National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for non-utility power producers

  1. 2014 Non-Utility Power Producers- Revenue

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Revenue (Data from form EIA-861U) Entity State Ownership Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Constellation NewEnergy, Inc AZ Non_Utility 0 296 0 0 296 Constellation NewEnergy, Inc AZ Non_Utility 0 256 0 0 256 Constellation Solar Arizona LLC AZ Non_Utility 0 774 0 0 774 Main Street Power AZ Non_Utility 0 533 0 0 533 Main Street Power AZ Non_Utility 0 265 0 0 265 Main Street Power AZ Non_Utility 0 165 0 0 165 Solar Star Arizona II LLC AZ Non_Utility 0 638 0 0 638 Solar Star

  2. 2014 Non-Utility Power Producers- Customers

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Customers (Data from form EIA-861U) Entity State Ownership Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Constellation NewEnergy, Inc AZ Non_Utility 0 1 0 0 1 Constellation NewEnergy, Inc AZ Non_Utility 0 1 0 0 1 Constellation Solar Arizona LLC AZ Non_Utility 0 1 0 0 1 Main Street Power AZ Non_Utility 0 1 0 0 1 Main Street Power AZ Non_Utility 0 1 0 0 1 Main Street Power AZ Non_Utility 0 1 0 0 1 Solar Star Arizona II LLC AZ Non_Utility 0 1 0 0 1 Solar Star Arizona II LLC AZ Non_Utility

  3. 2014 Non-Utility Power Producers- Sales

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Data from form EIA-861U) Entity State Ownership Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Constellation NewEnergy, Inc AZ Non_Utility 0 2,888 0 0 2,888 Constellation NewEnergy, Inc AZ Non_Utility 0 3,343 0 0 3,343 Constellation Solar Arizona LLC AZ Non_Utility 0 7,397 0 0 7,397 Main Street Power AZ Non_Utility 0 8,017 0 0 8,017 Main Street Power AZ Non_Utility 0 2,195 0 0 2,195 Main Street Power AZ Non_Utility 0 2,654 0 0 2,654 Solar Star Arizona II LLC AZ Non_Utility 0 6,571

  4. "2014 Non-Utility Power Producers- Customers"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Customers" "(Data from form EIA-861U)" ,,,"Number of Customers" "Entity","State","Ownership","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation","Total" "Constellation NewEnergy, Inc","AZ","Non_Utility",0,1,0,0,1 "Constellation NewEnergy, Inc","AZ","Non_Utility",0,1,0,0,1 "Constellation Solar Arizona

  5. "2014 Non-Utility Power Producers- Revenue"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Revenue" "(Data from form EIA-861U)" ,,,"Revenue (thousand dollars)" "Entity","State","Ownership","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation","Total" "Constellation NewEnergy, Inc","AZ","Non_Utility",0,296,0,0,296 "Constellation NewEnergy, Inc","AZ","Non_Utility",0,256,0,0,256 "Constellation Solar Arizona

  6. "2014 Non-Utility Power Producers- Sales"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales" "(Data from form EIA-861U)" ,,,"Sales (Megawatthours)" "Entity","State","Ownership","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation","Total" "Constellation NewEnergy, Inc","AZ","Non_Utility",0,2888,0,0,2888 "Constellation NewEnergy, Inc","AZ","Non_Utility",0,3343,0,0,3343 "Constellation Solar Arizona

  7. Commercialization of coal-fired diesel engines for cogeneration and non-utility power markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, R.P.; Rao, K.; Benedek, K.R.; Itse, D.; Parkinson, J.; Kimberley, J.; Balles, E.N.; Benson, C.E.; Smith, C.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of this METC project is to established practical, durable components compatible with clean coal slurry fuel and capable of low emissions. The components will be integrated into a coal power system for a 100-hr proof-of-concept test. The goal of this program is to advance the stationary coal-fueled diesel engine to the next plateau of technological readiness, and thus provide the springboard to commercialization.

  8. Commercialization of coal-fired diesel engines for cogeneration and non-utility power markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, R.P.; Rao, K.; Benedek, K.R.; Itse, D.; Parkinson, J.; Kimberley, J.; Balles, E.N.; Benson, C.E.; Smith, C.

    1992-12-31

    The primary objective of this METC project is to established practical, durable components compatible with clean coal slurry fuel and capable of low emissions. The components will be integrated into a coal power system for a 100-hr proof-of-concept test. The goal of this program is to advance the stationary coal-fueled diesel engine to the next plateau of technological readiness, and thus provide the springboard to commercialization.

  9. The net utility revenue impact of small power producing facilities operating under spot pricing policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacGregor, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The National Energy Act, in general, and Section 210 of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1978 in particular, have dramatically stimulated increasing levels of independent non-utility power generation. As these levels of independent non-utility power generation increase, the electric utility is subjected to new and significant operational and financial impacts. One important concern is the net revenue impact on the utility which is the focus of the research discussed in this thesis and which is inextricably intertwined with the operational functions of the utility system. In general, non-utility generation, and specifically, cogeneration, impact utility revenues by affecting the structure and magnitude of the system load, the scheduling of utility generation, and the reliability of the composite system. These effects are examined by developing a comprehensive model non-utility independent power producing facilities, referenced as Small Power Producing Facilities, a cash-flow-based corporate model of the electric utility, a thermal plant based generation scheduling algorithm, and a system reliability evaluation. All of these components are integrated into an iterative closed loop solution algorithm to both assess and enhance the net revenue. In this solution algorithm, the spot pricing policy of the utility is the principal control mechanism in the process and the system reliability is the primary procedural constraint. A key issue in reducing the negative financial impact of non-utility generation is the possibility of shutting down utility generation units given sufficient magnitudes of non-utility generation in the system. A case study simulating the financial and system operations of the Georgia Power Company with representative cogeneration capacity and individual plant characteristics is analyzed in order to demonstrate the solution process.

  10. Innovative Wave Power Device Starts Producing Clean Power in Hawaii |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Wave Power Device Starts Producing Clean Power in Hawaii Innovative Wave Power Device Starts Producing Clean Power in Hawaii July 6, 2015 - 6:31pm Addthis With support from the Energy Department and the U.S. Navy, a prototype wave energy device has advanced successfully from initial concept to grid-connected, open-sea pilot testing. The device, called Azura, was recently launched and installed in a 30-meter test berth at the Navy's Wave Energy Test Site (WETS) in Kaneohe

  11. Producing power from a cryogenic liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruhemann, M.S.W.

    1983-08-30

    Power is produced from a methane-containing cryogenic liquid such as LNG by compressing the liquid and employing the compressed liquid as a refrigerant in the condensers of two closed and independent power cycles. The heat exchange medium in the first of the cycles evaporates in a lower temperature range than that at which the heat exchange medium in the second cycle condenses. The first heat exchange medium is condensed by heat exchange in a first heat exchange step with the compressed cryogenic liquid and the second heat exchange medium is condensed by heat exchange in a second heat exchange step with compressed cryogenic liquid recovered from the first heat exchange step and evaporating first heat exchange medium. Power is recovered from the expansion engines associated with the two power cycles.

  12. USA Biomass Power Producers Alliance | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Power Producers Alliance Jump to: navigation, search Name: USA Biomass Power Producers Alliance Place: Sacramento, California Sector: Biomass Product: National trade...

  13. Thamna Bio power and Organic Producers Company TBPOPC | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thamna Bio power and Organic Producers Company TBPOPC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Thamna Bio-power and Organic Producers Company (TBPOPC) Place: Thamna, Gujarat, India...

  14. Electric Power Produced from Nuclear Reactor | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Electric Power Produced from Nuclear Reactor Electric Power Produced from Nuclear Reactor Arco, ID The Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 1 located at the National Reactor Testing ...

  15. ASEM Green Independent Power Producers Network | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ASEM Green Independent Power Producers Network Jump to: navigation, search Name: ASEM Green Independent Power Producers Network Place: Germany Sector: Renewable Energy Product: A...

  16. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: Non-Utility Program Administrator Market

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: Non-Utility Program Administrator Market.

  17. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: Non-Utility Program Administrator Business Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: Non-Utility Program Administrator Business Model.

  18. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: Non-Utility Program Administrator Conclusion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: Conclusion, Summary of Non-utility Program Administrator Insights.

  19. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: Non-Utility Program Administrator Introduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: Non-Utility Program Administrator Business Model Introduction.

  20. Electrochemical power-producing cell. [Li/Se

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cairns, E.J.; Chilenskas, A.A.; Steunenberg, R.K.; Shimotake, H.

    1972-05-30

    An electrochemical power-producing cell including a molten lithium metal anode, a molten selenium metal cathode, a paste electrolyte separating the anode from the cathode, an anode current collector, and a single layer of niobium expanded metal formed in corrugated shape as cathode current collector is described. In addition, means are provided for sealing the anode and the cathode from loss of lithium and selenium, respectively, and an insulator is provided between the anode housing and the paste electrolyte disk.

  1. Electric Power Generation from Co-Produced and Other Oil Field...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Power Generation from Co-Produced and Other Oil Field Fluids Electric Power Generation from Co-Produced and Other Oil Field Fluids Co-produced and low-temperature ...

  2. Electric power annual 1995. Volume II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-01

    This document summarizes pertinent statistics on various aspects of the U.S. electric power industry for the year and includes a graphic presentation. Data is included on electric utility retail sales and revenues, financial statistics, environmental statistics of electric utilities, demand-side management, electric power transactions, and non-utility power producers.

  3. New Ways to Produce Geothermal Power at Lower Temperatures | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Ways to Produce Geothermal Power at Lower Temperatures New Ways to Produce Geothermal Power at Lower Temperatures April 15, 2013 - 2:13pm Addthis Note: This article appeared in the April 2013 issue of Power Engineering magazine. By Tim Reinhardt, physical scientist, DOE's Geothermal Technologies Office Investments by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are helping to produce geothermal power at increasingly lower temperatures. While traditional geothermal energy relies on geologically

  4. Chelan County PUD - Sustainable Natural Alternative Power Producers...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    on the system's production. The PUD distributes SNAP payments annually, on or around Earth Day. The amount paid per kilowatt-hour (kWh) to SNAP Producers is determined by...

  5. Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lambirth, Gene Richard

    2011-01-11

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method includes treating a hydrocarbon containing formation. The method may include providing heat to the formation; producing heated fluid from the formation; and generating electricity from at least a portion of the heated fluid using a Kalina cycle.

  6. Electric Power Generation from Co-Produced and Other Oil Field Fluids |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Electric Power Generation from Co-Produced and Other Oil Field Fluids Electric Power Generation from Co-Produced and Other Oil Field Fluids Co-produced and low-temperature demonstration projects presentation at the 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. coproduced_demoprojects_peerreview2013.pdf (2.47 MB) More Documents & Publications Chena Hot Springs Resort - Electric Power Generation Using Geothermal Fluid Coproduced from Oil and/or Gas Wells

  7. Method of and system for producing electrical power

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carabetta, Ralph A.; Staats, Gary E.; Cutting, John C.

    1993-01-01

    A method and system for converting the chemical energy of methane to electrical energy. Methane is thermally decomposed to hydrogen and carbon in a decomposing unit at a temperature not less than about 1200.degree. K. and at a pressure at least slightly above atmospheric pressure. Carbon and substantially pure oxygen and a cesium or potassium seed material is transmitted to a combustor which is maintained at a pressure of at least about 50 atmospheres to combust the carbon and oxygen and provide an ionized plasma having a temperature not less than about 2800.degree. K. The ionized plasma is accelerated to a velocity not less than about 1000 m/sec and transported through an MHD generator having a magnetic field in the range of from about 4 to about 6 Tesla to generate dc power. The ionized plasma is de-accelerated and passed from the MHD generator in heat exchange relationship with the methane to heat same for decomposition and or reaction, and thereafter any cesium or potassium seed material is recovered and transported to the combustor, and the dc power from the MHD generator is converted to ac power.

  8. Method of and system for producing electrical power

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carabetta, Ralph A.; Staats, Gary E.; Cutting, John C.

    1993-01-01

    A method and system for converting the chemical energy of methane to electrical energy. Methane is thermally decomposed to hydrogen and carbon in a decomposing unit at a temperature not less than 1200.degree. K. and at a pressure above atmospheric pressure. Carbon and substantially pure oxygen and a cesium or potassium seed material is transmitted to a combustor which is maintained at a pressure of at least 50 atmospheres to combust the carbon and oxygen and provide an ionized plasma having a temperature not less than 2900.degree. K. The ionized plasma is accelerated to a velocity not less than 1000 m/sec and transported through an MHD generator having a magnetic field in the range of from 4 to 6 Tesla to generate dc power. The ionized plasma is decelerated and passed from the MHD generator in heat exchange relationship with the methane to heat the methane for decomposition, and thereafter any cesium or potassium seed material is recovered and transported to the combustor, and the dc power from the MHD generator is converted to ac power.

