-alkanes from low to high pressure for wide range of temperature. The solubility of methane and carbon dioxide in water is also predicted adequately.

Khashayar Nasrifar; Nejat Rahmanian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Theory of the lattice Boltzmann method: Lattice Boltzmann models for nonideal gases Li-Shi Luo*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Theory of the lattice Boltzmann method: Lattice Boltzmann models for nonideal gases Li-Shi Luo is presented. This treat- ment provides a unified theory of lattice Boltzmann models for nonideal gases. The lattice Boltzmann equation is systematically obtained by discretizing the Enskog equation in phase space

Luo, Li-Shi

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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Preserving noble gases in a convecting mantle Helge M. Gonnermann1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a processed and out- gassed lower-mantle source, residues of mantle melting10,11 , depleted in uranium and mixing of noble-gas-depleted slabs dilutes the concentrations of noble gases in the mantle, thereby melt, which forms the ocean crust and leaves the residual mantle severely depleted of noble gases

Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

302

Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western United  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western United Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western United States, I, Regional Variability And Magmatic Origin Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western United States, I, Regional Variability And Magmatic Origin Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Helium isotope ratios in gases of thirty hot springs and geothermal wells and of five natural gas wells in the western United States show no relationship to regional conductive heat flow, but do show a correlation with magma-based thermal activity and reservoir fluid temperature (or total convective heat discharge). Gases from high-T (> 200°C) reservoirs have 3He/4He > 2 _ the atmospheric value, with high He

303

A Combustion Chemistry Analysis of Carbonate Solvents in Li-Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under abusive conditions Li-ion batteries can rupture, ejecting electrolyte and other flammable gases. In this paper we consider some of the thermochemical properties of these gases that will determine whether they ignite and how energetically they burn. We show that flames of carbonate solvents are fundamentally less energetic than those of conventional hydrocarbons. An example of this difference is given using a recently developed mechanism for dimethyl carbonate (DMC) combustion, where we show that a diffusion flame burning DMC has only half the peak energy release rate of an analogous propane flame. We find a significant variation among the carbonate solvents in the factors that are important to determining flammability, such as combustion enthalpy and vaporization enthalpy. This result suggests that thermochemical and kinetic factors might well be considered when choosing solvent mixtures.

Harris, S J; Timmons, A; Pitz, W J

2008-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

304

2 - Solubility of Atmospheric Gases in Brackish and Marine Waters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter presents tabular information on the standard air saturation concentration (moist air at 1 atm) for oxygen, nitrogen, argon, and carbon dioxide gas in terms of ?mol/kg, mg/L, and as Bunsen coefficients L real gas/(L atm) and mg real gas/(L mmHg) for 0–40°C in marine waters. Values are given at coarse salinity intervals for 0–40 g/kg (which embraces the range likely to be encountered in most common nearshore conditions) and at finer intervals for 33–37 g/kg for open water conditions. Because the mole fraction of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is changing, solubility information is provided for 2010 (390 ?atm) and for 2030 (440 ?atm) based on projected atmospheric values. Tabular information is also provided to allow computation of standard air saturation concentration of carbon dioxide gas directly as a function of atmospheric mole fraction. Equations and tabular information are provided to allow conversion of concentrations in mg/L to partial pressures in mmHg. Using the equations presented in Chapter 1, air saturation concentrations (at local barometric pressure) and solubility of arbitrary gas composition mixtures can be computed. Sample problems are included for representative examples. Keywords gas solubility, marine waters, oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, standard air solubility, air solubility, Bunsen coefficients, partial pressures

John Colt

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Applications of carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies in reducing emissions from fossil-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to investigate the global contribution of carbon capture and storage technologies to mitigating climate change. Carbon capture and storage is a technology that comprises the separation of from carbon dioxide industrial- and energy-related sources, transport to a storage location (e.g., saline aquifers and depleted hydrocarbon fields), and long-term isolation from the atmosphere. The carbon dioxides emitted directly at the power stations are reduced by 80 to 90%. In contrast, the life cycle assessment shows substantially lower reductions of greenhouse gases in total (minus 65 to 79%).

Balat, M.; Balat, H.; Oz, C. [University of Mahallesi, Trabzon (Turkey)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Method of depositing multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel field emitter device for cold cathode field emission applications, comprising a multi-layer resistive carbon film. The multi-layered film of the present invention is comprised of at least two layers of a resistive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, such that the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure comprises a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film comprises a plurality of carbon layers, wherein adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced. Field emitters made according the present invention display improved electron emission characteristics in comparison to conventional field emitter materials.

Sullivan, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Friedmann, Thomas A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Method of depositing multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel field emitter device is disclosed for cold cathode field emission applications, comprising a multi-layer resistive carbon film. The multi-layered film of the present invention is comprised of at least two layers of a resistive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, such that the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure comprises a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film comprises a plurality of carbon layers, wherein adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced. Field emitters made according the present invention display improved electron emission characteristics in comparison to conventional field emitter materials. 8 figs.

Sullivan, J.P.; Friedmann, T.A.

1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

308

Readout of Secretary Chu Meetings on Carbon Capture and Sequestration and  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Chu Meetings on Carbon Capture and Chu Meetings on Carbon Capture and Sequestration and State Grid Readout of Secretary Chu Meetings on Carbon Capture and Sequestration and State Grid July 16, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis BEIJING, CHINA - Additional readouts from Secretary Chu's meetings in China are below, courtesy of Dan Leistikow, Public Affairs Director, U.S. Department of Energy. Secretary Chu and his delegation met Thursday morning with Cao Peixi, Chairman of the Huaneng Group to discuss an innovative carbon capture and sequestration project underway at the company's power plant in Tianjin. This is China's first large-scale integrated carbon capture and sequestration project in China. It relies on post-combustion carbon capture, using solvents to capture the CO2 from power station flue gases

309

Structure and heat capacity of Ne and Xe adsorbed on a bundle of carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The structural and thermal properties of Ne and Xe gases adsorbed on the outer surface of a large nanotube bundle have been evaluated with computer simulation. The potential energy model and numerical techniques were used previously to study Ar [N. M. Urban, S. M. Gatica, M. W. Cole, and J. L. Riccardo, ``Correlation functions and thermal properties of Ar adsorbed on the external surface of a bundle of carbon nanotubes'', Phys. Rev. B 71, 245410 (2005)]. Heat capacity results for Ne and Xe exhibit peaks associated with reordering and ``stripe'' melting transitions for these gases.

Daniel E. Shai; Nathan M. Urban; Milton W. Cole

2007-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

310

Carbon Fiber Consortium | Partnerships | ORNL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Fiber Consortium SHARE Carbon Fiber Consortium Oak Ridge Carbon Fiber Composites Consortium The Oak Ridge Carbon Fiber Composites Consortium was established in 2011 to...

311

A journey into the process and engineering aspects of carbon capture technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Atmospheric warming due to greenhouse gases has become a serious global concern. Extensive efforts are being made to combat this phenomenon through Carbon Capture as carbon dioxide is its major contributor. In this work, a comprehensive review has been made on various Carbon Capture methodologies including adsorption, absorption, membrane separation, Chemical Looping Combustion, cryogenic separation with focus on their process chemistry, critical process parameters, contactor configurations, kinetics, thermodynamics, process development and scale-up. The challenges at the research and development stages have also been identified so as to provide the future directions for research.

B. Sreenivasulu; D.V. Gayatri; I. Sreedhar; K.V. Raghavan

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Geological Sequestration of CO2 by Hydrous Carbonate Formation with Reclaimed Slag  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The concept of this project is to develop a process that improves the kinetics of the hydrous carbonate formation reaction enabling steelmakers to directly remove CO2 from their furnace exhaust gas. It is proposed to bring the furnace exhaust stream containing CO2 in contact with reclaimed steelmaking slag in a reactor that has an environment near the unit activity of water resulting in the production of carbonates. The CO2 emissions from the plant would be reduced by the amount sequestered in the formation of carbonates. The main raw materials for the process are furnace exhaust gases and specially prepared slag.

Von L. Richards; Kent Peaslee; Jeffrey Smith

2008-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

313

Influence of processing gases on the properties of cold atmospheric plasma SiOxCy coatings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Thin layers of SiOxCy (y = 4?x and 3 ? x ? 4) were applied using a cold atmospheric plasma torch on glass substrates. The aim was to investigate using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (Tof-Sims) the influence of the gases used on the morphology and composition of the deposits. A hexamethyldisilane (HMDS) precursor was injected in post-discharge in an air or nitrogen plasma using a carrier gas (air or nitrogen) and was applied on the substrate previously pre-treated by an air or nitrogen plasma. The carrier gas and plasma gas flows and the distance between the substrate and the plasma torch, the scanning speed, and the precursor flows were kept constant during the study. The gas used during activation pre-treatment showed no particular influence on the characteristics of the deposit. When air is used both as plasma and carrier gas, the coating layer is thicker (96 nm) than when nitrogen is used (64 nm). It was also evidenced that the gas carrying the precursor has little influence on the hydrophobicity of the coating, contrary to the plasma gas. The latter significantly influences the surface characteristics of the coatings. When air is used as plasma gas, a compact coating layer is obtained and the surface has a water contact angle (WCA) of 82°. When nitrogen is used, the deposit is more hydrophobic (WCA of 100°) and the deposit morphology is different. This increase in hydrophobicity could be correlated to the increase of SiOC bonds in the upper surface layers evidenced by XPS analyzes. This observation was then confirmed by Tof-Sims analyzes carried out on these thin layers. A uniform distribution of Carbons in the siloxane coating could also be observed using Tof-Sims 2D reconstruction images of cross sections of the deposited layers.

H. Hamze; M. Jimenez; D. Deresmes; A. Beaurain; N. Nuns; M. Traisnel

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Worldwide, accelerating glacier loss provides independent and startling evidence that global warming is occurring1 It is now clear that the Earth is warming rapidly due to man-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other heat-trap-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other heat-trap- ping gases, which blanket the planet and cause temperatures future limits on carbon emissions. · Electricity consumers should opt for "green power" where imperative that emissions of the main heat-trapping gas, car- bon dioxide (CO2), are significantly reduced

Combes, Stacey A.

315

Use of hollow core fibers, fiber lasers, and photonic crystal fibers for spark delivery and laser ignition in gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fiber-optic delivery of sparks in gases is challenging as the output beam must be refocused to high

Joshi, Sachin; Yalin, Azer P; Galvanauskas, Almantas

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Sorption, Dilation, and Partial Molar Volumes of Carbon Dioxide and Ethane in Cross-Linked Poly(ethylene oxide)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

First, carbon dioxide is a common impurity in natural gas that must be removed for heating value improvement. ... A database of PMV values for these two gases in liquids and rubbery polymers was constructed, and a correlation between PMV and solubility parameter was observed, so the chemical structure of the polymer can influence the PMV of the sorbed gas. ... Cylinders of ethane (99% purity) and carbon dioxide (99.999% purity) were purchased from Airgas Southwest Inc. (Corpus Christi, TX). ...

Cláudio P. Ribeiro, Jr.; Benny D. Freeman

2008-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

317

Carbon Sequestration Project Portfolio  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > Carbon Storage > Reference Shelf > Project Portfolio Home > Technologies > Carbon Storage > Reference Shelf > Project Portfolio Carbon Storage 2011 Carbon Storage Project Portfolio Table of Contents CARBON STORAGE OVERVIEW Carbon Storage Program Contacts [PDF-26KB] Carbon Storage Projects National Map [PDF-169KB] State Projects Summary Table [PDF-39KB] Carbon Storage Program Structure [PDF-181KB] Selected Carbon Sequestration Program Papers and Publications The U.S. Department of Energy's R&D Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Beneficial Uses of Carbon Dioxide (2011) [PDF-3.3MB] Greenhouse Gas Science and Technology Carbon Capture and Sequestration: The U.S. Department of Energy's R&D Efforts to Characterize Opportunities for Deep Geologic Storage of Carbon Dioxide in Offshore Resources (2011) [PDF-445KB]

318

CALIFORNIA CARBON SEQUESTRATION THROUGH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CARBON SEQUESTRATION THROUGH CHANGES IN LAND USE IN WASHINGTON. Carbon Sequestration Through Changes in Land Use in Washington: Costs and Opportunities. California for Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in Oregon. Report to Winrock International. #12;ii #12;iii Preface

319

Rapid?sampling system for dusts and gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Bureau of Mines has developed a system for the rapid grab sampling of heterogeneous mixtures of gases and dusts during the preignition and postignition stages of dust explosions. The combustion chamber in which the explosion occurs is first fitted with a hypodermic sampling needle with its inlet end at the desired sampling point within the chamber and its sharp injecting end protruding outside of the chamber. Rapid sampling (approximately 25 to 50 ms) is achieved with a double?acting air?pressure?actuated cylinder. The forward stroke of the cylinder thrusts the rubber septum seal of an evacuated glass sampling tube onto the protruding needle which punctures the septum filling the tube with gas and dust from the combustion chamber. The return stroke of the cylinder reseals the sampling tube by returning the mechanism to its original position. The initial time of sampling and the duration of sampling are independently variable and controlled by a microprocessor. Results obtained with a trimodal distribution of coal dust show no significant size discrimination at least up to 70 ?m. Data obtained from laboratory?scale coal dust explosion tests are also presented. Such data provide valuable insights into the basic phenomena involved in explosions.

R. S. Conti; M. Hertzberg; F. T. Duda; K. L. Cashdollar

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Sources and fluxes of carbon in a large boreal hydroelectric reservoir of eastern Canada: an isotopic approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sources and fluxes of carbon in a large boreal hydroelectric reservoir of eastern Canada Hydroelectric reservoirs emit greenhouse gases (GHGs). Although a few hypothesis have been put forward at the surface of a large boreal hydroelectric reservoir of eastern Canada (Robert-Bourassa) as well

Long, Bernard

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydro carbon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Method of making carbon-carbon composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for making 2D and 3D carbon-carbon composites having a combined high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizible woven cloth are infiltrated with carbon material to form green composites. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnant step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3100.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced. pressure.

