National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for noncatalytic reduction sncr

  1. HYBRID SELECTIVE NON-CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SNCR)/SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) DEMONSTRATION FOR THE REMOVAL OF NOx FROM BOILER FLUE GASES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry B. Urbas

    1999-05-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Pennsylvania Electric Energy Research Council, (PEERC), New York State Electric and Gas and GPU Generation, Inc. jointly funded a demonstration to determine the capabilities for Hybrid SNCR/SCR (Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction/Selective Catalytic Reduction) technology. The demonstration site was GPU Generation's Seward Unit No.5 (147MW) located in Seward Pennsylvania. The demonstration began in October of 1997 and ended in December 1998. DOE funding was provided through Grant No. DE-FG22-96PC96256 with T. J. Feeley as the Project Manager. EPRI funding was provided through agreements TC4599-001-26999 and TC4599-002-26999 with E. Hughes as the Project Manager. This project demonstrated the operation of the Hybrid SNCR/SCR NO{sub x} control process on a full-scale coal fired utility boiler. The hybrid technology was expected to provide a cost-effective method of reducing NO{sub x} while balancing capital and operation costs. An existing urea based SNCR system was modified with an expanded-duct catalyst to provide increased NO{sub x} reduction efficiency from the SNCR while producing increased ammonia slip levels to the catalyst. The catalyst was sized to reduce the ammonia slip to the air heaters to less than 2 ppm while providing equivalent NO{sub x} reductions. The project goals were to demonstrate hybrid technology is capable of achieving at least a 55% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions while maintaining less than 2ppm ammonia slip to the air heaters, maintain flyash marketability, verify the cost benefit and applicability of Hybrid post combustion technology, and reduce forced outages due to ammonium bisulfate (ABS) fouling of the air heaters. Early system limitations, due to gas temperature stratification, restricted the Hybrid NO{sub x} reduction capabilities to 48% with an ammonia slip of 6.1 mg/Nm{sup 3} (8 ppm) at the catalyst inlet. After resolving the stratification problem, the catalyst did not have sufficient activity in order to continue the planned test program. Arsenic poisoning was found to be the cause of premature catalyst deactivation.

  2. Experiment and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of urea-based selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) in a pilot-scale flow reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thanh D.B. Nguyen; Young-Il Lim; Seong-Joon Kim; Won-Hyeon Eom; Kyung-Seun Yoo [Hankyong National University, Jungangno (Republic of Korea). Laboratory of Functional Analysis of Complex Systems (FACS)

    2008-11-15

    A turbulent reacting flow computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model involving a droplet size distribution function in the discrete droplet phase is first built for selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) processes using urea solution as a NOx removal reagent. The model is validated with the experimental data obtained from a pilot-scale urea-based SNCR reactor installed with a 150 kW gas burner. New kinetic parameters of seven chemical reactions for the urea-based NOx reduction are identified and incorporated into the three-dimensional turbulent flow CFD model. The two-phase droplet model with the non-uniform droplet size is also combined with the CFD model to predict the trajectory of the droplets and to examine the mixing between the flue gas and reagents. The maximum NO reduction efficiency of about 80%, experimentally measured at the reactor outlet, is obtained at 940{degree}C and a normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) = 2.0 under the conditions of 11% excess air and low CO concentration (10-15 ppm). At the reaction temperature of 940{degree}C, the difference of a maximum of 10% between experiments and simulations of the NO reduction percentage is observed for NSR = 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0. The ammonia slip is overestimated in CFD simulation at low temperatures, especially lower than 900{degree}C. However, the CFD simulation results above 900{degree}C show a reasonable agreement with the experimental data of NOx reduction and ammonia slip as a function of the NSR. 31 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Kinetic modeling of nitric oxide removal from exhaust gases by Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chenanda, Cariappa Mudappa

    1993-01-01

    Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction is one of the most promising techniques for the removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion exhaust gases. These techniques are based on the injection of certain compounds, such as cyanuric acid and ammonia...

  4. Application of hybrid coal reburning/SNCR processes for NOx reduction in a coal-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, W.J.; Zhou, Z.J.; Zhou, J.H.; Hongkun, L.V.; Liu, J.Z.; Cen, K.F.

    2009-07-01

    Boilers in Beijing Thermal Power Plant of Zhongdian Guohua Co. in China are coal-fired with natural circulation and tangential fired method, and the economical continuous rate is 410 ton per hour of steam. Hybrid coal reburning/SNCR technology was applied and it successfully reduced NOx to about 170 mg/Nm{sup 3} from about 540 mg/Nm{sup 3}, meanwhile ammonia slip was lower than 10 ppm at 450-210 t/h load and the total reduction efficiency was about 70%. Normal fineness pulverized coal from the bin was chosen as the reburning fuel and the nozzles of the upper primary air were retrofitted to be used as the reburning fuel nozzles. The reducing agent of SNCR was an urea solution, and it was injected by the four layer injectors after online dilution. At 410 t/h load, NOx emission was about 300 mg/Nm{sup 3} when the ratio of reburning fuel to the total fuel was 25.9%-33.4%. Controlling the oxygen content of the gas in the reversal chamber to less than 3.4% resulted in not only low NOx emission but also high combustion efficiency. Ammonia slip distribution in the down gas pass was uneven and ammonia slip was higher in the front of the down gas pass than in the rear of the down gas pass. NSR and NOx reduction were proportional to each other and usually resulted in more ammonia slip with reduction in NOx. About 100 mg/Nm{sup 3} NOx emission could be achieved with about 40 ppm NH{sub 3} slip at 300-450 t/h, and ammonia slip from the SNCR reactions could be used as reducing agent of SCR, which was favorable for the future SCR retrofit.

  5. Enhancing SNCR-aided combustion with oxygen addition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Wu, Kuang Tsai; Bool, III, Lawrence E.

    2004-03-09

    NOx emissions from combustion are reduced, NOx reduction efficiency by SNCR is improved, and other efficiencies are realized, by injecting oxygen into a fuel-rich combustion zone under controlled conditions.

  6. Experiments on the reduction of nitric oxide from exhaust gases by selective non-catalytic reactions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narney, John Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    The use of ammonia in a selective non-catalytic process for the removal of nitric oxide (NO) from exhaust gases was studied. A quartz lined flow reactor system was constructed in order to examine the behavior of the process with 15% oxygen...

  7. A summary of SNCR applications to two coal-fired wet bottom boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himes, R.; Hubbard, D.; West, Z.

    1996-01-01

    In response to NO{sub x} reductions mandated under Title I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), Public Service Electric & Gas and Atlantic Electric of New Jersey evaluated Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for NO{sub x} control under separate programs at Mercer Station and B.L. England Station, respectively. Mercer Station is comprised of twin 321 MW Foster Wheeler coal-fired wet bottom boilers, with natural gas capability up to 100% load. B.L. England Station has three units, two of which are cyclone boilers of 136 MW and 163 MW. These furnace designs are of particular interest in that nominally 23,000 MW of cyclone boiler capacity and 6,900 MW of wall- or turbo-fired wet bottom boiler capacity will be faced with NO{sub x} reductions to be mandated under Title IV - Phase II for Group II boilers. Both stations evaluated Nalco Fuel Tech`s SNCR system using a portable test skid, with urea as the reducing chemical. The Mercer Unit 2 demonstration was performed with a low sulfur coal (nominally 0.8%), while the B.L. England Unit 1 demonstration utilized a medium sulfur coal (nominally 2.4%), and also re-injects fly ash back into the cyclones for ultimate collection and removal as slag. To address concerns over potential Ljungstrom air heater fouling, due to reactions between ammonia and SO{sub 3} in the air heater, and fly ash salability at Mercer Station, both sites targeted no greater than 5-10 ppmv ammonia emissions at the economizer exit. At Mercer Unit 2, air heater fouling was only experienced during system start-up when the ammonia emissions at the economizer exit were estimated at levels approaching 60 ppmv. B.L. England Unit 1, however, experienced frequent fouling of the air heater. NO{sub x} reductions achieved at both sites ranged between 30%-40% from nominal baseline NO{sub x} levels of 1.1-1.6 lb/MMBtu. Each site is currently undergoing installation of commercial SNCR systems.

  8. In-field results of SNCR/SCR hybrid on a group 1 boiler in the ozone transport region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, J.M.; Urbas, J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric utilities within the Ozone Transport Region must prepare for seasonal and potentially piecemeal NO{sub x} reductions to meet Title 1 requirements. In order to achieve additional NO{sub x} reductions beyond the existing SNCR System in a manner, which allows maximum flexibility at minimum cost. GPU GENCO, in cooperation with the DOE, EPRI, PETC, and PERC, has chosen to field demonstrate a SNCR/SCR hybrid system. Commercially known as NO{sub x}OUT CASCADE, the system employs a urea based SNCR system to produce a managed level of ammonia slip, which in turn charges an in duct SCR element. The system is presently scheduled for initial operation in October 1997. This paper discusses the decision path associated with the project, including design and operating criteria, performance expectations, retrofit considerations, testing protocol, and current results.

  9. Non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry

    2015-12-22

    A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION STUDIES OF THE SELECTIVE REDUCTION OF NO by NH3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    and Maloney, K.L. , "NOx Reduction with Ammonia: Laboratoryand Hashizawa, K. , "Reduction of NOx in Combustion ExhaustSelective Noncatalytic Reduction of NOx with NH3," EPRI NOx

  11. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    to remove any residual ammonia contained in the fly ash from advanced NOx reduction systems ash, and presented challenges for many of it's conventional uses. For example, low NOx burner systems such as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR), and Amine Enhanced Fuel Lean

  12. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, T.; Trojanowski, R.; Wei, G.

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  13. Waste Coal Fines Reburn for NOx and Mercury Emission Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Johnson; Chetan Chothani; Bernard Breen

    2008-04-30

    Injection of coal-water slurries (CWS) made with both waste coal and bituminous coal was tested for enhanced reduction of NO{sub x} and Hg emissions at the AES Beaver Valley plant near Monaca, PA. Under this project, Breen Energy Solutions (BES) conducted field experiments on the these emission reduction technologies by mixing coal fines and/or pulverized coal, urea and water to form slurry, then injecting the slurry in the upper furnace region of a coal-fired boiler. The main focus of this project was use of waste coal fines as the carbon source; however, testing was also conducted using pulverized coal in conjunction with or instead of waste coal fines for conversion efficiency and economic comparisons. The host site for this research and development project was Unit No.2 at AES Beaver Valley cogeneration station. Unit No.2 is a 35 MW Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) front-wall fired boiler that burns eastern bituminous coal. It has low NO{sub x} burners, overfire air ports and a urea-based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system for NO{sub x} control. The back-end clean-up system includes a rotating mechanical ash particulate removal and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber. Coal slurry injection was expected to help reduce NOx emissions in two ways: (1) Via fuel-lean reburning when the slurry is injected above the combustion zone. (2) Via enhanced SNCR reduction when urea is incorporated into the slurry. The mercury control process under research uses carbon/water slurry injection to produce reactive carbon in-situ in the upper furnace, promoting the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal-fired power boilers. By controlling the water content of the slurry below the stoichiometric requirement for complete gasification, water activated carbon (WAC) can be generated in-situ in the upper furnace. As little as 1-2% coal/water slurry (heat input basis) can be injected and generate sufficient WAC for mercury capture. During July, August, and September 2007, BES designed, procured, installed, and tested the slurry injection system at Beaver Valley. Slurry production was performed by Penn State University using equipment that was moved from campus to the Beaver Valley site. Waste coal fines were procured from Headwaters Inc. and transported to the site in Super Sacks. In addition, bituminous coal was pulverized at Penn State and trucked to the site in 55-gallon drums. This system was operated for three weeks during August and September 2007. NO{sub x} emission data were obtained using the plant CEM system. Hg measurements were taken using EPA Method 30B (Sorbent Trap method) both downstream of the electrostatic precipitator and in the stack. Ohio Lumex Company was on site to provide rapid Hg analysis on the sorbent traps during the tests. Key results from these tests are: (1) Coal Fines reburn alone reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 0-10% with up to 4% heat input from the CWS. However, the NO{sub x} reduction was accompanied by higher CO emissions. The higher CO limited our ability to try higher reburn rates for further NO{sub x} reduction. (2) Coal Fines reburn with Urea (Carbon enhanced SNCR) decreased NO{sub x} emissions by an additional 30% compared to Urea injection only. (3) Coal slurry injection did not change Hg capture across the ESP at full load with an inlet temperature of 400-430 F. The Hg capture in the ESP averaged 40%, with or without slurry injection; low mercury particulate capture is normally expected across a higher temperature ESP because any oxidized mercury is thought to desorb from the particulate at ESP temperatures above 250 F. (4) Coal slurry injection with halogen salts added to the mixing tank increased the Hg capture in the ESP to 60%. This significant incremental mercury reduction is important to improved mercury capture with hot-side ESP operation and wherever hindrance from sulfur oxides limit mercury reduction, because the higher temperature is above sulfur oxide dew point interference.

  14. Argus NOx/SCR report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-05-15

    This document reports on NOx units at more than 350 coal and gas-fired power plants in the USA. Formerly known as the Argus SCR Report, the data are now expanded to include other forms of NOx control, including selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), low NOx burners and overfire air.

  15. 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the legislation are as follows: 1. Requires shutdown of one of the coal boilers by end of 2020, and the second boiler by end of 2025. (I.e., the plant will continue to operate until 2025, with a significant emission non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) equipment on both boilers by Jan 2013. This will secure additional

  16. Flow reactor experiments on the selective non-catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gentemann, Alexander M.G.

    2001-01-01

    also found. Selective non-catalytic removal of nitric oxide using a water/urea solution was performed in a temperature range between 800 and 1300 K. Different combinations of simulated exhaust gas were tested, which contained various fractions of O?...

  17. Modeling of NOx Destruction Options for INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste Vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Richard Arthur

    2001-09-01

    Off-gas NOx concentrations in the range of 1-5 mol% are expected as a result of the proposed vitrification of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. An existing kinetic model for staged combustion (originally developed for NOx abatement from the calcination process) was updated for application to vitrification offgas. In addition, two new kinetic models were developed to assess the feasibility of using selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) or high-temperature alone for NOx abatement. Each of the models was developed using the Chemkin code. Results indicate that SNCR is a viable option, reducing NOx levels to below 1000 ppmv. In addition, SNCR may be capable of simultaneously reducing CO emissions to below 100 ppmv. Results for using high-temperature alone were not as promising, indicating that a minimum NOx concentration of 3950 ppmv is achievable at 3344°F.

  18. Development of advanced NO[sub x] control concepts for coal-fired utility boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, A.; Pont, J.N.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1993-02-11

    Hybrid technologies for the reduction of NO[sub x] emissions from coal-fired utility boilers have shown the potential to offer greater levels of NO[sub x] control than the sum of the individual technologies, leading to more cost effective emissions control strategies. Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has developed a hybrid NO[sub x] control strategy involving two proprietary concepts which has the potential to meet the US Department of Energy's NO[sub x] reduction goal at a significant reduction in cost compared to existing technology. The process has been named CombiNO[sub x]. CombiNO[sub x] is an integration of three technologies: modified reburning, promoted selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) and methanol injection. These technologies are combined to achieve high levels of NO[sub x] emission reduction from coal-fired power plants equipped with S0[sub x] scrubbers. The first two steps, modified reburning and promoted SNCR are linked. It has been shown that performance of the SNCR agent is dependent upon local oxidation of CO. Reburning is used to generate the optimum amount of CO to promote the SNCR agent. Approximately 10 percent reburning is required, this represents half of that required for conventional reburning. If the reburn fuel is natural gas, the combination of reburning and SNCR may result in a significant cost savings over conventional reburning. The third step, injection of methanol into the flue gas, is used to oxidize NO to N0[sub 2] which may subsequently be removed in a wet scrubber. Pilot-scale tests performed at EER's 1 MMBtu/hr Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF) have demonstrated NO[sub x] reductions up to 92%. The program's next phase entails process scale-up to a 10 MMBtu/hr furnace also located at EER's Santa Anna test site.

  19. Greenidge multi-pollutant project achieves emissions reduction goals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Performance testing at the Greenridge Multi-Pollutant Project has met or exceeded project goals, indicating that deep emission reduciton sin small, difficult-to-retrofit power plants can be achieved. The technology fitted at the 107 MWe AES Greenridge Unit 4 includes a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction/selective catalytic reduction system for NOx control (NOxOUT CASCADE) and a Turbosorp circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system for SO{sub 2}, mercury, SO{sub 3} HC and Hf control. 2 figs.

  20. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system. Final report, Volume 1: Public design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, T.; Hanley, T.J.

    1997-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) and the Public Services Company of Colorado (PSCo) signed the cooperative agreement for the Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System in March 1991. This project integrates various combinations of five existing and emerging technologies onto a 100 MWe, down-fired, load-following unit that burns pulverized coal. The project is expected to achieve up to 70% reductions in both oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions. Various combinations of low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBs), overfire air (OFA) ports, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), dry sorbent injection (DSI) using both calcium- and sodium-based reagents, and flue-gas humidification are expected to integrate synergistically and control both NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions better than if each technology were used alone. For instance, ammonia emissions from the SNCR system are expected to reduce NO{sub 2} emissions and allow the DSI system (sodium-based reagents) to achieve higher removals of SO{sub 2}. Unlike tangentially or wall-fired units, down-fired require substantial modification to their pressure parts to retrofit LNBs and OFA ports, substantially increasing the cost of retrofit. Conversely, the retrofitting of SNCR, DSI, or humidification systems does not require any major boiler modifications and are easily retrofitted to all boiler types. However, existing furnace geometry and flue-gas temperatures can limit their placement and effectiveness. In particular, SNCR requires injecting the SNCR chemicals into the furnace where the temperature is within a very narrow temperature range.

  1. Behavior of chars from Bursa Mustafa Kemal Pasa Alpagut and Balkesir Dursunbey Cakiirca Lignite (Turkey) during non-catalytic and catalytic gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozkurt, Y.; Misirlioglu, Z.; Sinag, A.; Tekes, A.T.; Canel, M. [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2008-07-01

    The reactivities of chars obtained by pyrolysis of Bursa Mustafa Kemal Pasa Alpagut lignite and Balkesir Dursunbey Cakiirca lignite (Turkey) at different temperatures were determined by CO{sub 2} gasification and by combustion with O{sub 2}. Catalytic effect of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} on the CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} gasification reactivity of chars was investigated. Gasification tests were performed in the fixed bed reactors operating at ambient pressure. Reactivity of chars during the CO{sub 2} gasification reactions was determined by calculating the reaction rate constants and reactivity of chars during the O{sub 2} gasification was determined by using ignition temperatures of the samples. Activation energies and Arrhenius constants of the chars on the CO{sub 2} gasification reactions were also calculated by the help of Arrhenius curves. The activation energy for CO{sub 2} gasification was generally decreased with pyrolysis temperature, due to the different surface characteristics and different nature of carbon atoms gasified as the gasification reactions proceed. Generally, the increase in pyrolysis temperature leads to an increase in gasification reactivity with CO{sub 2}. The reactivity of chars in catalytic gasification was higher than the corresponding non-catalytic reactivity of the same chars. Ignition temperature increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature.

  2. Nitrogen oxides emission control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravi K. Srivastava; Robert E. Hall; Sikander Khan; Kevin Culligan; Bruce W. Lani

    2005-09-01

    Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increasingly important to implement state-of-the-art NOx control technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NOx control options for these boilers. It discusses the established commercial primary and secondary control technologies and examines what is being done to use them more effectively. Furthermore, the paper discusses recent developments in NOx controls. The popular primary control technologies in use in the United States are low-NOx burners and overfire air. Data reflect that average NOx reductions for specific primary controls have ranged from 35% to 63% from 1995 emissions levels. The secondary NOx control technologies applied on U.S. coal-fired utility boilers include reburning, selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Thirty-six U.S. coal-fired utility boilers have installed SNCR, and reported NOx reductions achieved at these applications ranged from 15% to 66%. Recently, SCR has been installed at 150 U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. Data on the performance of 20 SCR systems operating in the United States with low-NOx emissions reflect that in 2003, these units achieved NOx emission rates between 0.04 and 0.07 lb/106 Btu. 106 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Milliken Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project. Environmental monitoring report, July--September 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-05-01

    New York State Electric and Gas Corporation (NYSEG) has installed and is presently operating a high-efficiency flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system to demonstrate innovative emissions control technology and comply with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The host facility for this demonstration project is NYSEG`s Milliken Station, in the Town of Lansing, New York. The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate a retrofit of energy-efficient SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control systems with minimal impact on overall plant efficiency. The demonstration project has added a forced oxidation, formic acid-enhanced wet limestone FGD system, which is expected to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions by at least 90 percent. NYSEG also made combustion modifications to each boiler and plans to demonstrate selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology on unit 1, which will reduce NO{sub x} emissions. Goals of the proposed demonstration include up to 98 percent SO{sub 2} removal efficiency while burning high-sulfur coal, 30 percent NO{sub x} reductions through combustion modifications, additional NO{sub x} reductions using SNCR technology, production of marketable commercial-grade gypsum and calcium chloride by-products to minimize solid waste disposal, and zero wastewater discharge.

  4. Demand Reduction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Grantees may use funds to coordinate with electricity supply companies and utilities to reduce energy demands on their power systems. These demand reduction programs are usually coordinated through...

  5. Cyclone Boiler Field Testing of Advanced Layered NOx Control Technology in Sioux Unit 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marc A. Cremer; Bradley R. Adams

    2006-06-30

    A four week testing program was completed during this project to assess the ability of the combination of deep staging, Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) to reduce NOx emissions below 0.15 lb/MBtu in a cyclone fired boiler. The host site for the tests was AmerenUE's Sioux Unit 1, a 500 MW cyclone fired boiler located near St. Louis, MO. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team including AmerenUE, FuelTech Inc., and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). This layered approach to NOx reduction is termed the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA). Installed RRI and SNCR port locations were guided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based modeling conducted by REI. During the parametric testing, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were achieved consistently from overfire air (OFA)-only baseline NOx emissions of 0.25 lb/MBtu or less, when firing the typical 80/20 fuel blend of Powder River Basin (PRB) and Illinois No.6 coals. From OFA-only baseline levels of 0.20 lb/MBtu, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were also achieved, but at significantly reduced urea flow rates. Under the deeply staged conditions that were tested, RRI performance was observed to degrade as higher blends of Illinois No.6 were used. NOx emissions achieved with ALTA while firing a 60/40 blend were approximately 0.15 lb/MBtu. NOx emissions while firing 100% Illinois No.6 were approximately 0.165 lb/MBtu. Based on the performance results of these tests, economics analyses of the application of ALTA to a nominal 500 MW cyclone unit show that the levelized cost to achieve 0.15 lb/MBtu is well below 75% of the cost of a state of the art SCR.

  6. Integrability Singular reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick, George

    Motivation Integrability Singular reduction Integration of Singular quotients Summary References Singular reduction of Poisson manifolds and integrability Rui L. Fernandes1 Joint work with J.P. Ortega Fernandes Singular reduction and integrability #12;Motivation Integrability Singular reduction Integration

  7. International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    fuel use, significant NOx reduction, lower emissions, lessof cement produced NOx Reduction in all pollutants relatedNOx control, specifically Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (

  8. Guarantee Testing Results from the Greenidge Mult-Pollutant Control Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel P. Connell; James E. Locke

    2008-02-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc. Research & Development (CONSOL R&D) performed flue gas sampling at AES Greenidge to verify the performance of the multi-pollutant control system recently installed by Babcock Power Environmental Inc. (BPEI) on the 107-megawatt (MW) Unit 4 (Boiler 6). The multi-pollutant control system includes combustion modifications and a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/induct selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system to reduce NO{sub x} emissions, followed by a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system and baghouse to reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, HF, and particulate matter. Mercury removal is provided via the co-benefits afforded by the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, as required. Testing was conducted through ports located at the inlet and outlet of the SCR reactor to evaluate the performance of the hybrid NO{sub x} control system, as well as through ports located at the air heater outlet and baghouse outlet or stack to determine pollutant removal efficiencies across the Turbosorp{reg_sign} scrubber and baghouse. Data from the unit's stack continuous emission monitor (CEM) were also used for determining attainment of the performance targets for NO{sub x} emissions and SO{sub 2} removal efficiency.

  9. COMBUSTION RESEARCH - FY-1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2012-01-01

    ve non- catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3," EPRI NO;:Selective non-catalytic reduction of NOx ,.lith NH3," EPRI

  10. Release of Ammonium and Mercury from NOx Controlled Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; Kim, A.G

    2007-07-01

    One of the goals of the Department of Energy is to increase the reuse of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) to 50% by 2010. This will require both developing new markets and maintaining traditional ones such as the use of fly ash in concrete. However, the addition of pollution control devices can introduce side-effects that affect the marketability of the CUB. Such can be the case when NOx control is achieved using selective catalytic or non-catalytic reduction (SCR or SNCR). Depending on site-specific details, the ammonia slip can cause elevated levels of NH3 in the fly ash. Disposal of ammoniated fly ash can present environmental concerns related to the amount of ammonia that might be released, the amount of water that might become contaminated, and the extent to which metals might be mobilized by the presence of the ammonia. Ammonia retained in fly ash appears to be present as either an ammonium salt or as a chemisorbed species. Mercury in the leachates correlated to neither the amount of leachable ammonium nor to the total amount of Hg in the ash. The strongest correlation was between the decreases in the amount of Hg leached with increased LOI.

  11. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of ALTA for NOx Control in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Fry; Devin Davis; Marc Cremer; Bradley Adams

    2008-04-30

    This report describes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and pilot-scale testing conducted to demonstrate the ability of the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. Testing specifically focused on characterizing NO{sub x} behavior with deep burner staging combined with Rich Reagent Injection (RRI). Tests were performed in a 4 MBtu/hr pilot-scale furnace at the University of Utah. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team which included the University of Utah and Combustion Components Associates (CCA). Deep burner staging and RRI, combined with selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), make up the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) for NO{sub x} reduction. The application of ALTA in a PC environment requires homogenization and rapid reaction of post-burner combustion gases and has not been successfully demonstrated in the past. Operation of the existing low-NO{sub x} burner and design and operation of an application specific ALTA burner was guided by CFD modeling conducted by REI. Parametric pilot-scale testing proved the chemistry of RRI in a PC environment with a NOx reduction of 79% at long residence times and high baseline NOx rate. At representative particle residence times, typical operation of the dual-register low-NO{sub x} burner provided an environment that was unsuitable for NO{sub x} reduction by RRI, showing no NOx reduction. With RRI, the ALTA burner was able to produce NO{sub x} emissions 20% lower than the low-NO{sub x} burner, 76 ppmv vs. 94 ppmv, at a burner stoichiometric ratio (BSR) of 0.7 and a normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) of 2.0. CFD modeling was used to investigate the application of RRI for NO{sub x} control on a 180 MW{sub e} wall-fired, PC boiler. A NO{sub x} reduction of 37% from baseline (normal operation) was predicted using ALTA burners with RRI to produce a NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.185 lb/MBtu at the horizontal nose of the boiler. When combined with SNCR, a NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.12-0.14 lb/MBtu can be expected when implementing a full ALTA system on this unit. Cost effectiveness of the full ALTA system was estimated at $2,152/ton NO{sub x} removed; this was less than 75% of the cost estimated for an SCR system on a unit of this size.

  12. CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    ........................................................................................ 21 2.3.5 Pulp and paper industry Technologies and Measures in Pulp and Paper IndustryCARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AND MEASURES IN US INDUSTRIAL SECTOR FINAL REPORT

  13. Paperwork Reduction Act

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Paperwork Reduction Act requires that all federal websites request permission from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) before collecting information from 10 or more members of the public....

  14. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-16

    This paper briefly summarizes the series in which we consider the possibilities for losing, or compromising, key capabilities of the U.S. nuclear force in the face of modernization and reductions. The first of the three papers takes an historical perspective, considering capabilities that were eliminated in past force reductions. The second paper is our attempt to define the needed capabilities looking forward in the context of the current framework for force modernization and the current picture of the evolving challenges of deterrence and assurance. The third paper then provides an example for each of our undesirable outcomes: the creation of roach motels, box canyons, and wrong turns.

  15. Water Use Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Facilities Water Use Reduction Water Use Reduction Water Use Reduction Water Use Reduction The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides agencies with guidance and...

  16. Picturing wavepacket reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arthur Jabs

    2015-03-18

    A coherent picture of the wavepacket-reduction process is proposed which is formulated in the framework of a deterministic and realist interpretation where the concepts of knowledge or information and of point particles do not appear. It is shown how the picture accounts for the experiments on interaction-free and delayed-choice measurements and those on interference with partial absorption.

  17. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system calcium-based dry sorbent injection. Test report, April 30--November 2, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiomoto, G.H.; Smith, R.A.; Muzio, L.J. [Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States); Hunt, T. [Public Service Company of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The DOE sponsored Integrated Dry NO{sub x}SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System program, which is a Clean Coal Technology III demonstration, is being conducted by Public Service Company of Colorado. The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, which is a 100 MWe, down-fired utility boiler burning a low sulfur Western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70 percent reductions in NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NO{sub x} burners with overfire air; (2) Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NO{sub x} removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. The effectiveness of the integrated system on a high-sulfur coal will also be investigated. This report documents the fifth phase of the test program, where the performance of the dry sorbent injection of calcium was evaluated as an SO{sub 2} removal technique. Dry sorbent injection with humidification was performed downstream of the air heater (in-duct). Calcium injection before the economizer was also investigated. The in-duct calcium sorbent and humidification retrofit resulted in SO{sub 2} reductions of 28 to 40 percent, with a Ca/S of 2, and a 25 to 30{degrees}F approach to adiabatic saturation temperature. The results of the economizer calcium injection tests were disappointing with less than 10 percent SO{sub 2} removal at a Ca/S of 2. Poor sorbent distribution due to limited access into the injection cavity was partially responsible for the low overall removals. However, even in areas of high sorbent concentration (local Ca/S ratios of approximately 6), SO{sub 2} removals were limited to 30 percent. It is suspected that other factors (sorbent properties and limited residence times) also contributed to the poor performance.

  18. Small boiler uses waste coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virr, M.J.

    2009-07-15

    Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

  19. NOx Control for Utility Boiler OTR Compliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid Farzan; Jennifer L. Sivy

    2005-07-30

    Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group (B&W) and Fuel Tech, Inc. (Fuel Tech) teamed to evaluate an integrated solution for NO{sub x} control comprised of B&W's DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign}, a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology, capable of meeting a target emission limit of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu. In a previous project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), promising results were obtained with this technology from large-scale testing in B&W's 100-million Btu/hr Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) which simulates the conditions of large coal-fired utility boilers. Under the most challenging boiler temperatures at full load conditions, NO{sub x} emissions of 0.19 lb/10{sup 6} Btu were achieved firing Powder River Basin coal while controlling ammonia slip to less than 5 ppm. At a 40 million Btu/hr firing rate, NO{sub x} emissions were as low as 0.09 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. Improved performance with this system was proposed for this new program with injection at full load via a convective pass multiple nozzle lance (MNL) in front of the superheater tubes or in the convective tube bank. Convective pass lances represent the current state-of-the-art in SNCR and needed to be evaluated in order to assess the full potential of the combined technologies. The objective of the program was to achieve a NO{sub x} level below 0.15 lb/10{sup 6} Btu (with ammonia slip of less than 5 ppm) in the CEDF using PRB coal and B&W's DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner in combination with dual zone overfire air ports and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign} System. Commercial installations of B&W's low-NO{sub x} burner, in combination with overfire air ports using PRB coal, have demonstrated a NO{sub x} level of 0.15 to 0.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu under staged combustion conditions. The proposed goal of the combustion system (no SNCR) for this project is a NO{sub x} level at 0.15 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. The NO{sub x} reduction goal for SNCR is 25% from the low-NO{sub x} combustion emission levels. Therefore, overall NO{sub x} emissions would approach a level of 0.11 lb/10{sup 6} Btu in commercial installation. The goals of the program were met. At 100% load, using the MNL for very low baseline NO{sub x} (0.094 to 0.162 lb/10{sup 6} Btu depending on burner stoichiometry), an approximately 25% NO{sub x} reduction was achieved (0.071 to 0.124 lb/10{sup 6} Btu) while maintaining NH{sub 3} slip less than 6.4 ppm. At 60% load, using MNL or only wall-injectors for very low baseline NO{sub x} levels, more than 30% NO{sub x} reduction was achieved. Although site specific economic evaluation is required for each unit, our economic evaluation of DRB-4Z{reg_sign} burner and SNCR for a 500 MW{sub e} plant firing PRB shows that the least cost strategy is low-NO{sub x} burner and OFA at a cost of $210 to $525 per ton of NO{sub x} removed. Installation of SNCR allows the utilities to sell more NO{sub x} credit and it becomes economical when NO{sub x} credit cost is more than $5,275 per ton of NO{sub x}.

  20. Progress Update: Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Emission Reduction Specialists

  1. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodnow, W.H.; Payne, J.R.

    1982-09-14

    The invention is directed to cathode modules comprised of refractory hard metal materials, such as TiB[sub 2], for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the modules may be installed and replaced during operation of the cell and wherein the structure of the cathode modules is such that the refractory hard metal materials are not subjected to externally applied forces or rigid constraints. 9 figs.