  9. Electric Power Generation from Co-Produced and Other Oil Field...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Power Generation from Co- Produced and Other Oil Field Fluids William Gosnold ... entrepreneurship in development of oil field geothermal resources and to train ...

  10. Two of Three Power Plant Modules at Neal Hot Springs Are Producing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Two of Three Power Plant Modules at Neal Hot Springs Are Producing up to 16.8 Megawatts Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Two of Three...

  11. The Council of Industrial Boiler Owners special project on non-utility fossil fuel ash classification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svendsen, R.L.

    1996-12-31

    Information is outlined on the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (CIBO) special project on non-utility fossil fuel ash classification. Data are presented on; current (1996) regulatory status of fossil-fuel combustion wastes; FBC technology identified for further study; CIBO special project methods; Bevill amendment study factors; data collection; and CIBO special project status.

  12. Minimizing Wind Power Producer's Balancing Costs Using Electrochemical Energy Storage: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miettinen, J.; Tikka, V.; Lassila, J.; Partanen, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-08-01

    This paper examines how electrochemical energy storage can be used to decrease the balancing costs of a wind power producer in the Nordic market. Because electrochemical energy storage is developing in both technological and financial terms, a sensitivity analysis was carried out for the most important variables in the wind-storage hybrid system. The system was studied from a wind power producer's point of view. The main result is that there are no technical limitations to using storage for reducing the balancing costs. However, in terms of economic feasibility, installing hybrid wind-storage systems such as the one studied in this paper faces challenges in both the short and long terms.

  13. Electrical Power Generation Using Geothermal Fluid Co-produced from Oil &

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gas; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report | Department of Energy Gas; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Electrical Power Generation Using Geothermal Fluid Co-produced from Oil & Gas; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report DOE 2010 Geothermal Technologies Program Peer Review lowtemp_012_karl.pdf (247.08 KB) More Documents & Publications GRED Drilling Award … GRED III Phase II; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report

  14. USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kent Zammit; Michael N. DiFilippo

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Produced water is generated nationally as a byproduct of oil and gas production. Seven states generate 90 percent of the produced water in the continental US. About 37 percent of the sources documented in the US Geological Survey's (USGS) Produced Waters Database have a TDS of less than 30,000 mg/l. This is significant because produced water treatment for reuse in power plants was found to be very costly above 30,000 mg/l TDS. For the purposes of this report, produced water treatment was assessed using the technologies evaluated for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) in Deliverable 3, Treatment and Disposal Analysis. Also, a methodology was developed to readily estimate capital and operating costs for produced water treatment. Two examples are presented to show how the cost estimating methodology can be used to evaluate the cost of treatment of produced water at power plants close to oil and gas production.

  15. Apparatus and method for extracting power from energetic ions produced in nuclear fusion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisch, N.J.; Rax, J.M.

    1994-12-20

    An apparatus and method of extracting power from energetic ions produced by nuclear fusion in a toroidal plasma to enhance respectively the toroidal plasma current and fusion reactivity. By injecting waves of predetermined frequency and phase traveling substantially in a selected poloidal direction within the plasma, the energetic ions become diffused in energy and space such that the energetic ions lose energy and amplify the waves. The amplified waves are further adapted to travel substantially in a selected toroidal direction to increase preferentially the energy of electrons traveling in one toroidal direction which, in turn, enhances or generates a toroidal plasma current. In an further adaptation, the amplified waves can be made to preferentially increase the energy of fuel ions within the plasma to enhance the fusion reactivity of the fuel ions. The described direct, or in situ, conversion of the energetic ion energy provides an efficient and economical means of delivering power to a fusion reactor. 4 figures.

  16. Apparatus and method for extracting power from energetic ions produced in nuclear fusion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Rax, Jean M.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method of extracting power from energetic ions produced by nuclear fusion in a toroidal plasma to enhance respectively the toroidal plasma current and fusion reactivity. By injecting waves of predetermined frequency and phase traveling substantially in a selected poloidal direction within the plasma, the energetic ions become diffused in energy and space such that the energetic ions lose energy and amplify the waves. The amplified waves are further adapted to travel substantially in a selected toroidal direction to increase preferentially the energy of electrons traveling in one toroidal direction which, in turn, enhances or generates a toroidal plasma current. In an further adaptation, the amplified waves can be made to preferentially increase the energy of fuel ions within the plasma to enhance the fusion reactivity of the fuel ions. The described direct, or in situ, conversion of the energetic ion energy provides an efficient and economical means of delivering power to a fusion reactor.

  17. High-Power Laser Pulse Recirculation for Inverse Compton Scattering-Produced Gamma-Rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jovanovic, I; Shverdin, M; Gibson, D; Brown, C

    2007-04-17

    Inverse Compton scattering of high-power laser pulses on relativistic electron bunches represents an attractive method for high-brightness, quasi-monoenergetic {gamma}-ray production. The efficiency of {gamma}-ray generation via inverse Compton scattering is severely constrained by the small Thomson scattering cross section. Furthermore, repetition rates of high-energy short-pulse lasers are poorly matched with those available from electron accelerators, resulting in low repetition rates for generated {gamma}-rays. Laser recirculation has been proposed as a method to address those limitations, but has been limited to only small pulse energies and peak powers. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate an alternative method for laser pulse recirculation that is uniquely capable of recirculating short pulses with energies exceeding 1 J. Inverse Compton scattering of recirculated Joule-level laser pulses has a potential to produce unprecedented peak and average {gamma}-ray brightness in the next generation of sources.

  18. Electric cartridge-type heater for producing a given non-uniform axial power distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, D.L.; Kress, T.S.

    1975-10-14

    An electric cartridge heater is provided to simulate a reactor fuel element for use in safety and thermal-hydraulic tests of model nuclear reactor systems. The electric heat-generating element of the cartridge heater consists of a specifically shaped strip of metal cut with variable width from a flat sheet of the element material. When spirally wrapped around a mandrel, the strip produces a coiled element of the desired length and diameter. The coiled element is particularly characterized by an electrical resistance that varies along its length due to variations in strip width. Thus, the cartridge heater is constructed such that it will produce a more realistic simulation of the actual nonuniform (approximately ''chopped'' cosine) power distribution of a reactor fuel element.

  19. Candidate for solar power : a novel desalination technology for coal bed methane produced water.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanley, Charles J.; Andelman, Marc; Hightower, Michael M.; Sattler, Allan Richard

    2005-03-01

    Laboratory and field developments are underway to use solar energy to power a desalination technology - capacitive deionization - for water produced by remote Coal Bed Methane (CBM) natural gas wells. Due to the physical remoteness of many CBM wells throughout the Southwestern U.S., as shown in Figure 1, this approach may offer promise. This promise is not only from its effectiveness in removing salt from CBM water and allowing it to be utilized for various applications, but also for its potentially lower energy consumption compared to other technologies, such as reverse osmosis. This, coupled with the remoteness (Figure 1) of thousands of these wells, makes them more feasible for use with photovoltaic (solar, electric, PV) systems. Concurrent laboratory activities are providing information about the effectiveness and energy requirements of each technology under various produced water qualities and water reuse applications, such as salinity concentrations and water flows. These parameters are being used to driving the design of integrated PV-powered treatment systems. Full-scale field implementations are planned, with data collection and analysis designed to optimize the system design for practical remote applications. Early laboratory studies of capacitive deionization have shown promise that at common CBM salinity levels, the technology may require less energy, is less susceptible to fouling, and is more compact than equivalent reverse osmosis (RO) systems. The technology uses positively and negatively charged electrodes to attract charged ions in a liquid, such as dissolved salts, metals, and some organics, to the electrodes. This concentrates the ions at the electrodes and reduces the ion concentrations in the liquid. This paper discusses the results of these laboratory studies and extends these results to energy consumption and design considerations for field implementation of produced water treatment using photovoltaic systems.

  20. Use of Produced Water in Recirculated Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. McGowin; M. DiFilippo; L. Weintraub

    2006-06-30

    Tree ring studies indicate that, for the greater part of the last three decades, New Mexico has been relatively 'wet' compared to the long-term historical norm. However, during the last several years, New Mexico has experienced a severe drought. Some researchers are predicting a return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters to supplement current fresh water supplies for power plant operation and cooling and other uses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored three related assessments of water supplies in the San Juan Basin area of the four-corner intersection of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. These were (1) an assessment of using water produced with oil and gas as a supplemental supply for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS); (2) a field evaluation of the wet-surface air cooling (WSAC) system at SJGS; and (3) the development of a ZeroNet systems analysis module and an application of the Watershed Risk Management Framework (WARMF) to evaluate a range of water shortage management plans. The study of the possible use of produced water at SJGS showed that produce water must be treated to justify its use in any reasonable quantity at SJGS. The study identified produced water volume and quality, the infrastructure needed to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements, and delivery and treatment economics. A number of produced water treatment alternatives that use off-the-shelf technology were evaluated along with the equipment needed for water treatment at SJGS. Wet surface air-cooling (WSAC) technology was tested at the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) to determine its capacity to cool power plant circulating water using degraded water. WSAC is a commercial cooling technology and has been used for many years to cool and/or condense process fluids. The purpose of the pilot test was to determine if WSAC

  1. Project Title: Small Scale Electrical Power Generation from Heat Co-Produced in Geothermal Fluids: Mining Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Thomas M; Erlach, Celeste

    2014-12-30

    Demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of small scale power generation from low temperature co-produced fluids. Phase I is to Develop, Design and Test an economically feasible low temperature ORC solution to generate power from lower temperature co-produced geothermal fluids. Phase II &III are to fabricate, test and site a fully operational demonstrator unit on a gold mine working site and operate, remotely monitor and collect data per the DOE recommended data package for one year.

  2. Method of producing stable metal oxides and chalcogenides and power source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, Narayan; Ingersoll, David

    1996-01-01

    A method of making chemically and electrochemically stable oxides or other chalcogenides for use as cathodes for power source applications, and of making batteries comprising such materials.

  3. Cathodes for secondary electrochemical power-producing cells. [layers of porous substrates impregnated with S alternate with layers containing electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cairns, E.J.; Kyle, M.; Shimotake, H.

    1973-02-13

    A secondary electrochemical power-producing cell includes an anode containing lithium, an electrolyte containing lithium ions, and a cathode containing sulfur. The cathode comprises plates of a porous substrate material impregnated with sulfur alternating with layers (which may also comprise porous substrate plates) containing electrolyte.

  4. Method of producing stable metal oxides and chalcogenides and power source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1996-10-22

    A method is described for making chemically and electrochemically stable oxides or other chalcogenides for use as cathodes for power source applications, and of making batteries comprising such materials. 6 figs.

  5. State Air Emission Regulations That Affect Electric Power Producers (Update) (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    Several states have recently enacted air emission regulations that will affect the electricity generation sector. The regulations govern emissions of NOx, SO2, CO2, and mercury from power plants.

  6. USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael N. DiFilippo

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Deliverable 1 presents a general assessment of produced water generation in the San Juan Basin in Four Corners Area of New Mexico. Oil and gas production, produced water handling and disposal, and produced water quantities and chemistry are discussed. Legislative efforts to enable the use of this water at SJGS are also described.

  7. Use of Produced Water in Recirculating Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kent Zammit; Michael N. DiFilippo

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. This deliverable describes possible test configurations for produced water demonstration projects at SJGS. The ability to host demonstration projects would enable the testing and advancement of promising produced water treatment technologies. Testing is described for two scenarios: Scenario 1--PNM builds a produced water treatment system at SJGS and incorporates planned and future demonstration projects into the design of the system. Scenario 2--PNM forestalls or decides not to install a produced water treatment system and would either conduct limited testing at SJGS (produced water would have to be delivered by tanker trucked) or at a salt water disposal facility (SWD). Each scenario would accommodate demonstration projects differently and these differences are discussed in this deliverable. PNM will host a demonstration test of water-conserving cooling technology--Wet Surface Air Cooling (WSAC) using cooling tower blowdown

  8. USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael N. DiFilippo

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Deliverable 2 focuses on transportation--the largest obstacle to produced water reuse in the San Juan Basin (the Basin). Most of the produced water in the Basin is stored in tanks at the well head and must be transported by truck to salt water disposal (SWD) facilities prior to injection. Produced water transportation requirements from the well head to SJGS and the availability of existing infrastructure to transport the water are discussed in this deliverable.