Engle, Glen B. (16716 Martincoit Rd., Poway, CA 92064)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Woodland Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects ® Version 1.2 July trademark 10 3. Carbon sequestration 11 3.1 Units of carbon calculation 11 3.2 Carbon baseline 11 3.3 Carbon leakage 12 3.4 Project carbon sequestration 12 3.5 Net carbon sequestration 13 4. Environmental quality 14

323

Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward

Narasayya, Vivek

324

Methane, Nonmethane Hydrocarbons, Alkyl Nitrates, and Chlorinated Carbon  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Trace Gases in Whole-Air Samples Atmospheric Trace Gases in Whole-Air Samples Methane, Nonmethane Hydrocarbons, Alkyl Nitrates, and Chlorinated Carbon Compounds including 3 Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113) in Whole-air Samples graphics Graphics data Data Investigator Donald Blake Department of Chemistry, University of California Irvine, California, 92697 USA Period of Record April 1979 - December 2012 Methods Whole-air samples are collected in conditioned, evacuated, 2-L stainless steel canisters; each canister is filled to ambient pressure over a period of about 1 minute (approximately 20 seconds to 2 minutes). These canisters are returned to the University of California at Irvine for chromatographic analysis. Analysis for methane includes gas chromatography with flame ionization, as

325

Low Carbon Fuel Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in 1990. These many alternative-fuel initiatives failed tolow-cost, low-carbon alternative fuels would thrive. Theto introduce low-carbon alternative fuels. Former Federal

Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency in Africa: Carbon Finance Guide |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Energy Efficiency in Africa: Carbon Finance Guide and Energy Efficiency in Africa: Carbon Finance Guide Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency in Africa: Carbon Finance Guide Agency/Company /Organization: Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership Sector: Energy Focus Area: Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy Topics: Finance, Implementation Website: toolkits.reeep.org/index.php?work=detail&asset=projectOutput&id=134 References: REEEP Toolkit[1] "This Guide is an introduction to the financing of renewable energy and energy efficiency (RE/EE) projects - projects which benefit the global community by reducing greenhouse gases which are causing climate change. It is designed to help private and corporate entrepreneurs and public officials, banks and financiers, as well as donor organizations to

327

Carbon Capture (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Berend Smit speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Smit, Berend

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

328

Microsoft Word - NGAMaster_State_TablesNov12.doc  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Gross Withdrawals Year and State From Gas Wells From Oil Wells Total Repressuring Vented And Flared Nonhydro- carbon Gases Removed Marketed Production Extraction Loss Dry Production 1999 Total ................ 17,590,187 6,232,524 23,822,711 3,292,564 110,285 615,014 19,804,848 972,614 18,832,234 2000 Total ................ 17,726,056 6,447,820 24,173,875 3,379,661 91,232 505,472 20,197,511 1,015,542 19,181,969 2001 Total ................ 18,129,408 6,371,371 24,500,779 3,370,832 96,913 462,738 20,570,295 953,984 19,616,311 2002 Total ................ R 17,794,858 R 6,146,420 R 23,941,279 3,455,145 R 99,178 502,176 R 19,884,780 956,992 R 18,927,788 2003 Total ................ 17,819,244 6,237,176 24,056,420 3,547,781 98,113 498,724 19,911,802 875,816 19,035,986 Alabama Total

329

Historical Data  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

99. 99. Quantity and Average Price of Natural Gas Production in the United States, 1930-1996 (Volumes in Million Cubic Feet, Prices in Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Table Year Gross Withdrawals Used for Repressuring Nonhydro- carbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production Extraction Loss Dry Production Average Wellhead Price of Marketed Production 1930 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,978,911 75,140 1,903,771 0.08 1931 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,721,902 62,288 1,659,614 0.07 1932 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,593,798 51,816 1,541,982 0.06 1933 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,596,673 48,280 1,548,393 0.06 1934 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,815,796 52,190 1,763,606 0.06 1935 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,968,963 55,488 1,913,475 0.06 1936 ....................... 2,691,512 73,507 NA 392,528 2,225,477

330

NGA98fin5.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 98. Quantity and Average Price of Natural Gas Production in the United States, 1930-1998 (Volumes in Million Cubic Feet, Prices in Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Table Year Gross Withdrawals Used for Repressuring Nonhydro- carbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production Extraction Loss Dry Production Average Wellhead Price of Marketed Production 1930 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,978,911 75,140 1,903,771 0.08 1931 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,721,902 62,288 1,659,614 0.07 1932 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,593,798 51,816 1,541,982 0.06 1933 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,596,673 48,280 1,548,393 0.06 1934 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,815,796 52,190 1,763,606 0.06 1935 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,968,963 55,488 1,913,475 0.06 1936 ...................... 2,691,512 73,507 NA 392,528 2,225,477 61,064 2,164,413

331

Microsoft Word - NGAMaster_State_TablesNov12.doc  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Natural Gas Natural Gas Supplies Energy Information Administration / Natural Gas Annual 2003 6 Gross Withdrawals Year and State From Gas Wells From Oil Wells Total Repressuring Vented And Flared Nonhydro- carbon Gases Removed Marketed Production Extraction Loss Dry Production 1999 Total ................ 17,590,187 6,232,524 23,822,711 3,292,564 110,285 615,014 19,804,848 972,614 18,832,234 2000 Total ................ 17,726,056 6,447,820 24,173,875 3,379,661 91,232 505,472 20,197,511 1,015,542 19,181,969 2001 Total ................ 18,129,408 6,371,371 24,500,779 3,370,832 96,913 462,738 20,570,295 953,984 19,616,311 2002 Total ................ R 17,794,858 R 6,146,420 R 23,941,279 3,455,145 R 99,178 502,176 R 19,884,780 956,992 R 18,927,788 2003 Total ................ 17,819,244 6,237,176 24,056,420 3,547,781

332

C:\ANNUAL\Vol2chps.v8\ANNUAL2.VP  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy Energy Information Administration / Historical Natural Gas Annual 1930 Through 2000 2 1. Quantity and Average Price of Natural Gas Production in the United States, 1930-2000 (Volumes in Million Cubic Feet, Prices in Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Table Year Gross Withdrawals Used for Repressuring Nonhydro- carbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production Extraction Loss Dry Production Average Wellhead Price of Marketed Production 1930 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,978,911 75,140 1,903,771 0.08 1931 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,721,902 62,288 1,659,614 0.07 1932 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,593,798 51,816 1,541,982 0.06 1933 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,596,673 48,280 1,548,393 0.06 1934 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,815,796 52,190 1,763,606 0.06 1935 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,968,963 55,488 1,913,475 0.06

333

NGA_99fin.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

96 96 Energy Information Administration / Natural Gas Annual 1999 92. Quantity and Average Price of Natural Gas Production in the United States, 1930-1999 (Volumes in Million Cubic Feet, Prices in Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Table Year Gross Withdrawals Used for Repressuring Nonhydro- carbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production Extraction Loss Dry Production Average Wellhead Price of Marketed Production 1930 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,978,911 75,140 1,903,771 0.08 1931 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,721,902 62,288 1,659,614 0.07 1932 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,593,798 51,816 1,541,982 0.06 1933 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,596,673 48,280 1,548,393 0.06 1934 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,815,796 52,190 1,763,606 0.06 1935 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,968,963 55,488 1,913,475 0.06 1936 ......................

334

C:\ANNUAL\Vol2chps.v8\ANNUAL2.VP  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2 2 1. Quantity and Average Price of Natural Gas Production in the United States, 1930-2000 (Volumes in Million Cubic Feet, Prices in Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Table Year Gross Withdrawals Used for Repressuring Nonhydro- carbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production Extraction Loss Dry Production Average Wellhead Price of Marketed Production 1930 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,978,911 75,140 1,903,771 0.08 1931 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,721,902 62,288 1,659,614 0.07 1932 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,593,798 51,816 1,541,982 0.06 1933 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,596,673 48,280 1,548,393 0.06 1934 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,815,796 52,190 1,763,606 0.06 1935 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,968,963 55,488 1,913,475 0.06 1936 ...................... 2,691,512 73,507 NA 392,528 2,225,477 61,064 2,164,413

335

Average Price of Natural Gas Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

. . Quantity and Average Price of Natural Gas Production in the United States, 1930-1996 (Volumes in Million Cubic Feet, Prices in Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Table Year Gross Withdrawals Used for Repressuring Nonhydro- carbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production Extraction Loss Dry Production Average Wellhead Price of Marketed Production 1930 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,978,911 75,140 1,903,771 0.08 1931 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,721,902 62,288 1,659,614 0.07 1932 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,593,798 51,816 1,541,982 0.06 1933 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,596,673 48,280 1,548,393 0.06 1934 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,815,796 52,190 1,763,606 0.06 1935 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,968,963 55,488 1,913,475 0.06 1936 ....................... 2,691,512 73,507 NA 392,528 2,225,477

336

Microsoft Word - table_03.doc  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Gross Withdrawals Year and State From Gas Wells From Oil Wells Total Repressuring Vented And Flared Nonhydro- carbon Gases Removed Marketed Production Extraction Loss Dry Production 2000 Total ................ 17,726,056 6,447,820 24,173,875 3,379,661 91,232 505,472 20,197,511 1,015,542 19,181,969 2001 Total ................ 18,129,408 6,371,371 24,500,779 3,370,832 96,913 462,738 20,570,295 953,984 19,616,311 2002 Total ................ 17,794,858 6,146,420 23,941,279 3,455,145 99,178 502,176 19,884,780 956,992 18,927,788 2003 Total ................ R 17,881,802 6,237,176 R 24,118,978 3,547,781 98,113 498,724 R 19,974,360 875,816 R 19,098,544 2004 Total ................ 17,993,520 6,061,912 24,055,432 3,701,656 97,595 572,103 19,684,077 926,600 18,757,477 Alabama Total

337

C:\ANNUAL\VENTCHAP.V8\NGA.VP  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

99 99 98. Quantity and Average Price of Natural Gas Production in the United States, 1930-1997 (Volumes in Million Cubic Feet, Prices in Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Table Year Gross Withdrawals Used for Repressuring Nonhydro- carbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production Extraction Loss Dry Production Average Wellhead Price of Marketed Production 1930 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,978,911 75,140 1,903,771 0.08 1931 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,721,902 62,288 1,659,614 0.07 1932 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,593,798 51,816 1,541,982 0.06 1933 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,596,673 48,280 1,548,393 0.06 1934 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,815,796 52,190 1,763,606 0.06 1935 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,968,963 55,488 1,913,475 0.06 1936 ...................... 2,691,512 73,507 NA 392,528 2,225,477 61,064 2,164,413

338

C:\ANNUAL\VENTCHAP.V8\NGAla1109.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2000 2000 93. Quantity and Average Price of Natural Gas Production in the United States, 1930-2000 (Volumes in Million Cubic Feet, Prices in Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Table Year Gross Withdrawals Used for Repressuring Nonhydro- carbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production Extraction Loss Dry Production Average Wellhead Price of Marketed Production 1930 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,978,911 75,140 1,903,771 0.08 1931 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,721,902 62,288 1,659,614 0.07 1932 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,593,798 51,816 1,541,982 0.06 1933 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,596,673 48,280 1,548,393 0.06 1934 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,815,796 52,190 1,763,606 0.06 1935 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,968,963 55,488 1,913,475 0.06 1936 ...................... 2,691,512 73,507 NA 392,528 2,225,477 61,064 2,164,413

339

C:\ANNUAL\VENTCHAP.V8\NGAla1109.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

86 86 Energy Information Administration / Natural Gas Annual 2000 93. Quantity and Average Price of Natural Gas Production in the United States, 1930-2000 (Volumes in Million Cubic Feet, Prices in Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Table Year Gross Withdrawals Used for Repressuring Nonhydro- carbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production Extraction Loss Dry Production Average Wellhead Price of Marketed Production 1930 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,978,911 75,140 1,903,771 0.08 1931 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,721,902 62,288 1,659,614 0.07 1932 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,593,798 51,816 1,541,982 0.06 1933 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,596,673 48,280 1,548,393 0.06 1934 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,815,796 52,190 1,763,606 0.06 1935 ...................... NA NA NA NA 1,968,963 55,488 1,913,475 0.06 1936 ......................

340

Porous media to separate gases liquid droplets and/or solid particles from gases or vapors and coalesce entrained droplets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas-vapor treating and filter mats are described that are composed of glass fibers intermixed with micro-bits of any of an expanded thermoplastic styrene-polymer or expanded thermoplastic lower polyolefin or flexible foam polyurethane and a suitable organic bonding agent, which mat may contain any of fibers of a fiber-forming terephthalate polyester, activated carbon, and gas-vapor adsorbent crystalline zeolite molecular sieve particles.

Klein, M.

1980-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydro carbon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Excitation spectrum and quasiparticles in quantum gases. A rigorous approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis is devoted to a rigorous study of interacting quantum gases. The main objects of interest are the closely related concepts of excitation spectrum and quasiparticles. The immediate motivation of this work is to propose a spectral point of view concerning these two concepts. In the first part of this thesis we discuss the concepts of excitation spectrum and quasiparticles. We provide an overview of physical motivations and based on that we propose a spectral and Hamiltonian-based approach towards these terms. Based on that, we formulate definitions and propositions related to these concepts. In the second part we recall the Bogoliubov and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approximations, which in the physics literature are used to obtain the quasiparticle picture. We show how these two approaches fit into a universal scheme which allows us to arrive at a quasiparticle picture in a more general setup. This scheme is based on the minimization of Hamiltonians over the so-called Gaussian states. Its abstract formulation is the content of Beliaev's Theorem. In the last part we present a rigorous result concerning the justification of the Bogoliubov approximation. This justification employs the concept of the mean-field and infinite-volume limit. We show that for a large number of particles, a large volume and a sufficiently high density, the low-lying energy-momentum spectrum of the homogeneous Bose gas is well described by the Bogoliubov approximation. This result, which is formulated in the form of a theorem, can be seen as the main result of this thesis.