  2. Forest Fuels ReductionForest Fuels Reduction Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolding, M. Chad

    are the soil management and watershed implications from alternative fuels reduction approaches? 3. How do are the productivity and cost rates for alternative choices of equipment for mechanical fuels reduction; what of mechanical fuel reduction alternatives? What are the economic differences related to stand type

  3. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, J.R.

    1983-09-20

    The invention is directed to an anode-cathode structure for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the structure is comprised of a carbon anode assembly which straddles a wedge-shaped refractory hard metal cathode assembly having steeply sloped cathodic surfaces, each cathodic surface being paired in essentially parallel planar relationship with an anode surface. The anode-cathode structure not only takes into account the structural weakness of refractory hard metal materials but also permits the changing of the RHM assembly during operation of the cell. Further, the anode-cathode structure enhances the removal of anode gas from the interpolar gap between the anode and cathode surfaces. 10 figs.

  4. Dose Reduction Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  5. 5, 755794, 2005 Reduction methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 755­794, 2005 Reduction methods for chemical schemes S. Szopa et al. Title Page Abstract Assessment of the reduction methods used to develop chemical schemes: building of a new chemical scheme for VOC oxidation suited to three-dimensional multiscale HOx-NOx-VOC chemistry simulations S. Szopa 1

  6. Environmental Sustainability Paper Usage / Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;carbon footprint and develop carbon reduction projects around IT and staff/student behaviour change is supported by the Environmental Sustainability Manager and is seen as a key link to the University's Carbon Management Programme (e.g. to produce a forecast of carbon reductions as required by the Carbon Trust

  7. DRAG REDUCTION WITH SUPERHYDROPHOBIC RIBLETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbier, Charlotte N [ORNL; D'Urso, Brian R [ORNL; Jenner, Elliot [University of Pittsburgh

    2012-01-01

    Samples combining riblets and superhydrophobic surfaces are fabricated at University of Pittsburgh and their drag reduction properties are studied at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) in Oak Ridge National Laboratory with a commercial cone-and-plate rheometer. In parallel to the experiments, numerical simulations are performed in order to estimate the slip length at high rotational speed. For each sample, a drag reduction of at least 5% is observed in both laminar and turbulent regime. At low rotational speed, drag reduction up to 30% is observed with a 1 mm deep grooved sample. As the rotational speed increases, a secondary flow develops causing a slight decrease in drag reductions. However, drag reduction above 15% is still observed for the large grooved samples. In the turbulent regime, the 100 microns grooved sample becomes more efficient than the other samples in drag reduction and manages to sustain a drag reduction above 15%. Using the simulations, the slip length of the 100 micron grooved sample is estimated to be slightly above 100 micron in the turbulent regime.

  8. Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylva, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction is a technical paper that addresses the operating and economic advantages associated with the program to lower the steam operating pressure. Evaluation of a testing program will be discussed. The paper...

  9. Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance of In-Use Diesel Retrofit Technologies from the National Clean Diesel Campaign Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction...

  10. Pollution Prevention - Environmental Impact Reduction Checklists...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pollution Prevention - Environmental Impact Reduction Checklists for NEPA309 Reviewers Pollution Prevention - Environmental Impact Reduction Checklists for NEPA309 Reviewers The...

  11. Plasma-assisted catalytic reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

    1998-01-27

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

  12. Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction Authors: Guo,...

  13. Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues This brief details industrial steam generation systems best practices and...

  14. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    as Reductants Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx...

  15. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based Fuels as Reductants...

  16. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffmann, Michael R. (Pasadena, CA); Arnold, Robert G. (Pasadena, CA); Stephanopoulos, Gregory (Pasadena, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry.

  17. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffmann, M.R.; Arnold, R.G.; Stephanopoulos, G.

    1989-11-14

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry. 11 figs.

  18. Uranium isotopes fingerprint biotic reduction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stylo, Malgorzata; Neubert, Nadja; Wang, Yuheng; Monga, Nikhil; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Weyer, Stefan; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2015-04-20

    Knowledge of paleo-redox conditions in the Earth’s history provides a window into events that shaped the evolution of life on our planet. The role of microbial activity in paleo-redox processes remains unexplored due to the inability to discriminate biotic from abiotic redox transformations in the rock record. The ability to deconvolute these two processes would provide a means to identify environmental niches in which microbial activity was prevalent at a specific time in paleo-history and to correlate specific biogeochemical events with the corresponding microbial metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that the isotopic signature associated with microbial reduction of hexavalent uranium (U),more »i.e., the accumulation of the heavy isotope in the U(IV) phase, is readily distinguishable from that generated by abiotic uranium reduction in laboratory experiments. Thus, isotope signatures preserved in the geologic record through the reductive precipitation of uranium may provide the sought-after tool to probe for biotic processes. Because uranium is a common element in the Earth’s crust and a wide variety of metabolic groups of microorganisms catalyze the biological reduction of U(VI), this tool is applicable to a multiplicity of geological epochs and terrestrial environments. The findings of this study indicate that biological activity contributed to the formation of many authigenic U deposits, including sandstone U deposits of various ages, as well as modern, Cretaceous, and Archean black shales. In addition, engineered bioremediation activities also exhibit a biotic signature, suggesting that, although multiple pathways may be involved in the reduction, direct enzymatic reduction contributes substantially to the immobilization of uranium.« less

  19. Emissions Reduction Impact of Renewables 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Yazdani, B.; Culp, C.

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory ? 2012 p. 25 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 NOx REDUCTIONS FROM WIND POWER New 2010 Annual eGrid for NOx Emissions West Zone North Zone Houston Zone South Zone Unit: lbs of NOx/MWh Unit: lbs of NOx/MWh Unit: lbs of NOx/MWh Unit: lbs... of NOx/MWh Unit: lbs of NOx/MWh p. 26 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 NOx REDUCTIONS FROM WIND POWER New 2010 OSD eGrid for NOx Emissions Unit: Tons of NOx/OSD p. 27 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 p. 28 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 p...

  20. 2008 world direct reduction statistics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This supplement discusses total direct reduced iron (DRI) production for 2007 and 2008 by process. Total 2008 production by MIDREX(reg sign) direct reduction process plants was over 39.8 million tons. The total of all coal-based processes was 17.6 million tons. Statistics for world DRI production are also given by region for 2007 and 2008 and by year (1970-2009). Capacity utilization for 2008 by process is given. World DRI production by region and by process is given for 1998-2008 and world DRI shipments are given from the 1970s to 2008. A list of world direct reduction plants is included.

  1. Water Use Reduction Case Studies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Facilities Water Use Reduction Water Use Reduction Case Studies Water Use Reduction Case Studies These case studies offer examples of water use reduction projects implemented...

  2. Carbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    accounting process; evaluate the cost-effectiveness of urban forestry programs with CO2 reduction measures carbon dioxide (CO2 ) reduction. The calculation of CO2 reduction that can be made with the use climate. With these Guidelines, they can: report current and future CO2 reductions through a standardized

  3. Algorithm FIRE -- Feynman Integral REduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Smirnov

    2008-08-02

    The recently developed algorithm FIRE performs the reduction of Feynman integrals to master integrals. It is based on a number of strategies, such as applying the Laporta algorithm, the s-bases algorithm, region-bases and integrating explicitly over loop momenta when possible. Currently it is being used in complicated three-loop calculations.

  4. Background reduction in cryogenic detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  5. tion Program on SIDS Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rau, Don C.

    Continu R ing Ed i u s ca k tion Program on SIDS Reduction CURRICULUM FOR NURSES U.S. DEPARTMENT of Pediatrics, First Candle/SIDS Alliance, and the Association of SIDS and Infant Mortality Programs. FIRST and is conducting live training sessions for this program at nursing conferences across the country. The mission

  6. Reduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impactsand engineersAcquisition Office of

  7. EPA Source Reduction Assistance Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is accepting applications for the Source Reduction Assistance Grant Program to support pollution prevention/source reduction and/or resource conservation projects that reduce or eliminate pollution at the source.

  8. Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General;1 Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General Equilibrium Analysis Jennifer Morris* , Mort Webster* and John Reilly* Abstract The electric power sector, which

  9. Active skin for turbulent drag reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mani, Raghavendran

    2002-01-01

    capitalizes on recent advances in active turbulent drag reduction and active material based actuation to develop an active or "smart" skin for turbulent drag reduction in realistic flight conditions. The skin operation principle is based on computational...

  10. SALARY REDUCTION AGREEMENT ______ Original Agreement ______ Amended Agreement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    SALARY REDUCTION AGREEMENT ______ Original Agreement ______ Amended Agreement By this agreement that it will not apply to salary subsequently earned by giving at least thirty days written notice of the date(ies), by completing an amended Salary Reduction Agreement. The total of the salary reduction

  11. A Comparison Between Model Reduction and Controller Reduction: Application to a PWR Nuclear Planty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gevers, Michel

    A Comparison Between Model Reduction and Controller Reduction: Application to a PWR Nuclear Planty model reduction with controller reduction for the same PWR system. We show that closed-loop techniques to the design of a low-order con- troller for a realistic model of order 42 of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR

  12. Which Idling Reduction Technologeis are the Best? | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Idling Reduction Technologeis are the Best? Which Idling Reduction Technologeis are the Best? Benefits due to idling reduction depend on fuel and capital cost of equipment, idling...

  13. Engine Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings Engine Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings Opportunities exist for friction reduction in piston rings and...

  14. SCR Technologies for NOx Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies for NOx Reduction SCR Technologies for NOx Reduction 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005deerhesser.pdf More...

  15. Dimensional Reduction in Quantum Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. 't Hooft

    2009-03-20

    The requirement that physical phenomena associated with gravitational collapse should be duly reconciled with the postulates of quantum mechanics implies that at a Planckian scale our world is not 3+1 dimensional. Rather, the observable degrees of freedom can best be described as if they were Boolean variables defined on a two-dimensional lattice, evolving with time. This observation, deduced from not much more than unitarity, entropy and counting arguments, implies severe restrictions on possible models of quantum gravity. Using cellular automata as an example it is argued that this dimensional reduction implies more constraints than the freedom we have in constructing models. This is the main reason why so-far no completely consistent mathematical models of quantum black holes have been found. Essay dedicated to Abdus Salam.

  16. Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Anderson, Diana

    2013-04-19

    Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas ? one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

  17. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-01-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  18. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2004-10-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  19. Continuous reduction of uranium tetrafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeMint, A.L.; Maxey, A.W.

    1993-10-21

    Operation of a pilot-scale system for continuous metallothermic reduction of uranium tetrafluoride (UF{sub 4} or green salt) has been initiated. This activity is in support of the development of a cost- effective process to produce uranium-iron (U-Fe) alloy feed for the Uranium-Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) program. To date, five runs have been made to reduce green salt (UF{sub 4}) with magnesium. During this quarter, three runs were made to perfect the feeding system, examine feed rates, and determine the need for a crust breaker/stirrer. No material was drawn off in any of the runs; both product metal and by-product salt were allowed to accumulate in the reactor.

  20. REDUCTION CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE AND SALTSTONE COMPONENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.

    2009-11-30

    The duration that saltstone retains its ability to immobilize some key radionuclides, such as technetium (Tc), plutonium (Pu), and neptunium (Np), depends on its capacity to maintain a low redox status (or low oxidation state). The reduction capacity is a measure of the mass of reductants present in the saltstone; the reductants are the active ingredients that immobilize Tc, Pu, and Np. Once reductants are exhausted, the saltstone loses its ability to immobilize these radionuclides. The reduction capacity values reported here are based on the Ce(IV)/Fe(II) system. The Portland cement (198 {micro}eq/g) and especially the fly ash (299 {micro}eq/g) had a measurable amount of reduction capacity, but the blast furnace slag (820 {micro}eq/g) not surprisingly accounted for most of the reduction capacity. The blast furnace slag contains ferrous iron and sulfides which are strong reducing and precipitating species for a large number of solids. Three saltstone samples containing 45% slag or one sample containing 90% slag had essentially the same reduction capacity as pure slag. There appears to be some critical concentration between 10% and 45% slag in the Saltstone formulation that is needed to create the maximum reduction capacity. Values from this work supported those previously reported, namely that the reduction capacity of SRS saltstone is about 820 {micro}eq/g; this value is recommended for estimating the longevity that the Saltstone Disposal Facility will retain its ability to immobilize radionuclides.

  1. NOx reduction in gas turbine combustors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Nak Won

    1976-01-01

    NOx REDUCTION IN GAS TURBINE COMBUSTORS A Thesis by Nak Won Sung Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fullfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Mechanical... Engineering NOx REDUCTION IN GAS TURBINE COMBUSTORS A Thesis by Nak Won Sung Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committe (Head of Department) (Member) August 1976 "40308 (Member) 1 1. 1 ABSTRACT NOx Reduction in Gas Turbine...

  2. A Power Reduction Technique Through Dynamic Runtime Algorithm For CMOS VLSI Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kadry, Syed Md. Jaffrey Al-

    2012-01-01

    Standby power reductionPower Reduction in 32 bit FullAdder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power Reduction

  3. Metal Artifact Reduction in Computed Tomography /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karimi, Seemeen

    2014-01-01

    Monoenergetic imaging of dual-energy CT reduces artifactsartifact reduction by dual energy computed tomography usingimage re- construction for dual energy X-ray transmission

  4. Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report Storage - Challenges and Opportunities Hydro-Pac Inc., A High Pressure Company...

  5. Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Operations Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF) Waste Characterization Glovebox Operations This document was used to determine facts and conditions...

  6. Dimension Reduction of Chemical Process Simulation Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truemper, Klaus

    transportation systems and the majority of electric power plants rely directly or indirectly on the combustion: dimension reduction, subgroup discovery, lazy learner, modeling combustion 1 Introduction Virtually all

  7. National Idling Reduction Network News - December 2009

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ssprogramssblilp.htm Environmental Finance Center, University of Maryland Port of Baltimore Clean Diesel Program (including Locomotive Engine Idle Reduction Grant Sub- Program)...

  8. National Idling Reduction Network News - January 2010

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ogramssblilp.htm Environmental Finance Center, University of Maryland Port of Baltimore Clean Diesel Program (including Locomotive Engine Idle Reduction Grant Sub- Program)...

  9. National Idling Reduction Network News - November 2009

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    essprogramssblilp.htm Environmental Finance Center, University of Maryland Port of Baltimore Clean Diesel Program (including Locomotive Engine Idle Reduction Grant Sub-Program)...

  10. Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Operations, EP-WCRR-WO-DOP-0233 Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF) Waste Characterization Glovebox Operations, EP-WCRR-WO-DOP-0233 The documents...

  11. National Idling Reduction Network News - April 2011

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    go to http:www.transportation.anl.govenginesidlingtools.html. The idling reduction Web pages of DOE's Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center website have also...

  12. National Idling Reduction Network News - June 2011

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3, 2011 http:www07.grants.govsearchsearch.do? &modeVIEW&oppId101073 San Diego Air Pollution Control District (California) Goods Movement Emission Reduction Program:...

  13. National Idling Reduction Network News - July 2011

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3, 2011 http:www07.grants.govsearchsearch.do ?&modeVIEW&oppId101073 San Diego Air Pollution Control District (California) Goods Movement Emission Reduction Program:...

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office: National Idling Reduction Network...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Past Newsletters The National Idling Reduction Network News is currently sent as an HTML newsletter and issues starting with the May 2014 newsletter can be searched via the...

  15. Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and References report. The documents were examined and used to develop the final report. Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF)Technical...

  16. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-04-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) and provided information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 2 efforts also included preparation of a draft topical report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region'', which is nearing completion. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The video will be completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in the next quarter. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. The addition of the Canadian province of Alberta to the PCOR Partnership region expanded the decision support system (DSS) geographic information system database. Task 5 screened and qualitatively assessed sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  17. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Lisa S. Botnen

    2005-07-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership characterization work is nearing completion, and most remaining efforts are related to finalizing work products. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) has developed a Topical Report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region''. Task 3 (Public Outreach) has developed an informational Public Television program entitled ''Nature in the Balance'', about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The program was completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in this quarter. Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) efforts are nearing completion, and data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation are being incorporated into a series of topical reports. The expansion of the Decision Support System Geographic Information System database has continued with the development of a ''save bookmark'' feature that allows users to save a map from the system easily. A feature that allows users to develop a report that summarizes CO{sub 2} sequestration parameters was also developed. Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options and developing economic estimates for important regional CO{sub 2} sequestration strategies.

  18. NOx reduction methods and apparatuses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkyn, Russell G.; Barlow, Stephan E.; Balmer, M. Lou; Maupin, Gary D.

    2004-10-26

    A NO.sub.x reduction method includes treating a first gas containing NO.sub.x, producing a second gas containing NO.sub.2, reducing a portion of the NO.sub.2 in the second gas to N.sub.2, and producing a third gas containing less NO.sub.x than the first gas, substantially all of the third gas NO.sub.x being NO. The method also includes treating the third gas, producing a fourth gas containing NO.sub.2, reducing a portion of the NO.sub.2 in the fourth gas to N.sub.2, and producing a fifth gas containing less NO.sub.x than the third gas, substantially all of the fifth gas NO.sub.x being NO. Treating the first and/or third gas can include treatment with a plasma. Reducing a portion of the NO.sub.2 in the second and/or fourth gas can include reducing with a catalyst. The method can further include controlling energy consumption of the plasmas independent of each other.

  19. Blackbox Stencil Interpolation Method For Model Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peraire, Jaime

    Reservoir Simulation Computational intensive Large geological uncertainty Legacy or commercial code-space-parameter principal component analysis [8] K. Willcox et al., Balanced model reduction via the proper orthogonalBlackbox Stencil Interpolation Method For Model Reduction Han Chen Advisors: Qiqi Wang, Karen

  20. Coarse graining and control theory model reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Jean

    Coarse graining and control theory model reduction David E. Reynolds 1 ABSTRACT: We explain a method, inspired by control the- ory model reduction and interpolation theory, that rigorously applicable to nonequilibrium systems. KEY WORDS: coarse graining; control theory; model reduc- tion; Hankel

  1. Coarse graining and control theory model reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Jean

    Coarse graining and control theory model reduction David E. Reynolds 1 ABSTRACT: We explain a method, inspired by control the­ ory model reduction and interpolation theory, that rigorously applicable to nonequilibrium systems. KEY WORDS: coarse graining; control theory; model reduc­ tion; Hankel

  2. NOx Aftertreatment Using Ethanol as Reductant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The hydrocarbon-SCR that was developed using ethanol and E85 as the reductant showed high NOx reduction, no need for thawing, use of existing infrastructure, and reduced system cost making it a viable alternative to urea-based SCR

  3. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-09

    This is the first of three papers (in addition to an introductory summary) aimed at providing a framework for evaluating future reductions or modifications of the U.S. nuclear force, first by considering previous instances in which nuclear-force capabilities were eliminated; second by looking forward into at least the foreseeable future at the features of global and regional deterrence (recognizing that new weapon systems currently projected will have expected lifetimes stretching beyond our ability to predict the future); and third by providing examples of past or possible undesirable outcomes in the shaping of the future nuclear force, as well as some closing thoughts for the future. This paper examines the circumstances and consequences of the elimination of ? The INF-range Pershing II ballistic missile and Gryphon Ground-Launched Cruise Missile (GLCM), deployed by NATO under a dual-track strategy to counter Soviet intermediate-range missiles while pursuing negotiations to limit or eliminate all of these missiles. ? The Short-Range Attack Missile (SRAM), which was actually a family of missiles including SRAM A, SRAM B (never deployed), and SRAM II and SRAM T, these last two cancelled during an over-budget/behind-schedule development phase as part of the Presidential Nuclear Initiatives of 1991 and 1992. ? The nuclear-armed version of the Tomahawk Land-Attack Cruise Missile (TLAM/N), first limited to shore-based storage by the PNIs, and finally eliminated in deliberations surrounding the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review Report. ? The Missile-X (MX), or Peacekeeper, a heavy MIRVed ICBM, deployed in fixed silos, rather than in an originally proposed mobile mode. Peacekeeper was likely intended as a bargaining chip to facilitate elimination of Russian heavy missiles. The plan failed when START II did not enter into force, and the missiles were eliminated at the end of their intended service life. ? The Small ICBM (SICBM), or Midgetman, a road-mobile, single-warhead missile for which per-unit costs were climbing when it was eliminated under the PNIs. Although there were liabilities associated with each of these systems, there were also unique capabilities; this paper lays out the pros and cons for each. Further, we articulate the capabilities that were eliminated with these systems.

  4. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael D. Durham

    2004-10-01

    PG&E NEG Salem Harbor Station Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of mercury control at Salem Harbor Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has very high native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included plant and PG&E headquarters personnel, EPRI and several of its member companies, DOE, ADA, Norit Americas, Inc., Hamon Research-Cottrell, Apogee Scientific, TRC Environmental Corporation, Reaction Engineering, as well as other laboratories. The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall the objectives of this field test program were to determine the mercury control and balance-of-plant impacts resulting from activated carbon injection into a full-scale ESP on Salem Harbor Unit 1, a low sulfur bituminous-coal-fired 86 MW unit. It was also important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury removal (>85%). One half of the gas stream was used for these tests, or 43 MWe. Activated carbon, DARCO FGD supplied by NORIT Americas, was injected upstream of the cold side ESP, just downstream of the air preheater. This allowed for approximately 1.5 seconds residence time in the duct before entering the ESP. Conditions tested in this field evaluation included the impacts of the Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) system on mercury capture, of unburned carbon in the fly ash, of adjusting ESP inlet flue gas temperatures, and of boiler load on mercury control. The field evaluation conducted at Salem Harbor looked at several sorbent injection concentrations at several flue gas temperatures. It was noted that at the mid temperature range of 322-327 F, the LOI (unburned carbon) lost some of its ability to capture vapor phase Hg, however activated carbon performed relatively well. At the normal operating temperatures of 298-306 F, mercury emissions from the ESP were so low that both particulate and elemental mercury were ''not detected'' at the detection limits of the Ontario Hydro method for both baseline and injection tests. The oxidized mercury however, was 95% lower at a sorbent injection concentration of 10 lbs/MMacf compared with baseline emissions. When the flue gas temperatures were increased to a range of 343-347 F, mercury removal efficiencies were limited to <25%, even at the same sorbent injection concentration. Other tests examined the impacts of fly ash LOI, operation of the SNCR system, and flue gas temperature on the native mercury capture without sorbent injection. Listed below are the main conclusions from this program: (1) SNCR on/off test showed no beneficial effect on mercury removal caused by the SNCR system. (2) At standard operating temperatures ({approx} 300 F), reducing LOI from 30-35% to 15-20% had minimal impact on Hg removal. (3) Increasing flue gas temperatures reduced Hg removal regardless of LOI concentrations at Salem Harbor (minimum LOI was 15%). Native mercury removal started to fall off at temperatures above 320 F. ACI effectiveness for mercury removal fell off at temperatures above 340 F. (4) Test method detection limits play an important role at Salem Harbor due to the low residual emissions. Examining the proposed MA rule, both the removal efficiency and the emission concentrations will be difficult to demonstrate on an ongoing basis. (5) Under tested conditions the baseline emissions met the proposed removal efficiency for 2006, but not the proposed emission concentration. ACI can meet the more-stringent 2012 emission limits, as long as measurement detection limits are lower than the Ontario Hydro method. SCEM testing was able to verify the low emissions. For ACI to perform at this level, process conditions need to match those obtained during testing.

  5. Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.Y. Sohn

    2008-03-31

    The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

  6. Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

  7. Beta Reduction Constraints Manuel Bodirsky Katrin Erk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Beta Reduction Constraints Manuel Bodirsky Katrin Erk Alexander Koller Joachim Niehren Programming Systems Lab Dept. of Computational Linguistics Universit¨at des Saarlandes, Saarbr¨ucken, Germany www.ps.uni-sb.de/~{bodirsky,erk

  8. Energy Efficiency Interest Rate Reduction Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For new and existing home purchases that are rated 6 Star or 5 Star Plus, applicants are eligible for an interest rate reduction for the first $200,000 of the loan amount, with a blended interest...

  9. Sharing the Burden of GHG Reductions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacoby, Henry D.

    The G8 countries propose a goal of a 50% reduction in global emissions by 2050, in an effort that needs to take account of other agreements specifying that developing countries are to be provided with incentives to action ...

  10. Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On September 1, 2011, DOE announced $42.4 million in funding over three years for the Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction (BOS-X) funding opportunity. Part of the SunShot Systems...

  11. National Idling Reduction Network News - April 2013

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EBINAR&utmcampaignCH+Robinson+follo wup+2&utmmediumemail DieselProgress Nickel Supercapacitors as Part of an Idle-Reduction Strategy http:www.dpna- digital.comdpna...

  12. Reduction of metal oxides through mechanochemical processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Froes, Francis H. (Moscow, ID); Eranezhuth, Baburaj G. (Moscow, ID); Senkov, Oleg N. (Moscow, ID)

    2000-01-01

    The low temperature reduction of a metal oxide using mechanochemical processing techniques. The reduction reactions are induced mechanically by milling the reactants. In one embodiment of the invention, titanium oxide TiO.sub.2 is milled with CaH.sub.2 to produce TiH.sub.2. Low temperature heat treating, in the range of 400.degree. C. to 700.degree. C., can be used to remove the hydrogen in the titanium hydride.

  13. An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System New Diesel Emissions...

  14. Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and the Development of a Representative Model Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and the...

  15. Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Ford Motor Company...

  16. Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted catalysis: Catalyst development and mechanistic studies Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments...

  17. Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine 2003 DEER Converence...

  18. Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

  19. Plasma Assisted Catalysis System for NOx Reduction | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plasma Assisted Catalysis System for NOx Reduction Plasma Assisted Catalysis System for NOx Reduction 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Noxtech, Inc. 2002deerslone.pdf More...

  20. Unique Catalyst System for NOx Reduction in Diesel Exhaust |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalyst System for NOx Reduction in Diesel Exhaust Unique Catalyst System for NOx Reduction in Diesel Exhaust Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions...

  1. Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction...

  2. Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic Deforestation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Methodology for Estimating Reductions of...

  3. Idling Emissions Reduction Technology with Low Temperature Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Idling Emissions Reduction Technology with Low Temperature Combustion of DI Biodiesel and PFI n-Butanol Idling Emissions Reduction Technology with Low Temperature Combustion of DI...

  4. National Idling Reduction Network News - April 2011 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events. apr11networknews.pdf More...

  5. National Idling Reduction Network News - April 2010 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events. apr10networknews.pdf More...

  6. National Idling Reduction Network News - October 2009 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events. oct09networknews.pdf More...

  7. National Idling Reduction Network News - December 2009 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events. dec09networknews.pdf More...

  8. Catalytic reduction system for oxygen-rich exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

    1999-04-13

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

  9. Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries by Applying CHP Technologies, June 1999 Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US...

  10. Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Emission Credit Brokers 2002deersloan.pdf More Documents...

  11. Fuel economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over transient driving cycles and interstate roads Fuel economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over transient driving...

  12. Effects of dissimilatory sulfate reduction on iron (hydr)oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effects of dissimilatory sulfate reduction on iron (hydr)oxide reduction and microbial community development May 14, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint Aquatic and terrestrial environments are...

  13. 2014 Annual Planning Summary for the NNSA Global Threat Reduction...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Global Threat Reduction Initiative Office 2014 Annual Planning Summary for the NNSA Global Threat Reduction Initiative Office The ongoing and projected Environmental Assessments...

  14. An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine Simplification of Diesel Emission Control System Packaging...

  15. CRADA with Cummins on Characterization and Reduction of Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cummins on Characterization and Reduction of Combustion Variations CRADA with Cummins on Characterization and Reduction of Combustion Variations 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  16. 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report...

  17. Demonstrated Petroleum Reduction Using Oil Bypass Filter Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstrated Petroleum Reduction Using Oil Bypass Filter Technology on Heavy and Light Vehicles Demonstrated Petroleum Reduction Using Oil Bypass Filter Technology on Heavy and...

  18. MOLECULAR MECHANISM OF MICROBIAL TECHNETIUM REDUCTION FINAL REPORT...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    TECHNETIUM REDUCTION FINAL REPORT Microbial Tc(VII) reduction is an attractive alternative strategy for bioremediation of technetium-contaminated subsurface environments....

  19. Selective Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems Optimization Selective Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems Optimization A patented EGR-SCR approach was shown...

  20. EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Battery Status and Cost Reduction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Status and Cost Reduction Prospects EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Battery Status and Cost Reduction Prospects Presentation given by technology manager David Howell at the EV...

  1. Drag reduction in coal log pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marrero, T.R.; Liu, H.

    1996-12-31

    It is well-known that solutions of dissolved long-chain macromolecules produce lower friction or drag losses than with the solvent alone. In coal log pipeline (CLP), water is the conveying medium. Synthetic polymers such as poly(ethylene oxide) have been dissolved in water and tested for their extent of drag reduction as a function of concentration and other variables. Lab-scale experimental results for CLP indicate substantial drag reduction at low concentration levels of polymer. But, the macromolecules exhibit degradation under mechanical shear stresses. The large molecules break into smaller units. This degradation effect causes a loss of drag reduction. However, high levels of drag reduction can be maintained as follows: (1) by injecting polymer into the CLP at several locations along the pipeline, (2) by injecting polymer of different particle sizes, (3) by using more robust types of polymers, or (4) by using polymer-fiber mixtures. This report presents the value of drag-reducing agents in terms of pumping power net cost savings. In addition, this report outlines the environmental impact of drag reduction polymers, and end-of-pipeline water treatment processes. For an operating CLP, hundreds of miles in length, the use of poly(ethylene oxide) as a drag reducing agent provides significant pumping power cost savings at a minimal materials cost.

  2. Porosity reduction in Monterey Formation, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compton, J.S.

    1987-05-01

    Porosity and grain density were determined for different lithologies from throughout a 1.2-km thick section of the Monterey and Sisquoc formations in the Santa Maria basin area, California. Porosity reduction by physical and chemical compaction in the predominantly siliceous sediment is controlled largely by the bulk sediment composition and silica phase transformations. Physical compaction of sediment grains from increasing overburden pressure is responsible for most of the gradual porosity reduction with increasing burial depth in opal-A siliceous ooze and diatomite. The porous, incompressible diatom frustule maintains a high porosity relative to clayey and calcareous sediment. Therefore, a positive correlation exists between porosity and biogenic silica (diatom) content of the sediment. During the opal-A to opal-CT silica phase transformation, solution of the porous diatom frustule and precipitation of cryptocrystalline opal-CT results in a porosity reduction that roughly correlates with the biogenic silica content of the sediment. Local porosity reduction occurs in pore-filling dolomite and chert nodules. Dry bulk density as well as porosity reduction tend to increase with sediment depth. Dolomite and organic matter have the most significant influence on the bulk density because of their respective high and low density. The maximum burial depth of the uplifted and eroded section is estimated by overlapping the porosity-depth relation of average deep-sea siliceous ooze.

  3. Direct electrochemical reduction of metal-oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I. (Downers Grove, IL); Gourishankar, Karthick (Downers Grove, IL)

    2003-01-01

    A method of controlling the direct electrolytic reduction of a metal oxide or mixtures of metal oxides to the corresponding metal or metals. A non-consumable anode and a cathode and a salt electrolyte with a first reference electrode near the non-consumable anode and a second reference electrode near the cathode are used. Oxygen gas is produced and removed from the cell. The anode potential is compared to the first reference electrode to prevent anode dissolution and gas evolution other than oxygen, and the cathode potential is compared to the second reference electrode to prevent production of reductant metal from ions in the electrolyte.

  4. Perspectives Regarding Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction in the Northeast

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Presentation: North East States for Coordinated Air Use Management

  5. "Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity and Poverty Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of plant, animal and micro-organism communities and the nonliving environment interacting as a functional and the nonliving environment interacting as a functional unit." "Ecosystem services are the benefits people capture for the foreseeable future. #12;John Beddington's "Perfect Storm" Population Increase Poverty Reduction Food Security

  6. Cost reduction ideas for LNG terminals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habibullah, A.; Weldin, F.

    1999-07-01

    LNG projects are highly capital intensive and this has long been regarded as being inevitable. However, recent developments are forcing the LNG industry to aggressively seek cost reductions. For example, the gas-to-liquids (GTL) process is increasingly seen as a potential rival technology and is often being touted as an economically superior alternative fuel source. Another strong driving force behind needed cost reductions is the low crude oil price which seems to have settled in the $10--13/bb. range. LNG is well positioned as the fuel of choice for environmentally friendly new power projects. As a result of the projected demand for power especially in the Pacific Rim countries several LNG terminal projects are under consideration. Such projects will require a new generation of LNG terminal designs emphasizing low cost, small scale and safe and fully integrated designs from LNG supply to power generation. The integration of the LNG terminal with the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant offers substantial cost savings opportunities for both plants. Various cost reduction strategies and their impact on the terminal design are discussed including cost reduction due to integration.