  9. Update on State Air Emission Regulations That Affect Electric Power Producers (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    Several states have recently enacted air emission regulations that will affect the electricity generation sector. The regulations are intended to improve air quality in the states and assist them in complying with the revised 1997 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ground-level ozone and fine particulates. The affected states include Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Texas, and Washington. The regulations govern emissions of NOx, SO2, CO2, and mercury from power plants.

  10. Conceptual design of an open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion net power-producing experiment (OC-OTEC NPPE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharathan, D.; Green, H.J.; Link, H.F.; Parsons, B.K.; Parsons, J.M.; Zangrando, F.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes the conceptual design of an experiment to investigate heat and mass transfer and to assess the viability of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC). The experiment will be developed in two stages, the Heat- and Mass-Transfer Experimental Apparatus (HMTEA) and the Net Power-Producing Experiment (NPPE). The goal for the HMTEA is to test heat exchangers. The goal for the NPPE is to experimentally verify OC-OTEC's feasibility by installing a turbine and testing the power-generating system. The design effort met the goals of both the HMTEA and the NPPE, and duplication of hardware was minimal. The choices made for the design resource water flow rates are consistent with the availability of cold and warm seawater as a result of the seawater systems upgrade carried out by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the state of Hawaii, and the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research. The choices regarding configuration of the system were made based on projected performance, degree of technical risk, schedule, and cost. The cost for the future phase of the design and the development of the HMTEA/NPPE is consistent with the projected future program funding levels. The HMTEA and NPPE were designed cooperatively by PICHTR, Argonne National Laboratory, and Solar Energy Research Institute under the guidance of DOE. The experiment will be located at the DOE's Seacoast Test Facility at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii. 71 refs., 41 figs., 34 tabs.

  11. Effect of surface produced secondary electrons on the sheath structure induced by high-power microwave window breakdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng Guoxin; Liu Lie

    2011-03-15

    Dielectric window breakdown, whose mechanism is not thoroughly understood, is a major factor of limiting the transmission and radiation of high-power microwave on the order of 1 GW. In this paper, a one-dimensional fluid-like sheath model is developed to investigate the sheath structures formed at different gas pressures. The dominant processes during the surface flashover are isolated by this model. In vacuum, electron multipactor is self-sustained by secondary electron emission, a positive space-charge potential is formed on the dielectric surface. With increasing gas pressure, electron-neutral ionization prevails against secondary electron emission. The multipactor effect is suppressed by the shielding of plasma electrons. This leads to the sheath potential changing gradually from a positive space-charge potential to a negative space-charge potential. For argon gas pressure lower than 14 Torr, the sheath is space charge limited. A potential minimum could be formed in front of the dielectric which traps secondary electrons emitted from the wall. With the higher argon gas pressure, the number density of ions becomes comparable to that of electrons, all surface produced electrons are accelerated toward the presheath region. Therefore, the normal sheath is formed and the resulting surface flashover on the dielectric surface becomes rf-driven volumetric breakdown.

  12. Method and system to directly produce electrical power within the lithium blanket region of a magnetically confined, deuterium-tritium (DT) fueled, thermonuclear fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woolley, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    A method for integrating liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic power generation with fusion blanket technology to produce electrical power from a thermonuclear fusion reactor located within a confining magnetic field and within a toroidal structure. A hot liquid metal flows from a liquid metal blanket region into a pump duct of an electromagnetic pump which moves the liquid metal to a mixer where a gas of predetermined pressure is mixed with the pressurized liquid metal to form a Froth mixture. Electrical power is generated by flowing the Froth mixture between electrodes in a generator duct. When the Froth mixture exits the generator the gas is separated from the liquid metal and both are recycled.

  13. Method and System to Directly Produce Electrical Power within the Lithium Blanket Region of a Magnetically Confined, Deuterium-Tritium (DT) Fueled, Thermonuclear Fusion Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woolley, Robert D.

    1998-09-22

    A method for integrating liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic power generation with fusion blanket technology to produce electrical power from a thermonuclear fusion reactor located within a confining magnetic field and within a toroidal structure. A hot liquid metal flows from a liquid metal blanket region into a pump duct of an electromagnetic pump which moves the liquid metal to a mixer where a gas of predetermined pressure is mixed with the pressurized liquid metal to form a Froth mixture. Electrical power is generated by flowing the Froth mixture between electrodes in a generator duct. When the Froth mixture exits the generator the gas is separated from the liquid metal and both are recycled.

  14. Reuse of Produced Water from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery, Coal-Bed Methane, and Mine Pool Water by Coal-Based Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knutson, Chad; Dastgheib, Seyed A.; Yang, Yaning; Ashraf, Ali; Duckworth, Cole; Sinata, Priscilla; Sugiyono, Ivan; Shannon, Mark A.; Werth, Charles J.

    2012-07-01

    Power generation in the Illinois Basin is expected to increase by as much as 30% by the year 2030, and this would increase the cooling water consumption in the region by approximately 40%. This project investigated the potential use of produced water from CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) operations; coal-bed methane (CBM) recovery; and active and abandoned underground coal mines for power plant cooling in the Illinois Basin. Specific objectives of this project were: (1) to characterize the quantity, quality, and geographic distribution of produced water in the Illinois Basin; (2) to evaluate treatment options so that produced water may be used beneficially at power plants; and (3) to perform a techno-economic analysis of the treatment and transportation of produced water to thermoelectric power plants in the Illinois Basin. Current produced water availability within the basin is not large, but potential flow rates up to 257 million liters per day (68 million gallons per day (MGD)) are possible if CO2-enhanced oil recovery and coal bed methane recovery are implemented on a large scale. Produced water samples taken during the project tend to have dissolved solids concentrations between 10 and 100 g/L, and water from coal beds tends to have lower TDS values than water from oil fields. Current pretreatment and desalination technologies including filtration, adsorption, reverse osmosis (RO), and distillation can be used to treat produced water to a high quality level, with estimated costs ranging from $2.6 to $10.5 per cubic meter ($10 to $40 per 1000 gallons). Because of the distances between produced water sources and power plants, transportation costs tend to be greater than treatment costs. An optimization algorithm was developed to determine the lowest cost pipe network connecting sources and sinks. Total water costs increased with flow rate up to 26 million liters per day (7 MGD), and the range was from $4 to $16 per cubic meter

  15. Albany Interim Landfill gas extraction and mobile power system: Using landfill gas to produce electricity. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    The Albany Interim Landfill Gas Extraction and Mobile Power System project served three research objectives: (1) determination of the general efficiency and radius of influence of horizontally placed landfill gas extraction conduits; (2) determination of cost and effectiveness of a hydrogen sulfide gas scrubber utilizing Enviro-Scrub{trademark} liquid reagent; and (3) construction and evaluation of a dual-fuel (landfill gas/diesel) 100 kW mobile power station. The horizontal gas extraction system was very successful; overall, gas recovery was high and the practical radius of influence of individual extractors was about 50 feet. The hydrogen sulfide scrubber was effective and its use appears feasible at typical hydrogen sulfide concentrations and gas flows. The dual-fuel mobile power station performed dependably and was able to deliver smooth power output under varying load and landfill gas fuel conditions.

  16. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Arkansas" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",4,15,"NA",17,"NA","NA","NA"," " "Number of retail

  17. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alaska" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",17,34,"NA",19,"NA","NA","NA"," " "Number of retail

  18. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    District of Columbia" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",3,"NA","NA","NA","NA",26,1," " "Number of retail

  19. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Florida" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",11,33,"NA",16,"NA","NA","NA"," " "Number of retail

  20. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hawaii" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",14,"NA","NA",1,2,"NA","NA"," " "Number of retail

  1. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Indiana" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",7,72,"NA",39,"NA","NA","NA"," " "Number of retail

  2. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Iowa" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",3,137,"NA",42,"NA","NA","NA"," " "Number of retail

  3. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Louisiana" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",7,22,"NA",12,"NA","NA","NA"," " "Number of retail

  4. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Missouri" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",5,86,"NA",42,"NA","NA","NA"," " "Number of retail

  5. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nebraska" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities","NA",148,1,10,"NA","NA","NA"," " "Number of retail

  6. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",4,22,"NA",21,"NA","NA","NA"," " "Number of retail

  7. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    West Virginia" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",5,2,"NA",2,"NA","NA","NA"," " "Number of retail

  8. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alabama" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",1,36,1,24,"NA","NA","NA"," " "Number of retail customers",1450921,538966,11,548029,"NA","NA","NA",2537927

  9. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Arizona" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",23,29,3,9,11,"NA","NA"," " "Number of retail customers",1675038,1078638,16690,187629,12,"NA","NA",2958007 "Retail sales

  10. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    California" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",29,41,2,4,65,17,3," " "Number of retail customers",11676056,3110257,2197,16506,69,185755,"NA",14990840 "Retail sales

  11. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Colorado" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",10,29,1,28,7,"NA","NA"," " "Number of retail customers",1500660,428854,13,632335,7,"NA","NA",2561869 "Retail sales

  12. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Connecticut" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",7,8,"NA","NA",3,35,2," " "Number of retail customers",948486,71741,"NA","NA",3,597272,"NA",1617502 "Retail sales

  13. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Delaware" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",2,9,"NA",1,1,27,1," " "Number of retail customers",267434,66283,"NA",88026,1,38537,"NA",460281 "Retail sales

  14. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Georgia" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",2,53,"NA",42,1,"NA","NA"," " "Number of retail customers",2410042,333203,"NA",1966788,31,"NA","NA",4710064

  15. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Idaho" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",3,11,2,17,"NA","NA","NA"," " "Number of retail customers",693393,43895,1,84578,"NA","NA","NA",821867 "Retail

  16. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Illinois" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",4,41,"NA",26,2,53,3," " "Number of retail customers",1911129,270483,"NA",301219,318,3268220,"NA",5751369 "Retail sales

  17. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kansas" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",4,118,1,29,"NA","NA","NA"," " "Number of retail customers",953679,235288,4,292717,"NA","NA","NA",1481688 "Retail

  18. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kentucky" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",5,30,1,24,2,"NA","NA"," " "Number of retail customers",1220619,210206,17,813201,4,"NA","NA",2244047 "Retail sales

  19. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maine" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",2,4,"NA",2,1,32,6," " "Number of retail customers",39,10603,"NA",2535,1,788335,"NA",801513 "Retail sales

  20. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maryland" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",10,5,"NA",3,8,52,5," " "Number of retail customers",1638979,28808,"NA",208447,8,610640,"NA",2486882 "Retail sales

  1. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Massachusetts" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",13,40,"NA","NA",27,40,5," " "Number of retail customers",2182382,399857,"NA","NA",40,544399,"NA",3126678 "Retail

  2. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Michigan" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",8,41,"NA",10,2,12,3," " "Number of retail customers",4177118,306315,"NA",318985,2,6419,"NA",4808839 "Retail sales

  3. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Minnesota" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",5,124,1,46,4,"NA","NA"," " "Number of retail customers",1498737,369257,4,772733,6,"NA","NA",2640737 "Retail sales

  4. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mississippi" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",2,23,1,25,"NA","NA","NA"," " "Number of retail customers",628656,134500,7,741758,"NA","NA","NA",1504921

  5. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Montana" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",5,1,3,29,"NA",2,1," " "Number of retail customers",377770,983,20971,197627,"NA",419,"NA",597770 "Retail sales

  6. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nevada" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",5,9,1,8,1,3,3," " "Number of retail customers",1204604,29842,2,37040,1,10,"NA",1271499 "Retail sales

  7. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hampshire" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",3,5,"NA",1,"NA",20,4," " "Number of retail customers",496060,12226,"NA",78794,"NA",128985,"NA",716065 "Retail sales

  8. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Jersey" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",17,9,"NA",1,35,58,4," " "Number of retail customers",3270179,55120,"NA",11581,39,649669,"NA",3986588 "Retail sales

  9. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mexico" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",6,8,1,20,6,"NA","NA"," " "Number of retail customers",723562,85741,5,208702,10,"NA","NA",1018020 "Retail sales

  10. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    York" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",19,48,"NA",4,5,69,9," " "Number of retail customers",5052054,1270394,"NA",18139,15,1751992,"NA",8092594 "Retail sales

  11. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",3,72,1,31,"NA","NA","NA"," " "Number of retail customers",3318839,598354,4,1052477,"NA","NA","NA",4969674

  12. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dakota" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",3,12,1,21,"NA","NA","NA"," " "Number of retail customers",238608,11023,21,186997,"NA","NA","NA",436649 "Retail

  13. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Ohio" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",10,85,"NA",25,6,52,6," " "Number of retail customers",2143362,375117,"NA",383167,12,2618989,"NA",5520647 "Retail sales

  14. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oklahoma" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",3,62,1,31,"NA","NA","NA"," " "Number of retail customers",1291253,204450,1,508162,"NA","NA","NA",2003866