Marcin Napiórkowski

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

343

Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the Dixie Valley  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the Dixie Valley Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the Dixie Valley Region, Nevada (1996-1999) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the Dixie Valley Region, Nevada (1996-1999) Abstract This report tabulates an extensive geochemical database on waters, gases, scales,rocks, and hot-spring deposits from the Dixie Valley region, Nevada. The samples fromwhich the data were obtained were collected and analyzed during 1996 to 1999. Thesedata provide useful information for ongoing and future investigations on geothermalenergy, volcanism, ore deposits, environmental issues, and groundwater quality in thisregion. Authors Los Alamos National Laboratory and NM Published

344

Intensive Sampling Of Noble Gases In Fluids At Yellowstone- I, Early  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Intensive Sampling Of Noble Gases In Fluids At Yellowstone- I, Early Intensive Sampling Of Noble Gases In Fluids At Yellowstone- I, Early Overview Of The Data, Regional Patterns Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Intensive Sampling Of Noble Gases In Fluids At Yellowstone- I, Early Overview Of The Data, Regional Patterns Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The Roving Automated Rare Gas Analysis (RARGA) lab of Berkeley's Physics Department was deployed in Yellowstone National Park for a 19 week period commencing in June, 1983. During this time 66 gas and water samples representing 19 different regions of hydrothermal activity within and around the Yellowstone caldera were analyzed on site. Routinely, the abundances of five stable noble gases and the isotopic compositions of He,

345

Clarifying the Roles of Greenhouse Gases and ENSO in Recent Global Warming through Their Prediction Performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is well known that natural external forcings and decadal-to-millennial variability drove changes in the climate system throughout the Holocene. Regarding recent times, attribution studies have shown that greenhouse gases (GHGs) determined the ...

Umberto Triacca; Antonello Pasini; Alessandro Attanasio; Alessandro Giovannelli; Marco Lippi

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Eddy covariance flux measurements of pollutant gases in urban Mexico City  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of the atmosphere/surface exchange of gases over an urban area are a direct way to improve and evaluate emissions inventories, and, in turn, to better understand urban atmospheric ...

Velasco, Erik

347

Characteristic parameters of geigermüller counter gases. Propane-argon and propane-helium mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combination of the Wilkinson and the Diethorn-Kohman expressions of counter operation was tested under conditions in which different rare gases were used with the same quench gas as Geiger-Müller counter f...

Richard G. Pannbacker; Robert W. Kiser

1962-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Cosmogenic and trapped rare gases in Luna-24 drill core samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The elemental and isotopic composition of noble gases in six samples from different depths of the Luna-24 drill core soil column, obtained by mass spectrometric analyses, are presented and the results are comp...

J. T. Padia; M. N. Rao; T. R. Venkatesan

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Adsorption Modeling of Coalbed Gases and the Effects of Water on Their Adsorption Behavior.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The simplified local-density/Peng-Robinson (SLD-PR) adsorption model was utilized to investigate the adsorption behavior of coalbed gases on coals of varying rank. The model parameters were… (more)

Mohammad, Sayeed Ahmed

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Quantifying emissions of greenhouse gases from South Asia through a targeted measurement campaign  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N20) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) are powerful greenhouse gases with global budgets that are well-known but regional distributions that are not adequately constrained for the purposes of ...

Ganesan, Anita Lakshmi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired Heating System  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet discusses how the thermal efficiency of a process heating system can be improved significantly by using heat contained in furnace flue gases to preheat the furnace load.

352

Iron-based alloys with corrosion resistance to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An iron-based alloy with improved performance with exposure to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases with the alloy containing about 9--30 wt. % Cr and a small amount of Nb and/or Zr implanted on the surface of the alloy to diffuse a depth into the surface portion, with the alloy exhibiting corrosion resistance to the corrosive gases without bulk addition of Nb and/or Zr and without heat treatment at temperatures of 1000--1100 C. 7 figs.

Natesan, K.

1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

353

Iron-based alloys with corrosion resistance to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An iron-based alloy with improved performance with exposure to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases with the alloy containing about 9-30 wt. % Cr and a small amount of Nb and/or Zr implanted on the surface of the alloy to diffuse a depth into the surface portion, with the alloy exhibiting corrosion resistance to the corrosive gases without bulk addition of Nb and/or Zr and without heat treatment at temperatures of 1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.

Natesan, Krishnamurti (Naperville, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Factors affecting the recovery of petroleum in projects involving the injection of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FACTORS AFFECTING THE RECOVERY OF PETROLEUM IN PROJECTS INVOLVING THE INJECTION OF LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES (LPG) A Thesis By GERRY A. GRAHAM Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1961 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering GERRY A. GRAHAM FACTORS AFFECTING THE RECOVERY OF PETROLEUM IN PROJECTS INVOLVING THE INJECTION OF LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES (LPG) A...

Graham, Gerry A

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

355

Acetylenic carbon allotrope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein. 17 figs.

Lagow, R.J.

1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

356

The Woodland Carbon Code  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Woodland Carbon Code While society must continue to make every effort to reduce greenhouse gas a role by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The potential of woodlands to soak up carbon to help compensate for their carbon emissions. But before investing in such projects, people want to know

357

NETL-Developed Carbon Capture Technology Recognized with an R&D 100 Award |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

NETL-Developed Carbon Capture Technology Recognized with an R&D 100 NETL-Developed Carbon Capture Technology Recognized with an R&D 100 Award NETL-Developed Carbon Capture Technology Recognized with an R&D 100 Award June 20, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - A novel carbon capture technology developed by researchers at the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and ADA Environmental Solutions has been recognized by R&D Magazine as among the 100 most technologically significant products introduced into commercial marketplace within the past year. This year's award recognizes the Basic Immobilized Amine Sorbent (BIAS) process, encompassing a portfolio of patented and patent-pending technologies for the capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from flue gas streams. CO2 is one of the major greenhouse gases impacting climate change, and

358

NETL: News Release - Carbon Sequestration Partner Initiates Drilling of CO2  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

7, 2009 7, 2009 Carbon Sequestration Partner Initiates Drilling of CO2 Injection Well in Illinois Basin Large-Scale Test to Inject One Million Metric Tonnes of Carbon Dioxide into Saline Formation Washington, DC-The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC), one of seven regional partnerships created by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to advance carbon sequestration technologies nationwide, has begun drilling the injection well for their large-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection test in Decatur, Illinois. The test is part of the development phase of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships program, an Office of Fossil Energy initiative launched in 2003 to determine the best approaches for capturing and permanently storing gases that can contribute to global climate change.

359

NETL-Developed Carbon Capture Technology Recognized with an R&D 100 Award |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Carbon Capture Technology Recognized with an R&D 100 Carbon Capture Technology Recognized with an R&D 100 Award NETL-Developed Carbon Capture Technology Recognized with an R&D 100 Award June 20, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - A novel carbon capture technology developed by researchers at the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and ADA Environmental Solutions has been recognized by R&D Magazine as among the 100 most technologically significant products introduced into commercial marketplace within the past year. This year's award recognizes the Basic Immobilized Amine Sorbent (BIAS) process, encompassing a portfolio of patented and patent-pending technologies for the capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from flue gas streams. CO2 is one of the major greenhouse gases impacting climate change, and

360

Mesoporous carbon materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A conductive mesoporous carbon composite comprising conductive carbon nanoparticles contained within a mesoporous carbon matrix, wherein the conductive mesoporous carbon composite possesses at least a portion of mesopores having a pore size of at least 10 nm and up to 50 nm, and wherein the mesopores are either within the mesoporous carbon matrix, or are spacings delineated by surfaces of said conductive carbon nanoparticles when said conductive carbon nanoparticles are fused with each other, or both. Methods for producing the above-described composite, devices incorporating them (e.g., lithium batteries), and methods of using them, are also described.

Dai, Sheng; Fulvio, Pasquale Fernando; Mayes, Richard T.; Wang, Xiqing; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Bingkun

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydro carbon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Estimating Hydro's Contribution to the control of Greenhouse Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the environmental effects of hydropower operation that should be evaluated in licensing decisions is the general benefit to air quality. Hydropower's contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is an increasingly important component of these air quality benefits. The Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) computer model is one method that can be used to quantify these benefits. ORCED provides a relatively simple method that is applicable and cost-effective and that has been successfully applied in other GHG studies. ORCED can be used to calculate a region-specific value of the carbon intensity factor (CIF, kg carbon/MWh) that would be associated with likely replacement power (i.e., a regionally representative mix of coal, gas, and other energy sources). The project's plant factor and operational mode (e.g, baseload versus peaking) can also be incorporated in the CIF calculation. The resulting parameter can then be multiplied by the energy output of the hydropower project that is being analyzed to estimate a CO{sub 2} emission value that is avoided by the project's operation.

Sale, Michael J [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Ammonia-Activated Mesoporous Carbon Membranes for Gas Separations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Porous carbon membranes, which generally show improved chemical and thermal stability compared to polymer membranes, have been used in gas separations for many years. In this work, we show that the post-synthesis ammonia treatment of porous carbon at elevated temperature can improve the permeance and selectivity of these membranes for the separation of carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons from permanent gases. Hierarchically structured porous carbon membranes were exposed to ammonia gas at temperatures ranging from 850 C to 950 C for up to 10 min and the N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and C{sub 3}H{sub 6} permeances were measured for these different membranes. Higher treatment temperatures and longer exposure times resulted in higher gas permeance values. In addition, CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} and C{sub 3}H{sub 6}/N{sub 2} selectivities increased by a factor of 2 as the treatment temperature and time increased up to a temperature and time of 900 C, 10 min. Higher temperatures showed increased permeance but decreased selectivity indicating excess pore activation. Nitrogen adsorption measurements show that the ammonia treatment increased the porosity of the membrane while elemental analysis revealed the presence of nitrogen-containing surface functionalities in the treated carbon membranes. Thus, ammonia treatment at high temperature provides a controlled method to introduce both added microporosity and surface functionality to enhance gas separations performance of porous carbon membranes.

Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Lee, Jeseung [ORNL; Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Ultrafast Nonlinear Spectroscopy of Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

metallic nanotubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carbon2 Carbon Nanotubes Physical and ElectronicStructure of Carbon Nanotubes . . . . . . . . . .

Graham, Matthew Werden

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Ultrafast Nonlinear Spectroscopy of Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2 Carbon Nanotubes Physical andElectronic Structure of Carbon Nanotubes . . . . . . . . . .Photophysics in Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes . . . . .

Graham, Matthew Werden

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

What CO2 well gases tell us about the origin of noble gases in the mantle and their relationship to the atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...mantle-rich CO2 well gases, with samples lying on the air-solar mixing line. The most solar-rich gas, from Bravo Dome in New Mexico, had a 10 per cent excess above air value. Since solar and Q-Xe are so similar in composition, it is not possible...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

A Theory of the Electric Discharge Through Gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three general differential equations are set up which determine the average behavior of a discharge of electricity through a gas. Approximate solutions, giving the electric field E and the concentration of electrons and positive ions, n1 and n2, at any distance x from the cathode, are found for several ranges of value of E.When E is large, the solution corresponds to the conditions in the cathode and anode fall spaces in a glow discharge. Equations are obtained for the potential drop V across the fall space; the current density at the electrode divided by the square of the gas pressure, jp2; and the thickness of the fall space times the pressure, pd.These equations indicate that for the cathode fall space there is a certain minimum value of V, called Vn; and for jp2, called jnp2; and a corresponding maximum value of pd, pdn, beyond which values the discharge ceases. These stationary values are shown to be constants, dependent only on the nature of the gas used and of the cathode material, and correspond to the normal cathode fall space. The equation determining Vn is shown to be of the right from by comparison with the experimentally determined values. From these values of Vn, values of jnp2 and of pdn are calculated for four gases and four cathode materials, and the calculated values check with the experimental data. The corresponding equations for the anode fall space show why there is no corresponding normal anode fall.A consideration of the discharge when E is large throughout the distance between electrodes indicates that there is another stationary value of the cathode fall space when the current density at the cathode reaches its maximum possible value. The V in this case is much smaller than the Vn for the glow discharge, and the form of the equations indicate that they describe the conditions in an electric arc.Another approximate equation is obtained when E is constant, which is the case in the positive column of a glow discharge. This solution indicates that within certain limits of pressure and current density, small sinusoidal variations about the average value Ep, are possible in E. These correspond to the striations sometimes observed in the positive column. The equations determining Ep and those determining the distance between striations check with the known empirical laws relating these amounts to the pressure, the radius of the discharge tube and the critical potentials of the gas used. A general discussion is given of the Faraday dark space and reasons are given why it should be near the cathode rather than the anode.