  7. Can fermions save large N dimensional reduction?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulo F. Bedaque; Michael I. Buchoff; Aleksey Cherman; Roxanne P. Springer

    2009-08-21

    This paper explores whether Eguchi-Kawai reduction for gauge theories with adjoint fermions is valid. The Eguchi-Kawai reduction relates gauge theories in different numbers of dimensions in the large $N$ limit provided that certain conditions are met. In principle, this relation opens up the possibility of learning about the dynamics of 4D gauge theories through techniques only available in lower dimensions. Dimensional reduction can be understood as a special case of large $N$ equivalence between theories related by an orbifold projection. In this work, we focus on the simplest case of dimensional reduction, relating a 4D gauge theory to a 3D gauge theory via an orbifold projection. A necessary condition for the large N equivalence between the 4D and 3D theories to hold is that certain discrete symmetries in the two theories must not be broken spontaneously. In pure 4D Yang-Mills theory, these symmetries break spontaneously as the size of one of the spacetime dimensions shrinks. An analysis of the effect of adjoint fermions on the relevant symmetries of the 4D theory shows that the fermions help stabilize the symmetries. We consider the same problem from the point of view of the lower dimensional 3D theory and find that, surprisingly, adjoint fermions are not generally enough to stabilize the necessary symmetries of the 3D theory. In fact, a rich phase diagram arises, with a complicated pattern of symmetry breaking. We discuss the possible causes and consequences of this finding.

  8. Harm reduction: lessons learned from tobacco control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , such as the psychoactive effects of the sub- stance. How do harm reduction efforts fare when exposed to the harsh realities, it is possible (often unconsciously) to modify subsequent smoking behaviour to titrate the amount of nicotine be modified, both consciously and unconsciously, to achieve this. Therefore, offer- ing lower strength drugs

  9. Water Reduction Methods for Strawberry Irrigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    Water Reduction Methods for Strawberry Irrigation Thomas Moore Raya Nedelcheva Joseph Vu Tony Mai #12;Abstract We took a look at the irrigation methods of strawberry farmers in the Pajaro Valley and ways that they could reduce the amount of water that it takes to produce their strawberries. In many

  10. Ozone Reductions using Residential Building Envelopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, of the U.S. Department of Energy Residential Building Envelopes Prepared For: California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy ResearchOzone Reductions using Residential Building Envelopes I.S. Walker, M.H. Sherman and W.W. Nazaroff

  11. University of Alberta MULTISPECTRAL REDUCTION OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowman,John C.

    University of Alberta MULTISPECTRAL REDUCTION OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL TURBULENCE by Malcolm Roberts Sciences c Malcolm Roberts Fall 2011 Edmonton, Alberta Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private

  12. Timelike reduction and T-duality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scuro, Sante Rodolfo

    1999-01-01

    expressions for the Killing sailors in Anti-de Sitter spacetime of odd dimension with respect to the field reparametrization in the bosonic sector. In addition, we perform Kaluza-Klein reduction along the time direction of D = 10 type IIB theory to D = 9. Then...

  13. BARNARD COLLEGE SALARY REDUCTION AGREEMENT TWU & 2110

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BARNARD COLLEGE SALARY REDUCTION AGREEMENT ­ TWU & 2110 By THIS AGREEMENT made between of this Agreement), the employee's basic monthly salary will be reduced by the amount indicated below, allocated so that it will not apply to salary subsequently earned. Standard SRA Deduction for 2015: The Amount

  14. BARNARD COLLEGE SALARY REDUCTION AGREEMENT Faculty & Administrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BARNARD COLLEGE SALARY REDUCTION AGREEMENT ­ Faculty & Administrators By THIS AGREEMENT made is subsequent to the execution of this Agreement), the employee's basic monthly salary will be reduced party may terminate this Agreement as of the end of the month so that it will not apply to salary

  15. Generalized Elitzur's Theorem and Dimensional Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cristian D. Batista; Zohar Nussinov

    2005-03-10

    We extend Elitzur's theorem to systems with symmetries intermediate between global and local. In general, our theorem formalizes the idea of {\\it dimensional reduction}. We apply the results of this generalization to many systems that are of current interest. These include liquid crystalline phases of Quantum Hall systems, orbital systems, geometrically frustrated spin lattices, Bose metals, and models of superconducting arrays.

  16. Waste reduction through consumer education. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, E.Z.

    1996-05-01

    The Waste Reduction through Consumer Education research project was conducted to determine how environmental educational strategies influence purchasing behavior in the supermarket. The objectives were to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate consumer education strategies for waste reduction. The amount of waste generated by packaging size and form, with an adjustment for local recyclability of waste, was determined for 14 product categories identified as having more waste generating and less waste generating product choices (a total of 484 products). Using supermarket scan data and shopper identification numbers, the research tracked the purchases of shoppers in groups receiving different education treatments for 9 months. Statistical tests applied to the purchase data assessed patterns of change between the groups by treatment period. Analysis of the data revealed few meaningful statistical differences between study groups or changes in behavior over time. Findings suggest that broad brush consumer education about waste reduction is not effective in changing purchasing behaviors in the short term. However, it may help create a general awareness of the issues surrounding excess packaging and consumer responsibility. The study concludes that the answer to waste reduction in the future may be a combination of voluntary initiatives by manufacturers and retailers, governmental intervention, and better-informed consumers.

  17. Reduction of Economic Inequality in Combinatorial Domains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koolen, Marijn

    for assessing the fairness of a mechanism is the level of economic equality it can ensure. If it producesReduction of Economic Inequality in Combinatorial Domains Ulle Endriss Institute for Logic economic inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini index, are widely used in the social sciences

  18. Plasma-assisted catalytic storage reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A two-stage method for NO.sub.x reduction in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust comprises a plasma oxidative stage and a storage reduction stage. The first stage employs a non-thermal plasma treatment of NO.sub.x gases in an oxygen-rich exhaust and is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons. The second stage employs a lean NO.sub.x trap to convert such NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage with a plasma, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber in which a non-thermal plasma converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons, such as propene. A flow of such hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from usually a second pipe into at least a portion of the first chamber. The NO.sub.2 from the plasma treatment proceeds to a storage reduction catalyst (lean NO.sub.x trap) that converts NO.sub.2 to N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a nitrate-forming catalytic site. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the lean-NO.sub.x trap catalyst. The method allows for enhanced NO.sub.x reduction in vehicular engine exhausts, particularly those having relatively high sulfur contents.

  19. Plasma-assisted catalytic storage reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A two-stage method for NO.sub.x reduction in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust comprises a plasma oxidative stage and a storage reduction stage. The first stage employs a non-thermal plasma treatment of NO.sub.x gases in an oxygen-rich exhaust and is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons. The second stage employs a lean NO.sub.x trap to convert such NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage with a plasma, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber in which a non-thermal plasma converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons, such as propene. A flow of such hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from usually a second pipe into at least a portion of the first chamber. The NO.sub.2 from the plasma treatment proceeds to a storage reduction catalyst (lean NO.sub.x trap) that converts NO.sub.2 to N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a nitrate-forming catalytic site. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the lean-NO.sub.x trap catalyst. The method allows for enhanced NO.sub.x reduction in vehicular engine exhausts, particularly those having relatively high sulfur contents.

  20. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Joseph Rabovitser; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-09-30

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to ready technology for full-scale commercial deployment to meet the market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies. Over half of the electric power generated in the U.S. is produced by coal combustion, and more than 80% of these units utilize PC combustion technology. Conventional measures for NOx reduction in PC combustion processes rely on combustion and post-combustion modifications. A variety of combustion-based NO{sub x} reduction technologies are in use today, including low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBs), flue gas recirculation (FGR), air staging, and natural gas or other fuel reburning. Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are post-combustion techniques. NO{sub x} reduction effectiveness from these technologies ranges from 30 to 60% and up to 90-93% for SCR. Typically, older wall-fired PC burner units produce NO{sub x} emissions in the range of 0.8-1.6 lb/million Btu. Low-NO{sub x} burner systems, using combinations of fuel staging within the burner and air staging by introduction of overfire air in the boiler, can reduce NO{sub x} emissions by 50-60%. This approach alone is not sufficient to meet the desired 0.15 lb/million Btu NO{sub x} standard with a range of coals and boiler loads. Furthermore, the heavy reliance on overfire air can lead to increased slagging and corrosion in furnaces, particularly with higher-sulfur coals, when LNBs are operated at sub-stoichiometric conditions to reduce fuel-derived NOx in the flame. Therefore, it is desirable to minimize the need for overfire air by maximizing NO{sub x} reduction in the burner. The proposed combustion concept aims to greatly reduce NO{sub x} emissions by incorporating a novel modification to conventional or low-NO{sub x} PC burners using gas-fired coal preheating to destroy NO{sub x} precursors and prevent NO{sub x} formation. A concentrated PC stream enters the burner, where flue gas from natural gas combustion is used to heat the PC up to about 1500 F prior to coal combustion. Secondary fuel consumption for preheating is estimated to be 3 to 5% of the boiler heat input. This thermal pretreatment releases coal volatiles, including fuel-bound nitrogen compounds into oxygen-deficient atmosphere, which converts the coal-derived nitrogen compounds to molecular N{sub 2} rather than NO. Design, installation, shakedown, and testing on Powder River Basin (PRB) coal at a 3-million Btu/h pilot system at RPI's (Riley Power, Inc.) pilot-scale combustion facility (PSCF) in Worcester, MA demonstrated that the PC PREHEAT process has a significant effect on final O{sub x} formation in the coal burner. Modifications to both the pilot system gas-fired combustor and the PC burner led to NO{sub x} reduction with PRB coal to levels below 0.15 lb/million Btu with CO in the range of 35-112 ppmv without any furnace air staging.

  1. Novel reactions of a neutral organic reductant : reductive coupling and nanoparticle synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mork, Anna Jolene

    2012-01-01

    A recently developed bis-pyridinylidene neutral organic electron donor captured our interest as a potential source of new chemistries for reductive coupling and the synthesis of group IV nanoparticles. This super electron ...

  2. NSIDC Data Center: Energy Reduction Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-05-01

    The Green Data Center Project was a successful effort to significantly reduce the energy use of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Through a full retrofit of a traditional air conditioning system, the cooling energy required to meet the data center’s constant load has been reduced by over 70% for summer months and over 90% for cooler winter months. This significant reduction is achievable through the use of airside economization and a new indirect evaporative cooling cycle. One of the goals of this project was to create awareness of simple and effective energy reduction strategies for data centers. Although this particular project was able to maximize the positive effects of airside economization and indirect evaporative cooling because of its geographic location, similar strategies may also be relevant for many other sites and data centers in the United States.

  3. Modelling Hydrogen Reduction and Hydrodeoxygenation of Oxygenates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Y.; Xu, Q.; Cheah, S.

    2013-01-01

    Based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations, we have studied the reduction of nickel oxide and biomass derived oxygenates (catechol, guaiacol, etc.) in hydrogen. Both the kinetic barrier and thermodynamic favorability are calculated with respect to the modeled reaction pathways. In early-stage reduction of the NiO(100) surface by hydrogen, the pull-off of the surface oxygen atom and simultaneous activation of the nearby Ni atoms coordinately dissociate the hydrogen molecules so that a water molecule can be formed, leaving an oxygen vacancy on the surface. In hydrogen reaction with oxygenates catalyzed by transition metals, hydrogenation of the aromatic carbon ring normally dominates. However, selective deoxygenation is of particular interest for practical application such as biofuel conversion. Our modeling shows that doping of the transition metal catalysts can change the orientation of oxygenates adsorbed on metal surfaces. The correlation between the selectivity of reaction and the orientation of adsorption are discussed.

  4. An investigation of urea decomposition and selective non-catalytic removal of nitric oxide with urea 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Yong Hun

    2004-09-30

    .1 Overview of the Experimental Setup ............................................... 30 4.2 Source of Simulated Exhaust Gas.................................................... 31 4.3 Mass Flow Controller...) ..................................................................... 91 72 Calibration setup of the mass flow controllers ........................................ 100 73 A steel tube wrapped by heating tape...................................................... 103 74 Temperatures in the heating tape, inside...

  5. Plant-Wide NOx Reduction Strategies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baukal, C.; Waibel, D.; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01

    flue gases into the flame is a proven technique for reducing NOx emissions (see Figure 6). There are two common ways to recirculate combustion exhaust products through a flame – flue gas recirculation (FGR) and internal flue gas recirculation... reduces NOx. Garg (1992) estimated NOx reductions of up to 50% using flue gas recirculation [7]. combustor burner fuel recirculated combustion products air ID fan to atmosphere Figure 7. Schematic of flue gas recirculation [8]. Internal flue gas...

  6. Bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tompkins, M.M.; Mintz, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    A bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies has been compiled to assist the Climate change Action Plan Task Force in their consideration of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from personal motor vehicles. The document contains a summary of the literature, including it major directions and implications; and annotated listing of 32 recent pertinent documents; and a listing of a larger group of related reports.

  7. Denksport: Oxidations, oxidations and reductions too

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -(+)-tartrate as a ligand Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation Shi epoxidation #12;HSO5 -O OO O O O O O O O O OH O O SO3 - + OH- - OH- O O O O O O O O SO3 - O O O O O O O SO4 2- R3R1 R2 R3R1 R2 O #12;Reductions O OH B Me H O 8 F OH

  8. Incomplete Dirac reduction of constrained Hamiltonian systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Chandre

    2014-12-16

    First-class constraints constitute a potential obstacle to the computation of a Poisson bracket in Dirac's theory of constrained Hamiltonian systems. Using the pseudoinverse instead of the inverse of the matrix defined by the Poisson brackets between the constraints, we show that a Dirac-Poisson bracket can be constructed, even if it corresponds to an incomplete reduction of the original Hamiltonian system. The uniqueness of Dirac brackets is discussed.

  9. MFV Reductions of MSSM Parameter Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. S. AbdusSalam; C. P. Burgess; F. Quevedo

    2015-02-09

    The 100+ free parameters of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) make it computationally difficult to compare systematically with data, motivating the study of specific parameter reductions such as the cMSSM and pMSSM. Here we instead study the reductions of parameter space implied by using minimal flavour violation (MFV) to organise the R-parity conserving MSSM, with a view towards systematically building in constraints on flavour-violating physics. Within this framework the space of parameters is reduced by expanding soft supersymmetry-breaking terms in powers of the Cabibbo angle, leading to a 24-, 30- or 42-parameter framework (which we call MSSM-24, MSSM-30, and MSSM-42 respectively), depending on the order kept in the expansion. We provide a Bayesian global fit to data of the MSSM-30 parameter set to show that this is manageable with current tools. We compare the MFV reductions to the 19-parameter pMSSM choice and show that the pMSSM is not contained as a subset. The MSSM-30 analysis favours a relatively lighter TeV-scale pseudoscalar Higgs boson and $\\tan \\beta \\sim 10$ with multi-TeV sparticles.

  10. Reduction of dimension for nonlinear dynamical systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heather A. Harrington; Robert A. Van Gorder

    2015-08-24

    We consider reduction of dimension for nonlinear dynamical systems. We demonstrate that in some cases, one can reduce a nonlinear system of equations into a single equation for one of the state variables, and this can be useful for computing the solution when using a variety of analytical approaches. In the case where this reduction is possible, we employ differential elimination to obtain the reduced system. While analytical, the approach is algorithmic, and is implemented in symbolic software such as {\\sc MAPLE} or {\\sc SageMath}. In other cases, the reduction cannot be performed strictly in terms of differential operators, and one obtains integro-differential operators, which may still be useful. In either case, one can use the reduced equation to both approximate solutions for the state variables and perform chaos diagnostics more efficiently than could be done for the original higher-dimensional system, as well as to construct Lyapunov functions which help in the large-time study of the state variables. A number of chaotic and hyperchaotic dynamical systems are used as examples in order to motivate the approach.

  11. Zevenhoven & Kilpinen NITROGEN 18.1.2004 4-35 4.11 Chemistry of nitrogen oxides at atmospheric fluidized bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    oxide by air staging, and reduction of nitric oxide with char. In circulating fluidized bed combustion reactions between gas and particles become important, e.g., reduction of nitric oxide with char, which or noncatalytic. For example, the reduction of nitric oxide with char #12;Zevenhoven & Kilpinen NITROGEN 18

  12. Practical issues on CFD use and some industry aspects on research with CFD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    of non-catalytic NOx reduction in FBC freeboard CFD project planning Fast pyrolysis model, 18.6.2010 2-catalytic NOx reduction in FBC freeboard target: Finding optimal locations for urea injection Injections temperature for NOx reduction is between blue and red areas. Courtesy Metso Power Oy #12;Geometry Fast

  13. Greenhouse Gas Reductions Under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

    2007-01-01

    CSEM WP 167 Greenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel94720-5180 www.ucei.org Greenhouse Gas Reductions under LowLCFS) seeks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by capping an

  14. Friction and Wear Reduction in Diesel Engine Valve Trains | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduction in Diesel Engine Valve Trains Friction and Wear Reduction in Diesel Engine Valve Trains Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review...

  15. Investigation on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction by SCR coated DPF Investigation on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction by SCR coated DPF Evaluation of CSI catalyst for NOx...

  16. Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost-Reduction Roadmap for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost- Reduction Roadmap for Residential and Small Commercial Solar Golden, CO 80401 303-275-3000 · www.nrel.gov Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost- Reduction Roadmap

  17. Optimal Deployment of Emissions Reduction Technologies for Construction Equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quadrifoglio, Luca

    Optimal Deployment of Emissions Reduction Technologies for Construction Equipment Muhammad Ehsanul The objective of this research was to develop a multiob- jective optimization model to deploy emissions reduction technologies for nonroad construction equipment to re- duce emissions in a cost

  18. Identify Petroleum Reduction Strategies for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As defined by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction strategies for Federal vehicles and equipment are based on the three driving principles of petroleum reduction: Reduce vehicle miles traveled Improve fuel efficiency Use alternative fuels.

  19. Does Dimensionality Reduction improve the Quality of Motion Interpolation? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bitzer, Sebastian; Klanke, Stefan; Vijayakumar, Sethu

    2009-01-01

    In recent years nonlinear dimensionality reduction has frequently been suggested for the modelling of high-dimensional motion data. While it is intuitively plausible to use dimensionality reduction to recover low ...

  20. Delaware Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Grant Program (Delaware)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Delaware Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Grant Program is funded by the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Fund, established by the Act to Amend Title 7 of the Delaware Code Relating to a...

  1. Economic evaluation of volume reduction for Defense transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C.M.

    1981-07-01

    This study evaluates the economics of volume reduction of retrievably stored and newly generated DOE transuranic waste by comparing the costs of reduction of the waste with the savings possible in transportation and disposal of the waste. The report develops a general approach to the comparison of TRU waste volume reduction costs and cost savings, establishes an initial set of cost data, and develops conclusions to support selecting technologies and facilities for the disposal of DOE transuranic waste. Section I outlines the analysis which considers seven types of volume reduction from incineration and compaction of combustibles to compaction, size reduction, shredding, melting, and decontamination of metals. The study considers the volume reduction of contact-handled newly generated, and retrievably stored DOE transuranic waste. Section II of this report describes the analytical approach, assumptions, and flow of waste material through sites. Section III presents the waste inventories, disposal, and transportation savings with volume reduction and the volume reduction techniques and savings.

  2. Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part III. Shrinkage of composite pellets during reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J. [Praxair Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Praxair Technological Center

    2008-12-15

    This article involves the evaluation of the volume change of iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets and its implications on reduction kinetics under conditions prevalent in a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) that were simulated in the laboratory. The pellets, in general, were found to shrink considerably during the reduction due to the loss of carbon and oxygen from the system, sintering of the iron-oxide, and formation of a molten slag phase at localized regions inside the pellets due to the presence of binder and coal/wood-charcoal ash at the reduction temperatures. One of the shortcomings of the RHF ironmaking process has been the inability to use multiple layers of composite pellets because of the impediment in heat transport to the lower layers of a multilayer bed. However, pellet shrinkage was found to have a strong effect on the reduction kinetics by virtue of enhancing the external heat transport to the lower layers. The volume change of the different kinds of composite pellets was studied as a function of reduction temperature and time. The estimation of the change in the amount of external heat transport with varying pellet sizes for a particular layer of a multilayer bed was obtained by conducting heat-transfer tests using inert low-carbon steel spheres. It was found that if the pellets of the top layer of the bed shrink by 30 pct, the external heat transfer to the second layer increases by nearly 6 times.

  3. Surface Organometallic-Catalyzed Oxidation and Reductions | The...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Organometallic-Catalyzed Oxidation and Reductions Surface-immobilized heterogeneous organometallic compounds have varying activity compared to homogeneous analogues -...

  4. Utah Clean Cities Transportation Sector Petroleum Reduction Technologi...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Utah Clean Cities Transportation Sector Petroleum Reduction Technologies Program Utah Clean Cities Transportation Sector Petroleum...

  5. Empirical Dynamical System Reduction I: Global Nonlinear Transformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miranda, Rick

    Empirical Dynamical System Reduction I: Global Nonlinear Transformations Michael Kirby and Rick (CNLKL) for the data reduction and semi­analytical remodeling of dynamical systems. The unconstrained­Lo`eve (CNLKL) 12 5. Reduction and Semi­analytic Remodeling of Dynamical Systems 17 6. Summary and Directions

  6. Termination and Reduction Checking for Higher-Order Logic Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pientka, Brigitte

    Termination and Reduction Checking for Higher-Order Logic Programs Brigitte Pientka Department, we present a syntax-directed termination and reduction checker for higher-order logic programs and output of well-moded predicates. These reduction con- straints are exploited during termination checking

  7. Termination and Reduction Checking for HigherOrder Logic Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pientka, Brigitte

    Termination and Reduction Checking for Higher­Order Logic Programs Brigitte Pientka Department, we present a syntax­directed termination and reduction checker for higher­order logic programs and output of well­moded predicates. These reduction con­ straints are exploited during termination checking

  8. Automatic Fracture Reduction Thomas Albrecht and Thomas Vetter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vetter, Thomas

    Automatic Fracture Reduction Thomas Albrecht and Thomas Vetter University of Basel Abstract. We segmented from CT scans. The result of this virtual fracture reduction is intended to be used an operation plan. We propose to achieve automatic fracture reduction by fitting the bone fragments

  9. Flagler County, Florida Hurricane and Storm Damage Reduction Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Flagler County, Florida Hurricane and Storm Damage Reduction Project 26 August 2014 ABSTRACT: The proposed Flagler County hurricane and storm damage reduction project is located on the northeast coast miles of shoreline to assess the feasibility of providing Federal Hurricane and Storm Damage Reduction

  10. Differential geometry, Palatini gravity and reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capriotti, S.

    2014-01-15

    The present article deals with a formulation of the so called (vacuum) Palatini gravity as a general variational principle. In order to accomplish this goal, some geometrical tools related to the geometry of the bundle of connections of the frame bundle LM are used. A generalization of Lagrange-Poincaré reduction scheme to these types of variational problems allows us to relate it with the Einstein-Hilbert variational problem. Relations with some other variational problems for gravity found in the literature are discussed.

  11. Selective catalyst reduction light-off strategy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-10-18

    An emissions control system includes a temperature determination module and an emissions control module. The temperature determination module determines a first temperature of a heater element of a diesel particulate filter (DPF) assembly in an exhaust system and determines a second temperature of a catalyst of the DPF assembly. The emissions control module selectively activates the heater element, selectively initiates a predefined combustion process in an engine based upon the first temperature, and selectively starts a reductant injection process based upon the second temperature.

  12. Electrical Cost Reduction Via Steam Turbine Cogeneration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewing, T. S.; Di Tullio, L. B.

    1991-01-01

    REDUCTION VIA STEAM TURBINE COGENERATION LYNN B. DI TULLIO, P.E. Project Engineer Ewing Power Systems, Inc. South Deerfield, Mass. ABSTRACT Steam turbine cogeneration is a well established technology which is widely used in industry. However... reducing valves with turbine generator sets in applications with flows as low as 4000 pounds of steam per hour. These systems produce electricity for $0.01 to $.02 per kWh (based on current costs of gas and oil); system cost is between $200 and $800 per...

  13. Carbothermic reduction with parallel heat sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Troup, Robert L. (Murrysville, PA); Stevenson, David T. (Washington Township, Washington County, PA)

    1984-12-04

    Disclosed are apparatus and method of carbothermic direct reduction for producing an aluminum alloy from a raw material mix including aluminum oxide, silicon oxide, and carbon wherein parallel heat sources are provided by a combustion heat source and by an electrical heat source at essentially the same position in the reactor, e.g., such as at the same horizontal level in the path of a gravity-fed moving bed in a vertical reactor. The present invention includes providing at least 79% of the heat energy required in the process by the electrical heat source.

  14. Steam Pressure Reduction, Opportunities, and Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, Jan [ORNL; Griffin, Mr. Bob [Enbridge Gas Distribution, Inc.; Wright, Anthony L [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Steam pressure reduction has the potential to reduce fuel consumption for a minimum capital investment. When the pressure at the boiler is reduced, fuel and steam are saved as a result of changes in the high-pressure side of the steam system from the boiler through the condensate return system. In the boiler plant, losses from combustion, boiler blowdown, radiation, and steam venting from condensate receivers would be reduced by reducing steam pressure. Similarly, in the steam distribution system, losses from radiation, flash steam vented from condensate receivers, and component and steam trap leakage would also be reduced. There are potential problems associated with steam pressure reduction, however. These may include increased boiler carryover, boiler water circulation problems in watertube boilers, increased steam velocity in piping, loss of power in steam turbines, and issues with pressure reducing valves. This paper is based a Steam Technical Brief sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Enbridge Gas Distribution, Inc. (5). An example illustrates the use of DOE BestPractices Steam System Assessment Tool to model changes in steam, fuel, electricity generation, and makeup water and to estimate resulting economic benefits.

  15. Turbulent drag reduction through oscillating discs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wise, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    The changes of a turbulent channel flow subjected to oscillations of wall flush-mounted rigid discs are studied by means of direct numerical simulations. The Reynolds number is $R_\\tau$=$180$, based on the friction velocity of the stationary-wall case and the half channel height. The primary effect of the wall forcing is the sustained reduction of wall-shear stress, which reaches a maximum of 20%. A parametric study on the disc diameter, maximum tip velocity, and oscillation period is presented, with the aim to identify the optimal parameters which guarantee maximum drag reduction and maximum net energy saving, computed by taking into account the power spent to actuate the discs. This may be positive and reaches 6%. The Rosenblat viscous pump flow is used to predict the power spent for disc motion in the turbulent channel flow and to estimate localized and transient regions over the disc surface subjected to the turbulent regenerative braking effect, for which the wall turbulence exerts work on the discs. The...

  16. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

  17. Predicting Reduction Rates of Energetic Nitroaromatic Compounds Using Calculated One-Electron Reduction Potentials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Salter-Blanc, Alexandra; Bylaska, Eric J.; Johnston, Hayley; Tratnyek, Paul G.

    2015-02-11

    The evaluation of new energetic nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) for use in green munitions formulations requires models that can predict their environmental fate. The susceptibility of energetic NACs to nitro reduction might be predicted from correlations between rate constants (k) for this reaction and one-electron reduction potentials (E1NAC) / 0.059 V, but the mechanistic implications of such correlations are inconsistent with evidence from other methods. To address this inconsistency, we have reevaluated existing kinetic data using a (non-linear) free-energy relationship (FER) based on the Marcus theory of outer-sphere electron transfer. For most reductants, the results are inconsistent with rate limitation bymore »an initial, outer-sphere electron transfer, suggesting that the strong correlation between k and E1NAC is justified only as an empirical model. This empirical correlation was used to calibrate a new quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) using previously reported values of k for non-energetic NAC reduction by Fe(II) porphyrin and newly reported values of E1NAC determined using density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p) level with the COSMO solvation model. The QSAR was then validated for energetic NACs using newly measured kinetic data for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN). The data show close agreement with the QSAR, supporting its applicability to energetic NACs.« less

  18. High-Throughput Program for the Discovery of NOx Reduction Catalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Throughput Program for the Discovery of NOx Reduction Catalysts High-Throughput Program for the Discovery of NOx Reduction Catalysts 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction...

  19. Methods for reduction of charging emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuecker, F.J.; Schulte, H. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    One of the most critical subjects in coking plants are charging emissions. The paper reviews the systems that have been used over the years to reduce charging emissions. The advantages and disadvantages are summarized for the following systems: Double collecting main with aspiration on both oven sides; Single collecting main with/without aspiration via standpipe, and extraction and cleaning of charging gas on charging car; Single collecting main with aspiration via standpipe and pretreatment of charging gas on the charging car as well as additional stationary exhaust and cleaning of charging gas; Single collecting main with aspiration via single standpipe; and Single collecting main with simultaneous aspiration via two standpipes and a U-tube connecting the oven chamber with the neighboring oven. The paper then briefly discusses prerequisites for reduction of charging emissions.

  20. Methods and systems for combustion dynamics reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto (Greer, SC); Varatharajan, Balachandar (Cincinnati, OH); Srinivasan, Shiva (Greer, SC); Lynch, John Joseph (Wilmington, NC); Yilmaz, Ertan (Albany, NY); Kim, Kwanwoo (Greer, SC); Lacy, Benjamin (Greer, SC); Crothers, Sarah (Greenville, SC); Singh, Kapil Kumar (Rexford, NY)

    2009-08-25

    Methods and systems for combustion dynamics reduction are provided. A combustion chamber may include a first premixer and a second premixer. Each premixer may include at least one fuel injector, at least one air inlet duct, and at least one vane pack for at least partially mixing the air from the air inlet duct or ducts and fuel from the fuel injector or injectors. Each vane pack may include a plurality of fuel orifices through which at least a portion of the fuel and at least a portion of the air may pass. The vane pack or packs of the first premixer may be positioned at a first axial position and the vane pack or packs of the second premixer may be positioned at a second axial position axially staggered with respect to the first axial position.

  1. The e-MERLIN Data Reduction Pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Argo, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Written in Python and utilising ParselTongue to interface with the Astronomical Image Processing System (AIPS), the e-MERLIN data reduction pipeline is intended to automate the procedures required in processing and calibrating radio astronomy data from the e-MERLIN correlator. Driven by a plain text file of input parameters, the pipeline is modular and can be run in stages by the user, depending on requirements. The software includes options to load raw data, average in time and/or frequency, flag known sources of interference, flag more comprehensively with SERPent, carry out some or all of the calibration procedures including self-calibration), and image in either normal or wide-field mode. It also optionally produces a number of useful diagnostic plots at various stages so that the quality of the data can be assessed. The software is available for download from the e-MERLIN website or via Github.

  2. How We Achieved a 41% Energy Reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maze, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    ~ ENERGY REDUCTION Malcom E. Maze Abbott Labo~ato~ies No~th Chicago, IL ABSTRACT Abbott Labo~ato~ies is a wo~ldwide company devoted to the discove~, development, manufactu~e and sale of a b~oad and dive~sified line of human health ca~e p...~ato~ies is a wo~ldwide health ca~e company with 1984 sales in excess of $3.1 billion. Abbott employs some 34,000 people in 28 domestic and 44 inte~ational locations. ou~ ene~gy conse~vation p~og~am was sta~ted in 1973 du~ing the A~ab oil emba...

  3. High reduction transaxle for electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalns, Ilmars

    1987-01-01

    A drivetrain (12) includes a transaxle assembly (16) for driving ground engaging wheels of a land vehicle powered by an AC motor. The transaxle includes a ratio change section having planetary gear sets (24, 26) and brake assemblies (28, 30). Sun gears (60, 62) of the gear sets are directly and continuously connected to an input drive shaft (38) driven by the motor. A first drive (78a) directly and continuously connects a planetary gear carrier (78) of gear sets (24) with a ring gear (68) of gear set (26). A second drive (80a) directly and continuously connects a planetary gear carrier (80) of gear set (26) with a sun gear (64) of a final speed reduction gear set (34) having a planetary gear carrier directly and continuously connected to a differential (22). Brakes (28, 30) are selectively engageable to respectively ground a ring gear 66 of gear set 24 and ring gear 68 of gear set 26.

  4. Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahrens, James P; Fout, Nathaniel; Ma, Kwan - Liu

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the advantage of offering smooth animations, while spatial compression can handle volumes of larger dimensions.

  5. Fermentation and Hydrogen Metabolism Affect Uranium Reduction by Clostridia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Weimin; Francis, Arokiasamy J.

    2013-01-01

    Previously, it has been shown that not only is uranium reduction under fermentation condition common among clostridia species, but also the strains differed in the extent of their capability and the pH of the culture significantly affected uranium(VI) reduction. In this study, using HPLC and GC techniques, metabolic properties of those clostridial strains active in uranium reduction under fermentation conditions have been characterized and their effects on capability variance of uranium reduction discussed. Then, the relationship between hydrogen metabolism and uranium reduction has been further explored and the important role played by hydrogenase in uranium(VI) and iron(III) reduction bymore »clostridia demonstrated. When hydrogen was provided as the headspace gas, uranium(VI) reduction occurred in the presence of whole cells of clostridia. This is in contrast to that of nitrogen as the headspace gas. Without clostridia cells, hydrogen alone could not result in uranium(VI) reduction. In alignment with this observation, it was also found that either copper(II) addition or iron depletion in the medium could compromise uranium reduction by clostridia. In the end, a comprehensive model was proposed to explain uranium reduction by clostridia and its relationship to the overall metabolism especially hydrogen (H 2 ) production. « less

  6. Kinetics of Fe(III)*EDTA reduction by ascorbic acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, W.; Harkness, J.B.L.; Mendelsohn, M.H.