  15. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oregon" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",8,18,1,19,"NA",4,3," " "Number of retail customers",1421279,294747,1,203211,"NA",484,"NA",1919722 "Retail sales

  16. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pennsylvania" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",15,35,"NA",13,5,73,10," " "Number of retail customers",3554206,83922,"NA",219570,5,2146096,"NA",6003799 "Retail sales

  17. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rhode Island" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",2,1,"NA","NA","NA",17,1," " "Number of retail customers",462381,4658,"NA","NA","NA",32071,"NA",499110

  18. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dakota" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",6,36,1,31,"NA","NA","NA"," " "Number of retail customers",243148,60553,22,154530,"NA","NA","NA",458253 "Retail

  19. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Tennessee" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",3,61,1,26,1,"NA","NA"," " "Number of retail customers",47264,2213496,23,969214,1,"NA","NA",3229998 "Retail sales

  20. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Texas" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",89,72,"NA",68,13,"NA","NA"," " "Number of retail customers",7744205,1849743,"NA",2076859,50,"NA","NA",11670857

  1. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Utah" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",1,40,1,9,1,"NA","NA"," " "Number of retail customers",835233,244217,7,48538,1,"NA","NA",1127996 "Retail sales

  2. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vermont" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",2,14,"NA",2,1,"NA","NA"," " "Number of retail customers",258928,54912,"NA",49378,1,"NA","NA",363219 "Retail

  3. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Virginia" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",3,16,"NA",13,"NA",1,1," " "Number of retail customers",2934456,166751,"NA",629034,"NA",20,"NA",3730261 "Retail sales

  4. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Washington" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",4,41,2,18,1,3,1," " "Number of retail customers",1460672,1669068,10,167371,1,17,"NA",3297139 "Retail sales

  5. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wisconsin" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",13,82,"NA",24,2,"NA","NA"," " "Number of retail customers",2439647,282258,"NA",260892,2,"NA","NA",2982799

  6. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wyoming" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",5,13,1,18,"NA","NA","NA"," " "Number of retail customers",198292,36318,5,99606,"NA","NA","NA",334221 "Retail

  7. Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    United States" ,"Full service providers",,,,,"Other providers",, "Item","Investor Owned","Public","Federal","Cooperative","Non-utility","Energy","Delivery","Total" "Number of entities",256,1948,6,810,144,188,67," " "Number of retail customers",93329397,21335809,40029,19096482,656,13411030,"NA",147213403 "Retail sales

  8. Power mixture and green body for producing silicon nitride base articles of high fracture toughness and strength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huckabee, M.L.; Buljan, S.T.; Neil, J.T.

    1991-09-17

    A powder mixture and a green body for producing a silicon nitride-based article of improved fracture toughness and strength are disclosed. The powder mixture includes (a) a bimodal silicon nitride powder blend consisting essentially of about 10-30% by weight of a first silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.2 [mu]m and a surface area of about 8-12m[sup 2]g, and about 70-90% by weight of a second silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.4-0.6 [mu]m and a surface area of about 2-4 m[sup 2]/g, (b) about 10-50 percent by volume, based on the volume of the densified article, of refractory whiskers or fibers having an aspect ratio of about 3-150 and having an equivalent diameter selected to produce in the densified article an equivalent diameter ratio of the whiskers or fibers to grains of silicon nitride of greater than 1.0, and (c) an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid. The green body is formed from the powder mixture, an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid, and an effective amount of a suitable organic binder. No Drawings

  9. Power mixture and green body for producing silicon nitride base & articles of high fracture toughness and strength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huckabee, Marvin L.; Buljan, Sergej-Tomislav; Neil, Jeffrey T.

    1991-01-01

    A powder mixture and a green body for producing a silicon nitride-based article of improved fracture toughness and strength. The powder mixture includes 9a) a bimodal silicon nitride powder blend consisting essentially of about 10-30% by weight of a first silicon mitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.2 .mu.m and a surface area of about 8-12m.sup.2 g, and about 70-90% by weight of a second silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.4-0.6 .mu.m and a surface area of about 2-4 m.sup.2 /g, (b) about 10-50 percent by volume, based on the volume of the densified article, of refractory whiskers or fibers having an aspect ratio of about 3-150 and having an equivalent diameter selected to produce in the densified articel an equivalent diameter ratio of the whiskers or fibers to grains of silicon nitride of greater than 1.0, and (c) an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid. The green body is formed from the powder mixture, an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid, and an effective amount of a suitable organic binder.

  10. The price of electricity from private power producers: Stage 2, Expansion of sample and preliminary statistical analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comnes, G.A.; Belden, T.N.; Kahn, E.P.

    1995-02-01

    The market for long-term bulk power is becoming increasingly competitive and mature. Given that many privately developed power projects have been or are being developed in the US, it is possible to begin to evaluate the performance of the market by analyzing its revealed prices. Using a consistent method, this paper presents levelized contract prices for a sample of privately developed US generation properties. The sample includes 26 projects with a total capacity of 6,354 MW. Contracts are described in terms of their choice of technology, choice of fuel, treatment of fuel price risk, geographic location, dispatchability, expected dispatch niche, and size. The contract price analysis shows that gas technologies clearly stand out as the most attractive. At an 80% capacity factor, coal projects have an average 20-year levelized price of $0.092/kWh, whereas natural gas combined cycle and/or cogeneration projects have an average price of $0.069/kWh. Within each technology type subsample, however, there is considerable variation. Prices for natural gas combustion turbines and one wind project are also presented. A preliminary statistical analysis is conducted to understand the relationship between price and four categories of explanatory factors including product heterogeneity, geographic heterogeneity, economic and technological change, and other buyer attributes (including avoided costs). Because of residual price variation, we are unable to accept the hypothesis that electricity is a homogeneous product. Instead, the analysis indicates that buyer value still plays an important role in the determination of price for competitively-acquired electricity.

  11. Long Term Field Development of a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System for Treatment of Produced Waters for Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn Katz; Kerry Kinney; Robert Bowman; Enid Sullivan; Soondong Kwon; Elaine Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Craig Altare

    2007-12-31

    ) Evaluate the capability of an SMZ/MBR system to remove carboxylates and BTEX from produced water in a field trial. Laboratory experiments were conducted to provide a better understanding of each component of the SMZ/VPB and SMZ/MBR process. Laboratory VPB studies were designed to address the issue of influent variability and periodic operation (see DE-FC26-02NT15461). These experiments examined multiple influent loading cycles and variable concentration loadings that simulate air sparging as the regeneration option for the SMZ system. Two pilot studies were conducted at a produced water processing facility near Farmington, New Mexico. The first field test evaluated SMZ adsorption, SMZ regeneration, VPB buffering, and VPB performance, and the second test focused on MBR and SMZ/MBR operation. The design of the field studies were based on the results from the previous field tests and laboratory studies. Both of the biological treatment systems were capable of removing the BTEX constituents in the laboratory and in the field over a range of operating conditions. For the VPB, separation of the BTEX constituents from the saline aqueous phase yielded high removal efficiencies. However, carboxylates remained in the aqueous phase and were not removed in the combined VPB/SMZ system. In contrast, the MBR was capable of directly treating the saline produced water and simultaneously removing the BTEX and carboxylate constituents. The major limitation of the MBR system is the potential for membrane fouling, particularly when the system is treating produced water under field conditions. The combined process was able to effectively pretreat water for reverse osmosis treatment and subsequent downstream reuse options including utilization in power generation facilities. The specific conclusions that can be drawn from this study are summarized.

  12. Method and system using power modulation and velocity modulation producing sputtered thin films with sub-angstrom thickness uniformity or custom thickness gradients

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montcalm, Claude; Folta, James Allen; Walton, Christopher Charles

    2003-12-23

    A method and system for determining a source flux modulation recipe for achieving a selected thickness profile of a film to be deposited (e.g., with highly uniform or highly accurate custom graded thickness) over a flat or curved substrate (such as concave or convex optics) by exposing the substrate to a vapor deposition source operated with time-varying flux distribution as a function of time. Preferably, the source is operated with time-varying power applied thereto during each sweep of the substrate to achieve the time-varying flux distribution as a function of time. Preferably, the method includes the steps of measuring the source flux distribution (using a test piece held stationary while exposed to the source with the source operated at each of a number of different applied power levels), calculating a set of predicted film thickness profiles, each film thickness profile assuming the measured flux distribution and a different one of a set of source flux modulation recipes, and determining from the predicted film thickness profiles a source flux modulation recipe which is adequate to achieve a predetermined thickness profile. Aspects of the invention include a computer-implemented method employing a graphical user interface to facilitate convenient selection of an optimal or nearly optimal source flux modulation recipe to achieve a desired thickness profile on a substrate. The method enables precise modulation of the deposition flux to which a substrate is exposed to provide a desired coating thickness distribution.

  13. Influence of a Modification of the Petcoke/Coal Ratio on the Leachability of Fly Ash and Slag Produced from a Large PCC Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izquierdo,M.; Font, O.; Moreno, N.; Querol, X.; Huggins, F.; Alvarez, E.; Diez, S.; Otero, P.; Ballesteros, J.; Gimenez, A.

    2007-01-01

    Co-firing of coal with inexpensive secondary fuels such as petroleum coke is expected to increase in the near future in the EU given that it may provide certain economic and environmental benefits with respect to coal combustion. However, changes in the feed fuel composition of power plants may modify the bulk content and the speciation of a number of elements in fly ash and slag. Consequently, leachability of these byproducts also can be modified. This study is focused on identifying the changes in the environmental quality of co-fired fly ash and slag induced by a modification of the petcoke/coal ratio. Petcoke was found to increase the leachable content of V and Mo and to enhance the mobility of S and As. However, with the exception of these elements, the addition of this secondary fuel did not drastically modify the bulk composition or the overall leachability of the resulting fly ash and slag.

  14. Influence of a modification of the petcoke/coal ratio on the leachability of fly ash and slag produced from a large PCC power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maria Izquierdo; Oriol Font; Natalia Moreno

    2007-08-01

    Co-firing of coal with inexpensive secondary fuels such as petroleum coke is expected to increase in the near future in the EU given that it may provide certain economic and environmental benefits with respect to coal combustion. However, changes in the feed fuel composition of power plants may modify the bulk content and the speciation of a number of elements in fly ash and slag. Consequently, leachability of these byproducts also can be modified. This study is focused on identifying the changes in the environmental quality of co-fired fly ash and slag induced by a modification of the petcoke/coal ratio. Petcoke was found to increase the leachable content of V and Mo and to enhance the mobility of S and As. However, with the exception of these elements, the addition of this secondary fuel did not drastically modify the bulk composition or the overall leachability of the resulting fly ash and slag. 30 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Coal-fueled diesel system for stationary power applications -- Technology development. Final report, March 1988--June 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Cooper-Bessemer and Arthur D. Little have developed the technology to enable coal-water slurry to be utilized in large-bore, medium-speed diesel engines. The target application is modular power generation in the 10 to 100 MW size, with each plant using between two and eight engines. Such systems are expected to be economically attractive in the non-utility generation market after 2000, when oil and natural gas prices are expected to escalate rapidly compared to the price of coal. During this development program, over 1,000 hours of prototype engine operation have been achieved on coal-water slurry (CWS), including over 100 hours operation of a six-cylinder, 1.8 MW engine with an integrated emissions control system. Arthur D. Little, Inc., managed the coal-fueled diesel development, with Cooper-Bessemer as the principal subcontractor responsible for the engine design and testing. Several key technical advances which enable the viability of the coal-fueled diesel engine were made under this program. Principal among them are the development and demonstration of (1) durable injection nozzles; (2) an integrated emissions control system; ad (3) low-cost clean coal slurry formulations optimized for the engine. Significant advances in all subsystem designs were made to develop the full-scale Cooper-Bessemer coal engine components in preparation for a 100-hour proof-of-concept test of an integrated system, including emissions controls. The Clean Coal Diesel power plant of the future will provide a cost-competitive, low-emissions, modular, coal-based power generation option to the non-utility generation, small utility, independent power producer, and cogeneration markets. Combined cycle efficiencies will be approximately 48% (lower heating value basis) and installed cost will be approximately $1,300/kW (1992 dollars).

  16. Definitions - IJK

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protection from, or compensation for, damage, loss, or injury. independent power producer (IPP) A non-utility producer of electricity that operates one or more...