Philip M. Morse

1928-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

EIA - The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2003-Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2003 Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions The emissions policy submodule, part of the integrating module, estimates the energy–related emissions of carbon dioxide and methane. Carbon dioxide emissions are dependent on the fossil fuel consumed, the carbon content of the fuel, and the fraction of the fuel consumed in combustion. The product of the carbon dioxide coefficient and the combustion fraction yields a carbon dioxide emission factor. For fuel uses of fossil energy, the combustion fractions are assumed to be 0.99 for liquid fuels and 0.995 for gaseous fuels. The carbon dioxide potential of nonfuel uses of energy, such as asphalt and petrochemical feedstocks, is assumed to be sequestered in the product and not released to the atmosphere. The coefficients for carbon dioxide emissions are updated each year from the Energy Information Administration’s annual, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States.17

368

Low Cost Open-Path Instrument for Monitoring Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide at Sequestration Sites  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Low Cost open-path Instrument for Low Cost open-path Instrument for monItorIng atmospherIC Carbon DIoxIDe at sequestratIon sItes Background Growing concern over the effect on global climate of the buildup of greenhouse gases (GHG), particularly carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), in the atmosphere may lead to the curtailment of CO 2 emissions. One potential course of action by industry to reduce GHG emissions is the subsurface disposal of CO 2 . An important requirement of such disposal is verification that the injected gases remain in place and do not leak to the surface. Perhaps the most direct evidence of a successful sequestration project is the lack of a detectable CO 2 concentration above the background level in the air near the ground. Although measurement of CO 2 concentration can be performed, it is

369

Engineering and Economic Assessment of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Saline Formations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Economic Assessment of and Economic Assessment of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Saline Formations Lawrence A. Smith (smithla@battelle.org; 614-424-3169) Neeraj Gupta (gupta@battelle.org; 614-424-3820)* Bruce M. Sass and Thomas A. Bubenik Battelle Memorial Institute, 505 King Avenue, Columbus, OH 43201 *Corresponding Author Charles Byrer (a) and Perry Bergman (b) National Energy Technology Laboratory (a) P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, WV, 26507-0880 (b) P.O. Box 10940, Pittsburgh, PA, 15236-0940 ABSTRACT Concern over the potential effects of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) on global climate has triggered research about ways to mitigate the release of these gases to the atmosphere. A project to study the engineering feasibility and costs of sequestering CO

370

Pulsed Laser Deposition of Photoresponsive Two-Dimensional GaSe Nanosheet Networks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Here we explore pulsed laser deposition (PLD), a well known and versatile synthesis method principally used for epitaxial oxide thin film growth, for the synthesis of functional metal chalcogenide (GaSe) nanosheet networks by stoichiometric transfer of laser vaporized material from bulk GaSe targets in Ar background gas. Uniform coverage of interconnected, crystalline, few-layer, photoresponsive GaSe nanosheets in both in-plane and out-of-plane orientations were achieved under different ablation plume conditions over ~1.5 cm2 areas. Plume propagation was characterized by in situ ICCD-imaging. High (1 Torr) Ar background gas pressures were found to be crucial for the stoichiometric growth of GaSe nanosheet networks. Individual 1-3 layer GaSe triangular nanosheets of ~ 200 nm domain size were formed within 30 laser pulses, coalescing to form nanosheet networks in as few as 100 laser pulses. The thickness of the deposited networks increased linearly with pulse number, adding layers in a two-dimensional (2D) growth mode while maintaining a surface roughness of 2 GaSe layers for increasing overall thickness. Field effect transistors using these interconnected crystalline GaSe networks showed p-type semiconducting characteristics with mobilities reaching as high as 0.1 cm2V-1s-1. Spectrally-resolved photoresponsivities and external quantum efficiencies ranged from 0.4 AW-1 and 100% at 700 nm, to 1.4 AW-1 and 600 % at 240 nm, respectively. Pulsed laser deposition under these conditions appears to provide a versatile and rapid approach to stoichiometrically transfer and deposit photoresponsive networks of 2D nanosheets with digital thickness control and substrate-scale uniformity for a variety of applications.

Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud [ORNL; Gresback, Ryan G [ORNL; Tian, Mengkun [ORNL; Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL; Eres, Gyula [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Xiao, Kai [ORNL; McGuire, Michael A [ORNL; Duscher, Gerd [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Geohegan, David B [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

A BIOMASS-BASED MODEL TO ESTIMATE THE PLAUSIBILITY OF EXOPLANET BIOSIGNATURE GASES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biosignature gas detection is one of the ultimate future goals for exoplanet atmosphere studies. We have created a framework for linking biosignature gas detectability to biomass estimates, including atmospheric photochemistry and biological thermodynamics. The new framework is intended to liberate predictive atmosphere models from requiring fixed, Earth-like biosignature gas source fluxes. New biosignature gases can be considered with a check that the biomass estimate is physically plausible. We have validated the models on terrestrial production of NO, H{sub 2}S, CH{sub 4}, CH{sub 3}Cl, and DMS. We have applied the models to propose NH{sub 3} as a biosignature gas on a 'cold Haber World', a planet with a N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} atmosphere, and to demonstrate why gases such as CH{sub 3}Cl must have too large of a biomass to be a plausible biosignature gas on planets with Earth or early-Earth-like atmospheres orbiting a Sun-like star. To construct the biomass models, we developed a functional classification of biosignature gases, and found that gases (such as CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}S, and N{sub 2}O) produced from life that extracts energy from chemical potential energy gradients will always have false positives because geochemistry has the same gases to work with as life does, and gases (such as DMS and CH{sub 3}Cl) produced for secondary metabolic reasons are far less likely to have false positives but because of their highly specialized origin are more likely to be produced in small quantities. The biomass model estimates are valid to one or two orders of magnitude; the goal is an independent approach to testing whether a biosignature gas is plausible rather than a precise quantification of atmospheric biosignature gases and their corresponding biomasses.

Seager, S.; Bains, W.; Hu, R. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

A Biomass-based Model to Estimate the Plausibility of Exoplanet Biosignature Gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biosignature gas detection is one of the ultimate future goals for exoplanet atmosphere studies. We have created a framework for linking biosignature gas detectability to biomass estimates, including atmospheric photochemistry and biological thermodynamics. The new framework is intended to liberate predictive atmosphere models from requiring fixed, Earth-like biosignature gas source fluxes. New biosignature gases can be considered with a check that the biomass estimate is physically plausible. We have validated the models on terrestrial production of NO, H2S, CH4, CH3Cl, and DMS. We have applied the models to propose NH3 as a biosignature gas on a "cold Haber World," a planet with a N2-H2 atmosphere, and to demonstrate why gases such as CH3Cl must have too large of a biomass to be a plausible biosignature gas on planets with Earth or early-Earth-like atmospheres orbiting a Sun-like star. To construct the biomass models, we developed a functional classification of biosignature gases, and found that gases (such as CH4, H2S, and N2O) produced from life that extracts energy from chemical potential energy gradients will always have false positives because geochemistry has the same gases to work with as life does, and gases (such as DMS and CH3Cl) produced for secondary metabolic reasons are far less likely to have false positives but because of their highly specialized origin are more likely to be produced in small quantities. The biomass model estimates are valid to one or two orders of magnitude; the goal is an independent approach to testing whether a biosignature gas is plausible rather than a precise quantification of atmospheric biosignature gases and their corresponding biomasses.

S. Seager; W. Bains; R. Hu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Waste Heat Recovery from High Temperature Off-Gases from Electric Arc Furnace  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article presents a study and review of available waste heat in high temperature Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) off gases and heat recovery techniques/methods from these gases. It gives details of the quality and quantity of the sensible and chemical waste heat in typical EAF off gases, energy savings potential by recovering part of this heat, a comprehensive review of currently used waste heat recovery methods and potential for use of advanced designs to achieve a much higher level of heat recovery including scrap preheating, steam production and electric power generation. Based on our preliminary analysis, currently, for all electric arc furnaces used in the US steel industry, the energy savings potential is equivalent to approximately 31 trillion Btu per year or 32.7 peta Joules per year (approximately $182 million US dollars/year). This article describes the EAF off-gas enthalpy model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to calculate available and recoverable heat energy for a given stream of exhaust gases coming out of one or multiple EAF furnaces. This Excel based model calculates sensible and chemical enthalpy of the EAF off-gases during tap to tap time accounting for variation in quantity and quality of off gases. The model can be used to estimate energy saved through scrap preheating and other possible uses such as steam generation and electric power generation using off gas waste heat. This article includes a review of the historical development of existing waste heat recovery methods, their operations, and advantages/limitations of these methods. This paper also describes a program to develop and test advanced concepts for scrap preheating, steam production and electricity generation through use of waste heat recovery from the chemical and sensible heat contained in the EAF off gases with addition of minimum amount of dilution or cooling air upstream of pollution control equipment such as bag houses.

Nimbalkar, Sachin U [ORNL; Thekdi, Arvind [E3M Inc; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Development of efficiency-enhanced cogeneration system utilizing high-temperature exhaust-gas from a regenerative thermal oxidizer for waste volatile-organic-compound gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have developed a gas-turbine cogeneration system that makes effective use of the calorific value of the volatile organic compound (VOC) gases exhausted during production processes at a manufacturing plant. The system utilizes the high-temperature exhaust-gas from the regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO) which is used for incinerating VOC gases. The high-temperature exhaust gas is employed to resuperheat the steam injected into the gasturbine. The steam-injection temperature raised in this way increases the heat input, resulting in the improved efficiency of the gas-turbine. Based on the actual operation of the system, we obtained the following results: • Operation with the steam-injection temperature at 300 °C (45 °C resuperheated from 255 °C) increased the efficiency of the gasturbine by 0.7%. • The system can enhance the efficiency by 1.3% when the steam-injection temperature is elevated to 340 °C (85 °C resuperheated). In this case, up to 6.6 million yen of the total energy cost and 400 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions can be reduced annually. • A gas-turbine cogeneration and RTO system can reduce energy consumption by 23% and CO2 emission by 30.1% at the plant.

Masaaki Bannai; Akira Houkabe; Masahiko Furukawa; Takao Kashiwagi; Atsushi Akisawa; Takuya Yoshida; Hiroyuki Yamada

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Formation and control of fuel-nitrogen pollutants in catalytic combustion of coal-derived gases. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program has been the elucidation of the mechanism of high temperature catalytic oxidation of coal-derived gases, including their individual constituents,and the effects of sulfur and nitrogen impurities. Detailed experimental data were obtained and a two-dimensional model is being developed and tested by comparison with the experimental data. When complete, the model can be used to optimize designs of catalytic combustors. The model at present includes axial and radial diffusion and gas and surface chemical reactions. Measured substrate temperatures are input in lieu of complete coupling of gas and solid energy conservation equations and radiative heat transfer. Axial and radial gas temperature and composition profiles inside a catalyst channel were computed and compared with experimental measurements at the catalyst outlet. Experimental investigations were made of carbon monoxide and medium-Btu gas combustion in the presence of platinum supported on a monolithic Cordierite substrate. Axial profiles of substrate temperature, gas temperature, and gas composition were determined at different gas velocities and equivalence ratios. The effects of H/sub 2/S and NH/sub 3/ in the medium-Btu gas were also investigated. Systems were proposed for making resonance absorption and Raman scattering measurements of gas temperature and/or species concentrations in a catalytic reactor. A new pulsed multipass Raman scattering technique for increasing photon yield from a scattering volume was developed.

Walsh, P. M.; Bruno, C.; Santavicca, D. A.; Bracco, F. V.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GHGs emissions from sludge digestion + residue land use in China were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AD unit contributes more than 97% of total biogenic GHGs emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD with methane recovery is attractive for sludge GHGs emissions reduction. - Abstract: About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening + anaerobic digestion + dewatering + residue land application in China. Fossil CO{sub 2}, biogenic CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4,} and avoided CO{sub 2} as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO{sub 2}-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO{sub 2}), while the net CO{sub 2}-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO{sub 2}). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO{sub 2}-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO{sub 2}-eq reduction.

Niu Dongjie, E-mail: niudongjie@tongji.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); UNEP-Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Huang Hui [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Dai Xiaohu [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Urban Pollution Control, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhao Youcai [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

377

Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 130-156 seconds at 120-140 C to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases, evaluate removal capabilities of hydrogen sulfide and COS from coal gases with formulated catalysts, and develop an economic regeneration method of deactivated catalysts. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,300-3,800-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-1,900 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-21 v% hydrogen, 29-34 v% CO, 8-10 v% CO{sub 2}, 5-18 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 114-132 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-140 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 116-129 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is

K. C. Kwon

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

378

Carbon International | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kingdom Zip: NW1 8LH Sector: Carbon Product: London-based energy and communications agency specialising in low carbon energy and climate change. References: Carbon...

379

Carbon Nanostructure-Based Sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Control of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Functionalization.M. S. Characterizing carbon nanotube samples with resonancewith a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Capacitor. Science

Sarkar, Tapan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Metal-organic frameworks with high capacity and selectivity for harmful gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, chlorine, tetrahydrothiophene, benzene, dichloromethane, ethyl- ene oxide, and carbon monoxide. Kinetic

Yaghi, Omar M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydro carbon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Combustion behavior of a spark ignition engine fueled with synthetic gases derived from biogas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Combustion results obtained from a spark ignition engine fueled with two synthetic gases obtained from catalytic decomposition of biogas are presented in this paper. These results are compared with those obtained when the engine was fueled with gasoline, methane and with the biogas from which synthetic gases are extracted. Experimental tests were performed under a wide range of speeds and at three equivalence ratios. Results showed that fractions of hydrogen in synthetic gases increased maximum pressures inside cylinder. Moreover, peak pressures were detected closer to top dead center than methane and biogas. Despite the fraction of diluents in the composition of synthetic gases, high speeds and lean conditions resulted in higher indicated efficiencies than those obtained with gasoline. Moreover, combustion speed and heat release rate were strongly influenced by the proportion of diluents and hydrogen in gaseous blends. CO and CO2 content in the composition of synthetic gases contributed to increase the exhaust concentrations of these pollutants compared with the other fuels, while HC decreased because of the small fraction of methane which remained unburned. Although \\{NOx\\} emissions were mitigated by diluents, like CO2 and air excess, high hydrogen fraction in composition of syngas involved elevated \\{NOx\\} emissions due to the increase in flame temperature that hydrogen produces.

J. Arroyo; F. Moreno; M. Muñoz; C. Monné; N. Bernal

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Method of making carbon-carbon composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for making a carbon-carbon composite having a combination of high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizable woven cloth are covered with petroleum or coal tar pitch and pressed at a temperature a few degrees above the softening point of the pitch to form a green laminated composite. The green composite is restrained in a suitable fixture and heated slowly to carbonize the pitch binder. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnation step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3000.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced pressure for approximately one hundred and fifty (150) hours.

Engle, Glen B. (16716 Martincoit Rd., Poway, CA 92064)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

Ren, Zhifeng (Newton, MA); Lin, Yuehe (Richland, WA); Yantasee, Wassana (Richland, WA); Liu, Guodong (Fargo, ND); Lu, Fang (Burlingame, CA); Tu, Yi (Camarillo, CA)

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

384

Quantifying Carbon Cycle Feedbacks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Perturbations to the carbon cycle could constitute large feedbacks on future changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate. This paper demonstrates how carbon cycle feedback can be expressed in formally similar ways to climate feedback, ...