    1992-12-01

    The kinetics of the reduction of ferric chelate by ascorbic acid have been determined at a typical flue-gas scrubber-system operating temperature ({approximately}55{degrees}C). The ascorbic acid reaction has the same reduction rate expression as the reduction by bisulfite ions, namely, first order with respect to the concentrations of both Fe(III)*EDTA and monoionic species of ascorbic acid. The reaction rate isnegative first order with respect to Fe(II)*EDTA concentration. In the pH range of 6--8, reduction of the hydrolyzed form of the metal chelate compound was negligible. The rate constant for the ascorbic acid reduction reaction is almost 400 times larger than that for the bisulfite reduction reaction under the same reaction conditions. There was no contribution associated with the nonionized form of ascorbic acid.

  7. Kinetics of Fe(III)*EDTA reduction by ascorbic acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, W.; Harkness, J.B.L.; Mendelsohn, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The kinetics of the reduction of ferric chelate by ascorbic acid have been determined at a typical flue-gas scrubber-system operating temperature ([approximately]55[degrees]C). The ascorbic acid reaction has the same reduction rate expression as the reduction by bisulfite ions, namely, first order with respect to the concentrations of both Fe(III)*EDTA and monoionic species of ascorbic acid. The reaction rate isnegative first order with respect to Fe(II)*EDTA concentration. In the pH range of 6--8, reduction of the hydrolyzed form of the metal chelate compound was negligible. The rate constant for the ascorbic acid reduction reaction is almost 400 times larger than that for the bisulfite reduction reaction under the same reaction conditions. There was no contribution associated with the nonionized form of ascorbic acid.

  8. Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2005-05-27

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a five-year Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction (LEADER) program under a DOE project entitled: ''Research and Development for Compression-Ignition Direct-Injection Engines (CIDI) and Aftertreatment Sub-Systems''. The objectives of the LEADER Program were to: Demonstrate technologies that will achieve future federal Tier 2 emissions targets; and Demonstrate production-viable technical targets for engine out emissions, efficiency, power density, noise, durability, production cost, aftertreatment volume and weight. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the LEADER program The most noteworthy achievements in this program are listed below: (1) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a PNGV-mule Neon passenger car, utilizing a CSF + SCR system These aggressive emissions were obtained with no ammonia (NH{sub 3}) slip and a combined fuel economy of 63 miles per gallon, integrating FTP75 and highway fuel economy transient cycle test results. Demonstrated feasibility to achieve Tier 2 Bin 8 emissions levels without active NOx aftertreatment. (2) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a light-duty truck utilizing a CSF + SCR system, synergizing efforts with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. This aggressive reduction in tailpipe out emissions was achieved with no ammonia slip and a 41% fuel economy improvement, compared to the equivalent gasoline engine-equipped vehicle. (3) Demonstrated Tier 2 near-Bin 9 emissions compliance on a light-duty truck, without active NOx aftertreatment devices, in synergy with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. (4) Developed and applied advanced combustion technologies such as ''CLEAN Combustion{copyright}'', which yields simultaneous reduction in engine out NOx and PM emissions while also improving engine and aftertreatment integration by providing favorable exhaust species and temperature characteristics. These favorable emissions characteristics were obtained while maintaining performance and fuel economy. These aggressive emissions and performance results were achieved by applying a robust systems technology development methodology. This systems approach benefits substantially from an integrated experimental and analytical approach to technology development, which is one of DDCs core competencies Also, DDC is uniquely positioned to undertake such a systems technology development approach, given its vertically integrated commercial structure within the DaimlerChrysler organization. State-of-the-art analytical tools were developed targeting specific LEADER program objectives and were applied to guide system enhancements and to provide testing directions, resulting in a shortened and efficient development cycle. Application examples include ammonia/NO{sub x} distribution improvement and urea injection controls development, and were key contributors to significantly reduce engine out as well as tailpipe out emissions. Successful cooperation between DDC and Engelhard Corporation, the major subcontractor for the LEADER program and provider of state-of-the-art technologies on various catalysts, was another contributing factor to ensure that both passenger car and LD truck applications achieved Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions levels. Significant technical challenges, which highlight barriers of commercialization of diesel technology for passenger cars and LD truck applications, are presented at the end of this report.

  9. Rate of reduction of ore-carbon composites: Part II. Modeling of reduction in extended composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortini, O.M.; Fruehan, R.J. [US Steel Research & Technological Center, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    2005-12-01

    A new process for ironmaking was proposed using a rotary hearth furnace and an iron bath smelter to produce iron employing wood charcoal as an energy source and reductant. This paper examines reactions in composite pellet samples with sizes close to sizes used in industrial practice (10 to 16 min in diameter). A model was constructed using the combined kinetic mechanism developed in Part I of this series of articles along with equations for the computation of pellet temperature and shrinkage during the reaction. The analysis of reaction rates measured for pellets with wood charcoal showed that heat transfer plays a significant role in their overall rate of reaction at elevated temperatures. The slower rates measured in pellets containing coal char show that the intrinsic kinetics of carbon oxidation is more significant than heat transfer. Model calculations suggest that the rates are highly sensitive to the thermal conductivity of pellets containing wood charcoal and are less sensitive to the external conditions of heat transfer. It was seen that the changes in pellet surface area and diameter due to shrinkage introduce little change on reaction rates. The model developed provides an adequate description of pellets of wood charcoal up to circa 90% of reduction. Experimentally determined rates of reduction of iron oxide by wood charcoal were approximately 5 to 10 times faster than rates measured in pellets with coal char.

  10. Fixed bed reduction of hematite under alternating reduction and oxidation cycles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Breault, Ronald W.; Monazam, Esmail R.

    2015-02-28

    The rate of the reduction reaction of a low cost natural hematite oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion was investigated in a fixed bed reactor where hematite samples of about 1 kg were exposed to a flowing stream of methane and argon. The investigation aims to develop understanding of the factors that govern the rate of reduction with in larger reactors as compared to mostly TGA investigations in the literature. Comparison of the experimental data with a model indicated that reaction between the methane and the iron oxide shows multi-step reactions. The analysis also shows that the conversion occurs withmore »a process that likely consumes all the oxygen close to the surface of the hematite particles and another process that is likely controlled by the diffusion of oxygen to the surface of the particles. Additional analysis shows that the thickness of the fast layer is on the order of 8 unit crystals. This is about 0.4% of the hematite; however, it comprises about 20 to 25% of the conversion for the 10 min reduction cycle.« less

  11. Greenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

    2008-01-01

    Admin- istration. Wang, M. The Greenhouse Gases, RegulatedGreenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?LCFS) seeks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by capping an

  12. Segmentation of artifacts and anatomy in CT metal artifact reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karimi, Seemeen; Cosman, Pamela; Wald, Christoph; Martz, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Maximum- likelihood dual-energy tomographic imageartifact reduction by dual energy CT using monoenergetictive reconstruction of dual energy data 21 has the potential

  13. Large Fleets Lead in Petroleum Reduction (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Proc, H.

    2011-03-01

    Fact sheet describes Clean Cities' National Petroleum Reduction Partnership, an initiative through which large private fleets can receive support from Clean Cities to reduce petroleum consumption.

  14. Reduction of Transient Particulate Matter Spikes with Decision...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transient Particulate Matter Spikes with Decision Tree Based Control Reduction of Transient Particulate Matter Spikes with Decision Tree Based Control Using a non-parametric...

  15. Benefits and Drawbacks of Compression Ratio Reduction in PCCI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Application in an Advanced LD Diesel Engine Benefits and Drawbacks of Compression Ratio Reduction in PCCI Combustion Application in an Advanced LD Diesel Engine Study of the...

  16. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace026peden2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx StorageReduction (NSR) Materials...

  17. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CLEERS Aftertreatment Modeling and Analysis Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx StorageReduction (NSR) Materials Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx...

  18. Alternating current loss reduction for rectangular busbars by...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Alternating current loss reduction for rectangular busbars by covering their edges with low permeable magnetic caps Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Alternating current...

  19. DOE Program Resources and Tools for Petroleum Reduction in the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOE Program Resources and Tools for Petroleum Reduction in the Transportation Sector Webinar Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: DOE Program Resources and Tools for...

  20. Reduction of Emissions from a High Speed Ferry | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions from a High Speed Ferry Reduction of Emissions from a High Speed Ferry 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: West Virginia University 2003deerthompson.pdf More Documents &...

  1. Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief (November 2004) More...

  2. Teaching Variation Reduction Using a Virtual Manufacturing Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Mu

    short courses. KEY WORDS: Simulation; Six Sigma; Variation reduction; Virtual environment. 1 by adopting a systematic frame- work like DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, control) in Six Sigma

  3. Preparations of rare earth-iron alloys by thermite reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Peterson, David T. (Ames, IA); Wheelock, John T. (Nevada, IA)

    1986-09-16

    An improved method for the preparation of high-purity rare earth-iron alloys by the aluminothermic reduction of a mixture of rare earth and iron fluorides.

  4. Integral twist actuation of helicolpter rotor blades for vibration reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shin, SangJoon, 1967-

    2001-01-01

    Active integral twist control for vibration reduction of helicopter rotors during forward flight is investigated. The twist deformation is obtained using embedded anisotropic piezocomposite actuators. An analytical framework ...

  5. Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buildings OIRA Comparison Document Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings OIRA Comparison Document...

  6. Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buildings Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings Document details Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy...

  7. Emissions Reduction Experience with Johnson Matthey EGRT on Off...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT Emission Control System for NOx and PM Emission Reduction in Retrofit Applications Part 1 Performance of Johnson...

  8. Energy for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development: UNDP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development: UNDP Energy Documents and Publications Catalogue Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy for...

  9. Bridging the Divide Between Poverty Reduction and Climate Change...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bridging the Divide Between Poverty Reduction and Climate Change Through Sustainable and Innovative Energy Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name:...

  10. Automating the CAD/CAE Dimensional Reduction Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suresh, Krishnan

    Automating the CAD/CAE Dimensional Reduction Process Dr. Krishnan Suresh Department of Mechanical - CAD General Terms Algorithms, Design, Theory. Keywords CAD, CAE, medial axis transforms, dimensional

  11. South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and...

  12. NNSA's Global Threat Reduction Initiative Removes More Than One...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Threat Reduction Initiative Removes More Than One Ton of Food | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the...

  13. Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last...

  14. Ris-R-1545(EN) Emission reduction by means

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Plasma Research Department, Risø), Helge Egsgaard (Biosystems Department, Risø), Per G. Kristensen reduction by means of low temperature plasma. Summary Department: Optics and Plasma Research Department Risø

  15. Structure and Function of Microbial Metal-Reduction Proteins...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Function of Microbial Metal-Reduction Proteins Xu, Ying; Crawford, Oakly H.; Xu, Dong; Larimer, Frank W.; Uberbacher, Edward C.; Zhou, Jizhong 97 MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTING; 59...

  16. Reductant Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline Engine Poster presented at the 16th Directions in...

  17. California Customer Load Reductions during the Electricity Crisis...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    California Customer Load Reductions during the Electricity Crisis: Did They Help to Keep the Lights On? Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: California...

  18. Petroleum Reduction Strategies to Improve Vehicle Fuel Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the table below describes petroleum reduction strategies to improve vehicle fuel efficiency, as well as guidance and best practices for each strategy.

  19. Petroleum Reduction Strategies to Reduce Vehicle Miles Traveled

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the table below describes petroleum reduction strategies to reduce vehicle miles traveled, as well as guidance and best practices for each strategy.

  20. Engine Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Opportunities exist for friction reduction in piston rings and valve trains using durable, advanced material technologies, such as diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings, and new lubricants.

  1. Regeneration of anion exchange resins by catalyzed electrochemical reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gu, Baohua (Oak Ridge, TN); Brown, Gilbert M. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    Anion exchange resins sorbed with perchlorate may be regenerated by a combination of chemical reduction of perchlorate to chloride using a reducing agent and an electrochemical reduction of the oxidized reducing agent. Transitional metals including Ti, Re, and V are preferred chemical reagents for the reduction of perchlorate to chloride. Complexing agents such as oxalate are used to prevent the precipitation of the oxidized Ti(IV) species, and ethyl alcohol may be added to accelerate the reduction kinetics of perchlorate. The regeneration may be performed by continuously recycling the regenerating solution through the resin bed and an electrochemical cell so that the secondary waste generation is minimized.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  3. Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max; Nazaroff, William W.

    2009-02-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.

  4. Dynamical Reduction Models with General Gaussian Noises

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angelo Bassi; GianCarlo Ghirardi

    2002-01-27

    We consider the effect of replacing in stochastic differential equations leading to the dynamical collapse of the statevector, white noise stochastic processes with non white ones. We prove that such a modification can be consistently performed without altering the most interesting features of the previous models. One of the reasons to discuss this matter derives from the desire of being allowed to deal with physical stochastic fields, such as the gravitational one, which cannot give rise to white noises. From our point of view the most relevant motivation for the approach we propose here derives from the fact that in relativistic models the occurrence of white noises is the main responsible for the appearance of untractable divergences. Therefore, one can hope that resorting to non white noises one can overcome such a difficulty. We investigate stochastic equations with non white noises, we discuss their reduction properties and their physical implications. Our analysis has a precise interest not only for the above mentioned subject but also for the general study of dissipative systems and decoherence.

  5. Cost reduction in deep water production systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beltrao, R.L.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a cost reduction program that Petrobras has conceived for its deep water field. Beginning with the Floating Production Unit, a new concept of FPSO was established where a simple system, designed to long term testing, can be upgraded, on the location, to be the definitive production unit. Regarding to the subsea system, the following projects will be considered. (1) Subsea Manifold: There are two 8-well-diverless manifolds designed for 1,000 meters presently under construction and after a value analysis, a new design was achieved for the next generation. Both projects will be discussed and a cost evaluation will also be provided. (2) Subsea Pipelines: Petrobras has just started a large program aiming to reduce cost on this important item. There are several projects such as hybrid (flexible and rigid) pipes for large diameter in deep water, alternatives laying methods, rigid riser on FPS, new material...etc. The authors intend to provide an overview of each project.

  6. Northern California CO2 Reduction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hymes, Edward

    2010-06-16

    C6 Resources LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Shell Oil Company, worked with the US Department of Energy (DOE) under a Cooperative Agreement to develop the Northern California CO2 Reduction Project. The objective of the Project is to demonstrate the viability of using Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) to reduce existing greenhouse gas emissions from industrial sources on a large-scale. The Project will capture more than 700,000 metric tonnes of CO2 per year, which is currently being vented to the atmosphere from the Shell Martinez Refinery in Contra Costa County. The CO2 will be compressed and dehydrated at the refinery and then transported via pipeline to a sequestration site in a rural area in neighboring Solano County. The CO2 will be sequestered into a deep saline formation (more than two miles underground) and will be monitored to assure secure, long-term containment. The pipeline will be designed to carry as much as 1,400,000 metric tonnes of CO2 per year, so additional capacity will be available to accommodate CO2 captured from other industrial sources. The Project is expected to begin operation in 2015. The Project has two distinct phases. The overall objective of Phase 1 was to develop a fully definitive design basis for the Project. The Cooperative Agreement with the DOE provided cost sharing for Phase 1 and the opportunity to apply for additional DOE cost sharing for Phase 2, comprising the design, construction and operation of the Project. Phase 1 has been completed. DOE co-funding is provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. As prescribed by ARRA, the Project will stimulate the local economy by creating manufacturing, transportation, construction, operations, and management jobs while addressing the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at an accelerated pace. The Project, which will also assist in meeting the CO2 reduction requirements set forth in California?s Climate Change law, presents a major opportunity for both the environment as well as the region. C6 Resources is conducting the Project in collaboration with federally-funded research centers, such as Lawrence Berkeley National Lab and Lawrence Livermore National Lab. C6 Resources and Shell have identified CCS as one of the critical pathways toward a worldwide goal of providing cleaner energy. C6 Resources, in conjunction with the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), has conducted an extensive and ongoing public outreach and CCS education program for local, regional and state-wide stakeholders. As part of a long term relationship, C6 Resources will continue to engage directly with community leaders and residents to ensure public input and transparency. This topical report summarizes the technical work from Phase 1 of the Project in the following areas: ? Surface Facility Preliminary Engineering: summarizes the preliminary engineering work performed for CO2 capture, CO2 compression and dehydration at the refinery, and surface facilities at the sequestration site ? Pipeline Preliminary Engineering: summarizes the pipeline routing study and preliminary engineering design ? Geologic Sequestration: summarizes the work to characterize, model and evaluate the sequestration site ? Monitoring, Verification and Accounting (MVA): summarizes the MVA plan to assure long-term containment of the sequestered CO2

  7. Moment Based Dimension Reduction for Multivariate Response Regression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bura, Efstathia

    Moment Based Dimension Reduction for Multivariate Response Regression Xiangrong Yin Efstathia Bura January 20, 2005 Abstract Dimension reduction aims to reduce the complexity of a regression without re- quiring a pre-specified model. In the case of multivariate response regressions, covariance

  8. Introduction The reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandoghdar, Vahid

    is attained in a post-catalyst homogeneous combustion zone.This process leads to substantial reduction of NOxIntroduction The reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions is of great importance in practical emissions (typically NOx is produced exclusively from the gaseous (homogeneous) reaction path

  9. The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on Electricity Prices the impact of proposed federal regulations aimed at reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions gas emissions; however, it does not attempt to model the full details of the proposed legislation

  10. Wind Noise Reduction in Single Channel Speech Signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wind Noise Reduction in Single Channel Speech Signals Kristian Timm Andersen Kongens Lyngby 2008;Abstract In this thesis a number of wind noise reduction techniques have been reviewed, implemented and evaluated. The focus is on reducing wind noise from speech in single channel signals. More specically

  11. Parameterized Model Order Reduction of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, Rafael

    Parameterized Model Order Reduction of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Brad Bond Research Laboratory reduction technique for non-linear systems. Our approach combines an existing non-parameterized trajectory piecewise linear method for non-linear systems, with an existing moment matching param- eterized technique

  12. Thermal signature reduction through liquid nitrogen and water injection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guarnieri, Jason Antonio

    2005-02-17

    to the flow rate of exhaust gases, producing a small temperature reduction in the exhaust but no infrared shielding. Second, water was injected at a flow rate of 13% of the flow of exhaust gases, producing a greater temperature reduction and some shielding...

  13. Gravitation and the noise needed in objective reduction models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen L. Adler

    2015-06-04

    I briefly recall intersections of my research interests with those of John Bell. I then argue that the noise needed in theories of objective state vector reduction most likely comes from a fluctuating complex part in the classical spacetime metric, that is, state vector reduction is driven by {\\it complex number valued} "spacetime foam".

  14. OSCAR Compiler Controlled Multicore Power Reduction on Android Platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasahara, Hironori

    OSCAR Compiler Controlled Multicore Power Reduction on Android Platform Hideo Yamamoto1 , Tomohiro Automatic Parallelizing Compiler on an Android platform with the newly developed precise power measurement con- trol, power reduction, multicore processor, Android, WFI #12;2 H. Yamamoto et al. 1 Introduction

  15. A High Speed Pairing Coprocessor Using RNS and Lazy Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    A High Speed Pairing Coprocessor Using RNS and Lazy Reduction Gavin Xiaoxu Yao1 , Junfeng Fan2 using Residue Number System (RNS) and lazy reduction. We show that combining RNS, which are naturally pairing computation in 0.664 ms. Keywords: RNS, Moduli Selection, Hardware Implementation of Pairing, FPGA

  16. Exploring Reductions for Long Web Queries Niranjan Balasubramanian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, Robert F.

    Exploring Reductions for Long Web Queries Niranjan Balasubramanian University of Massachusetts queries form a difficult, but increasingly important seg- ment for web search engines. Query reduction on TREC collections. Also, it has great potential for improving long web queries (upto 25% improvement

  17. A Jacobi Method for Lattice Basis Reduction Sanzheng Qiao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiao, Sanzheng

    A Jacobi Method for Lattice Basis Reduction Sanzheng Qiao Department of Computing and Software Mc decoding has been suc- cessfully used in wireless communications. In this paper, we propose a Jacobi method for lattice basis reduction. Jacobi method is attractive, because it is inherently parallel. Thus high

  18. Model Reduction for RF MEMS Simulation David S. Bindel1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Model Reduction for RF MEMS Simulation David S. Bindel1 , Zhaojun Bai2 , and James W. Demmel3 1@eecs.berkeley.edu Abstract. Radio-frequency (RF) MEMS resonators, integrated into CMOS chips, are of great interest-preserving model-reduction techniques and apply them to the frequency-domain analysis of two proposed MEMS

  19. Reduction of Vinyl Chloride in Metallic Iron-Water Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Baolin

    Reduction of Vinyl Chloride in Metallic Iron-Water Systems B A O L I N D E N G * Department of Mineral and Environmental Engineering, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico) reduction by metallic iron in aqueous systems were performed. The effects of various iron loadings, VC

  20. Probabilistic Congestion Model Considering Shielding for Crosstalk Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Lei

    Probabilistic Congestion Model Considering Shielding for Crosstalk Reduction Jinjun Xiong Lei He an existing probabilistic congestion model to con- sider shielding for crosstalk reduction. We then develop industrial de- sign examples. We show that (1) when shielding is applied as a post-routing optimization

  1. Modeling of Noise Reduction for Turbulent Jets with Induced Asymmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papamoschou, Dimitri

    (flight) conditions I. Introduction The exhaust of jet engines continues to be a significant contributorModeling of Noise Reduction for Turbulent Jets with Induced Asymmetry Dimitri Papamoschou and Sara for the noise reduction of dual-stream jets with induced asymmetry in the plume flow field, with emphasis

  2. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION (PCOR) PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; Daniel J. Daly; Lynette L. de Silva; John A. Harju; Melanie D. Jensen; Erin M. O'Leary; Wesley D. Peck; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen

    2006-01-01

    During the period of October 1, 2003, through September 30, 2005, the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, identified geologic and terrestrial candidates for near-term practical and environmentally sound carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations in the heartland of North America. The PCOR Partnership region covered nine states and three Canadian provinces. The validation test candidates were further vetted to ensure that they represented projects with (1) commercial potential and (2) a mix that would support future projects both dependent and independent of CO2 monetization. This report uses the findings contained in the PCOR Partnership's two dozen topical reports and half-dozen fact sheets as well as the capabilities of its geographic information system-based Decision Support System to provide a concise picture of the sequestration potential for both terrestrial and geologic sequestration in the PCOR Partnership region based on assessments of sources, sinks, regulations, deployment issues, transportation, and capture and separation. The report also includes concise action plans for deployment and public education and outreach as well as a brief overview of the structure, development, and capabilities of the PCOR Partnership. The PCOR Partnership is one of seven regional partnerships under Phase I of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program. The PCOR Partnership, comprising 49 public and private sector members, is led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota. The international PCOR Partnership region includes the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba and the states of Montana (part), Wyoming (part), North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

  3. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: DEFINING THE NEEDED CAPABILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-10

    This is the second of three papers (in addition to an introductory summary) aimed at providing a framework for evaluating future reductions or modifications of the U.S. nuclear force, first by considering previous instances in which nuclear-force capabilities were eliminated; second by looking forward into at least the foreseeable future at the features of global and regional deterrence (recognizing that new weapon systems currently projected will have expected lifetimes stretching beyond our ability to predict the future); and third by providing examples of past or possible undesirable outcomes in the shaping of the future nuclear force, as well as some closing thoughts for the future. This paper begins with a discussion of the current nuclear force and the plans and procurement programs for the modernization of that force. Current weapon systems and warheads were conceived and built decades ago, and procurement programs have begun for the modernization or replacement of major elements of the nuclear force: the heavy bomber, the air-launched cruise missile, the ICBMs, and the ballistic-missile submarines. In addition, the Nuclear Weapons Council has approved a new framework for nuclear-warhead life extension ? not fully fleshed out yet ? that aims to reduce the current number of nuclear explosives from seven to five, the so-called ?3+2? vision. This vision includes three interoperable warheads for both ICBMs and SLBMs (thus eliminating one backup weapon) and two warheads for aircraft delivery (one gravity bomb and one cruise-missile, eliminating a second backup gravity bomb). This paper also includes a discussion of the current and near-term nuclear-deterrence mission, both global and regional, and offers some observations on future of the strategic deterrence mission and the challenges of regional and extended nuclear deterrence.

  4. TRANSPORT AND REDUCTION POSSIBILITIES DURING TPBAR EXTRACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P

    2008-05-19

    In light of the discovery of the activated zinc 65 in the TEF process piping, a discussion of potential sources and mechanisms for the production of this species has been initiated. A suspected source is the presence of Cu as a contaminant in many of the alloy components that comprise the TPBARs and the presence of Zn as a contaminant in the aluminide coating. These two sources are expected to produce metallic transmutation products that could be mobile and be extracted from the metallic components of the TPBARs. Another potential source is the presence of ZnO that is present as part of the crud on the external surfaces of the TPBARs. In addition, it is conceivable to have ZnO within the TPBARs from transmutation products and subsequent oxidation reactions with water. This memo does not attempt to address all of the possible sources, nor does it derive the most likely scenarios as to how Zn or ZnO may be present in the TPBARs it merely posits that it is present as a transmutation product and if present, elementally, it may be mobile under high vacuum conditions at high temperatures as indicated by the pressure temperature curve shown in Fig. 1. Further, this document shows that it is thermodynamically feasible to reduce ZnO to Zn by solid state reactions of the ZnO with other metallic components in the TPBARs. However, for these reactions to occur, the ZnO must be in contact with the more active metal so that the chemical reactions can occur. The proposed reactions are based on equilibrium thermodynamics. For simplicity, they do not take into account the quantities of the various materials, the compositions, the effect of alloying, or other technical issues, they are intended only to provide feasibility for the reduction reactions. A more complete thermodynamic model can be developed, but it will require actual contents and be much more complicated with little value added.

  5. Greenridge Multi-Pollutant Control Project Preliminary Public Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel P. Connell

    2009-01-12

    The Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project is being conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative to demonstrate an innovative combination of air pollution control technologies that can cost-effectively reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, Hg, acid gases (SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF), and particulate matter from smaller coal-fired electrical generating units (EGUs). The multi-pollutant control system includes a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/in-duct selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system to reduce NOx emissions by {ge}60%, followed by a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system to reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF by {ge}95%. Mercury removal of {ge}90% is also targeted via the co-benefits afforded by the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, as required. The technology is particularly well suited, because of its relatively low capital and maintenance costs and small space requirements, to meet the needs of coal-fired units with capacities of 50-300 MWe. There are about 440 such units in the United States that currently are not equipped with SCR, flue gas desulfurization (FGD), or mercury control systems. These smaller units are a valuable part of the nation's energy infrastructure, constituting about 60 GW of installed capacity. However, with the onset of the Clean Air Interstate Rule, Clean Air Mercury Rule, and various state environmental actions requiring deep reductions in emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and mercury, the continued operation of these units increasingly depends upon the ability to identify viable air pollution control retrofit options for them. The large capital costs and sizable space requirements associated with conventional technologies such as SCR and wet FGD make these technologies unattractive for many smaller units. The Greenidge Project aims to confirm the commercial readiness of an emissions control system that is specifically designed to meet the environmental compliance requirements of these smaller coal-fired EGUs. The multi-pollutant control system is being installed and tested on the AES Greenidge Unit 4 (Boiler 6) by a team including CONSOL Energy Inc. as prime contractor, AES Greenidge LLC as host site owner, and Babcock Power Environmental Inc. as engineering, procurement, and construction contractor. All funding for the project is being provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, through its National Energy Technology Laboratory, and by AES Greenidge. AES Greenidge Unit 4 is a 107 MW{sub e} (net), 1950s vintage, tangentially-fired, reheat unit that is representative of many of the 440 smaller coal-fired units identified above. Following design and construction, the multi-pollutant control system will be demonstrated over an approximately 20-month period while the unit fires 2-4% sulfur eastern U.S. bituminous coal and co-fires up to 10% biomass. This Preliminary Public Design Report is the first in a series of two reports describing the design of the multi-pollutant control facility that is being demonstrated at AES Greenidge. Its purpose is to consolidate for public use all available nonproprietary design information on the Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project. As such, the report includes a discussion of the process concept, design objectives, design considerations, and uncertainties associated with the multi-pollutant control system and also summarizes the design of major process components and balance of plant considerations for the AES Greenidge Unit 4 installation. The Final Public Design Report, the second report in the series, will update this Preliminary Public Design Report to reflect the final, as-built design of the facility and to incorporate data on capital costs and projected operating costs.

  6. Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel Connell

    2008-10-18

    The Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative to demonstrate an innovative combination of air pollution control technologies that can cost-effectively reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, Hg, acid gases (SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF), and particulate matter from smaller coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs). There are about 400 units in the United States with capacities of 50-300 MW that currently are not equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), flue gas desulfurization (FGD), or mercury control systems. Many of these units, which collectively represent more than 55 GW of installed capacity, are difficult to retrofit for deep emission reductions because of space constraints and unfavorable economies of scale, making them increasingly vulnerable to retirement or fuel switching in the face of progressively more stringent environmental regulations. The Greenidge Project sought to confirm the commercial readiness of an emissions control system that is specifically designed to meet the environmental compliance requirements of these smaller coal-fired EGUs by offering a combination of deep emission reductions, low capital costs, small space requirements, applicability to high-sulfur coals, mechanical simplicity, and operational flexibility. The multi-pollutant control system includes a NO{sub x}OUT CASCADE{reg_sign} hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/in-duct SCR system for NO{sub x} control and a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubbing system (with a new baghouse) for SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, HF, and particulate matter control. Mercury removal is provided as a co-benefit of the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse, and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, if required. The multi-pollutant control system was installed and tested on the 107-MW{sub e}, 1953-vintage AES Greenidge Unit 4 by a team including CONSOL Energy Inc. as prime contractor, AES Greenidge LLC as host site owner, and Babcock Power Environmental Inc. as engineering, procurement, and construction contractor. About 44% of the funding for the project was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, through its National Energy Technology Laboratory, and the remaining 56% was provided by AES Greenidge. Project goals included reducing high-load NO{sub x} emissions to {le} 0.10 lb/mmBtu; reducing SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF emissions by at least 95%; and reducing Hg emissions by at least 90% while the unit fired 2-4% sulfur eastern U.S. bituminous coal and co-fired up to 10% biomass. This report details the final results from the project. The multi-pollutant control system was constructed in 2006, with a total plant cost of $349/kW and a footprint of 0.4 acre - both substantially less than would have been required to retrofit AES Greenidge Unit 4 with a conventional SCR and wet scrubber. Start-up of the multi-pollutant control system was completed in March 2007, and the performance of the system was then evaluated over an approximately 18-month period of commercial operation. Guarantee tests conducted in March-June 2007 demonstrated attainment of all of the emission reduction goals listed above. Additional tests completed throughout the performance evaluation period showed 96% SO{sub 2} removal, 98% mercury removal (with no activated carbon injection), 95% SO{sub 3} removal, and 97% HCl removal during longer-term operation. Greater than 95% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was observed even when the unit fired high-sulfur coals containing up to 4.8 lb SO{sub 2}/mmBtu. Particulate matter emissions were reduced by more than 98% relative to the emission rate observed prior to installation of the technology. The performance of the hybrid SNCR/SCR system was affected by problems with large particle ash, ammonia slip, and nonideal combustion characteristics, and high-load NO{sub x} emissions averaged 0.14 lb/mmBtu during long-term operation. Nevertheless, the system has reduced the unit's overall NO{sub x} emiss

  7. Smooth local subspace projection for nonlinear noise reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chelidze, David

    2014-03-15

    Many nonlinear or chaotic time series exhibit an innate broad spectrum, which makes noise reduction difficult. Local projective noise reduction is one of the most effective tools. It is based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and works for both map-like and continuously sampled time series. However, POD only looks at geometrical or topological properties of data and does not take into account the temporal characteristics of time series. Here, we present a new smooth projective noise reduction method. It uses smooth orthogonal decomposition (SOD) of bundles of reconstructed short-time trajectory strands to identify smooth local subspaces. Restricting trajectories to these subspaces imposes temporal smoothness on the filtered time series. It is shown that SOD-based noise reduction significantly outperforms the POD-based method for continuously sampled noisy time series.

  8. Reduction of Nitrate in Shewanella oneidensis depends on atypical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    deletion mutants, we propose that NapB is able to favor nitrate reduction by routing electrons to NapA exclusively. Authors: Gao, Haichun ; Yang, Zamin ; Barua, Soumitra ; Reed,...

  9. Potential Peak Load Reductions From Residential Energy Efficient Upgrades 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meisegeier, D.; Howes, M.; King, D.; Hall, J.

    2002-01-01

    the potential peak load reductions from residential energy efficiency upgrades in hot and humid climates. First, a baseline scenario is established. Then, the demand and consumption impacts of individual upgrade measures are assessed. Several of these upgrades...

  10. ZERO WASTE STANFORD WASTE REDUCTION, RECYCLING AND COMPOSTING GUIDELINES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerdes, J. Christian

    ZERO WASTE STANFORD WASTE REDUCTION, RECYCLING AND COMPOSTING GUIDELINES PLASTICS, METALS & GLASS pleaseemptyandflatten COMPOSTABLES kitchenandyardwasteonly LANDFILL ONLY ifallelsefails All Plastic Containers Metal Material All Food Paper Plates & Napkins *including pizza & donut boxes Compostable & Biodegradable

  11. The oxidation-reduction kinetics of palladium powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munir, Z.A.; Coombs, P.G.