  17. Thermo-fluid dynamic design study of single and double-inflow radial and single-stage axial steam turbines for open-cycle thermal energy conversion net power-producing experiment facility in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlbeiri, T. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-03-01

    The results of the study of the optimum thermo-fluid dynamic design concept are presented for turbine units operating within the open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) systems. The concept is applied to the first OC-OTEC net power producing experiment (NPPE) facility to be installed at Hawaii's natural energy laboratory. Detailed efficiency and performance calculations were performed for the radial turbine design concept with single and double-inflow arrangements. To complete the study, the calculation results for a single-stage axial steam turbine design are also presented. In contrast to the axial flow design with a relatively low unit efficiency, higher efficiency was achieved for single-inflow turbines. Highest efficiency was calculated for a double-inflow radial design, which opens new perspectives for energy generation from OC-OTEC systems.

  18. Fusion Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power www.pppl.gov FACT SHEET FUSION POWER Check us out on YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/ppplab Find us on Facebook. http://www.facebook.com/PPPLab Follow us on Twitter. @PPPLab Access our RSS feed @PPPLab Deuterium Electron Proton Hydrogen Tritium Neutron For centuries, the way in which the sun and stars produce their energy remained a mystery to man. During the twentieth century, scientists discovered that they produce their energy by the fusion process. E=mc 2 , Albert Einstein's familiar

  19. Principle Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: 94120 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Principle Power is a global independent power producer committed to delivering green, sustainable products through financing and...

  20. Spanish Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Jump to: navigation, search Name: Spanish Power Place: Madrid, Spain Zip: 28014 Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Madrid-based electricity producer and distributor active...

  1. Biofuels Power Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biofuels Power Corp Place: The Woodlands, Texas Zip: 77380 Sector: Biofuels, Renewable Energy Product: Biofuels Power Corp produces and...

  2. WINDExchange: Selling Wind Power

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    Market Sectors Printable Version Bookmark and Share Utility-Scale Wind Distributed Wind Motivations for Buying Wind Power Buying Wind Power Selling Wind Power Selling Wind Power Owners of wind turbines interconnected directly to the transmission or distribution grid, or that produce more power than the host consumes, can sell wind power as well as other generation attributes. Wind-Generated Electricity Electricity generated by wind turbines can be used to cover on-site energy needs

  3. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    self-heated) burning plasma. It aims to generate fusion power 30 times the levels produced to date and to exceed the external power applied to the plasma by at least a factor of ...

  4. Underwater power generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowley, W.W.

    1983-05-10

    Apparatus and method for generating electrical power by disposing a plurality of power producing modules in a substantially constant velocity ocean current and mechanically coupling the output of the modules to drive a single electrical generator is disclosed.

  5. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-06-10

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  6. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  7. Method for producing carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Chen, Chun-Ku

    2006-02-14

    Method for producing carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes were prepared using a low power, atmospheric pressure, microwave-generated plasma torch system. After generating carbon monoxide microwave plasma, a flow of carbon monoxide was directed first through a bed of metal particles/glass beads and then along the outer surface of a ceramic tube located in the plasma. As a flow of argon was introduced into the plasma through the ceramic tube, ropes of entangled carbon nanotubes, attached to the surface of the tube, were produced. Of these, longer ropes formed on the surface portion of the tube located in the center of the plasma. Transmission electron micrographs of individual nanotubes revealed that many were single-walled.

  8. Method of producing hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Zollinger, William T.

    2006-12-26

    A method of producing hydrogen is disclosed and which includes providing a first composition; providing a second composition; reacting the first and second compositions together to produce a chemical hydride; providing a liquid and reacting the chemical hydride with the liquid in a manner to produce a high pressure hydrogen gas and a byproduct which includes the first composition; and reusing the first composition formed as a byproduct in a subsequent chemical reaction to form additional chemical hydride.

  9. DOE Seeks Industry Proposals for Feasibility Study to Produce...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Greenhouse Gas-Free Hydrogen at Existing Nuclear Power Plants DOE Seeks Industry Proposals for Feasibility Study to Produce Greenhouse Gas-Free Hydrogen at Existing Nuclear ...

  10. Solar Power Partners Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mill Valley, California Zip: 94941 Sector: Solar Product: Mill Valley-based independent power producer (IPP) focused on solar projects in the US References: Solar Power Partners...

  11. Jadoo Power Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: US-based fuel cell developer, Jadoo Power Systems Inc, produces high energy density power products for the law enforcement, military and electronic news gathering...

  12. PowerBeam Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: PowerBeam holds the patent to a power transmission technology that produces wireless electricity. Coordinates: 32.780338, -96.547405 Show Map Loading map......

  13. Coal markets squeeze producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, M.

    2005-12-01

    Supply/demand fundamentals seem poised to keep prices of competing fossil fuels high, which could cushion coal prices, but increased mining and transportation costs may squeeze producer profits. Are markets ready for more volatility?

  14. Supporting Data-Producing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supporting Data-Producing Facilities and Instruments Co-Chairs: David Skinner & Stuart Campbell 1 Contributors * Kaki Kelly, LANL * David Smith, LLNL * Jeff Cunningham, LBNL * Yao Zhang, ANL * John Harney, ORNL * Stuart Campbell, ORNL * Ilana Stern, NCAR * David Skinner, NERSC * Craig Ulmer, Sandia * Dino Pavlakos, Sandia * Rudy Garcia, Sandia * Jack Deslippe, NERSC 2 Some Questions ? * How does a Data-Producing Facility or Instrument plug in to HPC facilities ? * Do we support facilities

  15. Concentrating Solar Power Basics | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power Basics Many power plants today use fossil fuels as a heat source to boil water. The steam from the boiling water spins a large turbine, which drives a generator to produce electricity. However, a new generation of power plants with concentrating solar power systems uses the sun as a heat source. The three main types of concentrating solar power systems are: linear concentrator, dish/engine, and power tower systems. Linear concentrator systems collect the sun's energy

  16. Method of producing amorphous thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brusasco, Raymond M.

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing thin films by sintering which comprises: a. coating a substrate with a thin film of an inorganic glass forming parulate material possessing the capability of being sintered, and b. irridiating said thin film of said particulate material with a laser beam of sufficient power to cause sintering of said material below the temperature of liquidus thereof. Also disclosed is the article produced by the method claimed.

  17. gtp_flow_power_estimator.xlsx

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This simple spreadsheet model estimates either the flow rate required to produce a specified level of power output, or the power output that can be produced from a specified flow rate.

  18. SGTE Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: SGTE Power Place: Le Mans, France Sector: Solar Product: France-based producer of a wide variety of energy management products. These include...

  19. Fall 2013 Composite Data Products - Backup Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.; Post, M.; Peters, M.

    2013-12-01

    This report includes 28 composite data products (CDPs) produced in Fall 2013 for fuel cell backup power systems.

  20. Spring 2014 Composite Data Products: Backup Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Saur, G.

    2014-06-01

    This report includes 30 composite data products (CDPs) produced in Spring 2014 for fuel cell backup power systems.

  1. DOE Seeks Industry Proposals for Feasibility Study to Produce Greenhouse

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gas-Free Hydrogen at Existing Nuclear Power Plants | Department of Energy Proposals for Feasibility Study to Produce Greenhouse Gas-Free Hydrogen at Existing Nuclear Power Plants DOE Seeks Industry Proposals for Feasibility Study to Produce Greenhouse Gas-Free Hydrogen at Existing Nuclear Power Plants April 13, 2006 - 10:19am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - In support of President Bush's Advanced Energy Initiative (AEI), Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today announced that the U.S. Department

  2. Electric power annual 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-08

    This report presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and state levels: generating capability and additions, net generation, fossil-fuel statistics, retail sales and revenue, finanical statistics, environmental statistics, power transactions, demand side management, nonutility power producers. Purpose is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts, and the public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets.

  3. 2010 News | Concentrating Solar Power | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... First Hybrid CSP-Coal Power Plant is Fired Up in Colorado Concentrating solar power (CSP) is boosting the energy produced by a coal-fired power plant east of Grand Junction, ...

  4. METHOD OF PRODUCING NEUTRONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

    1964-02-01

    A method for producing neutrons is described in which there is employed a confinement zone defined between longitudinally spaced localized gradient regions of an elongated magnetic field. Changed particles and neutralizing electrons, more specifically deuterons and tritons and neutralizng electrons, are injected into the confinement field from ion sources located outside the field. The rotational energy of the parrticles is increased at the gradients by imposing an oscillating transverse electrical field thereacross. The imposition of such oscillating transverse electrical fields improves the reflection capability of such gradient fielda so that the reactive particles are retained more effectively within the zone. With the attainment of appropriate densities of plasma particles and provided that such particles are at a sufficiently high temperature, neutron-producing reactions ensue and large quantities of neutrons emerge from the containment zone. (AEC)

  5. Process for producing silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO); Carleton, Karen L. (Boulder, CO)

    1984-01-01

    A process for producing silicon includes forming an alloy of copper and silicon and positioning the alloy in a dried, molten salt electrolyte to form a solid anode structure therein. An electrically conductive cathode is placed in the electrolyte for plating silicon thereon. The electrolyte is then purified to remove dissolved oxides. Finally, an electrical potential is applied between the anode and cathode in an amount sufficient to form substantially pure silicon on the cathode in the form of substantially dense, coherent deposits.

  6. Method of producing imines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sithambaram, Shanthakumar; Son, Young-Chan; Suib, Steven L.

    2008-04-08

    A method for forming an imine comprises reacting a first reactant comprising a hydroxyl functionality, a carbonyl functionality, or both a hydroxyl functionality and a carbonyl functionality with a second reactant having an amine functionality in the presence of ordered porous manganese-based octahedral molecular sieves and an oxygen containing gas at a temperature and for a time sufficient for the imine to be produced.

  7. Process for producing silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.; Carleton, K.L.

    1982-06-10

    A process of producing silicon includes forming an alloy of copper and silicon and positioning the alloy in a dried, molten salt electrolyte to form a solid anode structure therein. An electrically conductive cathode is placed in the electrolyte for plating silicon thereon. The electrolyte is then purified to remove dissolved oxides. Finally, an electrical potential is applied between the anode and cathode in an amount sufficient to form substantially pure silicon on the cathode in the form of substantially dense, coherent deposits.

  8. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary PowerEnergy Conversion EfficiencyWater Power Water Power Tara Camacho-Lopez 2016-06-01T22:32:54+00:00 Enabling a successful water power industry. Hydropower ...

  9. Characterization of aerosols produced by surgical procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, H.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.; Guilmette, R.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Jones, R.K.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-07-01

    In many surgeries, especially orthopedic procedures, power tools such as saws and drills are used. These tools may produce aerosolized blood and other biological material from bone and soft tissues. Surgical lasers and electrocautery tools can also produce aerosols when tissues are vaporized and condensed. Studies have been reported in the literature concerning production of aerosols during surgery, and some of these aerosols may contain infectious material. Garden et al. (1988) reported the presence of papilloma virus DNA in the fumes produced from laser surgery, but the infectivity of the aerosol was not assessed. Moon and Nininger (1989) measured the size distribution and production rate of emissions from laser surgery and found that particles were generally less than 0.5 {mu}m diameter. More recently there has been concern expressed over the production of aerosolized blood during surgical procedures that require power tools. In an in vitro study, the production of an aerosol containing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was reported when power tools were used to cut tissues with blood infected with HIV. Another study measured the size distribution of blood aerosols produced by surgical power tools and found blood-containing particles in a number of size ranges. Health care workers are anxious and concerned about whether surgically produced aerosols are inspirable and can contain viable pathogens such as HIV. Other pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) are also of concern. The Occupational Safety and Health funded a project at the National Institute for Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute to assess the extent of aerosolization of blood and other tissues during surgical procedures. This document reports details of the experimental and sampling approach, methods, analyses, and results on potential production of blood-associated aerosols from surgical procedures in the laboratory and in the hospital surgical suite.

  10. POWER REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zinn, W.H.

    1958-07-01

    A fast nuclear reactor system ls described for producing power and radioactive isotopes. The reactor core is of the heterogeneous, fluid sealed type comprised of vertically arranged elongated tubular fuel elements having vertical coolant passages. The active portion is surrounded by a neutron reflector and a shield. The system includes pumps and heat exchangers for the primary and secondary coolant circuits. The core, primary coolant pump and primary heat exchanger are disposed within an irapenforate tank which is filled with the primary coolant, in this case a liquid metal such as Na or NaK, to completely submerge these elements. The tank is completely surrounded by a thick walled concrete shield. This reactor system utilizes enriched uranium or plutonium as the fissionable material, uranium or thorium as a diluent and thorium or uranium containing less than 0 7% of the U/sup 235/ isotope as a fertile material.

  11. APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING SHADOWGRAPHS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, R.R.