J. M. Gregory; C. D. Jones; P. Cadule; P. Friedlingstein

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Carbon Monoxide Safety Tips  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Protect yourself and your family from the deadly effects of carbon monoxide--a colorless, odorless poisonous gas. This publication describes the warning signs of carbon monoxide exposure and includes a home safety checklist....

Shaw, Bryan W.; Garcia, Monica L.

1999-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

386

Terrestrial Carbon Management  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Terrestrial Carbon Management Data Sets and Analyses Terrestrial Carbon Management Data Sets and Analyses Carbon Accumulation with Cropland Management Influence of Agricultural Management on Soil Organic Carbon: A Compendium and Assessment of Canadian Studies (VandenBygaart et al., Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada) Soil Carbon Sequestration by Tillage and Crop Rotation: A Global Data Analysis (West and Post, Oak Ridge National Laboratory) Preliminary Estimates of the Potential for Carbon Mitigation in European Soils Through No-Till Farming (Smith et al., University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom) Potential for Carbon Sequestration in European Soils: Preliminary Estimates for Five Scenarios Using Results from Long-Term Experiments (Smith et al., University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom) Carbon Accumulation with Grassland Management

387

Pretreatment process for forming a smooth surface diamond film on a carbon-coated substrate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is disclosed for the pretreatment of a carbon-coated substrate to provide a uniform high density of nucleation sites thereon for the subsequent deposition of a continuous diamond film without the application of a bias voltage to the substrate. The process comprises exposing the carbon-coated substrate, in a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system, to a mixture of hydrogen-methane gases, having a methane gas concentration of at least about 4% (as measured by partial pressure), while maintaining the substrate at a pressure of about 10 to about 30 Torr during the pretreatment.

Feng, Zhu (Albany, CA); Brewer, Marilee (Goleta, CA); Brown, Ian (Berkeley, CA); Komvopoulos, Kyriakos (Orinda, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Lanthanum-hexaboride carbon composition for use in corrosive hydrogen-fluorine environments  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a structural composition useful in corrosive hydrogen-fluorine environments at temperatures in excess of 1400/sup 0/K. The composition is formed of a isostatically pressed and sintered or a hot-pressed mixture of lanthanum hexaboride particles and about 10 to 30 vol% carbon. The lanthanum-hexaboride reacts with the high-temperature fluorine-containing gases to form an adherent layer of corrosion-inhibiting lanthanum trifluoride on exposed surfaces of the composition. The carbon in the composite significantly strengthens the composite, enhances thermal shock resistance, and significantly facilitates the machining of the composition.

Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Kovach, L.; Taylor, A.J.

1980-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

389

Supernova: Carbon detonation redux  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... A DECADE ago carbon detonation was all the rage among supernova theorists. The idea was that the characteristic burst ... wind.

J. Craig Wheeler

1983-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

390

Carbon Capital | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sector: Carbon Product: Manages a carbon fund specialised in forestry projects References: Carbon Capital1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Carbon...

391

Solubility Coefficients for Solar Liquids, a New Method to Quantify Undissolved Gases and Practical Recommendations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Solubility of nitrogen in propylene glycol/water mixtures (25%, 41.84% and 100% glycol by weight) have been determined in a temperature range from 10 °C to 110 °C using a static isochoric measuring method and are compared to the solubility of a typical solar liquid. To evaluate the amount of gas in a solar system it is necessary to measure the part of gases dissolved in the solar liquid, but also to consider the fraction of free gases (gas bubbles or gas cushions) in the system. Measuring this part was either not possible or only possible with a big technical effort until now. Therefore a new method was developed, which easily and fast identifies the volume of undissolved gases (“Gas Bubble Test”). The method was validated in extensive investigations in real solar systems.

Martin Heymann; Felix Panitz; Karin Rühling; Clemens Felsmann

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Kinetics Of Carbon Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kinetics Of Carbon Gasification ... The steam–carbon reaction, which is the essential reaction of the gasification processes of carbon-based feed stocks (e.g., coal and biomass), produces synthesis gas (H2 + CO), a synthetically flexible, environmentally benign energy source. ... Coal Gasification in CO2 and Steam:? Development of a Steam Injection Facility for High-Pressure Wire-Mesh Reactors ...

C. W. Zielke; Everett. Gorin

1957-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

How Carbon Capture Works  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Carbon capture, utilization and storage is a process that captures carbon dioxide emissions from sources like coal-fired power plants and either reuses or stores it so it will not enter the atmosphere. We'll break down the process step by step so you can learn how this technology can help us lower our carbon pollution.

394

Intro to Carbon Sequestration  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

None

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

395

Carbon Connections | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Product: Carbon Connections links partner universities with industry encouraging knowledge exchange and developing innovative ideas. References: Carbon Connections1 This...

396

Stable isotope and water quality analysis of coal bed methane production waters and gases from the Bowen Basin, Australia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal bed methane (CBM) is a significant growing industry in Queensland's energy sector. It is, however, a relatively new industry with little local water quality data and stable isotope compositions of production waters and gases available in the public domain. This study aims to determine whether water quality and stable isotope data can be correlated with gas and groundwater production and flow pathways, and identify zones of recharge and water mixing. Stable isotope analysis and accessory water quality tests were conducted on CBM production gas and water samples collected from two CBM producing bituminous coal seams within a single field in the Bowen Basin. In the production field, the reservoir seams are gently folded with eastwardly dipping fold axes, and compartmentalised by an ENE normal fault on the flank of a broad central anticline that contains minor faults. For one seam, splitting and a change in coal quality parallels the fault and fold axes. Although virgin reservoir conditions were similar, differing production performance north and south of the main fault suggests it acts as a barrier to water and gas flow along strike. The stable isotope analysis on the production water showed that waters with more positive ?D and ?18O compositions were associated with areas of higher water production and shallower depths, whereas more negative ?D and ?18O compositions were associated with lower water production and high gas production. The gas isotope analysis showed that production gases had both biogenic and thermogenic origins and that secondary biogenic gas generated through CO2 reduction comprises a significant portion of the CBM produced from this field. More negative CH4 ?13C values characterize the zones of meteoric recharge in shallow, up-dip areas. Gas production data and CO2 ?13C values suggest that this may result from 13CH4 stripping by the recharge waters and/or increased biogenic activity in this area. Smaller CO2–CH4 carbon isotopic fractionation values characterized zones of meteoric recharge, whereas higher isotopic fractionation values characterized the high gas production domain.

E.C.P. Kinnon; S.D. Golding; C.J. Boreham; K.A. Baublys; J.S. Esterle

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Carbon Sequestration Partner Initiates Drilling of CO2 Injection Well in  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Sequestration Partner Initiates Drilling of CO2 Injection Sequestration Partner Initiates Drilling of CO2 Injection Well in Illinois Basin Carbon Sequestration Partner Initiates Drilling of CO2 Injection Well in Illinois Basin February 17, 2009 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, D.C. -- The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC), one of seven regional partnerships created by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to advance carbon sequestration technologies nationwide, has begun drilling the injection well for their large-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection test in Decatur, Illinois. The test is part of the development phase of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships program, an Office of Fossil Energy initiative launched in 2003 to determine the best approaches for capturing and permanently storing gases that can contribute

398

Degassing Measurement Studies Carried out for Various Forms of Activated Carbon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Activated carbon with its large surface area has extraordinary adsorptive capabilities through physical adsorption. Using this property a project on development of cryoadsorption Cryopump is ongoing at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India. Under the project, to study the desorption characteristics of various sorbents; a DeGassing Measurement System (DGMS) was set up. The DGMS facility works under vacuum environment with additional feature of baking to higher temperatures. DGMS provides accurate and sensitive measurements of weight change, with one microgram sensitivity, for a various samples (Activated carbon granules of different mesh sizes, Activated carbon spheres, Activated carbon pellets and fabrics i.e. Non-woven and Flat Knitted) exposed to controlled environmental conditions over an extended period of time. This paper reports degassing measurement results obtained for various samples studied to show quantitative evolution of the gases during vacuum and heating.

Samiran Mukherjee; Ranjana Gangradey; Sapana Guru; Pratik Nayak; Jyoti Agrawal; V.S. Tripathi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

GEI 41040G - Specification for Fuel Gases for COmbustion in Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Gas Turbine Gas Turbine Revised, January 2002 GEI 41040G These instructions do not purport to cover all details or variations in equipment nor to provide for every possible contingency to be met in connection with installation, operation or maintenance. Should further information be desired or should particular problems arise which are not covered sufficiently for the purchaser's purposes the matter should be referred to the GE Company. © 1999 GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY Specification for Fuel Gases for Combustion in Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines GEI 41040G Specification for Fuel Gases for Combustion in Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

400

Dissipative Dynamics of a Josephson Junction In the Bose-Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The dissipative dynamics of a Josephson junction in the Bose-gases is considered within the framework of the model of a tunneling Hamiltonian. The effective action which describes the dynamics of the phase difference across the junction is derived using functional integration method. The dynamic equation obtained for the phase difference across the junction is analyzed for the finite temperatures in the low frequency limit involving the radiation terms. The asymmetric case of the Bose-gases with the different order parameters is calculated as well.

R. A. Barankov; S. N. Burmistrov

2003-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydro carbon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Spin noise spectroscopy to probe quantum states of ultracold fermionic atom gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We theoretically demonstrate that optical measurements of electron spin noise can be a spectroscopic probe of the entangled quantum states of ultracold fermionic atom gases and unambiguously reveal the detailed nature of the underlying interatomic correlations. Different models of the effective interatomic interactions predict entirely new sets of resonances in the spin noise spectrum. Once the correct effective interatomic interaction model is identified, the detailed noise line shapes of the spin noise can be used to constrain this model. We estimate the magnitude of spin noise signals expected in ultracold fermionic atom gases via noise measurements in classical alkali vapors, which demonstrate the feasibility of this approach.

Mihaila, Bogdan; Blagoev, Krastan B.; Smith, Darryl L. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Crooker, Scott A.; Rickel, Dwight G. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Littlewood, Peter B. [Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

402

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL); Jalan, Vinod M. (Concord, MA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur-containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorbtion capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

1982-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

404

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

1984-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

405

High P/T phase and volumetric behavior of coal liquid constituents. (Quarterly technical progress report), January 1-April 1, 1984. [6 gases in hydrogen-dibenzofuran and in hydrogen-g-methylanthracene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sophisticated perturbation chromatography technique has been used to study the vapor-liquid equilibrium behavior of six light gases in two hydrogen-coal liquid model compounds systems. Infinite-dilution K values are reported for methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide in: (1) hydrogen-dibenzofuran system at 373.2 and 398.2/sup 0/K and up to 6 MPa; and (2) hydrogen-g-methylanthracene systems at 373.2, 398.2, 423.2, 448.2 and 473.2/sup 0/K and up to 21 M Pa. Henry's constants were determined for the light gases in 9-methylanthracene. Second cross virial coefficients and vapor-phase infinite-dilution fugacity coefficients were calculated for the hydrocarbon gases in hydrogen. The results were combined with the experimental K-value measurements to obtain Henry's constants in hydrogen-9-methylanthracene mixtures of fixed liquid composition. The constants thus obtained show a significant dependence of hydrogen solubility. 1 reference.

Kobayshi, R.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Implantation of carbon in GaAs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon implanted into GaAs and thermally annealed typically exhibits very low (<3%) electrical activity. It has been demonstrated that the electrical activity of C can be significantly enhanced by co-implantation with Ga. Improved activation may result from either additional damage of the crystal lattice or from stoichiometric changes, forcing the C atoms onto As sites. To determine the relative importance of each of these effects, I have undertaken a systematic study of carbon activation in GaAs. A range of co-implants have been used: group III (B, Ga), group V (N, P, As) and noble gases (Ar, Kr). The damage introduced to the substrate will depend on the mass of the ion implanted. The group III and group V co-implants will affect the crystal stoichiometry. The results indicate that both lattice damage and crystal stoichiometry are important for high electrical activity of C. Increasing the damage will increase the activation due to the increased number of As vacancies but maximum activation can be obtained only by a co-implant which not only damages the lattice but also forces the C to occupy an As site.

Moll, A.J.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Burners and combustion apparatus for carbon nanomaterial production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides improved burners, combustion apparatus, and methods for carbon nanomaterial production. The burners of the invention provide sooting flames of fuel and oxidizing gases. The condensable products of combustion produced by the burners of this invention produce carbon nanomaterials including without limitation, soot, fullerenic soot, and fullerenes. The burners of the invention do not require premixing of the fuel and oxidizing gases and are suitable for use with low vapor pressure fuels such as those containing substantial amounts of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The burners of the invention can operate with a hot (e.g., uncooled) burner surface and require little, if any, cooling or other forms of heat sinking. The burners of the invention comprise one or more refractory elements forming the outlet of the burner at which a flame can be established. The burners of the invention provide for improved flame stability, can be employed with a wider range of fuel/oxidizer (e.g., air) ratios and a wider range of gas velocities, and are generally more efficient than burners using water-cooled metal burner plates. The burners of the invention can also be operated to reduce the formation of undesirable soot deposits on the burner and on surfaces downstream of the burner.

Alford, J. Michael (Lakewood, CO); Diener, Michael D. (Denver, CO); Nabity, James (Arvada, CO); Karpuk, Michael (Boulder, CO)

2007-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

408

Burners and combustion apparatus for carbon nanomaterial production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides improved burners, combustion apparatus, and methods for carbon nanomaterial production. The burners of the invention provide sooting flames of fuel and oxidizing gases. The condensable products of combustion produced by the burners of this invention produce carbon nanomaterials including without limitation, soot, fullerenic soot, and fullerenes. The burners of the invention do not require premixing of the fuel and oxidizing gases and are suitable for use with low vapor pressure fuels such as those containing substantial amounts of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The burners of the invention can operate with a hot (e.g., uncooled) burner surface and require little, if any, cooling or other forms of heat sinking. The burners of the invention comprise one or more refractory elements forming the outlet of the burner at which a flame can be established. The burners of the invention provide for improved flame stability, can be employed with a wider range of fuel/oxidizer (e.g., air) ratios and a wider range of gas velocities, and are generally more efficient than burners using water-cooled metal burner plates. The burners of the invention can also be operated to reduce the formation of undesirable soot deposits on the burner and on surfaces downstream of the burner.

Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D; Nabity, James; Karpuk, Michael

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

409

Carbon in detonations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We review three principal results from a five year study of carbon and its properties in detonations and discuss the implications of these results to the behavior of explosives. We first present a new determination of the carbon melt line from release wave velocity measurements in the shocked state. We then outline a colloidal theory of carbon clustering which from diffusion limited coagulation predicts a slow energy release rate for the carbon chemistry. Finally, we show the results from the examination of recovered soot. Here we see support for the colloid theory and find the diamond phase of carbon. The main theme of this paper is that the carbon in detonation products is in the form of a colloidal suspension of carbon clusters which grow through diffusion limited collisions. Even the final state is not bulk graphite or diamond, but is a collection of small, less than 100 /angstrom/A, diamond and graphitic clusters. 23 refs., 4 figs.

Johnson, J.D.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Detection of Irradiated Frozen Deboned Seafood with the Level of Radiolytic H2 and CO Gases as a Probe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method to detect irradiated frozen shrimp without cuticle, cod slices, and deshelled oyster has been developed based on the fact that radiolytic H2 and CO gases are retained in the irradiated samples for a certain period during the storage. These gases ...

Masakazu Furuta; Takaaki Dohmaru; Tadashi Katayama; Hirokazu Toratani; Atsuhiko Takeda

1997-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

411

Theoretical Gas Phase Mass Transfer Coefficients for Endogenous Gases in the Lungs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Theoretical Gas Phase Mass Transfer Coefficients for Endogenous Gases in the Lungs PETER CONDORELLI of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA (Received 18 November 1997; accepted 9 February 1999) Abstract--Gas phase in terms of a lumped variable, Per(L/D)n . (Sh) increases as the solu- bility of the gas in tissue

George, Steven C.

412

Photoconductivity and luminescence in GaSe crystals at high levels of optical excitation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The photoconductivity and luminescence of GaSe layered crystals at high levels of optical excitation are studied experimentally. The specific features observed in the photoconductivity and photoluminescence spectra are controlled by the nonlinear optical absorption in the region of excitonic resonance.

Kyazym-zade, A. G.; Salmanov, V. M., E-mail: vagif_salmanov@yahoo.com; Salmanova, A. A. [Baku State University (Azerbaijan); Alieva, A. M.; Ibaeva, R. Z. [National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

413

Operational aspects of the desulfurization process of energy gases mimics in biotrickling filters5  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Introduction Energy rich off-gases such as biogas are sometimes not used for electric power generation due impurities. H2S concentrations in biogas can range from 0.1 to 5 We dedicate this article to the memory/v (1000e20,000 ppmv), whereas the specifications for the maximum content of H2S in typical biogas

414

Bose-Einstein Condensation in Atomic Gases Jerzy Zachorowski and Wojciech Gawlik  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. It is instructive to compare orders of magnitude typical for the thermal and condensed gas samples. For atom gasBose-Einstein Condensation in Atomic Gases Jerzy Zachorowski and Wojciech Gawlik M. Smoluchowski on the Bose-Einstein condensate. We also present main parameters and expected characteristics of the first Pol

415

Ion fragmentation in an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer interface with different gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the gas phase. However, particularly in multi- component samples, this may not be enough to unambigu predicts that the degree of ion fragmentation increases with increasing mass of the curtain gas. However with argon and krypton is caused by condensation of the gases within the free jet expansion between

Chen, David D.Y.

416

UA Researchers design a catalyst that neutralizes the gases responsible for climate change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UA Researchers design a catalyst that neutralizes the gases responsible for climate change Toxic Researchers at the University of Alicante have developed and patented a novel catalyst capable of decomposing gas streams. "However, nitrous oxide can be decomposed at lower temperatures using a suitable catalyst

Escolano, Francisco

417

Radiative-convective model of warming Mars with artificial greenhouse gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

spectra of seven artificial greenhouse gases (CF4, C2F6, C3F8, SF6, CF3Cl, CF3Br, CF2Cl2 ecosynthesis, CF4, C2F6, and SF6 were 17%, 49%, and 48% as effective as C3F8, respectively. The optimal mixture

Kite, Edwin

418

A Biomass-based Model to Estimate the Plausibility of Exoplanet Biosignature Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biosignature gas detection is one of the ultimate future goals for exoplanet atmosphere studies. We have created a framework for linking biosignature gas detectability to biomass estimates, including atmospheric photochemistry and biological thermodynamics. The new framework is intended to liberate predictive atmosphere models from requiring fixed, Earth-like biosignature gas source fluxes. New biosignature gases can be considered with a check that the biomass estimate is physically plausible. We have validated the models on terrestrial production of NO, H2S, CH4, CH3Cl, and DMS. We have applied the models to propose NH3 as a biosignature gas on a "cold Haber World," a planet with a N2-H2 atmosphere, and to demonstrate why gases such as CH3Cl must have too large of a biomass to be a plausible biosignature gas on planets with Earth or early-Earth-like atmospheres orbiting a Sun-like star. To construct the biomass models, we developed a functional classification of biosignature gases, and found that gases (such...

Seager, S; Hu, R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Ballistic spin transport in exciton gases A. V. Kavokin,1, 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, or spin-optronics challeng- ing. How possibly one can explore the current, which is carried by neutral are possible in exciton and exciton-polariton Bose gases. Bosonic spintronics or spin-optronics operates,28 . Combined with evident advantages of bosonic amplifica- tion and low dephasing, this makes spin-optronics

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

420

ESTABoues, a decision tool to assess greenhouse gases of sewage sludge treatment and di  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

digestion, aerobic digestion, dewatering, al composting, drying) and sludge disposal route (land applicationORBIT2012 G ESTABoues, a decision tool to assess greenhouse gases of sewage sludge treatment and di-laure.reverdy@irstea.fr EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Sewage sludge production increases continuously reaching almost 20% (946 700 t 1 118 795

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydro carbon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Gas Chromatographic Measurement of Trace Oxygen and Other Dissolved Gases in Thermally Stressed Jet Fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......additional light hydrocarbon gases (e.g...stream, and the data can be obtained...system. The output data from this analytical...F33615-87-C-2714 and the Combustion and Heat Transfer Studies...from deoxygenated hydrocarbons: I. General features......

Wayne A. Rubey; Richard C. Striebich; Michael D. Tissandier; Debra A. Tirey; Steven D. Anderson

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Experimental observation of a traveling plasma grating formed by two crossing filaments in gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The spatial motion and effective duration of a traveling plasma grating formed by two interfering femtosecond laser filaments in gases is characterized by its Doppler effect imparted on a probe pulse. The shift velocity determined experimentally agrees with the theoretical calculations.

Durand, Magali [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, ENSTA ParisTech-Ecole Polytechnique-CNRS, 91761 Palaiseau (France); ONERA, Chemin de la Huniere, 91761 Palaiseau (France); Liu Yi; Forestier, Benjamin; Houard, Aurelien; Mysyrowicz, Andre [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, ENSTA ParisTech-Ecole Polytechnique-CNRS, 91761 Palaiseau (France)

2011-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

423

Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine fuel cells are usually described as devices able to convert chemical energy into electrical energy. Conventional solid oxide fuel cells are separated into two compartments containing each electrode split

Boyer, Edmond

424

Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy for dilute gases in equilibrium H. van Beijeren,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Posch,3 and Ch. Dellago3,4 1 Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Utrecht, Postbus 80006, 3508 TA Utrecht, The Netherlands 2 Institute for Physical Science and Technology and Department the kinetic theory of gases have been applied to compute the chaotic properties of simple systems such as hard

Dellago, Christoph

425

Towards a history of the international industrial gases industry Ray Stokes, Ralf Banken, and Matthias Phl  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

industrial revolution" and their component companies. From David Landes's classic study, The Unbound of the industries of the second industrial revolution has been virtually ignored in this scholarship to date1 Towards a history of the international industrial gases industry Ray Stokes, Ralf Banken

Guo, Zaoyang

426

Potential of Silicon Carbide-Derived Carbon for Carbon Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Potential of Silicon Carbide-Derived Carbon for Carbon Capture ... In contrast to conventional carbons made from natural precursors, carbide derived carbons (CDCs),(8, 10-13) being synthesized from an inorganic source, have no polar functional groups and are composed of purely covalently bonded carbon. ...

S. K. Bhatia; T. X. Nguyen

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

427

Carbon Sequestration via Mineral Carbonation: Overview and Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Carbon Sequestration via Mineral Carbonation: Overview and Assessment 14 March 2002 Howard Herzog overview and assessment of carbon sequestration by mineral carbonation (referred to as "mineral sequestration R&D. The first is that carbonates have a lower energy state than CO2. Therefore, at least

428

Carbon RRLs Carbon RRLs towards Ultra-compact HII Regions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon RRLs Carbon RRLs towards Ultra-compact HII Regions Dana S. Balser D. Anish Roshi (Raman (Agnes Scott College) #12;Carbon RRLs Carbon Radio Recombination Lines (RRLs) NGC 2024 (Orion B) IC 1795 (W3) Palmer et al. (1967) #12;Carbon RRLs Photodissociation Regions (PDRs) Hollenbach & Tielens (1997

Balser, Dana S.

429

Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

No 52-2013 Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy industry halshs-00870689,version1-7Oct2013 #12;Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy The efficiency of unilateral climate policies may be hampered by carbon leakage and competitiveness losses

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

430

Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons R.T. Pierrehumbert1 on climate can be characterized by a single statistic, called Cumulative Carbon. This is the aggregate amount of carbon emitted in the form of carbon dioxide by activities such as fossil fuel burning and deforestation

Pierrehumbert, Raymond

431

The Carbon Cycle  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The Carbon Cycle The Carbon Cycle The global carbon cycle involves the carbon in and exchanging between the earth's atmosphere, fossil fuels, the oceans, and the vegetation and soils of the earth's terrestrial ecosystems. image Each year, the world's terrestrial ecosystems withdraw carbon from the atmosphere through photosynthesis and add it again through respiration and decay. A more detailed look at the global carbon cycle for the 1990s is shown below. The main annual fluxes in GtC yr-1 are: pre-industrial "natural" fluxes in black and "anthropogenic" fluxes in red (modified from Sarmiento and Gruber, 2006, with changes in pool sizes from Sabine et al., 2004a). The net terrestrial loss of -39 GtC is inferred from cumulative fossil fuel emissions minus atmospheric increase minus ocean storage. The loss of

432

Striving To Capture Carbon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Striving To Capture Carbon ... Energy ministers from around the world met in Washington, D.C., for three days earlier this month to wrestle with how to reenergize efforts to cut carbon emissions from coal-fired power plants. ... Their solution, not surprisingly, is a rapid acceleration of R&D for technologies that capture and sequester underground carbon dioxide emitted by power plants, refineries, and industrial manufacturers that burn fossil fuels. ...

JEFF JOHNSON

2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

433

Paraconductivity in carbon nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report the calculation of paraconductivity in carbon nanotubes above the superconducting transition temperature. The complex behavior of paraconductivity depending upon the tube radius, temperature, and magnetic field strength is analyzed. The results are qualitatively compared with recent experimental observations in carbon nanotubes of an inherent transition to the superconducting state and pronounced thermodynamic fluctuations above Tc. The application of our results to single-wall and multiwall carbon nanotubes as well as ropes of nanotubes is discussed.

D. V. Livanov and A. A. Varlamov

2002-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

434

NETL: Carbon Storage - Infrastructure  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Infrastructure Infrastructure Carbon Storage Infrastructure The Infrastructure Element of DOE's Carbon Storage Program is focused on research and development (R&D) initiatives to advance geologic CO2 storage toward commercialization. DOE determined early in the program's development that addressing CO2 mitigation on a regional level is the most effective way to address differences in geology, climate, population density, infrastructure, and socioeconomic development. This element includes the following efforts designed to support the development of regional infrastructure for carbon capture and storage (CCS). Click on Image to Navigate Infrastructure Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSP) - This

435

Carbon Sequestration 101  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

R&D Overview R&D Overview Office of Fossil Energy Justin "Judd" R. Swift Asst. Secretary for International Affairs Office of Fossil Energy U.S. Department of Energy 2 nd U.S/China CO 2 Emission Control Science & Technology Symposium May 28-29, 2008 Hangzhou, China Office of Fossil Energy Technological Carbon Management Options Improve Efficiency Sequester Carbon ï‚· Renewables ï‚· Nuclear ï‚· Fuel Switching ï‚· Demand Side ï‚· Supply Side ï‚· Capture & Store ï‚· Enhance Natural Sinks Reduce Carbon Intensity All options needed to: ï‚· Affordably meet energy demand ï‚· Address environmental objectives Office of Fossil Energy DOE's Sequestration Program Structure Infrastructure Regional Carbon Sequestration

436

Activated Carbon Injection  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

None

2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

437

Carbon Capture and Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Shift to alternative energy sources, which have been introduced in Chap.  8 .... They are effective in air pollution control as well as carbon

Zhongchao Tan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Composites of Carbon Nanotubes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The purpose of this research was to study various methods of incorporation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) with polymers for producing electrically conductive polystyrene composites.… (more)

Tchoul, Maxim N.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Reinforced Carbon Nanotubes.  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates generally to reinforced carbon nanotubes, and more particularly to reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

Ren, Zhifen (Newton, MA); Wen, Jian Guo (Newton, MA); Lao, Jing Y. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Li, Wenzhi (Brookline, MA)

2005-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

440

Carbon Fiber SMC  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

110,000 ACC capital) in 2008 * 54,000 for 2009 Partners * Continental Structural Plastic (CSP), a Tier One supplier * Discounted compounding and molding * Zoltek, a carbon...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydro carbon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Carbon Fiber Technology Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

- 4M AMO - 1.5M VTP - Remainder covered by carry- over and ARRA project contingency * Cost of carbon fiber * Technology scaling * Market development * Workforce development * Oak...