    1983-03-01

    The cyclic oxidation-reduction of submicrometer sized palladium powder was investigated over the temperature range 848 to 923 K. The total oxygen uptake decreased with increasing number of cycles as a consequence of sintering. Sintering was restricted to the reduction steps in these cycles. The relationships for the rate constants of the oxidation and reduction processes are, respectively, (1.04)10/sup 6/ exp(-(74.1)10/sup 3//RT), and (7.63)10/sup 12/ exp(-(207.9)10/sup 3//RT). The activation energies for the oxidation of palladium powder and the reduction of palladium oxide are 74.1 and 207.9 kJ mol/sup -1/, respectively.

  12. Smoothing the Energy Consumption: Peak Demand Reduction in Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xiang-Yang

    % of the nation's total electricity consumption. Unfortunately, due to inefficient energy consumption patternSmoothing the Energy Consumption: Peak Demand Reduction in Smart Grid Shaojie Tang , Qiuyuan Huang of Software, TNLIST, Tsinghua University Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University

  13. A Review of Energy Reduction Competitions. What Have We Learned?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edward, Vine; Jones, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    for taking energy conservation strategies (such as investingBehavior Change Strategies Energy reduction competitions useAs a behavior energy intervention strategy, I don’t know how

  14. CHEMICAL PRODUCTION COMPLEX OPTIMIZATION, POLLUTION REDUCTION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pike, Ralph W.

    CHEMICAL PRODUCTION COMPLEX OPTIMIZATION, POLLUTION REDUCTION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, Environmental and Sustainable Costs............2 C. Sustainable Development and Responsible Care)...................................................27 C. Sustainable Development and Sustainable Cost..............................32 C-1

  15. Physiology of multiple sulfur isotope fractionation during microbial sulfate reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sim, Min Sub

    2012-01-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) utilizes sulfate as an electron acceptor and produces sulfide that is depleted in heavy isotopes of sulfur relative to starting sulfate. The fractionation of S-isotopes is commonly used ...

  16. CoolCab Truck Thermal Load Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Bethesda, Maryland. merit08proc.pdf More Documents & Publications CoolCab Truck Thermal Load Reduction CoolCab Test and Evaluation and CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development CoolCab...

  17. Microbial reduction of iron ore (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a...

  18. Theorems on Efficient Argument Reductions Ren-Cang Li

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklobdzija, Vojin G.

    Science Foundation under Grant No. ACI-9721388 and by the National Science Foundation CAREER award under machine hardware conforms to the IEEE floating point standard [1]. A commonly used argument reduction

  19. Microbubble drag reduction phenomenon study in a channel flow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimenez Bernal, Jose Alfredo

    2005-11-01

    An experimental study on drag reduction by injection of microbubbles was performed in the upper wall of a rectangular channel at Re = 5128. Particle Image Velocimetry measurement technique (PIV) was used to obtain instantaneous ...

  20. Model reduction for nonlinear dynamical systems with parametric uncertainties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yuxiang Beckett

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamical systems are known to be sensitive to input parameters. In this thesis, we apply model order reduction to an important class of such systems -- one which exhibits limit cycle oscillations (LCOs) and ...

  1. Soil Disturbance from an Integrated Mechanical Forest Fuel Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolding, M. Chad

    Soil Disturbance from an Integrated Mechanical Forest Fuel Reduction Operation in Southwest Oregon1 literature has quantified harvesting system effectiveness or soil disturbance concerns from such operations. This paper reports results of soil disturbance generated from an integrated forest harvesting

  2. Sequestration Offsets versus Direct Emission Reductions: Consideration of Environmental Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    support for allocating resources to alter the market mix of carbon sequestration and direct emission carbon sequestration practices also influence the environment by for example reducing erosion1 Sequestration Offsets versus Direct Emission Reductions: Consideration of Environmental

  3. Catalyst Paper No-Carb Strategy for GHG Reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClain, C.; Robinson, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Catalyst Paper strategy to manage GHG exposure is a combination of energy reduction initiatives in manufacturing and the effective use of biomass and alternative fuels to produce mill steam and electricity from the powerhouse. The energy...

  4. On the reduction of oxygen from dispersed media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roushdy, Omar H., 1977-

    2007-01-01

    The reduction of oxygen from an organic phase dispersed in a concentrated electrolyte is investigated. Dispersed organic phases are used to enhance oxygen transport in fermenters and artificial blood substitutes. This work ...

  5. Preparations of rare earth-iron alloys by thermite reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.

    1985-10-28

    Disclosed is an improved method for the preparation of high-purity rare earth-iron alloys by the aluminothermic reduction of a mixture of rare earth and iron fluorides.

  6. Model Reduction and Parameter Estimation in Groundwater Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siade, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Uncon?ned Groundwater Model Reduction via Proper Orthogonalvi List of Figures One-dimensional groundwater ?owQuadratic Programming 3.1 Con?ned aquifer groundwater ?ow

  7. Experimental Evaluation of Latent Variable Models for Dimensionality Reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carreira-Perpinan, Miguel A; Renals, Steve

    1998-01-01

    We use electropalatographic (EPG) data as a test bed for dimensionality reduction methods based in latent variable modelling, in which an underlying lower dimension representation is inferred directly from the data. Several ...

  8. Synthetic and mechanistic study of catalytic dintrogen reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weare, Walter Warren

    2006-01-01

    The dinitrogen reduction capability of a series of new triamidoamine based molybdenum compounds has been studied. The synthesis of a number of different triamidoamine ligands, and their resulting molybdenum compounds, is ...

  9. Projection-based model reduction for contact problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balajewicz, Maciej; Farhat, Charbel

    2015-01-01

    Large scale finite element analysis requires model order reduction for computationally expensive applications such as optimization, parametric studies and control design. Although model reduction for nonlinear problems is an active area of research, a major hurdle is modeling and approximating contact problems. This manuscript introduces a projection-based model reduction approach for static and dynamic contact problems. In this approach, non-negative matrix factorization is utilized to optimally compress and strongly enforce positivity of contact forces in training simulation snapshots. Moreover, a greedy algorithm coupled with an error indicator is developed to efficiently construct parametrically robust low-order models. The proposed approach is successfully demonstrated for the model reduction of several two-dimensional elliptic and hyperbolic obstacle and self contact problems.

  10. Custom Reduction of Arithmetic in Linear DSP Transforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kepner, Jeremy

    . Püschel Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering Carnegie Mellon University #12;HPEC 2003, Slide 2 custom low-cost algorithm search for cheapest const. reduction satisfying Q algorithm manipulation

  11. Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray...

  12. Antibody-mediated reduction of {alpha}-ketoamides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, P.G.; Gallop, M.A.

    1998-06-09

    Monoclonal antibodies raised against a 4-nitrophenyl phosphonate hapten catalyze the stereospecific reduction of an {alpha}-ketoamide to the corresponding {alpha}-hydroxyamide in the presence of an appropriate reducing agent.

  13. Lean NOx Reduction with Dual Layer LNT/SCR Catalysts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Results show that a series of dual layer catalysts with a bottom layer of LNT catalyst and a top layer of SCR catalyst can carry out coupled ammonia generation and NOx reduction, achieving high NOx conversion with minimal ammonia slip

  14. Evidence of magnetic isotope effects during thermochemical sulfate reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oduro, Harry D.

    Thermochemical sulfate reduction experiments with simple amino acid and dilute concentrations of sulfate reveal significant degrees of mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionation. Enrichments of up to 13‰ for [superscript ...

  15. FIRE5: a C++ implementation of Feynman Integral REduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander V. Smirnov

    2014-09-01

    In this paper the C++ version of FIRE is presented - a powerful program performing Feynman integral reduction to master integrals. All previous versions used only Wolfram Mathematica, the current version mostly uses Wolfram Mathematica as a front-end. However, the most complicated part, the reduction itself can now be done by C++, which significantly improves the performance and allows one to reduce Feynman integrals in previously impossible situations.

  16. An Approach towards Reduction of Routing Paths for Mobile Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thakurta, P. K. Guha; Sinha, Prothoma; Mallick, Nilesh [Dept. of CSE, NIT, Durgapur, WB-713209 (India); Bandyopadhyay, Subhansu [Dept. of CSE, University of Calcutta, WB-700009 (India)

    2010-10-26

    The foundation of various routing paths for a specific call requesting cell has been proposed in this paper. To improve searching efficiency, the number of routing paths has been reduced to a large extent. Hence, this reduction is based on the computation of frequent item sets. The performance of this proposed model is evaluated with respect to a parameter known as 'Occurrence Index (O{sub i})'. With such reduction, a significant performance gain would be achieved.

  17. Reduction of trichloroethylene in a model aquifer with methanotrophic bacteria 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hicks, Duane Dee

    1990-01-01

    REDUCTION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN A MODEL AQUIFER WITH METHANOTROPHIC BACTERIA A Thesis by Duane Dee Hicks Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fullfillment of the requirements for thc degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Civil Engineering REDUCTION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN A MODEL AQUIFER WITH METHANOTROPHIC BACTEPslA A Thesis by Duane Dec Hicks Approved as to style and content by Bill Batchclor (Chair of Committee...

  18. Dramatic Demand Reduction In The Desert Southwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehm, Robert; Hsieh, Sean; Lee, Joon; Baghzouz, Yahia; Cross, Andrew; Chatterjee, Sarah

    2015-07-06

    This report summarizes a project that was funded to the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV), with subcontractors Pulte Homes and NV Energy. The project was motivated by the fact that locations in the Desert Southwest portion of the US demonstrate very high peak electrical demands, typically in the late afternoons in the summer. These high demands often require high priced power to supply the needs, and the large loads can cause grid supply problems. An approach was proposed through this contact that would reduce the peak electrical demands to an anticipated 65% of what code-built houses of the similar size would have. It was proposed to achieve energy reduction through four approaches applied to a development of 185 homes in northwest part of Las Vegas named Villa Trieste. First, the homes would all be highly energy efficient. Secondly, each house would have a PV array installed on it. Third, an advanced demand response technique would be developed to allow the resident to have some control over the energy used. Finally, some type of battery storage would be used in the project. Pulte Homes designed the houses. The company considered initial cost vs. long-term savings and chose options that had relatively short paybacks. HERS (Home Energy Rating Service) ratings for the homes are approximately 43 on this scale. On this scale, code-built homes rate at 100, zero energy homes rate a 0, and Energy Star homes are 85. In addition a 1.764 Wp (peak Watt) rated PV array was used on each house. This was made up of solar shakes that were in visual harmony with the roofing material used. A demand response tool was developed to control the amount of electricity used during times of peak demand. While demand response techniques have been used in the utility industry for some time, this particular approach is designed to allow the customer to decide the degree of participation in the response activity. The temperature change in the residence can be decided by the residents by adjusting settings. In a sense the customer can choose between greater comfort and greater money savings during demand response circumstances. Finally a battery application was to be considered. Initially it was thought that a large battery (probably a sodium-sulfur type) would be installed. However, after the contract was awarded, it was determined that a single, centrally-located battery system would not be appropriate for many reasons, including that with the build out plan there would not be any location to put it. The price had risen substantially since the budget for the project was put together. Also, that type of battery has to be kept hot all the time, but its use was only sought for summer operation. Hence, individual house batteries would be used, and these are discussed at the end of this report. Many aspects of the energy use for climate control in selected houses were monitored before residents moved in. This was done both to understand the magnitude of the energy flows but also to have data that could be compared to the computer simulations. The latter would be used to evaluate various aspects of our plan. It was found that good agreement existed between actual energy use and computed energy use. Hence, various studies were performed via simulations. Performance simulations showed the impact on peak energy usage between a code built house of same size and shape compared to the Villa Trieste homes with and without the PV arrays on the latter. Computations were also used to understand the effect of varying orientations of the houses in this typical housing development, including the effect of PV electrical generation. Energy conservation features of the Villa Trieste homes decreased the energy use during peak times (as well as all others), but the resulting decreased peak occurred at about the same time as the code-built houses. Consideration of the PV generation decreases the grid energy use further during daylight hours, but did not extend long enough many days to decrease the peak. Hence, a demand response approach, as planned, was needed. With p

  19. Addendum to Guarantee Testing Results from the Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project: Additiona NH3, NOx, and CO Testing Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel P. Connell; James E. Locke

    2008-03-01

    On March 28-30 and May 1-4, 2007, CONSOL Energy Inc. Research & Development (CONSOL R&D) performed flue gas sampling at AES Greenidge to verify the performance of the multi-pollutant control system recently installed by Babcock Power Environmental Inc. (BPEI) on the 107-MW Unit 4 (Boiler 6). The multi-pollutant control system includes combustion modifications and a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/in-duct selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system to reduce NO{sub x} emissions, followed by a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system and baghouse to reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, HF, and particulate matter. Mercury removal is provided via the co-benefits afforded by the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, as required. The testing in March and May demonstrated that the multi-pollutant control system attained its performance targets for NO{sub x} emissions, SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, acid gas (SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF) removal efficiency, and mercury removal efficiency. However, the ammonia slip measured between the SCR outlet and air heater inlet was consistently greater than the guarantee of 2 ppmvd {at} 3% O{sub 2}. As a result, additional testing was performed on May 30-June 1 and on June 20-21, 2007, in conjunction with tuning of the hybrid NO{sub x} control system by BPEI, in an effort to achieve the performance target for ammonia slip. This additional testing occurred after the installation of a large particle ash (LPA) screen and removal system just above the SCR reactor and a fresh SCR catalyst layer in mid-May. This report describes the results of the additional tests. During the May 30-June 1 sampling period, CONSOL R&D and Clean Air Engineering (CAE) each measured flue gas ammonia concentrations at the air heater inlet, downstream of the in-duct SCR reactor. In addition, CONSOL R&D measured flue gas ammonia concentrations at the economizer outlet, upstream of the SCR reactor, and CAE measured flue gas NO{sub x} and CO concentrations at the sampling grids located at the inlet and outlet of the SCR reactor. During the June 20-21 sampling period, CONSOL R&D measured flue gas ammonia concentrations at the air heater inlet. All ammonia measurements were performed using a modified version of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Conditional Test Method (CTM) 027. The NO{sub x} and CO measurements were performed using U.S. EPA Methods 7E and 10, respectively.

  20. Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction Test results show significant CO2 and NOx emission reductions, fuel economy...

  1. Energy effects of heat-island reduction strategies in Toronto, Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Energy Effects of Urban Heat Islands and Their Mitigation: aAkbari. Energy Impacts of Heat Island Reduction StrategiesSavings Calculations for Heat Island Reduction Strategies in

  2. Streamlined energy-savings calculations for heat-island reduction strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steven J.

    2003-01-01

    Savings Calculations for Heat Island Reduction Strategies inNational Laboratory -- Heat Island Group Technical Note.Savings Calculations for Heat-Island Reduction Strategies

  3. Reduction of low potential electron acceptors requires the CbcL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE PAGES Search Results Published Article: Reduction of low potential electron acceptors requires the CbcL inner membrane cytochrome of Geobacter sulfurreducens Title: Reduction...

  4. Energy effects of heat-island reduction strategies in Toronto, Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Savings Calculations for Heat Island Reduction Strategies inAkbari. Energy Savings for Heat Island Reduction StrategiesEnergy Effects of Urban Heat Islands and Their Mitigation: a

  5. Deactivation Mechanism of Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalyst Due to Reductive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mechanism of CuZeolite SCR Catalyst Due to Reductive Hydrothermal Aging Deactivation Mechanism of CuZeolite SCR Catalyst Due to Reductive Hydrothermal Aging Better control for...

  6. Hamilton-Jacobi theory, Symmetries and Coisotropic Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel de León; David Martín de Diego; Miguel Vaquero

    2015-09-01

    Reduction theory has played a major role in the study of Hamiltonian systems. On the other hand, the Hamilton-Jacobi theory is one of the main tools to integrate the dynamics of certain Hamiltonian problems and a topic of research on its own. Moreover, the construction of several symplectic integrators rely on approximations of a complete solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. The natural question that we address in this paper is how these two topics (reduction and Hamilton-Jacobi theory) fit together. We obtain a reduction and reconstruction procedure for the Hamilton-Jacobi equation with symmetries, even in a generalized sense to be clarified below. Several applications and relations to other reductions of the Hamilton-Jacobi theory are shown in the last section of the paper. It is remarkable that as a by-product we obtain a generalization of the Ge-Marsden reduction procedure. Quite surprinsingly, the classical ansatzs available in the literature to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi equation are also particular instances of our framework.

  7. Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry During Lean NOx Trap Regeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jae-Soon; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Partridge Jr, William P; Parks, II, James E; Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; Chambon, Paul H; Thomas, John F

    2010-01-01

    Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts can effectively reduce NOx from lean engine exhaust. Significant research for LNTs in diesel engine applications has been performed and has led to commercialization of the technology. For lean gasoline engine applications, advanced direct injection engines have led to a renewed interest in the potential for lean gasoline vehicles and, thereby, a renewed demand for lean NOx control. To understand the gasoline-based reductant chemistry during regeneration, a BMW lean gasoline vehicle has been studied on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed for key reductant species such as H2, CO, NH3, and hydrocarbons during transient drive cycles. The relation of the reductant species to LNT performance will be discussed. Furthermore, the challenges of NOx storage in the lean gasoline application are reviewed.

  8. Size-reduction of nanodiamonds via air oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaebel, T; Chen, J; Hemmer, P; Rabeau, J R

    2011-01-01

    Here we report the size reduction and effects on nitrogen-vacancy centres in nanodiamonds by air oxidation using a combined atomic force and confocal microscope. The average height reduction of individual crystals as measured by atomic force microscopy was 10.6 nm/h at 600 {\\deg}C air oxidation at atmospheric pressure. The oxidation process modified the surface including removal of non-diamond carbon and organic material which also led to a decrease in background fluorescence. During the course of the nanodiamond size reduction, we observed the annihilation of nitrogen-vacancy centres which provided important insight into the formation of colour centres in small crystals. In these unirradiated samples, the smallest nanodiamond still hosting a stable nitrogen-vacancy centre observed was 8 nm.

  9. Size-reduction of nanodiamonds via air oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Gaebel; C. Bradac; J. Chen; P. Hemmer; J. R. Rabeau

    2011-04-27

    Here we report the size reduction and effects on nitrogen-vacancy centres in nanodiamonds by air oxidation using a combined atomic force and confocal microscope. The average height reduction of individual crystals as measured by atomic force microscopy was 10.6 nm/h at 600 {\\deg}C air oxidation at atmospheric pressure. The oxidation process modified the surface including removal of non-diamond carbon and organic material which also led to a decrease in background fluorescence. During the course of the nanodiamond size reduction, we observed the annihilation of nitrogen-vacancy centres which provided important insight into the formation of colour centres in small crystals. In these unirradiated samples, the smallest nanodiamond still hosting a stable nitrogen-vacancy centre observed was 8 nm.

  10. Direct printing and reduction of graphite oxide for flexible supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hanyung; Ve Cheah, Chang; Jeong, Namjo; Lee, Junghoon

    2014-08-04

    We report direct printing and photo-thermal reduction of graphite oxide (GO) to obtain a highly porous pattern of interdigitated electrodes, leading to a supercapacitor on a flexible substrate. Key parameters optimized include the amount of GO delivered, the suitable photo-thermal energy level for effective flash reduction, and the substrate properties for appropriate adhesion after reduction. Tests with supercapacitors based on the printed-reduced GO showed performance comparable with commercial supercapacitors: the energy densities were 1.06 and 0.87 mWh/cm{sup 3} in ionic and organic electrolytes, respectively. The versatility in the architecture and choice of substrate makes this material promising for smart power applications.

  11. Ramsey County commercial, industrial, institutional waste reduction and recycling program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyman-Onkka, C.

    1995-09-01

    The Ramsey County Commercial, Industrial, Institutional Waste Reduction and Recycling Program was developed (1) to raise awareness of waste reduction and recycling opportunities for businesses, (2) to make information available to businesses, (3) to provide technical assistance to small and medium sized businesses on waste reduction and recycling, and (4) to raise awareness of Ramsey County as a technical resource. Ramsey County was founded in 1849 and is named for Alexander Ramsey, the first governor of the Minnesota Territory. Ramsey County is the smallest, most urban of all 87 counties in Minnesota. With 170 square miles and a 1990 population of 485,000, Ramsey has the most people per square mile of any county in Minnesota. There are 19 cities within the County, the largest is Saint Paul with a 1990 population of 272,000. There are no unincorporated areas in Ramsey County. This report describes the efforts directed towards raising the awareness of the county waste management, recycling program.

  12. Reduction of beta* and increase of luminosity at RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilat,F.; Bai, M.; Bruno, D.; Cameron, P.; Della Penna, A.; Drees, A.; Litvinenko, V.; Luo, Y.; Malitsky, N.; Marr, G.; Ptitsyn, V.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.

    2009-05-04

    The reduction of {beta}* beyond the 1m design value at RHIC has been consistently achieved over the last 6 years of RHIC operations, resulting in an increase of luminosity for different running modes and species. During the recent 2007-08 deuteron-gold run the reduction to 0.70 from the design 1m achieved a 30% increase in delivered luminosity. The key ingredients allowing the reduction have been the capability of efficiently developing ramps with tune and coupling feedback, orbit corrections on the ramp, and collimation, to minimize beam losses in the final focus triplets, the main aperture limitations for the collision optics. We will describe the operational strategy used to reduce the {beta}*, at first squeezing the beam at store, to test feasibility, followed by the operationally preferred option of squeezing the beam during acceleration, and the resulting luminosity increase. We will conclude with future plans for the beta squeeze.

  13. Reduction of Magnetic Noise in Atom Chips by Material Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Dikovsky; Y. Japha; C. Henkel; R. Folman

    2005-06-05

    We discuss the contribution of the material type in metal wires to the electromagnetic fluctuations in magnetic microtraps close to the surface of an atom chip. We show that significant reduction of the magnetic noise can be achieved by replacing the pure noble metal wires with their dilute alloys. The alloy composition provides an additional degree of freedom which enables a controlled reduction of both magnetic noise and resistivity if the atom chip is cooled. In addition, we provide a careful re-analysis of the magnetically induced trap loss observed by Yu-Ju Lin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 050404 (2004)] and find good agreement with an improved theory.

  14. Reductive stripping process for uranium recovery from organic extracts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurst, F.J. Jr.

    1983-06-16

    In the reductive stripping of uranium from an organic extractant in a uranium recovery process, the use of phosphoric acid having a molarity in the range of 8 to 10 increases the efficiency of the reductive stripping and allows the strip step to operate with lower aqueous to organic recycle ratios and shorter retention time in the mixer stages. Under these operating conditions, less solvent is required in the process, and smaller, less expensive process equipment can be utilized. The high strength H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ is available from the evaporator stage of the process.

  15. U.S. Virgin Islands Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.

    2011-09-01

    This NREL technical report determines a way for USVI to meet its petroleum reduction goal in the transportation sector. It does so first by estimating current petroleum use and key statistics and characteristics of USVI transportation. It then breaks the goal down into subordinate goals and estimates the petroleum impacts of these goals with a wedge analysis. These goals focus on reducing vehicle miles, improving fuel economy, improving traffic flow, using electric vehicles, using biodiesel and renewable diesel, and using 10% ethanol in gasoline. The final section of the report suggests specific projects to achieve the goals, and ranks the projects according to cost, petroleum reduction, time frame, and popularity.

  16. Applicability of hydroxylamine nitrate reductant in pulse-column contactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reif, D.J.

    1983-05-01

    Uranium and plutonium separations were made from simulated breeder reactor spent fuel dissolver solution with laboratory-sized pulse column contactors. Hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) was used for reduction of plutonium (1V). An integrated extraction-partition system, simulating a breeder fuel reprocessing flowsheet, carried out a partial partition of uranium and plutonium in the second contactor. Tests have shown that acceptable coprocessing can be ontained using HAN as a plutonium reductant. Pulse column performance was stable even though gaseous HAN oxidation products were present in the column. Gas evolution rates up to 0.27 cfm/ft/sup 2/ of column cross section were tested and found acceptable.

  17. Proceedings of the 1998 diesel engine emissions reduction workshop [DEER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    This workshop was held July 6--9, 1998 in Castine, Maine. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on reduction of diesel engine emissions. Attention was focused on the following: agency/organization concerns on engine emissions; diesel engine issues and challenges; health risks from diesel engines emissions; fuels and lubrication technologies; non-thermal plasma and urea after-treatment technologies; and diesel engine technologies for emission reduction 1 and 2.

  18. Trace Reduction for Virtual Memory Simulations Scott F. Kaplan, Yannis Smaragdakis, and Paul R. Wilson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smaragdakis, Yannis

    reduction techniques. In this paper we present two new algorithms for trace re- duction | Safely AllowedTrace Reduction for Virtual Memory Simulations Scott F. Kaplan, Yannis Smaragdakis, and Paul R Drop SAD and Optimal LRU Reduction OLR. Both achieve high reduction factors and guarantee exact

  19. Trace Reduction for Virtual Memory Simulations Scott F. Kaplan, Yannis Smaragdakis, and Paul R. Wilson \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaplan, Scott

    reduction techniques. In this paper we present two new algorithms for trace re­ duction --- Safely AllowedTrace Reduction for Virtual Memory Simulations Scott F. Kaplan, Yannis Smaragdakis, and Paul R Drop (SAD) and Optimal LRU Reduction (OLR). Both achieve high reduction factors and guarantee exact

  20. Trace Reduction for Virtual Memory Simulations Scott F. Kaplan, Yannis Smaragdakis, and Paul R. Wilson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaplan, Scott

    reduction techniques. In this paper we present two new algorithms for trace re- duction | Safely AllowedTrace Reduction for Virtual Memory Simulations Scott F. Kaplan, Yannis Smaragdakis, and Paul R Drop (SAD) and Optimal LRU Reduction (OLR). Both achieve high reduction factors and guarantee exact

  1. Reduction operators and exact solutions of variable coefficient nonlinear wave equations with power nonlinearities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding-jiang Huang; Qin-min Yang; Shui-geng Zhou

    2013-12-18

    Reduction operators, i.e. the operators of nonclassical (or conditional) symmetry of a class of variable coefficient nonlinear wave equations with power nonlinearities is investigated within the framework of singular reduction operator. A classification of regular reduction operators is performedwith respect to generalized extended equivalence groups. Exact solutions of some nonlinear wave model which are invariant under certain reduction operators are also constructed.

  2. Hybrid Geometric Reduction of Hybrid Systems Aaron D. Ames and Shankar Sastry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sastry, S. Shankar

    Hybrid Geometric Reduction of Hybrid Systems Aaron D. Ames and Shankar Sastry Abstract-- This paper presents a unifying framework in which to carry out the hybrid geometric reduction of hybrid systems, generalizing classical reduction to a hybrid setting. I. INTRODUCTION The reduction of mechanical systems

  3. Demonstrated Petroleum Reduction Using Oil Bypass Filter Technology on Heavy and Light Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Idaho National Engineering and Enviroonmental Laboratory

  4. Reaction rate kinetics for the non-catalytic hydrogenation of Texas lignite with tetralin and hydrogen gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shumbera, David Allen

    1980-01-01

    gases form by cracking of the heavies. It was concluded that the model needed modifications to account for hydrogen donor and hydrocracking reactions. Shalabi et al. (1979) experimentally determined the rates of formation for oil, asphaltenes...

  5. The Non-catalytic Chitin-binding Protein CBP21 from Serratia marcescens Is Essential for Chitin Degradation*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Aalten, Daan

    . Homologues also occur in chitinase-containing insect viruses, whose infectious- ness is known to depend-acetylglucosamine, is produced in the biosphere, mainly by insects, fungi, crustaceans, and other marine organisms (1). Like some non-path- ogenic fungi such as Trichoderma species are considered as "biocontrol" agents because

  6. Approximate Dynamic Programming for Networks: Fluid Models and Constraint Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veatch, Michael H.

    of approximating functions for the differential cost. The first contribution of this paper is identifying new or piece-wise quadratic. Fluid cost has been used to initialize the value iteration algorithm [5Approximate Dynamic Programming for Networks: Fluid Models and Constraint Reduction Michael H

  7. EP 1165-2-1 FLOOD DAMAGE REDUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    EP 1165-2-1 30 Jul 99 13-1 CHAPTER 13 FLOOD DAMAGE REDUCTION 13-1. The Federal Interest. Congress, in the Flood Control Act of 1936, established as a nationwide policy that flood control (i.e., flood damage consideration of all alternatives in controlling flood waters, reducing the susceptibility of property to flood

  8. NOISE REDUCTION TECHNIQUE FOR A SIMULATION OPTIMISATION STUDY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aickelin, Uwe

    1 NOISE REDUCTION TECHNIQUE FOR A SIMULATION OPTIMISATION STUDY Adrian Adewunmi*, Uwe Aickelin 11 to reducing the noise associated with such a procedure. We are applying this proposed solution approach to our and the variability of manual order picker skill. It is known that there is noise in the output of discrete event

  9. Substrate Noise Reduction Based On Noise Aware Cell Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Eby G.

    Substrate Noise Reduction Based On Noise Aware Cell Design Emre Salman, Eby G. Friedman Department dedicated sub- strate contacts in those cells behaving as aggressive digital noise generators. These contacts are connected to a dedicated ground network. The proposed approach reduces two primary noise

  10. Noise Reduction of a Turbofan Bleed Valve Vincent Phong1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papamoschou, Dimitri

    Noise Reduction of a Turbofan Bleed Valve Vincent Phong1 , Shervin Taghavi Nezhad2 , Feng Liu3 and computational research effort investigated the noise sources of a pneumatic bleed valve used in turbofan engines, rapid-prototyped valve designs which enabled the exploration of a large parameter space. Microphone

  11. On Transition Metal Catalyzed Reduction of N-nitrosodimethlamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Jun; Tian, Junhua; Zhao, Zhun

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a critical review on "Metal-Catalyzed Reduction of N-Nitrosodimethylamine with Hydrogen in Water", by Davie et al. N-nitrosodimethlamine (NDMA) is a contaminant in drinking and ground water which is difficult to remove by conventional physical methods, such as air stripping. Based on the reported robust capability of metal based powder shaped catalysts in hydrogen reduction, several monometallic and bimetallic catalyst are studied in this paper on the reduction of NDMA with hydrogen. Two kinds of kinetics, metal weight normalized and surface area normalized, are compared between each catalyst in terms of pseudo-first order reaction rate. Palladium, copper enhanced palladium and nickel are found to be very efficient in NDMA reduction, with half-lives on the order of hours per 10 mg/l catalyst metal. Preliminary LC-MS data and carbon balance showed no intermediates. Finally, a simple hydrogen and NMDA surface activated reaction mechanism is proposed by the author for palladium and nickel.

  12. Error Control Based Model Reduction for Parameter Optimization of Elliptic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of technical devices that rely on multiscale processes, such as fuel cells or batteries. As the solutionError Control Based Model Reduction for Parameter Optimization of Elliptic Homogenization Problems optimization of elliptic multiscale problems with macroscopic optimization functionals and microscopic material

  13. Emissions Reductions as a Result of Automobile Improvement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    Emissions Reductions as a Result of Automobile Improvement S A J A L S . P O K H A R E L , G A R Y emissions of automobile fleets in Denver for 13 years and in two other U.S. cities for 5 years. Analysis continually less polluting independent of measurement location. Improving emissions control technology spurred

  14. NOx reduction by electron beam-produced nitrogen atom injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Deactivated atomic nitrogen generated by an electron beam from a gas stream containing more than 99% N.sub.2 is injected at low temperatures into an engine exhaust to reduce NOx emissions. High NOx reduction efficiency is achieved with compact electron beam devices without use of a catalyst.

  15. Green Scheduling: Scheduling of Control Systems for Peak Power Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pappas, George J.

    Green Scheduling: Scheduling of Control Systems for Peak Power Reduction Truong Nghiem, Madhur Behl, George J. Pappas and Rahul Mangharam Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering University and air quality control systems within buildings and datacenters operate independently of each other

  16. Cardiac Computed Tomography Radiation Dose Reduction Using Interior Reconstruction Algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ge

    recommendations are to use radiation dose as low as possible while satisfying the diagnosis requirement. ThereforeCardiac Computed Tomography Radiation Dose Reduction Using Interior Reconstruction Algorithm. Jeffrey Carr, MD,§¶ and Ge Wang, PhD,*Þþ Abstract: High x-ray radiation dose is a major public concern

  17. New York Offshore Wind Cost Reduction Study Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    New York Offshore Wind Cost Reduction Study Final Report Prepared for: New York State Energy of Delaware Special Initiative on Offshore Wind Stephanie McClellan, Ph.D. Director Deniz Ozkan, Ph Fund and Mertz Gilmore Foundation provided funding to the Special Initiative on Offshore Wind

  18. Furlough or Reduction in Force in the Senior Executive Service

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2003-05-15

    To establish requirements and assign responsibilities for furlough and reduction in force (RIF) of the Senior Executive Service (SES) in the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). Supersedes O DOE 3350.1 Chg 1 and DOE 3351.2 Chg 1.