    1959-08-11

    An apparatus is presented for obtaining shadowgraphs or radiographs of an object exposed to x rays or the like. The device includes the combination of a cloud chamber having the interior illuminated and a portion thereof transparent to light rays and x'rays, a controlled source of x rays spaced therefrom, photographic recording disposed laterally of the linear path intermediate the source and the chamber portion in oblique angularity in aspect to the path. The object to be studied is disposed intermediate the x-ray source and chamber in the linear path to provide an x-ray transmission barrier therebetween. The shadowgraph is produced in the cloud chamber in response to initiation of the x- ray source and recorded photographically.

  12. Coal-Producing Region

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Coal Production by State (thousand short tons) Year to Date Coal-Producing Region and State January - March 2016 October - December 2015 January - March 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change Alabama 2,446 2,298 4,022 2,446 4,022 -39.2 Alaska 310 328 265 310 265 16.7 Arizona 1,335 1,376 1,755 1,335 1,755 -23.9 Arkansas 11 18 21 11 21 -48.0 Colorado 2,482 3,258 5,263 2,482 5,263 -52.8 Illinois 11,312 11,886 16,779 11,312 16,779 -32.6 Indiana 7,224 7,264 9,463 7,224 9,463 -23.7 Kansas 27 55 53 27 53

  13. Produce diesel from gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singleton, A.H.; Regier, S.

    1983-05-01

    The Gulf Badger process converts natural gas directly to hydrocarbon liquids by a catalytic chemical route. Fischer-Tropsch process--which is a carbon monoxide polymerization/ hydrogenation process--is used. Because the process is exothermal, heat removal by either tubular fixed bed, fluidized bed, or slurry are considered. A wax build up of high molecular weight material is removed by hydro-stripping two-bed system. The demonstration plant flow diagram shows the process to be: natural gas is compressed, recycled with CO/sub 2/, sulfur is removed in a zinc oxide drum, CO is removed in amine scrubbers, H/sub 2//CO ratio is adjusted to produce a hydrogen rich stream, and stabilization and distribution follow. A monitoring system using computers is part of the demonstration unit.

  14. Sunflower power: grow your fuel to produce your food

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruwer, J.J.

    1980-10-01

    The use of sunflower seed oil as a substitute for or extender of tractor diesel fuel is being considered by South Africa. South Afric already grows 500,000 hectares of sunflowers and even on marginal soil unsuitable for cereal grains such as maize and wheat, the crop yields well. Preliminary tests showed that most diesel engines started and operated almost normally on 100% sunflower seed oil.

  15. Process for thermochemically producing hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bamberger, Carlos E.; Richardson, Donald M.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen is produced by the reaction of water with chromium sesquioxide and strontium oxide. The hydrogen producing reaction is combined with other reactions to produce a closed chemical cycle for the thermal decomposition of water.

  16. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1979-01-09

    Method is disclosed for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T [approx gt] 600 C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10[sup 3] [mu]m) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants. 1 fig.

  17. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Charles D. [Livermore, CA

    1979-01-09

    Method for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T .gtorsim. 600.degree. C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10.sup.3 .mu.m) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants.

  18. System for treating produced water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Enid J.; Katz, Lynn; Kinney, Kerry; Bowman, Robert S.; Kwon, Soondong

    2010-08-03

    A system and method were used to treat produced water. Field-testing demonstrated the removal of contaminants from produced water from oil and gas wells.

  19. Unbundling of electric power and energy services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith, D.M.; Lewis, B.R.

    1996-12-31

    The world-wide movement to restructure the electric and power and energy industry is now well underway in the United States. The most recent thrust came this year, with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC`s) issuance on April 24th of new regulations designed to open the interconnected transmission grid to all qualified wholesale users. Other movements have been in the many forms of earlier statutes and regulations promulgated in 1978 to make more efficient use of fuels burned; utility diversification efforts; utility creation of affiliate and subsidiary organizations and operations; introduction into the market of private non-utility power developers; utilities obtaining clearance from the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to venture in international markets; massive mergers and acquisitions; bankruptcies; the entry into the market of nonutility power marketers and brokers, including entities from the gas and securities industries not previously involved in the electric power and energy industry; additional congressional consideration of outright repeal of Holding Company legislation dating back to 1935; some states entering into an era of abandoning the control past in favor of complete re-regulation of the industry on the basis of performance; the coming of Independent System Operators (ISO`s), Regional Transmission Groups (RTG`s), and the possible coming of Capacity Reservation Tariffs (CRT`s), to name a few.

  20. Experiments with Wind to Produce Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nat EXPERIMENTS WITH WIND TO PRODUCE ENERGY Curriculum: Wind Power (simple machines, weather/climatology, aerodynamics, leverage, mechanics, atmospheric pressure, and energy resources/transformations) Grade Level: K-5 Small groups (3 to 4) Time: Constructing equipment needed in these activities varies based on student ability levels. Activities can be done in 1 or 2 class periods. Summary: There are five activities. The first activity demonstrates wind as energy, and that energy causes

  1. Concentrating Solar Power Projects by Status | Concentrating Solar Power |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Status In this section, you can select concentrating solar power (CSP) projects under one of five categories: operational, under construction, under development, request for offer or currently non-operational. You can then select a specific project and review a profile covering project basics, participating organizations, and power plant configuration data for the solar field, power block, and thermal energy storage. Operational-projects with working power plants that are producing

  2. Geothermal Produced Fluids: Characteristics, Treatment Technologies, and Management Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finster, Molly; Clark, Corrie; Schroeder, Jenna; Martino, Louis

    2015-10-01

    Geothermal power plants use geothermal fluids as a resource and create waste residuals as part of the power generation process. Both the geofluid resource and the waste stream are considered produced fluids. The chemical and physical nature of produced fluids can have a major impact on the geothermal power industry and can influence the feasibility of geothermal power development, exploration approaches, power plant design, operating practices, and the reuse or disposal of residuals. In general, produced fluids include anything that comes out of a geothermal field and that subsequently must be managed on the surface. These fluids vary greatly depending on the geothermal reservoir being harnessed, power plant design, and the life cycle stage in which the fluid exists, but generally include water and fluids used to drill geothermal wells, fluids used to stimulate wells in enhanced geothermal systems, and makeup and/or cooling water used during operation of a geothermal power plant. Additional geothermal-related produced fluids include many substances that are similar to waste streams from the oil and gas industry, such as scale, flash tank solids, precipitated solids from brine treatment, hydrogen sulfide, and cooling-tower-related waste. This review paper aims to provide baseline knowledge on specific technologies and technology areas associated with geothermal power production. Specifically, this research focused on the management techniques related to fluids produced and used during the operational stage of a geothermal power plant; the vast majority of which are employed in the generation of electricity. The general characteristics of produced fluids are discussed. Constituents of interest that tend to drive the selection of treatment technologies are described, including total dissolved solids, noncondensable gases, scale and corrosion, silicon dioxide, metal sulfides, calcium carbonate, corrosion, metals, and naturally occurring radioactive material. Management

  3. Calpine: America's largest geothermal energy producer | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Calpine: America's largest geothermal energy producer Calpine: America's largest geothermal energy producer October 6, 2010 - 12:37pm Addthis Calpine operates 15 plants at The Geysers in northwest California, which generate enough clean energy daily to power a city the size of San Francisco.| Photo Courtesy of Calpine Calpine operates 15 plants at The Geysers in northwest California, which generate enough clean energy daily to power a city the size of San Francisco.| Photo Courtesy of

  4. Methods for producing complex films, and films produced thereby

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duty, Chad E.; Bennett, Charlee J. C.; Moon, Ji -Won; Phelps, Tommy J.; Blue, Craig A.; Dai, Quanqin; Hu, Michael Z.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Jellison, Jr., Gerald E.; Love, Lonnie J.; Ott, Ronald D.; Parish, Chad M.; Walker, Steven

    2015-11-24

    A method for producing a film, the method comprising melting a layer of precursor particles on a substrate until at least a portion of the melted particles are planarized and merged to produce the film. The invention is also directed to a method for producing a photovoltaic film, the method comprising depositing particles having a photovoltaic or other property onto a substrate, and affixing the particles to the substrate, wherein the particles may or may not be subsequently melted. Also described herein are films produced by these methods, methods for producing a patterned film on a substrate, and methods for producing a multilayer structure.

  5. Perovskite Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Perovskite Power 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:October 2015 past issues All Issues submit Perovskite Power A breakthrough in the production of...

  6. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Power Sandia's 117-scale WEC device with being tested in the maneuvering and ... EC, News, Renewable Energy, Water Power Sandia National Laboratories Uses Its Wave Energy ...

  7. Bonneville Power Administration Overview As of December 1, 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5% Tacoma Power (Preference) 4% Alcoa Inc (DSI) 4% Powerex Corp. (Independent Power Producer) 4% Clark Public Utilities (Preference) 4% Eugene Water & Electric Board...

  8. Zhongshan Yixiong Wind Power Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Yixiong Wind Power Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Zhongshan Yixiong Wind Power Co Ltd Place: Zhongshan, Guangdong Province, China Sector: Wind energy Product: A producer...

  9. Concentrating Solar Power: Power Towers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This video provides an overview of the principles, applications, and benefits of generating electricity using power towers, a concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. A brief animation explains...

  10. Power optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apollonov, V V

    2014-02-28

    By using the theory we developed in the early 1970s, a broad range of phenomena is considered for an optical surface of a solid body that is exposed to radiation arbitrarily varying in time and producing temperature fields, thermoelastic stresses and thermal deformations on the surface layer. The examination is based on the relations (which are similar to Duhamel's integral formula from the theory of heat conduction) between the quantities characterising the thermal stress state in any nonstationary regimes of energy input into a solid. A peculiar feature of the analysis of the thermal stress state in this case consists in the fact that this relation comprises time as a parameter, which in turn is a consequence of incoherence of the quasi-stationary problem of thermoelasticity. This phenomenon is particularly important for the optics of high-power, high-pulse repetition rate lasers, which are being actively developed. In the review, we have recently published in Laser Physics, the thermal stress state of a solid is analysed. In this state, time is treated as an independent variable used in differentiation. Such an approach greatly reduces the applicability of the method. The review published contains data on the use of capillary porous structures made of various materials with different degrees of the surface development. Moreover, such structures can be efficiently employed to increase the heat exchange at a temperature below the boiling point of the coolant. In the present review we discuss the dependences of the limiting laser intensities on the duration of a pulse or a pulse train, corresponding to the three stages of the state of the reflecting surface and leading to unacceptable elastic deformations of the surface, to the plastic yield of the material accompanied by the formation of residual stresses and to the melting of the surface layer. We also analyse the problem of heat exchange in the surface layer with a liquid metal coolant pumped through it. The

  11. Salazar on private power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, J.

    1995-02-01

    The Philipines power market, considered one of the more mature markets in Asia, continues to expand with economic growth. Independent power producers will find opportunities in the next few years as new additions are required. Currently, the government is encouraging private investment and is awaiting feedback from financiers as it considers eliminating its government guarantee. In a recent interview, the Honorable Mariano S. Salazar, secretary of energy, with the Philippines` Department of Energy, discussed the regulatory structure, encouragement of private power and his country`s capital needs.

  12. AC power systems handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, J.

    1991-01-01

    Transient disturbances are what headaches are made of. Whatever you call them-spikes, surges, are power bumps-they can take your equipment down and leave you with a complicated and expensive repair job. Protection against transient disturbances is a science that demands attention to detail. This book explains how the power distribution system works, what can go wrong with it, and how to protect a facility against abnormalities. system grounding and shielding are covered in detail. Each major method of transient protection is analyzed and its relative merits discussed. The book provides a complete look at the critical elements of the ac power system. Provides a complete look at the ac power system from generation to consumption. Discusses the mechanisms that produce transient disturbances and how to protect against them. Presents diagrams to facilitate system design. Covers new areas, such as the extent of the transient disturbance problem, transient protection options, and stand-by power systems.

  13. Renewable Power and Light | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: W1 J5P2 Sector: Biofuels, Renewable Energy Product: Renewable Power and Light intend to become a power producer generating from...

  14. Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell ... kgd H2 produced) Fuel Cell System Cost Transportation projected to (500,000 ...

  15. Concentrating solar power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) offers a utility-scale, firm, dispatchable renewable energy option that can help meet our nation's demand for electricity. CSP plants produce...

  16. Compact Power Inc CPI | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Inc (CPI) Place: Troy, Michigan Zip: 48083 Sector: Vehicles Product: Producer of lithium-ion batteries for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) and non-automotive (commercial and...

  17. Geothermal/Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in Iceland. Geothermal Power Plants discussion Electricity Generation Converting the energy from a geothermal resource into electricity is achieved by producing steam from the...

  18. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Powering Microturbines With...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    releasing heat that causes the combustion gas to expand. * The expanding gas powers the gas turbine that in turn operates the gen- erator; the generator then produces...