442

Activated Carbon Injection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

None

2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

443

Diffusion through Carbon Nanotube Semipermeable membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to measure transport through CNTs and study effects of confinement at molecular scale. This work is motivated by several simulation papers in high profile journals that predict significantly higher transport rates of gases and liquids through carbon nanotubes as compared with similarly-sized nanomaterials (e.g. zeolites). The predictions are based on the effects of confinement, atomically smooth pore walls and high pore density. Our work will provide the first measurements that would compare to and hopefully validate the simulations. Gas flux is predicted to be >1000X greater for SWNTs versus zeolitesi. A high flux of 6-30 H2O/NT/ns {approx} 8-40 L/min for a 1cm{sup 2} membrane is also predicted. Neutron diffraction measurements indicate existence of a 1D water chain within a cylindrical ice sheet inside carbon nanotubes, which is consistent with the predictions of the simulation. The enabling experimental platform that we are developing is a semipermeable membrane made out of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with gaps between nanotubes filled so that the transport occurs through the nanotubes. The major challenges of this project included: (1) Growth of CNTs in the suitable vertically aligned configuration, especially the single wall carbon nanotubes; (2) Development of a process for void-free filling gaps between CNTs; and (3) Design of the experiments that will probe the small amounts of analyte that go through. Knowledge of the behavior of water upon nanometer-scale confinement is key to understanding many biological processes. For example, the protein folding process is believed to involve water confined in a hydrophobic environment. In transmembrane proteins such as aquaporins, water transport occurs under similar conditions. And in fields as far removed as oil recovery and catalysis, an understanding of the nanoscale molecular transport occurring within the nanomaterials used (e.g. zeolites) is the key to process optimization. Furthermore, advancement of many emerging nanotechnologies in chemistry and biology will undoubtedly be aided by an understanding confined water transport, particularly the details of hydrogen bonding and solvation that become crucial on this length scale. We can envision several practical applications for our devices, including desalination, gas separations, dialysis, and semipermeable fabrics for protection against CW agents etc. The single wall carbon nanotube membranes will be the key platform for applications because they will allow high transport rates of small molecules such as water and eliminate solvated ions or CW agents.

Bakajin, O

2006-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

444

NETL: Carbon Storage - Reference Shelf  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Storage > Reference Shelf Carbon Storage > Reference Shelf Carbon Storage Reference Shelf Below are links to Carbon Storage Program documents and reference materials. Each of the 10 categories has a variety of documents posted for easy access to current information - just click on the category link to view all related materials. RSS Icon Subscribe to the Carbon Storage RSS Feed. Carbon Storage Collage 2012 Carbon Utilization and Storage Atlas IV Carbon Sequestration Project Portfolio DOE/NETL Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage RD&D Roadmap Public Outreach and Education for Carbon Storage Projects Carbon Storage Technology Program Plan Carbon Storage Newsletter Archive Impact of the Marcellus Shale Gas Play on Current and Future CCS Activities Site Screening, Selection, and Initial Characterization for Storage of CO2 in Deep Geologic Formations Carbon Storage Systems and Well Management Activities Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting of CO2 Stored in Deep Geologic Formations

445

Carbon nanotube (CNT) gas sensors for emissions from fossil fuel burning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Fossil fuels endow wide applications in industrial, transportation, and power generation sectors. However, smoke released by burning fossil fuels contains toxic gases, which pollutes the environment and severely affects human health. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are potential material for gas sensors due to their high structural porosity and high specific surface area. Defects present on the CNT sidewalls and end caps facilitate adsorption of gas molecules. The chemical procedures adopted to purify and disperse carbon nanotubes create various chemical groups on their surface, which further enhance the adsorption of gas molecules and thus improve the sensitivity of CNTs. Present review focuses on CNT chemiresistive gas sensing mechanisms, which make them suitable for the development of next generation sensor technology. The resistance of carbon nanotubes decreases when oxidizing gas molecules adsorb on their surface, whereas, adsorption of reducing gas molecules results in increasing the resistance of CNTs. Sensing ability of carbon nanotubes for the gases namely, NO, NO2, CO, CO2 and SO2, released on burning of fossil fuels is reviewed. This review provides basic understanding of sensing mechanisms, creation of adsorption sites by chemical processes and charge transfer between adsorbed gas molecules and surface of CNTs. In addition, useful current update on research and development of CNT gas sensors is provided.

M. Mittal; A. Kumar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

SGL Carbon AG | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon AG Jump to: navigation, search Name: SGL Carbon AG Place: Wiesbaden, Hessen, Germany Zip: 65203 Sector: Carbon Product: A Germany-based manufacturer of carbon-based...

447

Eon Masdar Integrated Carbon | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Jump to: navigation, search Name: Eon Masdar Integrated Carbon Place: Germany Sector: Carbon Product: Germany-based carbon emission projects developer. References:...

448

EMBODIED CARBON TARIFFS Christoph Bhringer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EMBODIED CARBON TARIFFS Christoph Böhringer Jared C. Carbone Thomas F. Rutherford Revised: August 2013 Abstract Embodied carbon tariffs tax the direct and indirect carbon emissions embodied in trade -- an idea popularized by countries seeking to extend the reach of domestic carbon regu- lations. We

449

Study of Gas-steam Combined Cycle Power Plants Integrated with MCFC for Carbon Dioxide Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In the field of fossil-fuel based technologies, natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants are currently the best option for electricity generation, having an efficiency close to 60%. However, they produce significant CO2 emissions, amounting to around 0.4 tonne/MWh for new installations. Among the carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies, the process based on chemical absorption is a well-established technology, but markedly reduces the NGCC performances. On the other side, the integration of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) is recognized as an attractive option to overcome the main drawbacks of traditional CCS technologies. If the cathode side is fed by NGCC exhaust gases, the MCFC operates as a CO2 concentrator, beside providing an additional generating capacity. In this paper the integration of MCFC into a two pressure levels combined cycle is investigated through an energy analysis. To improve the efficiency of MCFC and its integration within the NGCC, plant configurations based on two different gas recirculation options are analyzed. The first is a traditional recirculation of exhaust gases at the compressor inlet; the second, mainly involving the MCFC stack, is based on recirculating a fraction of anode exhaust gases at the cathode inlet. Effects of MCFC operating conditions on energy and environmental performances of the integrated system are evaluated.

Roberto Carapellucci; Roberto Saia; Lorena Giordano

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Y. Li, M. Daskin. 2009. Carbon Footprint and the ManagementJ. van Houtum. 2011. E?ect of carbon emission regulations onStreamlined Enterprise Carbon Footprinting. Environmental

Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Global Carbon Cycle, Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Mitigation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The carbon cycle is one of the biogeochemical cycles and describes the movement of carbon, in its many forms, within the biosphere, atmosphere, oceans and geosphere. The global carbon cycle involves the earth’...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Controlled Vapor Phase Growth of Single Crystalline, Two-Dimensional GaSe Crystals with High Photoresponse  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract Compared with their bulk counterparts, atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) crystals exhibit new physical properties, and have the potential to enable next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, controlled synthesis of large uniform monolayer and multi-layer 2D crystals is still challenging. Here, we report the controlled synthesis of 2D GaSe crystals on SiO2/Si substrates using a vapor phase deposition method. For the first time, uniform, large (up to ~60 m in lateral size), single-crystalline, triangular monolayer GaSe crystals were obtained and their atomic resolution structure were characterized. The size, density, shape, thickness, and uniformity of the 2D GaSe crystals were shown to be controllable by growth duration, growth region, growth temperature, and argon carrier gas flow rate. The theoretical modeling of the electronic structure and Raman spectroscopy demonstrate a direct-to-indirect bandgap transition and progressive confinement-induced bandgap shifts for 2D GaSe crystals. The 2D GaSe crystals show p-type semiconductor characteristics and high photoresponsivity (~1.7 A/W under white light illumination) comparable to exfoliated GaSe nanosheets. These 2D GaSe crystals are potentially useful for next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices such as photodetectors and field-effect transistors.

Li, Xufan [ORNL; Lin, Ming-Wei [ORNL; Zhang, Huidong [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C [ORNL; Ma, Cheng [ORNL; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL; Yoon, Mina [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Xiao, Kai [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Molybdenum-based additives to mixed-metal oxides for use in hot gas cleanup sorbents for the catalytic decomposition of ammonia in coal gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to additives to mixed-metal oxides that act simultaneously as sorbents and catalysts in cleanup systems for hot coal gases. Such additives of this type, generally, act as a sorbent to remove sulfur from the coal gases while substantially simultaneously, catalytically decomposing appreciable amounts of ammonia from the coal gases.

Ayala, Raul E. (Clifton Park, NY)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Effects of land use on surface–atmosphere exchanges of trace gases and energy in Borneo: comparing fluxes over oil palm plantations and a rainforest  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...27 November 2011 research-article Articles...trace gases and energy in Borneo: comparing...boundary layer using a research aircraft in Sabah...exchange fluxes of energy and trace gases...Geophys. Res. Abstracts 12, EGU2010-15408...trace gases and energy in Borneo: comparing...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

the carbonation reaction mechanisms between supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and reservoir rocks consisting of different mineralogical compositions in aqueous and...

456

Nanomechanics of carbon nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...nanotechnology II Nanomechanics of carbon nanotubes Andras Kis 1 * Alex Zettl 2 3 * * Authors...important potential applications of carbon nanotubes are related to their mechanical properties...characterization of the mechanical properties of nanotubes includes a rich variety of experiments...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Carbon monoxide absorbing liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present disclosure is directed to a carbon monoxide absorbing liquid containing a cuprous ion, hydrochloric acid and titanum trichloride. Titanium trichloride is effective in increasing the carbon monoxide absorption quantity. Furthermore, titanium trichloride remarkably increases the oxygen resistance. Therefore, this absorbing liquid can be used continuously and for a long time.

Arikawa, Y.; Horigome, S.; Kanehori, K.; Katsumoto, M.

1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

458

Fly ash carbon passivation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

459

Electronic Properties of Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

P. Avouris, in Carbon Nanotubes M. S. Dresselhaus, P.Physics of Carbon Nanotubes S. V. Rotkin, S. Subramoney,Properties of Carbon Nanotubes Philip G. Collins 1 and

Collins, Philip G

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Carbon Sequestration: A Comparative Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon sequestration refers to the provision and safe storage of carbon dioxide that otherwise would be emitted to ... isolation, and final storage of the produced carbon dioxide, utilizing biological, chemical, ...

Christopher J. Koroneos; Dimitrios C. Rovas

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydro carbon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Electronic Properties of Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

P. Avouris, in Carbon Nanotubes M. S. Dresselhaus, P.in Applied Physics of Carbon Nanotubes S. V. Rotkin, S.Electronic Properties of Carbon Nanotubes Philip G. Collins

Collins, Philip G

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Carbon-free generation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon-free generation Carbon-free generation Carbon-free central generation of electricity, either through fossil fuel combustion with carbon dioxide capture and storage or development of renewable sources such as solar, wind, and/or nuclear power, is key to our future energy portfolio. Brookhaven also provides tools and techniques for studying geological carbon dioxide sequestration and analyzing safety issues for nuclear systems. Our nation faces grand challenges: finding alternative and cleaner energy sources and improving efficiency to meet our exponentially growing energy needs. Researchers at Brookhaven National Laboratory are poised to meet these challenges with basic and applied research programs aimed at advancing the effective use of renewable energy through improved conversion,

463

2013 Global Carbon Project  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2013 Global Carbon Project 2013 Global Carbon Project DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2013_V1.1 image 2013 Budget v1.1 (November 2013) image 2013 Budget v1.3 (December 2013, contains typographical corrections to 2011 Australia emissions from v1.1 and corrections to the 2011 Australia transfer and consumption emissions from v1.2) image image image image Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions to Reach 36 Billion Tonnes in 2013 Global emissions of carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels will reach 36 billion tonnes for the year 2013. "This is a level unprecedented in human history," says CSIRO's Dr Pep Canadell, Executive-Director of the Global Carbon Project (GCP) and co-author of a new report. Global emissions due to fossil fuel alone are set to grow this year at a slightly lower pace of 2.1% than the average 3.1% since 2000, reaching 36

464

,"Ohio Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly","9/2013" Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030oh2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030oh2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/19/2013 6:56:25 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Ohio Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","N9030OH2" "Date","Ohio Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" 33253,0 33284,0 33312,0

465

,"Tennessee Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly","9/2013" Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030tn2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030tn2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/19/2013 6:56:27 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Tennessee Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","N9030TN2" "Date","Tennessee Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" 33253,0 33284,0

466

,"Tennessee Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2010 Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030tn2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030tn2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/19/2013 6:56:27 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Tennessee Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","N9030TN2" "Date","Tennessee Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" 35611,0 35976,0 37802,0 38898,0

467

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - About the 1605(b)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

About the 1605(b) Program About the 1605(b) Program Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program About the 1605(b) Program History Established by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program (also known as the 1605(b) Program) encourages corporations, government agencies, non-profit organizations, households, and other private and public entities to submit annual reports of their greenhouse gas emissions, emission reductions, and sequestration activities. The Program provides a means for voluntary reporting that is complete, reliable, and consistent. The Voluntary Reporting Program began operations in 1994 under the auspices of the Energy Information Administration, the statistical branch of the Department of Energy. Under the original guidelines, the Program released annual reports and a public database for each reporting cycle from the 1994 through the 2005 data years.