  19. Flooding of Industrial Facilities -Vulnerability Reduction in Practice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    any improvement. As human activities historically developed in river areas and floodplains, industrial-use planning in flood-prone areas and vulnerability reduction in flood-prone facilities. This paper focuses of hazardous material, soil or water pollutions by hazardous substances for the environment, fires, explosions

  20. Scaling Distributed Energy Storage for Grid Peak Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Scaling Distributed Energy Storage for Grid Peak Reduction Aditya Mishra, David Irwin, Prashant efforts have shown how variable rate pricing can incentivize consumers to use energy storage to cut to describe the issues with incentivizing energy storage us- ing variable rates. We then propose a simple way

  1. Topeka, Kansas, Flood Damage Reduction Project 30 January 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    provides for flood risk management and restores the reliability of the Topeka, Kansas, Levee System located and reservoirs that provides flood risk management benefits to the Kansas River basin. During project analysisTopeka, Kansas, Flood Damage Reduction Project 30 January 2009 Abstract: The recommended plan

  2. IMPROVING PUBLIC SAFETY FROM FEDERAL PROTECTION TO SHARED RISK REDUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Don Riley US Army Corps of Engineers Responsibility for flood risk management in the United States and promoting sound flood risk management. The authority to determine how land is used in floodplains to mitigate flood risk and the performance of federal flood damage reduction infrastructure. One key challenge

  3. Guaranteed Passive Balancing Transformations for Model Order Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, Rafael

    Guaranteed Passive Balancing Transformations for Model Order Reduction Joel Phillips Cadence stable and efficient generation of the models, and preser- vation of system properties such as passivity. Algorithms such as PRIMA generate guaranteed-passive models, for systems with special internal structure

  4. Proton reduction by molecular catalysts in water under demanding atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wakerley, David W.; Gross, Manuela A.; Reisner, Erwin

    2014-11-10

    The electrocatalytic proton reduction activity of a Ni bis(diphosphine) (NiP) and a cobaloxime (CoP) catalyst has been studied in water in the presence of the gaseous inhibitors O2 and CO. CoP shows an appreciable tolerance towards O2, but its...

  5. Water Reduction DOI: 10.1002/anie.201409813

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Water Reduction DOI: 10.1002/anie.201409813 Ligand Transformations and Efficient Proton/Water converted into an amide complex 4 in presence of adventitious water. Introduction of an N-methyl protecting and CoII 5 show electrocatalytic H2 generation in weakly acidic media as well as in water. Mechanisms

  6. Reduction of tropical land region precipitation variability via transpiration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gentine, Pierre

    plants through open stomata: this process (transpiration) cools the plant and facilitates transportReduction of tropical land region precipitation variability via transpiration Jung-Eun Lee,1 in observations and models. In the present study, the potential role of transpiration for this difference

  7. The Areal Reduction Factor (ARF) : a multifractal analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langousis, Andreas, 1981-

    2005-01-01

    The Areal Reduction Factor (ARF) [eta] is a key parameter in the design for hydrologic extremes. For a basin of area A, [eta](A, D, 7) is the ratio between the area-average rainfall intensity over a duration D with return ...

  8. Perceptual priming leads to reduction of gamma frequency oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazhenov, Maxim

    representations in the higher visual areas and the prefrontal cortex. Here, we present a network model of spiking; surprisingly, perception is improved by prior experience with the object. Priming is an unconscious form by reduction of neural activity in priming experi- ments was demonstrated to occur in a rate model (14) based

  9. Sediment Yield Response to Sediment Reduction Strategies Implemented for 10

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    195 Sediment Yield Response to Sediment Reduction Strategies Implemented for 10 Years in Watersheds impact practices designed to reduce sediment delivery according to voluntary agreements and regulatory of sediment processes within the past 50 years when information is most reliable have created watershed

  10. The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by 2025. Due to the state's heavy reliance on coal as a fuel source for electricity generation, Indiana#12;The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on Electricity Prices on the projected prices of electricity and the use of electric energy in the state of Indiana. The analysis

  11. Reduction of Film Coolant in High Pressure Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirsum Institute of Power Plant Technology, Steam and Gas Turbines, RWTH Aachen Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ingo RöhleReduction of Film Coolant in High Pressure Turbines Bachelor Thesis in Computational Engineering Institute of Propulsion Technology, German Aerospace Center #12;Abstract Gas turbine development has been

  12. Geometric reduction in optimal control theory with symmetries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Echeverría-Enríquez; J. Marín-Solano; M. C. Muñoz-Lecanda; N. Román-Roy

    2003-01-30

    A general study of symmetries in optimal control theory is given, starting from the presymplectic description of this kind of system. Then, Noether's theorem, as well as the corresponding reduction procedure (based on the application of the Marsden-Weinstein theorem adapted to the presymplectic case) are stated both in the regular and singular cases, which are previously described.

  13. Impact of Heavy Duty Vehicle Emissions Reductions on Global Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2010-08-01

    The impact of a specified set of emissions reductions from heavy duty vehicles on climate change is calculated using the MAGICC 5.3 climate model. The integrated impact of the following emissions changes are considered: CO2, CH4, N2O, VOC, NOx, and SO2. This brief summarizes the assumptions and methods used for this calculation.

  14. Thermo-Wetting and Friction Reduction Characterization of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hidrovo, Carlos H.

    such surfaces include frost prevention on aircraft flight surfaces to self-cleaning features on solar energy Microtextured superhydrophobic surfaces have shown potential in friction reduction applications and could the Cassie state even under elevated pressure drops by increasing the temperature in the gas layer

  15. Generalised hydrodynamic reductions of the kinetic equation for soliton gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Generalised hydrodynamic reductions of the kinetic equation for soliton gas Gennady A. El1 , Maxim of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 53 Leninskij Prospekt, Moscow, Russia 3 Laboratory of Geometric, Moscow, Russia 4 Institute for Nuclear Research, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 47 pr. Nauky

  16. English version UNISDR Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction (2009)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    version "Terminology: Basic terms of disaster risk reduction" was published in "Living with risk: a global that a society or community considers acceptable given existing social, economic, political, cultural, technical and environmental conditions. Comment: In engineering terms, acceptable risk is also used to assess and define

  17. Noise Reduction with Microphone Arrays for Speaker Identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, Z

    2011-12-22

    Reducing acoustic noise in audio recordings is an ongoing problem that plagues many applications. This noise is hard to reduce because of interfering sources and non-stationary behavior of the overall background noise. Many single channel noise reduction algorithms exist but are limited in that the more the noise is reduced; the more the signal of interest is distorted due to the fact that the signal and noise overlap in frequency. Specifically acoustic background noise causes problems in the area of speaker identification. Recording a speaker in the presence of acoustic noise ultimately limits the performance and confidence of speaker identification algorithms. In situations where it is impossible to control the environment where the speech sample is taken, noise reduction filtering algorithms need to be developed to clean the recorded speech of background noise. Because single channel noise reduction algorithms would distort the speech signal, the overall challenge of this project was to see if spatial information provided by microphone arrays could be exploited to aid in speaker identification. The goals are: (1) Test the feasibility of using microphone arrays to reduce background noise in speech recordings; (2) Characterize and compare different multichannel noise reduction algorithms; (3) Provide recommendations for using these multichannel algorithms; and (4) Ultimately answer the question - Can the use of microphone arrays aid in speaker identification?

  18. EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT AND VARIANCE REDUCTION Pierre L'Ecuyer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vázquez-Abad, Felisa J.

    EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT AND VARIANCE REDUCTION Pierre L'Ecuyer D'epartement d'IRO Universit'e de techniques for im­ proving the statistical efficiency of simulation esti­ mators. Efficiency improvement survey the recent literature on this topic. 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. A Notion of Efficiency Stochastic

  19. Walton County Coastal Storm Damage Reduction Project Walton County, FL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    to reduce coastal storm damages by constructing berms and dunes along 18.8 miles of Walton County shoreline;vegetation and replacement of dune walkover structures as required. Material for the berm and duneWalton County Coastal Storm Damage Reduction Project Walton County, FL 13 December 2012 ABSTRACT

  20. Catalytic Methane Reduction in the Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Catalytic Methane Reduction in the Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engines Peter Mauermann1,* , Michael Dornseiffer6 , Frank Amkreutz6 1 Institute for Combustion Engines , RWTH Aachen University, Schinkelstr. 8, D of the hydrocarbon exhaust of internal combustion engines. In contrast to other gaseous hydrocarbons, significant

  1. An oxygen reduction electrocatalyst based on carbon nanotubegraphene complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    such as platinum or its alloys are routinely used in fuel cells because of their high activity. Carbon alloys) for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acidic media for proton-exchange membrane fuel cells1, and designing catalysts with both optimal activity and stability for ORR in acidic solutions all remain

  2. Dynamic Partial Order Reduction for Relaxed Memory Models Naling Zhang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chao

    Tech Blacksburg, VA, USA chaowang@vt.edu Abstract Under a relaxed memory model such as TSO or PSO reduction (POR) algorithm for verify- ing concurrent programs under TSO and PSO. Our method relies techniques to TSO and PSO without overhauling the verification algorithm. In addition to sound POR, we also

  3. SOLVING 7 7 HEX: VIRTUAL CONNECTIONS AND GAMESTATE REDUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayward, Ryan B.

    SOLVING 7#2;7 HEX: VIRTUAL CONNECTIONS AND GAME­STATE REDUCTION R. Hayward, Y. BjË? ornsson, M. Johanson, M. Kan, N. Po, J. van Rijswijck Department of Computing Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada {hayward,yngvi,johanson,mkan,nathan,javhar}@cs.ualberta.ca, http

  4. Scenario Reduction and Scenario Tree Construction for Power Management Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Römisch, Werner

    1 Scenario Reduction and Scenario Tree Construction for Power Management Problems Nicole Gr¨owe-Kuska, Holger Heitsch and Werner R¨omisch Abstract-- Portfolio and risk management problems of power utilities and corresponding probabilities to model the multivariate random data process (electrical load, stream flows

  5. Order Reduction of a Distributed Parameter PEM Fuel Cell Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batlle, Carles

    reduction of the PEMFC 5 Conclusions and outlook 2 / 17 iberconappice2014 #12;Introduction Distributed and durability of the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC). Large number of differential algebraic dimension DAE system obtained from a first principles, PDE model of the PEMFC. Both the original full order

  6. Emergence of Time from Dimensional Reduction in Noncommutative Geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chong-Sun Chu; Olaf Lechtenfeld

    2006-01-19

    By considering a new form of dimensional reduction for noncommutative field theory, we show that the signature of spacetime may be changed. In particular, it is demonstrated that a temporal dimension can emerge from a purely Euclidean geometry. We suggest that this mechanism may hint at the origin of time in the fundamental theory of quantum gravity.

  7. Fusion Frames and Robust Dimension Reduction Ali Pezeshki

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kutyniok, Gitta

    Fusion Frames and Robust Dimension Reduction Ali Pezeshki Princeton University Princeton, NJ 08544 fusion frame measurements in presence noise and subspace erasures. Each fusion frame mea- surement is a low-dimensional vector whose elements are inner products of an orthogonal basis for a fusion frame

  8. Uranium Reduction in Sediments under Diffusion-Limited Transport of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry

    Uranium Reduction in Sediments under Diffusion-Limited Transport of Organic Carbon T E T S U K, Chicago, Illinois 60637 Costly disposal of uranium (U) contaminated sediments is motivating research. Introduction Uranium (U) is an important subsurface contaminant at sites associated with its mining

  9. Chromium(VI) Reduction by Hydrogen Sulfide in Aqueous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Baolin

    , A N D H U I F A N G X U § Department of Environmental Engineering, New Mexico Institute of Mining reductants including zero-valent iron (5, 6), divalent iron (7-15), Fe(II)-bearing minerals (8, 16

  10. Evidence of magnetic isotope effects during thermochemical sulfate reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaufman, Alan Jay

    such as adsorption of S-bearing com- pounds on surfaces of solids (13). Magnetic isotope effects are expressedEvidence of magnetic isotope effects during thermochemical sulfate reduction Harry Oduroa,b,1 S are attributed to a magnetic isotope effect (MIE) associated with the formation of thiol-disulfide, ion

  11. Sensitivity to parameter and data variations in dimensionality reduction techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verleysen, Michel

    - Machine Learning Group ICTEAM/ELEN - Place du Levant, 3 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium 3- Univ. Catholique, Belgium Abstract. Dimensionality reduction techniques aim at representing high- dimensional data of data is available in many different fields, such as medical imaging, process control and text mining

  12. Lagrangian Reduction, the EulerPoincare Equations, and Semidirect Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marsden, Jerrold

    reduction for semidirect products, which applies to examples such as the heavy top, com- pressible fluids equations for a fluid or a rigid body, namely Lie-Poisson systems on the dual of a Lie algebra and their Lagrangian counterpart, the "pure" Euler-Poincar´e equations on a Lie algebra. The Lie-Poisson Equations

  13. A Fast Algorithm for Modular Reduction C. K. Koc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    produced by a carry save adder. Given the (n + k)-bit X and the n-bit M, the modular reduction algorithm to obtain efficient VLSI implementations of exponentiation cryptosystems. Key Words: Carry save adder, sign, the sign of a number may not be readily available. In particular, when the carry save addition technique

  14. Reduction of Metal Oxide to Metal using Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ramana Reddy

    2012-04-12

    A novel pathway for the high efficiency production of metal from metal oxide means of electrolysis in ionic liquids at low temperature was investigated. The main emphasis was to eliminate the use of carbon and high temperature application in the reduction of metal oxides to metals. The emphasis of this research was to produce metals such as Zn, and Pb that are normally produced by the application of very high temperatures. The reduction of zinc oxide to zinc and lead oxide to lead were investigated. This study involved three steps in accomplishing the final goal of reduction of metal oxide to metal using ionic liquids: 1) Dissolution of metal oxide in an ionic liquid, 2) Determination of reduction potential using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and 3) Reduction of the dissolved metal oxide. Ionic liquids provide additional advantage by offering a wide potential range for the deposition. In each and every step of the process, more than one process variable has been examined. Experimental results for electrochemical extraction of Zn from ZnO and Pb from PbO using eutectic mixtures of Urea ((NH2)2CO) and Choline chloride (HOC2H4N(CH3)3+Cl-) or (ChCl) in a molar ratio 2:1, varying voltage and temperatures were carried out. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy studies of ionic liquids with and without metal oxide additions were conducted. FTIR and induction coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICPS) was used in the characterization of the metal oxide dissolved ionic liquid. Electrochemical experiments were conducted using EG&G potentiostat/galvanostat with three electrode cell systems. Cyclic voltammetry was used in the determination of reduction potentials for the deposition of metals. Chronoamperometric experiments were carried out in the potential range of -0.6V to -1.9V for lead and -1.4V to -1.9V for zinc. The deposits were characterized using XRD and SEM-EDS for phase, morphological and elemental analysis. The results showed that pure metal was deposited on the cathode. Successful extraction of metal from metal oxide dissolved in Urea/ChCl (2:1) was accomplished. The current efficiencies were relatively high in both the metal deposition processes with current efficiency greater than 86% for lead and 95% for zinc. This technology will advance the metal oxide reduction process by increasing the process efficiency and also eliminate the production of CO2 which makes this an environmentally benign technology for metal extraction.

  15. Caterpillar MorElectric DOE Idle Reduction Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Bernardi

    2007-09-30

    This project titled 'Demonstration of the New MorElectric{trademark} Technology as an Idle Reduction Solution' is one of four demonstration projects awarded by the US Department of Energy in 2002. The goal of these demonstration and evaluation projects was to gather objective in-use information on the performance of available idle reduction technologies by characterizing the cost; fuel, maintenance, and engine life savings; payback; and user impressions of various systems and techniques. In brief, the Caterpillar Inc. project involved applying electrically driven accessories for cab comfort during engine-off stops and for reducing fuel consumption during on-highway operation. Caterpillar had equipped and operated five new trucks with the technology in conjunction with International Truck and Engine Corporation and COX Transfer. The most significant result of the project was a demonstrated average idle reduction of 13.8% for the 5 truck MEI fleet over the control fleet. It should be noted that the control fleet trucks were also equipped with an idle reduction device that would start and stop the main engine automatically in order to maintain cab temperature. The control fleet idle usage would have been reduced by 3858 hours over the 2 year period with the MEI system installed, or approximately 2315 gallons of fuel less (calculations assume a fuel consumption of 0.6 gallons per hour for the 13 liter engine at idle). The fuel saved will be significantly larger for higher displacement engines without idle reduction equipment such as the engine auto start/stop device used by COX Transfer. It is common for engines to consume 1.0 gallons per hour which would increase the fuel savings to approximately 1260 gallons per truck per year of typical idling (1800 hours idle/yr).

  16. Overview of reductants utilized in nuclear fuel reprocessing/recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Catherine Riddle; Keri Campbell; Edward Mausolf

    2013-10-01

    Most of the aqueous processes developed, or under consideration worldwide for the recycling of used nuclear fuel (UNF) utilize the oxido-reduction properties of actinides to separate them from other radionuclides. Generally, after acid dissolution of the UNF, (essentially in nitric acid solution), actinides are separated from the raffinate by liquid-liquid extraction using specific solvents, associated along the process, with a particular reductant that will allow the separation to occur. For example, the industrial PUREX process utilizes hydroxylamine as a plutonium reductant. Hydroxylamine has numerous advantages: not only does it have the proper attributes to reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III), but it is also a non-metallic chemical that is readily decomposed to innocuous products by heating. However, it has been observed that the presence of high nitric acid concentrations or impurities (such as metal ions) in hydroxylamine solutions increase the likelihood of the initiation of an autocatalytic reaction. Recently there has been some interest in the application of simple hydrophilic hydroxamic ligands such as acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) for the stripping of tetravalent actinides in the UREX process flowsheet. This approach is based on the high coordinating ability of hydroxamic acids with tetravalent actinides (Np and Pu) compared with hexavalent uranium. Thus, the use of AHA offers a route for controlling neptunium and plutonium in the UREX process by complexant based stripping of Np(IV) and Pu(IV) from the TBP solvent phase, while U(VI) ions are not affected by AHA and remain solvated in the TBP phase. In the European GANEX process, AHA is also used to form hydrophilic complexes with actinides and strip them from the organic phase into nitric acid. However, AHA does not decompose completely when treated with nitric acid and hampers nitric acid recycling. In lieu of using AHA in the UREX + process, formohydroxamic acid (FHA), although not commercially available, hold promises as a replacement for AHA. FHA undergoes hydrolysis to formic acid which is volatile, thus allowing the recycling of nitric acid. Unfortunately, FHA powder was not stable in the experiments we ran in our laboratory. In addition, AHA and FHA also decompose to hydroxylamine which may undergo an autocatalytic reaction. Other reductants are available and could be extremely useful for actinides separation. The review presents the current plutonium reductants used in used nuclear fuel reprocessing and will introduce innovative and novel reductants that could become reducers for future research on UNF separation.

  17. Technical Report for the MVB (MSW & Biomass) Waste to Energy Plants and the AVG Hazardous WTE Plant in Hamburg, Germany

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    is equipped with SNCR technology, baghouse filters, HCl & SO2 scrubbers Power Plant: Coal and Gas MVB Unit 3

  18. Speciation of Energetic Materials on a Microcantilever Using Surface Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, Dechang; Senesac, Larry R; Thundat, Thomas George

    2008-01-01

    Although microcantilevers have been used to detect explosives with extremely high sensitivity using variations in adsorption-induced bending and resonance frequency, obtaining selectivity remains a challenge. Reversible chemoselectivity at ambient temperatures based on receptor-based detection provides only limited selectivity due to the generality of chemical interactions. The oxygen imbalance in secondary explosives presents a means to achieve receptor-free speciation of explosives using surface reduction of adsorbed molecules. We demonstrate highly selective and real-time detection of Trinitrotoluene (TNT) using a copper oxide-coated cantilever with a surface reduction approach. Not only can this technique exclusively differentiate explosives from nonexplosives, but also it has the potential to specify individual explosives such as TNT, pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and RDX. This technique together with receptor-based detection techniques provides a multimodal approach for achieving very high selectivity.

  19. Carbon dioxide reduction to alcohols using perovskite-type electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, M.; Cook, R.L.; Kehoe, V.M.; MacDuff, R.C.; Patel, J.; Sammells, A.F. (Eltron Research, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Electrochemical reduction of CO[sub 2] under ambient conditions to methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol is reported at perovskite-type A[sub 1.8]A[prime][sub 0.2]CuO[sub 4] (A = La, Pr, and Gd; A[prime] = Sr and Th) electrocatalysts when incorporated into gas diffusion electrodes. In the absence of copper at the perovskite B lattice site, no activity was found. This investigation resulted in the identification of electrochemical conditions whereby perovskite-type electrocatalysts could achieve cumulative Faradaic efficiencies for CO[sub 2] reduction to methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol up to [congruent] 40% at current densities of 180 mA/cm[sup 2].

  20. Soft x-ray reduction camera for submicron lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawryluk, Andrew M. (2708 Rembrandt Pl., Modesto, CA 95356); Seppala, Lynn G. (7911 Mines Rd., Livermore, CA 94550)

    1991-01-01

    Soft x-ray projection lithography can be performed using x-ray optical components and spherical imaging lenses (mirrors), which form an x-ray reduction camera. The x-ray reduction is capable of projecting a 5x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer using 4.5 nm radiation. The diffraction limited resolution of this design is about 135 nm with a depth of field of about 2.8 microns and a field of view of 0.2 cm.sup.2. X-ray reflecting masks (patterned x-ray multilayer mirrors) which are fabricated on thick substrates and can be made relatively distortion free are used, with a laser produced plasma for the source. Higher resolution and/or larger areas are possible by varying the optic figures of the components and source characteristics.

  1. Reduction of neutrino - nucleon scattering rate by nucleon - nucleon collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoichi Yamada

    1999-07-05

    We studied possible modifications of the neutrino - nucleon scattering rate due to the nucleon - nucleon collisions in the hot dense matter which we find in the supernova core. We show that the finite width of the nucleon spectral function induced by the nucleon collisions leads to broadening of the dynamical spin structure function of the nucleon, resulting in the reduction of the rate of neutrino - nucleon scattering via the axial vector current and making the energy exchange between neutrinos and nucleons easier. The reduction rate is relatively large (about 0.6) even at density of about 10^{13}g/cm^{3} and could have a significant impact on the dynamics of the collapse-driven supernova as well as the cooling of the proto neutron star.

  2. Technology Roadmap for Energy Reduction in Automotive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2008-09-01

    U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Industrial Technologies Program (ITP), in collaboration with the United States Council for Automotive Research LLC (USCAR), hosted a technology roadmap workshop in Troy, Michigan in May 2008. The purpose of the workshop was to explore opportunities for energy reduction, discuss the challenges and barriers that might need to be overcome, and identify priorities for future R&D. The results of the workshop are presented in this report.

  3. Estimation and Reduction Methodologies for Fugitive Emissions from Equipment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scataglia, A.

    1992-01-01

    and Reduction Methodologies for Fugitive Emissions from Equipment Anthony Scataglia, Branch Manager, Team, Incorporated, Webster, Texas ABSTRACT Environmental regulations have resulted in the need for industrial facilities to reduce fugitive emissions... from equipment leaks to their lowest possible level. This paper presents and compares approved methods outlined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for estimating fugitive emissions from equipment leaks, as well as strategies...

  4. Diesel engine emissions reduction by multiple injections having increasing pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI); Thiel, Matthew P. (Madison, WI)

    2003-01-01

    Multiple fuel charges are injected into a diesel engine combustion chamber during a combustion cycle, and each charge after the first has successively greater injection pressure (a higher injection rate) than the prior charge. This injection scheme results in reduced emissions, particularly particulate emissions, and can be implemented by modifying existing injection system hardware. Further enhancements in emissions reduction and engine performance can be obtained by using known measures in conjunction with the invention, such as Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR).

  5. Molten carbonate fuel cell reduction of nickel deposits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL); Zwick, Stanley A. (Darien, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A molten carbonate fuel cell with anode and cathode electrodes and an eleolyte formed with two tile sections, one of the tile sections being adjacent the anode and limiting leakage of fuel gas into the electrolyte with the second tile section being adjacent the cathode and having pores sized to permit the presence of oxygen gas in the electrolyte thereby limiting the formation of metal deposits caused by the reduction of metal compositions migrating into the electrolyte from the cathode.

  6. Chern-Simons Reduction and non-Abelian Fluid Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Jackiw; V. P. Nair; So-Young Pi

    2000-07-17

    We propose a non-Abelian generalization of the Clebsch parameterization for a vector in three dimensions. The construction is based on a group-theoretical reduction of the Chern-Simons form on a symmetric space. The formalism is then used to give a canonical (symplectic) discussion of non-Abelian fluid mechanics, analogous to the way the Abelian Clebsch parameterization allows a canonical description of conventional fluid mechanics.

  7. SU(2) reduction in N=4 supersymmetric mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergey Krivonos; Olaf Lechtenfeld

    2009-06-15

    We perform an su(2) Hamiltonian reduction of the general su(2)-invariant action for a self-coupled (4,4,0) supermultiplet. As a result, we elegantly recover the N=4 supersymmetric mechanics with spin degrees of freedom which was recently constructed in arXiv:0812.4276. This observation underscores the exceptional role played by the ``root'' supermultiplet in N=4 supersymmetric mechanics.

  8. Iron Corrosion Observations: Pu(VI)-Fe Reduction Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, Donald T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swanson, Juliet S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Richmann, Michael K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lucchini, Jean-Francois [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borkowski, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-11

    Iron and Pu Reduction: (1) Very different appearances in iron reaction products were noted depending on pH, brine and initial iron phase; (2) Plutonium was associated with the Fe phases; (3) Green rust was often noted at the higher pH; (4) XANES established the green rust to be an Fe2/3 phase with a bromide center; and (5) This green rust phase was linked to Pu as Pu(IV).

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Programs at Tennessee Schools

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg FindPortsasIdle Reduction Programs at Tennessee

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Related Links

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg FindPortsasIdle Reduction Programs at

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Research and Development

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg FindPortsasIdle Reduction Programs atIdle

  12. Pre-converted nitric oxide gas in catalytic reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsiao, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Penetrante, B.M.; Vogtlin, G.E.

    1999-04-06

    A two-stage catalyst comprises an oxidative first stage and a reductive second stage. The first stage is intended to convert NO to NO{sub 2} in the presence of O{sub 2}. The second stage serves to convert NO{sub 2} to environmentally benign gases that include N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O. By preconverting NO to NO{sub 2} in the first stage, the efficiency of the second stage for NO{sub x} reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber. An oxidizing first catalyst converts NO to NO{sub 2} in the presence of O{sub 2} and includes platinum/alumina, e.g., Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. A flow of hydrocarbons (C{sub x}H{sub y}) is input from a pipe into a second chamber. For example, propene can be used as a source of hydrocarbons. The NO{sub 2} from the first catalyst mixes with the hydrocarbons in the second chamber. The mixture proceeds to a second reduction catalyst that converts NO{sub 2} to N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O, and includes a {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The hydrocarbons and NO{sub x} are simultaneously reduced while passing through the second catalyst. 9 figs.

  13. Pre-converted nitric oxide gas in catalytic reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsiao, Mark C. (Livermore, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A two-stage catalyst comprises an oxidative first stage and a reductive second stage. The first stage is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2. The second stage serves to convert NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N2, CO2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber. An oxidizing first catalyst converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and includes platinum/alumina, e.g., Pt/Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 catalyst. A flow of hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from a pipe into a second chamber. For example, propene can be used as a source of hydrocarbons. The NO.sub.2 from the first catalyst mixes with the hydrocarbons in the second chamber. The mixture proceeds to a second reduction catalyst that converts NO.sub.2 to N2, CO2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a gamma-alumina .gamma.-Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the second catalyst.

  14. NOx reduction aftertreatment system using nitrogen nonthermal plasma desorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okubo, M.; Inoue, M.; Kuroki, T.; Yamamoto, T.

    2005-08-01

    In the flue emission from an internal combustion system using diffusing combustion such as coal or oil fuel boiler, incinerator, or diesel engine, around 10% oxygen is usually included. It is difficult to reduce the NOx in the emission completely using catalysts or plasma alone because part of the NO is oxidized under an O{sub 2}-rich environment. In order to overcome these difficulties, we propose a new aftertreatment system of NOx included in the exhaust gas of the combustion system using nonthermal plasma (NTP) desorption and reduction. In this system, exchangeable adsorbent columns are equipped. As an initial step to realize such kind of aftertreatment system, the basic characteristics of the N{sub 2} NTP desorption and NOx reduction were examined experimentally using a pulse corona NTP reactor. After several adsorption/desorption processes, the amount of NOx adsorbed becomes equal to that of the NOx desorbed, that is, all the NO, was desorbed in a single desorption process. It is confirmed that the NOx complete reduction using N{sub 2} NTP desorption is possible not only for a simulated exhaust gas but for a real diesel engine gas. The effective specific energy density can be decreased down to 22 Wh/m{sup 3}.

  15. Abiotic Reductive Immobilization of U(VI) by Biogenic Mackinawite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veeramani, Harish; Scheinost, Andreas; Monsegue, Niven; Qafoku, Nikolla; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Newville, Mathew; Lanzirotti, Anthony; Pruden, Amy; Murayama, Mitsuhiro; Hochella, Michael F.

    2013-03-01

    During subsurface bioremediation of uranium-contaminated sites, indigenous metal and sulfate-reducing bacteria may utilize a variety of electron acceptors, including ferric iron and sulfate that could lead to the formation of various biogenic minerals in-situ. Sulfides, as well as structural and adsorbed Fe(II) associated with biogenic Fe(II)-sulfide phases, can potentially catalyze abiotic U6+ reduction via direct electron transfer processes. In the present work, the propensity of biogenic mackinawite (Fe1+xS, x = 0 to 0.11) to reduce U6+ abiotically was investigated. The biogenic mackinawite produced by Shewanella putrefaciens strain CN32 was characterized by employing a suite of analytical techniques including TEM, SEM, XAS and Mössbauer analyses. Nanoscale and bulk analyses (microscopic and spectroscopic techniques, respectively) of biogenic mackinawite after exposure to U6+ indicate the formation of nanoparticulate UO2. This study suggests the relevance of Fe(II) and sulfide bearing biogenic minerals in mediating abiotic U6+ reduction, an alternative pathway in addition to direct enzymatic U6+ reduction.

  16. Reduction of Glass Surface Reflectance by Ion Beam Surface Modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Spitzer

    2011-03-11

    This is the final report for DOE contract DE-EE0000590. The purpose of this work was to determine the feasibility of the reduction of the reflection from the front of solar photovoltaic modules. Reflection accounts for a power loss of approximately 4%. A solar module having an area of one square meter with an energy conversion efficiency of 18% generates approximately 180 watts. If reflection loss can be eliminated, the power output can be increased to 187 watts. Since conventional thin-film anti-reflection coatings do not have sufficient environmental stability, we investigated the feasibility of ion beam modification of the glass surface to obtain reduction of reflectance. Our findings are generally applicable to all solar modules that use glass encapsulation, as well as commercial float glass used in windows and other applications. Ion implantation of argon, fluorine, and xenon into commercial low-iron soda lime float glass, standard float glass, and borosilicate glass was studied by implantation, annealing, and measurement of reflectance. The three ions all affected reflectance. The most significant change was obtained by argon implantation into both low-iron and standard soda-lime glass. In this way samples were formed with reflectance lower than can be obtained with a single-layer coatings of magnesium fluoride. Integrated reflectance was reduced from 4% to 1% in low-iron soda lime glass typical of the glass used in solar modules. The reduction of reflectance of borosilicate glass was not as large; however borosilicate glass is not typically used in flat plate solar modules. Unlike conventional semiconductor ion implantation doping, glass reflectance reduction was found to be tolerant to large variations in implant dose, meaning that the process does not require high dopant uniformity. Additionally, glass implantation does not require mass analysis. Simple, high current ion implantation equipment can be developed for this process; however, before the process can be employed on full scale solar modules, equipment must be developed for ion implanting large sheets of glass. A cost analysis shows that the process can be economical. Our finding is that the reduction of reflectance by ion beam surface modification is technically and economically feasible. The public will benefit directly from this work by the improvement of photovoltaic module efficiency, and indirectly by the greater understanding of the modification of glass surfaces by ion beams.

  17. U(VI) sorption and reduction kinetics on the magnetite (111) surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneous reduction of uranyl by micas: Crystal chemicalLiu, C. X. , Reduction of uranyl in the interlayer region ofK. ; Brown Jr, G. E. , Uranyl-chlorite sorption/desorption:

  18. Wall-pressure and PIV analysis for microbubble drag reduction investigation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominguez Ontiveros, Elvis Efren

    2005-11-01

    friction reductions were observed when the microbubbles were injected. Several measurements of wall-pressure were taken at various Reynolds numbers that ranged from 300 up to 6154. No significant drag reduction was observed for flows in the laminar range...

  19. Engine and Reactor Evaluations of HC-SCR for Diesel NOx Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine and Reactor Evaluations of HC-SCR for Diesel NOx Reduction Engine and Reactor Evaluations of HC-SCR for Diesel NOx Reduction Focus is the heavy duty, US dynamometer...

  20. The Effects of Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR Catalyst Study of effects of hydrocarbons on ammonia storage and NOx reduction over a commercial Fe-zeolite SCR catalyst to understand...

  1. Review of technical literature and trends related to automobile mass-reduction technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2010-01-01

    optimization including integration, parts consolidation, advanced materialoptimization designs that incorporate component-level mass reduction, a diverse mix of materials,materials, processes, and components for mass reduction. Existing mass-optimization

  2. Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduction (SCR) of NOx Using Cu-zeolite Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx Using Cu-zeolite Discusses the impact of Na in biodiesel...