  19. Data and Tools | Concentrating Solar Power | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data and Tools The following data and tools with respect to concentrating solar power (CSP) include databases, maps, and tools produced almost exclusively by the National Renewable ...

  20. Pulsed power for electromagnetic launching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowan, M

    1980-12-01

    There are system advantages to producing power for electromagnetic propulsion by real-time generation rather than by a sequence of generation-storage-switching. The best type of generator for this purpose is the flux compression generator. Different types of flux compression generator which have been developed at Sandia National Laboratories are reviewed and their applications to electric launching are discussed. New experimental facilities for producing more powerful generators are described and cost comparisons are made.

  1. Stationary Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  2. Method of producing submicron size particles and product produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, R.S.; Eichman, C.C.; Welbon, W.W.

    1988-05-11

    Submicron size particles are produced by using a sputtering process to deposit particles into a liquid. The liquid is processed to recover the particles therefrom, and the particles have sizes in the range of twenty to two hundred Angstroms. Either metallic or non-metallic particles can be produced, and the metallic particles can be used in ''metallic inks.'' 4 figs.

  3. Power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Hamilton, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2007-12-04

    A modular, low weight impedance dropping power supply with battery backup is disclosed that can be connected to a high voltage AC source and provide electrical power at a lower voltage. The design can be scaled over a wide range of input voltages and over a wide range of output voltages and delivered power.

  4. WATER POWER SOLAR POWER WIND POWER

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    get curren WATER POWER SOLAR POWER WIND POWER Be part of the Clean Energy Generation! YOUR HOUSE BIOMASS ENERGY GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Clean energy can come from the sun. 2 The energy in wind can make electricity. We can make energy with moving water. Bioenergy comes from plants we can turn into fuel. Logs Wood Chips Straw Corn Switchgrass We can use energy from the earth to heat and cool our homes. Check out these cool websites to learn more about clean energy! Energy Information Administration

  5. Table A13. Total Consumption of Offsite-Produced Energy for...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Total Consumption of Offsite-Produced Energy for Heat, Power, and" " Electricity Generation by Census Region ... Office of Energy Markets and End" "Use, Energy End Use and ...

  6. Table A32. Total Consumption of Offsite-Produced Energy for...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumption of Offsite-Produced Energy for Heat, Power, and" " Electricity Generation by ... The derived estimates presented" "in this table represent the consumption of energy ...

  7. Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Power Solar Power Project Opportunities Abound in the Region The WIPP site is receives abundant solar energy with 6-7 kWh/sq meter power production potential As the accompanying map of New Mexico shows, the WIPP site enjoys abundant year-round sunshine. With an average solar power production potential of 6-7 kWh/sq meter per day, one exciting project being studied for location at WIPP is a 30-50 MW Solar Power Tower: The American Solar Energy Society (ASES) is is a national trade

  8. Table 10. Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...,1.09,1.13,1.08,1.15,1.14,1.24,1.28,1.28 "Facility direct retail sales are electricity sales from non utility power producers which reported electricity sales to a retail customer. ...

  9. Table 10. Supply and disposition of electricity, 1990 through...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...,1.43,1.48,1.33,1.33,1.36,1.36,1.29,1.19 "Facility direct retail sales are electricity sales from non utility power producers which reported electricity sales to a retail customer. ...

  10. Method for producing a borohydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.

    2010-06-22

    A method for producing a borohydride is described that includes the steps of providing a source of borate; providing a material that chemically reduces the source of the borate to produce a borohydride; and reacting the source of the borate and the material by supplying heat at a temperature that substantially effects the production of the borohydride.

  11. Method for producing a borohydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.

    2008-09-02

    A method for producing a borohydride is described and which includes the steps of providing a source of borate; providing a material which chemically reduces the source of the borate to produce a borohydride; and reacting the source of borate and the material by supplying heat at a temperature which substantially effects the production of the borohydride.

  12. Method of producing molybdenum-99

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitcher, Eric John

    2013-05-28

    Method of producing molybdenum-99, comprising accelerating ions by means of an accelerator; directing the ions onto a metal target so as to generate neutrons having an energy of greater than 10 MeV; directing the neutrons through a converter material comprising techentium-99 to produce a mixture comprising molybdenum-99; and, chemically extracting the molybdenum-99 from the mixture.

  13. Methods for producing complex films, and films produced thereby...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and ... A method for producing a film, the method comprising melting a layer of precursor ...

  14. Electric power annual 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-06

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. ``The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance`` section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; retail sales; revenue; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms.

  15. Programmable AC power supply for simulating power transient expected in fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halimi, B.; Suh, K. Y.

    2012-07-01

    This paper focus on control engineering of the programmable AC power source which has capability to simulate power transient expected in fusion reactor. To generate the programmable power source, AC-AC power electronics converter is adopted to control the power of a set of heaters to represent the transient phenomena of heat exchangers or heat sources of a fusion reactor. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) plasma operation scenario is used as the basic reference for producing this transient power source. (authors)

  16. Minimize oil field power consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, B.; Ennis, P.

    1999-08-01

    Though electric power is a major operating cost of oil production, few producers have systematically evaluated their power consumption for ways to be more efficient. There is significant money to be saved by doing so, and now is a good time to make an evaluation because new power options are at hand. They range from small turbo generators that can run on casing head gas and power one or two lift pumps, to rebuilt major turbines and ram-jet powered generators that can be set in a multi-well field and deliver power at bargain prices. Power industry deregulation is also underway. Opportunities for more advantageous power contracts from competitive sources are not far off. This two-part series covers power efficiency and power options. This article reviews steps you can take to evaluate the efficiency of your power use and go about improving it. Part 2 will discuss opportunities for use of distributed power and changes you can expect from decentralized power.

  17. Methods of producing cesium-131

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David H; Snyder, John R

    2012-09-18

    Methods of producing cesium-131. The method comprises dissolving at least one non-irradiated barium source in water or a nitric acid solution to produce a barium target solution. The barium target solution is irradiated with neutron radiation to produce cesium-131, which is removed from the barium target solution. The cesium-131 is complexed with a calixarene compound to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution. A liquid:liquid extraction device or extraction column is used to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution.

  18. Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, H.C.

    1997-12-30

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques. 5 figs.

  19. Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, H. Craig

    1997-01-01

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

  20. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  1. Wind Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Power As the accompanying map of New Mexico shows, the best wind power generation potential near WIPP is along the Delaware Mountain ridge line of the southern Guadalupe Mountains, about 50-60 miles southwest. The numeric grid values indicate wind potential, with a range from 1 (poor) to 7 (superb). Just inside Texas in the southern Guadalupe Mountains, the Delaware Mountain Wind Power Facility in Culbertson County, Texas currently generates over 30 MW, and could be expanded to a 250 MW

  2. Power LCAT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drennen, Thomas

    2012-08-15

    POWER LCAT is a software tool used to compare elements of efficiency, cost, and environmental effects between different sources of energy.

  3. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  4. Power LCAT

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Drennen, Thomas

    2014-06-27

    POWER LCAT is a software tool used to compare elements of efficiency, cost, and environmental effects between different sources of energy.

  5. Methods of producing transportation fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nair, Vijay; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony; Bauldreay, Joanna M.

    2011-12-27

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

  6. High power microwave generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minich, Roger W.

    1988-01-01

    A device (10) for producing high-powered and coherent microwaves is described. The device comprises an evacuated, cylindrical, and hollow real cathode (20) that is driven to inwardly field emit relativistic electrons. The electrons pass through an internally disposed cylindrical and substantially electron-transparent cylindrical anode (24), proceed toward a cylindrical electron collector electrode (26), and form a cylindrical virtual cathode (32). Microwaves are produced by spatial and temporal oscillations of the cylindrical virtual cathode (32), and by electrons that reflex back and forth between the cylindrical virtual cathode (32) and the cylindrical real cathode (20).

  7. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert A. Liske

    2006-07-31

    This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron, and

  8. Power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-03-18

    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  9. Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    From towers to dishes to linear mirrors to troughs, concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies reflect and collect solar heat to generate electricity. A single CSP plant can generate enough power for about 90,000 homes. This video explains what CSP is, how it works, and how systems like parabolic troughs produce renewable power. For more information on the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's CSP research, see the Solar Energy Technology Program's Concentrating Solar Power Web page at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/csp_program.html.

  10. Solar and wind power advancing

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Solar and wind power advancing U.S. electricity generation from wind and solar energy show no signs of slowing down. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration expects wind-powered generation to grow by 19 percent this year and rise another 8 percent in 2014. Congress's extension in January of a tax credit for electricity producers that use renewables is behind the wind power boost. Solar generation in the electric power sector is expected to grow even more, rising

  11. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monitors Description: Find out how much energy your devices use. Compare different electronic devices based on their cost of operation, the amount of carbon dioxide produced in generating electricity consumed, and the watts. Ingredients: Belkin energy monitor Various electrical appliances Power outlet Directions: Plug the Belkin monitor into an outlet. Plug a device appliance into the Belkin Monitor. Click the 3 different buttons on the Belkin monitor to show the cost of operation, the amount of

  12. Hydrogen powered bus

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-11-22

    Take a ride on a new type of bus, fueled by hydrogen. These hydrogen taxis are part of a Department of Energy-funded deployment of hydrogen powered vehicles and fueling infrastructure at nine federal facilities across the country to demonstrate this market-ready advanced technology. Produced and leased by Ford Motor Company , they consist of one 12- passenger bus and one nine-passenger bus. More information at: http://go.usa.gov/Tgr

  13. Concentrating Solar Power | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SolarReserve's Crescent Dunes CSP Project, near Tonopah, Nevada, has an electricity generating capacity of 110 megawatts. (credit: SolarReserve) Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide scientific, engineering, and analytical expertise to help advance innovation in concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. These technologies capture sunlight to produce heat that drives today's conventional thermoelectric generation systems or future advanced generation systems.

  14. SunLab: Concentrating Solar Power Program Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-11-24

    DOE's Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) program is collaborating with its partners in the private sector to develop two new solar technologies -- power towers and dish/engines -- to meet the huge commercial potential for solar power. Concentrating solar power plants produce electric power by first converting the sun's energy into heat, and then to electricity in a conventional generator.

  15. Apparatus for producing laser targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jarboe, T.R.; Baker, W.R.

    1975-09-23

    This patent relates to an apparatus and method for producing deuterium targets or pellets of 25u to 75u diameter. The pellets are sliced from a continuously spun solid deuterium thread at a rate of up to 10 pellets/second. The pellets after being sliced from the continuous thread of deuterium are collimated and directed to a point of use, such as a laser activated combustion or explosion chamber wherein the pellets are imploded by laser energy or laser produced target plasmas for neutral beam injection. (auth)

  16. Method for producing laser targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jarboe, Thomas R.; Baker, William R.

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus and method for producing deuterium targets or pellets of 25.mu. to 75.mu. diameter. The pellets are sliced from a continuously spun solid deuterium thread at a rate of up to 10 pellets/second. The pellets after being sliced from the continuous thread of deuterium are collimated and directed to a point of use, such as a laser activated combustion or explosion chamber wherein the pellets are imploded by laser energy or laser produced target plasmas for neutral beam injection.

  17. Reactive power compensator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.; Chen, Mingliang; Andexler, George; Huang, Tony

    1992-01-01

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

  18. Reactive Power Compensator.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Sharkawi, M.A.; Venkata, S.S.; Chen, M.; Andexler, G.; Huang, T.

    1992-07-28

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation. 26 figs.

  19. Midwest Biodiesel Producers LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Producers LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Midwest Biodiesel Producers LLC Place: Alexandria, South Dakota Zip: 57311 Product: South Dakota-based biodiesel producer....

  20. METHOD FOR PRODUCING DIBORON TETRACHLORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frazer, J.W.; Holzmann, R.T.

    1961-08-01

    A method of producing diboron tetrachloride from boron trichloride is described. Gaseous boron trichloride is passed through a cavity resonating at a microwave frequency whereby a portion of the boron trichloride is converted into diboron tetrachloride. The diboron tetrachloride may then be separated from the boron trichloride by conventional means. (AEC)

  1. Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noufi, Rommel; Chen, Yih-Wen

    1987-01-01

    A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

  2. Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noufi, R.; Chen, Y.W.

    1985-04-30

    A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

  3. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ...016-03-01T17:12:00+00:00 March 1st, 2016|News, News & Events, Water Power, Workshops|0 Comments Read More Wave energy distribution example Permalink Gallery Sandia releases 2nd ...