468

,"Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly","9/2013" Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030va2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030va2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/19/2013 6:56:29 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","N9030VA2" "Date","Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" 33253,0 33284,0

469

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009, DOE/EIA-0573(2009)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

March 2011 www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009 ii Contacts This report, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009, was prepared under the general direction of John Conti, Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis, and Paul Holtberg, Team Leader, Analysis Integration Team. General questions concerning the content of this report may be directed to the Office of Communications at 202/586-8800. Technical information concerning the content of the report may be obtained from Perry Lindstrom at 202/586-0934 (email, perry. lindstrom@eia.gov). Without the assistance of Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), this report would not have

470

,"Pennsylvania Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2010 Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030pa2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030pa2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/19/2013 6:56:26 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Pennsylvania Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","N9030PA2" "Date","Pennsylvania Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" 35611,0 35976,0 37802,0

471

Comparative Analysis of Alternative Means for Removing Noncondensable Gases from Flashed-Steam Geothermal Power Plants  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

June 2000 * NREL/SR-550-28329 June 2000 * NREL/SR-550-28329 Martin Vorum, P.E. Englewood, Colorado Eugene A. Fritzler, P.E. Fort Morgan, Colorado Comparative Analysis of Alternative Means for Removing Noncondensable Gases from Flashed-Steam Geothermal Power Plants April 1999-March 2000 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 NREL is a U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory Operated by Midwest Research Institute * * * * Battelle * * * * Bechtel Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 June 2000 * NREL/SR-550-28329 Comparative Analysis of Alternative Means for Removing Noncondensable Gases from Flashed-Steam Geothermal Power Plants April 1999-March 2000 Martin Vorum, P.E. Englewood, Colorado Eugene A. Fritzler, P.E. Fort Morgan, Colorado NREL Technical Monitor: C. Kutscher

472

,"South Dakota Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly","9/2013" Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030sd2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030sd2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/19/2013 6:56:26 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: South Dakota Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N9030SD2" "Date","South Dakota Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (MMcf)" 33253,0 33284,0 33312,0 33343,0 33373,0

473

A comprehensive study of different gases in inductively coupled plasma torch operating at one atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A numerical study is done to understand the possible operating regimes of RF-ICP torch (3?MHz 50?kW) using different gases for plasma formation at atmospheric pressure. A two dimensional numerical simulation of RF-ICP torch using argon nitrogen oxygen and air as plasma gas has been investigated using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software fluent©. The operating parameters varied here are central gas flow sheath gas flow RF-power dissipated in plasma and plasma gas. The temperature contours flow field axial and radial velocity profiles were investigated under different operating conditions. The plasmaresistance inductance of the torch and the heat distribution for various plasma gases have also been investigated. The plasma impedance of ICP torch varies with different operating parameters and plays an important role for RF oscillator design and power coupling. These studies will be useful to decide the design criteria for ICP torches required for different material processing applications.

Sangeeta B. Punjabi; N. K. Joshi; H. A. Mangalvedekar; B. K. Lande; A. K. Das; D. C. Kothari

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes are provided. The membranes can include at least one hydrophilic polymer, at least one cross-linking agent, at least one base, and at least one amino compound. The methods of separating gases using membranes can include contacting a gas stream containing at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl with one side of a nonporous and at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl selectively permeable membrane such that at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl is selectively transported through the membrane.

Ho, W. S. Winston

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

475

Bose and Fermi gases in the early Universe with self-gravitational effect  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the self-gravitational effect on the equation of state (EoS) of Bose and Fermi gases in thermal equilibrium at the end of reheating, the period after quark-hadron transition and before big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). After introducing new grand canonical partition functions based on the work of Uhlenbeck and Gropper, we notice some interesting features of the newly developed EoSs with distinct behaviors of relativistic and nonrelativistic gases under self-gravity. The usual negligence of the self-gravitational effect when solving the background expansion of the early Universe is justified with numerical results, showing the magnitude of the self-gravitational modification of the state constant to be less than O(10{sup -78}). This helps us to clarify the background thermal evolution of the primordial patch. Such clarification is crucial in testing gravity theories, evaluating inflation models and determining element abundances in BBN.

Niu Yuezhen; Huang Junwu; Ma Boqiang [School of Physics and State Keye Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) and Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) and Center for History and Philosophy of Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

476

Nuclear magnetic resonance of laser-polarized noble gases in molecules, materials and organisms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are fundamentally challenged by the insensitivity that stems from the ordinarily low spin polarization achievable in even the strongest NMR magnets. However, by transferring angular momentum from laser light to electronic and nuclear spins, optical pumping methods can increase the nuclear spin polarization of noble gases by several orders of magnitude, thereby greatly enhancing their NMR sensitivity. This dissertation is primarily concerned with the principles and practice of optically pumped nuclear magnetic resonance (OPNMR). The enormous sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping noble gases can be exploited to permit a variety of novel NMR experiments across many disciplines. Many such experiments are reviewed, including the void-space imaging of organisms and materials, NMR and MRI of living tissues, probing structure and dynamics of molecules in solution and on surfaces, and zero-field NMR and MRI.

Goodson, Boyd M.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

,"Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2010 Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030va2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030va2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/19/2013 6:56:29 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","N9030VA2" "Date","Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" 35611,0 35976,0 37802,0 38898,0

478

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Original 1605(b)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Program Program Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Original 1605(b) Program Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 established the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program. The Program operated under the original 1994 guidelines through the 2005 data year (for reports containing data through 2005). Reports containing data through 2007 and beyond submitted beginning in 2008 will be conducted under the revised General and Technical Guidelines issued in 2006 and 2007, respectively. More about the original 1605(b) Program. Old Program Reporting Guidelines Old Program Electricity Emissions Factors Old Program Calculation Tools Old Program Forms and Software Old Program Reports for the reporting years 1994 to 2004. Old Program Data for the reporting years 1994 to 2005.

479

,"Pennsylvania Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly","9/2013" Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030pa2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030pa2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/19/2013 6:56:26 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Pennsylvania Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","N9030PA2" "Date","Pennsylvania Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" 33253,0

480

Black Carbon and the Carbon Cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...reduces net CO 2 release by permanent deforestation...constitute a substantial fraction of the “missing carbon...estimate of oxygen release assuming 10% of...constitute a substantial fraction of sedimentary organic...formation by vegetation fires may be important...from soils becoming airborne by wind erosion...

Thomas A. J. Kuhlbusch

1998-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "nonhydro carbon gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Carbon Capture Research and Development  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Center Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Research Institute of Innovative Energy Carbon Capture Research and Development Carbon capture and storage from fossil-based power...

482

Carbon Trust | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

company funded by the UK government to help business and the public sector cut carbon emissions and capture the commercial potential of low carbon technologies....

483

Pacific Northwest rangeland carbon sequestration.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This paper models the supply curve of carbon sequestration on Pacific Northwest rangelands. Rangeland managers have the ability to sequester carbon in agricultural soils by… (more)

Wiggins, Seth T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

CARBON SEQUESTRATION STRATEGIES FOR CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GEOLOGIC CARBON SEQUESTRATION STRATEGIES FOR CALIFORNIA: REPORT TO THE LEGISLATURE Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) studies that we used, including Cameron Downey

485

Carbon nanotubes for organic electronics.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis investigated the use of carbon nanotubes as active components in solution processible organic semiconductor devices. We investigated the use of functionalized carbon nanotubes… (more)

Goh, Roland Ghim Siong

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur from Coal-Derived Fuel Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of low cost, highly efficient, desulfurization technology with integrated sulfur recovery remains a principle barrier issue for Vision 21 integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation plants. In this plan, the U. S. Department of Energy will construct ultra-clean, modular, co-production IGCC power plants each with chemical products tailored to meet the demands of specific regional markets. The catalysts employed in these co-production modules, for example water-gas-shift and Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, are readily poisoned by hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), a sulfur contaminant, present in the coal-derived fuel gases. To prevent poisoning of these catalysts, the removal of H{sub 2}S down to the parts-per-billion level is necessary. Historically, research into the purification of coal-derived fuel gases has focused on dry technologies that offer the prospect of higher combined cycle efficiencies as well as improved thermal integration with co-production modules. Primarily, these concepts rely on a highly selective process separation step to remove low concentrations of H{sub 2}S present in the fuel gases and produce a concentrated stream of sulfur bearing effluent. This effluent must then undergo further processing to be converted to its final form, usually elemental sulfur. Ultimately, desulfurization of coal-derived fuel gases may cost as much as 15% of the total fixed capital investment (Chen et al., 1992). It is, therefore, desirable to develop new technology that can accomplish H{sub 2}S separation and direct conversion to elemental sulfur more efficiently and with a lower initial fixed capital investment.

Gardner, Todd H.; Berry, David A.; Lyons, K. David; Beer, Stephen K.; Monahan, Michael J.

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

487

Purification of Natural Gases with High CO2 Content Using Gas Hydrates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purification of Natural Gases with High CO2 Content Using Gas Hydrates ... The feed was separated using a cascade of continuously stirred tank crystallizer vessels, which can also be regarded as an ideal crystallizer column resembling a gas-hydrate-based scrubbing process. ... Pressurized gas scrubbing, pressure swing adsorption, chemical absorption, and membrane and cryogenic processes are some examples of well-established technologies for the removal of CO2 from gaseous products. ...

Nena Dabrowski; Christoph Windmeier; Lothar R. Oellrich

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

488

Gas chromatographic identification of interferences and their elimination in measuring total reduced sulfur gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on a selective filter that is capable of eliminating positive interference in the coulometric measurement of ambient concentrations of total reduced sulfur gases which has been successfully developed and field tested. Most of the interference was found to be caused by terpenes, which react with bromine, the active reagent in the coulometric titrators. Terpenes are given off by conifer trees in the natural environment as well as emitted in pulping and other wood-handling and lumber manufacturing operations.

de Souza, T.L.C. (Pulp and Paper Research Inst. of Canada, Pointe Claire, PQ (Canada))

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Solubility and displacement behavior of a viscous crude with CO[sub 2] and hydrocarbon gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The West Sak reservoir on the Alaskan North Slope contains an estimated 15 to 25 billion bbl of low-temperature, viscous crude. The reservoir has promising development potential by means of a gas injection process. An experimental study of the solubility and displacement behavior of West Sak oil with CO[sub 2] and hydrocarbon gases shows simple black-oil to complex, multiphase equilibrium behaviors.

DeRuiter, R.A.; Nash, L.J.; Singletary, M.S.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Major World Ecosystem Complexes Ranked by Carbon in Live Vegetation: A  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

17 17 Major World Ecosystem Complexes Ranked by Carbon in Live Vegetation: A Database (Revised November 2000) J. S. Olson, J. A. Watts, and L. J. Allison DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/lue.ndp017 In 1980, this data base and the corresponding map were completed after more than 20 years of field investigations, consultations, and analyses of published literature. They characterize the use and vegetative cover of the Earth's land surface with a 0.5° × 0.5° grid. This world-ecosystem-complex data set and the accompanying map provide a current reference base for interpreting the role of vegetation in the global cycling of CO2 and other gases and a basis for improved estimates of vegetation and soil carbon, of natural exchanges of CO2, and of net historic shifts of carbon between the biosphere and the atmosphere. The

491

Domain walls and bubble-droplets in immiscible binary Bose gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The existence and stability of domain walls (DWs) and bubble-droplet (BD) states in binary mixtures of quasi-one-dimensional ultracold Bose gases with inter- and intra-species repulsive interactions is considered. Previously, DWs were studied by means of coupled systems of Gross-Pitaevskii equations (GPEs) with cubic terms, which model immiscible binary Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). We address immiscible BECs with two- and three-body repulsive interactions, as well as binary Tonks--Girardeau (TG) gases, using systems of GPEs with cubic and quintic nonlinearities for the binary BEC, and coupled nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equations with quintic terms for the TG gases. Exact DW\\ solutions are found for the symmetric BEC mixture, with equal intra-species scattering lengths. Stable asymmetric DWs in the BEC mixtures with dissimilar interactions in the two components, as well as of symmetric and asymmetric DWs in the binary TG gas, are found by means of numerical and approximate analytical methods. In the BEC sy...

Filatrella, G; Salerno, M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

IMPACCT: Carbon Capture Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

IMPACCT Project: IMPACCT’s 15 projects seek to develop technologies for existing coal-fired power plants that will lower the cost of carbon capture. Short for “Innovative Materials and Processes for Advanced Carbon Capture Technologies,” the IMPACCT Project is geared toward minimizing the cost of removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal-fired power plant exhaust by developing materials and processes that have never before been considered for this application. Retrofitting coal-fired power plants to capture the CO2 they produce would enable greenhouse gas reductions without forcing these plants to close, shifting away from the inexpensive and abundant U.S. coal supply.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

High-Pressure Phase Equilibria of Ionic Liquids and Compressed Gases for Applications in Reactions and Absorption Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of high-melting solids not liquids at processing conditions. Coupling ionic liquids with compressed gases systems may overcome most of these difficulties for their applications in separations, reactions, materials processing and engineering applications...

Ren, Wei

2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

494

PII S0016-7037(01)00802-X Volatilization kinetics of silicon carbide in reducing gases: An experimental study with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PII S0016-7037(01)00802-X Volatilization kinetics of silicon carbide in reducing gases occurring hexagonal sili- con carbide ( -SiC), and -SiC, the cubic form, are occasion- ally reported

Grossman, Lawrence

495

Methods for reducing emissions of dioxins and furans in flue gases at plants burning solid domestic waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Methods are discussed for reducing emissions of toxic chlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and dibenzo-furans in flue gases at plants which burn solid domestic waste. Results are presented from a study of ... number of th...

A. N. Tugov; V. F. Moskvichev; L. G. Fedorov…

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Pulsed quantum cascade laser instrument with compact design for rapid, high sensitivity measurements of trace gases in air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have developed a compact instrument for sensitive, rapid and continuous measurement of trace gases in air, with results presented here for methane (CH4), nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3

J.B. McManus; J.H. Shorter; D.D. Nelson; M.S. Zahniser; D.E. Glenn…

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

A conceptual design of a Reactive Ion Etch back end system for the direct reuse of process gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The use of Plasma Etching, specifically Reactive Ion Etching (RIE), is a vital tool in manufacturing semiconductor devices. Most gases used in RIE processes were initially chosen because of their relatively low toxicity