  3. The Effects of Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR Catalyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Study of effects of hydrocarbons on ammonia storage and NOx reduction over a commercial Fe-zeolite SCR catalyst to understand catalyst behaviors at low temperatures and improve NOx reduction performance and reduce system cost

  4. Fact #562: March 16, 2009 Carbon Reduction of Plug-in Hybrid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2: March 16, 2009 Carbon Reduction of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Fact 562: March 16, 2009 Carbon Reduction of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Estimates from the GREET model...

  5. Entity Authentication Schemes Using Braid Word Reduction Herve SIBERT, Patrick DEHORNOY, and Marc GIRAULT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Entity Authentication Schemes Using Braid Word Reduction Hervâ??e SIBERT, Patrick DEHORNOY, and Marc, authentication, zero knowledge, handle reduction. 1 #12; 2 HERV â?? E SIBERT, PATRICK DEHORNOY, AND MARC GIRAULT 2

  6. Reduction of NOx Emissions in Alamo Area Council of Government Projects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Zhu, Y.; Im, P.

    2004-01-01

    This reports summarizes the electricity, natural gas and NOx emissions reductions from retrofit measures reported as part of the AACOG emissions reduction effort. The electricity and natural gas savings were collected by ...

  7. Combining Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions Combining Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel...

  8. Physiological and Computed Tomographic Predictors of Outcome from Lung Volume Reduction Surgery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Physiological and Computed Tomographic Predictors of Outcome from Lung Volume Reduction Surgery: Previous investigations have identified several potential predictors of outcomes from lung volume reduction: To identify objective radiographic and physiological indices of lung disease that have prognostic value

  9. Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Presentation given...

  10. Standardization and Application of Spectrophotometric Method for Reductive Capacity Measurement of Nanomaterials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, Wonjoong

    2011-10-21

    measurement and Raman spectroscopy. For some nanoparticles, the reductive capacity was measured for both the pristine form and the form treated by oxidization or grinding. All carbon-based nanomaterials, except for pristine C60, have a significant reductive...

  11. CoolCab Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development CoolCab Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen...

  12. Development of a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction in Marine Diesel Engines Development of a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction in Marine Diesel Engines Stand-alone urea...

  13. The influence of organic carbon on oxygen dynamics and bacterial sulfate reduction in inland shrimp ponds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suplee, Michael Wayne

    1995-01-01

    Experiments conducted in saline aquaculture ponds demonstrated that organic matter was the primary factor influencing sediment sulfate reduction rates. Changes in sediment oxygen demand (SOD), sulfate reduction rates, and ...

  14. Methods to radiolabel natural organic matter by reduction with hydrogen labeled reducing agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tinnacher, Ruth M.; Honeyman, Bruce D.

    2011-10-18

    Methods to radiolabel natural organic matter by reduction with a hydrogen labeled reducing agent, and compositions, are provided.

  15. Apparatus and method to inject a reductant into an exhaust gas feedstream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viola, Michael B. (Macomb Township, MI)

    2009-09-22

    An exhaust aftertreatment system for an internal combustion engine is provided including an apparatus and method to inject a reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream. Included is a fuel metering device adapted to inject reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream and a controllable pressure regulating device. A control module is operatively connected to the reductant metering device and the controllable pressure regulating device, and, adapted to effect flow of reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream over a controllable flow range.

  16. Technology and U.S. Emissions Reductions Goals: Results of the EMF 24 Modeling Exercise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, Leon E.; Fawcett, Allen; Weyant, John; McFarland, Jim; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Zhou, Yuyu

    2014-09-01

    This paper discusses Technology and U.S. Emissions Reductions Goals: Results of the EMF 24 Modeling Exercise

  17. Two-stage Catalytic Reduction of NOx with Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umit S. Ozkan; Erik M. Holmgreen; Matthew M. Yung; Jonathan Halter; Joel Hiltner

    2005-12-21

    A two-stage system for the catalytic reduction of NO from lean-burn natural gas reciprocating engine exhaust is investigated. Each of the two stages uses a distinct catalyst. The first stage is oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2} and the second stage is reduction of NO{sub 2} to N{sub 2} with a hydrocarbon. The central idea is that since NO{sub 2} is a more easily reduced species than NO, it should be better able to compete with oxygen for the combustion reaction of hydrocarbon, which is a challenge in lean conditions. Early work focused on demonstrating that the N{sub 2} yield obtained when NO{sub 2} was reduced was greater than when NO was reduced. NO{sub 2} reduction catalysts were designed and silver supported on alumina (Ag/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was found to be quite active, able to achieve 95% N{sub 2} yield in 10% O{sub 2} using propane as the reducing agent. The design of a catalyst for NO oxidation was also investigated, and a Co/TiO{sub 2} catalyst prepared by sol-gel was shown to have high activity for the reaction, able to reach equilibrium conversion of 80% at 300 C at GHSV of 50,000h{sup -1}. After it was shown that NO{sub 2} could be more easily reduced to N{sub 2} than NO, the focus shifted on developing a catalyst that could use methane as the reducing agent. The Ag/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was tested and found to be inactive for NOx reduction with methane. Through iterative catalyst design, a palladium-based catalyst on a sulfated-zirconia support (Pd/SZ) was synthesized and shown to be able to selectively reduce NO{sub 2} in lean conditions using methane. Development of catalysts for the oxidation reaction also continued and higher activity, as well as stability in 10% water, was observed on a Co/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst, which reached equilibrium conversion of 94% at 250 C at the same GHSV. The Co/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst was also found to be extremely active for oxidation of CO, ethane, and propane, which could potential eliminate the need for any separate oxidation catalyst. At every stage, catalyst synthesis was guided by the insights gained through detailed characterization of the catalysts using many surface and bulk analysis techniques such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Temperature-programmed Reduction, Temperature programmed Desorption, and Diffuse Reflectance InfraRed Fourier Transform Spectroscopy as well as steady state reaction experiments. Once active catalysts for each stage had been developed, a physical mixture of the two catalysts was tested for the reduction of NO with methane in lean conditions. These experiments using a mixture of the catalysts produced N2 yields as high as 90%. In the presence of 10% water, the catalyst mixture produced 75% N{sub 2} yield, without any optimization. The dual catalyst system developed has the potential to be implemented in lean-burn natural gas engines for reducing NOx in lean exhaust as well as eliminating CO and unburned hydrocarbons without any fuel penalty or any system modifications. If funding continues, future work will focus on improving the hydrothermal stability of the system to bring the technology closer to application.

  18. Scenarios for exercising technical approaches to verified nuclear reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, James

    2010-01-01

    Presidents Obama and Medvedev in April 2009 committed to a continuing process of step-by-step nuclear arms reductions beyond the new START treaty that was signed April 8, 2010 and to the eventual goal of a world free of nuclear weapons. In addition, the US Nuclear Posture review released April 6, 2010 commits the US to initiate a comprehensive national research and development program to support continued progress toward a world free of nuclear weapons, including expanded work on verification technologies and the development of transparency measures. It is impossible to predict the specific directions that US-RU nuclear arms reductions will take over the 5-10 years. Additional bilateral treaties could be reached requiring effective verification as indicated by statements made by the Obama administration. There could also be transparency agreements or other initiatives (unilateral, bilateral or multilateral) that require monitoring with a standard of verification lower than formal arms control, but still needing to establish confidence to domestic, bilateral and multilateral audiences that declared actions are implemented. The US Nuclear Posture Review and other statements give some indication of the kinds of actions and declarations that may need to be confirmed in a bilateral or multilateral setting. Several new elements of the nuclear arsenals could be directly limited. For example, it is likely that both strategic and nonstrategic nuclear warheads (deployed and in storage), warhead components, and aggregate stocks of such items could be accountable under a future treaty or transparency agreement. In addition, new initiatives or agreements may require the verified dismantlement of a certain number of nuclear warheads over a specified time period. Eventually procedures for confirming the elimination of nuclear warheads, components and fissile materials from military stocks will need to be established. This paper is intended to provide useful background information for establishing a conceptual approach to a five-year technical program plan for research and development of nuclear arms reductions verification and transparency technologies and procedures.

  19. Fringe biasing: A variance reduction technique for optically thick meshes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smedley-Stevenson, R. P.

    2013-07-01

    Fringe biasing is a stratified sampling scheme applicable to Monte Carlo thermal radiation transport codes. The thermal emission source in optically thick cells is partitioned into separate contributions from the cell interiors (where the likelihood of the particles escaping the cells is virtually zero) and the 'fringe' regions close to the cell boundaries. Thermal emission in the cell interiors can now be modelled with fewer particles, the remaining particles being concentrated in the fringes so that they are more likely to contribute to the energy exchange between cells. Unlike other techniques for improving the efficiency in optically thick regions (such as random walk and discrete diffusion treatments), fringe biasing has the benefit of simplicity, as the associated changes are restricted to the sourcing routines with the particle tracking routines being unaffected. This paper presents an analysis of the potential for variance reduction achieved from employing the fringe biasing technique. The aim of this analysis is to guide the implementation of this technique in Monte Carlo thermal radiation codes, specifically in order to aid the choice of the fringe width and the proportion of particles allocated to the fringe (which are interrelated) in multi-dimensional simulations, and to confirm that the significant levels of variance reduction achieved in simulations can be understood by studying the behaviour for simple test cases. The variance reduction properties are studied for a single cell in a slab geometry purely absorbing medium, investigating the accuracy of the scalar flux and current tallies on one of the interfaces with the surrounding medium. (authors)

  20. Corporate Real Estate and Facilities Cost Reduction IBM Corporation | December 2, 2009 Page 1 of 7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corporate Real Estate and Facilities Cost Reduction © IBM Corporation | December 2, 2009 Page 1 of 7 - Internal distribution only Corporate Real Estate and Facilities Cost Reduction Summary By moving and facilities costs by 15-20%, whilst still improving services. Successful cost reduction in corporate real

  1. Use of Simulation To Optimize NOx Abatement by Absorption and Selective Catalytic Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Y. A.

    Use of Simulation To Optimize NOx Abatement by Absorption and Selective Catalytic Reduction Andrew involving both absorption and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The model helps identify operator The system under analysis involves two key pro- cesses: absorption and selective catalytic reduction (SCR

  2. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 37 (2002) 2735 NOx reduction by urea under lean conditions over

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gulari, Erdogan

    2002-01-01

    Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 37 (2002) 27­35 NOx reduction by urea under lean conditions over using a single step sol­gel process (designated as 2% Pt-SG) and tested its activity for NOx reduction and hydrothermally stable in the range of 150­500 C in the reduction of NOx by hy- drocarbons or oxygenated

  3. Systematic evaluation of monometallic catalytic materials for lean-burn NOx reduction using combinatorial methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senkan, Selim M.

    Systematic evaluation of monometallic catalytic materials for lean-burn NOx reduction using the commercialization of such engines [1]. In principle, NOx reduction could be achieved by either decomposition of NOx for NOx reduction. These efforts were spurred by the discoveries that NO can selectively be reduced over

  4. DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201000006 The Role of Surface Oxides in NOx Storage Reduction Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201000006 The Role of Surface Oxides in NOx Storage Reduction Catalysts Jelena which a reductant is injected into the exhaust stream and reacts with the stored NOx, possi- bly catalyst is that the catalyst must be active for both NO oxidation and NOx reduction. In recent years

  5. Traffic restrictions associated with the Sino-African summit: Reductions of NOx detected from space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boersma, Folkert

    Traffic restrictions associated with the Sino-African summit: Reductions of NOx detected from space restrictions associated with the Sino-African summit: Reductions of NOx detected from space, Geophys. Res. Lett show in what follows that a reduction in NOx emissions was in fact observed by the Ozone Monitoring

  6. Reduction of NOx by plasma-assisted methods , F. Leipold1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reduction of NOx by plasma-assisted methods A. Fateev1 , F. Leipold1 , Y. Kusano1 , B. Stenum1 , H acid rain and ozone production when it is released into the air. Reduction of NOx in the exhaust gas-assisted techniques for NOx-reduction: direct treatment of exhaust gases by plasma, injection of N atoms and injection

  7. An Investigation of the Reduction and Reoxidation of Isolated Vanadate Sites Supported on MCM-48

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Alexis T.

    , the oxidative dehydrogenation of light alkanes, and the selective reduction of NOx. Interest in understandingAn Investigation of the Reduction and Reoxidation of Isolated Vanadate Sites Supported on MCM-48 online: 20 December 2007 Ó Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007 Abstract The reduction

  8. State Key Laboratory of Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering, Tongji University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    State Key Laboratory of Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering, Tongji University Experimental for energy dissipation mechanism. State Key Laboratory of Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering #12;· Scope on Horizontal connection. State Key Laboratory of Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering, Tongji University

  9. Aalborg Universitet Model Order Reductions for Stability Analysis of Islanded Microgrids with Droop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Aalborg Universitet Model Order Reductions for Stability Analysis of Islanded Microgrids with Droop. C., & Guerrero, J. M. (2015). Model Order Reductions for Stability Analysis of Islanded Microgrids.aau.dk on: juli 07, 2015 #12;1 Model Order Reductions for Stability Analysis of Islanded Microgrids

  10. Multi-platform Automatic Parallelization and Power Reduction by OSCAR Compiler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasahara, Hironori

    Multi-platform Automatic Parallelization and Power Reduction by OSCAR Compiler Hironori Kasahara-performance and software productivity and reduce power OSCAR Parallelizing Compiler Multigrain Parallelization coarse Reduction Reduction of consumed power by compiler control DVFS and Power gating with hardware supports. 1 23

  11. SALARY REDUCTION AGREEMENT (Yr 2015) FOR 403(b) and 403(b)(7) ACCOUNTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammack, Richard

    SALARY REDUCTION AGREEMENT (Yr 2015) FOR 403(b) and 403(b)(7) ACCOUNTS INSTRUCTIONS: See the second the agreement is in effect. Only compensation that is NOT "currently available" is eligible for salary reduction under this agreement. It shall continue until the Employee completes another Salary Reduction Agreement

  12. AN ENHANCED JACOBI METHOD FOR LATTICE-REDUCTION-AIDED MIMO DETECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiao, Sanzheng

    AN ENHANCED JACOBI METHOD FOR LATTICE-REDUCTION-AIDED MIMO DETECTION Zhaofei Tian and Sanzheng Qiao a novel enhanced Jacobi (short as EJacobi) method for lattice basis reduction. To assess the performance an enhanced Jacobi method, the EJacobi method, for lattice basis reduction based on the Ja- cobi method [13

  13. Evidence for Epoxide Formation from the Electrochemical Reduction of Ethylene Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the formation of an effective solid electrolyte interface layer on the carbon anode in lithium-ion cells this reduction form a solid electrolyte interface SEI on the electrode surface, and pre- vent further reduction after EC/tetrahydrofuran electrolyte reduction that is unlike any other we have seen in the literature

  14. Comparison of Global Optimization Methods for Drag Reduction in the Automotive Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumas, Laurent

    Comparison of Global Optimization Methods for Drag Reduction in the Automotive Industry Laurent reduction problems in the automotive industry. All the methods consist in improving classical genetic of a GA is reduced by a factor up to 7. 1 Introduction The topic of drag reduction in the automotive

  15. The basic CSP reductions revisited Libor Barto, joint with Michael Pinsker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barto, Libor

    The basic CSP reductions revisited Libor Barto, joint with Michael Pinsker Charles University in Prague Banff workshop November 2014 #12;Outline and notation Outline Basic CSP reductions ­ 3 views Questions Basic CSP reductions revisited Notation A . . . finite set of relations on A A . . . the clone

  16. The VIRUS Data Reduction Pipeline Claus A. Goessla, Niv Droryb, Helena Relkec

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grupp, Frank

    The VIRUS Data Reduction Pipeline Claus A. Goessla, Niv Droryb, Helena Relkec Karl Gebhardtb, Frank resolution, 145 IFU spectrograph. The data reduction pipeline will have to extract 35.000 spectra per our ideas how to achieve this goal. Keywords: Data reduction pipeline, IFU spectroscopy, dark energy 1

  17. INVESTING IN HEALTH FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH AND POVERTY REDUCTION: New perspectives and opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Ophir

    W2 2 MI F H 6 0 h PROGRAMME INVESTING IN HEALTH FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH AND POVERTY REDUCTION: New, and an increasingly complex developmental agenda that emphasizes debt and poverty reduction as a means to promote; integrating new health initiatives into a broader poverty reduction and development framework; and resolving

  18. Doped Graphene as a Material for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Hydrogen Fuel Cells: A Computational Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.

    Doped Graphene as a Material for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Hydrogen Fuel Cells: A Computational fuel cells for oxygen reduction at the cathode. In an attempt to find a cheap yet efficient catalyst in graphene are promising candidates for the use in fuel cell cathodes for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). We

  19. Forest Fuel Reduction Survey Analysis: Forest Administrators Cornelis F. de Hoop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forest Fuel Reduction Survey Analysis: Forest Administrators by Cornelis F. de Hoop Amith Hanumappa to seriously investigate and execute the methods required to carry out a successful fuel reduction project operations wherein fuel reduction is a primary management objective. Literature on this wave of activity

  20. FOREST FUEL REDUCTION AND ENERGYWOOD PRODUCTION USING A CTL / SMALL CHIPPER HARVESTING SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolding, M. Chad

    FOREST FUEL REDUCTION AND ENERGYWOOD PRODUCTION USING A CTL / SMALL CHIPPER HARVESTING SYSTEM THESIS ABSTRACT FOREST FUEL REDUCTION AND ENERGYWOOD PRODUCTION USING A CTL / SMALL CHIPPER HARVESTING concerning mechanical forest fuel reduction. This study examined and measured the feasibility of harvesting

  1. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

    1996-02-27

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

  2. Baytown Xylene Fractionation Energy Reduction using Dynamic Matrix Control (DMC) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hokanson, D.

    2014-01-01

    Energy Reduction using Dynamic Matrix Control (DMC) IETC 2014 New Orleans, Louisiana David Hokanson ExxonMobil Research and Engineering May 22, 2014 ESL-IE-14-05-33 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA.... May 20-23, 2014 2Outline • Baytown Chemical Complex • Xylene Fractionation Overview • Dynamic Matrix Control • Results • Benefits/Wrap-Up ESL-IE-14-05-33 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20...

  3. Ash reduction system using electrically heated particulate matter filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; He, Yongsheng

    2011-08-16

    A control system for reducing ash comprises a temperature estimator module that estimates a temperature of an electrically heated particulate matter (PM) filter. A temperature and position estimator module estimates a position and temperature of an oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter. An ash reduction control module adjusts at least one of exhaust flow, fuel and oxygen levels in the electrically heated PM filter to adjust a position of the oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter based on the oxidation wave temperature and position.

  4. Climate change: Clinton affirms binding emissions reduction policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairley, P.

    1996-12-04

    In Australia last month President Clinton called for an international agreement to negotiate {open_quotes}legally binding commitments to fight climate change.{close_quotes} His comments affirmed the line the Administration adopted in July and lent prominence to the effort to bring about a treaty by December 1997. Environmentalists welcomed Clinton`s comments, but industry response is divided. The Global Climate Coalition (Washington), of which CMA is a member, has tried to slow negotiations by questioning the scientific consensus on climate change and suggesting {open_quotes}serious damage to the American economy{close_quotes} could result from emissions reduction.

  5. Wind Energy and Air Emission Reduction Benefits: A Primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobson, D.; High, C.

    2008-02-01

    This document provides a summary of the impact of wind energy development on various air pollutants for a general audience. The core document addresses the key facts relating to the analysis of emission reductions from wind energy development. It is intended for use by a wide variety of parties with an interest in this issue, ranging from state environmental officials to renewable energy stakeholders. The appendices provide basic background information for the general reader, as well as detailed information for those seeking a more in-depth discussion of various topics.

  6. Risk Reduction with a Fuzzy Expert Exploration Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, William W.; Broadhead, Ron; Mundorf, William R.

    2003-03-06

    A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, was developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs.

  7. REDUCTION OF EMISSIONS FROM A HIGH SPEED FERRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson,G.; Gautam, M; Clark, N; Lyons, D; Carder, D; Riddle, W; Barnett, R; Rapp, B; George, S

    2003-08-24

    Emissions from marine vessels are being scrutinized as a major contributor to the total particulate matter (TPM), oxides of sulfur (SOx) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) environmental loading. Fuel sulfur control is the key to SOx reduction. Significant reductions in the emissions from on-road vehicles have been achieved in the last decade and the emissions from these vehicles will be reduced by another order of magnitude in the next five years: these improvements have served to emphasize the need to reduce emissions from other mobile sources, including off road equipment, locomotives, and marine vessels. Diesel-powered vessels of interest include ocean going vessels with low- and medium-speed engines, as well as ferries with high speed engines, as discussed below. A recent study examined the use of intake water injection (WIS) and ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) to reduce the emissions from a high-speed passenger ferry in southern California. One of the four Detroit Diesel 12V92 two-stroke high speed engines that power the Waverider (operated by SCX, inc.) was instrumented to collect intake airflow, fuel flow, shaft torque, and shaft speed. Engine speed and shaft torque were uniquely linked for given vessel draft and prevailing wind and sea conditions. A raw exhaust gas sampling system was utilized to measure the concentration of NOx, carbon dioxide (CO2), and oxygen (O2) and a mini dilution tunnel sampling a slipstream from the raw exhaust was used to collect TPM on 70 mm filters. The emissions data were processed to yield brake-specific mass results. The system that was employed allowed for redundant data to be collected for quality assurance and quality control. To acquire the data, the Waverider was operated at five different steady state speeds. Three modes were in the open sea off Oceanside, CA, and idle and harbor modes were also used. Data have showed that the use of ULSD along with water injection (WIS) could significantly reduce the emissions of NOx and PM while not affecting fuel consumption or engine performance compared to the baseline marine diesel. The results showed that a nominal 40% reduction in TPM was realized when switching from the marine diesel to the ULSD. A small reduction in NOx was also shown between the marine fuel and the ULSD. The implementation of the WIS showed that NOx was reduced significantly by between 11% and 17%, depending upon the operating condition. With the WIS, the TPM was reduced by a few percentage points, which was close to the confidence in measurement.

  8. Recent advances in the kinetics of oxygen reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adzic, R.

    1996-07-01

    Oxygen reduction is considered an important electrocatalytic reaction; the most notable need remains improvement of the catalytic activity of existing metal electrocatalysts and development of new ones. A review is given of new advances in the understanding of reaction kinetics and improvements of the electrocatalytic properties of some surfaces, with focus on recent studies of relationship of the surface properties to its activity and reaction kinetics. The urgent need is to improve catalytic activity of Pt and synthesize new, possibly non- noble metal catalysts. New experimental techniques for obtaining new level of information include various {ital in situ} spectroscopies and scanning probes, some involving synchrotron radiation. 138 refs, 18 figs, 2 tabs.

  9. The MUSE Data Reduction Pipeline: Status after Preliminary Acceptance Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weilbacher, Peter M; Urrutia, Tanya; Pécontal-Rousset, Arlette; Jarno, Aurélien; Bacon, Roland

    2015-01-01

    MUSE, a giant integral field spectrograph, is about to become the newest facility instrument at the VLT. It will see first light in February 2014. Here, we summarize the properties of the instrument as built and outline functionality of the data reduction system, that transforms the raw data that gets recorded separately in 24 IFUs by 4k CCDs, into a fully calibrated, scientifically usable data cube. We then describe recent work regarding geometrical calibration of the instrument and testing of the processing pipeline, before concluding with results of the Preliminary Acceptance in Europe and an outlook to the on-sky commissioning.

  10. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Reduction Pilot Plant - WV 01

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth Dakota Edgemont,Manufacturing0-19Rulison -Reduction Pilot

  11. CDM Emission Reductions Calculation Sheet Series | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButte County, California: Energy Resources JumpEmission Reductions Calculation

  12. FY09 assessment of mercury reduction at SNL/NM.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCord, Samuel Adam

    2010-02-01

    This assessment takes the result of the FY08 performance target baseline of mercury at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico, and records the steps taken in FY09 to collect additional data, encourage the voluntary reduction of mercury, and measure success. Elemental (metallic) mercury and all of its compounds are toxic, and exposure to excessive levels can permanently damage or fatally injure the brain and kidneys. Elemental mercury can also be absorbed through the skin and cause allergic reactions. Ingestion of inorganic mercury compounds can cause severe renal and gastrointestinal damage. Organic compounds of mercury such as methyl mercury, created when elemental mercury enters the environment, are considered the most toxic forms of the element. Exposures to very small amounts of these compounds can result in devastating neurological damage and death.1 SNL/NM is required to report annually on the site wide inventory of mercury for the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Program, as the site's inventory is excess of the ten pound reportable threshold quantity. In the fiscal year 2008 (FY08) Pollution Prevention Program Plan, Section 5.3 Reduction of Environmental Releases, a performance target stated was to establish a baseline of mercury, its principle uses, and annual quantity or inventory. This was accomplished on July 29, 2008 by recording the current status of mercury in the Chemical Information System (CIS).

  13. Radar-cross-section reduction of wind turbines. part 1.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brock, Billy C.; Loui, Hung; McDonald, Jacob J.; Paquette, Joshua A.; Calkins, David A.; Miller, William K.; Allen, Steven E.; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Patitz, Ward E.

    2012-03-05

    In recent years, increasing deployment of large wind-turbine farms has become an issue of growing concern for the radar community. The large radar cross section (RCS) presented by wind turbines interferes with radar operation, and the Doppler shift caused by blade rotation causes problems identifying and tracking moving targets. Each new wind-turbine farm installation must be carefully evaluated for potential disruption of radar operation for air defense, air traffic control, weather sensing, and other applications. Several approaches currently exist to minimize conflict between wind-turbine farms and radar installations, including procedural adjustments, radar upgrades, and proper choice of low-impact wind-farm sites, but each has problems with limited effectiveness or prohibitive cost. An alternative approach, heretofore not technically feasible, is to reduce the RCS of wind turbines to the extent that they can be installed near existing radar installations. This report summarizes efforts to reduce wind-turbine RCS, with a particular emphasis on the blades. The report begins with a survey of the wind-turbine RCS-reduction literature to establish a baseline for comparison. The following topics are then addressed: electromagnetic model development and validation, novel material development, integration into wind-turbine fabrication processes, integrated-absorber design, and wind-turbine RCS modeling. Related topics of interest, including alternative mitigation techniques (procedural, at-the-radar, etc.), an introduction to RCS and electromagnetic scattering, and RCS-reduction modeling techniques, can be found in a previous report.

  14. Power Tower Technology Roadmap and cost reduction plan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, Thomas R.; Gary, Jesse A.; Kolb, Gregory J.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2011-04-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies continue to mature and are being deployed worldwide. Power towers will likely play an essential role in the future development of CSP due to their potential to provide dispatchable solar electricity at a low cost. This Power Tower Technology Roadmap has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the current technology, the improvement opportunities that exist for the technology, and the specific activities needed to reach the DOE programmatic target of providing competitively-priced electricity in the intermediate and baseload power markets by 2020. As a first step in developing this roadmap, a Power Tower Roadmap Workshop that included the tower industry, national laboratories, and DOE was held in March 2010. A number of technology improvement opportunities (TIOs) were identified at this workshop and separated into four categories associated with power tower subsystems: solar collector field, solar receiver, thermal energy storage, and power block/balance of plant. In this roadmap, the TIOs associated with power tower technologies are identified along with their respective impacts on the cost of delivered electricity. In addition, development timelines and estimated budgets to achieve cost reduction goals are presented. The roadmap does not present a single path for achieving these goals, but rather provides a process for evaluating a set of options from which DOE and industry can select to accelerate power tower R&D, cost reductions, and commercial deployment.

  15. The ARCONS Pipeline: Data Reduction for MKID Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Eyken, J C; Walter, A B; Meeker, S R; Szypryt, P; Stoughton, C; O'Brien, K; Marsden, D; Rice, N K; Lin, Y; Mazin, B A

    2015-01-01

    The Array Camera for Optical to Near-IR Spectrophotometry, or ARCONS, is a camera based on Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs), a new technology that has the potential for broad application in astronomy. Using an array of MKIDs, the instrument is able to produce time-resolved imaging and low-resolution spectroscopy constructed from detections of individual photons. The arrival time and energy of each photon are recorded in a manner similar to X-ray calorimetry, but at higher photon fluxes. The technique works over a very large wavelength range, is free from fundamental read noise and dark-current limitations, and provides microsecond-level timing resolution. Since the instrument reads out all pixels continuously while exposing, there is no loss of active exposure time to readout. The technology requires a different approach to data reduction compared to conventional CCDs. We outline here the prototype data reduction pipeline developed for ARCONS, though many of the principles are also more broadly ...

  16. Load Reduction, Demand Response and Energy Efficient Technologies and Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Paul A.; Parker, Graham B.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2008-11-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Electricity (OE) to recommend load reduction and grid integration strategies, and identify additional demand response (energy efficiency/conservation opportunities) and strategies at the Forest City Housing (FCH) redevelopment at Pearl Harbor and the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay. The goal was to provide FCH staff a path forward to manage their electricity load and thus reduce costs at these FCH family housing developments. The initial focus of the work was at the MCBH given the MCBH has a demand-ratchet tariff, relatively high demand (~18 MW) and a commensurate high blended electricity rate (26 cents/kWh). The peak demand for MCBH occurs in July-August. And, on average, family housing at MCBH contributes ~36% to the MCBH total energy consumption. Thus, a significant load reduction in family housing can have a considerable impact on the overall site load. Based on a site visit to the MCBH and meetings with MCBH installation, FCH, and Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) staff, recommended actions (including a "smart grid" recommendation) that can be undertaken by FCH to manage and reduce peak-demand in family housing are made. Recommendations are also made to reduce overall energy consumption, and thus reduce demand in FCH family housing.

  17. Use of ion conductors in the pyrochemical reduction of oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, W.E.; Tomczuk, Z.

    1994-02-01

    An electrochemical process and electrochemical cell for reducing a metal oxide are provided. First the oxide is separated as oxygen gas using, for example, a ZrO[sub 2] oxygen ion conductor anode and the metal ions from the reduction salt are reduced and deposited on an ion conductor cathode, for example, sodium ion reduced on a [beta]-alumina sodium ion conductor cathode. The generation of and separation of oxygen gas avoids the problem with chemical back reaction of oxygen with active metals in the cell. The method also is characterized by a sequence of two steps where an inert cathode electrode is inserted into the electrochemical cell in the second step and the metallic component in the ion conductor is then used as the anode to cause electrochemical reduction of the metal ions formed in the first step from the metal oxide where oxygen gas formed at the anode. The use of ion conductors serves to isolate the active components from chemically reacting with certain chemicals in the cell. While applicable to a variety of metal oxides, the invention has special importance for reducing CaO to Ca[sup o] used for reducing UO[sub 2] and PuO[sub 2] to U and Pu. 2 figures.

  18. Reduction of coating thermal noise by using an etalon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kentaro Somiya; Daniel Heinert; Alexey G. Gurkovsky; Stefan Hild; Ronny Nawrodt; Sergey P. Vyatchanin

    2011-01-28

    Reduction of coating thermal noise is a key issue in precise measurements with an optical interferometer. A good example of such a measurement device is a gravitational-wave detector, where each mirror is coated by a few tens of quarter-wavelength dielectric layers to achieve high reflectivity while the thermal-noise level increases with the number of layers. One way to realize the reduction of coating thermal noise, recently proposed by Khalili, is the mechanical separation of the first few layers from the rest so that a major part of the fluctuations contributes only little to the phase shift of the reflected light. Using an etalon, a Fabry-Perot optical resonator of a monolithic cavity, with a few coating layers on the front and significantly more on the back surface is a way to realize such a system without too much complexity, and in this paper we perform a thermal-noise analysis of an etalon using the Fluctuation-dissipation theorem with probes on both sides of a finite-size cylindrical mirror.

  19. Method to monitor HC-SCR catalyst NOx reduction performance for lean exhaust applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viola, Michael B. (Macomb Township, MI); Schmieg, Steven J. (Troy, MI); Sloane, Thompson M. (Oxford, MI); Hilden, David L. (Shelby Township, MI); Mulawa, Patricia A. (Clinton Township, MI); Lee, Jong H. (Rochester Hills, MI); Cheng, Shi-Wai S. (Troy, MI)

    2012-05-29

    A method for initiating a regeneration mode in selective catalytic reduction device utilizing hydrocarbons as a reductant includes monitoring a temperature within the aftertreatment system, monitoring a fuel dosing rate to the selective catalytic reduction device, monitoring an initial conversion efficiency, selecting a determined equation to estimate changes in a conversion efficiency of the selective catalytic reduction device based upon the monitored temperature and the monitored fuel dosing rate, estimating changes in the conversion efficiency based upon the determined equation and the initial conversion efficiency, and initiating a regeneration mode for the selective catalytic reduction device based upon the estimated changes in conversion efficiency.

  20. Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance of In-Use Diesel Retrofit Technologies from the National Clean Diesel Campaign

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Evaluation of in-use DPFs shows levels of reduction within in-use testing objectives: PM emission reductions >90%, elemental/black carbon reduction of ~99%, and retrofit durability.

  1. NOx Emissions Reductions from Implementation of the 2000 IECC/IRC Conservation Code to Residential Construction in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Im, P.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.; Fitzpatrick, T.

    2004-01-01

    Reduction Plan (TERP), to reduce ozone levels by encouraging the reduction of emissions of NOx by sources that are currently not regulated by the state. An important part of this legislation is the State's energy efficiency program, which includes reductions...