  4. solar power

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    9%2A en Solar power purchase for DOE laboratories http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasessolarpower

  5. Power combiner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Mobius; Ives, Robert Lawrence

    2006-09-05

    A power combiner for the combining of symmetric and asymmetric traveling wave energy comprises a feed waveguide having an input port and a launching port, a reflector for reflecting launched wave energy, and a final waveguide for the collection and transport of launched wave energy. The power combiner has a launching port for symmetrical waves which comprises a cylindrical section coaxial to the feed waveguide, and a launching port for asymmetric waves which comprises a sawtooth rotated about a central axis.

  6. Method to Produce High Specific Impulse and Moderate Thrust from a

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fusion-powered Rocket Engine: (ARE-Aneutronic Rocket Engine) --- Inventor(s) Samuel A. Cohen, Michael Paluszek, Yosef Razin, and Gary Pajer | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Method to Produce High Specific Impulse and Moderate Thrust from a Fusion-powered Rocket Engine: (ARE-Aneutronic Rocket Engine) --- Inventor(s) Samuel A. Cohen, Michael Paluszek, Yosef Razin, and Gary Pajer This Invention describes a fusion-powered rocket engine that will produce high specific impulse, Isp, moderate thrust,

  7. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harvey, B.G.

    1954-09-14

    >This patent relates to improvements in the method for producing uranium tetrafluoride by treating an aqueous solutlon of a uranyl salt at an elevated temperature with a reducing agent effective in acld solutlon in the presence of hydrofluoric acid. Uranium tetrafluoride produced this way frequentiy contains impurities in the raw material serving as the source of uranium. Uranium tetrafluoride much less contaminated with impurities than when prepared by the above method can be prepared from materials containing such impurities by first adding a small proportion of reducing agent so as to cause a small fraction, for example 1 to 5% of the uranium tetrafluoride to be precipitated, rejecting such precipitate, and then precipitating and recovering the remainder of the uranium tetrafluoride.

  8. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING URANIUM HALIDES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphree, E.V.

    1957-10-29

    A process amd associated apparatus for producing UF/sub 4/ from U/sub 3/ O/sub 8/ by a fluidized'' technique are reported. The U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ is first reduced to UO/sub 2/ by reaction with hydrogen, and the lower oxide of uranium is then reacted with gaseous HF to produce UF/sub 4/. In each case the reactant gas is used, alone or in combination with inert gases, to fluidize'' the finely divided reactant solid. The complete setup of the plant equipment including bins, reactor and the associated piping and valving, is described. An auxiliary fluorination reactor allows for the direct production of UF/sub 6/ from UF/sub 4/ and fluorine gas, or if desired, UF/sub 4/ may be collected as the product.

  9. Process for producing advanced ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwong, Kyei-Sing

    1996-01-01

    A process for the synthesis of homogeneous advanced ceramics such as SiC+AlN, SiAlON, SiC+Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, and Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 +AlN from natural clays such as kaolin, halloysite and montmorillonite by an intercalation and heat treatment method. Included are the steps of refining clays, intercalating organic compounds into the layered structure of clays, drying the intercalated mixture, firing the treated atmospheres and grinding the loosely agglomerated structure. Advanced ceramics produced by this procedure have the advantages of homogeneity, cost effectiveness, simplicity of manufacture, ease of grind and a short process time. Advanced ceramics produced by this process can be used for refractory, wear part and structure ceramics.

  10. Fish Producers Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Fish Producers Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Fish Producers...

  11. Method for producing hydrophobic aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A method for treating a dried monolithic aerogel containing non-dispersed particles, with an organometallic surface modifying agent to produce hydrophobic aerogels. The dried, porous hydrophobic aerogels contain a protective layer of alkyl groups, such as methyl groups, on the modified surfaces of the pores of the aerogel. The alkyl groups at the aerogel surface typically contain at least one carbon-metal bond per group.

  12. Method for producing monodisperse aerosols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Lawrence W.; Soderholm, Sidney C.

    1990-01-01

    An aerosol generator is described which is capable of producing a monodisperse aerosol within narrow limits utilizing an aqueous solution capable of providing a high population of seed nuclei and an organic solution having a low vapor pressure. The two solutions are cold nebulized, mixed, vaporized, and cooled. During cooling, particles of the organic vapor condense onto the excess seed nuclei, and grow to a uniform particle size.

  13. Method of producing cyclohexasilane compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elangovan, Arumugasamy; Anderson, Kenneth; Boudjouk, Philip R; Schulz, Douglas L

    2015-03-10

    A method of preparing a cyclohexasilane compound from trichlorosilane is provided. The method includes contacting trichlorosilane with a reagent composition to produce a compound containing a tetradecahalocyclohexasilane dianion, such as a tetradecachlorocyclohexasilane dianion. The reagent composition typically includes (a) tertiary polyamine ligand; and (b) a deprotonating reagent, such as a tertiary amine having a pKa of at least about 10.5. Methods of converting the tetradecahalocyclohexasilane dianion-containing compound to cyclohexasilane or a dodecaorganocyclohexasilane are also provided.

  14. Method for producing hydrophobic aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrubesh, L.W.; Poco, J.F.; Coronado, P.R.

    1999-12-21

    A method is described for treating a dried monolithic aerogel containing non-dispersed particles, with an organometallic surface modifying agent to produce hydrophobic aerogels. The dried, porous hydrophobic aerogels contain a protective layer of alkyl groups, such as methyl groups, on the modified surfaces of the pores of the aerogel. The alkyl groups at the aerogel surface typically contain at least one carbon-metal bond per group.

  15. Method for producing metallic microparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-06-29

    Method for producing metallic particles. The method converts metallic nanoparticles into larger, spherical metallic particles. An aerosol of solid metallic nanoparticles and a non-oxidizing plasma having a portion sufficiently hot to melt the nanoparticles are generated. The aerosol is directed into the plasma where the metallic nanoparticles melt, collide, join, and spheroidize. The molten spherical metallic particles are directed away from the plasma and enter the afterglow where they cool and solidify.

  16. Method for producing metallic nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-02-10

    Method for producing metallic nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating non-oxidizing plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone to metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and to the plasma afterglow where it cools and condenses to form solid metallic nanoparticles.

  17. Cleco Power- Power Miser New Home Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Louisiana's Cleco Power offers energy efficiency incentives to eligible customers. Cleco Power offers a rate discount for residential customers building homes that meet the Power Miser Program...

  18. Power inverters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David H.; Korich, Mark D.; Smith, Gregory S.

    2011-11-15

    Power inverters include a frame and a power module. The frame has a sidewall including an opening and defining a fluid passageway. The power module is coupled to the frame over the opening and includes a substrate, die, and an encasement. The substrate includes a first side, a second side, a center, an outer periphery, and an outer edge, and the first side of the substrate comprises a first outer layer including a metal material. The die are positioned in the substrate center and are coupled to the substrate first side. The encasement is molded over the outer periphery on the substrate first side, the substrate second side, and the substrate outer edge and around the die. The encasement, coupled to the substrate, forms a seal with the metal material. The second side of the substrate is positioned to directly contact a fluid flowing through the fluid passageway.

  19. A Tariff for Reactive Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Li, Fangxing; Tufon, Christopher; Isemonger, Alan

    2008-07-01

    Two kinds of power are required to operate an electric power system: real power, measured in watts, and reactive power, measured in volt-amperes reactive or VARs. Reactive power supply is one of a class of power system reliability services collectively known as ancillary services, and is essential for the reliable operation of the bulk power system. Reactive power flows when current leads or lags behind voltage. Typically, the current in a distribution system lags behind voltage because of inductive loads such as motors. Reactive power flow wastes energy and capacity and causes voltage droop. To correct lagging power flow, leading reactive power (current leading voltage) is supplied to bring the current into phase with voltage. When the current is in phase with voltage, there is a reduction in system losses, an increase in system capacity, and a rise in voltage. Reactive power can be supplied from either static or dynamic VAR sources. Static sources are typically transmission and distribution equipment, such as capacitors at substations, and their cost has historically been included in the revenue requirement of the transmission operator (TO), and recovered through cost-of-service rates. By contrast, dynamic sources are typically generators capable of producing variable levels of reactive power by automatically controlling the generator to regulate voltage. Transmission system devices such as synchronous condensers can also provide dynamic reactive power. A class of solid state devices (called flexible AC transmission system devices or FACTs) can provide dynamic reactive power. One specific device has the unfortunate name of static VAR compensator (SVC), where 'static' refers to the solid state nature of the device (it does not include rotating equipment) and not to the production of static reactive power. Dynamic sources at the distribution level, while more costly would be very useful in helping to regulate local voltage. Local voltage regulation would reduce

  20. Method for producing a tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Rohde, Steven B.; Pfeifer, Kent B.; Turner, Timothy S.

    2007-01-02

    A method is described for producing tubular substrates having parallel spaced concentric rings of electrical conductors that can be used as the drift tube of an Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS). The invention comprises providing electrodes on the inside of a tube that are electrically connected to the outside of the tube through conductors that extend between adjacent plies of substrate that are combined to form the tube. Tubular substrates are formed from flexible polymeric printed wiring board materials, ceramic materials and material compositions of glass and ceramic, commonly known as Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC). The adjacent plies are sealed together around the electrode.

  1. Method for producing viscous hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poston, Robert S. (Winter Park, FL)

    1982-01-01

    A method for recovering viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels from a subterranean formation by drilling a well bore through the formation and completing the well by cementing a casing means in the upper part of the pay zone. The well is completed as an open hole completion and a superheated thermal vapor stream comprised of steam and combustion gases is injected into the lower part of the pay zone. The combustion gases migrate to the top of the pay zone and form a gas cap which provides formation pressure to produce the viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels.

  2. METHOD FOR PRODUCING THORIUM TETRACHLORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mason, E.A.; Cobb, C.M.

    1960-03-15

    A process for producing thorium tetrachloride from thorium concentrate comprises reacting thorium concentrates with a carbonaceous reducing agent in excess of 0.05 part by weight per part of thoriferous concentrate at a temperature in excess of 1300 deg C, cooling and comminuting the mass, chlorinating the resulting comminuting mass by suspending in a gaseous chlorinating agent in a fluidized reactor at a temperatare maintained between about l85 deg C and 770 deg C, and removing the resulting solid ThCl/sub 4/ from the reaction zone.

  3. Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-04-16

    The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

  4. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  5. Star Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  6. Star Power

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-11-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  7. SMUD Kokhala Power Tower Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Henry W.; Whitney, Daniel D.; Beebe, H.I.

    1997-06-01

    Kokhala is the name of a new hybridized power tower design which integrates a nitrate-salt solar power tower with a gas turbine combined-cycle power plant. This integration achieves high value energy, low costs, and lower investor risk than a conventional solar only power tower plant. One of the primary advantages of this system is that it makes small power tower plants much more economically competitive with conventional power generation technologies. This paper is an overview of a study that performed a conceptual evaluation of a small (30 MWe) commercial plant suitable for the Sacramento Municipal Utility District`s (SMUD) Rancho Seco power plant site near Sacramento, California. This paper discusses the motivation for using a small hybrid solar plant and provides an overview of the analysis methodology used in the study. The results indicate that a power tower integrated with an advanced gas turbine, combined with Sacramento`s summer solar resource, could produce a low- risk, economically viable power generation project in the near future.

  8. Method of producing metallic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J.

    2004-02-10

    The invention includes a method of producing a hard metallic material by forming a mixture containing at least 55% iron and at least one of B, C, Si and P. The mixture is formed into an alloy and cooled to form a metallic material having a hardness greater than about 9.2 GPa. The invention includes a method of forming a wire by combining a metal strip and a powder. The strip and the powder are rolled to form a wire containing at least 55% iron and from 2-7 additional elements including at least one of C, Si and B. The invention also includes a method of forming a hardened surface on a substrate by processing a solid mass to form a powder, applying the powder to a surface to form a layer containing metallic glass, and converting the glass to a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

  9. ANTIPROTONS PRODUCED IN SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berezhko, E. G.; Ksenofontov, L. T.

    2014-08-20

    We present the energy spectrum of an antiproton cosmic ray (CR) component calculated on the basis of the nonlinear kinetic model of CR production in supernova remnants (SNRs). The model includes the reacceleration of antiprotons already existing in the interstellar medium as well as the creation of antiprotons in nuclear collisions of accelerated protons with gas nuclei and their subsequent acceleration by SNR shocks. It is shown that the production of antiprotons in SNRs produces a considerable effect in their resultant energy spectrum, making it essentially flatter above 10 GeV so that the spectrum at TeV energies increases by a factor of 5. The calculated antiproton spectrum is consistent with the PAMELA data, which correspond to energies below 100 GeV. As a consistency check, we have also calculated within the same model the energy spectra of secondary nuclei and show that the measured boron-to-carbon ratio is consistent with the significant SNR contribution.

  10. Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Mausner, Leonard; Garland, Marc A

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by beta emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.