  2. Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. Iron and Steel sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst; Martin, N.; Price, L.

    1999-01-01

    Effectiveness of Carbon Dioxide Emission Reduction AchievedEfficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction PotentialEnergy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Process in U.S.

  3. The Politics of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction: The Role of Pluralism in Shaping the Climate Change Technology Initiative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden, Dylan

    1999-01-01

    sources of carbon dioxide emissions are the destruction ofat 570. 1998/99] CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS REDUCTION causedat 438. 1998/99] CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS REDUCTION trucks.

  4. Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    sulfur dioxide smelting reduction smelting reduction iron three-dimensional tonne top-gas recycling blast furnace tonnes per day ultra-low-

  5. Final report : CO2 reduction using biomimetic photocatalytic nanodevices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, Robert M.; Shelnutt, John Allen; Medforth, Craig John (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Song, Yujiang; Wang, Zhongchun; Miller, James Edward; Wang, Haorong

    2009-11-01

    Nobel Prize winner Richard Smalley was an avid champion for the cause of energy research. Calling it 'the single most important problem facing humanity today,' Smalley promoted the development of nanotechnology as a means to harness solar energy. Using nanotechnology to create solar fuels (i.e., fuels created from sunlight, CO{sub 2}, and water) is an especially intriguing idea, as it impacts not only energy production and storage, but also climate change. Solar irradiation is the only sustainable energy source of a magnitude sufficient to meet projections for global energy demand. Biofuels meet the definition of a solar fuel. Unfortunately, the efficiency of photosynthesis will need to be improved by an estimated factor of ten before biofuels can fully replace fossil fuels. Additionally, biological organisms produce an array of hydrocarbon products requiring further processing before they are usable for most applications. Alternately, 'bio-inspired' nanostructured photocatalytic devices that efficiently harvest sunlight and use that energy to reduce CO{sub 2} into a single useful product or chemical intermediate can be envisioned. Of course, producing such a device is very challenging as it must be robust and multifunctional, i.e. capable of promoting and coupling the multi-electron, multi-photon water oxidation and CO{sub 2} reduction processes. Herein, we summarize some of the recent and most significant work towards creating light harvesting nanodevices that reduce CO{sub 2} to CO (a key chemical intermediate) that are based on key functionalities inspired by nature. We report the growth of Co(III)TPPCl nanofibers (20-100 nm in diameter) on gas diffusion layers via an evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) method. Remarkably, as-fabricated electrodes demonstrate light-enhanced activity for CO{sub 2} reduction to CO as evidenced by cyclic voltammograms and electrolysis with/without light irradiation. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time to observe such a light-enhanced CO{sub 2} reduction reaction based on nanostructured cobalt(III) porphyrin catalysts. Additionally, gas chromatography (GC) verifies that light irradiation can improve CO production by up to 31.3% during 2 hours of electrolysis. In addition, a variety of novel porphyrin nano- or micro-structures were also prepared including nanospheres, nanotubes, and micro-crosses.

  6. Locomotive Emission and Engine Idle Reduction Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John R. Archer

    2005-03-14

    In response to a United States Department of Energy (DOE) solicitation, the Maryland Energy Administration (MEA), in partnership with CSX Transportation, Inc. (CSXT), submitted a proposal to DOE to support the demonstration of Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) technology on fifty-six CSXT locomotives. The project purpose was to demonstrate the idle fuel savings, the Nitrous Oxide (NOX) emissions reduction and the noise reduction capabilities of the APU. Fifty-six CSXT Baltimore Division locomotives were equipped with APUs, Engine Run Managers (ERM) and communications equipment to permit GPS tracking and data collection from the locomotives. Throughout the report there is mention of the percent time spent in the State of Maryland. The fifty-six locomotives spent most of their time inside the borders of Maryland and some spent all their time inside the state borders. Usually when a locomotive traveled beyond the Maryland State border it was into an adjoining state. They were divided into four groups according to assignment: (1) Power Unit/Switcher Mate units, (2) Remote Control units, (3) SD50 Pusher units and (4) Other units. The primary data of interest were idle data plus the status of the locomotive--stationary or moving. Also collected were main engine off, idling or working. Idle data were collected by county location, by locomotive status (stationary or moving) and type of idle (Idle 1, main engine idling, APU off; Idle 2, main engine off, APU on; Idle 3, main engine off, APU off; Idle 4, main engine idle, APU on). Desirable main engine idle states are main engine off and APU off or main engine off and APU on. Measuring the time the main engine spends in these desirable states versus the total time it could spend in an engine idling state allows the calculation of Percent Idle Management Effectiveness (%IME). IME is the result of the operation of the APU plus the implementation of CSXT's Warm Weather Shutdown Policy. It is difficult to separate the two. The units demonstrated an IME of 64% at stationary idle for the test period. The data collected during calendar year 2004 demonstrated that 707,600 gallons of fuel were saved and 285 tons of NOX were not emitted as a result of idle management in stationary idle, which translates to 12,636 gallons and 5.1 tons of NOx per unit respectively. The noise reduction capabilities of the APU demonstrated that at 150 feet from the locomotive the loaded APU with the main engine shut down generated noise that was only marginally above ambient noise level.

  7. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Catalyst Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Kim, Do Heui; Luo, Jinyong; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Currier, Neal; Kamasamudram, Krishna; Kumar, Ashok; Li, Junhui; Stafford, Randy; Yezerets, Aleksey; Castagnola, Mario; Chen, Hai Ying; Hess, Howard ..

    2012-12-31

    Two primary NOx after-treatment technologies have been recognized as the most promising approaches for meeting stringent NOx emission standards for diesel vehicles within the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) 2007/2010 mandated limits, NOx Storage Reduction (NSR) and NH3 selective catalytic reduction (SCR); both are, in fact being commercialized for this application. However, in looking forward to 2015 and beyond with expected more stringent regulations, the continued viability of the NSR technology for controlling NOx emissions from lean-burn engines such as diesels will require at least two specific, significant and inter-related improvements. First, it is important to reduce system costs by, for example, minimizing the precious metal content while maintaining, even improving, performance and long-term stability. A second critical need for future NSR systems, as well as for NH3 SCR, will be significantly improved higher and lower temperature performance and stability. Furthermore, these critically needed improvements will contribute significantly to minimizing the impacts to fuel economy of incorporating these after-treatment technologies on lean-burn vehicles. To meet these objectives will require, at a minimum an improved scientific understanding of the following things: i) the various roles for the precious and coinage metals used in these catalysts; ii) the mechanisms for these various roles; iii) the effects of high temperatures on the active metal performance in their various roles; iv) mechanisms for higher temperature NOx storage performance for modified and/or alternative storage materials; v) the interactions between the precious metals and the storage materials in both optimum NOx storage performance and long term stability; vi) the sulfur adsorption and regeneration mechanisms for NOx reduction materials; vii) materials degradation mechanisms in CHA-based NH3 SCR catalysts. The objective of this CRADA project between PNNL and Cummins, Inc. is to develop a fundamental understanding of the above-listed issues. Model catalysts that are based on literature formulations are the focus of the work being carried out at PNNL. In addition, the performance and stability of more realistic high temperature NSR catalysts, supplied by JM, are being studied in order to provide baseline data for the model catalysts that are, again, based on formulations described in the open literature. For this short summary, we will primarily highlight representative results from our recent studies of the stability of candidate high temperature NSR materials.

  8. Who Changes How: Strategies and Motivation for Risk Reduction Behaviors in the Context of an Economic-based HIV Prevention Intervention in Tanzania

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Packel, Laura

    2010-01-01

    How: Strategies and Motivation for Risk Reduction BehaviorsHow: Strategies and Motivation for Risk Reduction Behaviorspers—explores strategies and motivation for risk reduction

  9. Iterative methods for dose reduction and image enhancement in tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miao, Jianwei; Fahimian, Benjamin Pooya

    2012-09-18

    A system and method for creating a three dimensional cross sectional image of an object by the reconstruction of its projections that have been iteratively refined through modification in object space and Fourier space is disclosed. The invention provides systems and methods for use with any tomographic imaging system that reconstructs an object from its projections. In one embodiment, the invention presents a method to eliminate interpolations present in conventional tomography. The method has been experimentally shown to provide higher resolution and improved image quality parameters over existing approaches. A primary benefit of the method is radiation dose reduction since the invention can produce an image of a desired quality with a fewer number projections than seen with conventional methods.

  10. Reduction in maximum time uncertainty of paired time signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Theodosiou, G.E.; Dawson, J.W.

    1981-02-11

    Reduction in the maximum time uncertainty (t/sub max/ - t/sub min/) of a series of paired time signals t/sub 1/ and t/sub 2/ varying between two input terminals and representative of a series of single events where t/sub 1/ less than or equal to t/sub 2/ and t/sub 1/ + t/sub 2/ equals a constant, is carried out with a circuit utilizing a combination of OR and AND gates as signal selecting means and one or more time delays to increase the minimum value (t/sub min/) of the first signal t/sub 1/ closer to t/sub max/ and thereby reduce the difference. The circuit may utilize a plurality of stages to reduce the uncertainty by factors of 20 to 800.

  11. Coal companies hope to receive carbon credits for methane reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-09-30

    Each year, underground coal mining in the USA liberates 2.4 million tonnes of coal mine methane (CMM), of which less than 30% is recovered and used. One barrier to CMM recovery is cost. Drainage, collection, and utilization systems are complex and expensive to install. Two coal mines have improved the cost equation, however, by signing on to earn money for CMM emissions they are keeping out of the atmosphere. Jim Walter Resources and PinnOak Resources have joined a voluntary greenhouse gas reduction trading program called the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX) to turn their avoided emissions into carbon credits. The example they set may encourage other coal mining companies to follow suit, and may bring new projects on the line that would otherwise have not gone forward. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Advancing Development and Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Vietnam's Wind Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bilello, D.; Katz, J.; Esterly, S.; Ogonowski, M.

    2014-09-01

    Clean energy development is a key component of Vietnam's Green Growth Strategy, which establishes a target to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from domestic energy activities by 20-30 percent by 2030 relative to a business-as-usual scenario. Vietnam has significant wind energy resources, which, if developed, could help the country reach this target while providing ancillary economic, social, and environmental benefits. Given Vietnam's ambitious clean energy goals and the relatively nascent state of wind energy development in the country, this paper seeks to fulfill two primary objectives: to distill timely and useful information to provincial-level planners, analysts, and project developers as they evaluate opportunities to develop local wind resources; and, to provide insights to policymakers on how coordinated efforts may help advance large-scale wind development, deliver near-term GHG emission reductions, and promote national objectives in the context of a low emission development framework.

  13. Catalyst and method for reduction of nitrogen oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-05-27

    A Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst was prepared by slurry coating ZSM-5 zeolite onto a cordierite monolith, then subliming an iron salt onto the zeolite, calcining the monolith, and then dipping the monolith either into an aqueous solution of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate and then calcining, or by similar treatment with separate solutions of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate. The supported catalyst containing iron, manganese, and cerium showed 80 percent conversion at 113 degrees Celsius of a feed gas containing nitrogen oxides having 4 parts NO to one part NO.sub.2, about one equivalent ammonia, and excess oxygen; conversion improved to 94 percent at 147 degrees Celsius. N.sub.2O was not detected (detection limit: 0.6 percent N.sub.2O).

  14. Catalyst and method for reduction of nitrogen oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-08-19

    A Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst was prepared by slurry coating ZSM-5 zeolite onto a cordierite monolith, then subliming an iron salt onto the zeolite, calcining the monolith, and then dipping the monolith either into an aqueous solution of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate and then calcining, or by similar treatment with separate solutions of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate. The supported catalyst containing iron, manganese, and cerium showed 80 percent conversion at 113 degrees Celsius of a feed gas containing nitrogen oxides having 4 parts NO to one part NO.sub.2, about one equivalent ammonia, and excess oxygen; conversion improved to 94 percent at 147 degrees Celsius. N.sub.2O was not detected (detection limit: 0.6 percent N.sub.2O).

  15. Plutonium Oxidation and Subsequent Reduction by Mn (IV) Minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KAPLAN, DANIEL

    2005-09-13

    Plutonium sorbed to rock tuff was preferentially associated with manganese oxides. On tuff and synthetic pyrolusite (Mn{sup IV}O{sub 2}), Pu(IV) or Pu(V) was initially oxidized, but over time Pu(IV) became the predominant oxidation state of sorbed Pu. Reduction of Pu(V/VI), even on non-oxidizing surfaces, is proposed to result from a lower Gibbs free energy of the hydrolyzed Pu(IV) surface species versus that of the Pu(V) or Pu(VI) surface species. This work suggests that despite initial oxidation of sorbed Pu by oxidizing surfaces to more soluble forms, the less mobile form of Pu, Pu(IV), will dominate Pu solid phase speciation during long term geologic storage. The safe design of a radioactive waste or spent nuclear fuel geologic repository requires a risk assessment of radionuclides that may potentially be released into the surrounding environment. Geochemical knowledge of the radionuclide and the surrounding environment is required for predicting subsurface fate and transport. Although difficult even in simple systems, this task grows increasingly complicated for constituents, like Pu, that exhibit complex environmental chemistries. The environmental behavior of Pu can be influenced by complexation, precipitation, adsorption, colloid formation, and oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions (1-3). To predict the environmental mobility of Pu, the most important of these factors is Pu oxidation state. This is because Pu(IV) is generally 2 to 3 orders of magnitude less mobile than Pu(V) in most environments (4). Further complicating matters, Pu commonly exists simultaneously in several oxidation states (5, 6). Choppin (7) reported Pu may exist as Pu(IV), Pu(V), or Pu(VI) oxic natural groundwaters. It is generally accepted that plutonium associated with suspended particulate matter is predominantly Pu(IV) (8-10), whereas Pu in the aqueous phase is predominantly Pu(V) (2, 11-13). The influence of the character of Mn-containing minerals expected to be found in subsurface repository environments on Pu oxidation state distributions has been the subject of much recent research. Kenney-Kennicutt and Morse (14), Duff et al. (15), and Morgenstern and Choppin (16) observed oxidation of Pu facilitated by Mn(IV)-bearing minerals. Conversely, Shaughnessy et al. (17) used X-ray Absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) to show reduction of Pu(VI) by hausmannite (Mn{sup II}Mn{sub 2}{sup III}O{sub 4}) and manganite ({gamma}-Mn{sup III}OOH) and Kersting et al., (18) observed reduction of Pu(VI) by pyrolusite (Mn{sup IV}O{sub 2}). In this paper, we attempt to reconcile the apparently conflicting datasets by showing that Mn-bearing minerals can indeed oxidize Pu, however, if the oxidized species remains on the solid phase, the oxidation step competes with the formation of Pu(IV) that becomes the predominant solid phase Pu species with time. The experimental approach we took was to conduct longer term (approximately two years later) oxidation state analyses on the Pu sorbed to Yucca Mountain tuff (initial analysis reported by Duff et al., (15)) and measure the time-dependant changes in the oxidation state distribution of Pu in the presence of the Mn mineral pyrolusite.

  16. Reduction in Energy Consumption & Variability in Steel Foundry Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Peters

    2005-05-04

    This project worked to improve the efficiency of the steel casting industry by reducing the variability that occurs because of process and product variation. The project focused on the post shakeout operations since roughly half of the production costs are in this area. These improvements will reduce the amount of variability, making it easier to manage the operation and improve the competitiveness. The reduction in variability will also reduce the need for many rework operations, which will result in a direct reduction of energy usage, particularly by the reduction of repeated heat treatment operations. Further energy savings will be realized from the reduction of scrap and reduced handling. Field studies were conducted at ten steel foundries that represented the U.S. steel casting industry, for a total of over 100 weeks of production observation. These studies quantified the amount of variability, and looked toward determining the source. A focus of the data collected was the grinding operations since this is a major effort in the cleaning room, and it represents the overall casting quality. The grinding was divided into two categories, expected and unexpected. Expected grinding is that in which the location of the effort is known prior to making the casting, such as smoothing parting lines, gates, and riser contacts. Unexpected grinding, which was approximately 80% of the effort, was done to improve the surfaces at weld repair locations, to rectify burnt on sand, and other surface anomalies at random locations. Unexpected grinding represents about 80% of the grinding effort. By quantifying this effort, the project raised awareness within the industry and the industry is continuing to make improvements. The field studies showed that the amount of variation of grinding operations (normalized because of the diverse set of parts studied) was very consistent across the industry. The field studies identified several specific sources that individually contributed to large process variation. This indicates the need for ongoing monitoring of the process and system to quantify the effort being expended. A system to measure the grinding effort was investigated but did not prove to be successful. A weld wire counting system was shown to be very successful in tracking casting quality by monitoring the quantity of weld wire being expended on a per casting basis. Further use of such systems is highly recommended. The field studies showed that the visual inspection process for the casting surface was a potentially large source of process variation. Measurement system analysis studies were conducted at three steel casting producers. The tests measured the consistency of the inspectors in identifying the same surface anomalies. The repeatability (variation of the same operator inspecting the same casting) was found to be relatively consistent across the companies at about 60-70%. However, this is still are very large amount of variation. Reproducibility (variation of different operators inspecting the same casting) was worse, ranging between 20 to 80% at the three locations. This large amount of variation shows that there is a great opportunity for improvement. Falsely identifying anomalies for reworking will cause increased expense and energy consumption. This is particularly true if a weld repair and repeated heat treatment is required. However, not identifying an anomaly could also result in future rework processing, a customer return, or scrap. To help alleviate this problem, casting surface comparator plates were developed and distributed to the industry. These plates are very inexpensive which enables them to be provided to all those involved with casting surface quality, such as operators, inspectors, sales, and management.

  17. Multiscale model reduction for shale gas transport in fractured media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akkutlu, I Y; Vasilyeva, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a multiscale model reduction technique that describes shale gas transport in fractured media. Due to the pore-scale heterogeneities and processes, we use upscaled models to describe the matrix. We follow our previous work \\cite{aes14}, where we derived an upscaled model in the form of generalized nonlinear diffusion model to describe the effects of kerogen. To model the interaction between the matrix and the fractures, we use Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method. In this approach, the matrix and the fracture interaction is modeled via local multiscale basis functions. We developed the GMsFEM and applied for linear flows with horizontal or vertical fracture orientations on a Cartesian fine grid. In this paper, we consider arbitrary fracture orientations and use triangular fine grid and developed GMsFEM for nonlinear flows. Moreover, we develop online basis function strategies to adaptively improve the convergence. The number of multiscale basis functions in each coarse region ...

  18. Yield improvement and defect reduction in steel casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kent Carlson

    2004-03-16

    This research project investigated yield improvement and defect reduction techniques in steel casting. Research and technology development was performed in the following three specific areas: (1) Feeding rules for high alloy steel castings; (2) Unconventional yield improvement and defect reduction techniques--(a) Riser pressurization; and (b) Filling with a tilting mold; and (3) Modeling of reoxidation inclusions during filling of steel castings. During the preparation of the proposal for this project, these areas were identified by the High Alloy Committee and Carbon and Low Alloy Committee of the Steel Founders' Society of America (SFSA) as having the highest research priority to the steel foundry industry. The research in each of the areas involved a combination of foundry experiments, modeling and simulation. Numerous SFSA member steel foundries participated in the project through casting trials and meetings. The technology resulting from this project will result in decreased scrap and rework, casting yield improvement, and higher quality steel castings produced with less iteration. This will result in considerable business benefits to steel foundries, primarily due to reduced energy and labor costs, increased capacity and productivity, reduced lead-time, and wider use and application of steel castings. As estimated using energy data provided by the DOE, the technology produced as a result of this project will result in an energy savings of 2.6 x 10{sup 12} BTU/year. This excludes the savings that were anticipated from the mold tilting research. In addition to the energy savings, and corresponding financial savings this implies, there are substantial environmental benefits as well. The results from each of the research areas listed above are summarized.

  19. Functional Role of Infective Viral Particles on Metal Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coates, John D.

    2014-04-01

    A proposed strategy for the remediation of uranium (U) contaminated sites was based on the immobilization of U by reducing the oxidized soluble U, U(VI), to form a reduced insoluble end product, U(IV). Previous studies identified Geobacter sp., including G. sulfurreducens and G. metallireducens, as predominant U(VI)-reducing bacteria under acetate-oxidizing and U(VI)-reducing conditions. Examination of the finished genome sequence annotation of the canonical metal reducing species Geobacter sulfurreducens strain PCA and G. metallireduceans strain GS-15 as well as the draft genome sequence of G. uraniumreducens strain Rf4 identified phage related proteins. In addition, the completed genome for Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans and the draft genome sequence of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans strain G20, two more model metal-reducing bacteria, also revealed phage related sequences. The presence of these gene sequences indicated that Geobacter spp., Anaeromyxobacter spp., and Desulfovibrio spp. are susceptible to viral infection. Furthermore, viral populations in soils and sedimentary environments in the order of 6.4×10{sup 6}–2.7×10{sup 10} VLP’s cm{sup -3} have been observed. In some cases, viral populations exceed bacterial populations in these environments suggesting that a relationship may exist between viruses and bacteria. Our preliminary screens of samples collected from the ESR FRC indicated that viral like particles were observed in significant numbers. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential functional role viruses play in metal reduction specifically Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, the environmental parameters affecting viral infection of metal reducing bacteria, and the subsequent effects on U transport.

  20. A Proposal for User-defined Reductions in OpenMP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duran, A; Ferrer, R; Klemm, M; de Supinski, B R; Ayguade, E

    2010-03-22

    Reductions are commonly used in parallel programs to produce a global result from partial results computed in parallel. Currently, OpenMP only supports reductions for primitive data types and a limited set of base language operators. This is a significant limitation for those applications that employ user-defined data types (e. g., objects). Implementing manual reduction algorithms makes software development more complex and error-prone. Additionally, an OpenMP runtime system cannot optimize a manual reduction algorithm in ways typically applied to reductions on primitive types. In this paper, we propose new mechanisms to allow the use of most pre-existing binary functions on user-defined data types as User-Defined Reduction (UDR) operators. Our measurements show that our UDR prototype implementation provides consistently good performance across a range of thread counts without increasing general runtime overheads.

  1. Reduction of Water Use in Wet FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Rencher

    2008-06-30

    Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42726 was established in January 2006, and is current through Amendment 2, April 2006. The current reporting period, April 1, 2008 through June 30, 2008, is the eighth progress-reporting period for the project. However, this report will be the final report (instead of a quarterly report) because this project is being terminated. Efforts to bring this project to a close over the past several months focused on internal project discussions, and subsequent communications with NETL, regarding the inherent difficulty with completing this project as originally scoped, and the option of performing an engineering study to accomplish some of the chief project objectives. However, NETL decided that the engineering study did indeed constitute a significant scope deviation from the original concepts, and that pursuit of this option was not recommended. These discussions are summarized in the Results and Discussion, and the Conclusion sections. The objective of this project by a team lead by URS Group was to demonstrate the use of regenerative heat exchange to reduce flue gas temperature and minimize evaporative water consumption in wet flue gas desulphurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intended to demonstrate that regenerative heat exchange to cool flue gas upstream of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and reheat flue gas downstream of the FGD system would result in the following benefits to air pollution control (APC) systems on coal-fired power plants: (1) Improve ESP performance due to reduced gas volume and improved ash resistivity characteristics, (2) Control SO3 emissions through condensation on the fly ash, and (3) Avoid the need to install wet stacks or to provide flue gas reheat. Finally, operation at cooler flue gas temperatures offered the potential benefit of increasing mercury (Hg) removal across the ESP and FGD systems. This project planned to conduct pilot-scale tests of regenerative heat exchange to determine the reduction in FGD water consumption that can be achieved and assess the resulting impact on APC systems. An analysis of the improvement in the performance of the APC systems and the resulting reduction in capital and operating costs were going to be conducted. The tests were intended to determine the impact of operation of cooling flue gas temperatures on FGD water consumption, ESP particulate removal, SO{sub 3} removal, and Hg removal, and to assess the potential negative impact of excessive corrosion rates in the regenerative heat exchanger. Testing was going to be conducted on Columbian coal (with properties similar to low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal) and SO{sub 3} will be spiked onto the flue gas to simulate operation with higher SO{sub 3} concentrations resulting from firing a higher sulfur coal, or operating with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit. The project was also going to include associate planning, laboratory analytical support, reporting, and management activities. The URS project team finalized a conceptual alternative approach to demonstrate, via an engineering study, the use of regenerative heat exchange to reduce flue gas temperature and minimize evaporative water consumption. This idea was presented in summary format to NETL for consideration. NETL determined that this alternative approach deviated from the original project objectives, and that it would be in the best interest of all parties involved to cancel the project.

  2. Nox control for high nitric oxide concentration flows through combustion-driven reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, James T. (Bethel Park, PA); Ekmann, James M. (Bethel Park, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Drummond, Charles J. (Churchill, PA)

    1989-01-01

    An improved method for removing nitrogen oxides from concentrated waste gas streams, in which nitrogen oxides are ignited with a carbonaceous material in the presence of substoichiometric quantities of a primary oxidant, such as air. Additionally, reductants may be ignited along with the nitrogen oxides, carbonaceous material and primary oxidant to achieve greater reduction of nitrogen oxides. A scrubber and regeneration system may also be included to generate a concentrated stream of nitrogen oxides from flue gases for reduction using this method.

  3. The Garching-Bonn Deep Survey (GaBoDS) Wide-Field-Imaging Reduction Pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Hildebrandt; T. Erben; M. Schirmer; J. P. Dietrich; P. Schneider

    2007-05-03

    We introduce our publicly available Wide-Field-Imaging reduction pipeline THELI. The procedures applied for the efficient pre-reduction and astrometric calibration are presented. A special emphasis is put on the methods applied to the photometric calibration. As a test case the reduction of optical data from the ESO Deep Public Survey including the WFI-GOODS data is described. The end-products of this project are now available via the ESO archive Advanced Data Products section.

  4. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes. Unraveling the Relationship Between Structure, Surface Chemistry and Oxygen Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopalan, Srikanth

    2013-03-31

    In this work we have considered oxygen reduction reaction on LSM and LSCF cathode materials. In particular we have used various spectroscopic techniques to explore the surface composition, transition metal oxidation state, and the bonding environment of oxygen to understand the changes that occur to the surface during the oxygen reduction process. In a parallel study we have employed patterned cathodes of both LSM and LSCF cathodes to extract transport and kinetic parameters associated with the oxygen reduction process.

  5. O2 Reduction on Graphite and Nitrogen-Doped Graphite: Experiment and Theory Reyimjan A. Sidik and Alfred B. Anderson*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    toward NOx reduction.7,8 Others are oxidation catalysts.9 In the case of NOx oxidation and O2 reductionO2 Reduction on Graphite and Nitrogen-Doped Graphite: Experiment and Theory Reyimjan A. Sidik for reduction of approximately 0.5 V (SHE) compared to the onset potential of 0.2 V observed for untreated

  6. Ag-Al2O3 Catalyst HC-SCR: Performance with Light Alcohols and Other Reductants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  7. Transuranic (Tru) waste volume reduction operations at a plutonium facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cournoyer, Michael E; Nixon, Archie E; Dodge, Robert L; Fife, Keith W; Sandoval, Arnold M; Garcia, Vincent E

    2010-01-01

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA 55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). Size-reduction operations on glovebox equipment are a common activity when a process has been discontinued and the room is being modified to support a new customer. The Actin ide Processing Group at TA-55 uses one-meter-long glass columns to process plutonium. Disposal of used columns is a challenge, since they must be size-reduced to get them out of the glovebox. The task is a high-risk operation because the glass shards that are generated can puncture the bag-out bags, leather protectors, glovebox gloves, and the worker's skin when completing the task. One of the Lessons Learned from these operations is that Laboratory management should critically evaluate each hazard and provide more effective measures to prevent personnel injury. A bag made of puncture-resistant material was one of these enhanced controls. We have investigated the effectiveness of these bags and have found that they safely and effectively permit glass objects to be reduced to small pieces with a plastic or rubber mallet; the waste can then be easily poured into a container for removal from the glove box as non-compactable transuranic (TRU) waste. This size-reduction operation reduces solid TRU waste generation by almost 2% times. Replacing one-time-use bag-out bags with multiple-use glass crushing bags also contributes to reducing generated waste. In addition, significant costs from contamination, cleanup, and preparation of incident documentation are avoided. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos National Laboratory Continuous Improvement Program by improving the efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and formality of glovebox operations. In this report, the technical issues, associated with implementing this process improvement are addressed, the results discussed, effectiveness of Lessons Learned evaluated, and waste savings presented.

  8. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE II TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.; Stone, M.; Miller, D.

    2014-09-03

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): ? Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models; ? Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste loading and was operated continuously for 25 days. Process data was collected throughout testing and included melter operation parameters and off-gas chemistry. In order to generate off-gas data in support of the flammability model development for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet, vapor space steady state testing in the range of ~300-750°C was conducted under the following conditions, (i) 100% (nominal and excess antifoam levels) and 125% stoichiometry feed and (ii) with and without argon bubbling. Adjustments to feed rate, heater outputs and purge air flow were necessary in order to achieve vapor space temperatures in this range. Surge testing was also completed under nominal conditions for four days with argon bubbling and one day without argon bubbling.

  9. Investigation of greenhouse gas reduction strategies by industries : an enterprise systems architecting approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanthullu Athmaram, Kumaresh Babu

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores an enterprise systems architecting approach to investigate the greenhouse gas reduction strategies followed by industries, especially for automotive industry and Information Technology industry. The ...

  10. The CO2 Reduction Potential of Combined Heat and Power in California's Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Darrow, K et al. (2009), “CHP Market Assessment” Integratedwith combined heat and power (CHP) capability deployment ingas emissions (GHG) reductions. CHP applications at large

  11. Hamerschlag Hall Green Roof Storm Water Retention and Runoff Reduction Performance Lucheng Chen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrews, Peter B.

    Hamerschlag Hall Green Roof Storm Water Retention and Runoff Reduction Performance ......................................................................................................................... 2 2. Hamerschlag Hall Green Roof .............................................................................. 13 4. Methods of Storm Analysis and Green Roof Performance Analysis

  12. Reduction of low potential electron acceptors requires the CbcL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reduction of low potential electron acceptors requires the CbcL inner membrane cytochrome of Geobacter sulfurreducens Zacharoff, Lori; Chan, Chi Ho (ORCID:0000000265963436); Bond,...

  13. Overview of Vehicle Test and Analysis Results from NREL's A/C Fuel Use Reduction Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharathan, D.; Chaney, L.; Farrington, R. B.; Lustbader, J.; Keyser, M.; Rugh, J. P.

    2007-06-01

    This paper summarizes results of air-conditioning fuel use reduction technologies and techniques for light-duty vehicles evaluated over the last 10 years.

  14. A Review of Dynamic Generator Reduction Methods For Transient Stability Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Ruchi; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Lu, Shuai

    2011-10-10

    Due to the complex interconnected nature of power system, aggregate or reduced system is commonly used by operators and engineers for various power system studies. Transient stability studies need dynamically reduced models to include the dynamic effects of the generating units. Dynamic generator reduction is therefore an important component of power system dynamic reduction. The many different methods for generator reduction in power systems taken from the earliest available literature are discussed. This paper aims to provide an easy reference to researchers interested in exploring dynamic reduction of power systems.

  15. QUANTIFYING PHOTOVOLTAIC FIRE DANGER REDUCTION WITH ARC-FAULT CIRCUIT INTERRUPTERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    QUANTIFYING PHOTOVOLTAIC FIRE DANGER REDUCTION WITH ARC-FAULT CIRCUIT INTERRUPTERS Kenneth M, shock hazards, and cause system downtime in photovoltaic (PV) systems. The 2011 National Electrical Code

  16. STOCHASTIC MODE REDUCTION FOR PARTICLE-BASED SIMULATION METHODS FOR COMPLEX MICROFLUID SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramer, Peter

    STOCHASTIC MODE REDUCTION FOR PARTICLE-BASED SIMULATION METHODS FOR COMPLEX MICROFLUID SYSTEMS (DPD) simulation approaches for complex microfluid systems. The resulting coarse-grained dynamics

  17. Webinar: Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar, Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique, originally presented on March 12, 2013.

  18. A Non-Aqueous Reduction Process for Purifying 153Gd Produced in Natural Europium Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnsen, Amanda M.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Fisher, Darrell R.

    2013-08-01

    Gadolinium-153 is a low-energy gamma-emitter used in nuclear medicine imaging quality assurance. Produced in nuclear reactors using natural Eu2O3 targets, 153Gd is radiochemically separated from europium isotopes by europium reduction. However, conventional aqueous europium reduction produces hydrogen gas, a flammability hazard in radiological hot cells. We altered the traditional reduction method, using methanol as the process solvent to nearly eliminate hydrogen gas production. This new, non-aqueous reduction process demonstrates greater than 98% europium removal and gadolinium yields of 90%.

  19. Energy Consumption Characterization and Reduction Strategies for Milling Machine Tool Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diaz, Nancy; E. Redelsheimer; Dornfeld, David

    2011-01-01

    2010): Environmental Analysis of Milling Machine Tool Use inand Reduction Strategies for Milling Machine Tool Use Nancythe energy consumption of milling machine tools during their

  20. Oxidation/Reduction Reactions at the Metal Contact-TlBr Interface...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: OxidationReduction Reactions at the Metal Contact-TlBr Interface: An X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Oxidation...